Sample records for paragonite

  1. Paragonite in marbles from the Tauern Window, Austria: Compositional and thermobaric controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droop, G. T. R.


    Paragonite coexists with phengite, chlorite, zoisite, tremolite and quartz in dolomitic marbles from near Döllach in the Sonnblick area of the SE Tauern Window, Austria, prompting an investigation into the petrogenetic significance of paragonite in carbonate rocks. Thermodynamic calculations on pure-end-member reactions indicate that the assemblages paragonite + CaCO3 + quartz and paragonite + dolomite + quartz are stable over wide ranges of X(CO2) and have P-T stability fields almost as wide as that of paragonite + quartz. P-T pseudosection calculations spanning 0.35-1.4 GPa and 400-590 °C in the model system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O-CO2 yield wide fields for paragonite-bearing assemblages in the Döllach paragonite-marbles at low X(CO2). The bulk compositions of these rocks are characterised by high values of molar Na/(Na + K) and Al/(Na + K) and these parameters are influential in stabilising paragonite-bearing assemblages in marbles. A large proportion of published limestone and dolostone whole-rock compositions would be capable of supporting paragonite at P-T conditions within the greenschist, blueschist or epidote-amphibolite facies. Paragonite is probably much more common in low- and medium-grade marbles than the rarity of reports of its occurrence suggest. Apart from zoisite, the hydrous silicates in the Döllach marbles are characterised by modest fluorine contents, with XF values of coexisting minerals decreasing in the order Tr > Phe > Pa ≈ Chl. Calcite-dolomite thermometry and pseudosection calculations indicate peak-metamorphic conditions for the Döllach marbles of T = 510 ± 20 °C, P > 0.77 GPa and X(CO2) < 0.065. The P-T data agree with previous estimates for the area.

  2. Solubility of Albite + Paragonite +/- Quartz in H2O at 1 GPa, 580° C: Implications for Metamorphic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antignano, A.; Manning, C.


    One of the most common mineral assemblages in crustal metamorphism is feldspar + quartz; however, little is known about the solubility of this assemblage in metamorphic fluids. We measured the solubility of albite and albite+quartz in H2O at 580° C and 1.0 GPa using a piston cylinder apparatus. Experiments were conducted using Amelia albite in NaCl-graphite assemblies. Experiments were conducted using a double capsule arrangement. Inner capsules consisting of perforated 1.6 mm OD Pt capsules containing a single albite crystal were load in 3.5mm OD outer capsules containing ultra pure H2O +/- quartz. Solubility was determined by the weight loss of single albite and quartz grains after 8 hr runs. Time series experiments on this system show no variation in fluid composition or solubility after 4hrs. Albite exhibited incongruent dissolution, yielding paragonite as a husk that mantles the albite grain. The composition of the fluid was determined by mass balance as determined by the weights of albite, quartz, and paragonite. In the albite-only experiments, the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) were 0.628 molal, with Na, Al and Si in the fluid of 0.137, 0.081, and 0.41 molal, respectively, and Na/Al of 1.691. In the presence of quartz, there is an increase in the overall TDS to 0.777 molal. Albite-quartz experiments produce an increase in Si concentration to 0.628 molal, with lower Na and Al concentrations of 0.098 and 0.051 molal, respectively, and Na/Al of 1.922. The aqueous Si concentrations in the albite-only experiments are higher than those in fluid equilibrated with quartz (Manning, 1994, GCA, 58, 4831) at the same conditions. This is consistent with the data of Anderson and Burnham (1983, Am. J. Sci., 283-A, 283) on albite. In the quartz-present experiments results show still higher Si concentration in the fluid phase. Our results demonstrate enhanced solubility of silica in the presence of albite and albite+quartz, relative to quartz alone

  3. Premelting polymerization of crustal and mantle fluids, as indicated by the solubility of albite + paragonite + quartz in H 2O at 1 GPa and 350-620 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Craig E.; Antignano, Angelo; Lin, Heather A.


    The composition and structure of dissolved silicates in model crustal and upper-mantle fluids was assessed by measuring the solubility of the assemblage albite + paragonite + quartz in H 2O from 350 to 620 °C, at 1 GPa. Natural, low albite and quartz were equilibrated with H 2O; paragonite grew in all experiments due to incongruent dissolution of albite + quartz. Melting occurred at 635 ± 5 °C. Solute concentrations at subsolidus conditions were determined by analysis of quenched fluids or mineral weight-loss and mass balance. Bulk solubility of the mineral assemblage increased from ˜ 1 to ˜ 8 oxide wt.% with rising temperature. Si, Al, and Na all increase in concert. The solutions were slightly peralkaline, and possess Si/(Na + Al) ≫ 1.5 (molar) at all conditions studied. Extrapolated thermodynamic data were used to predict solubility at the conditions investigated experimentally. Calculated solubility agreed with that measured from 350 to ˜ 500 °C; however, above 500 °C, the calculations underpredict solubility to an increasing degree as the hydrothermal melting point is approached. The excess measured solubility points to increasing abundance of aqueous Si, Al-Si, and Na-Al-Si polymers. Polymerized solutes predominate in all near-solidus solutions, rising to > 80% of total dissolved solids at the melting point. The observations support a conceptual model in which, as the temperature of the system rises isobarically at 1 GPa, the silicate components dissolved in the aqueous phase begin to polymerize significantly within ˜ 100 °C of the melting point. The polymerized solutes may facilitate condensation of more polymerized hydrous silicate liquid at the hydrothermal melting point. From the perspective of isobaric cooling, the fluid crossing the solidus retains Na-Al-Si-O clusters or fragments that are less polymerized than those which comprised the melt, but more polymerized than has previously been inferred for the aqueous phase. The high

  4. L'aspidolite fluorée : rôle des évaporites dans la genèse du rubis des marbres de Nangimali (Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Virginie; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Giuliani, Gaston


    Ruby-bearing marbles from Nangimali, in the Azad-Kashmir, Pakistan, contain, besides phengite, different mica intergrowths: paragonite, phlogopite and aspidolite (sodium phlogopite). Both phlogopites, intimately linked and coexisting with paragonite, are fluorine rich, contrary to phengite and paragonite. F-enriched aspidolite is described for the first time. Phengite is either associated with phlogopite or could be isolated. The presence of aspidolite in the ruby-bearing marbles, together with other arguments such as salt solid inclusions and presence of anhydrite, suggest the implication of evaporites in the genesis of gem corundums. To cite this article: V. Garnier et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  5. Experimental constraints on H2O activity in high-pressure metamorphic brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropper, P.; Manning, C. E.


    Subduction of crustal materials is accompanied by metamorphic reactions liberating fluids. Fluid inclusions in eclogite minerals range from dilute solutions to chloride-rich brines; however, the effect of salinity variations on the stability of hydrous phases in subduction zones is poorly understood. To address this problem, we carried out reversed piston-cylinder experiments on the equilibrium (1) paragonite = jadeite + kyanite + H2O at 700° C, 1.5-2.5 GPa, in the presence of H2O-NaCl fluids. The experiments were conducted using fluids with nominal starting compositions: X(H2O)=1.0, 0.90, 0.75 and 0.62. At X(H2O) = 1.0, the equilibrium lies between 2.25 and 2.30 GPa. Lowering X(H2O) decreases the pressure of paragonite breakdown to 2.10 - 2.20 GPa at X(H2O) = 0.90 and 1.85-1.90 GPa at X(H2O) = 0.75. The experiments at X(H2O) = 0.62 yielded albite + corundum at ≤1.60 GPa, and jadeite + kyanite at ≥1.70 GPa. The shift in the equilibrium pressure constrains a-X relations in the sytem H2O-NaCl and indicates that a(H2O) varies as nearly the square of its mole fraction. The results are consistent with the extrapolated non-ideal activity model of Aranovich and Newton (1996, CMP, 125, 200). Our results permit use of appropriate paragonite-bearing or -absent assemblages to quantify a(H2O) in high-P metamorphic environments, such as the Austroalpine units in the Western Alps. For example, jadeite and kyanite in a metapelite from Val Savenca in the Sesia Lanzo Zone formed during the Eo-Alpine high-P metamorphic event at 1.7-2.0 GPa, 550-650° C. The absence of paragonite requires a fluid with low a(H2O) of 0.3-0.6, which could be due to the presence of saline brines. Petrologic investigations of Sesia Lanzo eclogites from Val Ianca show that paragonite occurs as inclusions in garnet cores but gives way to omphacite + kyanite toward rims, suggesting a decrease in a(H2O) from ˜1.0 to <0.81 (Tropper and Essene, 2002, SMPM, 82, 487-514). During the subsequent hydration in

  6. Phase relations in the greenschist-blueschist-amphibolite-eclogite facies in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), with application to metamorphic rocks from Samos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Okrusch, Martin; Schmädicke, Esther; Chen, Guoli

    Calculated phase equilibria among the minerals sodic amphibole, calcic amphibole, garnet, chloritoid, talc, chlorite, paragonite, margarite, omphacite, plagioclase, carpholite, zoisite/clinozoisite, lawsonite, pyrophyllite, kyanite, sillimanite, quartz and H2O are presented for the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), which is relevant for many greenschist, blueschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. Using the activity-composition relationships for multicomponent amphiboles constrained by Will and Powell (1992), equilibria containing coexisting calcic and sodic amphiboles could be determined. The blueschist-greenschist transition reaction in the NCFMASH system, for example, is defined by the univariant reaction sodic amphibole + zoisite=calcic amphibole + chlorite + paragonite + plagioclase (+ quartz + H2O) occurring between approximately 420 and 450°C at 9.5 to 10kbar. The calculated petrogenetic grid is a valuable tool for reconstructing the PT-evolution of metabasic rocks. This is shown for rocks from the island of Samos, Greece. On the basis of mineral and whole rock analyses, PT-pseudosections were calculated and, together with the observed mineral assemblages and reaction textures, are used to reconstruct PT-paths. For rocks from northern Samos, pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved in garnet, the assemblage sodic amphibole-garnet-paragonite-chlorite-zoisite-quartz and the retrograde appearance of albitic plagioclase and the formation of calcic amphibole around sodic amphibole constrain a clockwise PT-path that reaches its thermal maximum at some 520°C and 19kbar. The derived PT-trajectory indicates cooling during exhumation of the rocks and is similar to paths for rocks from the western part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline complex. Rocks from eastern Samos indicate lower pressures and are probably related to high-pressure rocks from the Menderes Massif in western Turkey.

  7. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from the Mariinsky emerald deposit, Central Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksheev, Ivan A.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Popov, Mikhail P.; Erokhin, Yuri V.; Kudryavtseva, Olesya E.; Yapaskurt, Vasily O.; Khiller, Vera V.; Vovna, Galina M.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.


    Tourmaline is abundant at the Mariinsky schist-hosted emerald deposit in the Central Urals, Russia, both in emerald-bearing phlogopite veins (type 1) and later, emerald-free pockets, lenses, and veinlets cutting the phlogopite veins (type 2). The Ca content in tourmaline is influenced by the host rocks (ultramafic and mafic rocks), associated minerals, and minerals crystallized before tourmaline (amphibole, fluorite, margarite). The Na concentration in tourmaline depends on the presence or absence of paragonite, and the association with micas also strongly influences the contents of Li, Zn, Ni, and Co in tourmaline. Type 1 tourmalines associated with phlogopite are relatively depleted in these elements, whereas type 2 tourmalines associated with margarite or paragonite are enriched. Some differences in isomorphic substitutions along with the trace element composition (Zn, V, Sr, Co, REE) may have value in exploration of emerald-bearing and emerald-free veins in schist-hosted emerald deposits. The δ11B values in tourmaline of all types fall in a narrow total range from -11.3 to -8.4‰. These values, combined with a mineralization temperature of 420-360 °C, yield an estimated δ11B fluid composition of -7.4 to -6.8‰ suggesting a mixed source of boron, likely dominated from the granitic rocks surrounding the emerald belt. The narrow range of B-isotope compositions in tourmaline from throughout the Mariinsky deposit suggests a well-mixed hydrothermal system.

  8. Calculation of stability of sodic phases in high-pressure metapelites and observation of Sambagawa metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouketsu, Y.; Enami, M.


    P-T pseudosection analyses of high-pressure metapelites from several subduction related regions were carried out by using the computer program Perple_X 07 in order to determine the mineral equilibrium, particularly the stability of sodic phases, in the model system MnO-Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. Metapelites from Sambagawa, Western Alps, New Caledonia, Greece, and South Tianshan were selected for these analyses. Although the occurrence of sodic pyroxene in these metapelite samples is free or very rare, all the samples are considered to have undergone high-pressure metamorphism under blueschist-eclogite facies conditions. The bulk rock compositions of these metapelites have relatively low XNa [=Na/(Al + Na)] values. Therefore, the rare occurrences of sodic pyroxene in these samples are possibly due to their characteristic bulk rock compositions, although this has not been proved yet. The calculation results for the stability of sodic phases under the blueschist and eclogite facies conditions indicate the following. (1) Sodic pyroxene in the studied metapelites is stable only under higher-pressure conditions of P > 2.5 GPa, although its stable P-T range increases toward the lower-pressure side with increasing XNa value of the bulk-rock composition. (2) Paragonite and glaucophane are stable throughout the wide XNa range of bulk-rock compositions of host rocks under the blueschist and quartz-eclogite facies conditions. (3) The stability field of paragonite enlarges with the presence of CO2 in the metamorphic fluid. Thus, the high stability of paragonite and glaucophane in metapelites and the close relationship between the stability of sodic pyroxene and the bulk-rock composition explain why omphacite-bearing metapelites are rarely found. Observations of Sambagawa metapelites were carried out on the basis of these results. In the Besshi region of the Sambagawa belt, quartz grains with a high residual pressure of up to 0.8 GPa extensively occur as inclusions in

  9. Origin of peak and retrograde assemblages during Grenvillian orogeny from garnet-staurolite bearing mica schist of Bhilwara Supergroup, NW India: constraints from pseudosection modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli


    Fractionation of components due to formation of garnet porphyroblasts during prograde metamorphism, have been constrained from pseudosection analyses. Such fractionation process leads to changes in the effective bulk composition within the rock, which can be modelled with well-preserved growth zonation patterns in garnet porphyroblasts. On the contrary, textures and mineralogy in metamorphic rocks can be far more complex with different textural domains within a single rock preserving assemblages formed along different segments of the P-T paths or during different metamorphic events. Examples of such textures include pseudomorphs, reaction rims or coronae, symplectites formed by breakdown of both cores and rims of porphyroblasts. Apart from pressure and temperature, availability of fluids during metamorphic reactions plays important roles in defining mineral assemblages and textures. In this study we have constrained formation of garnet porphyroblasts and paragonite-albite-sillimanite-quartz-staurolite bearing domains within the mica schist from the Rajpura-Dariba sequence of the Bhilwara Supergroup in NW India. The mica schist is inter-layered with calc-silicates and quartzite and together the units form a NE-SW trending Grenvillian orogenic belt in southern part of Bhilwara Supergroup sequence. Within the mica schist, three distinct textural domains have been observed: (i) muscovite-biotite-quartz-feldspar bearing matrix foliation, (ii) garnet porphyroblasts within the matrix foliation, (iii) staurolite-paragonite-albite-staurolite-sillimanite-quartz bearing domains. Paragonite, albite and sillimanite occur exclusively in the pseudomorph domains. Garnet porphyroblasts show variation in compositions from cores (Spessartine0.14 Grossular0.10 Pyrope0.12 Almandine0.72) to rims (Spessartine0.09Grossular0.15Pyrope0.12Almandine0.75). The average XMg contents of staurolite and matrix biotite are 0.21 and 0.57 respectively. Pseudosections have been constructed from the

