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Sample records for paraiso melia azedarach

  1. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  2. Repellent and insecticidal activities of Melia azedarach L. against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.).

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed H M; Yousef, Heba; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

    2011-01-01

    A crude acetone extract and oil of ripe fruits from Melia azedarach L. were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Both oil and extract exhibited highly significant growth inhibition at all concentrations tested, while the oil of M. azedarach recorded higher insecticidal activity against both instars than the crude extract. GC-MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of linoleic acid methyl ester, oleic acid methyl ester, and free oleic acid as the main components in addition to hexadecanol, palmitic acid, methyl esters of stearic acid and myristic acid. Fatty acids and their esters were not only the main constituents of essential oil from the ripe fruits of M. azedarach, but also mainly responsible for the insecticidal and growth inhibition activity against S. littoralis.

  3. Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages. Methods In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study. Results Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine. Conclusions The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that

  4. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  5. Description of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma meliae', a phytoplasma associated with Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) yellowing in South America.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Franco Daniel; Galdeano, Ernestina; Kornowski, Marcela Victoria; Arneodo, Joel Demián; Conci, Luis Rogelio

    2016-12-01

    China tree yellows (ChTY) phytoplasma is associated with the yellowing disease of the China tree (Melia azedarach) in Argentina. According to partial 16S rRNA gene analysis, ChTY phytoplasma belongs to the 16Sr XIII group, subgroup G. Strains of species of ChTY have 98-99 % 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity with 16SrXIII-group phytoplasmas, and less than 97.5 % when compared to all 'CandidatusPhytoplasma' described so far, except for the novel 'CandidatusPhytoplasma hispanicum'. However, strains of species of ChTY are differentiated from the latter due to having additional molecular and biological attributes. The presence of unique features in the 16S rDNA sequence distinguishes ChTY from all species of 'CandidatusPhytoplasma' currently described. The in silico RFLP profile of 16S rDNA (1.2 kb) and rpLV-rpsC (1.3 kb) genes distinguished ChTY, as in the 16SrXIII-G subgroup within the 16SrXIIII group. The phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rDNA, rpLV-rpsC and secA gene sequences, in addition to the restricted host range, characteristic symptoms and geographical distribution, confirm that the collective strains of the species ChTY represent a distinct lineage within the phytoplasma clade and support the description of a novel species of 'CandidatusPhytoplasma meliae' with the reference strain being ChTY-Mo3 (Montecarlo, Argentina).

  6. Antidiabetic and gastric emptying inhibitory effect of herbal Melia azedarach leaf extract in rodent models of diabetes type 2 mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Seifu, Daniel; Gustafsson, Lars E; Chawla, Rajinder; Genet, Solomon; Debella, Asfaw; Holst, Mikael; Hellström, Per M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is associated with impaired insulin production and increased insulin resistance. Treatment with antidiabetic drugs and insulin strives for normalizing glucose homeostasis. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, plant extracts of Melia azedarach are used to control diabetes mellitus and various gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to clarify the antidiabetic effects of M. azedarach leaf extracts in diabetic type 2 experimental animals. In this study, mice were injected with Melia extract intraperitoneally. Plasma glucose was studied by using tail vein sampling in acute experiments over 4 h and chronic experiments over 21 days with concurrent insulin and body weight assessments. Glucose tolerance was studied by using intraperitoneal glucose (2 mg/g) tolerance test over 120 min. Gastric emptying of a metabolically inert meal was studied by the gastric retention of a radioactive marker over 20 min. Melia extracts displayed acute, dose-dependent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice similar to glibenclamide (p<0.05–0.001). Long-term administration of Melia extract reduced plasma glucose (p<0.001) and insulin (p<0.01–0.001) levels over 21 days, concurrent with body weight loss. Glucose tolerance test showed reduced basal glucose levels (p<0.05–0.01), but no difference was found in glucose disposal after long-term treatment with Melia extract. In addition, the Melia extract at 400 mg/kg slowed gastric emptying rate of normal Sprague-Dawley (p<0.001) and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (p<0.001) compared with controls. It is concluded that the M. azedarach leaf extract elicits diabetic activity through a multitargeted action. Primarily an increased insulin-sensitizing effect is at hand, resulting in blood glucose reduction and improved peripheral glucose disposal, but also through reduced gastric emptying and decreased insulin demand. PMID:28360538

  7. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

  8. Fusaroside, a unique glycolipid from Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Peng; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Laatsch, Hartmut; Kuang, Yi

    2012-01-28

    Fusaroside (1), a unique trehalose-containing glycolipid composed of the 4-hydroxyl group of a trehalose unit attached to the carboxylic carbon of a long-chain fatty acid, was isolated from the organic extract of fermentation broths of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. LN-11 isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach. Six known compounds, phalluside (2), (9R*,10R*,7E)-6, 9,10-trihydroxyoctadec-7-enoic acid (3), porrigenic acid (4), (9Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadeca-9-enoate (5), cerevisterol (6) and ergokonin B (7), were also isolated from this fungus. The glycolipid contains a rare branched long-chain fatty acid (C(20:4)) with a conjugated diene moiety and a conjugated ketone moiety. The structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR experiments, MS) and chemical degradations. The metabolites 1-5 were shown to have moderate to weak active against the brine shrimp larvae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of the first representative of a new family of glycolipids from natural sources.

  9. Steroids from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach and their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Ji, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Yun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Ying-He; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2009-09-01

    Three new (1-3) and several known (4-6) steroids were isolated from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry to be (20S)-5,24(28)-ergostadiene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (1), (20S)-5-ergostene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (2), and 2alpha,3beta-dihydro-5-pregnen-16-one (3). The cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds against three human cancer cell lines (A549, H460, U251) were evaluated; only compounds 1, 2, and (20S)-5-stigmastene-3beta,7alpha,20-triol (4) were found to show significant cyctotoxic effects with IC(50)s from 12.0 to 30.1 microg/mL.

  10. Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramanibai, R; Velayutham, K

    2015-02-01

    Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fluorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 7.94, LC90 = 23.82 ppm and LC50 = 13.58 and LC90 = 40.03 ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 4.27 and 3.43 µg/mL; LC90 = 12.61 and 10.29 µg/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24 h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes.

  11. Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2012-04-04

    Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 μg/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed.

