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Sample records for parallel blade-vortex interaction

  1. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  2. Rotorcraft Blade-Vortex Interaction Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Blade-vortex interaction noises, sometimes referred to as 'blade slap', are avoided by increasing the absolute value of inflow to the rotor system of a rotorcraft. This is accomplished by creating a drag force which causes the angle of the tip-path plane of the rotor system to become more negative or more positive.

  3. Blade vortex interaction noise reduction techniques for a rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Bruce D. (Inventor); Hassan, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Tadghighi, Hormoz (Inventor); JanakiRam, Ram D. (Inventor); Sankar, Lakshmi N. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active control device for reducing blade-vortex interactions (BVI) noise generated by a rotorcraft, such as a helicopter, comprises a trailing edge flap located near the tip of each of the rotorcraft's rotor blades. The flap may be actuated in any conventional way, and is scheduled to be actuated to a deflected position during rotation of the rotor blade through predetermined regions of the rotor azimuth, and is further scheduled to be actuated to a retracted position through the remaining regions of the rotor azimuth. Through the careful azimuth-dependent deployment and retraction of the flap over the rotor disk, blade tip vortices which are the primary source for BVI noise are (a) made weaker and (b) pushed farther away from the rotor disk (that is, larger blade-vortex separation distances are achieved).

  4. Experimental Study of Vortex Dynamics during Blade-Vortex Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James

    2013-11-01

    Vortices incident upon bodies, such as cylinders, airfoils, and rotor blades, can give rise to substantial unsteady loading, sound generation, and vibration in a variety of engineering applications. A comprehensive study on vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interaction (BVI) is performed in this work. Evidence has been found in previous studies that the vortex behavior during BVI varies with Reynolds number, but the effects are not clear. In the current study, the experiments are performed in a 3' × 5' low speed wind tunnel where the Reynolds number can be varied from 6 × 104 to 8 × 105 by adjusting freestream speed and airfoil size. The vortex is generated by the pitching motion of a wing, which is driven by an air cylinder. Another wing is placed downstream to initiate parallel interactions with the generated vortices. Smoke visualization is used originally to characterize the vortex. Then the BVI problem is studied in detail using time-resolved PIV and unsteady pressure measurements on the downstream target airfoil. The vortex behaviors at selected Reynolds numbers are investigated. The influence of other factors on vortex behavior, such as vortex strength and core size, is also discussed.

  5. Rotating hot-wire investigation of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontana, Richard Remo

    1988-01-01

    This distribution of the circumferential velocity of the vortex responsible for blade-vortex interaction noise was measured using a rotating hot-wire rake synchronously meshed with a model helicopter rotor at the blade passage frequency. Simultaneous far-field acoustic data and blade differential pressure measurements were obtained. Results show that the shape of the measured far-field acoustic blade-vortex interaction signature depends on the blade-vortex interaction geometry. The experimental results are compared with the Widnall-Wolf model for blade-vortex interaction noise.

  6. Helicopter tail rotor orthogonal blade vortex interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coton, F. N.; Marshall, J. S.; Galbraith, R. A. McD.; Green, R. B.

    2004-10-01

    The aerodynamic operating environment of the helicopter is particularly complex and, to some extent, dominated by the vortices trailed from the main and tail rotors. These vortices not only determine the form of the induced flow field but also interact with each other and with elements of the physical structure of the flight vehicle. Such interactions can have implications in terms of structural vibration, noise generation and flight performance. In this paper, the interaction of main rotor vortices with the helicopter tail rotor is considered and, in particular, the limiting case of the orthogonal interaction. The significance of the topic is introduced by highlighting the operational issues for helicopters arising from tail rotor interactions. The basic phenomenon is then described before experimental studies of the interaction are presented. Progress in numerical modelling is then considered and, finally, the prospects for future research in the area are discussed.

  7. Rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leishman, John G. (Inventor); Han, Yong Oun (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A rotor blade system with reduced blade-vortex interaction noise includes a plurality of tube members embedded in proximity to a tip of each rotor blade. The inlets of the tube members are arrayed at the leading edge of the blade slightly above the chord plane, while the outlets are arrayed at the blade tip face. Such a design rapidly diffuses the vorticity contained within the concentrated tip vortex because of enhanced flow mixing in the inner core, which prevents the development of a laminar core region.

  8. Two- and three-dimensional blade vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davoudzadeh, F.; Liu, N.-S; Briley, W. R.; Buggeln, R. C.; Shamroth, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes analysis was applied to the rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI) problem. The numerical procedure is an iterative implicit procedure using three point central differences to represent spatial derivatives. A series of calculations were made to determine the time steps, pseudo-time steps, iterations, artificial dissipation level, etc. required to maintain a nondissipative vortex. Results show the chosen method to have excellent non-dissipative properties provided the correct parameters are chosen. This study was used to set parameters for both two- and three-dimensional blade vortex interaction studies. The two-dimensional study considered the interaction between a vortex and a NACA0012 airfoil. The results showed the detailed physics during the interaction including the pressure pulse propagating from the blade. The simulated flow physics was qualitatively similar to that experimentally observed. The 2-D BVI phenomena is the result of the buildup and violent collapse of the shock waves and local supersonic pockets on the blade surfaces. The resulting pressure pulse build-up appears to be centered at the blade leading edge. The three-dimensional interaction study considered the case of a vortex at 20 deg incidence to the blade leading edge. Although the qualitative results were similar to that of the two-dimensional interaction, details clearly showed the three-dimensional nature of the interaction process.

  9. Flow visualizations of perpendicular blade vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rife, Michael C.; Davenport, William J.

    1992-01-01

    Helium bubble flow visualizations have been performed to study perpendicular interaction of a turbulent trailing vortex and a rectangular wing in the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Many combinations of vortex strength, vortex-blade separation (Z(sub s)) and blade angle of attack were studied. Photographs of representative cases are presented. A range of phenomena were observed. For Z(sub s) greater than a few percent chord the vortex is deflected as it passes the blade under the influence of the local streamline curvature and its image in the blade. Initially the interaction appears to have no influence on the core. Downstream, however, the vortex core begins to diffuse and grow, presumably as a consequence of its interaction with the blade wake. The magnitude of these effects increases with reduction in Z(sub s). For Z(sub s) near zero the form of the interaction changes and becomes dependent on the vortex strength. For lower strengths the vortex appears to split into two filaments on the leading edge of the blade, one passing on the pressure and one passing on the suction side. At higher strengths the vortex bursts in the vicinity of the leading edge. In either case the core of its remnants then rapidly diffuse with distance downstream. Increase in Reynolds number did not qualitatively affect the flow apart from decreasing the amplitude of the small low-frequency wandering motions of the vortex. Changes in wing tip geometry and boundary layer trip had very little effect.

  10. A Novel Method for Reducing Rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glinka, A. T.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major hindrances to expansion of the rotorcraft market is the high-amplitude noise they produce, especially during low-speed descent, where blade-vortex interactions frequently occur. In an attempt to reduce the noise levels caused by blade-vortex interactions, the flip-tip rotor blade concept was devised. The flip-tip rotor increases the miss distance between the shed vortices and the rotor blades, reducing BVI noise. The distance is increased by rotating an outboard portion of the rotor tip either up or down depending on the flight condition. The proposed plan for the grant consisted of a computational simulation of the rotor aerodynamics and its wake geometry to determine the effectiveness of the concept, coupled with a series of wind tunnel experiments exploring the value of the device and validating the computer model. The computational model did in fact show that the miss distance could be increased, giving a measure of the effectiveness of the flip-tip rotor. However, the wind experiments were not able to be conducted. Increased outside demand for the 7'x lO' wind tunnel at NASA Ames and low priority at Ames for this project forced numerous postponements of the tests, eventually pushing the tests beyond the life of the grant. A design for the rotor blades to be tested in the wind tunnel was completed and an analysis of the strength of the model blades based on predicted loads, including dynamic forces, was done.

  11. A parametric study of transonic blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyrintzis, A. S.

    1991-01-01

    Several parameters of transonic blade-vortex interactions (BVI) are being studied and some ideas for noise reduction are introduced and tested using numerical simulation. The model used is the two-dimensional high frequency transonic small disturbance equation with regions of distributed vorticity (VTRAN2 code). The far-field noise signals are obtained by using the Kirchhoff method with extends the numerical 2-D near-field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic 3-D far-field. The BVI noise mechanisms are explained and the effects of vortex type and strength, and angle of attack are studied. Particularly, airfoil shape modifications which lead to noise reduction are investigated. The results presented are expected to be helpful for better understanding of the nature of the BVI noise and better blade design.

  12. Transonic blade-vortex interactions noise: A parametric study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyrintzis, A. S.; Xue, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Transonic Blade-Vortex Interactions (BVI) are simulated numerically and the noise mechanisms are investigated. The 2-D high frequency transonic small disturbance equation is solved numerically (VTRAN2 code). An Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme with monotone switches is used; viscous effects are included on the boundary and the vortex is simulated by the cloud-in-cell method. The Kirchoff method is used for the extension of the numerical 2-D near field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic 3-D far field. The viscous effect (shock/boundary layer interaction) on BVI is investigated. The different types of shock motion are identified and compared. Two important disturbances with different directivity exist in the pressure signal and are believed to be related to the fluctuating lift and drag forces. Noise directivity for different cases is shown. The maximum radiation occurs at an angle between 60 and 90 deg below the horizontal for an airfoil fixed coordinate system and depends on the details of the airfoil shape. Different airfoil shapes are studied and classified according to the BVI noise produced.

  13. HART-II: Prediction of Blade-Vortex Interaction Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Joon W.; Tung, Chee; Yu, Yung H.; Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas; Boyd, Doug; vanderWall, Berend; Schneider, Oliver; Richard, Hugues; Raffel, Markus

    2003-01-01

    During the HART-I data analysis, the need for comprehensive wake data was found including vortex creation and aging, and its re-development after blade-vortex interaction. In October 2001, US Army AFDD, NASA Langley, German DLR, French ONERA and Dutch DNW performed the HART-II test as an international joint effort. The main objective was to focus on rotor wake measurement using a PIV technique along with the comprehensive data of blade deflections, airloads, and acoustics. Three prediction teams made preliminary correlation efforts with HART-II data: a joint US team of US Army AFDD and NASA Langley, German DLR, and French ONERA. The predicted results showed significant improvements over the HART-I predicted results, computed about several years ago, which indicated that there has been better understanding of complicated wake modeling in the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis. All three teams demonstrated satisfactory prediction capabilities, in general, though there were slight deviations of prediction accuracies for various disciplines.

  14. Neural control of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaessel, Holger; Kloeppel, Valentin; Rudolph, Stephan

    2001-06-01

    Significant reduction of helicopter blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is currently one of the most advanced research topics in the helicopter industry. This is due to the complex flow, the close aerodynamic and structural coupling, and the interaction of the blades with the trailing edge vortices. Analytical and numerical modeling techniques are therefore currently still far from a sufficient degree of accuracy to obtain satisfactory results using classical model based control concepts. Neural networks with a proven potential to learn nonlinear relationships implicitly encoded in a training data set are therefore an appropriate and complementary technique for the alternative design of a nonlinear controller for BVI noise reduction. For nonlinear and adaptive control different neural control strategies have been proposed. Two possible approaches, a direct and an indirect neural controller are described. In indirect neural control, the plant has to be identified first by training a network with measured data. The plant network is then used to train the controller network. On the other hand the direct control approach does not rely on an explicit plant model, instead a specific training algorithm (like reinforcement learning) uses the information gathered from interactions with the environment. In the investigation of the BVI noise phenomena, helicopter developers have undertaken substantial efforts in full scale flight tests and wind tunnel experiments. Data obtained in these experiments have been adequately preprocessed using wavelet analysis and filtering techniques and are then used in the design of a neural controller. Neural open-loop control and neural closed-loop control concepts for the BVI noise reduction problem are conceived, simulated and compared against each other in this work in the above mentioned framework.

  15. The effect of tip vortex structure on helicopter noise due to blade/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, T. L.; Widnall, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A potential cause of helicopter impulsive noise, commonly called blade slap, is the unsteady lift fluctuation on a rotor blade due to interaction with the vortex trailed from another blade. The relationship between vortex structure and the intensity of the acoustic signal is investigated. The analysis is based on a theoretical model for blade/vortex interaction. Unsteady lift on the blades due to blade/vortex interaction is calculated using linear unsteady aerodynamic theory, and expressions are derived for the directivity, frequency spectrum, and transient signal of the radiated noise. An inviscid rollup model is used to calculate the velocity profile in the trailing vortex from the spanwise distribution of blade tip loading. A few cases of tip loading are investigated, and numerical results are presented for the unsteady lift and acoustic signal due to blade/vortex interaction. The intensity of the acoustic signal is shown to be quite sensitive to changes in tip vortex structure.

  16. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Helicopter blade-vortex interaction locations: Scale-model acoustics and free-wake analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, Danny R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a model rotor acoustic test in the Langley 4by 7-Meter Tunnel are used to evaluate a free-wake analytical technique. An acoustic triangulation technique is used to locate the position in the rotor disk where the blade-vortex interaction noise originates. These locations, along with results of the rotor free-wake analysis, are used to define the geometry of the blade-vortex interaction noise phenomena as well as to determine if the free-wake analysis is a capable diagnostic tool. Data from tests of two teetering rotor systems are used in these analyses.

  18. Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise with Comparisons to CFD Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCluer, Megan S.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of experimental acoustics data and computational predictions was performed for a helicopter rotor blade interacting with a parallel vortex. The experiment was designed to examine the aerodynamics and acoustics of parallel Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) and was performed in the Ames Research Center (ARC) 80- by 120-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. An independently generated vortex interacted with a small-scale, nonlifting helicopter rotor at the 180 deg azimuth angle to create the interaction in a controlled environment. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to calculate near-field pressure time histories. The CFD code, called Transonic Unsteady Rotor Navier-Stokes (TURNS), was used to make comparisons with the acoustic pressure measurement at two microphone locations and several test conditions. The test conditions examined included hover tip Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.7, advance ratio of 0.2, positive and negative vortex rotation, and the vortex passing above and below the rotor blade by 0.25 rotor chords. The results show that the CFD qualitatively predicts the acoustic characteristics very well, but quantitatively overpredicts the peak-to-peak sound pressure level by 15 percent in most cases. There also exists a discrepancy in the phasing (about 4 deg) of the BVI event in some cases. Additional calculations were performed to examine the effects of vortex strength, thickness, time accuracy, and directionality. This study validates the TURNS code for prediction of near-field acoustic pressures of controlled parallel BVI.

  19. Calculation of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction by Navier-Stokes procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y.-N.; Shamroth, S. J.; Buggeln, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions of a modern rotor blade with concentrated tip vortices from the previous blades can have a significant influence on the airloads and the aeroacoustics of a helicopter. A better understanding of the blade/vortex interaction process and a method of analyzing its flow field would provide valuable help in the design of helicopters. The work discussed herein represents an initial effort in applying a 3-D, time-dependent Navier-Stokes simulation to the blade vortex interaction problem. The numerical approach is the Linearized Block Implicit (LBI) technique. In this initial effort, consideration is given to the interaction of a wing of idealized geometry and a vortex whose axis is aligned at an arbitrary angle to the wing. The calculations are made for laminar, subsonic flow, and show the time dependent pressure distribution and flow fields resulting from the interaction.

  20. Simulation of realistic rotor blade-vortex interactions using a finite-difference technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Charles, Bruce D.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical finite-difference code has been used to predict helicopter blade loads during realistic self-generated three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions. The velocity field is determined via a nonlinear superposition of the rotor flowfield. Data obtained from a lifting-line helicopter/rotor trim code are used to determine the instantaneous position of the interaction vortex elements with respect to the blade. Data obtained for three rotor advance ratios show a reasonable correlation with wind tunnel data.

  1. A new experimental approach to study helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koushik, Sudarshan N.

    A unique and novel experimental approach has been developed to study the aerodynamics and acoustics of the helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction in a controlled hover environment. This is achieved by having a non-lifting single-bladed rotor with a rigid hub interact with a carefully controlled gust disturbance that replicates the essential characteristics of the vortex velocity. This experimental approach termed the Blade-Controlled Disturbance-Interaction or the BCDI, decouples the rotor parameters from the charactersitics of the incident disturbance velocity, thus providing an ideal setup for studying the blade's aerodynamics and acoustic response in detail. Moreover, the angle of interaction between the disturbance field and the rotor blade can be controlled by orienting the gust, providing the ability to study both parallel and oblique interactions. The noise data was recorded at thirty different microphone locations. A series of experiments at various rotor tip Mach numbers and interaction angles, replicating many of the conditions of helicopter BVI, were performed. The results show that the the directionality of the BVI noise is strongly determined by the interaction angle. A small change in interaction angle results in the radiation of noise over a larger azimuthal area compared to the parallel interaction. Moreover, as the interaction becomes more oblique, the peak noise elevation angle approaches closer to the rotor plane. A linear unsteady lifting-line aerodynamic theory (corrected for chord-wise non-compactness) was used to estimate the blade aerodynamics during the interaction and hence the radiated noise. Although the theory under-predicted the noise levels for most of the cases, and did not replicate exactly the general pulse shape, the general directionality trends were predicted reasonably well. The theory was used to separate the contribution to the acoustics, from different spanwise blade sections, providing significant insights into the phasing

  2. Full-Potential Modeling of Blade-Vortex Interactions. Degree awarded by George Washington Univ., Feb. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the full-potential modeling of a blade-vortex interaction was made. A primary goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the various methods of modeling the vortex. The model problem restricts the interaction to that of an infinite wing with an infinite line vortex moving parallel to its leading edge. This problem provides a convenient testing ground for the various methods of modeling the vortex while retaining the essential physics of the full three-dimensional interaction. A full-potential algorithm specifically tailored to solve the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) was developed to solve this problem. The basic algorithm was modified to include the effect of a vortex passing near the airfoil. Four different methods of modeling the vortex were used: (1) the angle-of-attack method, (2) the lifting-surface method, (3) the branch-cut method, and (4) the split-potential method. A side-by-side comparison of the four models was conducted. These comparisons included comparing generated velocity fields, a subcritical interaction, and a critical interaction. The subcritical and critical interactions are compared with experimentally generated results. The split-potential model was used to make a survey of some of the more critical parameters which affect the BVI.

  3. A mechanism for mitigation of blade-vortex interaction using leading edge blowing flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, Chris; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2009-09-01

    The interaction of a vortical unsteady flow with structures is often encountered in engineering applications. Such flow structure interactions (FSI) can be responsible for generating significant loads and can have many detrimental structural and acoustic side effects, such as structural fatigue, radiated noise and even catastrophic results. Amongst the different types of FSI, the parallel blade-vortex interaction (BVI) is the most common, often encountered in helicopters and propulsors. In this work, we report on the implementation of leading edge blowing (LEB) active flow control for successfully minimizing the parallel BVI. Our results show reduction of the airfoil vibrations up to 38% based on the root-mean-square of the vibration velocity amplitude. This technique is based on displacing an incident vortex using a jet issued from the leading edge of a sharp airfoil effectively increasing the stand-off distance of the vortex from the body. The effectiveness of the method was experimentally analyzed using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TRDPIV) recorded at an 800 Hz rate, which is sufficient to resolve the spatio-temporal dynamics of the flow field and it was combined with simultaneous accelerometer measurements of the airfoil, which was free to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the freestream. Analysis of the flow field spectra and a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of the TRDPIV data of the temporally resolved planar flow fields indicate that the LEB effectively modified the flow field surrounding the airfoil and increased the convecting vortices stand-off distance for over half of the airfoil chord length. It is shown that LEB also causes a redistribution of the flow field spectral energy over a larger range of frequencies.

  4. Experimental blade vortex interaction noise characteristics of a utility helicopter at 1/4 scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the standard or "baseline" UH-1 main rotor system were tested at one-quarter scale in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter (V/STOL) Tunnel using the general rotor model system. Tests were conducted over a range of descent angles which bracketed the blade-vortex interaction phenomenon for a range of simulated forward speeds. The tunnel was operated in the open-throat configuration with acoustic treatment to improve the semi-anechoic characteristics of the test chamber. Acoustical data obtained for these two rotor systems operating at similar flight conditions are presented without analysis or discussion.

  5. Flow structure generated by perpendicular blade vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities carried out in support of research on flow structure generated by perpendicular blade vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise prediction are summarized. Progress in the following areas is described: (1) construction of 8 inch-chord NACA 0012 full-span blade; (2) Acquisition of two full-span blades; (3) preparation for hot wire measurements; (4) related work on a modified Betz's theory; and (5) work related to helicopter noise prediction. In addition, a list of publications based on the results of prior experimentation is presented.

  6. An Euler code calculation of blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.; Lamkin, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    An Euler code has been developed for calculation of noise radiation due to the interaction of a distributed vortex with a Joukowski airfoil. THe time-dependent incompressible flow field is first determined and then integrated to yield the resulting sound production through use of the elegant low-frequency Green's function approach. This code has several interesting numerical features involved in the vortex motion and in continuous satisfaction of the Kutta condition. In addition, it removes the limitations on Reynolds number and is much more efficient than an earlier Navier-Stokes code. Results indicate that the noise production is due to the deceleration and subsequent acceleration of the vortex as it approaches and passes the airfoil. Predicted acoustic levels and frequencies agree with measured data although a precise comparison would require the strength, size, and position of the incoming vortex to be known.

  7. Navier-Stokes simulations of blade-vortex interaction using high-order accurate upwind schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    1987-01-01

    Conventional, spatially second-order-accurate, finite-difference schemes are much too dissipative for calculations involving vortices that travel large distances (relative to some measure of the size of the vortex). This study presents a fifth-order-accurate upwind-biased scheme that preserves vortex structure for much longer times than existing second-order-accurate central and upwind difference schemes. Vortex calculations demonstrating this aspect of the fifth-order scheme are also presented. The method is then applied to the blade-vortex interaction problem. Results for strong interactions wherein the vortex impinges directly on the airfoil or a shock associated with the airfoil are presented. None of these calculations required any modeling of the shape, size, and trajectory of the interacting vortex.

  8. Studies of blade-vortex interaction noise reduction by rotor blade modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is one of the most objectionable types of helicopter noise. This impulsive blade-slap noise can be particularly intense during low-speed landing approach and maneuvers. Over the years, a number of flight and model rotor tests have examined blade tip modification and other blade design changes to reduce this noise. Many times these tests have produced conflicting results. In the present paper, a number of these studies are reviewed in light of the current understanding of the BVI noise problem. Results from one study in particular are used to help establish the noise reduction potential and to shed light on the role of blade design. Current blade studies and some new concepts under development are also described.

  9. Lift distribution and velocity field measurements for a three-dimensional, steady blade/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Norman, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment simulating a steady three-dimensional helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction is reported. The experimental configuration consisted of a vertical semispan vortex-generating wing, mounted upstream of a horizontal semispan rotor blade airfoil. A three-dimensional laser velocimeter was used to measure the velocity field in the region of the blade. Sectional lift coefficients were calculated by integrating the velocity field to obtain the bound vorticity. Total lift values, obtained by using an internal strain-gauge balance, verified the laser velocimeter data. Parametric variations of vortex strength, rotor blade angle of attack, and vortex position relative to the rotor blade were explored. These data are reported (with attention to experimental limitations) to provide a dataset for the validation of analytical work.

  10. Studies of blade-vortex interaction noise reduction by rotor blade modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is one of the most objectionable types of helicopter noise. This impulsive blade-slap noise can be particularly intense during low-speed landing approach and maneuvers. Over the years, a number of flight and model rotor tests have examined blade tip modification and other blade design changes to reduce this noise. Many times these tests have produced conflicting results. In the present paper, a number of these studies are reviewed in light of the current understanding of the BVI noise problem. Results from one study in particular are used to help establish the noise reduction potential and to shed light on the role of blade design. Current blade studies and some new concepts under development are also described.

  11. Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.

  12. Reduction of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise through X-force control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Fredric H.

    1995-01-01

    Momentum theory and the longitudinal force balance equations of a single rotor helicopter are used to develop simple expressions to describe tip-path-plane tilt and uniform inflow to the rotor. The uniform inflow is adjusted to represent the inflow at certain azimuthal locations where strong Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) is likely to occur. This theoretical model is then used to describe the flight conditions where BVI is likely to occur and to explore those flight variables that can be used to minimize BVI noise radiation. A new X-force control is introduced to help minimize BVI noise. Several methods of generating the X-force are presented that can be used to alter the inflow to the rotor and thus increasing the likelihood of avoiding BVI during approaches to a landing.

  13. Helicopter Model Rotor-Blade Vortex Interaction Impulsive Noise: Scalability and Parametric Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model-scale data were compared with averaged full-scale, in-flight acoustic data under similar non-dimensional test conditions using an improved data analysis technique. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 - 0.194), the BVI impulsive noise data scale remarkably well in level, waveform, and directivity patterns. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 - 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model-scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full-scale BVI noise. Presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Measured BVI noise radiation is highly sensitive to all of the four governing nondimensional parameters--hover tip Mach number, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient.

  14. Analysis of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise with application to adaptive-passive and active alleviation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauszig, Lionel Christian

    This study focuses on detection and analysis methods of helicopter blade-vortex interactions (BVI) and applies these methods to two different BVI noise alleviation schemes---an adaptive-passive and an active scheme. A standard free-wake analysis based on relaxation methods is extended in this study to compute high-resolution blade loading, to account for blade-to-blade dissimilarities, and dual vortices when there is negative loading at the blade tips. The free-wake geometry is still calculated on a coarse azimuthal grid and then interpolated to a high-resolution grid to calculate the BVI induced impulsive loading. Blade-to-blade dissimilarities are accounted by allowing the different blades to release their own vortices. A number of BVI detection criteria, including the spherical method (a geometric criterion developed in this thesis) are critically examined. It was determined that high-resolution azimuthal discretization is required in virtually all detection methods except the spherical method which detected the occurrence of parallel BVI even while using a low-resolution azimuthal mesh. Detection methods based on inflow and blade loads were, in addition, found to be sensitive to vortex core size. While most BVI studies use the high-resolution airloads to compute BVI noise, the total noise can often be due to multiple dominant interactions on the advancing and retreating sides. A methodology is developed to evaluate the contribution of an individual interaction to the total BVI noise, based on using the loading due to an individual vortex as an input to the acoustic code WOPWOP. The adaptive-passive BVI alleviation method considered in this study comprises of reducing the length of one set of opposite blades (of a 4-bladed rotor) in low-speed descent. Results showed that differential coning resulting from the blade dissimilarity increases the blade-vortex miss-distances and reduces the BVI noise by 4 dB. The Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test (HART

  15. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  16. A study of the noise mechanisms of transonic blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.; Xue, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Transonic blade-vortex interactions (BVI) are simulated numerically and the noise mechanisms are investigated. The two-dimensional high frequency transonic small disturbance equation is solved numerically (VTRAN2 code). An ADI scheme with monotone switches is used; viscous effects are included on the boundary, and the vortex is simulated by the cloud in cell method. The Kirchhoff method is used for the extension of the numerical two-dimensional near-field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic three dimensional far field. The viscous effects (shock/boundary layer interactions) on BVI is investigated. The different types of shock motion are identified and compared. Two important disturbances with different directivity exist in the pressure signal and are believed to be related to the fluctuating lift and drag forces. Noise directivity for different cases is shown. The maximum radiation occurs at an angle between 60 and 90 degrees below the horizontal for an airfoil-fixed coordinate system and depends on the details of the airfoil shape. Different airfoil shapes are studied and classified according to the BVI noise produced.

  17. Rotor blade-vortex interaction noise reduction and vibration using higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The use of higher harmonic control (HHC) of blade pitch to reduce blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is examined by means of a rotor acoustic test. A dynamically scaled, four-bladed, articulated rotor model was tested in a heavy gas (Freon-12) medium. Acoustic and vibration measurements were made for a large range of matched flight conditions where prescribed (open loop) HHC pitch schedules were superimposed on the normal (baseline) collective and cyclic trim pitch. A novel sound power measurement technique was developed to take advantage of the reverberance in the hard walled tunnel. Quantitative sound power results are presented for a 4/rev (4P) collective pitch HHC. By comparing the results using 4P HHC to corresponding baseline (no HHC) conditions, significant midfrequency noise reductions of 5-6 dB are found for low-speed descent conditions where BVI is most intense. For other flight conditions, noise is found to increase with the use of HHC. LF loading noise, as well as fixed and rotating frame vibration levels, show increased levels.

  18. The spectral characteristics of rotor blade-vortex interaction noise - Experimental and mathematical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Hardin, Jay C.

    1987-01-01

    The BVI impulsive content of a rotor acoustic signal is shown to appear in the mid-frequency range of the power spectrum, between the fifth and thirtieth harmonics of the blade passage frequency, concentrated at the harmonics of the blade passage frequency. These harmonics exhibit a humped or scalloped shape in this mid-frequency spectral region. Increased energy at the harmonics of the shaft frequency appears when the BVI impulsive content demonstrates unsteadiness and blade-to-blade differences in the time domain. A mathematical model of a generalized BVI acoustic signal and its power spectrum shows that the power spectrum is scalloped and filtered by a comb function. The spectrum amplitude is defined by the impulse amplitude and emission time. The scalloping of the spectrum is related to the emission time of the impulse itself, and the spacing of the comb function is related to the repetition time (period) of the impulse. The decay rate of the spectral humps is governed by the inverse of frequency squared. The mathematical model validates the characteristics observed in the data and verify that these characteristics are due to blade-vortex interaction activity.

  19. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  20. Quasi-static acoustic mapping of helicopter blade vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, Gaurav

    This research extends the applicability of storage-based noise prediction techniques to slowly maneuvering flight. The quasi-static equivalence between longitudinal decelerating flight and steady-state longitudinal descent flight, and its application to the estimation of BVI noise radiation under slow longitudinal maneuvering flight conditions, is investigated through various orders of flight dynamics modeling. The entire operating state of the helicopter is shown to be similar during equivalent flight conditions at the same flight velocity. This equivalence is also applied to the prediction of control requirements during longitudinal maneuvers. Inverse simulation based flight dynamics models of lower order are seen to capture many important trends associated with slow maneuvers, when compared with higher order modeling. The lower order flight dynamics model is used to design controlled maneuvers that may be practically flown during descent operations or as part of research flight testing. A version of a storage-based acoustic mapping technique, extended to slowly maneuvering longitudinal flight, is implemented for helicopter main rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. Various approach trajectories are formulated and analytical estimates of the BVI noise radiation characteristics associated with a full-scale two-bladed rotor are mapped to the ground using this quasi-static mapping approach. Multi-segment decelerating descent approaches are shown to be effective in ground noise abatement. The effects of steady longitudinal winds are investigated on radiated and ground noise. Piloting trim choices are seen to dominate the noise radiation under these flight conditions.