  10. Multiphase solid inclusions in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks: A snapshot of anatectic melts during continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang


    Partial melting of crustal rocks may take place during continental collision, giving rise to anatectic melts. Their composition and evolution are major concerns in the chemical geodynamics of continental subduction zones. They are often recorded by multiphase solid (MS) inclusions enclosed by peritectic minerals in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes inside collisional orogens. These MS inclusions generally show negative crystal shapes with the wedge-shaped off-shoot structure in garnet, omphacite and kyanite. They contain a number of silicate, carbonate and sulfate minerals such as K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, epidote, calcite and barite, with occasional occurrences of magnetite, zircon and pyrite. An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry indicates that the MS inclusions are the primary crystallization product of former silicate and carbonate melts. The silicate melts were derived from dehydration melting of hydrous minerals such as phengite and paragonite in UHP metamorphic rocks, and the carbonate melts were produced by partial melting of subducted carbonate minerals. Some MS inclusions show remarkably high Na contents, suggesting their derivation from dehydration melting of paragonite. In contrast, K-bearing MS inclusions are produced by dehydration melting of K-bearing hydrous minerals like phengite. Many studies have been devoted to the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of MS inclusions in UHP metamorphic rocks, with the aim to determine the time and mechanism of crustal anataxis during collisional orogeny. Various analytical methods were used to characterize the morphology, texture, mineral chemistry and trace element composition of MS inclusions. The results provide insights into the physicochemical properties of anatectic melts in continental subduction zones. The partial melting of deeply subducted crustal rocks would lead to their significant differentiation in lithochemistry and geochemistry. This process has

  11. Metamorphic evolution of LT-UHP eclogite from the south Dabie orogen, central China: An insight from phase equilibria modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chunjing; Cui, Ying; Tian, Zuolin


    Low-temperature ultrahigh pressure (LT-UHP) eclogites from the south Dabie orogen are distributed in the Zhujiachong and Anqiling zones and their peak mineral assemblages and P-T paths are still disputable. The rocks consist commonly of garnet, omphacite, epidote, phengite, amphibole, quartz/coesite and rutile with or without glaucophane, kyanite, talc and paragonite. Garnet porphyroblasts in the representative sample (D901) from the Zhujiachong zone exhibit core-mantle zoning with slightly increasing pyrope (Xpy) and decreasing grossular (Xgr) contents, and mantle-rim zoning with rapidly increasing Xpy and decreasing Xgr. Garnet shows diverse rim compositions which can be classified into group-1 that show high Xpy and low Xgr values, being an indicative character of LT-UHP eclogite, and group-2 that show lower Xpy and higher Xgr than in group-1. Phengite shows higher Si contents in the Anqiling zone than in the Zhujiachong zone. Epidote, paragonite and amphibole usually occur as porphyroblasts that contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and rutile. Pseudosections calculated using THERMOCALC for the representative samples suggest that the mineral assemblage in the pressure peak stage would be garnet + omphacite + lawsonite + talc + phengite + coesite in the model system. In this assemblage, Xpy steadily increases as temperature rises and Si in phengite increases with pressure rising, whereas Xgr is very insensitive as pressure changes. The peak P-T conditions for low-T UHP eclogites can be determined using the isopleths of maximum Xpy and Si in phengite in P-T pseudosections. Using this approach, the peak P-T conditions of eclogite were estimated to be ∼30 kbar/615 °C for the representative sample in the Zhujiachong zone, and ∼32 kbar/623 °C or ∼36 kbar/640 °C for samples in the Anqiling zone. The pre-peak prograde metamorphic evolution during subduction was modeled according to the garnet growth zoning in sample D901, where the core-mantle zoning

  12. Trace elements in metapelitic schists from Alpe Sponda (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redler, Charlotte; Irouschek, Alfred; Jeffries, Teresa; Gieré, Reto


    Lenses of kyanite-cordierite-garnet-bearing paragonite-biotite schist were found in paragonite-free metapelitic rocks at Pizzo Forno, near Alpe Sponda (Simano Nappe, Central Alps). These lenses are mineralogically distinct, as they lack both quartz and staurolite, but they contain large amounts of tourmaline (up to 20-25 vol.%). Tourmaline shows strong colour zoning, which in combination with the major and trace element data indicates at least two stages of crystal growth during prograde metamorphism. Mineral equilibrium modelling based on the bulk-rock compositions yielded peak metamorphic conditions of amphibolite-facies grade (T = 590-660 °C and P = 6.5-7.8 kbar), which is consistent with the P-T conditions estimated previously for this part of the Central Alps. The light elements lithium and boron are strongly enriched in the Alpe Sponda samples, which therefore show unusual bulk-rock concentrations. Lithium is mainly distributed to cordierite (450 ppm) and to a lower extent to muscovite (250 ppm), biotite (180 ppm) and paragonite; all other minerals show only minor amounts of lithium. As commonly expected, boron is partitioned into tourmaline and to a much lesser amount into muscovite, whereas all other minerals have low boron contents. In addition, cordierite has a relatively high Be content, underlining the hypotheses of the presence of Na-Be cordierite. The analysis of rare earth elements (REE) shows that all samples are enriched in low REE (LREE; La-Eu) relative to the heavy REE (HREE: Gd-Lu), and have a small negative Ce anomaly, as well as a pronounced negative Eu anomaly, which can be illustrated in a chondrite-normalised diagram. Furthermore, all minerals that do not show a distinct positive Eu anomaly (i.e. garnet, biotite, muscovite, cordierite, kyanite, chlorite and rutile) show a marked negative Ce anomaly. In addition, plagioclase and tourmaline exhibit a pronounced positive Eu anomaly but no Ce anomaly. Especially in the case of tourmaline the

  13. Phengite eclogite from the Zermatt area (Swiss Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Bucher, K.


    The Zermatt-Saas unit (ZSU) represents an HP/UHP ophiolite complex in the western Alps. Mid-Cretaceous to the Eocene subduction of the oceanic lithosphere under its southern margin produced eclogite from basaltic pillow lava, eclogite facies metagabbros, serpentinites and metasediments. Rapidly retreating glaciers have exposed many km2 of new outcrops in recent years in the Zermatt area. Mapping of these exposures in the area of the upper Theodul glacier (UTG) revealed an assemblage of rocks that includes eclogite, garnet-phengite schist, serpentinites and garnet-biotite schists and gneisses. The assemblage forms a separate unit, the UTG unit, that rests with a thrust contact on the ZSU metaophiolite. However, the tectonic connection of the unit with the ZSU is not yet clear. The eclogites of the UTG unit are simple garnet omphacite rocks with modally abundant phengite (Si=3.4) and quartz. Minor and accessory minerals include paragonite, glaucophane, actinolite, epidote, zoisite, chlorite, rutile and titanite. This makes them distinctly different from eclogites elsewhere in the ZSU, which are quartz-free glaucophane-rich metapillow basalts containing also modally abundant Mg-chloritoid and paragonite. The different mineral assemblage of the two types of eclogite is also reflected by the major element composition of the rocks. The eclogites of the UTG unit have 46-50 wt.% SiO2 and differ from the eclogitic pillow basalts with SiO2 > 50 wt.% and generally higher Na2O. The compositional characteristics of the UTG eclogites suggests that the protoliths are continental within-plate-basalts, whereas the metapillow basalts of the ZSU represent mid-ocean ridge tholeiites. Recent pressure-temperature estimates from phase equilibria in metabasaltic eclogites from the Zermatt area suggested peak conditions of 550-600° C and 2.5-3.0 GPa, implying coesite stable conditions. In contrast, the UTG eclogites reveal metamorphic equilibration at 450-480° C and 2.0-2.2 GPa using

  14. Fine-scale isotopic heterogeneities and fluids in the deep crust: a 40Ar/ 39Ar laser ablation and TEM study of muscovites from a granulite-eclogite transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boundy, T. M.; Hall, C. M.; Li, G.; Essene, E. J.; Halliday, A. N.


    Spectacular exposures on Holsnøy Island, western Norway, reveal that eclogites formed in situ from adjacent anhydrous granulites as a result of the localized infiltration of fluids. Stepwise and laser 40Ar/ 39Ar experiments on muscovite from the eclogites have been used in conjunction with electron microprobe and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis to examine the behavior of argon under high pressure metamorphism and subsequent cooling. Muscovites with 0.10-0.17Na/(Na + K) yield 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau and integrated ages in the range 450-465 Ma, 20-35 Myr older than 40Ar/ 39Ar muscovite plateau ages from adjacent eclogite samples. Laser 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses on ˜ 75 μm spots across two single muscovite grains from these samples are approximately uniform at 444.2 ± 1.9 (21 spots) and 443.3 ± 1.7 Ma (26 spots). However, incremental heating of high sodic (0.18-0.32 (Na/(Na + K)) muscovite failed to yield a plateau. Laser 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of 100 areas from two single grains from this sample reveal complex two-dimensional patterns with variable apparent ages in the range of 445-625 Ma. Electron microprobe measurements obtained from one of the grains reveal that the paragonite content is also highly variable both parallel and perpendicular to (001). All the TEM bright field images obtained from this mica yield information consistent with a single homogeneous phyllosilicate phase, yet several of the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses document locally intergrown muscovite and sodic muscovite, possibly in an exsolution relationship on a unit cell scale. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) analyses obtained over a 5-100 nm scale on the same sample reveal great range and heterogeneity inNa/K, including pure muscovite, although no separate paragonite domains were found. In contrast, muscovite grains with consistent laser spot fusion and plateau ages show little heterogeneity inNa/K at the microprobe level. These data provide evidence of variable

  15. Geotechnical and geomechanical characterization of the "fault gouge" of the "Alhama de Murcia" active fault, SE Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Soto, Pablo; Tsige, Meaza; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Rodriguez-Escudero, Emilio; Jurado, M. ª Jose; Crespo, Elena; Jiménez Molina, David


    Here we present the results of the mechanical and mineralogical study of the fault rock of the Alhama de Murcia fault. This fault is one of the most active faults in the Iberian Peninsula. It shows segments partially formed by exhumed fine grained fault rocks (fault gouge FG) with a thickness of more than 50 m developed mainly in a brittle regime. Several strength and strain tests have been carried out, both in-situ and in laboratory, considering different stress orientations in relation to the tectonic fabric. Undisturbed samples encountered from two fault observatory boreholes drilled near Lorca, (FAM-1 and FAMSIS-IGN, of 174 and 40 m depth, respectively) has been used for the laboratory tests. The FG shows a hard soil and soft rock like mechanical behavior with uniaxial compressive strength < 2 MPa and elastic moduli (E) < 12 GPa. The tenso-deformational behaviour at low confining stresses is mainly plastic, acquiring a strain-hardening behaviour at high shear strain. The FAM-FG shows a very notable tectonic fabric controlled by a frictionally weak preferential orientation of the plate like minerals arranged in an anastomosing texture that controls the mechanical strength. The results of the strength tests show the variability of the friction coefficient (μ) depending on the stress orientation in relation to this tectonic fabric. The FG exhibit mineral assemblage similar to the shicsts , suggesting that it has been developed mainly as a result of comminution mechanisms of the hanging wall protolite . The mineralogical composition of the FG contains mica minerals (muscovite and paragonite), quartz (mainly powdered) and traces of feldspar and carbonates. The predominant clay minerals are illite, paragonite, and, occasionally and some kaolinite. In some samples, it has been observed the presence of very sparse graphite and smectite. The plate like minerals are arranged in a preferred orientation (turbostatic microfabric), that surround the quartz porphyroclasts

  16. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland


    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  17. Barium-rich fluids and melts in a subduction environment (La Corea and Sierra del Convento mélanges, eastern Cuba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Quintero, Idael Francisco; Lázaro, C.; García-Casco, A.; Proenza, J. A.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.


    Whole-rock compositions of muscovite-bearing amphibolite, trondhjemite, pegmatite and quartz-muscovite rocks from Sierra del Convento and La Corea mélanges (eastern Cuba), as well as mineralogy, record complex circulation of Ba-rich fluids and melts in the subduction environment. Partial melting of fluid-fluxed, MORB-derived amphibolite produced trondhjemite magmas that crystallized at depth, in some cases evolving into pegmatites. Qtz-Ms rocks probably crystallized from primary fluids derived from subducted sediments. All these rocks have elevated concentrations of large-ion lithophile elements, especially Ba (up to 11,810 ppm), presumably released from slab sediments by fluids and/or melts. Fluid-rock interaction produced crystallization of phengite in parental amphibolites. The phengite crystallized in all types of rocks is rich in Ba, with concentric zoning, characterized by Ba-rich cores and Ba-poor rims, indicating a compatible behaviour of Ba in the studied systems. Zoning in phengite is governed primarily by the celadonite (tschermak) exchange vector ((Mg,Fe)Si-(Al)-2), with more moderate contributions of the celsian (BaAl-(KSi)-1) and paragonite (NaK-1) exchange vectors. Late remobilization of Ba at relatively low temperature formed retrograde celsian. The compatible behaviour of Ba in the studied rocks strengthens the importance of the stability of phengite for the transfer of LIL elements from the subduction to the volcanic arc environments.

  18. High-pressure metamorphism in the Chinshuichi area, Yuli belt, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, William; Tsai, Chin-Ho; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Oberhänsli, Roland; Ernst, W. G.


    Tectonic blocks and slabs of mafic-ultramafic rocks are distributed discontinuously in the Yuli metamorphic belt of Taiwan. The blocks include rare omphacite metagabbros and garnet-epidote blueschists in the Wanjung and Juisui (Tamayen) areas, respectively. Such high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblages have been attributed to a mid-Miocene subduction event. However, the surrounding psammitic, pelitic and chloritic schists are the dominant greenschist-facies lithologies of the Yuli belt. In the Chinshuichi area, tectonic blocks are enclosed in garnet-bearing metapelites, suggesting elevated pressures. In this area, we recently discovered meta-plagiogranite containing the assemblage glaucophane + omphacite (XJd up to 0.39) + rutile + quartz, indicating P-T conditions near 13 kbar/550 °C. New equilibrium phase modeling of a garnet-paragonite mica schist and compositional isopleths for peak assemblage minerals garnet and phengite (Si = 3.33-3.37 pfu) indicate metamorphic conditions of 15.5-17 kbar/530-550 °C. These P-T estimates are higher than previously reported in the Yuli belt and suggest that both tectonic blocks and host metapelites underwent HP metamorphism. The juxtaposition of tectonic blocks and metapelites apparently occurred during the formation of a subduction-accretionary complex, followed by exhumation facilitated by a collisional event. These new findings imply that HP metamorphism was not limited to tectonic blocks, and instead played a significant role attending orogenesis in eastern Taiwan.