  12. The Toxicity and Anti-cancer Activity of the Hexane Layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Kang, Se Chan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the 4-week oral toxicity and anti-cancer activity of the hexane layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's bark extract were investigated. We carried out a hollow fiber (HF) assay and 28- day repeated toxicity study to confirm the anti-cancer effect and safety of the hexane layer. The HF assay was carried out using an A549 human adenocarcinoma cell via intraperitoneal (IP) site with or without cisplatin. In the result, the 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer with 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin treated group, showed the highest cytotoxicity aginst A549 carcinoma cells. For the 28-day repeated toxicity study, 6 groups of 10 male and female mice were given by gavage 200, 100, or 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer with or without 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin against body weight, and were then sacrificed for blood and tissue sampling. The subacute oral toxicity study in mice with doses of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer showed no significant changes in body weight gain and general behavior. The cisplatin-treated group significantly decreased in body weight compared to the control group but regained weight with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer. The biochemical analysis showed significant increase in several parameters (ALT, total billirubin, AST, creatinine, and BUN) in cisplatin-treated groups. However, in the group given a co-treatment of hexane layer (200 mg/kg b.w), levels of these parameters decreased. In hematological analysis, cisplatin induced the reduction of WBCs and neutrophils but co-treatment with hexane layer (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w) improved these toxicities caused by cisplatin. The histological profile of the livers showed eosinophilic cell foci in central vein and portal triad in cisplatin treated mice. These results show that hexane layer might have an anti-cancer activity and could improve the toxicity of cisplatin.

  13. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    PubMed

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts.

  14. Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach) poisoning in dog: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, D; Orozco, J P; Mirón, C; Real, T; Hernández-Moreno, D; Soler, F; Pérez-López, M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes a case of Chinaberry tree poisoning diagnosed in a dog. The initial clinical signs were variable and included tremors (muscular seizures) and a moderate limp in the dog's back leg, which evolved to a more severe condition in the following hours. Abdominal radiographic evaluation was requested, and abundant small, foreign, radio-dense bodies were detected, which were associated with Chinaberry tree fruits after surgical extraction. Adequate treatment was established, and the patient recovered completely. In addition, we compare clinical and gross postmortem findings in other similar cases reported in the literature. There is a general lack of information of such poisoning in pets.

  15. The grounding of the Bahia Paraiso: Microbial ecology of the 1989 Antarctic oil spill.

    PubMed

    Karl, D M

    1992-07-01

    On 28 January 1989 the Bahia Paraiso ran aground and sank near Palmer Station, Antarctica. At least 6.8 × 10(5) liters of diesel fuel arctic (DFA) were released into semi-enclosed Arthur Harbor and deposited in the nearby intertidal regions. Approximately 6 weeks later, a group of scientists was deployed to evaluate the impact of the oil spill on the surrounding coastal marine ecosystem.Microbial hydrocarbon oxidation potential ((14)CO2 evolved from (14)C-labeled hexadecane) was detected throughout both the oil-impacted and control regions. Hexadecane was mineralized at extremely low rates (0.13-1.21 pmol g(-1) sediment dry weight day(-1)); microbiological turnover time exceeded 2 years. The acute effects of DFA (measured over exposure periods of 3-7 days) on the metabolic activities of sedimentary microorganisms appear to be negligible even at seawater saturation concentrations of DFA. Long-term exposure (120 days) to varying concentrations of DFA resulted in significant decreases (>90%) in total ATP, but had either no effect or a slight stimulatory effect on metabolic activity and production. In contrast to planktonic microbial communities, increasing incubation temperatures of between 0 and 30°C had a positive effect on rates of metabolism and production of sedimentary assemblages. These results may influence the overall weathering rates of hydrocarbons deposited in the intertidal and supratidal regions of Arthur Harbor and other polar regions.

  16. Grounding of the Bahia Paraiso at Arthur Harbor, Antarctica. 1. Distribution and fate of oil spill related hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kennicutt, M.C. II; Sweet, S.T. ); Fraser, W.R.; Culver, M. ); Stockton, W.L. )

    1991-03-01

    In January to March 1989 water, organisms, and sediments within a 2-mile radius of Arthur Harbor were contaminated with an estimated 600,000 L of petroleum spilled by the Bahia Paraiso. All components of the ecosystem were contaminated to varying degrees during the spill, including birds, limpets, macroalgae, clams, bottom-feeding fish, and sediments. The high-energy environment, the relatively small volume of material released, and the volatility of the released product all contributed to limiting toxic effects in time and space. The most effective removal processes were evaporation, dilution, winds, and currents. Sedimentation, biological uptake, microbial oxidation, and photooxidation accounted for removal of only a minor portion of the spill. One year after the spill several areas still exhibited contamination. Subtidal sediments and the more distant intertidal locations were devoid of detectable PAH contaminants whereas sediments near the docking facility at Palmer Station continued to reflect localized nonspill-related activities in the area. Arthur Harbor and adjacent areas continue to be chronically exposed to low-level petroleum contamination emanating from the Bahia Paraiso.

  17. Ecuador Paraiso Escondido Virus, a New Flavivirus Isolated from New World Sand Flies in Ecuador, Is the First Representative of a Novel Clade in the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Sonia; Bichaud, Laurence; Moureau, Grégory; Lemey, Philippe; Firth, Andrew E.; Gritsun, Tamara S.; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (Psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly Lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the New World. This represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the New World. EPEV exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. Nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that EPEV represents a distinct clade which diverged from a lineage that was ancestral to the nonvectored flaviviruses Entebbe bat virus, Yokose virus, and Sokoluk virus and also the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which include yellow fever virus, Sepik virus, Saboya virus, and others. EPEV replicated in C6/36 mosquito cells, yielding high infectious titers, but failed to reproduce either in vertebrate cell lines (Vero, BHK, SW13, and XTC cells) or in suckling mouse brains. This surprising result, which appears to eliminate an association with vertebrate hosts in the life cycle of EPEV, is discussed in the context of the evolutionary origins of EPEV in the New World. IMPORTANCE The flaviviruses are rarely (if ever) vectored by sand fly species, at least in the Old World. We have identified the first representative of a sand fly-associated flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), in the New World. EPEV constitutes a novel clade according to current knowledge of the flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus genome showed that EPEV roots the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus. In light of this new discovery, the New World origin of EPEV is discussed together with that of the other flaviviruses. PMID:26355096

  18. Larvicidal effects of Chinaberry (Melia azederach) powder on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of 93% at the 5 g m-2 treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (χ2 = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, respectively; p < 0.0001 in all cases). In addition, estimates suggest that sufficient Chinaberry seed exists in Asendabo to treat developmental habitat for the duration of the rainy season and support a field trial

  19. Ethanolic Extract of Melia Fructus Has Anti-influenza A Virus Activity by Affecting Viral Entry and Viral RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Young-Hee; Choi, Jang-Gi; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-01-01