  1. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise - Scalability and parametric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scalig deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  2. Advancing-side directivity and retreating-side interactions of model rotor blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the four-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, tested in a large aerodynamic wind tunnel. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low-speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. Acoustic results presented are used to assess the acoustic far field of BVI noise, to map the directivity and temporal characteristics of BVI impulsive noise, and to show the existence of retreating-side BVI signals. The characterics of the acoustic radiation patterns, which can often be strongly focused, are found to be very dependent on rotor operating condition. The acoustic signals exhibit multiple blade-vortex interactions per blade with broad impulsive content at lower speeds, while at higher speeds, they exhibit fewer interactions per blade, with much sharper, higher amplitude acoustic signals. Moderate-amplitude BVI acoustic signals measured under the aft retreating quadrant of the rotor are shown to originate from the retreating side of the rotor.

  3. Signal Analysis of Helicopter Blade-Vortex-Interaction Acoustic Noise Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James C.; Dai, Renshou

    1998-01-01

    Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) produces annoying high-intensity impulsive noise. NASA Ames collected several sets of BVI noise data during in-flight and wind tunnel tests. The goal of this work is to extract the essential features of the BVI signals from the in-flight data and examine the feasibility of extracting those features from BVI noise recorded inside a large wind tunnel. BVI noise generating mechanisms and BVI radiation patterns an are considered and a simple mathematical-physical model is presented. It allows the construction of simple synthetic BVI events that are comparable to free flight data. The boundary effects of the wind tunnel floor and ceiling are identified and more complex synthetic BVI events are constructed to account for features observed in the wind tunnel data. It is demonstrated that improved recording of BVI events can be attained by changing the geometry of the rotor hub, floor, ceiling and microphone. The Euclidean distance measure is used to align BVI events from each blade and improved BVI signals are obtained by time-domain averaging the aligned data. The differences between BVI events for individual blades are then apparent. Removal of wind tunnel background noise by optimal Wiener-filtering is shown to be effective provided representative noise-only data have been recorded. Elimination of wind tunnel reflections by cepstral and optimal filtering deconvolution is examined. It is seen that the cepstral method is not applicable but that a pragmatic optimal filtering approach gives encouraging results. Recommendations for further work include: altering measurement geometry, real-time data observation and evaluation, examining reflection signals (particularly those from the ceiling) and performing further analysis of expected BVI signals for flight conditions of interest so that microphone placement can be optimized for each condition.

  4. New techniques for experimental generation of two-dimensional blade-vortex interaction at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, E., Jr.; Yu, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two dimensional blade vortex interaction was held at NASA Langley Research Center. The first phase was a flow visualization study to document the approach process of a two dimensional vortex as it encountered a loaded blade model. To accomplish the flow visualization study, a method for generating two dimensional vortex filaments was required. The numerical study used to define a new vortex generation process and the use of this process in the flow visualization study were documented. Additionally, photographic techniques and data analysis methods used in the flow visualization study are examined.

  5. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben

    2016-01-01

    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  6. Effects of a trailing edge flap on the aerodynamics and acoustics of rotor blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, B. D.; Tadghighi, H.; Hassan, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of a trailing edge flap on a helicopter rotor has been numerically simulated to determine if such a device can mitigate the acoustics of blade vortex interactions (BVI). The numerical procedure employs CAMRAD/JA, a lifting-line helicopter rotor trim code, in conjunction with RFS2, an unsteady transonic full-potential flow solver, and WOPWOP, an acoustic model based on Farassat's formulation 1A. The codes were modified to simulate trailing edge flap effects. The CAMRAD/JA code was used to compute the far wake inflow effects and the vortex wake trajectories and strengths which are utilized by RFS2 to predict the blade surface pressure variations. These pressures were then analyzed using WOPWOP to determine the high frequency acoustic response at several fixed observer locations below the rotor disk. Comparisons were made with different flap deflection amplitudes and rates to assess flap effects on BVI. Numerical experiments were carried out using a one-seventh scale AH-1G rotor system for flight conditions simulating BVI encountered during low speed descending flight with and without flaps. Predicted blade surface pressures and acoustic sound pressure levels obtained have shown good agreement with the baseline no-flap test data obtained in the DNW wind tunnel. Numerical results indicate that the use of flaps is beneficial in reducing BVI noise.

  7. Flow structure generated by perpendicular blade-vortex interaction and implications for helicopter noise prediction. Volume 1: Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmer, Kenneth S.; Devenport, William J.

    1996-01-01

    The perpendicular interaction of a streamwise vortex with an infinite span helicopter blade was modeled experimentally in incompressible flow. Three-component velocity and turbulence measurements were made using a sub-miniature four sensor hot-wire probe. Vortex core parameters (radius, peak tangential velocity, circulation, and centerline axial velocity deficit) were determined as functions of blade-vortex separation, streamwise position, blade angle of attack, vortex strength, and vortex size. The downstream development of the flow shows that the interaction of the vortex with the blade wake is the primary cause of the changes in the core parameters. The blade sheds negative vorticity into its wake as a result of the induced angle of attack generated by the passing vortex. Instability in the vortex core due to its interaction with this negative vorticity region appears to be the catalyst for the magnification of the size and intensity of the turbulent flowfield downstream of the interaction. In general, the core radius increases while peak tangential velocity decreases with the effect being greater for smaller separations. These effects are largely independent of blade angle of attack; and if these parameters are normalized on their undisturbed values, then the effects of the vortex strength appear much weaker. Two theoretical models were developed to aid in extending the results to other flow conditions. An empirical model was developed for core parameter prediction which has some rudimentary physical basis, implying usefulness beyond a simple curve fit. An inviscid flow model was also created to estimate the vorticity shed by the interaction blade, and to predict the early stages of its incorporation into the interacting vortex.

  8. Study of the blade/vortex interaction: Acoustics, aerodynamics and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnemmi, P.; Haertig, J.; Johe, C.; Schaffar, M.

    1992-04-01

    A program for calculating the load noise of a helicopter rotor was developed. The method, which requires the knowledge of the local blade load values, was extended to calculate the two dimensional flow around a foil in a field of vortices. A three dimensional method based on the lifting surface theory was developed to simulate the turbulent field developed by a pitch oscillating foil and interacting with another foil placed downstream. The calculated and the measured lift evolution values were compared. The flow velocity was measured by laser velocimetry and the configuration of the rotational flow field was obtained.

  9. Installation effects on the production of blade-vortex interaction noise by a ducted rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. S.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis is made of the sound produced when discrete vortices and mean flow turbulence interact at low Mach number with a blade of a ducted rotor situated near the open end of the duct. The duct is rigid and of circular cross-section, and the blade chord is assumed to be small relative to the diameter of the duct. The variation of the amplitude and frequency dependence of the sound with the distance of the blade from the duct exit is examined. For short ducts operating at Mach numbers characteristic of those in underwater applications, it is shown that the acoustic power is increased over a range of frequencies when the rotor plane is close to the exit. For longer ducts, in which the turbulence is fully developed, the influence of the exit is predicted to be negligible when the distance of the rotor plane from the open end exceeds about one-tenth of the duct diameter.

  10. Perpendicular blade vortex interaction and its implications for helicopter noise prediction: Wave-number frequency spectra in a trailing vortex for BWI noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devenport, William J.; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Perpendicular blade vortex interactions are a common occurrence in helicopter rotor flows. Under certain conditions they produce a substantial proportion of the acoustic noise. However, the mechanism of noise generation is not well understood. Specifically, turbulence associated with the trailing vortices shed from the blade tips appears insufficient to account for the noise generated. The hypothesis that the first perpendicular interaction experienced by a trailing vortex alters its turbulence structure in such a way as to increase the acoustic noise generated by subsequent interactions is examined. To investigate this hypothesis a two-part investigation was carried out. In the first part, experiments were performed to examine the behavior of a streamwise vortex as it passed over and downstream of a spanwise blade in incompressible flow. Blade vortex separations between +/- one eighth chord were studied for at a chord Reynolds number of 200,000. Three-component velocity and turbulence measurements were made in the flow from 4 chord lengths upstream to 15 chordlengths downstream of the blade using miniature 4-sensor hot wire probes. These measurements show that the interaction of the vortex with the blade and its wake causes the vortex core to loose circulation and diffuse much more rapidly than it otherwise would. Core radius increases and peak tangential velocity decreases with distance downstream of the blade. True turbulence levels within the core are much larger downstream than upstream of the blade. The net result is a much larger and more intense region of turbulent flow than that presented by the original vortex and thus, by implication, a greater potential for generating acoustic noise. In the second part, the turbulence measurements described above were used to derive the necessary inputs to a Blade Wake Interaction (BWI) noise prediction scheme. This resulted in significantly improved agreement between measurements and calculations of the BWI noise

  11. Numerical simulation and validation of helicopter blade-vortex interaction using coupled CFD/CSD and three levels of aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiraux, Mathieu

    Rotorcraft Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) remains one of the most challenging flow phenomenon to simulate numerically. Over the past decade, the HART-II rotor test and its extensive experimental dataset has been a major database for validation of CFD codes. Its strong BVI signature, with high levels of intrusive noise and vibrations, makes it a difficult test for computational methods. The main challenge is to accurately capture and preserve the vortices which interact with the rotor, while predicting correct blade deformations and loading. This doctoral dissertation presents the application of a coupled CFD/CSD methodology to the problem of helicopter BVI and compares three levels of fidelity for aerodynamic modeling: a hybrid lifting-line/free-wake (wake coupling) method, with modified compressible unsteady model; a hybrid URANS/free-wake method; and a URANS-based wake capturing method, using multiple overset meshes to capture the entire flow field. To further increase numerical correlation, three helicopter fuselage models are implemented in the framework. The first is a high resolution 3D GPU panel code; the second is an immersed boundary based method, with 3D elliptic grid adaption; the last one uses a body-fitted, curvilinear fuselage mesh. The main contribution of this work is the implementation and systematic comparison of multiple numerical methods to perform BVI modeling. The trade-offs between solution accuracy and computational cost are highlighted for the different approaches. Various improvements have been made to each code to enhance physical fidelity, while advanced technologies, such as GPU computing, have been employed to increase efficiency. The resulting numerical setup covers all aspects of the simulation creating a truly multi-fidelity and multi-physics framework. Overall, the wake capturing approach showed the best BVI phasing correlation and good blade deflection predictions, with slightly under-predicted aerodynamic loading magnitudes

  12. Analysis of helicopter blade vortex structure by laser velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutier, A.; Lefèvre, J.; Micheli, F.

    1996-05-01

    In descent flight, helicopter external noise is mainly generated by the Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI). To under-stand the dynamics of this phenomenon, the vortex must be characterized before its interaction with the blade, which means that its viscous core radius, its strength and its distance to the blade have to be determined by non-intrusive measurement techniques. As part of the HART program (Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test, jointly conducted by US Army, NASA, DLR, DNW and ONERA), a series of tests have been made in the German Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) on a helicopter rotor with 2 m long blades, rotating at 1040 rpm; several flight configurations, with an advance ratio of 0.15 and a shaft angle of 5.3°, have been studied with different higher harmonic blade pitch angles superposed on the conventional one (corresponding to the baseline case). The flow on the retreating side has been analyzed with an especially designed 3D laser velocimeter, and, simultaneously, the blade tip attitude has been determined in order to get the blade-vortex miss distance, which is a crucial parameter in the noise reduction. A 3D laser velocimeter, in backscatter mode with a working distance of 5 m, was installed on a platform 9 m high, and flow seeding with submicron incense smoke was achieved in the settling chamber using a remotely controlled displacement device. Acquisition of instantaneous velocity vectors by an IFA 750 yielded mean velocity and turbulence maps across the vortex as well as the vortex position, intensity and viscous radius. The blade tip attitude (altitude, jitter, angle of incidence) was recorded by the TART method (Target Attitude in Real Time) which makes use of a CCD camera on which is formed the image of two retroreflecting targets attached to the blade tip and lighted by a flash lamp. In addition to the mean values of the aforementioned quantities, spectra of their fluctuations have been established up to 8 Hz.

  13. Full-potential modeling of blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Caradonna, F. X.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of four different models for predicting the unsteady loading induced by a vortex passing close to an airfoil. (1) The first model approximates the vortex effect as a change in the airfoil angle of attack. (2) The second model is related to the first but, instead of imposing only a constant velocity on the airfoil, the distributed effect of the vortex is computed and used. This is analogous to a lifting surface method. (3) The third model is to specify a branch cut discontinuity in the potential field. The vortex is modeled as a jump in potential across the branch cut, the edge of which represents the center of the vortex. (4) The fourth method models the vortex expressing the potential as the sum of a known potential due to the vortex and an unknown perturbation due to the airfoil. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the four vortex models described above and to determine their relative merits and suitability for use in large three-dimensional codes.

  14. Grouping through local, parallel interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proesmans, Marc; Van Gool, Luc J.; Oosterlinck, Andre J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a new approach for computer based visual grouping. A number of computational principles are defined related to results on neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments. The grouping principles have been subdivided into two groups. The 'first-order processes' perform local operations on 'basic' features such as luminance, color, and orientation. 'Second-order processes' consider bilocal interactions (stereo, optical flow, texture, symmetry). The computational scheme developed in this paper relies on the solution of a set of nonlinear differential equations. They are referred to as 'coupled diffusion maps'. Such systems obey the prescribed computational principles. Several maps, corresponding to different features, evolve in parallel, while all computations within and between the maps are localized in a small neighborhood. Moreover, interactions between maps are bidirectional and retinotopically organized, features also underlying processing by the human visual system. Within this framework, new techniques are proposed and developed for e.g. the segmentation of oriented textures, stereo analysis, optical flow detection, etc. Experiments show that the underlying algorithms prove to be successful for first-order as well as second-order grouping processes and show the promising possiblities such a framework can offer for a large number of low-level vision tasks.

  15. Theoretical and experimental comparisons for high-speed and blade-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannielo, S.; di Francescantonio, P.; Tarica, D.; de Bernardis, E.

    1992-09-01

    Helicopter rotor noise calculations to validate two numerical codes currently being developed are presented. BENP code results for high-speed impulse noise are illustrated for helicopters in forward flight up to very high advancing blade tip Mach number. The HERNOP and WOPWOP codes are compared for high-speed flight.

  16. Rotor system having alternating length rotor blades for reducing blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, Robert C. (Inventor); Visintainer, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotor system (4) having odd and even blade assemblies (O.sub.b, E.sub.b) mounting to and rotating with a rotor hub assembly (6) wherein the odd blade assemblies (O.sub.b) define a radial length R.sub.O, and the even blade assemblies (E.sub.b) define a radial length R.sub.E and wherein the radial length R.sub.E is between about 70% to about 95% of the radial length R.sub.O. Other embodiments of the invention are directed to a Variable Diameter Rotor system (4) which may be configured for operating in various operating modes for optimizing aerodynamic and acoustic performance. The Variable Diameter Rotor system (4) includes odd and even blade assemblies (O.sub.b, E.sub.b) having inboard and outboard blade sections (10, 12) wherein the outboard blade sections (12) telescopically mount to the inboard blade sections (10). The outboard blade sections (12) are positioned with respect to the inboard blade sections (10 such that the radial length R.sub.E of the even blade assemblies (E.sub.b) is equal to the radial length R.sub.O of the odd blade assemblies (O.sub.b) in a first operating mode, and such that the radial length R.sub.E is between about 70% to about 95% of the length R.sub.O in a second operating mode.

  17. Parallel interactive data analysis with PROOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballintijn, Maarten; Biskup, Marek; Brun, René; Canal, Philippe; Feichtinger, Derek; Ganis, Gerardo; Kickinger, Günter; Peters, Andreas; Rademakers, Fons

    2006-04-01

    The Parallel ROOT Facility, PROOF, enables the analysis of much larger data sets on a shorter time scale. It exploits the inherent parallelism in data of uncorrelated events via a multi-tier architecture that optimizes I/O and CPU utilization in heterogeneous clusters with distributed storage. The system provides transparent and interactive access to gigabytes today. Being part of the ROOT framework PROOF inherits the benefits of a performant object storage system and a wealth of statistical and visualization tools. This paper describes the data analysis model of ROOT and the latest developments on closer integration of PROOF into that model and the ROOT user environment, e.g. support for PROOF-based browsing of trees stored remotely, and the popular TTree::Draw() interface. We also outline the ongoing developments aimed to improve the flexibility and user-friendliness of the system.

  18. Parallel Vegetation Stripe Formation Through Hydrologic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg; Engel, Victor

    2010-05-01

    It has long been a challenge to theoretical ecologists to describe vegetation pattern formations such as the "tiger bush" stripes and "leopard bush" spots in Niger, and the regular maze patterns often observed in bogs in North America and Eurasia. To date, most of simulation models focus on reproducing the spot and labyrinthine patterns, and on the vegetation bands which form perpendicular to surface and groundwater flow directions. Various hypotheses have been invoked to explain the formation of vegetation patterns: selective grazing by herbivores, fire, and anisotropic environmental conditions such as slope. Recently, short distance facilitation and long distance competition between vegetation (a.k.a scale dependent feedback) has been proposed as a generic mechanism for vegetation pattern formation. In this paper, we test the generality of this mechanism by employing an existing, spatially explicit, advection-reaction-diffusion type model to describe the formation of regularly spaced vegetation bands, including those that are parallel to flow direction. Such vegetation patterns are, for example, characteristic of the ridge and slough habitat in the Florida Everglades and which are thought to have formed parallel to the prevailing surface water flow direction. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a simple model encompassing a nutrient accumulation mechanism along with biomass development and flow is used to demonstrate the formation of parallel stripes. We also explore the interactive effects of plant transpiration, slope and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity on the resulting vegetation pattern. Our results highlight the ability of the short distance facilitation and long distance competition mechanism to explain the formation of the different vegetation patterns beyond semi-arid regions. Therefore, we propose that the parallel stripes, like the other periodic patterns observed in both isotropic and anisotropic environments, are self-organized and form

  19. Nature of the water/aromatic parallel alignment interactions.

    PubMed

    Mitoraj, Mariusz P; Janjić, Goran V; Medaković, Vesna B; Veljković, Dušan Ž; Michalak, Artur; Zarić, Snežana D; Milčić, Miloš K

    2015-01-30

    The water/aromatic parallel alignment interactions are interactions where the water molecule or one of its O-H bonds is parallel to the aromatic ring plane. The calculated energies of the interactions are significant, up to ΔE(CCSD)(T)(limit) = -2.45 kcal mol(-1) at large horizontal displacement, out of benzene ring and CH bond region. These interactions are stronger than CH···O water/benzene interactions, but weaker than OH···π interactions. To investigate the nature of water/aromatic parallel alignment interactions, energy decomposition methods, symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, and extended transition state-natural orbitals for chemical valence (NOCV), were used. The calculations have shown that, for the complexes at large horizontal displacements, major contribution to interaction energy comes from electrostatic interactions between monomers, and for the complexes at small horizontal displacements, dispersion interactions are dominant binding force. The NOCV-based analysis has shown that in structures with strong interaction energies charge transfer of the type π → σ*(O-H) between the monomers also exists.

  20. Nicotine and cannabinoids: parallels, contrasts and interactions.

    PubMed

    Viveros, Maria-Paz; Marco, Eva M; File, Sandra E

    2006-01-01

    After a brief outline of the nicotinic and cannabinoid systems, we review the interactions between the pharmacological effects of nicotine and cannabis, two of the most widely used drugs of dependence. These drugs are increasingly taken in combination, particularly among the adolescents and young adults. The review focuses on addiction-related processes, gateway and reverse gateway theories of addiction and therapeutic implications. It then reviews studies on the important period of adolescence, an area that is in urgent need of further investigation and in which the importance of sex differences is emerging. Three other areas of research, which might be particularly relevant to the onset and/or maintenance of dependence, are then reviewed. Firstly, the effects of the two drugs on anxiety-related behaviours are discussed and then their effects on food intake and cognition, two areas in which they have contrasting effects. Certain animal studies suggest that reinforcing effects are likely to be enhanced by joint consumption of nicotine and cannabis, as also may be anxiolytic effects. If this was the case in humans, the latter might be viewed as an advantage particularly by adolescent girls, although the increased weight gain associated with cannabis would be a disadvantage. The two drugs also have opposite effects on cognition and the possibility of long-lasting cognitive impairments resulting from adolescent consumption of cannabis is of particular concern.

  1. On the Vacuum-Interaction of Two Parallel Cosmic Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordag, M.

    Cosmic strings are well known solutions of the Einstein equations. In classical physics there is no interaction between such strings. In quantum physics there is an interaction due to vacuum fluctuations like the well known Casimir effect. The interaction energy is calculated in the case of two parallel cosmic strings and shows an attractive force between them.Translated AbstractZur Vakuumwechselwirkung zweier paralleler kosmischer StringsKosmische Strings sind wohlbekannte Lösungen der Einsteinschen Gleichungen. Im Rahmen der klassischen Physik gibt es keine Wechselwirkungen zwischen den Strings. In der Quantenphysik erhalten wir eine Wechselwirkung infolge Vakuumfluktuationen wie im Fall des Casimir-Effekts. Wir berechnen die Wechselwirkungsenergie für den Fall zweier paralleler kosmischer Strings und zeigen, daß eine anziehende Kraft zwischen ihnen besteht.

  2. An interactive parallel programming environment applied in atmospheric science

    SciTech Connect

    Laszewski, G. von

    1996-12-31

    This article introduces an interactive parallel programming environment (IPPE) that simplifies the generation and execution of parallel programs. One of the tasks of the environment is to generate message-passing parallel programs for homogeneous and heterogeneous computing platforms. The parallel programs are represented by using visual objects. This is accomplished with the help of a graphical programming editor that is implemented in Java and enables portability to a wide variety of computer platforms. In contrast to other graphical programming systems, reusable parts of the programs can be stored in a program library to support rapid prototyping. In addition, runtime performance data on different computing platforms is collected in a database. A selection process determines dynamically the software and the hardware platform to be used to solve the problem in minimal wall-clock time. The environment is currently being tested on a Grand Challenge problem, the NASA four-dimensional data assimilation system.

  3. An interactive parallel programming environment applied in atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonLaszewski, G.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces an interactive parallel programming environment (IPPE) that simplifies the generation and execution of parallel programs. One of the tasks of the environment is to generate message-passing parallel programs for homogeneous and heterogeneous computing platforms. The parallel programs are represented by using visual objects. This is accomplished with the help of a graphical programming editor that is implemented in Java and enables portability to a wide variety of computer platforms. In contrast to other graphical programming systems, reusable parts of the programs can be stored in a program library to support rapid prototyping. In addition, runtime performance data on different computing platforms is collected in a database. A selection process determines dynamically the software and the hardware platform to be used to solve the problem in minimal wall-clock time. The environment is currently being tested on a Grand Challenge problem, the NASA four-dimensional data assimilation system.

  4. IPython: components for interactive and parallel computing across disciplines. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Bussonnier, M.; Frederic, J. D.; Froehle, B. M.; Granger, B. E.; Ivanov, P.; Kluyver, T.; Patterson, E.; Ragan-Kelley, B.; Sailer, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific computing is an inherently exploratory activity that requires constantly cycling between code, data and results, each time adjusting the computations as new insights and questions arise. To support such a workflow, good interactive environments are critical. The IPython project (http://ipython.org) provides a rich architecture for interactive computing with: 1. Terminal-based and graphical interactive consoles. 2. A web-based Notebook system with support for code, text, mathematical expressions, inline plots and other rich media. 3. Easy to use, high performance tools for parallel computing. Despite its roots in Python, the IPython architecture is designed in a language-agnostic way to facilitate interactive computing in any language. This allows users to mix Python with Julia, R, Octave, Ruby, Perl, Bash and more, as well as to develop native clients in other languages that reuse the IPython clients. In this talk, I will show how IPython supports all stages in the lifecycle of a scientific idea: 1. Individual exploration. 2. Collaborative development. 3. Production runs with parallel resources. 4. Publication. 5. Education. In particular, the IPython Notebook provides an environment for "literate computing" with a tight integration of narrative and computation (including parallel computing). These Notebooks are stored in a JSON-based document format that provides an "executable paper": notebooks can be version controlled, exported to HTML or PDF for publication, and used for teaching.

  5. Framework for Interactive Parallel Dataset Analysis on the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, David A.; Ananthan, Balamurali; Johnson, Tony; Serbo, Victor; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    We present a framework for use at a typical Grid site to facilitate custom interactive parallel dataset analysis targeting terabyte-scale datasets of the type typically produced by large multi-institutional science experiments. We summarize the needs for interactive analysis and show a prototype solution that satisfies those needs. The solution consists of desktop client tool and a set of Web Services that allow scientists to sign onto a Grid site, compose analysis script code to carry out physics analysis on datasets, distribute the code and datasets to worker nodes, collect the results back to the client, and to construct professional-quality visualizations of the results.

  6. Bundle formation in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sandipan; Benetatos, P.; Jho, Y. S.

    2016-04-01

    Aggregation of like-charged polymers is widely observed in biological- and soft-matter systems. In many systems, bundles are formed when a short-range attraction of diverse physical origin like charge bridging, hydrogen bonding or hydrophobic interaction, overcomes the longer-range charge repulsion. In this letter, we present a general mechanism of bundle formation in these systems as the breaking of the translational invariance in parallel aligned polymers with competing interactions of this type. We derive a criterion for finite-sized bundle formation as well as for macroscopic phase separation (formation of infinite bundles).

  7. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality.

  8. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. PMID:26491835

  9. Dynamic interaction of parallel moving ships in close proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Rafiqul; Murai, Motohiko

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, there are many studies conducted in the field of marine hydrodynamics which focus on two vessels traveling and floating in sufficiently close proximity to experience significant interactions. The hydrodynamic behavior of parallel moving ships in waves is an interesting and important topic of late. A numerical investigation has been carried out for the prediction of wave exciting forces and motion responses of parallel moving ships in regular waves. The numerical solution was based on 3D distribution technique and using the linear wave theory to determine the exciting forces and ship's motion. The speed effects have been considered in the Green function for more realistic results. The numerical computations of wave exciting forces and motion responses were carried out for a Mariner and Series 60 for the purpose of discovering different Froude numbers and different separation distances in head sea conditions. Based on the numerical computations, it was revealed that the sway, roll and yaw have a significant effect due to hydrodynamic interaction.

  10. Interaction of a turbulent vortex with a lifting surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. J.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    The impulsive noise due to blade-vortex-interaction is analyzing in the time domain for the extreme case when the blade cuts through the center of the vortex core with the assumptions of no distortion of the vortex path or of the vortex core. An analytical turbulent vortex core model, described in terms of the tip aerodynamic parameters, is used and its effects on the unsteady loading and maximum acoustic pressure during the interaction are determined.

  11. Theoretical study and prediction of BVI noise including close interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Pierre; Rahier, Gilles

    1991-05-01

    The following study deals with the highly impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise which is generated by helicopter main rotors in descent flight. Two computer codes have been especially designed to predict it at reduced computing costs, starting from given vortices. The aerodynamic code, called MAIR, predicts the unsteady airloads, even for head-on collisions, by using a singularity method and modeling the vortices as cloud vortices with viscous cores. The acoustic code, called PARIS, computes the resulting radiated loading noise and is based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. These two codes are ready to perform noise prediction in the flight cases but the vortex prediction required for input data still needs to be improved. While waiting for better wake data, the two codes have been used for a theoretical parametric study of arbitrary single blade-vortex interactions. This study gives a physical insight of the phenomenon and its predicted tendencies could help designing quieter blades.

  12. Social interaction shapes babbling: Testing parallels between birdsong and speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Michael H.; King, Andrew P.; West, Meredith J.

    2003-06-01

    Birdsong is considered a model of human speech development at behavioral and neural levels. Few direct tests of the proposed analogs exist, however. Here we test a mechanism of phonological development in human infants that is based on social shaping, a selective learning process first documented in songbirds. By manipulating mothers' reactions to their 8-month-old infants' vocalizations, we demonstrate that phonological features of babbling are sensitive to nonimitative social stimulation. Contingent, but not noncontingent, maternal behavior facilitates more complex and mature vocal behavior. Changes in vocalizations persist after the manipulation. The data show that human infants use social feedback, facilitating immediate transitions in vocal behavior. Social interaction creates rapid shifts to developmentally more advanced sounds. These transitions mirror the normal development of speech, supporting the predictions of the avian social shaping model. These data provide strong support for a parallel in function between vocal precursors of songbirds and infants. Because imitation is usually considered the mechanism for vocal learning in both taxa, the findings introduce social shaping as a general process underlying the development of speech and song.

  13. Social interaction shapes babbling: testing parallels between birdsong and speech.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Michael H; King, Andrew P; West, Meredith J

    2003-06-24

    Birdsong is considered a model of human speech development at behavioral and neural levels. Few direct tests of the proposed analogs exist, however. Here we test a mechanism of phonological development in human infants that is based on social shaping, a selective learning process first documented in songbirds. By manipulating mothers' reactions to their 8-month-old infants' vocalizations, we demonstrate that phonological features of babbling are sensitive to nonimitative social stimulation. Contingent, but not noncontingent, maternal behavior facilitates more complex and mature vocal behavior. Changes in vocalizations persist after the manipulation. The data show that human infants use social feedback, facilitating immediate transitions in vocal behavior. Social interaction creates rapid shifts to developmentally more advanced sounds. These transitions mirror the normal development of speech, supporting the predictions of the avian social shaping model. These data provide strong support for a parallel in function between vocal precursors of songbirds and infants. Because imitation is usually considered the mechanism for vocal learning in both taxa, the findings introduce social shaping as a general process underlying the development of speech and song.

  14. Parallel Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction: A tool for the large scale analysis of gene-gene interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bush, William S.; Dudek, Scott M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Parallel multifactor dimensionality reduction is a tool for large scale analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The MDR algorithm was redesigned to allow an unlimited number of study subjects, total variables, and variable states, and to remove restrictions on the order of interactions being analyzed. In addition, the algorithm is markedly more efficient, with an approximately 150-fold decrease in runtime for equivalent analyses. To facilitate the processing of large datasets, the algorithm was made parallel. PMID:16809395

  15. Parasites and biological invasions: parallels, interactions, and control.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison M; Hatcher, Melanie J

    2015-05-01

    Species distributions are changing at an unprecedented rate owing to human activity. We examine how two key processes of redistribution - biological invasion and disease emergence - are interlinked. There are many parallels between invasion and emergence processes, and invasions can drive the spread of new diseases to wildlife. We examine the potential impacts of invasion and disease emergence, and discuss how these threats can be countered, focusing on biosecurity. In contrast with international policy on emerging diseases of humans and managed species, policy on invasive species and parasites of wildlife is fragmented, and the lack of international cooperation encourages individual parties to minimize their input into control. We call for international policy that acknowledges the strong links between emerging diseases and invasion risk.