  19. Clay-mineral assemblages from some levels of K-118 drill core of Maha Sarakham evaporites, northeastern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanich, Parkorn

    Clay-mineral assemblages in Middle Clastic, Middle Salt, Lower Clastic, Potash Zone, and Lower Salt, totalling 13 samples from K-118 drill core, in the Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Basin, northeastern Thailand were studied. The clay-size particles were separated from the water-soluble salt by water leaching. Then the samples were leached again in the EDTA solution and separated into clay-size particles by using the timing sedimentation. The EDTA-clay residues were divided and analyzed by using the XRD and XRF method. The XRD peaks show that the major-clay minerals are chlorite, illite, and mixed-layer corrensite including traces of rectorite? and paragonite? The other clay-size particles are quartz and potassium feldspar. The XRF results indicate Mg-rich values and moderate MgAl atom ratio values in those clay minerals. The variable Fe, Na, and K contents in the clay-mineral assemblages can explain the environment of deposition compared to the positions of the samples from the core. Hypothetically, mineralogy and the chemistry of the residual assemblages strongly indicate that severe alteration and Mg-enrichment of normal clay detritus occurred in the evaporite environment through brine-sediment interaction. The various Mg-enrichment varies along the various members reflecting whether sedimentation is near or far from the hypersaline brine.

  20. Petrology and U-Pb zircon dating of coesite-bearing metapelite from the Kebuerte Valley, western Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Lifei; Tian, Zuolin; Bader, Thomas


    This paper deals with the petrology and U-Pb dating of coesite-bearing garnet-phengite schist from the Kebuerte Valley, Chinese western Tianshan. It mainly consists of porphyroblastic garnet, phengite, quartz and chlorite with minor amounts of paragonite, albite, zoisite and chloritoid. The well preserved coesite inclusions (˜100 μm) in garnet are encircled by a narrow rim of quartz. They were identified by optical microscopy and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Using the computer program THERMOCALC, the peak metamorphic conditions of 29 kbar and 565 °C were obtained via garnet isopleth geothermobarometry. The predicted UHP peak mineral assemblage comprises garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + coesite + phengite. The metapelite records prograde quartz-eclogite-facies metamorphism, UHP coesite-eclogite-facies peak metamorphism, and a late greenschist-facies overprint. Phase equilibrium modeling predicts that garnet mainly grew in the mineral assemblages garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + chloritoid + glaucophane + quartz + phengite and garnet + jadeite + lawsonite + carpholite + glaucophane + quartz + phengite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of the coesite-bearing metapelite yielded the peak metamorphic age 320.4 ± 3.7 Ma. For the first time, age data of coesite-bearing UHP metapelite from the Chinese western Tianshan are presented in this paper. They are in accord with published ages obtained from eclogite from other localities in the Chinese western Tianshan and the Kyrgyz South Tianshan and therefore prove a widespread occurrence of UHP metamorphism.

  1. Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.


    Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

  2. Garnet cannibalism provides clues to extensive hydration of lower crustal fragments in a subduction channel (Sesia Zone, Northwestern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin


    The extent to which granulites are transformed to eclogites is thought to impose critical limits on the subduction of continental lower crust. Although it is seldom possible to document such densification processes in detail, the transformation is believed to depend on fluid access and deformation. Remarkably complex garnet porphyroblasts are widespread in eclogite facies micaschists in central parts of the Sesia Zone (Western Italian Alps). They occur in polydeformed samples in assemblages involving phengite+quartz+rutile ±paragonite, Na-amphibole, Na-pyroxene, chloritoid. Detailed study of textural and compositional types reveals a rich inventory of growth and partial resorption zones in garnet. These reflect several stages of the polycyclic metamorphic evolution. A most critical observation is that the relict garnet cores indicate growth at 900 °C and 0.9 GPa. This part of the Eclogitic Micaschist Complex thus derived from granulite facies metapelites of Permian age. These dry rocks must have been extensively hydrated during Cretaceous subduction, and garnet records the conditions of these processes. Garnet from micaschist containing rutile, epidote, paragonite and phengite were investigated in detail. Two types of garnet crystals are found in many thin sections: mm-size porphyroclasts and smaller atoll garnets, some 100 µm in diameter. X-ray maps of the porphyroclasts show complex zoning in garnet: a late Paleozoic HT-LP porphyroclastic core is overgrown by several layers of HP-LT Alpine garnet, these show evidence of growth at the expense of earlier garnet generations. Textures indicate 1-2 stages of resorption, with garnet cores that were fractured and then sealed by garnet veins, rimmed by multiple Alpine overgrowth rims with lobate edges. Garnet rim 1 forms peninsula and embayment structures at the expense of the core. Rim 2 surrounds rim 1, both internally and externally, and seems to have grown mainly at the expense of the core. Rim 3 grew mainly at

  3. Paragenesis and chemical characteristics of the celsian-hyalophane-K-feldspar series and associated Ba-Cr micas in barite-bearing strata of the Mesoarchaean Ghattihosahalli Belt, Western Dharwar Craton, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Michael M.; Devaraju, Tadasore C.; Spiering, Beate


    The upper greenschist - lower amphibolite facies, argillaceous to chemical-exhalative metasedimentary sequence of the Mesoarchaean Ghattihosahalli Schist Belt (GHSB), southern India, has been examined with a special focus on the paragenesis and solid solution characteristics of barian feldspars and associated dioctahedral Ba-Cr-bearing micas. Barian feldspars occur as untwinned porphyroblasts in a recrystallized finely banded matrix of barite, quartz and minor white mica. Idioblastic celsian (Cls98-76Or2-20Ab1-8) and hyalophane (Cls55-39Or35-51Ab10) predate the greenschist-facies foliation, whereas xenoblastic hyalophane (Cls44-35Or45-59Ab8-17) and mantles on celsian (Cls45-35Or42-60Ab13-5) as well as xenoblastic barian K-feldspar (Cls6Or90Ab2) postdate the last fabric-defining event. The preservation of extremely complex zoning patterns down to the micron-scale shows that diffusional homogenization did not operate at fluid-present low to medium-grade conditions (350-550 °C, 3-5 kb). Microstructures indicate that at these conditions barian feldspars deform exclusively by brittle fracturing and do not undergo recrystallization. Barian feldspar compositions confirm the positive correlation of Na-content with temperature and the existence of a narrow asymmetric compositional gap (Cls90-85↔Cls55, ~350 °C) which probably closes at lower amphibolite facies conditions (Xc ~Cls75; Tc ~550 °C). White micas are solid solutions of the end-members muscovite, ganterite (Ba0.5 K0.5)Al2(Al1.5Si2.5)O10(OH)2, paragonite, celadonite with a significant substitution of [VI]Al by Cr. Zoning is a common feature with cores being enriched in Ba. The data document extensive Ba substitution for K from muscovite to ganterite, exclusively controlled by the coupled substitution [XII]K + [IV]Si ↔ [XII]Ba + [IV]Al and strongly dependent on bulk composition. The extent of solid solution from (Ms+Gnt) towards paragonite and celadonite end-members is controlled by the miscibility gap in the

  4. A study on tourmaline in cordierite-bearing amphibolite facies metapelitic rocks from Alpe Sponda (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redler, Charlotte; Irouschek, Alfred; Gieré, Reto


    Alpe Sponda, located in Ticino, Switzerland is very famous among mineralogists, because it is here where paragonite was first described by Schafhäuptl in 1834 and later accepted as a self-standing mineral species by Schaller & Stevens in 1941. Geologically, the Alpe Sponda belongs area to the northwestern part of the Simano Nappe in the Central Alps. In our present study we present bulk-rock geochemical data, major element mineral compositions, and P-T pseudosections from three tourmaline-rich metapelitic samples occurring in a small lens at Pizzo Forno, near Alpe Sponda. Our samples are kyanite-cordierite-bearing paragonite-biotite schist with large amounts of tourmaline (up to ˜ 20-25 vol.%). The rocks lack staurolite, which is present overall in the surrounding metapelitic schists, and are devoid of quartz. In comparison to classical metapelitic rocks, our samples are poor in SiO2 and CaO but enriched in Al2O3, MgO and Na2O relative to e.g. NASC (North America Shale Composite) and metapelitic rocks from the Ivrea Zone. Tourmaline in Alpe Sponda samples shows strong colour zoning that is also displayed by its major elements. Chemical profiles measured within different tourmaline crystals show a pronounce decrease in concentration of Al (from core to the rim: 6.52-5.96 p.f.u.) and x-site vacancies (from core to the rim: 0.27-0.09 p.f.u.) and a concomitant increase in Mg (from core to the rim: 1.88-2.15 p.f.u.) and Na (from core to the rim: 0.64-0.82 p.f.u.). In a few cases tourmaline crystals show a detrital core, which is also seen in the major element data with even higher values for Al (~6.58 p.f.u.) and x-site (~0.39 p.f.u.) vacancies and lower values for Mg (~1.83 p.f.u.) and Na (~0.62 p.f.u.) than in the surrounding core. The combination of colour zoning and the major element data indicate at least two stages of crystal growth during prograde metamorphism. Mineral equilibrium modelling based on the bulk-rock composition yielded peak metamorphic conditions

  5. Retrograde fluids in the Archean Shawmere anorthosite, Kapuskasing Structural Zone, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, William M.; Morrison, Jean

    The Archean Shawmere anorthosite lies within the granulite facies portion of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ), Ontario, and is crosscut by numerous linear alteration veins containing calcite+quartz+/- dolomite+/-zoisite+/-clinozoisite+/-margarite+/-paragonite+/-chlorite. These veins roughly parallel the trend of the Ivanhoe Lake Cataclastic Zone. Equilibria involving clinozoisite+margarite+quartz+/-calcite +/-plagioclase show that the vein minerals were stable at T<600°C, XCO2<0.4 at P 6kbar. The stabilities of margarite and paragonite in equilibrium with quartz are also consistent with T<600°C and XCO2<0.4 at 6kbar. Additional assemblages consisting of calcite+ clinochlore+quartz+talc+margarite indicate T<500°C with XCO2>0.9. Thus, vein formation, while clearly retrograde, spanned a range of temperatures, and fluid compositions evolved from H2O-rich to CO2-rich. The calcite in the retrograde veins has δ18O values that range from 8.4 to 11.2‰ (average=+9.7+/-0.9‰) and δ13C values that range from -3.9 to -1.6‰ (average=-3.1+/-0.6‰). These values indicate that the fluids from which calcite precipitated underwent extensive exchange with the anorthosite and other crustal lithologies. The fluids may have been initially derived either from devolatilization of metamorphic rocks or crystallization of igneous rocks in the adjacent Abitibi subprovince. Vein quartz contains CO2-rich fluid inclusions (final melting T=-57.0 to -58.7°C) that range in size from 5 to 17 μm. Measured homogenization temperatures (T h) range from -44.0 to 14.5°C, however for most inclusions (46 of S1), T h=-44.0 to -21.1°C (ρCO2 1.13 to 1.05g/cm3). At 400 to 600°C, these densities correspond to pressures of 3.5 to 7 kbar, which is the best estimate of pressures of vein formation. It has been argued that some high density CO2-rich fluid inclusions found in the KSZ were formed during peak metamorphism and thus document the presence of a CO2-rich fluid during peak granulite

  6. Trace element characteristics of clinozoisite pseudomorphs after lawsonite in talc-garnet-chloritoid schists from the Makbal UHP Complex, northern Kyrgyz Tian-Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozbaev, Rustam; Hirajima, Takao; Bakirov, Apas; Takasu, Akira; Maki, Kenshi; Yoshida, Kenta; Sakiev, Kadyrbek; Bakirov, Azamat; Hirata, Takafumi; Tagiri, Michio; Togonbaeva, Asel


    Polyphase mineral aggregates (PMAs) composed of clinozoisite + kyanite + quartz ± chlorite ± paragonite ± phengite have been found within garnet and in the matrix of talc-garnet-chloritoid schists from the Makbal ultrahigh-pressure complex in the northern Kyrgyz Tian-Shan. These mineral textures are interpreted as pseudomorphs after lawsonite, and we reconstructed the compositions of PMAs of clinozoisite + kyanite + quartz, consistent with lawsonite. Petrological study demonstrated that lawsonite was stable during the prograde to the UHP peak stage (P = 28-33 kbar and T = 530-580 °C) and decomposed to the PMAs during isothermal decompression around P = 16-20 kbar and T = 510-580 °C. Trace element characteristics of the clinozoisite grains in the PMAs (former lawsonite) show a flat rare earth element (REE) chondrite-normalized pattern, comparable with the typical reported REE pattern of lawsonite, although the abundance of REE varied from sample to sample. Thus, the REE content of clinozoisite in the PMAs included in garnet was likely inherited from the former lawsonite as the decomposition reaction took place isolated from the matrix. Discrete clinozoisite grains in the matrix have high light REE enrichment over heavy REE in the chondrite-normalized pattern, consistent with the typical epidote pattern. Our results indicate that the talc-garnet-chloritoid schists in the Makbal complex were buried to great depth (> 100 km) with a low geothermal gradient (< 6 °C/km) during the Early Paleozoic (480-509 Ma). Lawsonite decomposition and clinozoisite-forming reactions accompany fluid release during the isothermal decompression stage, implying that the fluids can be generated not only during subduction, but also during exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure rocks in cold subduction settings.

  7. Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W.; Soong, Yee; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen


    In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}–water–rock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldspars–CO{sub 2}–brine interactions at 150–200 °C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolution–precipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate–ΔG{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral

  8. Laboratory Far-infrared Spectroscopy Of Terrestrial Phyllosilicates To Support Analysis Of Cosmic Dust Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet; Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G. H.; Ebel, D. S.; Nissinboim, A.; Sherman, K.; Lisse, C. M.