    Meliae Fructus (MF) is the dried ripe fruit of Melia toosendan Siebold et Zuccarini, Meliaceae family. MF is widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation and helminthic infection and has anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. However, potential anti-influenza properties of MF have yet to be investigated. We determined whether an ethanolic extract of MF (EMF) has anti-viral activity via an EMF pre-, co-, and post-treatment assay, using the Influenza A/PR/8/34 and H3N2 virus on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The EMF had anti-influenza virus activity in pre- and co-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not in post-treated cell. EMF inhibited the activity of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of influenza virus. EMF inhibited viral HA, nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 2 (M2), non-structural protein 1 (NS1), polymerase acidic protein (PA), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), and polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) mRNA synthesis at 5 h post infection (hpi), however, the levels of PA, PB1, and PB2 mRNA were increased in pre- and co-EMF treated cells compared with control virus-infected and EMF post-treated cells at 18 hpi. The level of M2 protein expression was also decreased upon pre- and co-treatment with EMF. The PA protein was accumulated and localized in not only the nucleus but also the cytoplasm of virus-infected MDCK cells at 18 hpi. Pre-EMF treatment inhibited the expression of pAKT, which is induced by influenza virus infection, at the stage of virus entry. We also found that treatment of EMF up-regulated the antiviral protein Mx1, which may play a partial role in inhibiting influenza virus infection in pre- and co-EMF treated MDCK cells. In summary, these results strongly suggested that an ethanolic extract of Meliae Fructus inhibited influenza A virus infection by affecting viral entry, PA proteins of the RNA polymerase complex, and Mx1 induction and may be a potential and

  20. Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Kim, Nam Wook; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Her, Erk; Kim, Bo Kyung; Seo, Dong Wan; Chang, Hyun Wook; Moon, Tae Chul; Han, Jeung Whan; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo . E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr

    2007-05-01

    The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC{sub 50} values were 29 {+-} 1.5 {mu}g/ml for antigen stimulation and 57 {+-} 3.4 {mu}g/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-{alpha}. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells.

  1. High-Frequency Regeneration of the Drought-Tolerant Tree Melia volkensii Gurke Using Low-Cost Agrochemical Thidiazuron

    PubMed Central

    Mulanda, Eliud Sagwa; Adero, Mark Ochieng; Amugune, Nelson Onzere; Akunda, Elijah; Kinyamario, Jenesio I.

    2012-01-01

    Melia volkensii Gurke is a drought-tolerant tree native to East Africa's arid and semiarid lands (ASALs), with vast but underutilized potential for agroforestry and sustainable livelihoods in the ASALs. Its cultivation is limited by difficulties in propagation via conventional means. Full exploitation of the ability of thidiazuron (TDZ) to elicit regeneration in plant tissue cultures, as sole plant growth regulator (PGR), is hampered by high costs. This study tested the effectiveness of a low-cost agrochemical TDZ for in vitro propagation of M. volkensii. Zygotic embryos from mature seeds were cultured on Gamborg's B5 medium containing 0 to 4 mg/L of agrochemical TDZ from Kingtai Chemicals Co.,Ltd., China. Callus induction frequency was 96.67 to 100%. Significantly large callus fresh mass was produced at 0.05 mg/L TDZ concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.001). The effect of TDZ on embryogenicity was significant over certain ranges of concentrations (Anova, P < 0.001). Multiple somatic embryos developed within 14 days of subculture to hormone-free B5 medium. Somatic embryos developed into microshoots which elongated when transferred to 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine plus 10% coconut water. The Kingtai-TDZ showed a high potency and suitability for use in M. volkensii tissue culture. PMID:23227344

  2. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.

    PubMed

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

    1991-01-18

    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems.

  3. Potential of woody plants from a Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil(1).

    PubMed

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2016-03-25

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed the soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg, respectively, belonged to severe contamination. 14 species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated, except for Ligutrums lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed enrichment index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrums lucidum, Viburnum awabuk, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firminan simplex, Robina pseudoacacial and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrums lucidum, Firminan simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacial are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  4. Oxidative potential of some endophytic fungi using 1-indanone as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Fill, Taicia Pacheco; da Silva, Jose Vinicius; de Oliveira, Kleber Thiago; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2012-06-01

    The oxidative potential of the fungus Penicillium brasilianum, a strain isolated as an endophyte from a Meliaceae plant (Melia azedarach), was investigated using 1-indanone as a substrate to track the production of monooxygenases. The fungus produced the dihydrocoumarin from 1-indanone with the classical Baeyer-Villiger reaction regiochemistry, and (-)-(R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone with 78% ee. Minor compounds resulting from lipase and SAM activities were also detected. The biotransformation procedures were also applied to a collection of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi obtained from M. azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The results showed that Baeyer-Villiger were mostly active in fungi isolated from M. azedarach. Almost all of the fungi tested produced 3-hydroxy-1-indanone..

  5. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense.

  6. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world.

  7. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5–1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Results: Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. Conclusion: The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens. PMID:28032112

  8. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  9. Podophyllotoxin-derived insecticidal agents: part XIII--evaluation of insecticidal activity of podophyllotoxin derivatives against Brontispa longissima.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Qian; Feng, Gang; Yang, Liu; Jing-Zhang; Li, Hong-Yu

    2011-09-01

    In an attempt to find the biorational insecticides for Brontispa longissima control, 12 podophyllotoxin (PPT) analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the fifth-instar larvae of B. longissima in vivo for the first time. Among all the tested compounds, especially compounds 6 and 8 showed more promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach. The different insecticidal activity range of compounds 1-12 indicated that the variation of chemical structures in the PPT skeleton markedly affected the activity profiles of this compound class, and some important structure-activity relationship information has been revealed. Together, these preliminary results may be useful in guiding further modification of PPTs in the development of potential new insecticides.

  10. Natural products-based insecticidal agents 7. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of novel 4alpha-alkyloxy-2-chloropodophyllotoxin derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Qing-tian

    2010-09-01

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, 16 novel 4alpha-alkyloxy-2-chloropodophyllotoxin derivatives were semisynthesized from podophyllotoxin, and preliminarily evaluated for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Among all the tested derivatives, especially compounds 4b, 4e, 4g, and 4p exhibited more promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach. Generally, it was obviously demonstrated that the length of straight-chain or branched-chain alkyloxy, and heteroatom-containing cycloalkyloxy at the C-4 position of 2-chloropodophyllotoxin were very important for the insecticidal activity.