  16. Bayesian seismic tomography by parallel interacting Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesret, Alexandrine; Bottero, Alexis; Romary, Thomas; Noble, Mark; Desassis, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The velocity field estimated by first arrival traveltime tomography is commonly used as a starting point for further seismological, mineralogical, tectonic or similar analysis. In order to interpret quantitatively the results, the tomography uncertainty values as well as their spatial distribution are required. The estimated velocity model is obtained through inverse modeling by minimizing an objective function that compares observed and computed traveltimes. This step is often performed by gradient-based optimization algorithms. The major drawback of such local optimization schemes, beyond the possibility of being trapped in a local minimum, is that they do not account for the multiple possible solutions of the inverse problem. They are therefore unable to assess the uncertainties linked to the solution. Within a Bayesian (probabilistic) framework, solving the tomography inverse problem aims at estimating the posterior probability density function of velocity model using a global sampling algorithm. Markov chains Monte-Carlo (MCMC) methods are known to produce samples of virtually any distribution. In such a Bayesian inversion, the total number of simulations we can afford is highly related to the computational cost of the forward model. Although fast algorithms have been recently developed for computing first arrival traveltimes of seismic waves, the complete browsing of the posterior distribution of velocity model is hardly performed, especially when it is high dimensional and/or multimodal. In the latter case, the chain may even stay stuck in one of the modes. In order to improve the mixing properties of classical single MCMC, we propose to make interact several Markov chains at different temperatures. This method can make efficient use of large CPU clusters, without increasing the global computational cost with respect to classical MCMC and is therefore particularly suited for Bayesian inversion. The exchanges between the chains allow a precise sampling of the

  17. A parallel graded-mesh FDTD algorithm for human-antenna interaction problems.

    PubMed

    Catarinucci, Luca; Tarricone, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    The finite difference time domain method (FDTD) is frequently used for the numerical solution of a wide variety of electromagnetic (EM) problems and, among them, those concerning human exposure to EM fields. In many practical cases related to the assessment of occupational EM exposure, large simulation domains are modeled and high space resolution adopted, so that strong memory and central processing unit power requirements have to be satisfied. To better afford the computational effort, the use of parallel computing is a winning approach; alternatively, subgridding techniques are often implemented. However, the simultaneous use of subgridding schemes and parallel algorithms is very new. In this paper, an easy-to-implement and highly-efficient parallel graded-mesh (GM) FDTD scheme is proposed and applied to human-antenna interaction problems, demonstrating its appropriateness in dealing with complex occupational tasks and showing its capability to guarantee the advantages of a traditional subgridding technique without affecting the parallel FDTD performance.

  18. Hippocampal-prefrontal dynamics in spatial working memory: interactions and independent parallel processing.

    PubMed

    Churchwell, John C; Kesner, Raymond P

    2011-12-01

    Memory processes may be independent, compete, operate in parallel, or interact. In accordance with this view, behavioral studies suggest that the hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may act as an integrated circuit during performance of tasks that require working memory over longer delays, whereas during short delays the HPC and PFC may operate in parallel or have completely dissociable functions. In the present investigation we tested rats in a spatial delayed non-match to sample working memory task using short and long time delays to evaluate the hypothesis that intermediate CA1 region of the HPC (iCA1) and medial PFC (mPFC) interact and operate in parallel under different temporal working memory constraints. In order to assess the functional role of these structures, we used an inactivation strategy in which each subject received bilateral chronic cannula implantation of the iCA1 and mPFC, allowing us to perform bilateral, contralateral, ipsilateral, and combined bilateral inactivation of structures and structure pairs within each subject. This novel approach allowed us to test for circuit-level systems interactions, as well as independent parallel processing, while we simultaneously parametrically manipulated the temporal dimension of the task. The current results suggest that, at longer delays, iCA1 and mPFC interact to coordinate retrospective and prospective memory processes in anticipation of obtaining a remote goal, whereas at short delays either structure may independently represent spatial information sufficient to successfully complete the task. PMID:21839780

  19. Cell interaction with graphene microsheets: near-orthogonal cutting versus parallel attachment.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2015-03-12

    Recent experiments indicate that graphene microsheets can either undergo a near-orthogonal cutting or a parallel attachment mode of interaction with cell membranes. Here we perform a theoretical analysis to characterize the deformed membrane microstructure and investigate how these two interaction modes are influenced by the splay, tilt, compression, tension, bending and adhesion energies of the membrane. Our analysis indicates that, driven by the membrane splay and tension energies, a two-dimensional microsheet such as graphene would adopt a near-perpendicular configuration with respect to the membrane in the transmembrane penetration mode, whereas the membrane bending and tension energies would lead to parallel attachment in the absence of cross membrane penetration. These interaction modes may have broad implications in applications involving drug delivery, cell encapsulation and protection, and the measurement of the dynamic cell response. PMID:25732111

  20. Interactive Parallel Data Analysis within Data-Centric Cluster Facilities using the IPython Notebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, S.; Lansdowne, J.; Iwi, A.; Stephens, A.; Kershaw, P.

    2012-12-01

    The data deluge is making traditional analysis workflows for many researchers obsolete. Support for parallelism within popular tools such as matlab, IDL and NCO is not well developed and rarely used. However parallelism is necessary for processing modern data volumes on a timescale conducive to curiosity-driven analysis. Furthermore, for peta-scale datasets such as the CMIP5 archive, it is no longer practical to bring an entire dataset to a researcher's workstation for analysis, or even to their institutional cluster. Therefore, there is an increasing need to develop new analysis platforms which both enable processing at the point of data storage and which provides parallelism. Such an environment should, where possible, maintain the convenience and familiarity of our current analysis environments to encourage curiosity-driven research. We describe how we are combining the interactive python shell (IPython) with our JASMIN data-cluster infrastructure. IPython has been specifically designed to bridge the gap between the HPC-style parallel workflows and the opportunistic curiosity-driven analysis usually carried out using domain specific languages and scriptable tools. IPython offers a web-based interactive environment, the IPython notebook, and a cluster engine for parallelism all underpinned by the well-respected Python/Scipy scientific programming stack. JASMIN is designed to support the data analysis requirements of the UK and European climate and earth system modeling community. JASMIN, with its sister facility CEMS focusing the earth observation community, has 4.5 PB of fast parallel disk storage alongside over 370 computing cores provide local computation. Through the IPython interface to JASMIN, users can make efficient use of JASMIN's multi-core virtual machines to perform interactive analysis on all cores simultaneously or can configure IPython clusters across multiple VMs. Larger-scale clusters can be provisioned through JASMIN's batch scheduling system

  1. A Theory of Interactive Parallel Processing: New Capacity Measures and Predictions for a Response Time Inequality Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, James T.; Wenger, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a theory of stochastic interactive parallel processing with special emphasis on channel interactions and their relation to system capacity. The approach is based both on linear systems theory augmented with stochastic elements and decisional operators and on a metatheory of parallel channels' dependencies that incorporates…

  2. Interferometer Development for Study of Interactions between Flames on Parallel Solid Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, J. S.; Urban, D. L.; Yuan, Z. G.

    1999-01-01

    The interactions between flames spreading over parallel solid sheets of paper are being studied in normal gravity and in microgravity. This geometry provides interesting opportunities to study the interaction of radiative and diffusive transport mechanisms on the spread process. These transport mechanisms are changed when the flame interacts with other flames. Most practical heterogeneous combustion processes involve interacting discrete burning fuel elements, consequently, the study of these interactions is of practical significance. Owing largely to this practical importance, flame interactions have been an area of active research, however microgravity research has been largely limited to droplets. Consideration of flame spread over parallel solid surfaces has been limited to 1-g studies. To study the conductive transport in these flames, an interferometer system has been developed for use in the drop tower. The system takes advantage of a single beam interferometer: Point Diffraction Interferometry (PDI) which uses a portion of the light through the test section to provide the reference beam. Like other interferometric and Schlieren systems, it is a line of sight measurement and is subject to the usual edge and concentration effects. The advantage over Schlieren and shearing interferometry systems is that the fringes are lines of constant index of refraction rather than of its gradient so the images are more readily interpreted. The disadvantage is that it is less able to accommodate a range of temperature gradients.

  3. Modeling of fatigue crack induced nonlinear ultrasonics using a highly parallelized explicit local interaction simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.

  4. Parallel implementation of three-dimensional molecular dynamic simulation for laser-cluster interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Holkundkar, Amol R.

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this article is to report the parallel implementation of the 3D molecular dynamic simulation code for laser-cluster interactions. The benchmarking of the code has been done by comparing the simulation results with some of the experiments reported in the literature. Scaling laws for the computational time is established by varying the number of processor cores and number of macroparticles used. The capabilities of the code are highlighted by implementing various diagnostic tools. To study the dynamics of the laser-cluster interactions, the executable version of the code is available from the author.

  5. Formation of electron kappa distributions due to interactions with parallel propagating whistler waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, X. Lu, Q.

    2014-02-15

    In space plasmas, charged particles are frequently observed to possess a high-energy tail, which is often modeled by a kappa-type distribution function. In this work, the formation of the electron kappa distribution in generation of parallel propagating whistler waves is investigated using fully nonlinear particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A previous research concluded that the bi-Maxwellian character of electron distributions is preserved in PIC simulations. We now demonstrate that for interactions between electrons and parallel propagating whistler waves, a non-Maxwellian high-energy tail can be formed, and a kappa distribution can be used to fit the electron distribution in time-asymptotic limit. The κ-parameter is found to decrease with increasing initial temperature anisotropy or decreasing ratio of electron plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency. The results might be helpful to understanding the origin of electron kappa distributions observed in space plasmas.

  6. Nice Guys Finish Fast and Bad Guys Finish Last: Facilitatory vs. Inhibitory Interaction in Parallel Systems

    PubMed Central

    Eidels, Ami; Houpt, Joseph W.; Altieri, Nicholas; Pei, Lei; Townsend, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Systems Factorial Technology is a powerful framework for investigating the fundamental properties of human information processing such as architecture (i.e., serial or parallel processing) and capacity (how processing efficiency is affected by increased workload). The Survivor Interaction Contrast (SIC) and the Capacity Coefficient are effective measures in determining these underlying properties, based on response-time data. Each of the different architectures, under the assumption of independent processing, predicts a specific form of the SIC along with some range of capacity. In this study, we explored SIC predictions of discrete-state (Markov process) and continuous-state (Linear Dynamic) models that allow for certain types of cross-channel interaction. The interaction can be facilitatory or inhibitory: one channel can either facilitate, or slow down processing in its counterpart. Despite the relative generality of these models, the combination of the architecture-oriented plus the capacity oriented analyses provide for precise identification of the underlying system. PMID:21516183

  7. Screening antibody-antigen interactions in parallel using Biacore A100.

    PubMed

    Säfsten, Pär; Klakamp, Scott L; Drake, Andrew W; Karlsson, Robert; Myszka, David G

    2006-06-15

    Label-free optical biosensor technology has become a standard tool for characterizing monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The availability of high-quality binding data at an early stage greatly improves the ability to select antibodies for further development. This article shows how Biacore A100, a protein interaction array system, is capable of providing high-quality data with increased throughput. In a 12-h automated run, we analyzed 386 crude hybridoma samples to identify those with the desired kinetic profiles. Selected antibodies were further characterized by higher resolution analysis, and binding interactions were studied under a range of buffer conditions. We demonstrate how this new parallel processing system significantly expands the throughput of protein interaction analysis while maintaining data quality.

  8. Dynamical interaction effects on an electric dipole moving parallel to a flat solid surface

    SciTech Connect

    Villo-Perez, Isidro; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Arista, Nestor R.

    2005-05-15

    The interaction experienced by a fast electric dipole moving parallel and close to a flat solid surface is studied using the dielectric formalism. Analytical expressions for the force acting on the dipole, for random and for particular orientations, are obtained. Several features related to the dynamical effects on the induced forces are discussed, and numerical values are obtained for the different cases. The calculated energy loss of the electric dipole provides useful estimations which could be of interest for small-angle scattering experiments using polar molecules.

  9. Interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia with Acanthamoeba castellanii parallels macrophage-fungus interactions.

    PubMed

    Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven; Baré, Julie; Pasmans, Frank; Claeys, Myriam; Bert, Wim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Houf, Kurt; Martel, An

    2013-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus and free-living amoebae are common inhabitants of soil. Mechanisms of A. fumigatus to circumvent the amoeba's digestion may facilitate overcoming the vertebrate macrophage defence mechanisms. We performed co-culture experiments using A. fumigatus conidia and the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. Approximately 25% of the amoebae ingested A. fumigatus conidia after 1 h of contact. During intra-amoebal passage, part of the ingested conidia was able to escape the food vacuole and to germinate inside the cytoplasm of A. castellanii. Fungal release into the extra-protozoan environment by exocytosis of conidia or by germination was observed with light and transmission electron microscopy. These processes resulted in structural changes in A. castellanii, leading to amoebal permeabilization without cell lysis. In conclusion, A. castellanii internalizes A. fumigatus conidia, resulting in fungal intracellular germination and subsequent amoebal death. As such, this interaction highly resembles that of A. fumigatus with mammalian and avian macrophages. This suggests that A. fumigatus virulence mechanisms to evade macrophage killing may be acquired by co-evolutionary interactions among A. fumigatus and environmental amoebae. PMID:24249290

  10. Interaction of elastocapillary flows in parallel microchannels across a thin membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. P.; Samy, R. A.; Sen, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    We report the interaction of counter elastocapillary flows in parallel microchannels across a thin membrane. At the crossing point, the interaction between the capillary flows via the thin membrane leads to significant retardation of capillary flow. The drop in velocity at the crossing point and velocity variation after the crossing point are predicted using the analytical model and measured from experiments. A non-dimensional parameter J, which is the ratio of the capillary force to the mechanical restoring force, governs the drop in velocity at the crossing point with the maximum drop of about 60% for J = 1. The meniscus velocity after the crossing point decreases (J < 0.5), remains constant (0.5 < J < 0.6), or increases (J > 0.6) depending on the value of J. The proposed technique can be applied for the manipulation of capillary flows in microchannels.

  11. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  12. Electromagnetic semitransparent δ-function plate: Casimir interaction energy between parallel infinitesimally thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Prachi; Milton, Kimball A.; Shajesh, K. V.; Schaden, M.

    2012-10-01

    We derive boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields on a δ-function plate. The optical properties of such a plate are shown to necessarily be anisotropic in that they only depend on the transverse properties of the plate. We unambiguously obtain the boundary conditions for a perfectly conducting δ-function plate in the limit of infinite dielectric response. We show that a material does not “optically vanish” in the thin-plate limit. The thin-plate limit of a plasma slab of thickness d with plasma frequency ωp2=ζp/d reduces to a δ-function plate for frequencies (ω=iζ) satisfying ζd≪ζpd≪1. We show that the Casimir interaction energy between two parallel perfectly conducting δ-function plates is the same as that for parallel perfectly conducting slabs. Similarly, we show that the interaction energy between an atom and a perfect electrically conducting δ-function plate is the usual Casimir-Polder energy, which is verified by considering the thin-plate limit of dielectric slabs. The “thick” and “thin” boundary conditions considered by Bordag are found to be identical in the sense that they lead to the same electromagnetic fields.

  13. A Parallel Monolithic Approach for Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Cerebral Aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Eken, Ali

    2014-11-01

    A parallel fully-coupled approach has been developed for the fluid-structure interaction problem in a cerebral artery with aneurysm. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation based on the side-centered unstructured finite volume method is employed for the governing incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the classical Galerkin finite element formulation is used to discretize the constitutive law for the Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material in a Lagrangian frame for the solid domain. The time integration method for the structure domain is based on the energy conserving mid-point method while the second-order backward difference is used within the fluid domain. The resulting large-scale algebraic linear equations are solved using a one-level restricted additive Schwarz preconditioner with a block-incomplete factorization within each partitioned sub-domains. The parallel implementation of the present fully coupled unstructured fluid-structure solver is based on the PETSc library. The proposed numerical algorithm is initially validated for several classical benchmark problems and then applied to a more complicated problem involving unsteady pulsatile blood flow in a cerebral artery with aneurysm as a realistic fluid-structure interaction problem encountered in biomechanics. The authors acknowledge financial support from Turkish National Scientific and Technical Research Council through Project Number 112M107.

  14. Structure and effective interactions in parallel monolayers of charged spherical colloids.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Aburto, C; Méndez-Alcaraz, J M; Castañeda-Priego, R

    2010-05-01

    We study the microstructure and the effective interactions of model suspensions consisting of Yukawa-like colloidal particles homogeneously distributed in equally spaced parallel planar monolayers. All the particles interact with each other, but particle transfer between monolayers is not allowed. The spacing between the layers defines the effective system dimensionality. When the layer spacing is comparable to the particle size, the system shows quasi-three-dimensional behavior, whereas for large distances the layers behave as effective two-dimensional systems. We find that effective attractions between like-charged particles can be triggered by adjusting the interlayer spacing, showing that the distance between adjacent layers is an excellent control parameter for the effective interparticle interactions. Our study is based on Brownian dynamics simulations and the integral equations theory of liquids. The effective potentials are accounted for by exploiting the invariance of the Ornstein-Zernike matrix equation under contractions of the description, and on assuming that the difference between bare and effective bridge functions can be neglected. We find that the hypernetted chain approximation does not account properly for the effective interactions in layered systems. PMID:20459160

  15. Rotor-vortex interaction noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to develop a validated first principles analysis for predicting noise generated by helicopter main-rotor shed vortices interacting with the tail rotor. The generalized prediction procedure requires a knowledge of the incident vortex velocity field, rotor geometry, and rotor operating conditions. The analysis includes compressibility effects, chordwise and spanwise noncompactness, and treats oblique intersections with the blade planform. Assessment of the theory involved conducting a model rotor experiment which isolated the blade-vortex interaction noise from other rotor noise mechanisms. An isolated tip vortex, generated by an upstream semispan airfoil, was convected into the model tail rotor. Acoustic spectra, pressure signatures, and directivity were measured. Since assessment of the acoustic prediction required a knowledge of the vortex properties, blade-vortes intersection angle, intersection station, vortex stength, and vortex core radius were documented. Ingestion of the vortex by the rotor was experimentally observed to generate harmonic noise and impulsive waveforms.

  16. Use of Hilbert Curves in Parallelized CUDA code: Interaction of Interstellar Atoms with the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefano, Anthony; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Fully 3D particle simulations can be a computationally and memory expensive task, especially when high resolution grid cells are required. The problem becomes further complicated when parallelization is needed. In this work we focus on computational methods to solve these difficulties. Hilbert curves are used to map the 3D particle space to the 1D contiguous memory space. This method of organization allows for minimized cache misses on the GPU as well as a sorted structure that is equivalent to an octal tree data structure. This type of sorted structure is attractive for uses in adaptive mesh implementations due to the logarithm search time. Implementations using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library and NVIDIA's parallel computing platform CUDA will be compared, as MPI is commonly used on server nodes with many CPU's. We will also compare static grid structures with those of adaptive mesh structures. The physical test bed will be simulating heavy interstellar atoms interacting with a background plasma, the heliosphere, simulated from fully consistent coupled MHD/kinetic particle code. It is known that charge exchange is an important factor in space plasmas, specifically it modifies the structure of the heliosphere itself. We would like to thank the Alabama Supercomputer Authority for the use of their computational resources.

  17. Determination of interaction forces between parallel dislocations by the evaluation of J integrals of plane elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubarda, Vlado A.

    2016-03-01

    The Peach-Koehler expressions for the glide and climb components of the force exerted on a straight dislocation in an infinite isotropic medium by another straight dislocation are derived by evaluating the plane and antiplane strain versions of J integrals around the center of the dislocation. After expressing the elastic fields as the sums of elastic fields of each dislocation, the energy momentum tensor is decomposed into three parts. It is shown that only one part, involving mixed products from the two dislocation fields, makes a nonvanishing contribution to J integrals and the corresponding dislocation forces. Three examples are considered, with dislocations on parallel or intersecting slip planes. For two edge dislocations on orthogonal slip planes, there are two equilibrium configurations in which the glide and climb components of the dislocation force simultaneously vanish. The interactions between two different types of screw dislocations and a nearby circular void, as well as between parallel line forces in an infinite or semi-infinite medium, are then evaluated.

  18. Parallel 3D computation of unsteady wake flows with complex geometries and fluid-structure interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yasuo

    New powerful parallel computational tools are developed for 3D simulation of unsteady wake flows with complex geometries and fluid-structure interactions. The base method for flow simulation is a finite element formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element formulation is based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) and pressure-stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) techniques. These stabilization techniques facilitate simulation of flows with high Reynolds numbers, and allow us to use equal-order interpolation functions for velocity and pressure without generating numerical oscillations. A multi-domain computational method is developed to simulate wake flow both in the near and far downstream. The formulations lead to coupled nonlinear equation systems which are solved, at every time step, with the Newton-Raphson method. The overall formulation and solution techniques are implemented on parallel platforms such as the CRAY T3E and SGI PowerChallenge. Two phases of vortex shedding for flow past a cylinder is simulated to verify the accuracy of this method. The Enhanced-Discretization Interface Capturing Technique (EDICT) is utilized to simulate wake flow accurately. Fluid-structure coupling solution method based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation is applied to simulate a parachute behavior in the unsteady wake.

  19. Discovery of protein interactions using parallel analysis of translated ORFs (PLATO).

    PubMed

    Larman, H Benjamin; Liang, Anthony C; Elledge, Stephen J; Zhu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Parallel analysis of translated open reading frames (ORFs) (PLATO) can be used for the unbiased discovery of interactions between full-length proteins encoded by a library of 'prey' ORFs and surface-immobilized 'bait' antibodies, polypeptides or small-molecular-weight compounds. PLATO uses ribosome display (RD) to link ORF-derived mRNA molecules to the proteins they encode, and recovered mRNA from affinity enrichment is subjected to analysis using massively parallel DNA sequencing. Compared with alternative in vitro methods, PLATO provides several advantages including library size and cost. A unique advantage of PLATO is that an alternative reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) protocol can be used to test binding of specific, individual proteins. To illustrate a typical experimental workflow, we demonstrate PLATO for the identification of the immune target of serum antibodies from patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM). Beginning with an ORFeome library in an RD vector, the protocol can produce samples for deep sequencing or RT-qPCR within 4 d. PMID:24336473

  20. Extensions of parallel coordinates for interactive exploration of large multi-timepoint data sets.

    PubMed

    Blaas, Jorik; Botha, Charl P; Post, Frits H

    2008-01-01

    Parallel coordinate plots (PCPs) are commonly used in information visualization to provide insight into multi-variate data. These plots help to spot correlations between variables. PCPs have been successfully applied to unstructured datasets up to a few millions of points. In this paper, we present techniques to enhance the usability of PCPs for the exploration of large, multi-timepoint volumetric data sets, containing tens of millions of points per timestep. The main difficulties that arise when applying PCPs to large numbers of data points are visual clutter and slow performance, making interactive exploration infeasible. Moreover, the spatial context of the volumetric data is usually lost. We describe techniques for preprocessing using data quantization and compression, and for fast GPU-based rendering of PCPs using joint density distributions for each pair of consecutive variables, resulting in a smooth, continuous visualization. Also, fast brushing techniques are proposed for interactive data selection in multiple linked views, including a 3D spatial volume view. These techniques have been successfully applied to three large data sets: Hurricane Isabel (Vis'04 contest), the ionization front instability data set (Vis'08 design contest), and data from a large-eddy simulation of cumulus clouds. With these data, we show how PCPs can be extended to successfully visualize and interactively explore multi-timepoint volumetric datasets with an order of magnitude more data points.

  1. Numerical investigation of two interacting parallel thruster-plumes and comparison to experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabe, Martin; Holz, André; Ziegenhagen, Stefan; Hannemann, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Clusters of orbital thrusters are an attractive option to achieve graduated thrust levels and increased redundancy with available hardware, but the heavily under-expanded plumes of chemical attitude control thrusters placed in close proximity will interact, leading to a local amplification of downstream fluxes and of back-flow onto the spacecraft. The interaction of two similar, parallel, axi-symmetric cold-gas model thrusters has recently been studied in the DLR High-Vacuum Plume Test Facility STG under space-like vacuum conditions, employing a Patterson-type impact pressure probe with slot orifice. We reproduce a selection of these experiments numerically, and emphasise that a comparison of numerical results to the measured data is not straight-forward. The signal of the probe used in the experiments must be interpreted according to the degree of rarefaction and local flow Mach number, and both vary dramatically thoughout the flow-field. We present a procedure to reconstruct the probe signal by post-processing the numerically obtained flow-field data and show that agreement to the experimental results is then improved. Features of the investigated cold-gas thruster plume interaction are discussed on the basis of the numerical results.

  2. Hydrodynamic interactions of spherical particles in Poiseuille flow between two parallel walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Bławzdziewicz, J.; Wajnryb, E.

    2006-05-01

    We study hydrodynamic interactions of spherical particles in incident Poiseuille flow in a channel with infinite planar walls. The particles are suspended in a Newtonian fluid, and creeping-flow conditions are assumed. Numerical results, obtained using our highly accurate Cartesian-representation algorithm [Physica A 356, 294 (2005)] are presented for a single sphere, two spheres, and arrays of many spheres. We consider the motion of freely suspended particles as well as the forces and torques acting on particles adsorbed at a wall. We find that the pair hydrodynamic interactions in this wall-bounded system have a complex dependence on the lateral interparticle distance due to the combined effects of the dissipation in the gap between the particle surfaces and the backflow associated with the presence of the walls. For immobile particle pairs we have examined the crossover between several far-field asymptotic regimes corresponding to different relations between the particle separation and the distances of the particles from the walls. We have also shown that the cumulative effect of the far-field flow substantially influences the force distribution in arrays of immobile spheres, and it affects trajectories of suspended particles. Therefore, the far-field contributions should be included in any reliable algorithm for evaluating many-particle hydrodynamic interactions in the parallel-wall geometry.

  3. Interactions and thermoelectric effects in a parallel-coupled double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Miguel A.; Saiz-Bretín, M.; Domínguez-Adame, F.; Sánchez, David

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium transport properties of a double quantum-dot system connected in parallel to two leads, including intradot electron-electron interaction. In the absence of interactions, the system supports a bound state in the continuum. This state is revealed as a Fano antiresonance in the transmission when the energy levels of the dots are detuned. Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's-function formalism, we find that the occurrence of the Fano antiresonance survives in the presence of Coulomb repulsion. We give precise predictions for the experimental detection of bound states in the continuum. First, we calculate the differential conductance as a function of the applied voltage and the dot level detuning and find that crossing points in the diamond structure are revealed as minima due to the transmission antiresonances. Second, we determine the thermoelectric current in response to an applied temperature bias. In the linear regime, quantum interference gives rise to sharp peaks in the thermoelectric conductance. Remarkably, we find interaction-induced strong current nonlinearities for large thermal gradients that may lead to several nontrivial zeros in the thermocurrent. The latter property is especially attractive for thermoelectric applications.

  4. Parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulation framework incorporating accurate models of adsorbate lateral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Jens; d'Avezac, Mayeul; Hetherington, James; Stamatakis, Michail

    2013-12-01

    Ab initio kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have been successfully applied for over two decades to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical phenomena on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts. These simulations necessitate detailed knowledge of the kinetics of elementary reactions constituting the reaction mechanism, and the energetics of the species participating in the chemistry. The information about the energetics is encoded in the formation energies of gas and surface-bound species, and the lateral interactions between adsorbates on the catalytic surface, which can be modeled at different levels of detail. The majority of previous works accounted for only pairwise-additive first nearest-neighbor interactions. More recently, cluster-expansion Hamiltonians incorporating long-range interactions and many-body terms have been used for detailed estimations of catalytic rate [C. Wu, D. J. Schmidt, C. Wolverton, and W. F. Schneider, J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. In view of the increasing interest in accurate predictions of catalytic performance, there is a need for general-purpose KMC approaches incorporating detailed cluster expansion models for the adlayer energetics. We have addressed this need by building on the previously introduced graph-theoretical KMC framework, and we have developed Zacros, a FORTRAN2003 KMC package for simulating catalytic chemistries. To tackle the high computational cost in the presence of long-range interactions we introduce parallelization with OpenMP. We further benchmark our framework by simulating a KMC analogue of the NO oxidation system established by Schneider and co-workers [J. Catal. 286, 88 (2012)]. We show that taking into account only first nearest-neighbor interactions may lead to large errors in the prediction of the catalytic rate, whereas for accurate estimates thereof, one needs to include long-range terms in the cluster expansion.

  5. A new cascaded control strategy for paralleled line-interactive UPS with LCL filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, X. H.; Li, L.; Luo, F.; Zhang, Y. S.

    2016-08-01

    Traditional uninterrupted power supply (UPS) is difficult to meet the output voltage quality and grid-side power quality requirements at the same time, and usually has some disadvantage, such as multi-stage conversion, complex structure, or harmonic current pollution to the utility grid and so on. A three-phase three-level paralleled line-interactive UPS with LCL filter is presented in this paper. It can achieve the output voltage quality and grid-side power quality control simultaneously with only single-conversion power stage, but the multi-objective control strategy design is difficult. Based on the detailed analysis of the circuit structure and operation mechanism, a new cascaded control strategy for the power, voltage, and current is proposed. An outer current control loop based on the resonant control theory is designed to ensure the grid-side power quality. An inner voltage control loop based on the capacitance voltage and capacitance current feedback is designed to ensure the output voltage quality and avoid the resonance peak of the LCL filter. Improved repetitive controller is added to reduce the distortion of the output voltage. The setting of the controller parameters is detailed discussed. A 100kVA UPS prototype is built and experiments under the unbalanced resistive load and nonlinear load are carried out. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show the effectiveness of the control strategy. The paralleled line-interactive UPS can not only remain constant three-phase balanced output voltage, but also has the comprehensive power quality management functions with three-phase balanced grid active power input, low THD of output voltage and grid current, and reactive power compensation. The UPS is a green friendly load to the utility.

  6. 3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Hess, S.; Mancini, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet-plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.

  7. Distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence and their interaction in parallel following a temporal hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Charis; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2015-04-15

    The cerebellum participates in emotion-related neural circuits formed by different cortical and subcortical areas, which sub-serve arousal and valence. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown a functional specificity of cerebellar lobules in the processing of emotional stimuli. However, little is known about the temporal component of this process. The goal of the current study is to assess the spatiotemporal profile of neural responses within the cerebellum during the processing of arousal and valence. We hypothesized that the excitation and timing of distinct cerebellar lobules is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli. By using magnetoencephalography, we recorded magnetic fields from twelve healthy human individuals while passively viewing affective pictures rated along arousal and valence. By using a beamformer, we localized gamma-band activity in the cerebellum across time and we related the foci of activity to the anatomical organization of the cerebellum. Successive cerebellar activations were observed within distinct lobules starting ~160ms after the stimuli onset. Arousal was processed within both vermal (VI and VIIIa) and hemispheric (left Crus II) lobules. Valence (left VI) and its interaction (left V and left Crus I) with arousal were processed only within hemispheric lobules. Arousal processing was identified first at early latencies (160ms) and was long-lived (until 980ms). In contrast, the processing of valence and its interaction to arousal was short lived at later stages (420-530ms and 570-640ms respectively). Our findings provide for the first time evidence that distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence, and their interaction in a parallel yet temporally hierarchical manner determined by the emotional content of the stimuli. PMID:25665964

  8. Experimental Studies of the Interaction Between a Parallel Shear Flow and a Directionally-Solidifying Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Meng; Maxworthy, Tony

    1999-01-01

    sample cell, driven by an outside rotating magnet, in order to generate the flow. However, it appears that this was not a well-controlled flow and may also have been unsteady. In the present experimental study, we want to study how a forced parallel shear flow in a Hele-Shaw cell interacts with the directionally solidifying crystal interface. The comparison of experimental data show that the parallel shear flow in a Hele-Shaw cell has a strong stabilizing effect on the planar interface by damping the existing initial perturbations. The flow also shows a stabilizing effect on the cellular interface by slightly reducing the exponential growth rate of cells. The left-right symmetry of cells is broken by the flow with cells tilting toward the incoming flow direction. The tilting angle increases with the velocity ratio. The experimental results are explained through the parallel flow effect on lateral solute transport. The phenomenon of cells tilting against the flow is consistent with the numerical result of Dantzig and Chao.