    Poster Abstract: 219th AAS Meeting M. Yesiltas1, T. Brusentsova1, R. E. Peale1, D. Maukonen1, P. Figueiredo1, G. E. Harlow2, D. S. Ebel2, A. Nissinboim2, K. Sherman2, and C. M. Lisse3 Remote spectral detection of hydrated minerals is of general interest in the solar system and dusty circumstellar disks. This paper presents spectroscopy of terrestrial phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 15 - 250 µm to support interpretation of returned data from far-IR space-missions such as the Herschel Space Observatory. The far-IR spectral region beyond 15 micron wavelength is especially diagnostic of mineral composition and crystal structure. Relatively little far-IR spectral data exists in the literature on suitably-characterized naturally-occurring phyllosilicate minerals in the wavelength range 60-210 microns corresponding to the PACS instrument of Herschel Space Observatory. Extending the database of laboratory far-IR spectra of terrestrial mineral analogs is therefore desirable and timely. Seventeen phyllosilicate minerals expected in various astronomical environments were sampled from the American Museum of Natural History for diversity and astrophysical relevancy, based on their identification in Stardust, in stratospheric IDP samples, or in meteorites. These include serpentines (Antigorite and Chrysotile), smectites (Talc, Pyrophyllite, Vermiculite, Montmorillonite, Beidellite, Saponite, Nontronite and Hectorite), chlorites (Clinochlore), micas (Muscovite, Paragonite, Margarite, Clintonite, Biotite and Illite), and kaolinites (Dickite, Nacrite, Kaolinite, Halloysite, Attapulgite and Sepiolite). Spectra of micron-sized powder suspensions in polyethelyne pellets reveal prominent and characteristic far-IR features, which differ significantly in some cases from already published spectra, where available. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by NASA-JPL Contract # 1327221. 1Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL 32816 USA2

  9. Metamorphic peak conditions of eclogites in the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps, Austria: Thermobarometry of the assemblage garnet + omphacite + phengite + kyanite + quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoschek, Gert


    Metamorphic peak P- T conditions of five kyanite eclogites from the Tauern Window, Austria, are evaluated on the basis of recent calibrations of the assemblage garnet + omphacite + phengite + kyanite + quartz. Results are about 25 kbar, 630 °C according to the dataset of Holland and Powell [Holland, T.J.B., Powell, R., 1998. An internally consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 16, 309-343 (updated 2002)]. Mostly higher P- T values are calculated with the calibrations of Krogh Ravna and Terry [Krogh Ravna, E.J., Terry, M.P., 2004. Geothermobarometry of UHP and HP eclogites and schists—an evaluation of equilibria among garnet-clinopyroxene-kyanite-phengitecoesite/quartz. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 22, 579-592] and Brandelik and Massonne [Brandelik, A., Massonne, H.-J., 2004. PTGIBBS—an EXCEL Visual Basic program for computing and visualizing thermodynamic functions and equilibria of rock forming minerals. Computers and Geosciences 30, 909-923], in part already in the stability field of coesite. However, no indications for this phase are evident from the Tauern samples. The presence of talc is consistent with these P- T values and high H 2O activities. In contrast, the stability limits of paragonite and zoisite are situated at lower pressure and suggest a later formation during the decompression stage. THERMOCALC pseudosections in the NCFMASH system are constructed with the incorporation of fractional crystallization of garnet. Calculated garnet zonations are in better agreement with the observed compositions at peak pressures of about 25 kbar than results at lower pressures. This is also consistent with values from thermobarometry obtained with the same program.

  10. The Flin Flon paleosol and the composition of the atmosphere 1.8 BYBP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, H. D.; Feakes, C. R.; Zbinden, E. A.


    Within the 1800 to 1900 my old Flin Flon-Snow Lake greenstone belt, Amisk Group volcanics are overlain by Missi Group fluvial sediments. Several localities along the Missi-Amisk contact, the volcanics show evidence of subaerial weathering. Field relationships, mineralogical evidence, and chemical analyses confirm that this alteration zone is a paleosol. Pedogenic fabrics and mineralogy were somewhat obscured by greenschist-grade metamorphism associated with the Hudsonian orogeny (1750 my). This is especially true in the upper meter of the paleosol, where metamorphic paragonite and sericitic micas developed in a crenulated fabric. This metamorphism did not, however, obliterate the imprint of weathering on the Amisk volcanics. Features characteristic of well-drained modern soils are evident in the paleosol. Corestones of spheroidally weathered pillow lavas occur at depth within the paleosol (Cr horizon). The corestones decrease in size upward and eventually disappear into a hematite-rich horizon at the top of the paleosol. These macroscopic changes are accompanied by a decrease in CaO and MgO and by an increase in Al2O3, TiO2, and total iron toward the paleosol-Missi contact. Ferrous iron decreases upward toward the contact; FeO was apparently oxidized to ferric iron and retained within the paleosol during weathering. The oxidation and retention of iron within the Flin Flon paleosol indicates that PO2 was probably > or = 10(-2) P.A.L. at the time of weathering. The behavior of iron in the Flin Flon paleosol contrasts sharply with its behavior in the 2200 my Hekpoort paleosol, which is strongly depleted in iron. This difference suggests that a significant increase in the ratio of PO2/PCO2 in the atmosphere took place between 2200 and 1800 mybp.

  11. Very low-temperature metamorphism in Ordovician metasedimentary rocks above and below the Sardic unconformity, SW Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschelli, M.; Battaglia, S.; Cruciani, G.; Pasci, S.; Puxeddu, M.


    In the Iglesiente region, the Cabitza and Monte Argentu Formations are separated by an angular unconformity known as the Sardic unconformity. This is related to an early Ordovician mild compressional phase, known as the "Sardic phase". The pelitic samples from the structurally lower Cabitza Formation consist of alternating reddish phyllosilicate-rich and whitish phyllosilicate-poor, sialic layers, whose S0 bedding plane is parallel to a pre-Variscan S1P schistosity overprinted by the Variscan S1V schistosity. Pelitic samples from the Monte Argentu Formation are characterized by a Variscan S1V axial plane schistosity. Samples from the two formations consist of quartz and phyllosilicates. The latter are potassic white mica, chlorite, paragonite, locally kaolinite, and pyrophyllite. The illite crystallinity values determined for the Cabitza samples are 0.25-0.31, with an average of 0.29; meanwhile, the Monte Argentu samples produce values of 0.33-0.38, with an average of 0.35. The chlorite crystallinity and b0 of potassic white mica values show greater heterogeneity in the Cabitza than the Monte Argentu samples. The b0 values and P-T pseudosections allow us to confirm that there is no significant difference in the P-T metamorphism conditions between the Cabitza and Monte Argentu samples. The Iglesiente region, which is considered to be the rift zone behind the Middle Ordovician Sarcidano-Barbagia volcanic arc, underwent the "Sardic phase", giving rise to E-W folds. These were first overprinted by weak E-W, and then by stronger N-S-oriented Variscan deformation events.

  12. Birth of subduction components preserved in fluid inclusions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, S.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Petrelli, M.


    We report the trace element budget of multiphase solid inclusions (MSI) representative for supercritical fluids formed during progressive UHP phengite and allanite breakdown at P from 3.0 to 4.0 GPa and T from 700 to 860°C in a clay-rich meta-sandstone. In situ LA-ICP-MS analyses have been performed on primary MSI within prograde-peak coarse-grained kyanite from a kyanite quartzite (Donghai, south Sulu, China). Studied MSI consist of paragonite+muscovite+anhydrite+K-Na-hydrous sulphate+fluid and are representative for an alkali-alumino-silicate aqueous solution, released during deep subduction. All MSI are enriched in LILE and REE and depleted in HFSE with varying fractionation patterns. A progressive increase in LREE, Sr, and Th is observed in MSI. Strong enrichments in Rb and Pb occur in MSI with low LREE, and strong enrichments in Ba within MSI with intermediate LREE. These distinct trace element fractionations in the MSI are interpreted as due to complete dissolution of phengite, associated with, and followed by, progressive dissolution of accessory allanite during prograde-to-peak metamorphism. The geochemical signature of supercritical fluids generated by partial dissolution of phengite in presence of allanite shows a trace element fractionation (e.g., high Ba/La and low La/YbN ratios) compatible with that of aqueous fluids at high pressures. Subduction fluids formed by allanite dissolution following phengite exhaustion acquire a melt-like trace element fractionation pattern (e.g., low Ba/Th, and high Th/Rb ratios). The gradual and selective incompatible trace element enrichment in aqueous fluids released by metasediments during deep subduction can result in distinct metasomatic signatures in relatively small portions, close to each others, of the overlying mantle wedge, with relevant consequences on the geochemical signature of magmas.

  13. Structural setting of Fimiston- and Oroya-style pyrite-telluride-gold lodes, Paringa South mine, Golden Mile, Kalgoorlie: 1. Shear zone systems, porphyry dykes and deposit-scale alteration zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas G.


    The Golden Mile in the 2.7 Ga Eastern Goldfields Province of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, has produced 385 million tonnes of ore at a head grade of 5.23 g/t gold (1893-2016). Gold-pyrite ore bodies (Fimiston Lodes) trace kilometre-scale shear zone systems centred on the D2 Golden Mile Fault, one of three northwest striking sinistral strike-slip faults segmenting upright D1 folds. The Fimiston shear zones formed as D2a Riedel systems in greenschist-facies (actinolite-albite) tholeiitic rocks, the 700-m-thick Golden Mile Dolerite (GMD) sill and the Paringa Basalt (PB), during left-lateral displacement of up to 12 km on the D2 master faults. Pre-mineralisation granodiorite dykes were emplaced into the D2 shear zones at 2674 ± 6 Ma, and syn-mineralisation diorite porphyries at 2663 ± 11 Ma. The widespread infiltration of hydrothermal fluid generated chlorite-calcite and muscovite-ankerite alteration in the Golden Mile, and paragonite-ankerite-chloritoid alteration southeast of the deposit. Fluid infiltration reactivated the D2 shear zones causing post-porphyry displacement of up to 30 m at principal Fimiston Lodes moving the southwest block down and southeast along lines pitching 20°SE. D3 reverse faulting at the southwest dipping GMD-PB contact of the D1 Kalgoorlie Anticline formed the 1.3-km-long Oroya Shoot during late gold-telluride mineralisation. Syn-mineralisation D3a reverse faulting alternated with periods of sinistral strike-slip (D2c) until ENE-WSW shortening prevailed and was accommodated by barren D3b thrusts. North-striking D4 strike-slip faults of up to 2 km dextral displacement crosscut the Fimiston Lodes and the barren thrusts, and control gold-pyrite quartz vein ore at Mt. Charlotte (2651 ± 9 Ma).

  14. A thermodynamic analysis of the system LiAlSiO4-NaAlSiO4-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O based on new heat capacity, thermal expansion, and compressibility data for selected phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshauer, Detlef W.; Chatterjee, Niranjan D.; Cemic, Ladislav

    Heat capacity, thermal expansion, and compressibility data have been obtained for a number of selected phases of the system NaAlSiO4-LiAlSiO4-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. All Cp measurements have been executed by DSC in the temperature range 133-823K. The data for T>=223K have been fitted to the function Cp(T)=a+cT -2+dT -0.5+fT -3, the fit parameters being The thermal expansion data (up to 525°C) have been fitted to the function V0(T)=V0(T) [1+v1 (T-T0)+v2 (T-T0)2], with T0=298.15K. The room-temperature compressibility data (up to 6 GPa) have been smoothed by the Murnaghan equation of state. The resulting parameters are These data, along with other phase property and reaction reversal data from the literature, have been simultaneously processed by the Bayes method to derive an internally consistent thermodynamic dataset (see Tables 6 and 7) for the NaAlSiO4-LiAlSiO4-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O quinary. Phase diagrams generated from this dataset are compatible with cookeite-, ephesite-, and paragonite-bearing assemblages observed in metabauxites and common metasediments. Phase diagrams obtained from the same database are also in agreement with the cookeite-free, petalite-, spodumene-, eucryptite-, and bikitaite-bearing assemblages known to develop in the subsolidus phase of recrystallization of lithium-bearing pegmatites. It is gratifying to note that the cookeite phase relations predicted earlier by Vidal and Goffé (1991) in the context of the system Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O agree with our results in a general way.

  15. Very low-temperature metamorphism in Ordovician metasedimentary rocks above and below the Sardic unconformity, SW Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschelli, M.; Battaglia, S.; Cruciani, G.; Pasci, S.; Puxeddu, M.


    In the Iglesiente region, the Cabitza and Monte Argentu Formations are separated by an angular unconformity known as the Sardic unconformity. This is related to an early Ordovician mild compressional phase, known as the "Sardic phase". The pelitic samples from the structurally lower Cabitza Formation consist of alternating reddish phyllosilicate-rich and whitish phyllosilicate-poor, sialic layers, whose S0 bedding plane is parallel to a pre-Variscan S1P schistosity overprinted by the Variscan S1V schistosity. Pelitic samples from the Monte Argentu Formation are characterized by a Variscan S1V axial plane schistosity. Samples from the two formations consist of quartz and phyllosilicates. The latter are potassic white mica, chlorite, paragonite, locally kaolinite, and pyrophyllite. The illite crystallinity values determined for the Cabitza samples are 0.25-0.31, with an average of 0.29; meanwhile, the Monte Argentu samples produce values of 0.33-0.38, with an average of 0.35. The chlorite crystallinity and b0 of potassic white mica values show greater heterogeneity in the Cabitza than the Monte Argentu samples. The b0 values and P-T pseudosections allow us to confirm that there is no significant difference in the P-T metamorphism conditions between the Cabitza and Monte Argentu samples. The Iglesiente region, which is considered to be the rift zone behind the Middle Ordovician Sarcidano-Barbagia volcanic arc, underwent the "Sardic phase", giving rise to E-W folds. These were first overprinted by weak E-W, and then by stronger N-S-oriented Variscan deformation events.

  16. Compositions of hydrothermal dravitic tourmalines from some deposits in the Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksheev, I.; Kudryavtseva, O.


    We have studied compositions of tourmaline from the phlogopite schist and other alterations in the Emerald mines, propylitic- and listwaenitic-type alterations and related veins at the Berezovskoe Au and the Shabrovskoe talc deposits in the Central Urals and Syrostanskoe talc deposit in the South Urals. In the Emerald mines tourmaline associates with hornblende and different phyllosilicates, including phlogopite, paragonite, margarite and chlorite. All phyllosilicates are F-bearing. Based on calculations, however, they are characterized by different values of the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio (f) and F, OH, and O in the W site. Tourmaline from the earliest albite-hornblende alteration is OH dominated (0.67-0.96 apfu) with the f value ranging from 0.15 to 0.22. Tourmaline from usual phlogopite schists is OH dominated (0.44-0.80 apfu) with F and O ranging from 0.02 to 0.38 apfu and from 0 to 0.24 apfu. The f value ranges from 0.12 to 0.25. Tourmaline associated with the Fe-free phlogopite and paragonite cementing brecciated chromium spinel crystals is F or OH dominated ranging from 0 to 0.75 apfu and from 0 to 0.83 apfu, respectively. The f value is very low ranging from 0 to 0.01. Tourmaline associated with paragonite and topaz is also F or OH dominated ranging from 0 to 0.52 apfu and from 0.18 to 0.76 apfu, respectively. The f value varies from 0.24 to 0.32. Tourmaline from margarite veinlets cutted phlogopite schists is OH dominated (0.54-0.80 apfu). The f value ranges from 0.19 to 0.29. Tourmalines from the phlogopite-chlorite alteration and carbonate-muscovite-chlorite veinlets are F-poor and are characterized by different amounts of OH and O, ranging from 0.29 to 0.97 apfu and from 0 to 0.59 apfu. The f values of these tourmalines range from 0.17 to 0.29 and from 0.25 to 0.37, respectively. Based on the Moesbauer data the Fe3+/Fetotal ratio in the Emerald mines tourmalines is low and ranges from 0.04 to 0.08. All above tourmalines are Na dominated in the X site. According

  17. Geology of the Windsor quadrangle, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Stephen A.


    are inverted in the northwestern part of the quadrangle and upright in the southwestern part of the quadrangle. A later generation of open, post-metamorphic folds has folded the recumbent folds in the miogeosynclinal rocks. The eugeosynclinal rocks show 3 phases of folding. The earliest folds are isoclinal, have steep plunges, were synmetamorphic, and have a strong axial plane schistosity. Two post-metamorphic generations of folds are more open and have axial plane cleavage. The development of the Hoosac nappe and the isoclinal folds was accompanied by regional metamorphism of the garnet zone. The pressure exceeded the pressure for the triple point of the Al2SiO 5 polymorphs. The composition of the paragonite coexisting with muscovite suggests a period of retrograde metamorphism for the Paleozoic rocks as well as the Cambrian rocks that were originally of higher grade (sillimanite? ). Later events include high-angle faulting (Triassic?), erosion, and Pleistocene glaciation.