  11. Natural products-based insecticidal agents 9. Design, semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of 28-acyloxy derivatives of toosendanin against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jun-Liang

    2011-04-01

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, twelve 28-acyloxy derivatives of toosendanin (2a-l) were semisynthesized and preliminarily evaluated their activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo at the concentration of 1mg/mL. Some compounds exhibited the potent insecticidal activity. Especially compounds 2c and 2j displayed the more promising insecticidal activity than their natural precursor, toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach at 1mg/mL. In general, it indicated that the butanoyloxy or phenylacryloyloxy moiety at the 28-position of toosendanin was essential for the insecticidal activity.

  12. Natural products-based insecticidal agents 11. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of novel 4α-arylsulfonyloxybenzyloxy-2β-chloropodophyllotoxin derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jun-Liang

    2011-09-15

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, 14 novel 4α-arylsulfonyloxybenzyloxy-2β-chloropodophyllotoxin derivatives were stereoselectively semisynthesized from podophyllotoxin, and preliminarily evaluated for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 9c' and 9g' exhibited the most promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach at 1mg/mL. Generally, it was preliminarily demonstrated that arylsulfonyloxy groups at the C-2 position of benzyloxy moiety and the length of the side chain on the benzenesulfonyloxy group of 4α-arylsulfonyloxybenzyloxy-2β-chloropodophyllotoxins might be important for the insecticidal activity.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, K.; Kumar, L. Sathish; Rajendran, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Bhaskar, K.; Sajit Khan, A. K.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  14. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, K; Kumar, L Sathish; Rajendran, S; Chandrasekaran, M; Bhaskar, K; Sajit Khan, A K

    2008-11-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii.

  15. Natural-product-based insecticidal agents 14. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huan; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

    2013-10-15

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, twenty-six new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum Linn. The single-crystal structures of 6c, 6q and 6w were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6b, 6i and 6r, the final mortality rates of which, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, were 62.1%, 65.5% and 65.5%, respectively, exhibited more pronounced insecticidal activity compared to toosendanin at 1 mg/mL, a commercial botanical insecticide isolated from Melia azedarach. It suggested that introduction of the substituents at the C-2 position on the phenyl ring of the hydrazone derivatives was important for their insecticidal activity.

  16. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-03-15

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera

  17. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs.

  18. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  19. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  20. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of some novel fraxinellone-based esters.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Yan, Yuanyuan; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Yi; Zhi, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Ying; Xu, Hui

    2012-07-18

    In continuation of a program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, two series of novel fraxinellone-based esters were synthesized by modification at the C-4 or C-10 position of fraxinellone and evaluated for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata in vivo. An efficient method for the stereoselective synthesis of 4α-hydroxyfraxinellone from fraxinellonone was developed, and the steric configuration of 6h was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Among 37 compounds, some derivatives displayed potent insecticidal activity; especially compounds 6h, 6q, 6t, and 7q showed more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide derived from Melia azedarach . This suggested that introduction of the fluorine atom on the phenyl ring could lead to a more potent compound than one possessing chlorine or bromine. Meanwhile, introduction of the heterocyclic fragments at the C-4 or C-10 position of fraxinellone was essential for their insecticidal activity. This will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of fraxinellone as an insecticidal agent.

  1. Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India.

    PubMed

    Kaneria, M; Baravalia, Y; Vaghasiya, Y; Chanda, S

    2009-07-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents.

  2. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

    PubMed Central

    Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Bibi, Roqaia

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

  3. 1-Cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin is a natural bioactive compound with antiviral and nuclear factor-{kappa}B modulating properties

    SciTech Connect

    Barquero, Andrea A. . E-mail: alecab@qb.fcen.uba.ar; Michelini, Flavia M.; Alche, Laura E.

    2006-06-09

    We have reported the isolation of the tetranortriterpenoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) from partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L. (MA) that reduced both, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication. CDM blocks VSV entry and the intracellular transport of VSV-G protein, confining it to the Golgi apparatus, by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. Here, we report that HSV-1 glycoproteins were also confined to the Golgi apparatus independently of the nature of the host cell. Considering that MA could be acting as an immunomodulator preventing the development of herpetic stromal keratitis in mice, we also examined an eventual effect of CDM on NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. CDM is able to impede NF-{kappa}B activation in HSV-1-infected conjunctival cells and leads to the accumulation of p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit in the cytoplasm of uninfected treated Vero cells. In conclusion, CDM is a pleiotropic agent that not only inhibits the multiplication of DNA and RNA viruses by the same mechanism of action but also modulates the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

  4. Accumulation of perchlorate in aquatic and terrestrial plants at a field scale.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kui; Anderson, Todd A; Jones, Matthew W; Smith, Philip N; Jackson, W Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Previous laboratory-scale studies have documented perchlorate ClO(-)(4) uptake by different plant species, but less information is available at field scale, where ClO(-)(4) uptake may be affected by environmental conditions, such as distance to streams or shallow water tables, exposure duration, and species. This study examined uptake of ClO(-)(4) in smartweed (Polygonum spp.) and watercress (Nasturtium spp.) as well as more than forty trees, including ash (Fraxinus greggii A. Gray), chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.), elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), willow (Salix nigra Marshall), mulberry [Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.], and hackberry (Celtis laevigata Willd.) from multiple streams surrounding a perchlorate-contaminated site. Results indicate a large potential for ClO(-)(4) accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants, with ClO(-)(4) concentration in plant tissues approximately 100 times higher than that in bulk water. Perchlorate accumulation in leaves of terrestrial plants was also dependent on species, with hackberry, willow, and elm having a strong potential to accumulate ClO(-)(4). Generally, trees located closer to the stream had a higher ClO(-)(4) accumulation than trees located farther away from the stream. Seasonal leaf sampling of terrestrial plants indicated that ClO(-)(4) accumulation also was affected by exposure duration, with highest accumulation observed in the late growing cycle, although leaf concentrations for a given tree were highly variable. Perchlorate may be re-released into the environment via leaching and rainfall as indicated by lower perchlorate concentrations in collected leaf litter. Information obtained from this study will be helpful to understand the fate of ClO(-)(4) in macrophytes and natural systems.

  5. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological

  6. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods.

    PubMed

    Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-05-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here, we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: conservative detrending (CD) applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring widths with age; basal area correction (BAC) transforms diameter into basal area growth; regional curve standardization (RCS) detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and size class isolation (SCI) calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring data set of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used CD method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth-trend detection), reliability (100% minus probability of detecting false trends) and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade) and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except CD, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. BAC showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability

  7. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P.; Thapa-Magar, Khum B.; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes. PMID:27936247

  8. The anthelmintic efficacy of five plant products against gastrointestinal trichostrongylids in artificially infected lambs.