  9. Interaction of a Rectangular Jet with a Flat-Plate Placed Parallel to the Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Brown, C. A.; Bridges, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is carried out addressing the flowfield and radiated noise from the interaction of a large aspect ratio rectangular jet with a flat plate placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. Sound pressure level spectra exhibit an increase in the noise levels for both the 'reflected' and 'shielded' sides of the plate relative to the free-jet case. Detailed cross-sectional distributions of flowfield properties obtained by hot-wire anemometry are documented for a low subsonic condition. Corresponding mean Mach number distributions obtained by Pitot-probe surveys are presented for high subsonic conditions. In the latter flow regime and for certain relative locations of the plate, a flow resonance accompanied by audible tones is encountered. Under the resonant condition the jet cross-section experiences an 'axis-switching' and flow visualization indicates the presence of an organized 'vortex street'. The trends of the resonant frequency variation with flow parameters exhibit some similarities to, but also marked differences with, corresponding trends of the well-known edgetone phenomenon.

  10. Parallelization of the Flow Field Dependent Variation Scheme for Solving the Triple Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard Gregory; Chung, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    A parallelized version of the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method is developed to analyze a problem of current research interest, the flowfield resulting from a triple shock/boundary layer interaction. Such flowfields are often encountered in the inlets of high speed air-breathing vehicles including the NASA Hyper-X research vehicle. In order to resolve the complex shock structure and to provide adequate resolution for boundary layer computations of the convective heat transfer from surfaces inside the inlet, models containing over 500,000 nodes are needed. Efficient parallelization of the computation is essential to achieving results in a timely manner. Results from a parallelization scheme, based upon multi-threading, as implemented on multiple processor supercomputers and workstations is presented.

  11. Request queues for interactive clients in a shared file system of a parallel computing system

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin

    2015-08-18

    Interactive requests are processed from users of log-in nodes. A metadata server node is provided for use in a file system shared by one or more interactive nodes and one or more batch nodes. The interactive nodes comprise interactive clients to execute interactive tasks and the batch nodes execute batch jobs for one or more batch clients. The metadata server node comprises a virtual machine monitor; an interactive client proxy to store metadata requests from the interactive clients in an interactive client queue; a batch client proxy to store metadata requests from the batch clients in a batch client queue; and a metadata server to store the metadata requests from the interactive client queue and the batch client queue in a metadata queue based on an allocation of resources by the virtual machine monitor. The metadata requests can be prioritized, for example, based on one or more of a predefined policy and predefined rules.

  12. Parallel Simulation Algorithms for the Three Dimensional Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kabel, A.C.; /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    The strong-strong beam-beam effect is one of the most important effects limiting the luminosity of ring colliders. Little is known about it analytically, so most studies utilize numeric simulations. The two-dimensional realm is readily accessible to workstation-class computers (cf.,e.g.,[1, 2]), while three dimensions, which add effects such as phase averaging and the hourglass effect, require vastly higher amounts of CPU time. Thus, parallelization of three-dimensional simulation techniques is imperative; in the following we discuss parallelization strategies and describe the algorithms used in our simulation code, which will reach almost linear scaling of performance vs. number of CPUs for typical setups.

  13. LPIC++ a parallel one-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell code for simulating laser-plasma-interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfund, R. E. W.; Lichters, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    1998-02-01

    We report on a recently developed electromagnetic relativistic 1D3V (one spatial, three velocity dimensions) Particle-In-Cell code for simulating laser-plasma interaction at normal and oblique incidence. The code is written in C++ and easy to extend. The data structure is characterized by the use of chained lists for the grid cells as well as particles belonging to one cell. The parallel version of the code is based on PVM. It splits the grid into several spatial domains each belonging to one processor. Since particles can cross boundaries of cells as well as domains, the processor loads will generally change in time. This is counteracted by adjusting the domain sizes dynamically, for which the use of chained lists has proven to be very convenient. Moreover, an option for restarting the simulation from intermediate stages of the time evolution has been implemented even in the parallel version. The code will be published and distributed freely.

  14. Wave-particle interaction in parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasmas along open field magnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xianzhu

    2012-03-01

    A tokamak fusion reactor dumps a large amount of heat and particle flux to the divertor through the scrape-off plasma (SOL). Situation exists either by necessity or through deliberate design that the SOL plasma attains long mean-free-path along large segments of the open field lines. The rapid parallel streaming of electrons requires a large parallel electric field to maintain ambipolarity. The confining effect of the parallel electric field on electrons leads to a trap/passing boundary in the velocity space for electrons. In the normal situation where the upstream electron source populates both the trapped and passing region, a mechanism must exist to produce a flux across the electron trap/passing boundary. In a short mean-free-path plasma, this is provided by collisions. For long mean-free-path plasmas, wave-particle interaction is the primary candidate for detrapping the electrons. Here we present simulation results and a theoretical analysis using a model distribution function of trapped electrons. The dominating electromagnetic plasma instability and the associated collisionless scattering, that produces both particle and energy fluxes across the electron trap/passing boundary in velocity space, are discussed.

  15. A Lightweight Remote Parallel Visualization Platform for Interactive Massive Time-varying Climate Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Zhang, T.; Huang, Q.; Liu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Today's climate datasets are featured with large volume, high degree of spatiotemporal complexity and evolving fast overtime. As visualizing large volume distributed climate datasets is computationally intensive, traditional desktop based visualization applications fail to handle the computational intensity. Recently, scientists have developed remote visualization techniques to address the computational issue. Remote visualization techniques usually leverage server-side parallel computing capabilities to perform visualization tasks and deliver visualization results to clients through network. In this research, we aim to build a remote parallel visualization platform for visualizing and analyzing massive climate data. Our visualization platform was built based on Paraview, which is one of the most popular open source remote visualization and analysis applications. To further enhance the scalability and stability of the platform, we have employed cloud computing techniques to support the deployment of the platform. In this platform, all climate datasets are regular grid data which are stored in NetCDF format. Three types of data access methods are supported in the platform: accessing remote datasets provided by OpenDAP servers, accessing datasets hosted on the web visualization server and accessing local datasets. Despite different data access methods, all visualization tasks are completed at the server side to reduce the workload of clients. As a proof of concept, we have implemented a set of scientific visualization methods to show the feasibility of the platform. Preliminary results indicate that the framework can address the computation limitation of desktop based visualization applications.

  16. Parallel adaptive fluid-structure interaction simulation of explosions impacting on building structures

    SciTech Connect

    Deiterding, Ralf; Wood, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    We pursue a level set approach to couple an Eulerian shock-capturing fluid solver with space-time refinement to an explicit solid dynamics solver for large deformations and fracture. The coupling algorithms considering recursively finer fluid time steps as well as overlapping solver updates are discussed in detail. Our ideas are implemented in the AMROC adaptive fluid solver framework and are used for effective fluid-structure coupling to the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D. Beside simulations verifying the coupled fluid-structure solver and assessing its parallel scalability, the detailed structural analysis of a reinforced concrete column under blast loading and the simulation of a prototypical blast explosion in a realistic multistory building are presented.

  17. RKKY Interaction and the Nature of the Ground State of Double Dots in Parallel

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, M.; Konik, R.

    2011-06-23

    We argue through a combination of slave-boson mean-field theory and the Bethe ansatz that the ground state of closely spaced double quantum dots in parallel coupled to a single effective channel are Fermi liquids. We do so by studying the dots conductance, impurity entropy, and spin correlation. In particular, we find that the zero-temperature conductance is characterized by the Friedel sum rule, a hallmark of Fermi-liquid physics, and that the impurity entropy vanishes in the limit of zero temperature, indicating that the ground state is a singlet. This conclusion is in opposition to a number of numerical renormalization-group studies. We suggest a possible reason for the discrepancy.

  18. Study of the parallel-plate EMP simulator and the simulator-obstacle interaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gedney, S.D.

    1990-12-01

    The Parallel-Plate Bounded-Wave EMP Simulator is typically used to test the vulnerability of electronic systems to the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) produced by a high altitude nuclear burst by subjecting the systems to a simulated EMP environment. However, when large test objects are placed within the simulator for investigation, the desired EMP environment may be affected by the interaction between the simulator and the test object. This simulator/obstacle interaction can be attributed to the following phenomena: (1) mutual coupling between the test object and the simulator, (2) fringing effects due to the finite width of the conducting plates of the simulator, and (3) multiple reflections between the object and the simulator's tapered end-sections. When the interaction is significant, the measurement of currents coupled into the system may not accurately represent those induced by an actual EMP. To better understand the problem of simulator/obstacle interaction, a dynamic analysis of the fields within the parallel-plate simulator is presented. The fields are computed using a moment method solution based on a wire mesh approximation of the conducting surfaces of the simulator. The fields within an empty simulator are found to be predominately transversse electromagnetic (TEM) for frequencies within the simulator's bandwidth, properly simulating the properties of the EMP propagating in free space. However, when a large test object is placed within the simulator, it is found that the currents induced on the object can be quite different from those on an object situated in free space. A comprehensive study of the mechanisms contributing to this deviation is presented.

  19. Gamma ray bursts from comet neutron star magnetosphere interaction, field twisting and E sub parallel formation

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Consider the problem of a comet in a collision trajectory with a magnetized neutron star. The question addressed in this paper is whether the comet interacts strongly enough with a magnetic field such as to capture at a large radius or whether in general the comet will escape a magnetized neutron star. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Interaction between a laminar starting immersed micro-jet and a parallel wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaleiro, Juan Martin; Laborde, Cecilia; Artana, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we study the starting transient of an immersed micro-jet in close vicinity to a solid wall parallel to its axis. The experiments concern laminar jets (Re < 200) issuing from a 100 μm internal tip diameter glass micro-pipette. The effect of the confinement was studied placing the micro-pipette at different distances from the wall. The characterization of the jet was carried out by visualizations on which the morphology of the vortex head and trajectories was analyzed. Numerical simulations were used as a complementary tool for the analysis. The jet remains stable for very long distances away from the tip allowing for a similarity analysis. The self-similar behavior of the starting jet has been studied in terms of the frontline position with time. A symmetric and a wall dominated regime could be identified. The starting jet in the wall type regime, and in the symmetric regime as well, develops a self-similar behavior that has a relative rapid loss of memory of the preceding condition of the flow. Scaling for both regimes are those that correspond to viscous dominated flows.

  1. Fast parallel interferometric 3D tracking of numerous optically trapped particles and their hydrodynamic interaction.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Dominic; Tränkle, Benjamin; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2011-10-24

    Multi-dimensional, correlated particle tracking is a key technology to reveal dynamic processes in living and synthetic soft matter systems. In this paper we present a new method for tracking micron-sized beads in parallel and in all three dimensions - faster and more precise than existing techniques. Using an acousto-optic deflector and two quadrant-photo-diodes, we can track numerous optically trapped beads at up to tens of kHz with a precision of a few nanometers by back-focal plane interferometry. By time-multiplexing the laser focus, we can calibrate individually all traps and all tracking signals in a few seconds and in 3D. We show 3D histograms and calibration constants for nine beads in a quadratic arrangement, although trapping and tracking is easily possible for more beads also in arbitrary 2D arrangements. As an application, we investigate the hydrodynamic coupling and diffusion anomalies of spheres trapped in a 3 × 3 arrangement. PMID:22109012

  2. Parallel Three-Dimensional Computation of Fluid Dynamics and Fluid-Structure Interactions of Ram-Air Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report as far as our work at University of Minnesota is concerned. The report describes our research progress and accomplishments in development of high performance computing methods and tools for 3D finite element computation of aerodynamic characteristics and fluid-structure interactions (FSI) arising in airdrop systems, namely ram-air parachutes and round parachutes. This class of simulations involves complex geometries, flexible structural components, deforming fluid domains, and unsteady flow patterns. The key components of our simulation toolkit are a stabilized finite element flow solver, a nonlinear structural dynamics solver, an automatic mesh moving scheme, and an interface between the fluid and structural solvers; all of these have been developed within a parallel message-passing paradigm.

  3. Massively parallel and highly quantitative single-particle analysis on interactions between nanoparticles on supported lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Kwang; Kim, Sungi; Oh, Jeong-Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2014-03-12

    Observation of individual single-nanoparticle reactions provides direct information and insight for many complex chemical, physical, and biological processes, but this is utterly challenging with conventional high-resolution imaging techniques on conventional platforms. Here, we developed a photostable plasmonic nanoparticle-modified supported lipid bilayer (PNP-SLB) platform that allows for massively parallel in situ analysis of the interactions between nanoparticles with single-particle resolution on a two-dimensional (2D) fluidic surface. Each particle-by-particle PNP clustering process was monitored in real time and quantified via analysis of individual particle diffusion trajectories and single-particle-level plasmonic coupling. Importantly, the PNP-SLB-based nanoparticle cluster growth kinetics result was fitted well. As an application example, we performed a DNA detection assay, and the result suggests that our approach has very promising sensitivity and dynamic range (high attomolar to high femtomolar) without optimization, as well as remarkable single-base mismatch discrimination capability. The method shown herein can be readily applied for many different types of intermolecular and interparticle interactions and provide convenient tools and new insights for studying dynamic interactions on a highly controllable and analytical platform.

  4. Massively parallel full configuration interaction. Benchmark electronic structure calculations on the Intel Touchstone Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.J.; Stahlberg, E.A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe an implementation of the benchmark ab initio electronic structure full configuration interaction model on the Intel Touchstone Delta. Its performance is demonstrated with several calculations, the largest of which (95 million configurations, 418 million determinants) is the largest full-CI calculation yet completed. The feasibility of calculations with over one billion configurations is discussed. A sustained computation rate in excess of 4 GFLOP/s on 512 processors is achieved, with an average aggregate communication rate of 155 Mbytes/s. Data-compression techniques and a modified diagonalization method were required to minimize I/O. The object-oriented design has increased portability and provides the distinction between local and non-local data essential for use of a distributed-data model.

  5. DNS of hydrodynamically interacting droplets in turbulent clouds: Parallel implementation and scalability analysis using 2D domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Orlando; Parishani, Hossein; Chen, Liu; Rosa, Bogdan; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2014-12-01

    The study of turbulent collision of cloud droplets requires simultaneous considerations of the transport by background air turbulence (i.e., geometric collision rate) and influence of droplet disturbance flows (i.e., collision efficiency). In recent years, this multiscale problem has been addressed through a hybrid direct numerical simulation (HDNS) approach (Ayala et al., 2007). This approach, while currently is the only viable tool to quantify the effects of air turbulence on collision statistics, is computationally expensive. In order to extend the HDNS approach to higher flow Reynolds numbers, here we developed a highly scalable implementation of the approach using 2D domain decomposition. The scalability of the parallel implementation was studied using several parallel computers, at 5123 and 10243 grid resolutions with O(106)-O(107) droplets. It was found that the execution time scaled with number of processors almost linearly until it saturates and deteriorates due to communication latency issues. To better understand the scalability, we developed a complexity analysis by partitioning the execution tasks into computation, communication, and data copy. Using this complexity analysis, we were able to predict the scalability performance of our parallel code. Furthermore, the theory was used to estimate the maximum number of processors below which the approximately linear scalability is sustained. We theoretically showed that we could efficiently solved problems of up to 81923 with O(100,000) processors. The complexity analysis revealed that the pseudo-spectral simulation of background turbulent flow for a dilute droplet suspension typical of cloud conditions typically takes about 80% of the total execution time, except when the droplets are small (less than 5 μm in a flow with energy dissipation rate of 400 cm2/s3 and liquid water content of 1 g/m3), for which case the particle-particle hydrodynamic interactions become the bottleneck. The complexity analysis

  6. Identification of Chemical-Genetic Interactions via Parallel Analysis of Barcoded Yeast Strains.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sundari; Schlecht, Ulrich; Xu, Weihong; Miranda, Molly; Davis, Ronald W; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; St Onge, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    The Yeast Knockout Collection is a complete set of gene deletion strains for the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae In each strain, one of approximately 6000 open-reading frames is replaced with a dominant selectable marker flanked by two DNA barcodes. These barcodes, which are unique to each gene, allow the growth of thousands of strains to be individually measured from a single pooled culture. The collection, and other resources that followed, has ushered in a new era in chemical biology, enabling unbiased and systematic identification of chemical-genetic interactions (CGIs) with remarkable ease. CGIs link bioactive compounds to biological processes, and hence can reveal the mechanism of action of growth-inhibitory compounds in vivo, including those of antifungal, antibiotic, and anticancer drugs. The chemogenomic profiling method described here measures the sensitivity induced in yeast heterozygous and homozygous deletion strains in the presence of a chemical inhibitor of growth (termed haploinsufficiency profiling and homozygous profiling, respectively, or HIPHOP). The protocol is both scalable and amenable to automation. After competitive growth of yeast knockout collection cultures, with and without chemical inhibitors, CGIs can be identified and quantified using either array- or sequencing-based approaches as described here. PMID:27587778

  7. Identification of Chemical-Genetic Interactions via Parallel Analysis of Barcoded Yeast Strains.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sundari; Schlecht, Ulrich; Xu, Weihong; Miranda, Molly; Davis, Ronald W; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; St Onge, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    The Yeast Knockout Collection is a complete set of gene deletion strains for the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae In each strain, one of approximately 6000 open-reading frames is replaced with a dominant selectable marker flanked by two DNA barcodes. These barcodes, which are unique to each gene, allow the growth of thousands of strains to be individually measured from a single pooled culture. The collection, and other resources that followed, has ushered in a new era in chemical biology, enabling unbiased and systematic identification of chemical-genetic interactions (CGIs) with remarkable ease. CGIs link bioactive compounds to biological processes, and hence can reveal the mechanism of action of growth-inhibitory compounds in vivo, including those of antifungal, antibiotic, and anticancer drugs. The chemogenomic profiling method described here measures the sensitivity induced in yeast heterozygous and homozygous deletion strains in the presence of a chemical inhibitor of growth (termed haploinsufficiency profiling and homozygous profiling, respectively, or HIPHOP). The protocol is both scalable and amenable to automation. After competitive growth of yeast knockout collection cultures, with and without chemical inhibitors, CGIs can be identified and quantified using either array- or sequencing-based approaches as described here.

  8. Computation of interactional aerodynamics for noise prediction of heavy lift rotorcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Christopher C.

    Many computational tools are used when developing a modern helicopter. As the design space is narrowed, more accurate and time-intensive tools are brought to bear. These tools are used to determine the effect of a design decision on the performance, handling, stability and efficiency of the aircraft. One notable parameter left out of this process is acoustics. This is due in part to the difficulty in making useful acoustics calculations that reveal the differences between various design configurations. This thesis presents a new approach designed to bridge the gap in prediction capability between fast but low-fidelity Lagrangian particle methods, and slow but high-fidelity Eulerian computational fluid dynamics simulations. A multi-pronged approach is presented. First, a simple flow solver using well-understood and tested flow solution methodologies is developed specifically to handle bodies in arbitrary motion. To this basic flow solver two new technologies are added. The first is an Immersed Boundary technique designed to be tolerant of geometric degeneracies and low-resolution grids. This new technique allows easy inclusion of complex fuselage geometries at minimal computational cost, improving the ability of a solver to capture the complex interactional aerodynamic effects expected in modern rotorcraft design. The second new technique is an extension of a concept from flow visualization where the motion of tip vortices are tracked through the solution using massless particles convecting with the local flow. In this extension of that concept, the particles maintain knowledge of the expected and actual vortex strength. As a post-processing step, when the acoustic calculations are made, these particles are used to augment the loading noise calculation and reproduce the highly-impulsive character of blade-vortex interaction noise. In combination these new techniques yield a significant improvement to the state of the art in rotorcraft blade-vortex interaction noise

  9. Prediction of BVI noise patterns and correlation with wake interaction locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcolini, Michael A.; Martin, Ruth M.; Lorber, Peter F.; Egolf, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution fluctuating airloads data were acquired during a test of a contemporary design United Technologies model rotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). The airloads are used as input to the noise prediction program WOPWOP, in order to predict the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise field on a large plane below the rotor. Trends of predicted advancing and retreating side BVI noise levels and directionality as functions of flight condition are presented. The measured airloads have been analyzed to determine the BVI locations on the blade surface, and are used to interpret the predicted BVI noise radiation patterns. Predicted BVI locations are obtained using the free wake model in CAMRAD/JA, the UTRC Generalized Forward Flight Distorted Wake Model, and the UTRC FREEWAKE analysis. These predicted BVI locations are compared with those obtained from the measured pressure data.

  10. Quantitative analysis of RNA-protein interactions on a massively parallel array for mapping biophysical and evolutionary landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Buenrostro, Jason D.; Chircus, Lauren M.; Araya, Carlos L.; Layton, Curtis J.; Chang, Howard Y.; Snyder, Michael P.; Greenleaf, William J.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-protein interactions drive fundamental biological processes and are targets for molecular engineering, yet quantitative and comprehensive understanding of the sequence determinants of affinity remains limited. Here we repurpose a high-throughput sequencing instrument to quantitatively measure binding and dissociation of MS2 coat protein to >107 RNA targets generated on a flow-cell surface by in situ transcription and inter-molecular tethering of RNA to DNA. We decompose the binding energy contributions from primary and secondary RNA structure, finding that differences in affinity are often driven by sequence-specific changes in association rates. By analyzing the biophysical constraints and modeling mutational paths describing the molecular evolution of MS2 from low- to high-affinity hairpins, we quantify widespread molecular epistasis, and a long-hypothesized structure-dependent preference for G:U base pairs over C:A intermediates in evolutionary trajectories. Our results suggest that quantitative analysis of RNA on a massively parallel array (RNAMaP) relationships across molecular variants. PMID:24727714

  11. Interactive visualization of volumetric white matter connectivity in DT-MRI using a parallel-hardware Hamilton-Jacobi solver.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Fletcher, P Thomas; Tao, Ran; Whitaker, Ross

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to compute and visualize volumetric white matter connectivity in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) using a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) solver on the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). Paths through the volume are assigned costs that are lower if they are consistent with the preferred diffusion directions. The proposed method finds a set of voxels in the DTI volume that contain paths between two regions whose costs are within a threshold of the optimal path. The result is a volumetric optimal path analysis, which is driven by clinical and scientific questions relating to the connectivity between various known anatomical regions of the brain. To solve the minimal path problem quickly, we introduce a novel numerical algorithm for solving H-J equations, which we call the Fast Iterative Method (FIM). This algorithm is well-adapted to parallel architectures, and we present a GPU-based implementation, which runs roughly 50-100 times faster than traditional CPU-based solvers for anisotropic H-J equations. The proposed system allows users to freely change the endpoints of interesting pathways and to visualize the optimal volumetric path between them at an interactive rate. We demonstrate the proposed method on some synthetic and real DT-MRI datasets and compare the performance with existing methods. PMID:17968100

  12. Mars-solar wind interaction: LatHyS, an improved parallel 3-D multispecies hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modolo, Ronan; Hess, Sebastien; Mancini, Marco; Leblanc, Francois; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Brain, David; Leclercq, Ludivine; Esteban-Hernández, Rosa; Chanteur, Gerard; Weill, Philippe; González-Galindo, Francisco; Forget, Francois; Yagi, Manabu; Mazelle, Christian

    2016-07-01

    In order to better represent Mars-solar wind interaction, we present an unprecedented model achieving spatial resolution down to 50 km, a so far unexplored resolution for global kinetic models of the Martian ionized environment. Such resolution approaches the ionospheric plasma scale height. In practice, the model is derived from a first version described in Modolo et al. (2005). An important effort of parallelization has been conducted and is presented here. A better description of the ionosphere was also implemented including ionospheric chemistry, electrical conductivities, and a drag force modeling the ion-neutral collisions in the ionosphere. This new version of the code, named LatHyS (Latmos Hybrid Simulation), is here used to characterize the impact of various spatial resolutions on simulation results. In addition, and following a global model challenge effort, we present the results of simulation run for three cases which allow addressing the effect of the suprathermal corona and of the solar EUV activity on the magnetospheric plasma boundaries and on the global escape. Simulation results showed that global patterns are relatively similar for the different spatial resolution runs, but finest grid runs provide a better representation of the ionosphere and display more details of the planetary plasma dynamic. Simulation results suggest that a significant fraction of escaping O+ ions is originated from below 1200 km altitude.

  13. A fluid–structure interaction model to characterize bone cell stimulation in parallel-plate flow chamber systems

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, T. J.; Haugh, M. G.; McNamara, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bone continuously adapts its internal structure to accommodate the functional demands of its mechanical environment and strain-induced flow of interstitial fluid is believed to be the primary mediator of mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vivo. In vitro investigations have shown that bone cells produce important biochemical signals in response to fluid flow applied using parallel-plate flow chamber (PPFC) systems. However, the exact mechanical stimulus experienced by the cells within these systems remains unclear. To fully understand this behaviour represents a most challenging multi-physics problem involving the interaction between deformable cellular structures and adjacent fluid flows. In this study, we use a fluid–structure interaction computational approach to investigate the nature of the mechanical stimulus being applied to a single osteoblast cell under fluid flow within a PPFC system. The analysis decouples the contribution of pressure and shear stress on cellular deformation and for the first time highlights that cell strain under flow is dominated by the pressure in the PPFC system rather than the applied shear stress. Furthermore, it was found that strains imparted on the cell membrane were relatively low whereas significant strain amplification occurred at the cell–substrate interface. These results suggest that strain transfer through focal attachments at the base of the cell are the primary mediators of mechanical signals to the cell under flow in a PPFC system. Such information is vital in order to correctly interpret biological responses of bone cells under in vitro stimulation and elucidate the mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction in vivo. PMID:23365189

  14. A fluid-structure interaction model to characterize bone cell stimulation in parallel-plate flow chamber systems.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, T J; Haugh, M G; McNamara, L M

    2013-04-01

    Bone continuously adapts its internal structure to accommodate the functional demands of its mechanical environment and strain-induced flow of interstitial fluid is believed to be the primary mediator of mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vivo. In vitro investigations have shown that bone cells produce important biochemical signals in response to fluid flow applied using parallel-plate flow chamber (PPFC) systems. However, the exact mechanical stimulus experienced by the cells within these systems remains unclear. To fully understand this behaviour represents a most challenging multi-physics problem involving the interaction between deformable cellular structures and adjacent fluid flows. In this study, we use a fluid-structure interaction computational approach to investigate the nature of the mechanical stimulus being applied to a single osteoblast cell under fluid flow within a PPFC system. The analysis decouples the contribution of pressure and shear stress on cellular deformation and for the first time highlights that cell strain under flow is dominated by the pressure in the PPFC system rather than the applied shear stress. Furthermore, it was found that strains imparted on the cell membrane were relatively low whereas significant strain amplification occurred at the cell-substrate interface. These results suggest that strain transfer through focal attachments at the base of the cell are the primary mediators of mechanical signals to the cell under flow in a PPFC system. Such information is vital in order to correctly interpret biological responses of bone cells under in vitro stimulation and elucidate the mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction in vivo.

  15. Parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Treveaven, P.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to object-oriented, functional, and logic parallel computing on which the fifth generation of computer systems will be based. Coverage includes concepts for parallel computing languages, a parallel object-oriented system (DOOM) and its language (POOL), an object-oriented multilevel VLSI simulator using POOL, and implementation of lazy functional languages on parallel architectures.

  16. A Study of Cell-to-Cell Interactions and Degradation in Parallel Strings: Implications for the Battery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Fernández, C.; Bruen, T.; Widanage, W. D.; Gama-Valdez, M. A.; Marco, J.

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle battery systems are usually designed with a high number of cells connected in parallel to meet the stringent requirements of power and energy. The self-balancing characteristic of parallel cells allows a battery management system (BMS) to approximate the cells as one equivalent cell with a single state of health (SoH) value, estimated either as capacity fade (SoHE) or resistance increase (SoHP). A single SoH value is however not applicable if the initial SoH of each cell is different, which can occur when cell properties change due to inconsistent manufacturing processes or in-homogeneous operating environments. As such this work quantifies the convergence of SoHE and SoHP due to initial differences in cell SoH and examines the convergence factors. Four 3 Ah 18650 cells connected in parallel at 25 °C are aged by charging and discharging for 500 cycles. For an initial SoHE difference of 40% and SoHP difference of 45%, SoHE converge to 10% and SoHP to 30% by the end of the experiment. From this, a strong linear correlation between ΔSoHE and ΔSoHP is also observed. The results therefore imply that a BMS should consider a calibration strategy to accurately estimate the SoH of parallel cells until convergence is reached.

  17. An experimental investigation of the chopping of helicopter main rotor tip vortices by the tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    The chopping of helicopter main rotor tip vortices by the tail rotor was experimentally investigated. This is a problem of blade vortex interaction (BVI) at normal incidence where the vortex is generally parallel to the rotor axis. The experiment used a model rotor and an isolated vortex and was designed to isolate BVI noise from other types of rotor noise. Tip Mach number, radical BVI station, and free stream velocity were varied. Fluctuating blade pressures, farfield sound pressure level and directivity, velocity field of the incident vortex, and blade vortex interaction angles were measured. Blade vortex interaction was found to produce impulsive noise which radiates primarily ahead of the blade. For interaction away from the blade tip, the results demonstrate the dipole character of BVI radiation. For BVI close to the tip, three dimensional relief effect reduces the intensity of the interaction, despite larger BVI angle and higher local Mach number. Furthermore, in this case, the radiation patern is more complex due to diffraction at and pressure communication around the tip.

  18. Wind tunnel tests of a two bladed model rotor to evaluate the TAMI system in descending forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A research investigation was conducted to assess the potential of the Tip Air Mass Injection system in reducing the noise output during blade vortex interaction in descending low speed flight. In general it was concluded that the noise output due to blade vortex interaction can be reduced by 4 to 6 db with an equivalent power expenditure of approximately 14 percent of installed power.

  19. Parallel solver for the three-dimensional Cartesian-grid-based time-dependent Schrödinger equation and its applications in laser- H2+ interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-M.; Wu, J.-S.; Jiang, T.-F.; Chen, Y.-S.