  18. Elemental responses to subduction-zone metamorphism: Constraints from the North Qilian Mountain, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Song, Shuguang; Davidson, Jon; Liu, Xiaoming


    Subduction zone metamorphism (SZM) and behaviors of chemical elements in response to this process are important for both arc magmatism and mantle compositional heterogeneity. In this paper, we report the results of our petrographic and geochemical studies on blueschist and eclogite facies rocks of sedimentary and basaltic protoliths from two metamorphic sub-belts with different metamorphic histories in the North Qilian Mountain, Northwest China. The protolith of low-grade blueschists is basaltic in composition and is most likely produced in a back-arc setting, while the protoliths of high-grade blueschists/eclogites geochemically resemble the present-day normal and enriched mid-oceanic ridge basalts plus some volcanic arc rocks. The meta-sedimentary rocks, including meta-graywacke, meta-pelite, meta-chert and marble, show geochemical similarity to global oceanic (subducted) sediments. Assuming that high field strength elements (HFSEs) are relatively immobile, the correlated variations of rare earth elements (REEs) and Th with HFSEs suggest that all these elements are probably also immobile, whereas Pb and Sr are mobile in rocks of both basaltic and sedimentary protoliths during SZM. Ba, Cs and Rb are immobile in rocks of sedimentary protoliths and mobile in rocks of basaltic protolith. The apparent mobility of U in rocks of basaltic protolith may be inherited from seafloor alterations rather than caused by SZM. On the basis of in situ mineral compositional analysis (both major and trace elements), the most significant trace element storage minerals in these subduction-zone metamorphic rocks are: lawsonite, pumpellyite, apatite, garnet and epidote group minerals for REEs, white micas (both phengite and paragonite) for large ion lithophile elements, rutile and titanite for HFSEs. The presence and stability of these minerals exert the primary controls on the geochemical behaviors of most of these elements during SZM. The immobility of REEs, Th and U owing to their

  19. The pyrope-coesite rocks and their country rocks at Parigi, Dora Maira Massif, Western Alps: detailed petrography, mineral chemistry and PT-path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.-P.; Schreyer, W.; Chopin, C.


    Both the coarse- and fine-grained varieties of the partly coesite-bearing pyrope-quartzites, their interlayered jadeite-kyanite rocks, and the biotite-phengite gneiss country rock common to all of them were subjected to detailed petrographic and textural studies in order to determine the sequence of crystallisation of their mineral constituents, which were also studied analytically by microprobe. Prior to pyrope and coesite growth, the Mg-rich metapelites were talc-kyanite-chlorite-rutile-ellenbergerite schists which — upon continued prograde metamorphism — developed first pyrope megacrysts in silica-deficient local environments at the expense of chlorite + talc + kyanite, and subsequently the smaller pyrope crystals with coesite inclusions from reacting talc + kyanite. Based on geobarometrically useful mineral inclusions as well as on experimentally determined phase relations, a prograde PT-path — simplified for water activity = 1 — is constructed which passes through the approximate PT-conditions 16 kbar and 560° C, 29 kbar and 720° C, and finally up to 37 kbar at about 800° C, where the Mg-rich metapelite was a pyrope-coesite rock with phengite, kyanite, and talc still present. During the retrograde path, pyrope was altered metasomatically either into phlogopite + kyanite + quartz or, at a later stage, to chlorite + muscovite + quartz. Both assemblages yield PT-constraints, the latter about 7 9 kbar, 500 600° C. The country rock gneisses have also endured high-pressures of at least 15 kbar, but they provide mostly constraints on the lowest portion of the uplift conditions within the greenschist facies (about 5 kbar, 450° C). Microprobe data are presented for the following minerals: pyrope, ellenbergerite, dumortierite (unusually MgTi-rich), jadeite, vermiculite (formed after Na-phlogopite?), paragonite, and for several generations of phengite, chlorite, talc, phlogopite, dravite, and glaucophane in the high-pressure rocks, as well as for biotite

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region, Himachal Higher Himalaya, India: Implication on the nature of felsic magmatism in the collision tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brajesh; Kumar, Santosh; Ban, Masao; Nakashima, Kazuo


    Felsic magmatism in the southern part of Himachal Higher Himalaya is constituted by Neoproterozoic granite gneiss (GGn), Early Palaeozoic granitoids (EPG) and Tertiary tourmaline-bearing leucogranite (TLg). Magnetic susceptibility values (<3 ×10-3 SI), molar Al2 O 3/(CaO + Na2 O + K 2O) (≥1.1), mineral assemblage (bt-ms-pl-kf-qtz ± tur ± ap), and the presence of normative corundum relate these granitoids to peraluminous S-type, ilmenite series (reduced type) granites formed in a syncollisional tectonic setting. Plagioclase from GGn (An10-An31) and EPG (An15-An33) represents oligoclase to andesine and TLg (An2-An15) represents albite to oligoclase, whereas compositional ranges of K-feldspar are more-or-less similar (Or88 to Or95 in GGn, Or86 to Or97 in EPG and Or87 to Or94 in TLg). Biotites in GGn (Mg/Mg + Fet= 0.34-0.45), EPG (Mg/Mg + Fet= 0.27-0.47), and TLg (Mg/Mg + Fet= 0.25-0.30) are ferribiotites enriched in siderophyllite, which stabilised between FMQ and HM buffers and are characterised by dominant 3Ferightleftharpoons 2Al, 3Mgrightleftharpoons 2Al substitutions typical of peraluminous (S-type), reducing felsic melts. Muscovite in GGn (Mg/Mg + Fet=0.58-0.66), EPG (Mg/Mg + Fet=0.31-0.59), and TLg (Mg/Mg + Fet=0.29-0.42) represent celadonite and paragonite solid solutions, and the tourmaline from EPG and TLg belongs to the schorl-elbaite series, which are characteristics of peraluminous, Li-poor, biotite-tourmaline granites. Geochemical features reveal that the GGn and EPG precursor melts were most likely derived from melting of biotite-rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources, whereas TLg melt appears to have formed from biotite-muscovite rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources. Major and trace elements modelling suggest that the GGn, EPG and TLg parental melts have experienced low degrees (˜13, ˜17 and ˜13%, respectively) of kf-pl-bt fractionation, respectively, subsequent to partial melting. The GGn and EPG melts are the results of a pre

  1. Hydrogeochemistry of geothermal waters in the Magumsan and Bugok area, southern part of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yun, S.; So, C.; Chae, G.; Koh, Y.


    Hydrogeochemical and environmental isotopic studies of geothermal waters in the Bugok and Magumsan area were conducted to understand the subsurface evolution of geothermal system in South Korea. Hydrochemically, the Bugok thermal waters (BTW; outflowing temperature = 45.8-78.0 degree in centigrade) belong to the Na-SO4 type, whereas the Magumsan thermal waters (MTW; 27.5-54.8 degree in centigrade) represent the Na-Cl type. Peripheral groundwaters (17.2-22.4 degree in centigrade) in both areas belong to the Ca-HCO3 type. Both BTW and MTW show a good correlation between TDS and SiO2 content. The thermodynamic calculation using SOLVEQ indicates that all the BTW and MTW are saturated or supersaturated with respect to albite, quartz, calcite, kaolinite, anorthite, muscovite and paragonite, and are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and chalcedony. A good correlation among in-situ temperature, oxygen (and hydrogen) isotope values, and tritium content is observed for BTW and MTW. The high chlorine concentration of MTW reflects the substantial mixing of paleoseawater in the geothermal system, as also suggested by Na, Br, SO4, and Cl concentrations. We propose a hydrogeochemical model for MTW, which includes the paleoseawater mixing and addition of sedimentary SO4 by water-rock interaction during the descent of meteoric recharged water and the calcite dissolution and successive CO2 degassing during the ascent of heated waters. In the case of BTW, we propose an alternative model which includes complex processes such as the recharge of meteoric waters at higher elevation, the prolonged water-rock interaction including the dissolution of sedimentary (evaporitic?) sulfates, the reduction of sulfate to form H2S, the CO2 degassing and associated calcite precipitation, and the re-oxidation of H2S to SO4. We consider that the geothermal system responsible for both MTW and BTW are located nearer to a deep heat source, compared to the other geothermal systems found in

  2. Epidote Eclogites From Ross River Area, Yukon, Canada, Indicate Very High Pressure Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, E. D.; Erdmer, P.


    Eclogites occur as tectonic inclusions in metasedimentary rocks at several locations within Yukon Territory. In the Ross River area the eclogites contain omphacite-garnet-Ca-Na amphibole-epidote-rutile-quartz. Phengite, paragonite, and titanite are local additional phases. The matrix of omphacite and Ca-amphibole is fine-grained and strongly deformed. Using bulk X-ray fluorescence analyses we have calculated isochemical phase diagram P-T sections (P-T pseudosections). The chemical system used is SiO2-TiO2- Al2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-H2O. We have not modeled MnO and ferric iron because of the lack of activity-composition data for minerals other than garnet. The P-T boundary of lawsonite- out provides approximate lower P and T limits on the stability of epidote with garnet and omphacite. The results are: 480-520°C at 20 kbar, near the lawsonite-eclogite/epidote-eclogite boundary at ˜ 500°C and 23 kbar. Garnet analyses indicate compositional zoning with Mn-rich cores. Intersections of the calculated grossular and pyrope isopleths (with observed compositions) provide estimates of P and T at the time of crystallization of garnet cores. The results range from 475-493°C and 19.7-23.5 kbar. Temperature estimates using the Zr in rutile geothermometer yield a T range of 521-557°C at 20 kbar. A metasedimentary host rock yielded three matrix results with 560 ± 54°C. These last results lead us to suggest that the host rocks experienced a similar T history to the eclogite inclusions. These eclogites were formed by subduction-related metamorphism, but did not involve continental collision. Ultrahigh pressures (coesite stability field) are usually associated with continental collision. The implied tectonic uplift of Ross River eclogite is greater than previously thought.

  3. An experimental investigation of Na incorporation in cordierite in low P/high T metapelites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropper, Peter; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Haefeker, Udo A.; Mirwald, Peter W.


    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the incorporation of Na in cordierite in metapelites as a function of temperature and pressure using natural quartzphyllite rocks as starting materials. The experiments were performed in a hydrothermal apparatus as well as a piston-cylinder apparatus with two natural quartzphyllite samples, which represent the protolith rocks of the hornfelses from the Brixen Granite contact aureole near Franzensfeste. Sample W shows high muscovite contents (57 wt%) and only accessory plagioclase while sample SP5 has high plagioclase (16 wt%) and lower muscovite contents (20 vol%). The experiments were done dry at pressures of 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 GPa in a temperature range of 550 °C to 780 °C. The Na content of the newly formed cordierites shows a systematic variation and decreases linearly with increasing temperatures and no influence of pressure and melting on the Na contents of cordierite was observed. The experiments also show that the difference in mineral assemblage considerably shifts the obtained Na contents of cordierite. The P-independent temperature correlations for both sets of experiments can be described with the linear relationships: T (°C) = (Na [apfu] - 0.4052)/(-0.000487); R2 = 0.96; (±20 °C, calibration W) and T (°C) = (Na [apfu] - 0.3671)/(-0.000383); R2 = 0.94; (±15 °C, calibration SP5). The difference between the two temperatures is large and the SP5 experiments yield temperatures that are up to 100 °C higher. This is not unexpected since theoretical phase relations in the system NMASH predict different Na contents depending on the buffering assemblage (plagioclase vs. paragonite). On the other hand these T differences could also reflect disequilibrium behaviour in the SP5 experiments. Detailed micro-Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that cordierites from both experiments show disordered structures but the SP5 experiments show a much higher degree of Si-Al disorder and the elevated Na

  4. Pressure-temperature evolution of eclogites from the Kechros complex in the Eastern Rhodope (NE Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.


    The Rhodope Domain in NE Greece consists of different tectonometamorphic complexes involved in the Alpine collisional history between the Eurasian and African plates. In the Kechros Complex, which is the lowermost tectonic unit in the East Rhodope, a lense of kyanite eclogite occurs within orthogneiss and common eclogites are found between serpentinized peridotite and underlying pelitic gneisses. In kyanite eclogite, the high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd35-55) + Ky + Ph + Qz + Rt + (indirectly inferred Tlc + Law); a Na-rich tremolite and zoisite formed at or near peak metamorphic conditions. In common eclogites, the HP mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd29-41) + Rt and, with less certainty, Amp (Gln-rich + Brs + Wnc + Hbl) ± Czo. The inclusions in garnet are glaucophane, actinolite, barroisite, hornblende, omphacite, clinozoisite, titanite, rutile and rarely paragonite and albite. In kyanite eclogite, peak P- T conditions are constrained at 2.2 GPa and 615°C using garnet-omphacite-phengite geothermobarometry and very similar values of 585 ± 32°C and 2.17 ± 0.11 GPa with the average P- T method, by which conditions of formation could also be narrowed down for the common eclogite (619 ± 53°C and 1.69 ± 0.17 GPa) and for a retrogressed eclogite (534 ± 36°C and 0.77 ± 0.11 GPa). Ages for the HP metamorphism in the Kechros Complex are not yet available. A Rb-Sr white mica age of 37 Ma from orthogneiss records a stage of the exhumation. The HP event may be coeval with the Eocene HP metamorphism (49-55 Ma) recorded in the Nestos Shear Zone in Central Rhodope and in the Attic-Cycladic crystalline belt, where it is interpreted as the result of subduction and final closure of the Axios/Vardar ocean and subsequent subduction of the Apulian continental crust (a promontory of the Africa continent) under the southern margin of the European continent in the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  5. Archaeological jade mystery solved using a 119-year-old rock collection specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Davies, H. L.; Summerhayes, G. R.; Matisoo-Smith, E.