    PubMed

    Hördegen, P; Hertzberg, H; Heilmann, J; Langhans, W; Maurer, V

    2003-11-03

    Forty-eight helminth-free lambs were divided into eight groups (A-H) of six animals. Groups A-G were infected artificially with 10,000 third stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 20,000 third stage larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, whereas group H remained uninfected. Thirty days post-infection the lambs were treated orally with a single dosage of one of the following products: group A with 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) of an aqueous ethanol extract (70%, v/v) of the seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss syn. Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae); group B with 1 g/kg BW of a raw powder of the leaves of Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. (Bromeliaceae); group C with 0.3 mg/kg BW of an aqueous ethanol extract of a 1:1 mixture (g/g) of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd. (Asteraceae) seeds and Embelia ribes Burm (Myrsinaceae) fruits; group D with 183 mg/kg BW of an aqueous ethanol extract of the whole plants of Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae); group E with 28 mg/kg BW of an aqueous ethanol extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia crista L. (Caesalpiniaceae); group F with 25 mg/kg BW of pyrantel tartrate and group G with 50% ethanol. Group H remained untreated. Only the ethanol extract of F. parviflora caused a strong reduction of the faecal egg counts (100%) and a 78.2 and 88.8% reduction of adult H. contortus and T. colubriformis on day 13 post-treatment. The extract was as effective as the reference compound pyrantel tartrate. Therefore, the ethanol extract itself or single constituents of F. parviflora could be a promising alternative source of anthelmintic for the treatment of gastrointestinal trichostrongylids in small ruminants.

  9. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes.

  10. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2012-08-29

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797.

  11. Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Methods Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30–45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Key Results Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S1 and S2 layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S1 + S2 + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Conclusions Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood. PMID:22778147

  12. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  13. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C⁻¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  14. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  15. 27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (photorevised 1984) (5) Soledad, Calif., 1955 (photorevised 1984) (6) Sycamore Flat, Calif., 1956 (photorevised... the junction of Foothill and Paraiso Roads on the Soledad, California U.S.G.S. map. (8) Then...

  16. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Methods Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20–75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. Results A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. Conclusion The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for

  17. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lynn A; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2010-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc).

  18. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

  19. Influence of pH on the Transport of Silver Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media: Laboratory Experiments and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    energy minimum as discussed in previous studies using latex particles (Franchi and O’Melia 2003) and carbon nanotubes (Jaisi et al. 2008). The fact...Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Porous Media: Filtration Mechanisms and Reversibility.” Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 8317-8323. Johnson, W. P...A similar observation was reported for carbonate -coated AgNP at acidic pH (Piccapietra et al. 2011). The concentration of total Ag in the effluent

  20. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  1. Multipeaked X-ray bursts from 4U/MXB 1636-53 - evidence against burst-induced accretion disk coronae

    SciTech Connect

    Penninx, W.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Van Paradijs, J.

    1987-10-01

    The burst-induced accretion-disk corona (BIADC) model proposed by Melia (1987) to explain the multiple-peak burst profiles of 4U/MXB 1636-53 in terms of direct and scattered components is examined critically. Published observational data (Sztajno et al., 1986, and Lewin et al., 1987) are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed. A number of possible BIADC scenarios are discussed, and it is argued that the observed characteristics of the 1636-53 bursts are not well accounted for by the BIADC model. 11 references.

  2. Evaluation of Toosendanin as a Botulinum Neurotoxin Antagonist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    plant Melia toosendan, has been reported to protect rats and non -human primates from the lethal actions of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A). TSN was...animal protection studies, TSN was found to antagonise the actions of BoNT in rats (Shih and Hsu, 1983) and in non -human primates (Jing et al., 1985). In...TSN produced no alteration in the paralytic time relative to that observed in the presence of BoNT/A alone (Figure 3). Raising the concentration of

  3. Interspecific variation in vessel size, growth and drought tolerance of broad-leaved trees in semi-arid regions of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Shoko; Yahata, Hisashi; Nakashizuka, Tohru; Kondoh, Michio

    2006-07-01

    In semi-arid regions, trees often wither during the dry season. Withering is sometimes manifest as die-back, whereby whithering results in shoot death, which progresses downward from the uppermost part of the crown. In this study, we measured the relationships between height growth and diameter at breast height, die-back frequency and severity, vessel size and specific hydraulic conductivity of four evergreen (Senna siamea (Lamk) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don, Azadirachta indica A.H.L. Juss and Acacia gerrardii Benth.) and one deciduous (Melia volkensii Gürke) plantation tree species in Kenya, which has a conspicuous dry season. Die-back occurred readily in some species, but not in others. Senna siamea showed the highest specific hydraulic conductivity and the highest growth rate among the five species and was quite susceptible to die-back. Among species, height growth and specific hydraulic conductivity were positively correlated with vessel size and negatively correlated with die-back frequency, suggesting a trade-off between growth rate and drought tolerance. This implies that an adaptation to rapid growth under humid conditions leads to low drought tolerance. However, the deciduous tree Melia volkensii showed high specific hydraulic conductivity and growth, with no symptoms of die-back, implying that a mechanism associated with the deciduous habit results in drought avoidance by reducing the requirement for water during the dry season.

  4. Determination of the reactivity of cytotoxic immune cells with preimplantation mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Ewoldsen, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytotoxic immune cells were used in an assay, MELIA (mixed embryo leukocyte interaction assay) to test the ability of the cells to kill blastocyst stage embryos. The cytotoxic immune cells generated for use in this study, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells were shown to have phenotypic and cytolytic characteristics similar to those reported by other investigators. The lysis of the blastocysts in the MELIA was determined by measuring the inhibition of blastocoel retention and/or by the inhibition of incorporation of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) into embryonic DNA. Blastocysts which possess or lack their zonae pellucidae were tested to determine whether the zona pellucida plays an immunoprotective role in preimplantation development. The results indicated that CTLs only lysed embryonic cells when the zona pellucida was absent, but NK and LAK cells lysed embryonic cells whether the zona pellucida was present or absent. The results suggest that the zona pellucida may protect the preimplantation mouse embryo from lysis by CTLs but what protects the embryo from lysis by NK and LAK cells is unclear.

  5. Identification of echinoderms (Echinodermata) from an anchialine cave in Cozumel Island, Mexico, using DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby.

  6. Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.

    PubMed

    Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

    1987-01-01

    Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.