    2008-01-01

    A parallelized three-dimensional Cartesian-grid-based time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) solver for molecules with a single electron, assuming the motion of the nucleus is frozen, is presented in this paper. An explicit stagger-time algorithm is employed for time integration of the TDSE, in which the real and imaginary parts of the wave function are defined at alternate times, while a cell-centered finite-volume method is utilized for spatial discretization of the TDSE on Cartesian grids. The TDSE solver is then parallelized using the domain decomposition method on distributed memory machines by applying a multilevel graph-partitioning technique. The solver is validated using a H2+ molecule system, both by observing the total electron probability and total energy conservation without laser interaction, and by comparing the ionization rates with previous two-dimensional axisymmetric simulation results with an aligned incident laser pulse. The parallel efficiency of this TDSE solver is presented and discussed; the parallel efficiency can be as high as 75% using 128 processors. Finally, examples of the temporal evolution of the probability distribution of laser incidence onto a H2+ molecule at inter-nuclear distance of 9a.u. ( χ=0° and 90°) and the spectral intensities of harmonic generation at internuclear distance of 2a.u. ( χ=0° , 30°, 60°, and 90°) are presented to demonstrate the powerful capability of the current TDSE solver. Future possible extensions of the present method are also outlined at the end of this paper.

  20. Scalable parallel methods for monolithic coupling in fluid-structure interaction with application to blood flow modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Andrew T. Cai Xiaochuan

    2010-02-01

    We introduce and study numerically a scalable parallel finite element solver for the simulation of blood flow in compliant arteries. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the fluid and coupled to an incompressible linear elastic model for the blood vessel walls. Our method features an unstructured dynamic mesh capable of modeling complicated geometries, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework that allows for large displacements of the moving fluid domain, monolithic coupling between the fluid and structure equations, and fully implicit time discretization. Simulations based on blood vessel geometries derived from patient-specific clinical data are performed on large supercomputers using scalable Newton-Krylov algorithms preconditioned with an overlapping restricted additive Schwarz method that preconditions the entire fluid-structure system together. The algorithm is shown to be robust and scalable for a variety of physical parameters, scaling to hundreds of processors and millions of unknowns.

  1. Stochastic gyroresonant electron acceleration in a low-beta plasma. I - Interaction with parallel transverse cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinacker, Juergen; Miller, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The gyroresonance of electrons with parallel transverse cold plasma waves is considered, and the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the electron distribution function in the presence of a spectrum of turbulence is derived. A new resonance which produces a divergence in the Fokker-Planck coefficients is identified; it results when the electron is in gyroresonance with a wave that has a group velocity equal to the velocity of the electron along the magnetic field. Under the assumption of a power-law spectral density, the Fokker-Planck coefficients are calculated numerically, and their complicated momentum and pitch-angle dependence, as well as the influence of various approximations to the dispersion relation, gyroresonance condition, and spectral density are discussed. It is found that there is no resonance gap at any pitch angle as long as the full gyroresonance condition is used and waves propagating on both directions are present.

  2. Parallel rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides a broad introduction to the subject of parallel rendering, encompassing both hardware and software systems. The focus is on the underlying concepts and the issues which arise in the design of parallel rendering algorithms and systems. We examine the different types of parallelism and how they can be applied in rendering applications. Concepts from parallel computing, such as data decomposition, task granularity, scalability, and load balancing, are considered in relation to the rendering problem. We also explore concepts from computer graphics, such as coherence and projection, which have a significant impact on the structure of parallel rendering algorithms. Our survey covers a number of practical considerations as well, including the choice of architectural platform, communication and memory requirements, and the problem of image assembly and display. We illustrate the discussion with numerous examples from the parallel rendering literature, representing most of the principal rendering methods currently used in computer graphics.

  3. Is it possible to study the kinetic parameters of interaction between PNA and parallel and antiparallel DNA by stopped-flow fluorescence?

    PubMed

    Barbero, N; Cauteruccio, S; Thakare, P; Licandro, E; Viscardi, G; Visentin, S

    2016-10-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are among the most interesting and versatile artificial structural mimics of nucleic acids and exhibit peculiar and important properties (i.e. high chemical stability, and a high resistance to cellular enzymes and nucleases). Despite their unnatural structure, they are able to recognize and bind DNA and RNA in a very high, specific and selective manner. One of the most popular, easy and reliable method to measure the stability of PNA-DNA hybrid systems is the melting temperature but the thermodynamic data are obtained using a big quantity of materials failing to provide information on the kinetics of the interaction. In the present work, the PNA decamer 6, with the TCACTAGATG sequence of nucleobases, and the corresponding fluorescent PNA-FITU (fluorescein isothiourea) decamer 8 were synthesized with standard manual Boc-based chemistry. The interaction of the PNA-FITU with parallel and antiparallel DNA has been studied by stopped-flow fluorescence, which is proposed as an alternative technique to obtain the kinetic parameters of the binding. The great advantage of using the stopped-flow technique is the possibility of studying the kinetics of the PNA-DNA duplex formation in a physiological environment. In particular, fluorescence stopped-flow technique has been exploited to compare the affinity of two PNA-DNA duplexes since it can discriminate between parallel and antiparallel DNA binding.

  4. Is it possible to study the kinetic parameters of interaction between PNA and parallel and antiparallel DNA by stopped-flow fluorescence?

    PubMed

    Barbero, N; Cauteruccio, S; Thakare, P; Licandro, E; Viscardi, G; Visentin, S

    2016-10-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are among the most interesting and versatile artificial structural mimics of nucleic acids and exhibit peculiar and important properties (i.e. high chemical stability, and a high resistance to cellular enzymes and nucleases). Despite their unnatural structure, they are able to recognize and bind DNA and RNA in a very high, specific and selective manner. One of the most popular, easy and reliable method to measure the stability of PNA-DNA hybrid systems is the melting temperature but the thermodynamic data are obtained using a big quantity of materials failing to provide information on the kinetics of the interaction. In the present work, the PNA decamer 6, with the TCACTAGATG sequence of nucleobases, and the corresponding fluorescent PNA-FITU (fluorescein isothiourea) decamer 8 were synthesized with standard manual Boc-based chemistry. The interaction of the PNA-FITU with parallel and antiparallel DNA has been studied by stopped-flow fluorescence, which is proposed as an alternative technique to obtain the kinetic parameters of the binding. The great advantage of using the stopped-flow technique is the possibility of studying the kinetics of the PNA-DNA duplex formation in a physiological environment. In particular, fluorescence stopped-flow technique has been exploited to compare the affinity of two PNA-DNA duplexes since it can discriminate between parallel and antiparallel DNA binding. PMID:27611452

  5. Parallel activities and interactions between antimicrobial peptides and complement in host defense at the airway epithelial surface.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides and complement components contribute to host defense as well as inflammation and tissue injury in the respiratory tract. The airway epithelial surface is the main site of action of these immune effectors, and airway epithelial cells contribute markedly to their local production. Whereas both antimicrobial peptides and complement display overlapping functions, it is increasingly clear that both effector mechanisms also interact. Furthermore, excessive or uncontrolled release of antimicrobial peptides as well as complement activation may contribute to inflammatory lung diseases. Therefore, further knowledge of interactions between these systems may provide more insight into the pathogenesis of a range of lung diseases. In this review, recent findings on the functions, collaborations and other interactions between antimicrobial peptides and complement are discussed with a specific focus on the airway epithelium.

  6. 3-D Hybrid Kinetic Modeling of the Interaction Between the Solar Wind and Lunar-like Exospheric Pickup Ions in Case of Oblique/ Quasi-Parallel/Parallel Upstream Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Farrell, W. M.; Cooper, J. F.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between the solar wind and Moon-sized objects are determined by a set of the solar wind parameters and plasma environment of the space objects. The orientation of upstream magnetic field is one of the key factors which determines the formation and structure of bow shock wave/Mach cone or Alfven wing near the obstacle. The study of effects of the direction of the upstream magnetic field on lunar-like plasma environment is the main subject of our investigation in this paper. Photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our hybrid model. The computational model includes the self-consistent dynamics of the light (hydrogen (+), helium (+)) and heavy (sodium (+)) pickup ions. The lunar interior is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our previous 2013 lunar work, as reported in this journal, found formation of a triple structure of the Mach cone near the Moon in the case of perpendicular upstream magnetic field. Further advances in modeling now reveal the presence of strong wave activity in the upstream solar wind and plasma wake in the cases of quasiparallel and parallel upstream magnetic fields. However, little wave activity is found for the opposite case with a perpendicular upstream magnetic field. The modeling does not show a formation of the Mach cone in the case of theta(Sub B,U) approximately equal to 0 degrees.

  7. Massively parallel visualization: Parallel rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.D.; Krogh, M.; White, W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume renderer use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  8. An O(N) and parallel approach to integral problems by a kernel-independent fast multipole method: Application to polarization and magnetization of interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xikai; Li, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xujun; Qin, Jian; Karpeev, Dmitry; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan; de Pablo, Juan J.; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-08-01

    Large classes of materials systems in physics and engineering are governed by magnetic and electrostatic interactions. Continuum or mesoscale descriptions of such systems can be cast in terms of integral equations, whose direct computational evaluation requires O(N2) operations, where N is the number of unknowns. Such a scaling, which arises from the many-body nature of the relevant Green's function, has precluded wide-spread adoption of integral methods for solution of large-scale scientific and engineering problems. In this work, a parallel computational approach is presented that relies on using scalable open source libraries and utilizes a kernel-independent Fast Multipole Method (FMM) to evaluate the integrals in O(N) operations, with O(N) memory cost, thereby substantially improving the scalability and efficiency of computational integral methods. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability of our approach in the context of two examples. In the first, we solve a boundary value problem for a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic volume in free space. In the second, we solve an electrostatic problem involving polarizable dielectric bodies in an unbounded dielectric medium. The results from these test cases show that our proposed parallel approach, which is built on a kernel-independent FMM, can enable highly efficient and accurate simulations and allow for considerable flexibility in a broad range of applications.

  9. Massively parallel multiple interacting continua formulation for modeling flow in fractured porous media using the subsurface reactive flow and transport code PFLOTRAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Lichtner, P. C.; Hammond, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Fracture dominated flows occur in numerous subsurface geochemical processes and at many different scales in rock pore structures, micro-fractures, fracture networks and faults. Fractured porous media can be modeled as multiple interacting continua which are connected to each other through transfer terms that capture the flow of mass and energy in response to pressure, temperature and concentration gradients. However, the analysis of large-scale transient problems using the multiple interacting continuum approach presents an algorithmic and computational challenge for problems with very large numbers of degrees of freedom. A generalized dual porosity model based on the Dual Continuum Disconnected Matrix approach has been implemented within a massively parallel multiphysics-multicomponent-multiphase subsurface reactive flow and transport code PFLOTRAN. Developed as part of the Department of Energy's SciDAC-2 program, PFLOTRAN provides subsurface simulation capabilities that can scale from laptops to ultrascale supercomputers, and utilizes the PETSc framework to solve the large, sparse algebraic systems that arises in complex subsurface reactive flow and transport problems. It has been successfully applied to the solution of problems composed of more than two billions degrees of freedom, utilizing up to 131,072 processor cores on Jaguar, the Cray XT5 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is the world’s fastest supercomputer. Building upon the capabilities and computational efficiency of PFLOTRAN, we will present an implementation of the multiple interacting continua formulation for fractured porous media along with an application case study.

  10. Interactive Visualization of Large-Scale Hydrological Data using Emerging Technologies in Web Systems and Parallel Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools developed within the light of these challenges.

  11. Temperature effects on the hydrophobic interaction of parallel plates in the framework of the probabilistic approach to hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Djikaev, Y S; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2010-03-15

    Recently, we have proposed a probabilistic approach to examine the effect of water-water hydrogen bond networks around two foreign hydrophobic particles (immersed in water) on their interaction. Because of the proximity to a particle, a water molecule in the first hydration shell around it forms a smaller number of hydrogen bonds compared to a bulk molecule. The probabilistic approach allows one to analytically evaluate the former number if the latter is known (which is usually the case). On the other hand, the former bonds may be slightly (energetically) enhanced compared to the latter if at least one of the two bonded molecules lie in the first hydration shell and does not form a bond with a nearest neighbor site on the particle surface. When two hydrophobic particles are sufficiently close to each other, the overlap of boundary water-water hydrogen bond networks gives rise to an additional attractive force between them. In this paper we use the probabilistic approach to examine the effect of solvent temperature on the solvent-mediated interaction of two hydrophobic particles. Their hydrophobic attraction is affected by the solvent (water) temperature because the density of the solvent, strength of a hydrogen bonds, and number of hydrogen bonds per molecule are sensitive thereto (the pressure effects are not considered here). The probabilistic approach predicts that the solvent-mediated attraction of hydrophobic solutes is driven by the favorable entropic component ("-temperature x entropy") of the potential of mean force that dominates the unfavorable energetic component. This attraction decreases as the temperature increases.

  12. Aeroacoustic theory for noncompact wing-gust interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Three aeroacoustic models for noncompact wing-gust interaction were developed for subsonic flow. The first is that for a two dimensional (infinite span) wing passing through an oblique gust. The unsteady pressure field was obtained by the Wiener-Hopf technique; the airfoil loading and the associated acoustic field were calculated, respectively, by allowing the field point down on the airfoil surface, or by letting it go to infinity. The second model is a simple spanwise superposition of two dimensional solutions to account for three dimensional acoustic effects of wing rotation (for a helicopter blade, or some other rotating planform) and of finiteness of wing span. A three dimensional theory for a single gust was applied to calculate the acoustic signature in closed form due to blade vortex interaction in helicopters. The third model is that of a quarter infinite plate with side edge through a gust at high subsonic speed. An approximate solution for the three dimensional loading and the associated three dimensional acoustic field in closed form was obtained. The results reflected the acoustic effect of satisfying the correct loading condition at the side edge.

  13. Activity and interactions of methane seep microorganisms assessed by parallel transcription and FISH-NanoSIMS analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dekas, Anne E; Connon, Stephanie A; Chadwick, Grayson L; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the activity and interactions of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and Deltaproteobacteria at a methane-seeping mud volcano, we used two complimentary measures of microbial activity: a community-level analysis of the transcription of four genes (16S rRNA, methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA), adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase α-subunit (aprA), dinitrogenase reductase (nifH)), and a single-cell-level analysis of anabolic activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISH-NanoSIMS). Transcript analysis revealed that members of the deltaproteobacterial groups Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus (DSS) and Desulfobulbaceae (DSB) exhibit increased rRNA expression in incubations with methane, suggestive of ANME-coupled activity. Direct analysis of anabolic activity in DSS cells in consortia with ANME by FISH-NanoSIMS confirmed their dependence on methanotrophy, with no 15NH4+ assimilation detected without methane. In contrast, DSS and DSB cells found physically independent of ANME (i.e., single cells) were anabolically active in incubations both with and without methane. These single cells therefore comprise an active ‘free-living' population, and are not dependent on methane or ANME activity. We investigated the possibility of N2 fixation by seep Deltaproteobacteria and detected nifH transcripts closely related to those of cultured diazotrophic Deltaproteobacteria. However, nifH expression was methane-dependent. 15N2 incorporation was not observed in single DSS cells, but was detected in single DSB cells. Interestingly, 15N2 incorporation in single DSB cells was methane-dependent, raising the possibility that DSB cells acquired reduced 15N products from diazotrophic ANME while spatially coupled, and then subsequently dissociated. With this combined data set we address several outstanding questions in methane seep microbial ecosystems and highlight the benefit of measuring microbial activity in the

  14. Activity and interactions of methane seep microorganisms assessed by parallel transcription and FISH-NanoSIMS analyses.

    PubMed

    Dekas, Anne E; Connon, Stephanie A; Chadwick, Grayson L; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-03-01

    To characterize the activity and interactions of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and Deltaproteobacteria at a methane-seeping mud volcano, we used two complimentary measures of microbial activity: a community-level analysis of the transcription of four genes (16S rRNA, methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA), adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase α-subunit (aprA), dinitrogenase reductase (nifH)), and a single-cell-level analysis of anabolic activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISH-NanoSIMS). Transcript analysis revealed that members of the deltaproteobacterial groups Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus (DSS) and Desulfobulbaceae (DSB) exhibit increased rRNA expression in incubations with methane, suggestive of ANME-coupled activity. Direct analysis of anabolic activity in DSS cells in consortia with ANME by FISH-NanoSIMS confirmed their dependence on methanotrophy, with no (15)NH4(+) assimilation detected without methane. In contrast, DSS and DSB cells found physically independent of ANME (i.e., single cells) were anabolically active in incubations both with and without methane. These single cells therefore comprise an active 'free-living' population, and are not dependent on methane or ANME activity. We investigated the possibility of N2 fixation by seep Deltaproteobacteria and detected nifH transcripts closely related to those of cultured diazotrophic Deltaproteobacteria. However, nifH expression was methane-dependent. (15)N2 incorporation was not observed in single DSS cells, but was detected in single DSB cells. Interestingly, (15)N2 incorporation in single DSB cells was methane-dependent, raising the possibility that DSB cells acquired reduced (15)N products from diazotrophic ANME while spatially coupled, and then subsequently dissociated. With this combined data set we address several outstanding questions in methane seep microbial ecosystems and highlight the benefit of measuring microbial activity in

  15. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  16. Parallel Dislocation Simulator

    2006-10-30

    ParaDiS is software capable of simulating the motion, evolution, and interaction of dislocation networks in single crystals using massively parallel computer architectures. The software is capable of outputting the stress-strain response of a single crystal whose plastic deformation is controlled by the dislocation processes.

  17. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD{sub 3}CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model

    SciTech Connect

    Glowacki, David R.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Harvey, Jeremy N.

    2015-07-28

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD{sub 3}CN → DF + CD{sub 2}CN reaction in CD{sub 3}CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD{sub 3}CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD{sub 3}CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol{sup −1} localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD{sub 3}CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational

  18. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD3CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, David R.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Harvey, Jeremy N.

    2015-07-01

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD3CN → DF + CD2CN reaction in CD3CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD3CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD3CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ˜23 kcal mol-1 localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD3CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational relaxation of the nascent DF results in a spectral

  19. Flowfield-Dependent Variation (FDV) method for compressible, incompressible, viscous, and inviscid flow interactions with FDV adaptive mesh refinements and parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Gary Wayne

    A new approach to solution-adaptive grid refinement using the finite element method and Flowfield-Dependent Variation (FDV) theory applied to the Navier-Stokes system of equations is discussed. Flowfield-Dependent Variation (FDV) parameters are introduced into a modified Taylor series expansion of the conservation variables, with the Navier-Stokes system of equations substituted into the Taylor series. The FDV parameters are calculated from the current Fowfield conditions, and automatically adjust the resulting equations from elliptic to parabolic to hyperbolic in type to assure solution accuracy in evolving fluid flowfields that may consist of interactions between regions of compressible and incompressible flow, viscous and inviscid flow, and turbulent and laminar flow. The system of equations is solved using an element-by-element iterative GMRES solver with the elements grouped together to allow the element operations to be performed in parallel. The FDV parameters play many roles in the numerical scheme. One of these roles is to control formations of shock wave discontinuities in high speeds and pressure oscillations in low speeds. To demonstrate these abilities, various example problems are shown, including supersonic flows over a flat plate and a compression corner, and flows involving triple shock waves generated on fin geometries for high speed compressible flows. Furthermore, analysis of low speed incompressible flows is presented in the form of flow in a lid-driven cavity at various Reynolds numbers. Another role of the FDV parameters is their use as error indicators for a solution-adaptive mesh. The finite element grid is refined as dictated by the magnitude of the FDV parameters. Examples of adaptive grids generated using the FDV parameters as error indicators are presented for supersonic flow over flat plate/compression ramp combinations in both two and three dimensions. Grids refined using the FDV parameters as error indicators are comparable to ones

  20. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD3CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, David R; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J; Harvey, Jeremy N

    2015-07-28

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD3CN → DF + CD2CN reaction in CD3CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD3CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD3CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol(-1) localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD3CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational relaxation of the nascent DF results in a spectral

  1. The Double Hierarchy Method. A parallel 3D contact method for the interaction of spherical particles with rigid FE boundaries using the DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santasusana, Miquel; Irazábal, Joaquín; Oñate, Eugenio; Carbonell, Josep Maria

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a new methodology for the treatment of the contact interaction between rigid boundaries and spherical discrete elements (DE). Rigid body parts are present in most of large-scale simulations. The surfaces of the rigid parts are commonly meshed with a finite element-like (FE) discretization. The contact detection and calculation between those DE and the discretized boundaries is not straightforward and has been addressed by different approaches. The algorithm presented in this paper considers the contact of the DEs with the geometric primitives of a FE mesh, i.e. facet, edge or vertex. To do so, the original hierarchical method presented by Horner et al. (J Eng Mech 127(10):1027-1032, 2001) is extended with a new insight leading to a robust, fast and accurate 3D contact algorithm which is fully parallelizable. The implementation of the method has been developed in order to deal ideally with triangles and quadrilaterals. If the boundaries are discretized with another type of geometries, the method can be easily extended to higher order planar convex polyhedra. A detailed description of the procedure followed to treat a wide range of cases is presented. The description of the developed algorithm and its validation is verified with several practical examples. The parallelization capabilities and the obtained performance are presented with the study of an industrial application example.

  2. Open-label, single-dose, parallel-group study in healthy volunteers to determine the drug-drug interaction potential between KAE609 (cipargamin) and piperaquine.

    PubMed

    Stein, Daniel S; Jain, Jay Prakash; Kangas, Michael; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Machineni, Surendra; Griffin, Paul; Lickliter, Jason

    2015-01-01

    KAE609 represents a new class of potent, fast-acting, schizonticidal antimalarials. This study investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of KAE609 in combination with the long-acting antimalarial piperaquine (PPQ) in healthy volunteers. A two-way pharmacokinetic interaction was hypothesized for KAE609 and PPQ, as both drugs are CYP3A4 substrates and inhibitors. The potential for both agents to affect the QT interval was also assessed. This was an open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study with healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomized to four parallel dosing arms with five cohorts (2:2:2:2:1), receiving 75 mg KAE609 plus 320 mg PPQ, 25 mg KAE609 plus 1,280 mg PPQ, 25 mg KAE609 alone, 320 mg PPQ alone, or 1,280 mg PPQ alone. Triplicate electrocardiograms were performed over the first 24 h after dosing, with single electrocardiograms at other time points. Routine safety (up to 89 days) and pharmacokinetic (up to 61 days) assessments were performed. Of the 110 subjects recruited, 99 completed the study. Coadministration of PPQ had no overall effect on exposure to KAE609, although 1,280 mg PPQ decreased the KAE609 maximum concentration (Cmax) by 17%. The group that received 25 mg KAE609 plus 1,280 mg PPQ showed a 32% increase in the PPQ area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUCinf), while the group that received 75 mg KAE609 plus 320 mg PPQ showed a 14% reduction. Mean changes from baseline in the QT interval corrected by Fridericia's method (QTcF) and the QT interval corrected by Bazett's method (QTcB) with PPQ were consistent with its known effects. PPQ but not KAE609 exposure correlated with corrected QT interval (QTc) increases, and KAE609 did not affect the PPQ exposure-QTc relationship. The QTcF effect for PPQ (least-squares estimate of the difference in mean maximal changes from baseline of 7.47 ms [90% confidence interval, 3.55 to 11.4 ms]) was consistent with the criteria for a positive thorough QT study. No subject had QTcF or

  3. Open-Label, Single-Dose, Parallel-Group Study in Healthy Volunteers To Determine the Drug-Drug Interaction Potential between KAE609 (Cipargamin) and Piperaquine

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Jay Prakash; Kangas, Michael; Lefèvre, Gilbert; Machineni, Surendra; Griffin, Paul; Lickliter, Jason

    2015-01-01

    KAE609 represents a new class of potent, fast-acting, schizonticidal antimalarials. This study investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of KAE609 in combination with the long-acting antimalarial piperaquine (PPQ) in healthy volunteers. A two-way pharmacokinetic interaction was hypothesized for KAE609 and PPQ, as both drugs are CYP3A4 substrates and inhibitors. The potential for both agents to affect the QT interval was also assessed. This was an open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study with healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomized to four parallel dosing arms with five cohorts (2:2:2:2:1), receiving 75 mg KAE609 plus 320 mg PPQ, 25 mg KAE609 plus 1,280 mg PPQ, 25 mg KAE609 alone, 320 mg PPQ alone, or 1,280 mg PPQ alone. Triplicate electrocardiograms were performed over the first 24 h after dosing, with single electrocardiograms at other time points. Routine safety (up to 89 days) and pharmacokinetic (up to 61 days) assessments were performed. Of the 110 subjects recruited, 99 completed the study. Coadministration of PPQ had no overall effect on exposure to KAE609, although 1,280 mg PPQ decreased the KAE609 maximum concentration (Cmax) by 17%. The group that received 25 mg KAE609 plus 1,280 mg PPQ showed a 32% increase in the PPQ area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUCinf), while the group that received 75 mg KAE609 plus 320 mg PPQ showed a 14% reduction. Mean changes from baseline in the QT interval corrected by Fridericia's method (QTcF) and the QT interval corrected by Bazett's method (QTcB) with PPQ were consistent with its known effects. PPQ but not KAE609 exposure correlated with corrected QT interval (QTc) increases, and KAE609 did not affect the PPQ exposure-QTc relationship. The QTcF effect for PPQ (least-squares estimate of the difference in mean maximal changes from baseline of 7.47 ms [90% confidence interval, 3.55 to 11.4 ms]) was consistent with the criteria for a positive thorough QT study. No subject had QTcF or

  4. Getting a feel for parameters: using interactive parallel plots as a tool for parameter identification in the new rainfall-runoff model WALRUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Claudia; Torfs, Paul; Teuling, Ryan; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2015-04-01

    Recently, we developed the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) to fill the gap between complex, spatially distributed models often used in lowland catchments and simple, parametric models which have mostly been developed for mountainous catchments (Brauer et al., 2014ab). This parametric rainfall-runoff model can be used all over the world in both freely draining lowland catchments and polders with controlled water levels. The open source model code is implemented in R and can be downloaded from www.github.com/ClaudiaBrauer/WALRUS. The structure and code of WALRUS are simple, which facilitates detailed investigation of the effect of parameters on all model variables. WALRUS contains only four parameters requiring calibration; they are intended to have a strong, qualitative relation with catchment characteristics. Parameter estimation remains a challenge, however. The model structure contains three main feedbacks: (1) between groundwater and surface water; (2) between saturated and unsaturated zone; (3) between catchment wetness and (quick/slow) flowroute division. These feedbacks represent essential rainfall-runoff processes in lowland catchments, but increase the risk of parameter dependence and equifinality. Therefore, model performance should not only be judged based on a comparison between modelled and observed discharges, but also based on the plausibility of the internal modelled variables. Here, we present a method to analyse the effect of parameter values on internal model states and fluxes in a qualitative and intuitive way using interactive parallel plotting. We applied WALRUS to ten Dutch catchments with different sizes, slopes and soil types and both freely draining and polder areas. The model was run with a large number of parameter sets, which were created using Latin Hypercube Sampling. The model output was characterised in terms of several signatures, both measures of goodness of fit and statistics of internal model variables (such as the

  5. Interactions between multiple cell types in parallel microfluidic channels: monitoring platelet adhesion to an endothelium in the presence of an anti-adhesion drug.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chia-Jui; D'Amico Oblak, Teresa; Spence, Dana M

    2008-10-01

    A simple method for immobilizing endothelial cells in the channels of a microfluidic device fabricated with soft lithography is presented that requires no surface oxidation of the substrate material used in conjunction with the microfluidic device and is operable even with a reversible seal. Specifically, optimal conditions for culturing bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (bPAECs) to the surface of a Petri dish were investigated. The parameters investigated included fibronectin concentration, temperature, seeding density, and immobilization time. To enhance the utility of the device, all optimization studies, and studies involving platelet adhesion to the immobilized endothelium, were performed in parallel channels, thereby enabling improved throughput over a single channel device. The optimal conditions for cell immobilization included coating the Petri dish with 100 microg/mL fibronectin, a seeding cell density of 1.00 x 10(5) cells mL(-1), and an immobilization time of 90 min at 37 degrees C. The device was then employed to monitor the physical interaction (adhesion) of platelets to the immobilized endothelium in the presence of a known platelet activator (ADP) and a drug inhibitor of platelet activation. The number of platelets adhering to the endothelial cells in the channels increased from 17.0 +/- 2.3 in the absence of ADP to 63.2 +/- 2.4 in the presence of 5.00 microM ADP. Moreover, the data presented here also shows that inhibition of endothelium nitric oxide (NO) production, a recognized inhibitor of platelet adhesion to the endothelium, increased the number of platelets adhering to the surface to 35.4 +/- 1.0. In the presence of NO inhibition and 5.00 microM ADP, the affect on platelet adhesion was further increased to 127 +/- 5.2. Finally, this device was employed to investigate the effect of a drug known to inhibit platelet adhesion (clopidogrel) and, in the presence of the drug, the platelet adhesion due to activation by 5.00 microM ADP

  6. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and improve imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8 × 8 array of about 1.9 × 1.9 × 30.0 mm(3) lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate scintillators, with each end optically connected to an SSPM array (16 channels in a 4 × 4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3 × 3 mm(2), and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific integrated circuit to directly convert analogue signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and are decoded by a field-programmable gate array-based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable the use of flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical DOI

  7. Parallel Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines parallel computer architecture and the use of parallel processors for text. Topics discussed include parallel algorithms; performance evaluation; parallel information processing; parallel access methods for text; parallel and distributed information retrieval systems; parallel hardware for text; and network models for information…

  8. A Fast Parallel Simulation Code for Interaction between Proto-Planetary Disk and Embedded Proto-Planets: Implementation for 3D Code

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui

    2012-06-14

    We develop a 3D simulation code for interaction between the proto-planetary disk and embedded proto-planets. The protoplanetary disk is treated as a three-dimensional (3D), self-gravitating gas whose motion is described by the locally isothermal Navier-Stokes equations in a spherical coordinate centered on the star. The differential equations for the disk are similar to those given in Kley et al. (2009) with a different gravitational potential that is defined in Nelson et al. (2000). The equations are solved by directional split Godunov method for the inviscid Euler equations plus operator-split method for the viscous source terms. We use a sub-cycling technique for the azimuthal sweep to alleviate the time step restriction. We also extend the FARGO scheme of Masset (2000) and modified in Li et al. (2001) to our 3D code to accelerate the transport in the azimuthal direction. Furthermore, we have implemented a reduced 2D (r, {theta}) and a fully 3D self-gravity solver on our uniform disk grid, which extends our 2D method (Li, Buoni, & Li 2008) to 3D. This solver uses a mode cut-off strategy and combines FFT in the azimuthal direction and direct summation in the radial and meridional direction. An initial axis-symmetric equilibrium disk is generated via iteration between the disk density profile and the 2D disk-self-gravity. We do not need any softening in the disk self-gravity calculation as we have used a shifted grid method (Li et al. 2008) to calculate the potential. The motion of the planet is limited on the mid-plane and the equations are the same as given in D'Angelo et al. (2005), which we adapted to the polar coordinates with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta solver. The disk gravitational force on the planet is assumed to evolve linearly with time between two hydrodynamics time steps. The Planetary potential acting on the disk is calculated accurately with a small softening given by a cubic-spline form (Kley et al. 2009). Since the torque is extremely sensitive to

  9. Detached-eddy simulation of flow non-linearity of fluid-structural interactions using high order schemes and parallel computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoyuan

    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient and accurate methodology to resolve flow non-linearity of fluid-structural interaction. To achieve this purpose, a numerical strategy to apply the detached-eddy simulation (DES) with a fully coupled fluid-structural interaction model is established for the first time. The following novel numerical algorithms are also created: a general sub-domain boundary mapping procedure for parallel computation to reduce wall clock simulation time, an efficient and low diffusion E-CUSP (LDE) scheme used as a Riemann solver to resolve discontinuities with minimal numerical dissipation, and an implicit high order accuracy weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme to capture shock waves. The Detached-Eddy Simulation is based on the model proposed by Spalart in 1997. Near solid walls within wall boundary layers, the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved. Outside of the wall boundary layers, the 3D filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved based on large eddy simulation(LES). The Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence model is solved to provide the Reynolds stresses in the RANS region and the subgrid scale stresses in the LES region. An improved 5th order finite differencing weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme with an optimized epsilon value is employed for the inviscid fluxes. The new LDE scheme used with the WENO scheme is able to capture crisp shock profiles and exact contact surfaces. A set of fully conservative 4th order finite central differencing schemes are used for the viscous terms. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations are discretized based on a conservative finite differencing scheme. The unfactored line Gauss-Seidel relaxation iteration is employed for time marching. A general sub-domain boundary mapping procedure is developed for arbitrary topology multi-block structured grids with grid points matched on sub-domain boundaries. Extensive numerical experiments

  10. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael I.

    Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a…

  11. Parallel incremental compilation. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gafter, N.M.

    1990-06-01

    The time it takes to compile a large program has been a bottleneck in the software development process. When an interactive programming environment with an incremental compiler is used, compilation speed becomes even more important, but existing incremental compilers are very slow for some types of program changes. We describe a set of techniques that enable incremental compilation to exploit fine-grained concurrency in a shared-memory multi-processor and achieve asymptotic improvement over sequential algorithms. Because parallel non-incremental compilation is a special case of parallel incremental compilation, the design of a parallel compiler is a corollary of our result. Instead of running the individual phases concurrently, our design specifies compiler phases that are mutually sequential. However, each phase is designed to exploit fine-grained parallelism. By allowing each phase to present its output as a complete structure rather than as a stream of data, we can apply techniques such as parallel prefix and parallel divide-and-conquer, and we can construct applicative data structures to achieve sublinear execution time. Parallel algorithms for each phase of a compiler are presented to demonstrate that a complete incremental compiler can achieve execution time that is asymptotically less than sequential algorithms.

  12. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  13. Insights into the Hendra virus NTAIL-XD complex: Evidence for a parallel organization of the helical MoRE at the XD surface stabilized by a combination of hydrophobic and polar interactions.

    PubMed

    Erales, Jenny; Beltrandi, Matilde; Roche, Jennifer; Maté, Maria; Longhi, Sonia

    2015-08-01

    The Hendra virus is a member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The nucleoprotein, which consists of a structured core and of a C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain (N(TAIL)), encapsidates the viral genome within a helical nucleocapsid. N(TAIL) partly protrudes from the surface of the nucleocapsid being thus capable of interacting with the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Interaction with XD implies a molecular recognition element (MoRE) that is located within N(TAIL) residues 470-490, and that undergoes α-helical folding. The MoRE has been proposed to be embedded in the hydrophobic groove delimited by helices α2 and α3 of XD, although experimental data could not discriminate between a parallel and an antiparallel orientation of the MoRE. Previous studies also showed that if the binding interface is enriched in hydrophobic residues, charged residues located close to the interface might play a role in complex formation. Here, we targeted for site directed mutagenesis two acidic and two basic residues within XD and N(TAIL). ITC studies showed that electrostatics plays a crucial role in complex formation and pointed a parallel orientation of the MoRE as more likely. Further support for a parallel orientation was afforded by SAXS studies that made use of two chimeric constructs in which XD and the MoRE were covalently linked to each other. Altogether, these studies unveiled the multiparametric nature of the interactions established within this complex and contribute to shed light onto the molecular features of protein interfaces involving intrinsically disordered regions.

  14. Parallel rendering techniques for massively parallel visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Krogh, M.; Painter, J.

    1995-07-01

    As the resolution of simulation models increases, scientific visualization algorithms which take advantage of the large memory. and parallelism of Massively Parallel Processors (MPPs) are becoming increasingly important. For large applications rendering on the MPP tends to be preferable to rendering on a graphics workstation due to the MPP`s abundant resources: memory, disk, and numerous processors. The challenge becomes developing algorithms that can exploit these resources while minimizing overhead, typically communication costs. This paper will describe recent efforts in parallel rendering for polygonal primitives as well as parallel volumetric techniques. This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume render use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Ma.chines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  15. Massively Parallel QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G

    2007-04-11

    The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results.

  16. Making parallel lines meet

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Tobias I.; Gu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is constructed beyond the plasma membrane, challenging mechanisms for its control by the cell. In plants, the cell wall is highly ordered, with cellulose microfibrils aligned coherently over a scale spanning hundreds of cells. To a considerable extent, deploying aligned microfibrils determines mechanical properties of the cell wall, including strength and compliance. Cellulose microfibrils have long been seen to be aligned in parallel with an array of microtubules in the cell cortex. How do these cortical microtubules affect the cellulose synthase complex? This question has stood for as many years as the parallelism between the elements has been observed, but now an answer is emerging. Here, we review recent work establishing that the link between microtubules and microfibrils is mediated by a protein named cellulose synthase-interacting protein 1 (CSI1). The protein binds both microtubules and components of the cellulose synthase complex. In the absence of CSI1, microfibrils are synthesized but their alignment becomes uncoupled from the microtubules, an effect that is phenocopied in the wild type by depolymerizing the microtubules. The characterization of CSI1 significantly enhances knowledge of how cellulose is aligned, a process that serves as a paradigmatic example of how cells dictate the construction of their extracellular environment. PMID:22902763

  17. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  18. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang

    2011-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  19. Modeling the Backscatter and Transmitted Light of High Power Smoothed Beams with pF3D, a Massively Parallel Laser Plasma Interaction Code

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R.L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S.; Hinkel, D.E.; Kirkwood, R.K.; Langdon, A.B.; Moody, J.D.; Still, C.H.; Suter, L.; Williams, E.A.; Young, P.E.

    2000-06-01

    Using the three-dimensional wave propagation code, F3D[Berger et al., Phys. Fluids B 5,2243 (1993), Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5,4337(1998)], and the massively parallel version pF3D, [Still et al. Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000)], we have computed the transmitted and reflected light for laser and plasma conditions in experiments that simulated ignition hohlraum conditions. The frequency spectrum and the wavenumber spectrum of the transmitted light are calculated and used to identify the relative contributions of stimulated forward Brillouin and self-focusing in hydrocarbon-filled balloons, commonly called gasbags. The effect of beam smoothing, smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS), on the stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) from Scale-1 NOVA hohlraums was simulated with the use nonlinear saturation models that limit the amplitude of the driven acoustic waves. Other experiments on CO{sub 2} gasbags simultaneously measure at a range of intensities the SBS reflectivity and the Thomson scatter from the SBS-driven acoustic waves that provide a more detailed test of the modeling. These calculations also predict that the backscattered light will be very nonuniform in the nearfield (the focusing system optics) which is important for specifying the backscatter intensities be tolerated by the National Ignition Facility laser system.

  20. MPP parallel forth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) Parallel FORTH is a derivative of FORTH-83 and Unified Software Systems' Uni-FORTH. The extension of FORTH into the realm of parallel processing on the MPP is described. With few exceptions, Parallel FORTH was made to follow the description of Uni-FORTH as closely as possible. Likewise, the parallel FORTH extensions were designed as philosophically similar to serial FORTH as possible. The MPP hardware characteristics, as viewed by the FORTH programmer, is discussed. Then a description is presented of how parallel FORTH is implemented on the MPP.

  1. Parallel computations and control of adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alvin, Kenneth F.; Belvin, W. Keith; Chong, K. P. (Editor); Liu, S. C. (Editor); Li, J. C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The equations of motion for structures with adaptive elements for vibration control are presented for parallel computations to be used as a software package for real-time control of flexible space structures. A brief introduction of the state-of-the-art parallel computational capability is also presented. Time marching strategies are developed for an effective use of massive parallel mapping, partitioning, and the necessary arithmetic operations. An example is offered for the simulation of control-structure interaction on a parallel computer and the impact of the approach presented for applications in other disciplines than aerospace industry is assessed.

  2. Wave-particle interactions with parallel whistler waves: Nonlinear and time-dependent effects revealed by particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Camporeale, Enrico; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2015-09-15

    We present a self-consistent Particle-in-Cell simulation of the resonant interactions between anisotropic energetic electrons and a population of whistler waves, with parameters relevant to the Earth's radiation belt. By tracking PIC particles and comparing with test-particle simulations, we emphasize the importance of including nonlinear effects and time evolution in the modeling of wave-particle interactions, which are excluded in the resonant limit of quasi-linear theory routinely used in radiation belt studies. In particular, we show that pitch angle diffusion is enhanced during the linear growth phase, and it rapidly saturates well before a single bounce period. This calls into question the widely used bounce average performed in most radiation belt diffusion calculations. Furthermore, we discuss how the saturation is related to the fact that the domain in which the particles pitch angle diffuses is bounded, and to the well-known problem of 90° diffusion barrier.

  3. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  4. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  5. Parallel simulation today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David; Fujimoto, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveys topics that presently define the state of the art in parallel simulation. Included in the tutorial are discussions on new protocols, mathematical performance analysis, time parallelism, hardware support for parallel simulation, load balancing algorithms, and dynamic memory management for optimistic synchronization.

  6. Verbal and Visual Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the practice of presenting multiple supporting examples in parallel form. The elements of parallelism and its use in argument were first illustrated by Aristotle. Although real texts may depart from the ideal form for presenting multiple examples, rhetorical theory offers a rationale for minimal, parallel presentation. The…

  7. Parallel faster-X evolution of gene expression and protein sequences in Drosophila: beyond differences in expression properties and protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Llopart, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Population genetics models predict that the X (or Z) chromosome will evolve at faster rates than the autosomes in XY (or ZW) systems. Studies of molecular evolution using large datasets in multiple species have provided evidence supporting this faster-X effect in protein-coding sequences and, more recently, in transcriptomes. However, X-linked and autosomal genes differ significantly in important properties besides hemizygosity in males, including gene expression levels, tissue specificity in gene expression, and the number of interactions in which they are involved (i.e., protein-protein or DNA-protein interactions). Most important, these properties are known to correlate with rates of evolution, which raises the question of whether differences between the X chromosome and autosomes in gene properties, rather than hemizygosity, are sufficient to explain faster-X evolution. Here I investigate this possibility using whole genome sequences and transcriptomes of Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea and show that this is not the case. Additional factors are needed to account for faster-X evolution of both gene expression and protein-coding sequences beyond differences in gene properties, likely a higher incidence of positive selection in combination with the accumulation of weakly deleterious mutations.

  8. Parallel Faster-X Evolution of Gene Expression and Protein Sequences in Drosophila: Beyond Differences in Expression Properties and Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Llopart, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Population genetics models predict that the X (or Z) chromosome will evolve at faster rates than the autosomes in XY (or ZW) systems. Studies of molecular evolution using large datasets in multiple species have provided evidence supporting this faster-X effect in protein-coding sequences and, more recently, in transcriptomes. However, X-linked and autosomal genes differ significantly in important properties besides hemizygosity in males, including gene expression levels, tissue specificity in gene expression, and the number of interactions in which they are involved (i.e., protein-protein or DNA-protein interactions). Most important, these properties are known to correlate with rates of evolution, which raises the question of whether differences between the X chromosome and autosomes in gene properties, rather than hemizygosity, are sufficient to explain faster-X evolution. Here I investigate this possibility using whole genome sequences and transcriptomes of Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea and show that this is not the case. Additional factors are needed to account for faster-X evolution of both gene expression and protein-coding sequences beyond differences in gene properties, likely a higher incidence of positive selection in combination with the accumulation of weakly deleterious mutations. PMID:25789611

  9. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  10. Parallel algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.F.

    1996-06-01

    Rapid changes in parallel computing technology are causing significant changes in the strategies being used for parallel algorithm development. One approach is simply to write computer code in a standard language like FORTRAN 77 or with the expectation that the compiler will produce executable code that will run in parallel. The alternatives are: (1) to build explicit message passing directly into the source code; or (2) to write source code without explicit reference to message passing or parallelism, but use a general communications library to provide efficient parallel execution. Application of these strategies is illustrated with examples of codes currently under development.

  11. Visualization and Tracking of Parallel CFD Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Kremenetsky, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We describe a system for interactive visualization and tracking of a 3-D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation on a parallel computer. CM/AVS, a distributed, parallel implementation of a visualization environment (AVS) runs on the CM-5 parallel supercomputer. A CFD solver is run as a CM/AVS module on the CM-5. Data communication between the solver, other parallel visualization modules, and a graphics workstation, which is running AVS, are handled by CM/AVS. Partitioning of the visualization task, between CM-5 and the workstation, can be done interactively in the visual programming environment provided by AVS. Flow solver parameters can also be altered by programmable interactive widgets. This system partially removes the requirement of storing large solution files at frequent time steps, a characteristic of the traditional 'simulate (yields) store (yields) visualize' post-processing approach.

  12. Stacked and H-Bonded Cytosine Dimers. Analysis of the Intermolecular Interaction Energies by Parallel Quantum Chemistry and Polarizable Molecular Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Gresh, Nohad; Sponer, Judit E; Devereux, Mike; Gkionis, Konstantinos; de Courcy, Benoit; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Sponer, Jiri

    2015-07-30

    Until now, atomistic simulations of DNA and RNA and their complexes have been executed using well calibrated but conceptually simple pair-additive empirical potentials (force fields). Although such simulations provided many valuable results, it is well established that simple force fields also introduce errors into the description, underlying the need for development of alternative anisotropic, polarizable molecular mechanics (APMM) potentials. One of the most abundant forces in all kinds of nucleic acids topologies is base stacking. Intra- and interstrand stacking is assumed to be the most essential factor affecting local conformational variations of B-DNA. However, stacking also contributes to formation of all kinds of noncanonical nucleic acids structures, such as quadruplexes or folded RNAs. The present study focuses on 14 stacked cytosine (Cyt) dimers and the doubly H-bonded dimer. We evaluate the extent to which an APMM procedure, SIBFA, could account quantitatively for the results of high-level quantum chemistry (QC) on the total interaction energies, and the individual energy contributions and their nonisotropic behaviors. Good agreements are found at both uncorrelated HF and correlated DFT and CCSD(T) levels. Resorting in SIBFA to distributed QC multipoles and to an explicit representation of the lone pairs is essential to respectively account for the anisotropies of the Coulomb and of the exchange-repulsion QC contributions.

  13. Genome-Wide Fitness and Genetic Interactions Determined by Tn-seq, a High-Throughput Massively Parallel Sequencing Method for Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    van Opijnen, Tim; Lazinski, David W.; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lagging annotation of bacterial genomes and the inherent genetic complexity of many phenotypes is hindering the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. This unit presents Tn-seq, a method that has made it possible to quantitatively determine fitness for most genes in a microorganism and to screen for quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale and in a high-throughput fashion. Tn-seq can thus direct studies on the annotation of genes and untangle complex phenotypes. The method is based on the construction of a saturated transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in the frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant’s fitness. The method was originally developed for the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis, but has now been applied to several different microbial species. PMID:25641100

  14. Parallel distributed computing using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalcin, Lisandro D.; Paz, Rodrigo R.; Kler, Pablo A.; Cosimo, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    This work presents two software components aimed to relieve the costs of accessing high-performance parallel computing resources within a Python programming environment: MPI for Python and PETSc for Python. MPI for Python is a general-purpose Python package that provides bindings for the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard using any back-end MPI implementation. Its facilities allow parallel Python programs to easily exploit multiple processors using the message passing paradigm. PETSc for Python provides access to the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) libraries. Its facilities allow sequential and parallel Python applications to exploit state of the art algorithms and data structures readily available in PETSc for the solution of large-scale problems in science and engineering. MPI for Python and PETSc for Python are fully integrated to PETSc-FEM, an MPI and PETSc based parallel, multiphysics, finite elements code developed at CIMEC laboratory. This software infrastructure supports research activities related to simulation of fluid flows with applications ranging from the design of microfluidic devices for biochemical analysis to modeling of large-scale stream/aquifer interactions.

  15. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  16. PCLIPS: Parallel CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Lawrence O.; Bennett, Bonnie H.; Tello, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    A parallel version of CLIPS 5.1 has been developed to run on Intel Hypercubes. The user interface is the same as that for CLIPS with some added commands to allow for parallel calls. A complete version of CLIPS runs on each node of the hypercube. The system has been instrumented to display the time spent in the match, recognize, and act cycles on each node. Only rule-level parallelism is supported. Parallel commands enable the assertion and retraction of facts to/from remote nodes working memory. Parallel CLIPS was used to implement a knowledge-based command, control, communications, and intelligence (C(sup 3)I) system to demonstrate the fusion of high-level, disparate sources. We discuss the nature of the information fusion problem, our approach, and implementation. Parallel CLIPS has also be used to run several benchmark parallel knowledge bases such as one to set up a cafeteria. Results show from running Parallel CLIPS with parallel knowledge base partitions indicate that significant speed increases, including superlinear in some cases, are possible.

  17. Parallel MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deshmane, Anagha; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A.; Seiberlich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Parallel imaging is a robust method for accelerating the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and has made possible many new applications of MR imaging. Parallel imaging works by acquiring a reduced amount of k-space data with an array of receiver coils. These undersampled data can be acquired more quickly, but the undersampling leads to aliased images. One of several parallel imaging algorithms can then be used to reconstruct artifact-free images from either the aliased images (SENSE-type reconstruction) or from the under-sampled data (GRAPPA-type reconstruction). The advantages of parallel imaging in a clinical setting include faster image acquisition, which can be used, for instance, to shorten breath-hold times resulting in fewer motion-corrupted examinations. In this article the basic concepts behind parallel imaging are introduced. The relationship between undersampling and aliasing is discussed and two commonly used parallel imaging methods, SENSE and GRAPPA, are explained in detail. Examples of artifacts arising from parallel imaging are shown and ways to detect and mitigate these artifacts are described. Finally, several current applications of parallel imaging are presented and recent advancements and promising research in parallel imaging are briefly reviewed. PMID:22696125

  18. Linked-View Parallel Coordinate Plot Renderer

    2011-06-28

    This software allows multiple linked views for interactive querying via map-based data selection, bar chart analytic overlays, and high dynamic range (HDR) line renderings. The major component of the visualization package is a parallel coordinate renderer with binning, curved layouts, shader-based rendering, and other techniques to allow interactive visualization of multidimensional data.

  19. Advanced parallel processing with supercomputer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K.

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates advanced parallel processing techniques and innovative hardware/software architectures that can be applied to boost the performance of supercomputers. Critical issues on architectural choices, parallel languages, compiling techniques, resource management, concurrency control, programming environment, parallel algorithms, and performance enhancement methods are examined and the best answers are presented. The authors cover advanced processing techniques suitable for supercomputers, high-end mainframes, minisupers, and array processors. The coverage emphasizes vectorization, multitasking, multiprocessing, and distributed computing. In order to achieve these operation modes, parallel languages, smart compilers, synchronization mechanisms, load balancing methods, mapping parallel algorithms, operating system functions, application library, and multidiscipline interactions are investigated to ensure high performance. At the end, they assess the potentials of optical and neural technologies for developing future supercomputers.

  20. Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform

    2005-02-18

    Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices,more » and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures

  1. Parallelizing the XSTAR Photoionization Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, M. S.; Ji, L.; Young, A.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    We describe two means by which XSTAR, a code which computes physical conditions and emission spectra of photoionized gases, has been parallelized. The first is pvmxstar, a wrapper which can be used in place of the serial xstar2xspec script to foster concurrent execution of the XSTAR command line application on independent sets of parameters. The second is pmodel, a plugin for the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS) which allows arbitrary components of a broad range of astrophysical models to be distributed across processors during fitting and confidence limits calculations, by scientists with little training in parallel programming. Plugging the XSTAR family of analytic models into pmodel enables multiple ionization states (e.g., of a complex absorber/emitter) to be computed simultaneously, alleviating the often prohibitive expense of the traditional serial approach. Initial performance results indicate that these methods substantially enlarge the problem space to which XSTAR may be applied within practical timeframes.

  2. Parallel Lisp simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, J.S.

    1988-05-01

    CSIM is a simulator for parallel Lisp, based on a continuation passing interpreter. It models a shared-memory multiprocessor executing programs written in Common Lisp, extended with several primitives for creating and controlling processes. This paper describes the structure of the simulator, measures its performance, and gives an example of its use with a parallel Lisp program.

  3. Parallel computing works

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-23

    An account of the Caltech Concurrent Computation Program (C{sup 3}P), a five year project that focused on answering the question: Can parallel computers be used to do large-scale scientific computations '' As the title indicates, the question is answered in the affirmative, by implementing numerous scientific applications on real parallel computers and doing computations that produced new scientific results. In the process of doing so, C{sup 3}P helped design and build several new computers, designed and implemented basic system software, developed algorithms for frequently used mathematical computations on massively parallel machines, devised performance models and measured the performance of many computers, and created a high performance computing facility based exclusively on parallel computers. While the initial focus of C{sup 3}P was the hypercube architecture developed by C. Seitz, many of the methods developed and lessons learned have been applied successfully on other massively parallel architectures.

  4. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  5. Massively parallel mathematical sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Montry, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.

  6. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  7. Bilingual parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Overbeek, R.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated that computationally intensive algorithms support adequate parallelism to exploit the potential of large parallel machines. Yet successful parallel implementations of serious applications are rare. The limiting factor is clearly programming technology. None of the approaches to parallel programming that have been proposed to date -- whether parallelizing compilers, language extensions, or new concurrent languages -- seem to adequately address the central problems of portability, expressiveness, efficiency, and compatibility with existing software. In this paper, we advocate an alternative approach to parallel programming based on what we call bilingual programming. We present evidence that this approach provides and effective solution to parallel programming problems. The key idea in bilingual programming is to construct the upper levels of applications in a high-level language while coding selected low-level components in low-level languages. This approach permits the advantages of a high-level notation (expressiveness, elegance, conciseness) to be obtained without the cost in performance normally associated with high-level approaches. In addition, it provides a natural framework for reusing existing code.

  8. The NAS parallel benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David (Editor); Barton, John (Editor); Lasinski, Thomas (Editor); Simon, Horst (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A new set of benchmarks was developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of a set of kernels, the 'Parallel Kernels,' and a simulated application benchmark. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification - all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.

  9. PKDGRAV3: Parallel gravity code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Douglas; Stadel, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Pkdgrav3 is an 𝒪(N) gravity calculation method; it uses a binary tree algorithm with fifth order fast multipole expansion of the gravitational potential, using cell-cell interactions. Periodic boundaries conditions require very little data movement and allow a high degree of parallelism; the code includes GPU acceleration for all force calculations, leading to a significant speed-up with respect to previous versions (ascl:1305.005). Pkdgrav3 also has a sophisticated time-stepping criterion based on an estimation of the local dynamical time.

  10. The Parallel Axiom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Pat

    1972-01-01

    Criteria for a reasonable axiomatic system are discussed. A discussion of the historical attempts to prove the independence of Euclids parallel postulate introduces non-Euclidean geometries. Poincare's model for a non-Euclidean geometry is defined and analyzed. (LS)

  11. Parallel programming with PCN

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-12-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs.anl.gov (c.f. Appendix A).

  12. Scalable parallel communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, K.; Khanna, S.; Overstreet, C. M.; Mukkamala, R.; Zubair, M.; Sekhar, Y. S.; Foudriat, E. C.

    1992-01-01

    Coarse-grain parallelism in networking (that is, the use of multiple protocol processors running replicated software sending over several physical channels) can be used to provide gigabit communications for a single application. Since parallel network performance is highly dependent on real issues such as hardware properties (e.g., memory speeds and cache hit rates), operating system overhead (e.g., interrupt handling), and protocol performance (e.g., effect of timeouts), we have performed detailed simulations studies of both a bus-based multiprocessor workstation node (based on the Sun Galaxy MP multiprocessor) and a distributed-memory parallel computer node (based on the Touchstone DELTA) to evaluate the behavior of coarse-grain parallelism. Our results indicate: (1) coarse-grain parallelism can deliver multiple 100 Mbps with currently available hardware platforms and existing networking protocols (such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and parallel Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) rings); (2) scale-up is near linear in n, the number of protocol processors, and channels (for small n and up to a few hundred Mbps); and (3) since these results are based on existing hardware without specialized devices (except perhaps for some simple modifications of the FDDI boards), this is a low cost solution to providing multiple 100 Mbps on current machines. In addition, from both the performance analysis and the properties of these architectures, we conclude: (1) multiple processors providing identical services and the use of space division multiplexing for the physical channels can provide better reliability than monolithic approaches (it also provides graceful degradation and low-cost load balancing); (2) coarse-grain parallelism supports running several transport protocols in parallel to provide different types of service (for example, one TCP handles small messages for many users, other TCP's running in parallel provide high bandwidth

  13. Parallel image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reif, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.

  14. Artificial intelligence in parallel

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1984-08-10

    The current rage in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community is parallelism: the idea is to build machines with many independent processors doing many things at once. The upshot is that about a dozen parallel machines are now under development for AI alone. As might be expected, the approaches are diverse yet there are a number of fundamental issues in common: granularity, topology, control, and algorithms.

  15. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  16. Code Parallelization with CAPO: A User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Frumkin, Michael; Yan, Jerry; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A software tool has been developed to assist the parallelization of scientific codes. This tool, CAPO, extends an existing parallelization toolkit, CAPTools developed at the University of Greenwich, to generate OpenMP parallel codes for shared memory architectures. This is an interactive toolkit to transform a serial Fortran application code to an equivalent parallel version of the software - in a small fraction of the time normally required for a manual parallelization. We first discuss the way in which loop types are categorized and how efficient OpenMP directives can be defined and inserted into the existing code using the in-depth interprocedural analysis. The use of the toolkit on a number of application codes ranging from benchmark to real-world application codes is presented. This will demonstrate the great potential of using the toolkit to quickly parallelize serial programs as well as the good performance achievable on a large number of toolkit to quickly parallelize serial programs as well as the good performance achievable on a large number of processors. The second part of the document gives references to the parameters and the graphic user interface implemented in the toolkit. Finally a set of tutorials is included for hands-on experiences with this toolkit.

  17. The Nexus task-parallel runtime system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.; Kesselman, C.

    1994-12-31

    A runtime system provides a parallel language compiler with an interface to the low-level facilities required to support interaction between concurrently executing program components. Nexus is a portable runtime system for task-parallel programming languages. Distinguishing features of Nexus include its support for multiple threads of control, dynamic processor acquisition, dynamic address space creation, a global memory model via interprocessor references, and asynchronous events. In addition, it supports heterogeneity at multiple levels, allowing a single computation to utilize different programming languages, executables, processors, and network protocols. Nexus is currently being used as a compiler target for two task-parallel languages: Fortran M and Compositional C++. In this paper, we present the Nexus design, outline techniques used to implement Nexus on parallel computers, show how it is used in compilers, and compare its performance with that of another runtime system.

  18. Parallel time integration software

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds must come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.

  19. Parallel time integration software

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds mustmore » come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.« less

  20. Parallelism in System Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Matney, Sr., Kenneth D; Shipman, Galen M

    2010-01-01

    The Cray XT, when employed in conjunction with the Lustre filesystem, has provided the ability to generate huge amounts of data in the form of many files. Typically, this is accommodated by satisfying the requests of large numbers of Lustre clients in parallel. In contrast, a single service node (Lustre client) cannot adequately service such datasets. This means that the use of traditional UNIX tools like cp, tar, et alli (with have no parallel capability) can result in substantial impact to user productivity. For example, to copy a 10 TB dataset from the service node using cp would take about 24 hours, under more or less ideal conditions. During production operation, this could easily extend to 36 hours. In this paper, we introduce the Lustre User Toolkit for Cray XT, developed at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We will show that Linux commands, implementing highly parallel I/O algorithms, provide orders of magnitude greater performance, greatly reducing impact to productivity.

  1. Parallel optical sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  2. Deoxyribo Nanonucleic Acid: Antiparallel, Parallel and Unparalleled

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, M.

    2010-03-05

    The crystal structure of a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide has revealed formation of a unique three-dimensional array by continuous antiparallel and parallel pairing between monomers. The array is based on tertiary interactions and represents a second-generation nanotechnological system.

  3. Parallel Molecular Dynamics Program for Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Plimpton, Steve

    1995-03-07

    ParBond is a parallel classical molecular dynamics code that models bonded molecular systems, typically of an organic nature. It uses classical force fields for both non-bonded Coulombic and Van der Waals interactions and for 2-, 3-, and 4-body bonded (bond, angle, dihedral, and improper) interactions. It integrates Newton''s equation of motion for the molecular system and evaluates various thermodynamical properties of the system as it progresses.

  4. Parallel programming with Ada

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, J.

    1988-01-01

    To the human programmer the ease of coding distributed computing is highly dependent on the suitability of the employed programming language. But with a particular language it is also important whether the possibilities of one or more parallel architectures can efficiently be addressed by available language constructs. In this paper the possibilities are discussed of the high-level language Ada and in particular of its tasking concept as a descriptional tool for the design and implementation of numerical and other algorithms that allow execution of parts in parallel. Language tools are explained and their use for common applications is shown. Conclusions are drawn about the usefulness of several Ada concepts.

  5. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2009-11-15

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are a suite of parallel computer performance benchmarks. They were originally developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1991 to assess high-end parallel supercomputers. Although they are no longer used as widely as they once were for comparing high-end system performance, they continue to be studied and analyzed a great deal in the high-performance computing community. The acronym 'NAS' originally stood for the Numerical Aeronautical Simulation Program at NASA Ames. The name of this organization was subsequently changed to the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Program, and more recently to the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Center, although the acronym remains 'NAS.' The developers of the original NPB suite were David H. Bailey, Eric Barszcz, John Barton, David Browning, Russell Carter, LeoDagum, Rod Fatoohi, Samuel Fineberg, Paul Frederickson, Thomas Lasinski, Rob Schreiber, Horst Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan and Sisira Weeratunga. The original NAS Parallel Benchmarks consisted of eight individual benchmark problems, each of which focused on some aspect of scientific computing. The principal focus was in computational aerophysics, although most of these benchmarks have much broader relevance, since in a much larger sense they are typical of many real-world scientific computing applications. The NPB suite grew out of the need for a more rational procedure to select new supercomputers for acquisition by NASA. The emergence of commercially available highly parallel computer systems in the late 1980s offered an attractive alternative to parallel vector supercomputers that had been the mainstay of high-end scientific computing. However, the introduction of highly parallel systems was accompanied by a regrettable level of hype, not only on the part of the commercial vendors but even, in some cases, by scientists using the systems. As a result, it was difficult to discern whether the new systems offered any fundamental performance advantage

  6. SPINning parallel systems software.

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, O.S.; Lusk, E.; McCune, W.