    In a recent publication (Harlow et al. 2012), a ~3200-year old small stone artefact from an archaeological excavation on Emirau Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea was described and determined to be a piece of jadeite jade (jadeitite). True jadeitite from any part of New Guinea was not previously known, either in an archaeological or geological context, so this object was of considerable interest with respect to its geological source and what that would mean about trade between this source and Emirau Island. Fortuitously, the artefact, presumably a wood-carving gouge, is very unusual with respect to both pyroxene composition and minor mineral constituents. Pyroxene compositions lie essentially along the jadeite-aegirine join: Jd94Ae6 to Jd63Ae36, and without any coexisting omphacite. This contrasts with Jd-Di or Jd-Aug compositional trends commonly observed in jadeitites worldwide. Paragonite and albite occur in veins and cavities with minor titanite, epidote-allanite, and zircon, an assemblage seen in a few jadeitites. Surprisingly, some titanite contains up to 6 wt% Nb2O5 with only trace Ta and a single grain of a Y-Nb phase (interpreted as fergusonite) is present; these are unique for jadeitite. In a historical tribute to C.E.A. Wichmann, a German geologist who taught at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a previously unpublished description of chlormelanite from the Torare River in extreme northeast Papua, Indonesia was given. The bulk composition essentially matches the pyroxene composition of the jade, so this sample was hypothesized as coming from the source. We were able to arrange a loan from the petrology collection at Utrecht University of the specimen acquired by Wichmann in 1893. In addition we borrowed stone axes from the Natural History Museum - Naturalis in Leiden obtained from natives near what is now Jayapura in eastern-most Papua. Petrography and microprobe analysis of sections of these samples clearly show that (1) Wichmann's 1893

  6. From Aptian Onset to Danian Demise of Subduction along the Northern Margin of the Caribbean Plate (Sierra del Convento Melange, Eastern Cuba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Casco, A.; Lazaro, C.; Rojas Agramonte, Y.; Kroner, A.; Neubauer, F.


    The serpentinite-matrix melange of the Sierra del Convento, eastern Cuba, represents an oceanic subduction channel related to Mesozoic subduction in the Caribbean realm which provides evidence for a long-lasting history of subduction, accretion, melange formation, and uplift, and for Aptian onset of subduction in the region. Exotic blocks of MORB-derived plagioclase-free epidote±garnet amphibolite followed a hot subduction-related prograde P-T path, reaching ca. 750 °C, and 14-16 kbar at peak conditions. Fluid flux at this stage triggered melting of the amphibolites to yield peraluminous tonalitic-trondhjemitic melts, which appear intimately associated with the amphibolites. Trondhjemitic-granitic varieties richer in K2O suggest the local participation of a sedimentary source, likely diluted through the infiltrating fluid. Calculated conditions for the magmatic assemblages (plagioclase, quartz, epidote, ±paragonite, ±pargasite, ±muscovite) of the siliceous rocks yield pressures of ca. 15 kbar, indicating crystallization at depth in the subduction environment. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of two granitoid samples gives crystallization ages of 113-114 Ma. Partial melting of subducted oceanic crust in eastern Cuba is unique in the Caribbean realm and is interpreted as the result of onset of subduction of young oceanic lithosphere during the Aptian (ca. 120 Ma), in agreement with regional geological data. Calculated P-T conditions for the retrograde blueschist-facies overprints present in all rocks indicate counterclockwise P-T paths during exhumation in a colder, syn-subduction scenario. Ar-Ar amphibole dating yielded two groups of cooling ages of 106-97 Ma (interpreted as cooling of metamorphic/magmatic pargasite) and 87-83 Ma (interpreted as growth/cooling of retrograde overprints). The above P-T-t data and additional ages of other rocks from the area suggest the following stages of evolution:(a) hot subduction during 120-115 Ma with heating and burial rates of

  7. Eclogite-, amphibolite- and blueschist-facies rocks from Diego de Almagro Island (Patagonia): Episodic accretion and thermal evolution of the Chilean subduction interface during the Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyppolito, Thais; Angiboust, Samuel; Juliani, Caetano; Glodny, Johannes; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Calderón, Mauricio; Chopin, Christian


    Few localities in the Patagonian Andes expose remnants of the Mesozoic Chilean paleo-accretionary complex. We focus on the Diego de Almagro Island high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) Complex, a pluri-kilometer thick sequence comprising metavolcanic rocks with oceanic affinities and metasedimentary rocks. In this study, the deepest segments of the Chilean subduction interface in Patagonia are characterized for the first time. Despite its apparent homogeneity, the complex is actually composed of two tectonic units with distinct ages of metamorphism and thermal evolution: the garnet amphibolite (GA) and the underlying blueschist (BS) units. The GA unit mafic rocks exhibit epidote, phengite, titanite, rutile, chloritoid and paragonite inclusions in prograde garnet I, diopside + albite intergrows replacing omphacite inclusions in garnet II, and relict omphacite (XJd45) included in edenitic-pargasitic amphiboles. Thermobarometric results show that these rocks were buried along a relatively cold prograde path (c. 11 °C/km) and reached eclogite-facies near peak pressure conditions (c. 550-600 °C, 1.6 GPa). The GA unit underwent a pervasive stage of amphibolitization during decompression at c. 1.3 GPa. Field and petrological observations, together with multi-mineral Rb-Sr dating, indicate that amphibolitization of the GA unit took place along the subduction interface at c. 120 Ma in a slightly warmer subduction regime (c. 13-14 °C/km), in agreeement with the formation of coetanoeus amphibolites at c. 35 km. The underlying BS unit (i) yields four consistent Rb-Sr deformation ages of c. 80 Ma, i.e. 40 Ma younger than the overlying rocks from the GA unit; (ii) exhibits slightly cooler peak metamorphic conditions (c. 520-550 °C, 1.6 GPa) indicating burial along a prograde path of c. 10 °C/km (iii) does not show amphibolite-facies overprint as seen in the GA unit. After a long residence time under amphibolite-facies conditions, the amphibolitized rocks of the GA unit

  8. Emplacement of the Irian Ophiolite and unroofing of the Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt of Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, Richard John, Jr.

    The distribution of Irian Ophiolite metabasites near the Gauttier Offset indicate exhumation from a northeast dipping subduction zone. Amphibolites, were metamorphosed at <5 kb and ˜700 °C, blueschists at ˜7 kb and ˜400 °C, and eclogites at ˜450 °C but not necessarily higher pressures. Basaltic compositions, REE concentrations, and radiogenic isotope ratios are characteristic of seawater altered ORB. Isotopic ages record metamorphism between 65 to 70 Ma and 50 to 45 Ma. Northern Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt metapelites have illite "crystallinity" values <0.25 °2theta, paragonite and quartz, rare biotite and spessartine indicating peak temperatures of 300 to 350 °C. Whole-rock K-Ar ages range from 17 to 490 Ma, clustering between 35 and 20 Ma. Ages between 28 and 20 Ma correspond to samples containing lattice-oriented phyllosilicates and destruction of chlorite - white mica aggregates, recording metamorphism of passive margin strata. Intrusive rocks near the Irian Ophiolite are generally dioritic, medium- to low-K, subalkaline rocks. Trace element concentrations and radiogenic isotope ratios are characteristic of volcanic arc rocks. Isotopic ages range from ˜35 to 24 Ma and ˜12 to 10 Ma. The older suite is part of an allochthonous Oligocene - Early Miocene oceanic arc. The younger suite is coeval with the autochthonous Middle Miocene Maramuni Arc. Subduction of Australian passive margin strata and continental lithosphere led to uplift and of the Irian Ophiolite. Exhumation of metamorphic rocks primarily occurred by normal faulting near the ophiolite - metamorphic belt contact. Amphibolites were exhumed from <15 km depth, slate slivers from 15 to 20 km and phyllites from 25 to 30 km. Blueschists and eclogite were exhumed from 25 to 35 km depth along the Gauttier Offset. The forearc was unroofed at ≤ 0.5 km/m.y. Unroofing in the eastern metamorphic belt increased from ˜0.6 km/m.y. between 23 to 12 Ma, to ˜1.2 km/m.y. between 12 to 2 Ma and ˜3.8 km

  9. White mica K-Ar geochronology of HP-UHP units in the Lago di Cignana area, western Alps, Italy: Tectonic implications for exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouzu, Chitaro; Yagi, Koshi; Thanh, Ngo Xuan; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Compagnoni, Roberto


    High-pressure and ultra-high pressure (HP-UHP) blueschist- and eclogite-facies metabasaltic and metasedimentary rocks occur in four different tectonic units near Lago di Cignana, western Alps. We have determined K-Ar ages for white micas (matrix phengite and paragonite) from the Lago di Cignana UHP unit (LCU; 39-41 Ma); the lower and upper units of the Zermatt-Saas meta-ophiolite (LU and UU; 37-38 Ma and 38-41 Ma respectively), and the Combin unit (CU; 36-40 Ma). These K-Ar ages overlap with single-grain Ar-Ar plateau ages (36-42 Ma) previously determined for phengites from LCU metasediments. Matrix white micas have been severely deformed during exhumation, and their chemistries differ from those of micas included in garnet. Although individual mica grains in the matrix could have experienced different degrees of deformation which have reset their K-Ar systems, "bulk" white mica separates provide the average age of all the individual grains in the separate. The similarity of ages determined for white micas from the LCU, LU, UU and CU units, regardless of rock type and mineral species, suggests that these four units were metamorphosed together as part of a single metamorphic sequence in the Piemonte-Liguria paleosubduction zone and were subsequently exhumed together. However, present-day structural relationship among those units and the limited occurrence of UHP minerals in LCU suggests that the exhumation of LCU was more rapid than that for LU, UU and CU. The age gaps between the youngest value of white mica K-Ar ages in each unit and the inferred timing of the metamorphic peak (U-Pb age: 44 Ma) is 5, 7, 6 and 8 Myr for LCU, LU, UU and CU, respectively. These intervals are considerably shorter than that determined for the Sanbagawa HP metamorphic belt of Southwest Japan (> 31 Myr). The short interval observed for the Lago di Cignana units that we have studied is consistent with the model of rapid exhumation of the UHP-bearing metamorphic domain, suggesting the

  10. Metamorphic evolution of the high-pressure metamorphic rocks from the Kemer area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey): Implications for the accretionary continental growth and closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygül, M.; Topuz, G.; Satır, M.


    The northwestern part of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, corresponds to the so-called Intra-Pontide suture, separating the Rhodope-Strandja zone to the north and Sakarya zone to the south. This suture zone is marked by the exposures of high-pressure metamorphics, oceanic accretionary complexes and ophiolites, which are widely covered by Eocene to Miocene volcanics and volcano-clastics, and crosscut by Eocene to Miocene granites. The Kemer area is one of the key-areas where high-pressure metamorphics and an ophiolitic mélange were widely exposed. This contribution deals with the metamorphic evolution of the Kemer high-pressure rocks, and their implications for the geodynamic evolution. The Kemer high-pressure rocks comprise predominantly micaschist, calcschist, marble and minor metabasite and serpentinite. The micaschists contain mineral assemblages involving garnet, phengite (3,30-3,44 c.p.f.u.), paragonite, epidote, chlorite, albite and titanite, and the metabasites consists of garnet, barrosite, albite, chlorite, epidote, albite and titanite. The equilibrium conditions are poorly constrained as 550 ± 50 °C temperature and >8-10 kbar pressure by Fe-Mg partitioning between garnet and phengite, and phengite-barometry, respectively. Timing of the high-pressure metamorphism is constrained as 84-64 Ma by Rb-Sr phengite-whole rock dating on four samples. Although the obtained age values display a wide scatter, they are consistent with geochronological data from the neighboring high-pressure areas: 86 ± 2 Ma from the Şarköy blueschists (Topuz et al. 2008) and 65-69 Ma from the Çamlıca garnet-micaschists (Okay and Satır, 2000). These data in conjunction with those from the literature suggest that Late Cretaceous represent a time of substantional accretionary continental growth related to the northward subduction of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean is constrained between Late Cretaceous and Eocene, because Eocene volcanics and volcano

  11. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.


    -Chlorite ± Sericite, (2) Quartz-Chlorite, (3) Chlorite ± Quartz-Sericite-Calcite, (4) Quartz-Chlorite ± Calcite and (5) Sericite + Quartz ± Chlorite ± Calcite. Magnesium-chlorite and phengitic white mica typically occur in the vicinity of the Arroyo Rojo ore lenses. To provide field criteria for exploration vectoring, the chemical composition of chlorite and the phengitic and paragonitic content of the white mica were determined and correlated with PIMA Fe-OH and Al-OH absorption wavelengths, respectively, relative to their proximity to the mineralized lenses. The results of this study can be used to help identify (1) felsic proximal facies associations, (2) ore horizons and (3) favorable hydrothermal alteration zones in other parts of the Fin del Mundo district.

  12. Tectono-Metamorphic Evolution of the Eastern Rif of Morocco (External Zone of Rif Chain, Morocco) during Mesozoic and Tertiary Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Vílchez, M.; Asebriy, L.; Azdimousa, A.; Jabaloy, A.; Booth-Rea, G.; Barbero, L.; Mellini, M.