  7. Ray tracing in FLRW flat space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Giovanni; Bonetti, Luca; Cognola, Guido; Zerbini, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In this work we take moves from the debate triggered by Melia et al. in [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 09 (2012) 029; Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421, 3356 (2012)] and followed by opposite comments by Lewis and Oirschot in [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 423, 26 (2012); 431, 25 (2013)]. The point in question regards the role of the Hubble horizon as a limit for observability in a cosmological setting. We propose to tackle the issue in a broader way by relating it to the causal character of the Hubble surface and to the tracing of null trajectories, focusing on both three-fluids and generalized Chaplygin gas models. The results should make clear that for quite reasonable and physically motivated models, light rays reaching a comoving observer at R(t0)=0 have never traveled a distance greater than the proper radius of the horizon until t0.

  8. Spoc-experiment: Seismic Imaging and Bathymetry of The Central Chile Margin - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladage, S.; Reichert, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Block, M.; Bönnemann, C.; Canuta, J.; Damaske, D.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Gaedicke, C.; Krawczyk, C.; Kus, J.; Urbina, O.; Sepulveda, J.

    During the RV SONNE cruise 161 Leg 1 to 5 (October 2001 to January 2002) Sub- duction Processes Off Chile (SPOC) have been investigated using a multi-disciplinary geoscientific approach. Here we report first results of multi channel seismic (MCS) experiments and high-resolution swath bathymetry data from Leg 3, south of Val- paraiso. 24 MCS profiles with a total length of 3670 km were run between 36 S to 4020' S, providing a detailed view of the structures related to the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the Chile Margin. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate shows at least three sets of structural trends associated with the Mocha and Valdivia Fractures Zones, the spreading lineations and subduction related horst and graben structures. In the study area the trench is filled with well stratified turbidites up to 2 seconds TWT thick. Along the trench axis a turbidite channel exceeding 80 m relief exists. Several large deep sea fan complexes are developed at the slope toe. Their distributary canyons cut deep into the slope and shelf and can be traced back to major river mouths. The deformation front is coincident with the slope toe; compressional structures of the trench fill are uncommon. The deformation front is curved and offset along strike, caused presumably by collision and indentation of structures of the Nazca Plate. The most remarkable features of the MCS - profiles, yet, are the only very rudimentary developed modern accretionary prism as well as the high variability of the lower slope angles. Lower slope angles locally exceed 10. The continental crust extends seawards to the middle slope and acts as a backstop. Several profiles reveal landward dipping reflectors above the downgoing slab, possibly depicting a subduction channel beneath the slope. Thus, the geometry of the subduction units U a young thick trench fill, only rudimental frontal accretion and a subduction channel U argues for subduction of the bulk of the sediments.

  9. Integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles highlights the complex and dynamic behavior of toosendanin-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Cai; Tong, Wei; Lian, Xueping; Wu, Ying; Fan, Xiaohui; Gao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenoid Toosendanin (TSN) exhibits a plenty of pharmacological effects in human and great values in agriculture. However, the hepatotoxicity caused by TSN or Melia-family plants containing TSN used in traditional Chinese medicine has been reported, and the mechanisms of TSN-induced liver injury (TILI) still remain largely unknown. In this study, the dose- and time-dependent effects of TSN on mice liver were investigated by an integrated microRNA-mRNA approach as well as the general toxicological assessments. As the results, the dose- and time-dependent liver injury and alterations in global microRNA and mRNA expressions were detected. Particularly, 9-days 80 mg/kg TSN exposure caused most serious liver injury in mice, and the hepatic adaptation to TILI was unexpectedly observed after 21-days 80 mg/kg TSN administration. Based on the pathway analysis of the intersections between predicted targets of differentially expressed microRNAs and differentially expressed mRNAs at three time points, it revealed that TILI may be caused by glutathione depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid dysmetabolism, ultimately leading to hepatocytes necrosis in liver, while liver regeneration may play an important role in the hepatic adaptation to TILI. Our results demonstrated that the integrated microRNA−mRNA approach could provide new insight into the complex and dynamic behavior of TILI. PMID:27703232

  10. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-10-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf (C. pilosula), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke (S. lappa), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var.major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. (I. cylindrical var. major) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. (M.toosendan) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo. These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula, S. lappa, I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants.

  11. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi.

  12. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerma, Dirk O.; Climent-Font, Aurelio; Respaldiza, Miguel Ángel

    2006-08-01

    The IBA conference has taken place in different countries from all over the world. It started in the United States in 1973, and since then has been held biennially without interruption, becoming the reference meeting on ion beam analysis and related methods and techniques. In its 17th edition, two Spanish laboratories, one from the Universidad de Sevilla and one from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid had the honour and responsibility of organizing the conference. These two laboratories are, so far, the only ones in the country equipped with accelerators dedicated to ion beam analysis; the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Seville and the Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM) in Madrid. We took up this task enthusiastically, conscious that Spain has only very recently been equipped with IBA techniques and that this event would highlight to the scientific community of our country the importance and involvement of IBA techniques in new scientific and technological developments. The conference was held at the Melia Sevilla Hotel in Seville, Spain from 26 June-1 July 2005. This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the published proceedings of the conference.

  13. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  14. Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Malla, G; Bhatia, Arti; Pathak, H; Prasad, S; Jain, Niveta; Singh, J

    2005-01-01

    Mitigation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is important to reduce the global warming. Efficacy of five nitrification inhibitors, i.e. neem (Azadirachta melia) cake, thiosulphate, coated calcium carbide, neem oil coated urea and dicyandiamide (DCD) and one urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, in mitigating N2O and CH4 emissions from fertilized soil was tested in rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The closed chamber technique was used for the collection of gas samples, which were analyzed using gas chromatography. Reduction in N2O emission on the application of nitrification/urease inhibitors along with urea ranged from 5% with hydroquinone to 31% with thiosulphate in rice and 7% with hydroquinone to 29% with DCD in wheat crop. The inhibitors also influenced the emission of CH4. While application of neem coated urea, coated calcium carbide, neem oil and DCD reduced the emission of CH4; hydroquinone and thiosulphate increased the emission when compared to urea alone. However, the global warming potential was lower with the inhibitors (except hydroquinone) as compared to urea alone, suggesting that these substances could be used for mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the rice-wheat systems.

  15. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Abinash Pratim; Ryakala, Venkat Kishore; Sharma, Pragya; Goswami, Pranab; Bora, Utpal

    2006-06-30

    The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study.