    2002-03-15

    We describe our experiences in using Spin to verify parts of the Multi Purpose Daemon (MPD) parallel process management system. MPD is a distributed collection of processes connected by Unix network sockets. MPD is dynamic processes and connections among them are created and destroyed as MPD is initialized, runs user processes, recovers from faults, and terminates. This dynamic nature is easily expressible in the Spin/Promela framework but poses performance and scalability challenges. We present here the results of expressing some of the parallel algorithms of MPD and executing both simulation and verification runs with Spin.

  7. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  8. New Computational Methods for the Prediction and Analysis of Helicopter Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes several new methods to predict and analyze rotorcraft noise. These methods are: 1) a combined computational fluid dynamics and Kirchhoff scheme for far-field noise predictions, 2) parallel computer implementation of the Kirchhoff integrations, 3) audio and visual rendering of the computed acoustic predictions over large far-field regions, and 4) acoustic tracebacks to the Kirchhoff surface to pinpoint the sources of the rotor noise. The paper describes each method and presents sample results for three test cases. The first case consists of in-plane high-speed impulsive noise and the other two cases show idealized parallel and oblique blade-vortex interactions. The computed results show good agreement with available experimental data but convey much more information about the far-field noise propagation. When taken together, these new analysis methods exploit the power of new computer technologies and offer the potential to significantly improve our prediction and understanding of rotorcraft noise.

  9. Parallel Total Energy

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  10. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Parallel Multigrid Equation Solver

    2001-09-07

    Prometheus is a fully parallel multigrid equation solver for matrices that arise in unstructured grid finite element applications. It includes a geometric and an algebraic multigrid method and has solved problems of up to 76 mullion degrees of feedom, problems in linear elasticity on the ASCI blue pacific and ASCI red machines.

  12. Optical parallel selectionist systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    1993-01-01

    There are at least two major classes of computers in nature and technology: connectionist and selectionist. A subset of connectionist systems (Turing Machines) dominates modern computing, although another subset (Neural Networks) is growing rapidly. Selectionist machines have unique capabilities which should allow them to do truly creative operations. It is possible to make a parallel optical selectionist system using methods describes in this paper.

  13. Optimizing parallel reduction operations

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    A parallel program consists of sets of concurrent and sequential tasks. Often, a reduction (such as array sum) sequentially combines values produced by a parallel computation. Because reductions occur so frequently in otherwise parallel programs, they are good candidates for optimization. Since reductions may introduce dependencies, most languages separate computation and reduction. The Sisal functional language is unique in that reduction is a natural consequence of loop expressions; the parallelism is implicit in the language. Unfortunately, the original language supports only seven reduction operations. To generalize these expressions, the Sisal 90 definition adds user-defined reductions at the language level. Applicable optimizations depend upon the mathematical properties of the reduction. Compilation and execution speed, synchronization overhead, memory use and maximum size influence the final implementation. This paper (1) Defines reduction syntax and compares with traditional concurrent methods; (2) Defines classes of reduction operations; (3) Develops analysis of classes for optimized concurrency; (4) Incorporates reductions into Sisal 1.2 and Sisal 90; (5) Evaluates performance and size of the implementations.

  14. Parallel fast gauss transform

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Rahul S; Sundar, Hari; Veerapaneni, Shravan

    2010-01-01

    We present fast adaptive parallel algorithms to compute the sum of N Gaussians at N points. Direct sequential computation of this sum would take O(N{sup 2}) time. The parallel time complexity estimates for our algorithms are O(N/n{sub p}) for uniform point distributions and O( (N/n{sub p}) log (N/n{sub p}) + n{sub p}log n{sub p}) for non-uniform distributions using n{sub p} CPUs. We incorporate a plane-wave representation of the Gaussian kernel which permits 'diagonal translation'. We use parallel octrees and a new scheme for translating the plane-waves to efficiently handle non-uniform distributions. Computing the transform to six-digit accuracy at 120 billion points took approximately 140 seconds using 4096 cores on the Jaguar supercomputer. Our implementation is 'kernel-independent' and can handle other 'Gaussian-type' kernels even when explicit analytic expression for the kernel is not known. These algorithms form a new class of core computational machinery for solving parabolic PDEs on massively parallel architectures.

  15. Parallel programming with PCN

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1993-01-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and Cthat allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. It includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underlie PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous ftp from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs. ani.gov (cf. Appendix A). This version of this document describes PCN version 2.0, a major revision of the PCN programming system. It supersedes earlier versions of this report.

  16. Massively parallel processor computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, L. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for processing multidimensional data with strong spatial characteristics, such as raw image data, characterized by a large number of parallel data streams in an ordered array is described. It comprises a large number (e.g., 16,384 in a 128 x 128 array) of parallel processing elements operating simultaneously and independently on single bit slices of a corresponding array of incoming data streams under control of a single set of instructions. Each of the processing elements comprises a bidirectional data bus in communication with a register for storing single bit slices together with a random access memory unit and associated circuitry, including a binary counter/shift register device, for performing logical and arithmetical computations on the bit slices, and an I/O unit for interfacing the bidirectional data bus with the data stream source. The massively parallel processor architecture enables very high speed processing of large amounts of ordered parallel data, including spatial translation by shifting or sliding of bits vertically or horizontally to neighboring processing elements.

  17. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Q.O.

    1997-10-08

    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  18. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  19. Programming parallel architectures - The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various approaches to programming multiprocessor architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive, since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. This paper also describes recent work in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described.

  20. A massively asynchronous, parallel brain.

    PubMed

    Zeki, Semir

    2015-05-19

    Whether the visual brain uses a parallel or a serial, hierarchical, strategy to process visual signals, the end result appears to be that different attributes of the visual scene are perceived asynchronously--with colour leading form (orientation) by 40 ms and direction of motion by about 80 ms. Whatever the neural root of this asynchrony, it creates a problem that has not been properly addressed, namely how visual attributes that are perceived asynchronously over brief time windows after stimulus onset are bound together in the longer term to give us a unified experience of the visual world, in which all attributes are apparently seen in perfect registration. In this review, I suggest that there is no central neural clock in the (visual) brain that synchronizes the activity of different processing systems. More likely, activity in each of the parallel processing-perceptual systems of the visual brain is reset independently, making of the brain a massively asynchronous organ, just like the new generation of more efficient computers promise to be. Given the asynchronous operations of the brain, it is likely that the results of activities in the different processing-perceptual systems are not bound by physiological interactions between cells in the specialized visual areas, but post-perceptually, outside the visual brain. PMID:25823871

  1. Parallel computers and parallel algorithms for CFD: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roose, Dirk; Vandriessche, Rafael

    1995-10-01

    This text presents a tutorial on those aspects of parallel computing that are important for the development of efficient parallel algorithms and software for computational fluid dynamics. We first review the main architectural features of parallel computers and we briefly describe some parallel systems on the market today. We introduce some important concepts concerning the development and the performance evaluation of parallel algorithms. We discuss how work load imbalance and communication costs on distributed memory parallel computers can be minimized. We present performance results for some CFD test cases. We focus on applications using structured and block structured grids, but the concepts and techniques are also valid for unstructured grids.

  2. Strength of Multiple Parallel Biological Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Sulchek, T A; Friddle, R W; Noy, A

    2005-12-07

    Multivalent interactions play a critical role in a variety of biological processes on both molecular and cellular levels. We have used molecular force spectroscopy to investigate the strength of multiple parallel peptide-antibody bonds using a system that allowed us to determine the rupture forces and the number of ruptured bonds independently. In our experiments the interacting molecules were attached to the surfaces of the probe and sample of the atomic force microscope with flexible polymer tethers, and unique mechanical signature of the tethers determined the number of ruptured bonds. We show that the rupture forces increase with the number of interacting molecules and that the measured forces obey the predictions of a Markovian model for the strength of multiple parallel bonds. We also discuss the implications of our results to the interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements in multiple bond systems.

  3. Self-testing in parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKague, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Self-testing allows us to determine, through classical interaction only, whether some players in a non-local game share particular quantum states. Most work on self-testing has concentrated on developing tests for small states like one pair of maximally entangled qubits, or on tests where there is a separate player for each qubit, as in a graph state. Here we consider the case of testing many maximally entangled pairs of qubits shared between two players. Previously such a test was shown where testing is sequential, i.e., one pair is tested at a time. Here we consider the parallel case where all pairs are tested simultaneously, giving considerably more power to dishonest players. We derive sufficient conditions for a self-test for many maximally entangled pairs of qubits shared between two players and also two constructions for self-tests where all pairs are tested simultaneously.

  4. Parallel Consensual Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, J. A.; Sveinsson, J. R.; Ersoy, O. K.; Swain, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    A new neural network architecture is proposed and applied in classification of remote sensing/geographic data from multiple sources. The new architecture is called the parallel consensual neural network and its relation to hierarchical and ensemble neural networks is discussed. The parallel consensual neural network architecture is based on statistical consensus theory. The input data are transformed several times and the different transformed data are applied as if they were independent inputs and are classified using stage neural networks. Finally, the outputs from the stage networks are then weighted and combined to make a decision. Experimental results based on remote sensing data and geographic data are given. The performance of the consensual neural network architecture is compared to that of a two-layer (one hidden layer) conjugate-gradient backpropagation neural network. The results with the proposed neural network architecture compare favorably in terms of classification accuracy to the backpropagation method.

  5. Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

  6. Parallel grid population

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  7. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  8. Parallel multilevel preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, Jinchao.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we shall report on some techniques for the development of preconditioners for the discrete systems which arise in the approximation of solutions to elliptic boundary value problems. Here we shall only state the resulting theorems. It has been demonstrated that preconditioned iteration techniques often lead to the most computationally effective algorithms for the solution of the large algebraic systems corresponding to boundary value problems in two and three dimensional Euclidean space. The use of preconditioned iteration will become even more important on computers with parallel architecture. This paper discusses an approach for developing completely parallel multilevel preconditioners. In order to illustrate the resulting algorithms, we shall describe the simplest application of the technique to a model elliptic problem.

  9. Ultrascalable petaflop parallel supercomputer

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Chiu, George; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Hall, Shawn; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Takken, Todd

    2010-07-20

    A massively parallel supercomputer of petaOPS-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) having up to four processing elements. The ASIC nodes are interconnected by multiple independent networks that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes with minimal latency. The multiple networks may include three high-speed networks for parallel algorithm message passing including a Torus, collective network, and a Global Asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. These multiple independent networks may be collaboratively or independently utilized according to the needs or phases of an algorithm for optimizing algorithm processing performance. The use of a DMA engine is provided to facilitate message passing among the nodes without the expenditure of processing resources at the node.

  10. PCLIPS: Parallel CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gryphon, Coranth D.; Miller, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    PCLIPS (Parallel CLIPS) is a set of extensions to the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system language. PCLIPS is intended to provide an environment for the development of more complex, extensive expert systems. Multiple CLIPS expert systems are now capable of running simultaneously on separate processors, or separate machines, thus dramatically increasing the scope of solvable tasks within the expert systems. As a tool for parallel processing, PCLIPS allows for an expert system to add to its fact-base information generated by other expert systems, thus allowing systems to assist each other in solving a complex problem. This allows individual expert systems to be more compact and efficient, and thus run faster or on smaller machines.

  11. Homology, convergence and parallelism.

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Homology is a relation of correspondence between parts of parts of larger wholes. It is used when tracking objects of interest through space and time and in the context of explanatory historical narratives. Homologues can be traced through a genealogical nexus back to a common ancestral precursor. Homology being a transitive relation, homologues remain homologous however much they may come to differ. Analogy is a relationship of correspondence between parts of members of classes having no relationship of common ancestry. Although homology is often treated as an alternative to convergence, the latter is not a kind of correspondence: rather, it is one of a class of processes that also includes divergence and parallelism. These often give rise to misleading appearances (homoplasies). Parallelism can be particularly hard to detect, especially when not accompanied by divergences in some parts of the body. PMID:26598721

  12. Collisionless parallel shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galeev, A. A.; Galinskii, V. L.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to a collisionless parallel shock based on solitary-type solutions of the modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MDNLS) for parallel Alfven waves. The standard derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation is generalized in order to include the possible anisotropy of the plasma distribution and higher-order Korteweg-de Vies-type dispersion. Stationary solutions of MDNLS are discussed. The anisotropic nature of 'adiabatic' reflections leads to the asymmetric particle distribution in the upstream as well as in the downstream regions of the shock. As a result, nonzero heat flux appears near the front of the shock. It is shown that this causes the stochastic behavior of the nonlinear waves, which can significantly contribute to the shock thermalization.

  13. ASSEMBLY OF PARALLEL PLATES

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Lennox, D.H.

    1963-04-23

    This invention is concerned with a rigid assembly of parallel plates in which keyways are stamped out along the edges of the plates and a self-retaining key is inserted into aligned keyways. Spacers having similar keyways are included between adjacent plates. The entire assembly is locked into a rigid structure by fastening only the outermost plates to the ends of the keys. (AEC)

  14. Parallel sphere rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.; Painter, J.; Hansen, C.

    1996-10-01

    Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the M.

  15. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide.

  16. Trajectory optimization using parallel shooting method on parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Wirthman, D.J.; Park, S.Y.; Vadali, S.R.

    1995-03-01

    The efficiency of a parallel shooting method on a parallel computer for solving a variety of optimal control guidance problems is studied. Several examples are considered to demonstrate that a speedup of nearly 7 to 1 is achieved with the use of 16 processors. It is suggested that further improvements in performance can be achieved by parallelizing in the state domain. 10 refs.

  17. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  18. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    As the I/O needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. The interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as an application that has been implemented using that interface.

  19. Asynchronous interpretation of parallel microprograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bandman, O.L.

    1984-03-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how to pass from a given synchronous interpretation of a parallel microprogram to an equivalent asynchronous interpretation, and investigate the cost associated with the rejection of external synchronization in parallel microprogram structures.

  20. Parallel Pascal - An extended Pascal for parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, A. P.

    1984-01-01

    Parallel Pascal is an extended version of the conventional serial Pascal programming language which includes a convenient syntax for specifying array operations. It is upward compatible with standard Pascal and involves only a small number of carefully chosen new features. Parallel Pascal was developed to reduce the semantic gap between standard Pascal and a large range of highly parallel computers. Two important design goals of Parallel Pascal were efficiency and portability. Portability is particularly difficult to achieve since different parallel computers frequently have very different capabilities.

  1. Parallelized nested sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, R. Wesley; Goggans, Paul M.

    2014-12-01

    One of the important advantages of nested sampling as an MCMC technique is its ability to draw representative samples from multimodal distributions and distributions with other degeneracies. This coverage is accomplished by maintaining a number of so-called live samples within a likelihood constraint. In usual practice, at each step, only the sample with the least likelihood is discarded from this set of live samples and replaced. In [1], Skilling shows that for a given number of live samples, discarding only one sample yields the highest precision in estimation of the log-evidence. However, if we increase the number of live samples, more samples can be discarded at once while still maintaining the same precision. For computer code running only serially, this modification would considerably increase the wall clock time necessary to reach convergence. However, if we use a computer with parallel processing capabilities, and we write our code to take advantage of this parallelism to replace multiple samples concurrently, the performance penalty can be eliminated entirely and possibly reversed. In this case, we must use the more general equation in [1] for computing the expectation of the shrinkage distribution: E [- log t]= (N r-r+1)-1+(Nr-r+2)-1+⋯+Nr-1, for shrinkage t with Nr live samples and r samples discarded at each iteration. The equation for the variance Var (- log t)= (N r-r+1)-2+(Nr-r+2)-2+⋯+Nr-2 is used to find the appropriate number of live samples Nr to use with r > 1 to match the variance achieved with N1 live samples and r = 1. In this paper, we show that by replacing multiple discarded samples in parallel, we are able to achieve a more thorough sampling of the constrained prior distribution, reduce runtime, and increase precision.

  2. Parallel sphere rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Painter, J.; de Verdiere, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel divide-and-conquer algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the T3D.

  3. Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Powell, Mark W.; Bachmann, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout (PEPC) is a program written to leverage parallelism and to automate the checkout process of plug-ins created in Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform). Eclipse plug-ins can be aggregated in a feature project. This innovation digests a feature description (xml file) and automatically checks out all of the plug-ins listed in the feature. This resolves the issue of manually checking out each plug-in required to work on the project. To minimize the amount of time necessary to checkout the plug-ins, this program makes the plug-in checkouts parallel. After parsing the feature, a request to checkout for each plug-in in the feature has been inserted. These requests are handled by a thread pool with a configurable number of threads. By checking out the plug-ins in parallel, the checkout process is streamlined before getting started on the project. For instance, projects that took 30 minutes to checkout now take less than 5 minutes. The effect is especially clear on a Mac, which has a network monitor displaying the bandwidth use. When running the client from a developer s home, the checkout process now saturates the bandwidth in order to get all the plug-ins checked out as fast as possible. For comparison, a checkout process that ranged from 8-200 Kbps from a developer s home is now able to saturate a pipe of 1.3 Mbps, resulting in significantly faster checkouts. Eclipse IDE (integrated development environment) tries to build a project as soon as it is downloaded. As part of another optimization, this innovation programmatically tells Eclipse to stop building while checkouts are happening, which dramatically reduces lock contention and enables plug-ins to continue downloading until all of them finish. Furthermore, the software re-enables automatic building, and forces Eclipse to do a clean build once it finishes checking out all of the plug-ins. This software is fully generic and does not contain any NASA-specific code. It can be applied to any

  4. Highly parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.; Tichy, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    Highly parallel computing architectures are the only means to achieve the computation rates demanded by advanced scientific problems. A decade of research has demonstrated the feasibility of such machines and current research focuses on which architectures designated as multiple instruction multiple datastream (MIMD) and single instruction multiple datastream (SIMD) have produced the best results to date; neither shows a decisive advantage for most near-homogeneous scientific problems. For scientific problems with many dissimilar parts, more speculative architectures such as neural networks or data flow may be needed.

  5. Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.S.

    2000-03-17

    The purpose of this 3-year cooperative research project was to develop a parallel kinematic machining (PKM) capability for complex parts that normally require expensive multiple setups on conventional orthogonal machine tools. This non-conventional, non-orthogonal machining approach is based on a 6-axis positioning system commonly referred to as a hexapod. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) was the lead site responsible for a multitude of projects that defined the machining parameters and detailed the metrology of the hexapod. The role of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) in this project was limited to evaluating the application of this unique technology to production applications.

  6. CSM parallel structural methods research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

  7. Roo: A parallel theorem prover

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.; Slaney, J.K.

    1991-11-01

    We describe a parallel theorem prover based on the Argonne theorem-proving system OTTER. The parallel system, called Roo, runs on shared-memory multiprocessors such as the Sequent Symmetry. We explain the parallel algorithm used and give performance results that demonstrate near-linear speedups on large problems.

  8. Parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Phillip M.; Heidelberger, Philip; Nicol, David M.

    1994-01-01

    As massively parallel computers proliferate, there is growing interest in findings ways by which performance of massively parallel codes can be efficiently predicted. This problem arises in diverse contexts such as parallelizing computers, parallel performance monitoring, and parallel algorithm development. In this paper we describe one solution where one directly executes the application code, but uses a discrete-event simulator to model details of the presumed parallel machine such as operating system and communication network behavior. Because this approach is computationally expensive, we are interested in its own parallelization specifically the parallelization of the discrete-event simulator. We describe methods suitable for parallelized direct execution simulation of message-passing parallel programs, and report on the performance of such a system, Large Application Parallel Simulation Environment (LAPSE), we have built on the Intel Paragon. On all codes measured to date, LAPSE predicts performance well typically within 10 percent relative error. Depending on the nature of the application code, we have observed low slowdowns (relative to natively executing code) and high relative speedups using up to 64 processors.

  9. A parallel world in the dark

    SciTech Connect

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Jeong, Kwang Sik; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: ksjeong@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    The baryon-dark matter coincidence is a long-standing issue. Interestingly, the recent observations suggest the presence of dark radiation, which, if confirmed, would pose another coincidence problem of why the density of dark radiation is comparable to that of photons. These striking coincidences may be traced back to the dark sector with particle contents and interactions that are quite similar, if not identical, to the standard model: a dark parallel world. It naturally solves the coincidence problems of dark matter and dark radiation, and predicts a sterile neutrino(s) with mass of O(0.1−1) eV, as well as self-interacting dark matter made of the counterpart of ordinary baryons. We find a robust prediction for the relation between the abundance of dark radiation and the sterile neutrino, which can serve as the smoking-gun evidence of the dark parallel world.

  10. Time sharing massively parallel machines. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.; Wolski, R.

    1995-03-01

    As part of the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative (MPCI) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors have developed a simple, effective and portable time sharing mechanism by scheduling gangs of processes on tightly coupled parallel machines. By time-sharing the resources, the system interleaves production and interactive jobs. Immediate priority is given to interactive use, maintaining good response time. Production jobs are scheduled during idle periods, making use of the otherwise unused resources. In this paper the authors discuss their experience with gang scheduling over the 3 year life-time of the project. In section 2, they motivate the project and discuss some of its details. Section 3.0 describes the general scheduling problem and how gang scheduling addresses it. In section 4.0, they describe the implementation. Section 8.0 presents results culled over the lifetime of the project. They conclude this paper with some observations and possible future directions.

  11. Parallel ptychographic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Vine, David J.; Peterka, Tom; Deng, Junjing; Ross, Rob; Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Ptychography is an imaging method whereby a coherent beam is scanned across an object, and an image is obtained by iterative phasing of the set of diffraction patterns. It is able to be used to image extended objects at a resolution limited by scattering strength of the object and detector geometry, rather than at an optics-imposed limit. As technical advances allow larger fields to be imaged, computational challenges arise for reconstructing the correspondingly larger data volumes, yet at the same time there is also a need to deliver reconstructed images immediately so that one can evaluate the next steps to take in an experiment. Here we present a parallel method for real-time ptychographic phase retrieval. It uses a hybrid parallel strategy to divide the computation between multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) and then employs novel techniques to merge sub-datasets into a single complex phase and amplitude image. Results are shown on a simulated specimen and a real dataset from an X-ray experiment conducted at a synchrotron light source. PMID:25607174

  12. Tolerant (parallel) Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In order to be truly portable, a program must be tolerant of a wide range of development and execution environments, and a parallel program is just one which must be tolerant of a very wide range. This paper first defines the term "tolerant programming", then describes many layers of tools to accomplish it. The primary focus is on F-Nets, a formal model for expressing computation as a folded partial-ordering of operations, thereby providing an architecture-independent expression of tolerant parallel algorithms. For implementing F-Nets, Cooperative Data Sharing (CDS) is a subroutine package for implementing communication efficiently in a large number of environments (e.g. shared memory and message passing). Software Cabling (SC), a very-high-level graphical programming language for building large F-Nets, possesses many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, array operations). Finally, L2(sup 3) is a CASE tool which facilitates the construction, compilation, execution, and debugging of SC programs.

  13. A parallel, portable and versatile treecode

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, M.S.; Salmon, J.K. |

    1994-10-01

    Portability and versatility are important characteristics of a computer program which is meant to be generally useful. We describe how we have developed a parallel N-body treecode to meet these goals. A variety of applications to which the code can be applied are mentioned. Performance of the program is also measured on several machines. A 512 processor Intel Paragon can solve for the forces on 10 million gravitationally interacting particles to 0.5% rms accuracy in 28.6 seconds.

  14. A systolic array parallelizing compiler

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a completely new approach to the problem of systolic array parallelizing compiler. It describes the AL parallelizing compiler for the Warp systolic array, the first working systolic array parallelizing compiler which can generate efficient parallel code for complete LINPACK routines. This book begins by analyzing the architectural strength of the Warp systolic array. It proposes a model for mapping programs onto the machine and introduces the notion of data relations for optimizing the program mapping. Also presented are successful applications of the AL compiler in matrix computation and image processing. A complete listing of the source program and compiler-generated parallel code are given to clarify the overall picture of the compiler. The book concludes that systolic array parallelizing compiler can produce efficient parallel code, almost identical to what the user would have written by hand.

  15. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Williams, Mark L; Bowman, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  16. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    PubMed Central

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security. PMID:27184813

  17. Parallel tridiagonal equation solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    Three parallel algorithms were compared for the direct solution of tridiagonal linear systems of equations. The algorithms are suitable for computers such as ILLIAC 4 and CDC STAR. For array computers similar to ILLIAC 4, cyclic odd-even reduction has the least operation count for highly structured sets of equations, and recursive doubling has the least count for relatively unstructured sets of equations. Since the difference in operation counts for these two algorithms is not substantial, their relative running times may be more related to overhead operations, which are not measured in this paper. The third algorithm, based on Buneman's Poisson solver, has more arithmetic operations than the others, and appears to be the least favorable. For pipeline computers similar to CDC STAR, cyclic odd-even reduction appears to be the most preferable algorithm for all cases.

  18. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  19. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

    2011-09-01

    A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

  20. Unified Parallel Software

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, Mike

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use of EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.

  1. Unified Parallel Software

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use ofmore » EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.« less

  2. Parallel Imaging Microfluidic Cytometer

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Daniel J.; McKenna, Brian K.; Evans, James G.; Belkina, Anna C.; Denis, Gerald V.; Sherr, David; Cheung, Man Ching

    2011-01-01

    By adding an additional degree of freedom from multichannel flow, the parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) combines some of the best features of flow cytometry (FACS) and microscope-based high-content screening (HCS). The PMC (i) lends itself to fast processing of large numbers of samples, (ii) adds a 1-D imaging capability for intracellular localization assays (HCS), (iii) has a high rare-cell sensitivity and, (iv) has an unusual capability for time-synchronized sampling. An inability to practically handle large sample numbers has restricted applications of conventional flow cytometers and microscopes in combinatorial cell assays, network biology, and drug discovery. The PMC promises to relieve a bottleneck in these previously constrained applications. The PMC may also be a powerful tool for finding rare primary cells in the clinic. The multichannel architecture of current PMC prototypes allows 384 unique samples for a cell-based screen to be read out in approximately 6–10 minutes, about 30-times the speed of most current FACS systems. In 1-D intracellular imaging, the PMC can obtain protein localization using HCS marker strategies at many times the sample throughput of CCD-based microscopes or CCD-based single-channel flow cytometers. The PMC also permits the signal integration time to be varied over a larger range than is practical in conventional flow cytometers. The signal-to-noise advantages are useful, for example, in counting rare positive cells in the most difficult early stages of genome-wide screening. We review the status of parallel microfluidic cytometry and discuss some of the directions the new technology may take. PMID:21704835

  3. Parallelizing OVERFLOW: Experiences, Lessons, Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, Dennis C.

    1999-01-01

    The computer code OVERFLOW is widely used in the aerodynamic community for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Current trends in computer systems and architectures are toward multiple processors and parallelism, including distributed memory. This report describes work that has been carried out by the author and others at Ames Research Center with the goal of parallelizing OVERFLOW using a variety of parallel architectures and parallelization strategies. This paper begins with a brief description of the OVERFLOW code. This description includes the basic numerical algorithm and some software engineering considerations. Next comes a description of a parallel version of OVERFLOW, OVERFLOW/PVM, using PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). This parallel version of OVERFLOW uses the manager/worker style and is part of the standard OVERFLOW distribution. Then comes a description of a parallel version of OVERFLOW, OVERFLOW/MPI, using MPI (Message Passing Interface). This parallel version of OVERFLOW uses the SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data) style. Finally comes a discussion of alternatives to explicit message-passing in the context of parallelizing OVERFLOW.

  4. Parallel computation with the force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology, called the force, supports the construction of programs to be executed in parallel by a force of processes. The number of processes in the force is unspecified, but potentially very large. The force idea is embodied in a set of macros which produce multiproceossor FORTRAN code and has been studied on two shared memory multiprocessors of fairly different character. The method has simplified the writing of highly parallel programs within a limited class of parallel algorithms and is being extended to cover a broader class. The individual parallel constructs which comprise the force methodology are discussed. Of central concern are their semantics, implementation on different architectures and performance implications.

  5. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  6. Using Motivational Interviewing Techniques to Address Parallel Process in Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda; Clarke, Philip; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2013-01-01

    Supervision offers a distinct opportunity to experience the interconnection of counselor-client and counselor-supervisor interactions. One product of this network of interactions is parallel process, a phenomenon by which counselors unconsciously identify with their clients and subsequently present to their supervisors in a similar fashion…

  7. Parallel 3-D Electromagnetic Particle Code Using High Performance FORTRAN: Parallel TRISTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, D.; Li, Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; et al.

    A three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC ) code, TRISTAN (Tridimensional Stanford) code, has been parallelized using High Performance Fortran (HPF) as a RPM (Real Parallel Machine). In the parallelized HPF code, the simulation domain is decomposed in one-dimension, and both the particle and field data located in each domain that we call the sub-domain are distributed on each processor. Both the particle and field data on a sub-domain are needed by the neighbor sub-domains and thus communications between the sub-domains are inevitable. Our simulation results using HPF exhibit the promising applicability of the HPF communications to a large scale scientific computing such as solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  8. Parallel Programming in the Age of Ubiquitous Parallelism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingali, Keshav

    2014-04-01

    Multicore and manycore processors are now ubiquitous, but parallel programming remains as difficult as it was 30-40 years ago. During this time, our community has explored many promising approaches including functional and dataflow languages, logic programming, and automatic parallelization using program analysis and restructuring, but none of these approaches has succeeded except in a few niche application areas. In this talk, I will argue that these problems arise largely from the computation-centric foundations and abstractions that we currently use to think about parallelism. In their place, I will propose a novel data-centric foundation for parallel programming called the operator formulation in which algorithms are described in terms of actions on data. The operator formulation shows that a generalized form of data-parallelism called amorphous data-parallelism is ubiquitous even in complex, irregular graph applications such as mesh generation/refinement/partitioning and SAT solvers. Regular algorithms emerge as a special case of irregular ones, and many application-specific optimization techniques can be generalized to a broader context. The operator formulation also leads to a structural analysis of algorithms called TAO-analysis that provides implementation guidelines for exploiting parallelism efficiently. Finally, I will describe a system called Galois based on these ideas for exploiting amorphous data-parallelism on multicores and GPUs

  9. High Performance Parallel Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Ghazawi, Tarek; Kaewpijit, Sinthop

    1998-01-01

    Traditional remote sensing instruments are multispectral, where observations are collected at a few different spectral bands. Recently, many hyperspectral instruments, that can collect observations at hundreds of bands, have been operational. Furthermore, there have been ongoing research efforts on ultraspectral instruments that can produce observations at thousands of spectral bands. While these remote sensing technology developments hold great promise for new findings in the area of Earth and space science, they present many challenges. These include the need for faster processing of such increased data volumes, and methods for data reduction. Dimension Reduction is a spectral transformation, aimed at concentrating the vital information and discarding redundant data. One such transformation, which is widely used in remote sensing, is the Principal Components Analysis (PCA). This report summarizes our progress on the development of a parallel PCA and its implementation on two Beowulf cluster configuration; one with fast Ethernet switch and the other with a Myrinet interconnection. Details of the implementation and performance results, for typical sets of multispectral and hyperspectral NASA remote sensing data, are presented and analyzed based on the algorithm requirements and the underlying machine configuration. It will be shown that the PCA application is quite challenging and hard to scale on Ethernet-based clusters. However, the measurements also show that a high- performance interconnection network, such as Myrinet, better matches the high communication demand of PCA and can lead to a more efficient PCA execution.