    In this work we have determine the characteristic of low grade metamorphism in metapelites from Temsamane and Ketama Units from the eastern Rif and the mineralogical assemblages of serpentinites of peridotites from Beni-Malek. The Tánger-Ketama unit has an estratigraphic sequence from the Lower Jurassic to the Cenozoic and it is composed by metapelitic and quartzitic rocks, and marbles. The mineralogical composition determined by XRD of the samples is quartz, calcite, chlorite and muscovite. The Crystallinity Index (IC) of mica was determined in the ethilenglycol and natural samples. In some samples, the IC was different between the ethilenglycol and natural samples, which indicate the presence of the R3 illite/smectite. For these samples we have used the 5 Å peak of mica in order to determine the metamorphism grade. The Lower Cretaceous rocks have an anquizone grade (0.331-0.496 ° 2 ?). The Jurassic samples present diagenetic conditions (0.567 ° 2 ?). Azdimousa et al. (1998) determine the age of two events metamorphic with fission track analysis that occurred during the Cretaceous period. The first age is Barriasian to Hauterivian (126.6 ± 2.1 to 131.9 ± 3.2 Ma) and it is related with an important extension period related with the exhumation of the peridotites from Beni-Malek and the second one was Santonian to Campanian (78.0 ± 1.2 to 81.6 ± 4.0 Ma). The Temsamane Unit forms a mountains chain of ENE-OSO directions and is composed by marbles, quartzites, and phyllites from Palaeozoic to Aptian-Albian times. The mineralogical composition of the samples studied is quartz, calcite, plagioclase, chlorite, muscovite, and paragonite. The kaolinite is present in some samples. The IC of mica indicates a late anquizone to epizone grade (0.300- 0.159 ° 2 ?). In according to Guidotti and Sassi (1986), the b parameter of mica indicates intermediate pressure (at less 3 Kbar). The presence of paragonite indicates a metamorphism temperature higher of 200° C. However

  13. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snow Camp-Saxapahaw Area, Central North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Robert G.; Gumiel, Pablo; Payas, Alba


    uneven distribution of outcrops prevented comprehensive structural studies. Except for a few late plutons and dikes, all of the rocks of the area have been metamorphosed in middle to upper greenschist facies, and contact aureoles were recognized around some of the plutons. Several relatively small bodies of granitic rock contain plagioclase grains in which primary oscillatory zoning was unaffected by metamorphism. These were interpreted to be post-metamorphic. We think that there were three separate stages of hydrothermal alteration in the complex volcanic terrane in the area. The oldest, an area of at least 8.5 square miles (22 square kilometers), was subjected to an intense hydrothermal alteration, ranging from peripheral zones of quartz-sericite-paragonite through a patchy marginal zone of pyrophyllite, andalusite, and other high-alumina minerals, to almost totally silicified core zones. The second event resulted in large areas of weak to moderate sericitic and propylitic alteration recognizable only in the Reedy Branch Tuff. The last event was related to post-metamorphic plutons. All of the pyrophyllite-andalusite deposits and perhaps most of the gold and silver mineralization can be related to the first period of hydrothermal alteration. The subsequent metamorphism did not produce significant changes in mineral species in the zones of most intense hydrothermal alteration. Gold- and silver-bearing sulfide minerals in fracture zones along the southeastern margin of the graben may also have been deposited during this earliest alteration stage. No metallic mineralization appears to have occurred during the second event. A group of molybdenum-bearing greisenlike bodies formed during the emplacement of the youngest plutons during the post-metamorphic event. One gold-bearing sulfide zone occurs in the exocontact of one such porphyritic stock. Significant amounts of pyrophyllite-andalusite-bearing rock have been extracted from the Snow Camp Mine and from

  14. Reconstruction of in situ composition of sedimentary formation waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palandri, James L.; Reed, Mark H.


    Chemical equilibrium calculations on sedimentary formation waters show that the waters, as analyzed, cannot be in equilibrium with diagenetic minerals in their host rocks at the formation temperature. However, if alkalinity is corrected to account for organic acid anions, and if the pH and bicarbonate are corrected for CO 2 loss from the sample, chemical equilibrium between formation waters and host rock diagenetic minerals can be clearly shown for systems in the temperature range of 75 to 160°C. Compositional reconstruction of some formation waters from published analyses is complicated by lack of analytical data for aluminum, silica, and organic acid anions. Missing aluminum and silica can be estimated by assuming equilibrium with an aluminum silicate (K-feldspar, muscovite) and quartz or chalcedony. pH, CO 2, and organic acid anions can be reconstructed by fixing CO 2 to exactly saturate calcite at the formation temperature because the fast kinetics of calcite precipitation makes it almost certain that calcite saturation is more likely than the strong supersaturation that is otherwise observed. Results from the equilibrium calculations are evaluated by using graphs of the saturation states of diagenetic minerals vs. temperature, for each of many sedimentary brines. If the diagenetic minerals selected as diagnostic of equilibrium (from qz, chalcedony, mus, paragonite, k-sp, alb, kaol, ca, and dol) are not saturated at or near a single temperature, the missing or erroneous quantities of components are adjusted to obtain agreement in the saturation temperature. Composition data for fluids from four locations are used in the calculations: Kettleman North Dome, California, offshore Norway, the Texas Gulf Coast, and offshore Texas. The calculations suggest that in most cases, control of silica concentration shifts from chalcedony to quartz with increasing temperature near 100°C. In some fluids, silica concentration may approach chalcedony saturation to temperatures

  15. Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphic belts of the Central Pontides (northern Turkey): pre-collisional Pacific-type accretionary continental growth of Laurasian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygul, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhaensli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi


    Cretaceous blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, an east-west trending mountain belt in northern Turkey. They comprise an accretionary wedge along to the southern Laurasian active continental margin and predate the opening of Black Sea basin. From North to South, the wedge consists of a low grade metaflysch unit with marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite and serpentinite blocks. An extensional shear zone separates the accreted distal terrigenous sediments from HP/LT micaschists and metabasites of oceanic origin, known as Domuzdaǧ Complex. The shear zone reaches up to one km in thickness and consists of tectonic slices of serpentinite, metabasite, marble, phyllite and micaschist with top to the NW sense of shear. The Domuzdaǧ Complex predominantly consists of carbonaceous micaschist and metabasite with serpentinite, and minor metachert, marble and metagabbro. Metabasites consist mainly of epidote-blueschists sometimes with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are found as blocks within the shear zone. Peak metamorphic assemblages in the micaschists are chloritoid-glaucophane and garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane-lawsonite in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite and rutile (P: 17 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C). To the south, lithologies change slightly, with metabasite and thick, pale marble with few metachert and metapelitic horizons. The degree of metamorphism also changes. The metabasites range from high-pressure upper-greenschist facies with growth of sodic-amphibole to lower greenschist without any HP index mineral, suggesting a general decrease in pressure toward south within the prism. While Domuzdaǧ Complex represents deep-seated underplated oceanic sediments and basalts, the carbonate-rich southern parts can be interpreted as seamounts integrated into the accretionary prism. Ar/Ar dating on phengite separates both from terrigenous and oceanic metasediments give consistent plateau ages of 100 ± 2

  16. Two Tertiary metamorphic events recognized in metapelites of the Nevado-Filabride Complex (Betic Cordillera, S Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Botao; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    The orogenic belt of the Betic Cordillera in southern Spain resulted from the collision of the African plate with the southwestern edge of the Eurasian plate in Alpine times. This belt can be considered as a large nappe stack with the Nevado-Filabride Complex in the eastern Betic Cordillera representing the lowest nappe, in which high-pressure (HP > 10 kbar) rocks such as eclogites occur. We have studied two metapelites from the Ragua (former Veleta) unit, which is the lowest unit of the Nevado-Filabride Complex. These rocks were sampled at Cerro de los Machos (sample 23085) and c. 3 km east of this locality at the Laguna de la Caldera (sample 23098) and contain quartz, potassic white-mica, paragonite, chlorite, garnet, biotite, tourmaline, epidote, rutile, ilmenite, apatite, zircon and monazite and titanite (23085) or calcite and albite (23098). Garnet in both rocks is similarly zoned. An inclusion-rich core shows a prograde metamorphic zonation with high and low Mn contents in the center (e.g. for 23085: Alm64.5Grs27Py2.5Sps6) and at the rim (Alm84Grs8Py6Sps2), respectively, of the core domain. After corrosion of this domain a garnet mantle formed with an inner zone being again relatively rich in Mn and an outermost rim being poor in Mn. This mantle is significantly richer in Mg and poorer in Ca compared to the core domain. Potassic white-mica in the samples also shows a considerable compositional spread (Si = 3.05-3.20 in 23085 and 3.13-3.33 in 23098) with the highest Si contents in the core of potassic white-mica grains. To elucidate the metamorphic evolution of the rocks we calculated various P-T pseudosections for different H2O-CO2 contents and Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios with PERPLE_X. On the basis of the compositions of the garnet inner core and the highest Si content in potassic white mica contrasting peak pressures at c. 535˚ C resulted for the rocks (23085: 12.8 kbar, 23098: 18.3 kbar). A subsequent pressure release to about 8 (23085) or 5 kbar (23098) at slightly

  17. Rutile solubility in H2O-NaAlSi3O8 fluids at High T and P: Implications form HFSE mobility in Subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antignano, A.; Manning, C. E.


    The trace element signatures of arc magmas are characterized by HFSE depletion relative to the LILE. Rutile, a common accessory phase in high-pressure assemblages, is an important reservoir for the HFSE and is often invoked to explain the HFSE depletion of arc magmas. This model is in part based on experimental studies, which show that rutile has very low solubility in pure H2O. However, rutile is also a common accessory to eclogite-facies vein assemblages of albite, paragonite and quartz, which likely precipitated from slab-derived fluids. This observation requires either that fluid fluxes were unrealistically high, or that current estimates of Ti solubility are too low. A possible solution to this problem is that dissolved silicate components can enhance Ti solubility via complexing. To test this, we measured the solubility of rutile in H2O-NaAlSi3O8 (albite) bearing fluids at high T and P. Experiments were conducted using a piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl-graphite furnaces. A single synthetic rutile crystal was loaded into a 1.6 mm OD Pt inner capsule, which was lightly crimped and then placed in a 3.5 OD Pt outer capsule with ultra pure H2O and powdered Amelia albite. Solubility was determined by the weight loss of the rutile grain after 10 hrs. A time series demonstrates that equilibrium is achieved after 8-10 hrs. Preliminary results at 800°C, 1.0 GPa, show that rutile solubility rises with increasing NaAlSi3O8 concentration from 1.15(12) millimolal at 2.18 wt% NaAlSi3O8 to 3.77(13) at 8.80 wt% NaAlSi3O8. Corundum mats + fluid are observed in 3.4-8.80 wt% NaAlSi3O8 and are interpreted to be the result of incongruent dissolution of albite. Quenched melt spheres where observed in an experiment containing ~15 wt% NaAlSi3O8, but not at 8.80 wt%. At 8.80 wt% NaAlSi3O8, rutile solubility is higher by a factor of 6 relative to that in pure H2O. Our results suggest that TiO2 solubility is increased by complexing with Na-Al-Si-bearing fluid components. It has

  18. Monazite and allanite U-Th-Pb vs mica 39Ar-40Ar ages in equilibrated metasediments: closure behavior and closure temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaz, J.; Engi, M.; Berger, A.; Janots, E.; Villa, I. M.


    muscovite, between 17.65±0.33 and 14.84±0.23 Ma for biotite, and similar ones for margarite and paragonite. Mica ages from disequilibrium samples are substantially younger if mica was involved in retrogression reactions (textural and petrological evidence). Compared to the monazite ages of 18-19 Ma from the same samples, Ar diffusive loss is minor for muscovite and low for biotite. Interpolating U-Pb and fission track ages, we conclude that muscovite and biotite K-Ar have TC of 490-540 and 430-480 °C in samples that record petrological equilibrium. In disequilibrium samples, the TC concept is meaningless: retrogression can occur anywhere in PT space. REFERENCES [1] Jäger E, Eclogae geol. Helv. 66, 11-21 (1973) [2] Dodson MH, Contrib. Min. Pet. 40, 259-274 (1973) [3] Köppel V, Grünenfelder M, Schweiz. Min. Geol. Mitt. 55, 129-132 (1975) [4] Janots E et al, Geology 37, 11-14 (2009)

  19. Ammonium partitioning and nitrogen-isotope fractionation among coexisting micas during high-temperature fluid-rock interactions: examples from the New England Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofsky, Seth J.; Bebout, Gray E.


    Despite recent advances in the field of N-isotope geochemistry, our understanding of the behavior of this element in the solid earth remains limited by a lack of fundamental information regarding the partitioning of ammonium and isotopic fractionation of N among coexisting mineral and fluid phases. Study of N behavior in regionally metamorphosed rocks provides the opportunity to assess intermineral NH 4+ partitioning and N-isotope fractionation among coexisting micas during metamorphism and affords an application of the N system as a tracer of high-T fluid-rock interactions. Analyzed mica samples range in δ 15N air from +3.3 to +11.9‰, and contain 9 to 1820 ppm N. The outcrop at Townshend Dam, Vermont, allows examination of N behavior across-strike on a relatively small scale, and samples from western Maine demonstrate the effect of varying metamorphic conditions on N behavior in metapelites. Δ 15N bt-w.mica(δ 15N biotite-δ 15N white-mica) ranges from -0.9 to +2.7‰ (for all samples from both suites, mean = +0.36‰, with 1σ = 0.79‰), with samples containing a separate paragonite white-mica phase showing the greatest range (-0.12 to +1.02‰; mean = 0.58‰, 1σ = 1.03‰). Thirteen samples containing only Na-poor muscovite (six from Townshend Dam, seven from Western Maine) have mean Δ 15N bt-w.mica of 0.07‰ (1σ = 0.41‰). In both suites, biotite nearly always contains more N than coexisting white mica, but N w.mica/N bt also shows some significant scatter (mean N w.mica/N bt = 0.46, with 1σ = 0.34). The thirteen samples, containing only a Na-poor, muscovitic white-mica phase, have mean N w.mica/N bt = 0.39 with 1σ = 0.26, similar to that reported by others for other metamorphic suites containing only muscovite as the white-mica phase. There is no obvious suggestion of equilibrium N-isotopic fractionation among coexisting micas at epidote-amphibolite to amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, although NH 4+ appears to partition systematically

  20. Geochemical investigations and Fluid inclusion studies on iron ores from Qatruyeh area, Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, SW Iran: implications for a hydrothermal-metasomatic genetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Sina; Rajabzadeh, Mohammad Ali


    The Qatruyeh iron deposits are located in the eastern edge of the NW-SE trending Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone of southwestern Iran and are hosted by a Late Proterozoic to Early Paleozoic sequence dominated by metamorphosed carbonate rocks. The ores occur as layered bodies, with lesser amounts within disseminated magnetite- and hematite-bearing veins. Geochemical analyses of the high-field strength, large ion lithophile, and rare earth elements (REE) indicate that mineralization within the low-grade layered magnetite ores was related to magmatic process accompanied by Na-Ca alteration. The stage is shown by metasomatic replacement textures, gradational contact between layered magnetite and host rock and mineral assemblages of actinolite + titanite + siderite + tourmaline (dravite) + quartz + paragonite. Chemical analyses on layered magnetite show Zn, Cr, LREE and Co/Ni ratio were enriched, whereas V and HREE were depleted. Subsequent to formation, low-temperature hydrothermal activity produced hematite ores with associated propyllitic-sericitic alteration with hematite (specularite) + chlorite + epidote + muscovite + quartz assemblages. The metacarbonate host rocks are LILE-depleted and HFSE-enriched due to metasomatic alteration. REE were relatively immobile during host rock alterations. Microthermometric analyses generally, have been described and measured only on primary inclusions of two-phase liquid +vapor (type A), and two-phase vapor +liquid with (type B). Type A inclusions are dominated by more than 80 vol % of H2O at room temperature. The first ice temperature of melting (Tm) often occurs around -24.5° to -19.5° C. Salinities determined by last ice Tm were 3.5 to 15 weight percent NaCl equivalent (size of inclusions between 2.5 and 15μm) for inclusions trapped in whole quartz samples. The average of homogenization temperature (Th) values change between 300 and 345°C and Tm measurements range from -11.3° to -3.5°C. Homogenization temperature exists

  1. Phengite-hosted LILE enrichment in eclogite and related rocks: Implications for fluid-mediated mass transfer in subduction zones and arc magma genesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, J.N.; Perfit, M.R.