  16. Shadow shapes around the black hole in the galactic centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

    Recently Holz & Wheeler (2002) considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol (2000) suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

  17. Measuring the black hole parameters in the galactic center with RADIOASTRON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

    2005-06-01

    Recently, Holz and Wheeler (2002) [ApJ 578, 330] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e., retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia, Agol (2000) [ApJ 528, L13S] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper, we present the boundaries for shadows. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

  18. Shadows (Mirages) Around Black Holes and Retro Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; Depaolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

    Recently Holz & Wheeler [1] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages (a detailed description of the problem is given in [2]). In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol [3] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

  19. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf (C. pilosula), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke (S. lappa), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var.major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. (I. cylindrical var. major) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. (M.toosendan) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo. These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula, S. lappa, I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants. PMID:27698771

  20. The Kerr Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.; Visser, Matt; Scott, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    List of illustrations; Contributors; Foreword; Part I. General Relativity: Classical Studies of the Kerr Geometry: 1. The Kerr spacetime: a brief introduction Matt Visser; 2. The Kerr and Kerr-Schild metrics Roy P. Kerr; 3. Roy Kerr and twistor theory Roger Penrose; 4. Global and local problems solved by the Kerr metric Brandon Carter; 5. Four decades of black hole uniqueness theorems David C. Robinson; 6. Ray-traced visualisations Benjamin R. Lewis, Susan M. Scott; Part II. Astrophysics: The Ongoing Observational Revolution: 7. The ergosphere and dyadosphere of the Kerr black hole Remo Ruffini; 8. Supermassive Black Holes Fulvio Melia; 9. The X-ray spectra of accreting Kerr black holes Andrew C. Fabian, Giovanni Miniutti; 10. Cosmological flashes from rotating black holes Maurice H.P.M. van Putten; Part III. Quantum Gravity: Rotating Black Holes at the Theoretical Frontiers: 11. Horizon constraints and black hole entropy Steve Carlip; 12. Higher dimensional generalizations of the Kerr black hole Gary T. Horowitz; Part IV. Appendices: 13. Gravitational field of a spinning mass … Roy P. Kerr; 14. Gravitational collapse and rotation Roy P. Kerr; Index.

  1. Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach).

    PubMed

    Patel, V K; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H

    1988-04-01

    Though a number of plants and their parts are used for dental ailments among population in rural and urban areas of developing countries, in India however, the most common house-hold, road-side plants are mango (Mangifera indica), neem (Azadirachta indica; Melia azadirachta), ocimum (Ocimum basilicum), tea-dust (Camellia sinensis) and uncommonly murayya, i.e., currey leaf (Murayya koenigi) [Chopra et al. 1958, Kirtikar and Basu 1935, Nadakarni 1954, Satyavati 1984]. The leaves of these plants are folded and brushed (massage with teadust) against the teeth. Therefore, the present study is restricted only to the fleshy leaf extracts [Jindal et al. 1975] (except tea) of these plants inspite of certain limitations in the methodology and arbitrations in the microbial identification and isolation in the light of recent advances in folk dentistry. The investigation was carried out in two parts: 1) Experimental study: The efficacy of various dentifrices (commonly available in the market) and the potentiating effect of the leaf extract (LE) of the aforesaid indigenous plants when amalgamated with the tooth-paste against pathogens, were investigated. Further, the protection afforded by the said plant extracts (PE) over the conventional allopathic medicines on the human plaque cultures and gram negative bacteria from patients were studied. 2) Clinical study: The therapeutic effects of the said PE (individually) on clinical application among severely infected patients were examined.

  2. Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil

    PubMed Central

    Koriem, Khaled MM

    2013-01-01

    Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

  3. Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil.

    PubMed

    Koriem, Khaled M M

    2013-10-01

    Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds, ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects.

  4. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  5. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  6. Determining the Pathogenic Potential of Non-sporulating Molds Isolated from Cutaneous Specimens.

    PubMed

    Jeyaprakasam, Nantha Kumar; Razak, Mohd Fuat Abdul; Ahmad, Noor Azimah Binti; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-06-01

    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p < 0.05) than nonpathogenic endophytes. These results indicate that the pathogenic ability of NSM is species dependent; clinical isolates, especially more frequently isolated species, may be involved in disease etiology.

  7. Testing cosmology from fundamental considerations: Is the Friedmann universe intrinsically flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2014-02-01

    Recently Melia and Shevchuk (Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:2579,2012) (MS) have proposed the so-called cosmology where the "Gravitational Horizon" of the universe is equal to the distance travelled by light since "Big Bang". Here we would like to see whether the basic claim is correct or not because MS have not given any cogent derivation for the same. Essentially we will compare the twin expressions for the Einstein energy momentum complex (EMC) of the Friedmann universe obtained by using an appropriate superpotential and also by a direct method. To enable a meaningful comparison of the twin expressions, both are computed by using the same quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We however do not claim that Einstein EMC is superior to many other routes of defining EM of a self-gravitating system. In fact, for static isolated spherical syatems, the idea of a coordinate independent field energy of Lynden-Bell and Katz (Mon Not R Astron Soc 213:21, 1985) might be quite physically significant. Yet, here, we use Einstein EMC because (i) our system is non-static and not isolated one (ii) our primary aim is not find any absolute value of EM, and, finally, (iii) only Einstein pseudo-tensor offers equivalent twin expressions for EM which one can be equated irrespective of any physical significance. Following such comparison of equivalent twin expressions of Einstein energy, we find an exact proof as to why Friedmann universe must be spatially flat even though, mathematically one can conceive of curved spaces in any dimension. Additionally, it follows that, apparently, the scale factor as insisted by proposition. Nonetheless, because of close similarity of this form, , with the (vacuum) Milne metric, and also because of implied unphysical equation of state, cosmology is unlikely to represent the physical universe.

  8. Investigation on scalable high-power lasers with enhanced 'eye-safety' for future weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigotta, S.; Diener, K.; Eichhorn, M.; Galecki, L.; Geiss, L.; Ibach, T.; Scharf, H.; von Salisch, M.; Schöner, J.; Vincent, G.

    2016-10-01

    The possible use of lasers as weapons becomes more and more interesting for military forces. Besides the generation of high laser power and good beam quality, also safety considerations, e. g. concerning eye hazards, are of importance. The MELIAS (medium energy laser in the "eye-safe" spectral domain) project of ISL addresses these issues, and ISL has developed the most powerful solid-state laser in the "eye-safe" wavelength region up to now. "Eye safety" in this context means that light at a wavelength of > 1.4 μm does not penetrate the eye and thus will not be focused onto the retina. The basic principle of this technology is that a laser source needs to be scalable in power to far beyond 100 kW without a significant deterioration in beam quality. ISL has studied a very promising laser technology: the erbium heat-capacity laser. This type of laser is characterised by a compact design, a simple and robust technology and a scaling law which, in principle, allows the generation of laser power far beyond megawatts at small volumes. Previous investigations demonstrated the scalability of the SSHCL and up to 4.65 kW and 440 J in less than 800 ms have been obtained. Opticalto- optical efficiencies of over 41% and slope efficiencies of over 51% are obtained. The residual thermal gradients, due to non perfect pumping homogeneity, negatively affect the performance in terms of laser pulse energy, duration and beam quality. In the course of the next two years, ISL will be designing a 25 to 30 kW erbium heat-capacity laser.