    Geochemical differences between island arc basalts (LAB) and ocean-floor basalts (mid-ocean ridge basalts; MORB) suggest that the large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) K, Ba, Rb and Cs are probably mobilized in subduction zone fluids and melts. This study documents LILE enrichment of eclogite, amphibolite, and epidote ?? garnet blueschist tectonic blocks and related rocks from melanges of two subduction complexes. The samples are from six localities of the Franciscan Complex, California, and related terranes of Oregon and Baja California, and from the Samana Metamorphic Complex, Samana Peninsula, Dominican Republic. Most Franciscan blocks are MORB-like in their contents of rare earth elements (REE) and high field strength elements (HFSE); in contrast, most Samana blocks show an LAB signature of these elements. The whole-rock K2O contents of both groups range from 1 to 3 wt %; K, Ba, Rb, and Cs are all strongly intercorrelated. Many blocks display K/Ba similar to melasomatized transition zones and rinds at their outer margins. Some transition zones and rinds are enriched in LILE compared with host blocks; others are relatively depleted in these elements. Some LILE-rich blocks contain 'early' coarse-grained muscovite that is aligned in the foliation defined by coarse-grained omphacite or amphibole grains. Others display 'late' muscovite in veins and as a partial replacement of garnet; many contain both textural types. The muscovite is phengite that contains ???3??25-3??55 Si per 11 oxygens, and ???0??25-0??50 Mgper 11 oxygens. Lower-Si phengite has a significant paragonite component: Na per 11 oxygens ranges to ???0??12. Ba contents of phengite range to over 1 wt % (0??027 per 11 oxygens). Ba in phengite does not covary strongly with either Na or K. Ba contents of phengite increase from some blocks to their transition zones or rinds, or from blocks to their veins. Averaged KlBa ratios for phengite and host samples define an array which describes other subsamples of

  2. Pressure-temperature-time evolution of strictly foliated, whitish metagranites in the Bulgarian Rhodope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Balica, Constantin; Balintoni, Ioan


    Orthogneisses are common in the denuded crust of a collisional orogen. However, they are rarely investigated in detail to derive metamorphic pressure (P) - temperature (T) conditions probably because of the lack of diagnostic mineral assemblages. Nevertheless, this rock type can contain valuable P-T information. In addition, zircon omnipresent in orthogneiss can be used for the reconstruction of the timing of corresponding orogenic events. We have investigated a specific type of orthogneiss in the Rhodope Massif in Bulgaria. This type is characterized by abundant, well-oriented white mica and very little biotite, chlorite, and epidote resulting in strictly foliated, whitish rocks. For the derivation of the P-T evolution two samples with accessory garnet were selected occurring near the western and eastern extension of the Rhodope Massif. White mica in the sample from the western extension is phengite, with a maximum Si content of 3.36 per formula unit, partially replaced by muscovite. On the contrary, only paragonite occurs as white mica in the sample from the eastern extension as a result of Na-metasomatism prior to metamorphism. Garnet in both samples is significantly zoned, but this mineral from the sample of the western extension of the Rhodope Massif usually contains around 80 mol% of grossular + spessartine components whereas garnet from the eastern extension is composed of about 60 mol% almandine component. In spite of the different mineral compositions, P-T estimations on the basis of P-T pseudosection modelling with PERPLEX yielded similar results for the studied metagranites. Peak pressure conditions were 10.5 kbar at 585°C for the sample from the western extension. These conditions were followed by a pressure decrease to 5.5 kbar at slightly rising temperatures up to 615°C. P-T conditions derived for the metagranite from the eastern extension cluster around 8 kbar and 600-625°C. Zircon separated from 38 samples of such rocks was dated using laser

  3. Modelling metamorphism in the Hoosac Schist, Western Massachusetts: new approaches to a New England problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidgood, Anna; Waters, Dave; Gardiner, Nick


    Along the western margin of the metamorphic Appalachians in New England, Taconic (Ordovician) tectonism and metamorphism are overprinted towards the east by Acadian (Devonian) structures and metamorphism. The Hoosac Schist, a probable correlate of the well-known Gassetts Schist of Vermont, lies in the region of overprinting. It forms a narrow N-S-trending tectonically-bound zone crossing several Barrovian mineral-assemblage zones from garnet to kyanite grade. Highly aluminous units containing cm-sized garnets (Cheney & Brady, 1992) are noted for the occurrence of textural unconformities within the garnets, separating inclusion-rich cores from inclusion-poor rims. Matrix domains contain both paragonite and muscovite. Muscovite is present in at least two compositionally distinct generations, with broad later laths cutting across a microfolded earlier fabric. Rutile is restricted to inclusions in garnet, whereas the matrix Ti- phase is ilmenite. These features suggest a polymetamorphic history, potentially recording the superimposition of Acadian metamorphism on Taconic, but it has not yet proved possible to demonstrate the presence of two metamorphic cycles. This study aims to test and employ the new and revised activity models recently developed for metapelites in the full system MnNCKFMASHTO (White et al, 2014), for use with the Holland & Powell data-set 6. Features that can now be more explicitly modelled include garnet zonation in relation to its inclusion suites and microstructural features, the occurrence, texture and distribution of Ti-bearing accessory minerals, and the assemblages and compositional trends in white micas. Preliminary modelling, correlated with microstructural observation, indicates (1) some confirmation of the concern expressed by White et al (2014) that the stability of margarite-bearing assemblages may be somewhat overestimated, (2) that apart from this, the early growth history of garnet is consistent with its suite of trapped inclusions

  4. Supercritical aqueous fluids in subduction zones carrying carbon and sulfur: oxidants for the mantle wedge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri; Manning, Craig


    Much speculation surrounds the nature of aqueous fluids in subduction zones. Aqueous fluids likely trigger partial melting in the mantle wedge, influencing the chemistry of the magmas that erupt in island arcs. They also may play a role in transporting elements that could metasomatize and oxidize the overlying mantle wedge, most importantly C, S and Fe. However, full coupling of aqueous fluid chemistry with the silicate, carbonate, C, sulfide and sulfate minerals has remained limited to pressures of 0.5 GPa because of limitations on the HKF aqueous ion equation of state. Recent progress in developing a Deep Earth Water model (Sverjensky et al., 2014), calibrated with new experimental data, now enables a detailed evaluation of the evolution of aqueous fluid chemistry to a pressure of 6 GPa, well into subduction zone conditions. We report aqueous speciation models for eclogitic aqueous fluids constrained by model mineral assemblages that give preliminary indications of the solubilities of elements that could contribute to mass transfer and redox changes in the mantle wedge. For example, at 600 °C and 2.5 GPa, an aqueous fluid in equilibrium with jadeite, paragonite, muscovite, quartz, lawsonite, almandine, talc, magnesite and pyrite at QFM oxidation state with 0.1 molal total Cl, contains 5.5 molal C, 0.04 molal S, and 9 micromolal Fe. The fluid has a pH of 4.7, much greater than the neutral pH of 3.3; the predominant species and molalities are CO2 (5.0), Na+ (0.44), Si(OH)4 (0.36), HCO3- (0.26), H3SiO4- (0.23), CaHCO3+ (0.18), silica dimer (0.10), Cl- (0.09), K+ (0.08), HCOO- (0.06), H2S (0.03). Calculations for model eclogitic fluids at the higher pressures and temperatures of subarc conditions also show that the solubility of C is much greater than either S or Fe at QFM. However, in subarc eclogitic fluids of higher oxidation state (QFM +3 to +4) in equilibrium with hematite, anhydrite, jadeite, kyanite, phlogopite, coesite, lawsonite, almandine-pyrope, and

  5. Coupled deformation and metamorphism: Strain localization facilitated by solution mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, R. A.; Andronicos, C. L.


    The Vallecito Conglomerate of the Needle Mountains, Colorado, is a Paleoproterozoic conglomerate with interbedded layers of aluminous schist that experienced deformation and contact metamorphism associated with emplacement of a pluton with a U/Pb age of ~1.435 Ga. The well-defined contact aureole includes sillimanite close to the pluton, andalusite and sillimanite together in a diffuse zone ~2 km from the pluton, and andalusite alone at greater distance from the pluton. Samples bearing both andalusite and sillimanite show a high degree of strain partitioning along discrete shear zones. Samples of both high strain (N09-5A) and low strain (N09-5) regimes were collected. The high strain sample, N09-5A, is characterized by shear bands of sillimanite separated by lower strain regions of quartz and andalusite. Samples N09-5 and N09-5A contain identical mineral assemblages of muscovite, paragonite, chloritoid, quartz, andalusite, sillimanite, rutile and ilmenite and were collected from the same outcrop. Based on their mineral assemblages and proximity of the two samples, it was assumed that N09-5A and N09-5 initially had the same chemical composition. An isoconcentration diagram was created using whole rock chemical analyses. This diagram shows that N09-5A is enriched in Ti, Zr, Th and La - all high field strength elements (HFS) - when compared to N09-5. Under the assumption that HFS are immobile, we interpret this result as evidence for depletion of the major elements from N09-5A relative to N09-5. Electron microprobe X-ray element intensity maps support the interpretation of the isoconcentration diagram. X-ray maps of sample N09-5A cover high strain sillimanite shear bands and low strain regions of quartz and andalusite. Quantitative analysis of the abundance of elements in each region shows a significant depletion of K, Al, and Si in high strain regions relative to low strain regions. Textural observations made at the thin section scale suggest that strain localization

  6. REE geochemistry of jadeitite and related rocks from the Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, A.; Maresch, W. V.; Schertl, H.


    The Rio San Juan Complex (RSJC) of the northern Dominican Republic is dominated by a serpentinite mélange associated with subduction-related metavolcanics. The mélange hosts different types of metamorphic blocks such as jadeite±lawsonite blueschist, eclogite, and orthogneiss; it originated within the subduction channel of an intra-oceanic arc system. Jadeite-bearing rocks occur as blocks in surficial lag deposits and as boulders in river beds. In contrast to most other occurrences in the world, they also form concordant layers and discordant veins in blocks of jadeite-lawsonite blueschist. Because most jadeitites are now thought to have formed from fluid-rock interactions within a subduction-channel environment, these rocks are valuable monitors of mass-transfer processes in such an environment. Two suites of jadeite-rich rocks can be distinguished: the first comprises quartz-bearing jadeitite s. str. (>90 vol% jadeite), jadeite quartzite and jadeite-lawsonite quartzite as well as transitional rock types between these three "end-members". The rocks of this suite occur as discrete blocks/boulders as well as layers and veins in jadeite-lawsonite blueschist. The second suite consists of quartz-free and albite-bearing jadeitite s. str. (>90 vol% jadeite) exclusively found as discrete blocks/boulders and never in direct contact with blueschist country rock. Additional minerals in both rock suites are omphacite, phengite, glaucophane, albite, as well as rare garnet and paragonite. Epidote, titanite, rutile and zircon are important carriers of REE and trace elements. Generally, blocks of jadeitite s. str. show flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with a slightly positive Eu anomaly. The patterns are parallel, but lie at various levels of enrichment from 2 to 30 x chondrite. Jadeite-bearing rocks very rich in quartz can be of two distinct types: (1) convex upward with LREE depleted relative to HREE and chondrite; (2) approximately U-shaped with LREE enriched relative

  7. Phase-equilibrium modelling of blueschists from the Vestgötabreen Complex (SW Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Lorenz, Henning; Kozub, Gabriela


    In Svalbard Archipelago, blueschists are known from Motalafjella area (Oscar II Land). They belong to the Vestgötabreen Complex, which is divided into a Lower (LU) and Upper Unit (UU). The former is composed of high pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) metasediments. The latter consists mainly of blueschists and eclogites. Various radiometric dating yielded an age of c. 470 Ma for the HP-LT metamorphism in the Motalafjella area. The pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for carpholite-bearing schists from LU have been estimated to c. 16 kbar and 330-450°C (Agard et al., 2005), whereas eclogites from UU indicate peak conditions of 18-24 kbar and 580-640°C (Hirajima et al., 1988). During the fieldwork in 2011, blueschists were also discovered at the western coast of Nordenskiöld Land. They form isolated bodies enclosed within metasedimentary units, but their tectonic position is still under debate. Preliminary P-T estimates indicate peak pressure conditions of c. 17 kbar and 480°C (Kośmińska et al., in revision). The age of metamorphism is unknown, however P-T conditions as well as metamorphic assemblage suggest that the blueschists from Nordenskiöld Land may be an equivalent of these in the Vestgötabreen Complex. Samples of blueschists from UU have been collected on Skipperryggen. They consist mainly of glaucophane, garnet, white micas (phengite and paragonite), rutile, lawsonite and chlorite. The garnet typically forms euhedral to subhedral porphyroblasts which contain voluminous inclusions. Its composition varies from Alm63Prp13Grs22Sps2 in the cores to Alm60Prp19Grs20Sps1 in the rims. The change in chemical zoning is rather gradual. The garnet shows bowl-shaped pyrope profiles and opposite almandine trends. The P-T conditions were estimated using phase equilibrium modeling. Preliminary modeling in the NCKFMMnASHTO system yields peak pressure conditions at c. 20 kbar and 520°C. The estimated P-T conditions for the blueschists from Skipperryggen are in

  8. Unraveling eclogite-facies fluid-rock interaction using thermodynamic modelling and whole-rock experiments: the in-situ eclogitization of metapelites from Val Savenca (Sesia Zone, Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentsch, Marie; Tropper, Peter


    A common feature of HP and UHP terranes is the subduction of crustal rocks to great depths. Previous investigations have shown that this process is triggered by fluids present during an eclogite-facies metamorphic overprint. An examples is exposed in the metapelites at Val Savenca in the Sesia-Lanzo Zone, Italy where Alpine eclogite-facies metamorphism and fluid flow led to partial transformation of Variscan amphibolite-eclogite facies metapelites (garnet + biotite + sillimanite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz) to zoisite ± jadeite + kyanite + phengite + quartz. This transformation took place under P-T conditions of 1.7 - 2.1 GPa at 600°C and low a(H2O) of 0.3-0.6. The replacement of plagioclase by jadeite + zoisite + kyanite + quartz takes place also along former fractures. Biotite is replaced by the assemblage phengite + omphacite ± kyanite adjacent to former plagioclase, otherwise by phengite + rutile/titanite. Garnet and clinopyroxene show variable compositions depending in which micro-domain (plagioclase or biotite) they grew. The extreme development of microdomains can best be studied by thermodynamic pseudosection modelling of individual microdomains using stoichiometric mixtures of protolith minerals from this domain and the program DOMINO (De Capitani & Petrakakis, 2010). The aim of these calculations was: 1.) to reproduce the observed mineral assemblage and 2.) to provide constraints on the amount of fluid present in the transformation. The results so far indicate that the amount of fluid was very low, otherwise paragonite would have formed instead of jadeite and reproduction of the observed mineral assemblage has only been partly successful so far since biotite is still stable in the calculations. In addition to understand the role of fluids in the mineralogical and textural transformation piston-cylinder experiments with a fresh, natural orthogneiss granulite from the Moldanubic Unit in upper Austria with the assemblage garnet + biotite + K