  9. A novel total flux normalized correlation equation for predicting single-collector efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, R.; Messina, F.; Marchisio, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a novel total flux normalized correlation equation is proposed for predicting single-collector efficiency under a broad range of parameters. The correlation equation does not exploit the additivity approach introduced by Yao et al. (1971), but includes mixed terms that account for the mutual interaction of concomitant transport mechanisms (i.e., advection, gravity and Brownian motion) and of finite size of the particles (steric effect). The correlation equation is based on a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian simulations performed, under Smoluchowski-Levich conditions, in a geometry which consists of a sphere enveloped by a cylindrical control volume. The normalization of the deposited flux is performed accounting for all of the particles entering into the control volume through all transport mechanisms (not just the upstream convective flux as conventionally done) to provide efficiency values lower than one over a wide range of parameters. In order to guarantee the independence of each term, the correlation equation is derived through a rigorous hierarchical parameter estimation process, accounting for single and mutual interacting transport mechanisms. The correlation equation, valid both for point and finite-size particles, is extended to include porosity dependency and it is compared with previous models. Reduced forms are proposed by elimination of the less relevant terms.References:F Messina, DL Marchisio, R Sethi . Journal of colloid and interface science 446, (2015) 185-193 T Tosco, DL Marchisio, F Lince, R Sethi, Transport in porous media 96 (1), (2013) 1-20 A Tiraferri, T Tosco, R Sethi Environmental Earth Sciences 63 (4), (2011) 847-859 K.E. Nelson, T.R. Ginn, T. Kemai, Environ Sci Technol 47 (2013) 8078. G. Boccardo, D.L. Marchisio, R. Sethi, J Colloid Interface Sci 417 (2014) 227. H. Ma, J. Pedel, P. Fife, W.P. Johnson, (2009). N. Tufenkji, M. Elimelech, Environ Sci Technol 38 (2004) 529.K.M. Yao, M.M. Habibian, C.R. O'Melia, Environ

  10. A new definition of a correlation equation for single collector efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    these results a new definition of η is proposed, considering all the flux that potentially reach the collector. A new equation, valid in a broader range of parameters (eg. low Pe number, big particle size, etc.), has been formulated starting from the numerical results. References .1. Boccardo, G., D.L. Marchisio, and R. Sethi, Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014. 417: p. 227-37. 2. Ma, H., M. Hradisky, and W.P. Johnson, Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity. Environ. Sci. Technology, 2013. 47: p. 2272-2278. 3. Song, L.F. and M. Elimelech, Deposition of Brownian Particles in Porous-Media - Modified Boundary-Conditions for the Sphere-in-Cell Model. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1992. 153(1): p. 294-297. 4. Yao, K.M., M.T. Habibian, and C.R. O'Melia, Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. 1971.

  11. Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, Minas; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

    2006-11-01

    and S. W. Bruenn; 23. Neutrino masses from SN 1987A J. Franklin; 24. Supernova neutrinos and their oscillations T. K. Kuo and J. T. Pantaleone; 25. Neutrinos from SN 1987A and cooling of the nascent neutron star D. Q. Lamb, F. Melia and T. J. Loredo; 26. Neutrino Energetics of SN 1987A J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 27. Neutrino emission from cooling neutron stars E. S. Myra, J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 28. Statistical analysis of the time structure of the neutrinos from SN 1987A P. J. Schinder and S. A. Bludman; 29. Neutrino properties from observations of SN 1987A A. Dar; 30. SN 1987A and companion C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, and C. Standley; 31. Supernovae light echoes B. E. Schaefer; 32. A real light echo: Nova Persei 1901 J. E. Felten; 33. IR speckle- interferometry of SN 1987A A. A. Chalabaev, C. Perrier and J. M. Mariotti; 34. Infrared opportunities for Supernova 1987A E. Dwek; 35. The UV interstellar spectrum and environment of SN 1987A F. C. Bruhweiler; 36. The interstellar spectrum of SN 1987A in the ultraviolet J. C. Blades, J. M. Wheatley, N. Panagia, M. Grewing, M. Pettini and W. Wamsteker; 37. The structure and spectrum of SN 1987A J. C. Wheeler, R. P. Harkness, and Z. Barkat; 38. Supernova 1987A: constraints on the theoretical model K. Nomoto and T. Shigeyama; 39. Supernova 1987A: a model and its predictions S. E. Woosley; 40. SN 1987A: circumstellar and interstellar interaction R. A. Chevalier; 41. Theoretical models of Supernova 1987A W. D. Arnett; 42. Evolution of the stellar progenitor of Supernova 1987A J. W. Truran and A. Weiss; 43.Modelling the atmosphere of SN 1987A L. B. Lucy; 44. SN 1987A: a stripped asymptotic- branch giant in a binary system P. C. Joss, Ph. Podsiadlowski, J. J. L. Hsu and S. Rappaport; 45. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction S. A. Colgate; 46. An unusual hard X-ray source in the region of SN 19

  12. BOOK REVIEW Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    is not good for my blood pressure…remind me not to come to any more gravity conferences!'. The book does not mention this but Feynman's negativity may have resulted from the fact that he attended the meeting primarily to present his early work on quantum gravity. This did not excite the relativists as much as he had hoped, so this may have generated some antipathy. Nevertheless, his impression is interesting because it reflects the prevailing opinion at the time that relativity had made little progress since the 1930s. Feynman clearly did't recognize the significance of the Pound-Rebka experiment (which had recently measured the slowing down of time in the gravitational field of the Earth) or appreciate that a new band of young relativists were instilling fresh energy into the field, unintimidated by the fear (prevalent at the time) of what Einstein might say about their endeavours. The third strength of this book is that it puts Kerr's discovery in broader historical context. It starts with a useful discussion of the earlier development of ideas in special and general relativity. Most of this is well known but it also includes some points which are rarely described in popular accounts. Of particular interest is Melia's account of the exchanges between Einstein and the mathematician David Hilbert in 1915. He suggests that Hilbert may have submitted a paper containing the correct equations of general relativity five days earlier than Einstein, although this is controversial since Einstein's paper was certainly published first and Hilbert may well have modified his own paper after reading it [3]. It is also good to stress the contribution of Emmy Noether, who first found the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. This is described in a book by Leon Lederman and Chris Hill [4] as `certainly one of the most important mathematical theorems ever proved in guiding the development of modern physics'. Since Kerr was himself a mathematician, one important