  10. Trajectories in parallel optics.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David

    2011-10-01

    In our previous work we showed the ability to improve the optical system's matrix condition by optical design, thereby improving its robustness to noise. It was shown that by using singular value decomposition, a target point-spread function (PSF) matrix can be defined for an auxiliary optical system, which works parallel to the original system to achieve such an improvement. In this paper, after briefly introducing the all optics implementation of the auxiliary system, we show a method to decompose the target PSF matrix. This is done through a series of shifted responses of auxiliary optics (named trajectories), where a complicated hardware filter is replaced by postprocessing. This process manipulates the pixel confined PSF response of simple auxiliary optics, which in turn creates an auxiliary system with the required PSF matrix. This method is simulated on two space variant systems and reduces their system condition number from 18,598 to 197 and from 87,640 to 5.75, respectively. We perform a study of the latter result and show significant improvement in image restoration performance, in comparison to a system without auxiliary optics and to other previously suggested hybrid solutions. Image restoration results show that in a range of low signal-to-noise ratio values, the trajectories method gives a significant advantage over alternative approaches. A third space invariant study case is explored only briefly, and we present a significant improvement in the matrix condition number from 1.9160e+013 to 34,526.

  11. Parallelization of irregularly coupled regular meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Craig; Crowley, Kay; Saltz, Joel; Reeves, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Regular meshes are frequently used for modeling physical phenomena on both serial and parallel computers. One advantage of regular meshes is that efficient discretization schemes can be implemented in a straight forward manner. However, geometrically-complex objects, such as aircraft, cannot be easily described using a single regular mesh. Multiple interacting regular meshes are frequently used to describe complex geometries. Each mesh models a subregion of the physical domain. The meshes, or subdomains, can be processed in parallel, with periodic updates carried out to move information between the coupled meshes. In many cases, there are a relatively small number (one to a few dozen) subdomains, so that each subdomain may also be partitioned among several processors. We outline a composite run-time/compile-time approach for supporting these problems efficiently on distributed-memory machines. These methods are described in the context of a multiblock fluid dynamics problem developed at LaRC.

  12. Parallel Simulated Annealing by Mixing of States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, King-Wai; Deng, Yuefan; Reinitz, John

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of testing the performance of a new, efficient, and highly general-purpose parallel optimization method, based upon simulated annealing. This optimization algorithm was applied to analyze the network of interacting genes that control embryonic development and other fundamental biological processes. We found several sets of algorithmic parameters that lead to optimal parallel efficiency for up to 100 processors on distributed-memory MIMD architectures. Our strategy contains two major elements. First, we monitor and pool performance statistics obtained simultaneously on all processors. Second, we mix states at intervals to ensure a Boltzmann distribution of energies. The central scientific issue is the inverse problem, the determination of the parameters of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by minimizing the total error between the model behavior and experimental observations.

  13. A Parallel Program Analysis Framework for the ACTS Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Allen D. Malony

    2002-06-21

    OAK 270 - The final report summarizes the technical progress achieved during the project. A Parallel Program Analysis Framework for the acts toolkit, referred to as the TAU project. Described are the results in four work areas: (1) creation of a performance system for integrated instrumentation, measurement, analysis and visualization. (2) development of a performance measurement system for parallel profiling and tracing (3) development of an advanced program analysis system to enable creation of source-based performance and programing tools (4) development of parallel program interaction technology for accessing, performance information and application data during execution.

  14. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  15. Programming parallel architectures: The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1988-01-01

    Programming multiprocessor architectures is a critical research issue. An overview is given of the various approaches to programming these architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. Also described is recent work by the author in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described, as well as the relations of this work to other current language research projects.

  16. Study Of Helicopter-Tail-Rotor Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Beranek, Bolt

    1988-01-01

    Report describes findings of experiment in generation of impulsive noise and fluctuating blade loads by helicopter tail rotor interacting with vortexes from main rotor. Experiment used model rotor and isolated vortex and designed to isolate blade/vortex interaction noise from other types of rotor noise.

  17. Parallel Grid Manipulations in Earth Science Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W.; Lucchesi, R.; daSilva, A.; Takacs, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center is moving its data assimilation system to massively parallel computing platforms. This parallel implementation of GEOS DAS will be used in the DAO's normal activities, which include reanalysis of data, and operational support for flight missions. Key components of GEOS DAS, including the gridpoint-based general circulation model and a data analysis system, are currently being parallelized. The parallelization of GEOS DAS is also one of the HPCC Grand Challenge Projects. The GEOS-DAS software employs several distinct grids. Some examples are: an observation grid- an unstructured grid of points at which observed or measured physical quantities from instruments or satellites are associated- a highly-structured latitude-longitude grid of points spanning the earth at given latitude-longitude coordinates at which prognostic quantities are determined, and a computational lat-lon grid in which the pole has been moved to a different location to avoid computational instabilities. Each of these grids has a different structure and number of constituent points. In spite of that, there are numerous interactions between the grids, e.g., values on one grid must be interpolated to another, or, in other cases, grids need to be redistributed on the underlying parallel platform. The DAO has designed a parallel integrated library for grid manipulations (PILGRIM) to support the needed grid interactions with maximum efficiency. It offers a flexible interface to generate new grids, define transformations between grids and apply them. Basic communication is currently MPI, however the interfaces defined here could conceivably be implemented with other message-passing libraries, e.g., Cray SHMEM, or with shared-memory constructs. The library is written in Fortran 90. First performance results indicate that even difficult problems, such as above-mentioned pole rotation- a

  18. The Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    Most current multiprocessor file systems are designed to use multiple disks in parallel, using the high aggregate bandwidth to meet the growing I/0 requirements of parallel scientific applications. Many multiprocessor file systems provide applications with a conventional Unix-like interface, allowing the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallelism within the file system, increasing the ease of programmability, but making it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. In addition to providing an insufficient interface, most current multiprocessor file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic scientific multiprocessor workloads. We discuss Galley's file structure and application interface, as well as the performance advantages offered by that interface.

  19. Parallel contingency statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the recently parallelized contingency statistics engine. It is a sequel to [PT08] and [BPRT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, and principal component analysis engines. The ease of use of this new parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; however, the very nature of contingency tables prevent this new engine from exhibiting optimal parallel speed-up as the aforementioned engines do. This report therefore discusses the design trade-offs we made and study performance with up to 200 processors.

  20. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  1. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Inglett, Todd Alan

    2009-01-13

    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  2. EFFICIENT SCHEDULING OF PARALLEL JOBS ON MASSIVELY PARALLEL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    F. PETRINI; W. FENG

    1999-09-01

    We present buffered coscheduling, a new methodology to multitask parallel jobs in a message-passing environment and to develop parallel programs that can pave the way to the efficient implementation of a distributed operating system. Buffered coscheduling is based on three innovative techniques: communication buffering, strobing, and non-blocking communication. By leveraging these techniques, we can perform effective optimizations based on the global status of the parallel machine rather than on the limited knowledge available locally to each processor. The advantages of buffered coscheduling include higher resource utilization, reduced communication overhead, efficient implementation of low-control strategies and fault-tolerant protocols, accurate performance modeling, and a simplified yet still expressive parallel programming model. Preliminary experimental results show that buffered coscheduling is very effective in increasing the overall performance in the presence of load imbalance and communication-intensive workloads.

  3. Adaptive, multiresolution visualization of large data sets using parallel octrees.

    SciTech Connect

    Freitag, L. A.; Loy, R. M.

    1999-06-10

    The interactive visualization and exploration of large scientific data sets is a challenging and difficult task; their size often far exceeds the performance and memory capacity of even the most powerful graphics work-stations. To address this problem, we have created a technique that combines hierarchical data reduction methods with parallel computing to allow interactive exploration of large data sets while retaining full-resolution capability. The hierarchical representation is built in parallel by strategically inserting field data into an octree data structure. We provide functionality that allows the user to interactively adapt the resolution of the reduced data sets so that resolution is increased in regions of interest without sacrificing local graphics performance. We describe the creation of the reduced data sets using a parallel octree, the software architecture of the system, and the performance of this system on the data from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability simulation.

  4. Experimental Parallel-Processing Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, J. W.; Salama, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Master processor supervises slave processors, each with its own memory. Computer with parallel processing serves as inexpensive tool for experimentation with parallel mathematical algorithms. Speed enhancement obtained depends on both nature of problem and structure of algorithm used. In parallel-processing architecture, "bank select" and control signals determine which one, if any, of N slave processor memories accessible to master processor at any given moment. When so selected, slave memory operates as part of master computer memory. When not selected, slave memory operates independently of main memory. Slave processors communicate with each other via input/output bus.

  5. Interference effects on scattering by parallel fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.; Kumar, Sunil

    1989-01-01

    The present examination of radiative heat transfer through fibrous materials gives attention to the interactions between radiation scattered from individual parallel fibers for the case of a normally-incident plane EM wave and different representative geometries. Experimental results are obtained for the specific case corresponding to fibers in one plane. Analytical models are developed for the radiative scattering behavior of fibrous media when the interference mechanism is accounted for; the results obtained indicate that interference decreases the scattering efficiency of fibrous media containing a large number of randomly positioned fibers.

  6. Parallel node placement method by bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yufeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Qi, Nan; Li, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An efficient Parallel Node Placement method by Bubble Simulation (PNPBS), employing METIS-based domain decomposition (DD) for an arbitrary number of processors is introduced. In accordance with the desired nodal density and Newton’s Second Law of Motion, automatic generation of node sets by bubble simulation has been demonstrated in previous work. Since the interaction force between nodes is short-range, for two distant nodes, their positions and velocities can be updated simultaneously and independently during dynamic simulation, which indicates the inherent property of parallelism, it is quite suitable for parallel computing. In this PNPBS method, the METIS-based DD scheme has been investigated for uniform and non-uniform node sets, and dynamic load balancing is obtained by evenly distributing work among the processors. For the nodes near the common interface of two neighboring subdomains, there is no need for special treatment after dynamic simulation. These nodes have good geometrical properties and a smooth density distribution which is desirable in the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of numerical examples show that quasi linear speedup in the number of processors and high efficiency are achieved.

  7. Parallel algorithms for matrix computations

    SciTech Connect

    Plemmons, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on parallel algorithms for matrix computations encompasses both shared-memory systems and distributed-memory systems, as well as combinations of the two, to provide an overall perspective on parallel algorithms for both dense and sparse matrix computations in solving systems of linear equations, dense or structured problems related to least-squares computations, eigenvalue computations, singular-value computations, and rapid elliptic solvers. Specific issues addressed include the influence of parallel and vector architectures on algorithm design, computations for distributed-memory architectures such as hypercubes, solutions for sparse symmetric positive definite linear systems, symbolic and numeric factorizations, and triangular solutions. Also addressed are reference sources for parallel and vector numerical algorithms, sources for machine architectures, and sources for programming languages.

  8. Parallel architectures and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Calianiello, E.R. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers parallel computer architectures and neural networks. Topics include: neural modeling, use of ADA to simulate neural networks, VLSI technology, implementation of Boltzmann machines, and analysis of neural nets.

  9. "Feeling" Series and Parallel Resistances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Equipped with drinking straws and stirring straws, a teacher can help students understand how resistances in electric circuits combine in series and in parallel. Follow-up suggestions are provided. (ZWH)

  10. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  11. Metal structures with parallel pores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherfey, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Four methods of fabricating metal plates having uniformly sized parallel pores are studied: elongate bundle, wind and sinter, extrude and sinter, and corrugate stack. Such plates are suitable for electrodes for electrochemical and fuel cells.

  12. Parallel computation using limited resources

    SciTech Connect

    Sugla, B.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis addresses itself to the task of designing and analyzing parallel algorithms when the resources of processors, communication, and time are limited. The two parts of this thesis deal with multiprocessor systems and VLSI - the two important parallel processing environments that are prevalent today. In the first part a time-processor-communication tradeoff analysis is conducted for two kinds of problems - N input, 1 output, and N input, N output computations. In the class of problems of the second kind, the problem of prefix computation, an important problem due to the number of naturally occurring computations it can model, is studied. Finally, a general methodology is given for design of parallel algorithms that can be used to optimize a given design to a wide set of architectural variations. The second part of the thesis considers the design of parallel algorithms for the VLSI model of computation when the resource of time is severely restricted.

  13. Parallel algorithms for message decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, S.H.; Wang, B.

    1987-06-01

    The authors consider the deterministic and random parallel complexity (time and processor) of message decoding: an essential problem in communications systems and translation systems. They present an optimal parallel algorithm to decompose prefix-coded messages and uniquely decipherable-coded messages in O(n/P) time, using O(P) processors (for all P:1 less than or equal toPless than or equal ton/log n) deterministically as well as randomly on the weakest version of parallel random access machines in which concurrent read and concurrent write to a cell in the common memory are not allowed. This is done by reducing decoding to parallel finite-state automata simulation and the prefix sums.

  14. Turbomachinery CFD on parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.; Milner, Edward J.; Quealy, Angela; Townsend, Scott E.

    1992-01-01

    The role of multistage turbomachinery simulation in the development of propulsion system models is discussed. Particularly, the need for simulations with higher fidelity and faster turnaround time is highlighted. It is shown how such fast simulations can be used in engineering-oriented environments. The use of parallel processing to achieve the required turnaround times is discussed. Current work by several researchers in this area is summarized. Parallel turbomachinery CFD research at the NASA Lewis Research Center is then highlighted. These efforts are focused on implementing the average-passage turbomachinery model on MIMD, distributed memory parallel computers. Performance results are given for inviscid, single blade row and viscous, multistage applications on several parallel computers, including networked workstations.

  15. Graphics applications utilizing parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John R.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of research conducted to develop a parallel graphic application algorithm to depict the numerical solution of the 1-D wave equation, the vibrating string. The research was conducted on a Flexible Flex/32 multiprocessor and a Sequent Balance 21000 multiprocessor. The wave equation is implemented using the finite difference method. The synchronization issues that arose from the parallel implementation and the strategies used to alleviate the effects of the synchronization overhead are discussed.

  16. HEATR project: ATR algorithm parallelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorf, Catherine E.

    1998-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) Embedded Application for Target Recognition (HEATR) is a project funded by the High Performance Computing Modernization Office through the Common HPC Software Support Initiative (CHSSI). The goal of CHSSI is to produce portable, parallel, multi-purpose, freely distributable, support software to exploit emerging parallel computing technologies and enable application of scalable HPC's for various critical DoD applications. Specifically, the CHSSI goal for HEATR is to provide portable, parallel versions of several existing ATR detection and classification algorithms to the ATR-user community to achieve near real-time capability. The HEATR project will create parallel versions of existing automatic target recognition (ATR) detection and classification algorithms and generate reusable code that will support porting and software development process for ATR HPC software. The HEATR Team has selected detection/classification algorithms from both the model- based and training-based (template-based) arena in order to consider the parallelization requirements for detection/classification algorithms across ATR technology. This would allow the Team to assess the impact that parallelization would have on detection/classification performance across ATR technology. A field demo is included in this project. Finally, any parallel tools produced to support the project will be refined and returned to the ATR user community along with the parallel ATR algorithms. This paper will review: (1) HPCMP structure as it relates to HEATR, (2) Overall structure of the HEATR project, (3) Preliminary results for the first algorithm Alpha Test, (4) CHSSI requirements for HEATR, and (5) Project management issues and lessons learned.

  17. Efficiency of parallel direct optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janies, D. A.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made at the level of sequential computation in phylogenetics. However, little attention has been paid to parallel computation. Parallel computing is particularly suited to phylogenetics because of the many ways large computational problems can be broken into parts that can be analyzed concurrently. In this paper, we investigate the scaling factors and efficiency of random addition and tree refinement strategies using the direct optimization software, POY, on a small (10 slave processors) and a large (256 slave processors) cluster of networked PCs running LINUX. These algorithms were tested on several data sets composed of DNA and morphology ranging from 40 to 500 taxa. Various algorithms in POY show fundamentally different properties within and between clusters. All algorithms are efficient on the small cluster for the 40-taxon data set. On the large cluster, multibuilding exhibits excellent parallel efficiency, whereas parallel building is inefficient. These results are independent of data set size. Branch swapping in parallel shows excellent speed-up for 16 slave processors on the large cluster. However, there is no appreciable speed-up for branch swapping with the further addition of slave processors (>16). This result is independent of data set size. Ratcheting in parallel is efficient with the addition of up to 32 processors in the large cluster. This result is independent of data set size. c2001 The Willi Hennig Society.

  18. Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu

    2012-06-15

    In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

  19. Research In Helicopter Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Schmitz, Frederic H.; Morse, Andrew H.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in aeroacoustical theory and experiments reviewed. Report summarizes continuing U.S. Army programs of research into causes of noise generated by helicopters. Topics of study include high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex-interaction noise, and low-frequency harmonic noise.

  20. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  1. Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2014-08-12

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including establishing a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying, for tasks representing processes of execution of the parallel application, a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI including a plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks; receiving in endpoints of the geometry an instruction for a collective operation; and executing the instruction for a collective operation through the endpoints in dependence upon the geometry, including dividing data communications operations among the plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks.

  2. Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-02-11

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface ('PAMI') of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including establishing a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying, for tasks representing processes of execution of the parallel application, a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI including a plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks; receiving in endpoints of the geometry an instruction for a collective operation; and executing the instruction for a collective opeartion through the endpoints in dependence upon the geometry, including dividing data communications operations among the plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks.

  3. Parallel stochastic systems biology in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Aldinucci, Marco; Torquati, Massimo; Spampinato, Concetto; Drocco, Maurizio; Misale, Claudia; Calcagno, Cristina; Coppo, Mario

    2014-09-01

    The stochastic modelling of biological systems, coupled with Monte Carlo simulation of models, is an increasingly popular technique in bioinformatics. The simulation-analysis workflow may result computationally expensive reducing the interactivity required in the model tuning. In this work, we advocate the high-level software design as a vehicle for building efficient and portable parallel simulators for the cloud. In particular, the Calculus of Wrapped Components (CWC) simulator for systems biology, which is designed according to the FastFlow pattern-based approach, is presented and discussed. Thanks to the FastFlow framework, the CWC simulator is designed as a high-level workflow that can simulate CWC models, merge simulation results and statistically analyse them in a single parallel workflow in the cloud. To improve interactivity, successive phases are pipelined in such a way that the workflow begins to output a stream of analysis results immediately after simulation is started. Performance and effectiveness of the CWC simulator are validated on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud.

  4. Parallel Implicit Algorithms for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, David E.

    1998-01-01

    The main goal of this project was efficient distributed parallel and workstation cluster implementations of Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) solvers for implicit Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD.) "Newton" refers to a quadratically convergent nonlinear iteration using gradient information based on the true residual, "Krylov" to an inner linear iteration that accesses the Jacobian matrix only through highly parallelizable sparse matrix-vector products, and "Schwarz" to a domain decomposition form of preconditioning the inner Krylov iterations with primarily neighbor-only exchange of data between the processors. Prior experience has established that Newton-Krylov methods are competitive solvers in the CFD context and that Krylov-Schwarz methods port well to distributed memory computers. The combination of the techniques into Newton-Krylov-Schwarz was implemented on 2D and 3D unstructured Euler codes on the parallel testbeds that used to be at LaRC and on several other parallel computers operated by other agencies or made available by the vendors. Early implementations were made directly in Massively Parallel Integration (MPI) with parallel solvers we adapted from legacy NASA codes and enhanced for full NKS functionality. Later implementations were made in the framework of the PETSC library from Argonne National Laboratory, which now includes pseudo-transient continuation Newton-Krylov-Schwarz solver capability (as a result of demands we made upon PETSC during our early porting experiences). A secondary project pursued with funding from this contract was parallel implicit solvers in acoustics, specifically in the Helmholtz formulation. A 2D acoustic inverse problem has been solved in parallel within the PETSC framework.

  5. Parallel computation and computers for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalik, J.S. )

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses Parallel Processing in Artificial Intelligence; Parallel Computing using Multilisp; Execution of Common Lisp in a Parallel Environment; Qlisp; Restricted AND-Parallel Execution of Logic Programs; PARLOG: Parallel Programming in Logic; and Data-driven Processing of Semantic Nets. Attention is also given to: Application of the Butterfly Parallel Processor in Artificial Intelligence; On the Range of Applicability of an Artificial Intelligence Machine; Low-level Vision on Warp and the Apply Programming Mode; AHR: A Parallel Computer for Pure Lisp; FAIM-1: An Architecture for Symbolic Multi-processing; and Overview of Al Application Oriented Parallel Processing Research in Japan.

  6. A parallel Jacobson-Oksman optimization algorithm. [parallel processing (computers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Markos, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    A gradient-dependent optimization technique which exploits the vector-streaming or parallel-computing capabilities of some modern computers is presented. The algorithm, derived by assuming that the function to be minimized is homogeneous, is a modification of the Jacobson-Oksman serial minimization method. In addition to describing the algorithm, conditions insuring the convergence of the iterates of the algorithm and the results of numerical experiments on a group of sample test functions are presented. The results of these experiments indicate that this algorithm will solve optimization problems in less computing time than conventional serial methods on machines having vector-streaming or parallel-computing capabilities.

  7. Parallelizing Timed Petri Net simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using parallel processing to accelerate the simulation of Timed Petri Nets (TPN's) was studied. It was recognized that complex system development tools often transform system descriptions into TPN's or TPN-like models, which are then simulated to obtain information about system behavior. Viewed this way, it was important that the parallelization of TPN's be as automatic as possible, to admit the possibility of the parallelization being embedded in the system design tool. Later years of the grant were devoted to examining the problem of joint performance and reliability analysis, to explore whether both types of analysis could be accomplished within a single framework. In this final report, the results of our studies are summarized. We believe that the problem of parallelizing TPN's automatically for MIMD architectures has been almost completely solved for a large and important class of problems. Our initial investigations into joint performance/reliability analysis are two-fold; it was shown that Monte Carlo simulation, with importance sampling, offers promise of joint analysis in the context of a single tool, and methods for the parallel simulation of general Continuous Time Markov Chains, a model framework within which joint performance/reliability models can be cast, were developed. However, very much more work is needed to determine the scope and generality of these approaches. The results obtained in our two studies, future directions for this type of work, and a list of publications are included.

  8. Computing contingency statistics in parallel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Janine Camille; Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and {chi}{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel.We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  9. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac-Neice, Peter; Olson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Library (PARAMESH) is a package of Fortran 90 subroutines designed to provide a computer programmer with an easy route to extension of (1) a previously written serial code that uses a logically Cartesian structured mesh into (2) a parallel code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Alternatively, in its simplest use, and with minimal effort, PARAMESH can operate as a domain-decomposition tool for users who want to parallelize their serial codes but who do not wish to utilize adaptivity. The package builds a hierarchy of sub-grids to cover the computational domain of a given application program, with spatial resolution varying to satisfy the demands of the application. The sub-grid blocks form the nodes of a tree data structure (a quad-tree in two or an oct-tree in three dimensions). Each grid block has a logically Cartesian mesh. The package supports one-, two- and three-dimensional models.

  10. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi tessellation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations (VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition takes into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and includes periodic conditions. In addition, the code computes neighbors list, Voronoi density, Voronoi cell volume, density gradient for each particle, and densities on a regular grid. Code implementation and user guide are publicly available at https://github.com/regonzar/paravt.

  11. Visualizing Parallel Computer System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malony, Allen D.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    Parallel computer systems are among the most complex of man's creations, making satisfactory performance characterization difficult. Despite this complexity, there are strong, indeed, almost irresistible, incentives to quantify parallel system performance using a single metric. The fallacy lies in succumbing to such temptations. A complete performance characterization requires not only an analysis of the system's constituent levels, it also requires both static and dynamic characterizations. Static or average behavior analysis may mask transients that dramatically alter system performance. Although the human visual system is remarkedly adept at interpreting and identifying anomalies in false color data, the importance of dynamic, visual scientific data presentation has only recently been recognized Large, complex parallel system pose equally vexing performance interpretation problems. Data from hardware and software performance monitors must be presented in ways that emphasize important events while eluding irrelevant details. Design approaches and tools for performance visualization are the subject of this paper.

  12. Fast data parallel polygon rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, F.A.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a parallel method for polygonal rendering on a massively parallel SIMD machine. This method, based on a simple shading model, is targeted for applications which require very fast polygon rendering for extremely large sets of polygons such as is found in many scientific visualization applications. The algorithms described in this paper are incorporated into a library of 3D graphics routines written for the Connection Machine. The routines are implemented on both the CM-200 and the CM-5. This library enables a scientists to display 3D shaded polygons directly from a parallel machine without the need to transmit huge amounts of data to a post-processing rendering system.

  13. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  14. Massively Parallel MRI Detector Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Originally proposed as a method to increase sensitivity by extending the locally high-sensitivity of small surface coil elements to larger areas, the term parallel imaging now includes the use of array coils to perform image encoding. This methodology has impacted clinical imaging to the point where many examinations are performed with an array comprising multiple smaller surface coil elements as the detector of the MR signal. This article reviews the theoretical and experimental basis for the trend towards higher channel counts relying on insights gained from modeling and experimental studies as well as the theoretical analysis of the so-called “ultimate” SNR and g-factor. We also review the methods for optimally combining array data and changes in RF methodology needed to construct massively parallel MRI detector arrays and show some examples of state-of-the-art for highly accelerated imaging with the resulting highly parallel arrays. PMID:23453758

  15. Parallel algorithms for mapping pipelined and parallel computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Many computational problems in image processing, signal processing, and scientific computing are naturally structured for either pipelined or parallel computation. When mapping such problems onto a parallel architecture it is often necessary to aggregate an obvious problem decomposition. Even in this context the general mapping problem is known to be computationally intractable, but recent advances have been made in identifying classes of problems and architectures for which optimal solutions can be found in polynomial time. Among these, the mapping of pipelined or parallel computations onto linear array, shared memory, and host-satellite systems figures prominently. This paper extends that work first by showing how to improve existing serial mapping algorithms. These improvements have significantly lower time and space complexities: in one case a published O(nm sup 3) time algorithm for mapping m modules onto n processors is reduced to an O(nm log m) time complexity, and its space requirements reduced from O(nm sup 2) to O(m). Run time complexity is further reduced with parallel mapping algorithms based on these improvements, which run on the architecture for which they create the mappings.

  16. Hybrid parallel programming with MPI and Unified Parallel C.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, J.; Balaji, P.; Lusk, E.; Sadayappan, P.; Thakur, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; The Ohio State Univ.

    2010-01-01

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is one of the most widely used programming models for parallel computing. However, the amount of memory available to an MPI process is limited by the amount of local memory within a compute node. Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC) are growing in popularity because of their ability to provide a shared global address space that spans the memories of multiple compute nodes. However, taking advantage of UPC can require a large recoding effort for existing parallel applications. In this paper, we explore a new hybrid parallel programming model that combines MPI and UPC. This model allows MPI programmers incremental access to a greater amount of memory, enabling memory-constrained MPI codes to process larger data sets. In addition, the hybrid model offers UPC programmers an opportunity to create static UPC groups that are connected over MPI. As we demonstrate, the use of such groups can significantly improve the scalability of locality-constrained UPC codes. This paper presents a detailed description of the hybrid model and demonstrates its effectiveness in two applications: a random access benchmark and the Barnes-Hut cosmological simulation. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid model can greatly enhance performance; using hybrid UPC groups that span two cluster nodes, RA performance increases by a factor of 1.33 and using groups that span four cluster nodes, Barnes-Hut experiences a twofold speedup at the expense of a 2% increase in code size.

  17. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  19. Identification of mercury and other metals complexes with metallothioneins in dolphin liver by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with the parallel detection by ICP MS and electrospray hybrid linear/orbital trap MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Pedrero, Z; Ouerdane, L; Mounicou, S; Lobinski, R; Monperrus, M; Amouroux, D

    2012-05-01

    A novel analytical procedure for the identification of metal (Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn) complexes with individual metallothionein (MT) isoforms in biological tissues by electrospray MS/MS was developed. The sample preparation was reduced to three rapid steps: the two-fold dilution of the sample cytosol with acetonitrile, the recovery of the supernatant containing MT-complexes by centrifugation and its concentration under nitrogen flow. The replacement of reversed phase HPLC by hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) allowed the preservation of the unstable and low abundant metallothionein zinc-mercury mixed complexes (MT-Zn(6)Hg). The MT complexes eluted were detected by ICP MS and identified in terms of molecular mass by electrospray high resolution (100,000) MS. The identification was completed by on line demetallation and the determination of the molecular mass of the apoform, followed by amino acid sequencing in the top-down mode using high energy collision fragmentation (HCD). The method was applied to the identification of MT complexes in a white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) liver homogenate. The Zn complex of the N-acetylated MT2 isoform was found to be predominant, the presence of mixed complexes with Cd, Cu and, for the first time ever, Hg, was demonstrated. The latter finding has the potential to shed new light on the mercury detoxification mechanism in marine organisms. PMID:22456936

  20. A Comparison of Automatic Parallelization Tools/Compilers on the SGI Origin 2000 Using the NAS Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Frumkin, Michael; Hribar, Michelle; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    Porting applications to new high performance parallel and distributed computing platforms is a challenging task. Since writing parallel code by hand is extremely time consuming and costly, porting codes would ideally be automated by using some parallelization tools and compilers. In this paper, we compare the performance of the hand written NAB Parallel Benchmarks against three parallel versions generated with the help of tools and compilers: 1) CAPTools: an interactive computer aided parallelization too] that generates message passing code, 2) the Portland Group's HPF compiler and 3) using compiler directives with the native FORTAN77 compiler on the SGI Origin2000.

  1. Rochester checkers player: Multi-model parallel programming for animate vision. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, B.D.; Brown, C.M.; LeBlanc, T.J.; Scott, M.L.; Becker, T.G.

    1991-06-01

    Animate vision systems couple computer vision and robotics to achieve robust and accurate vision, as well as other complex behavior. These systems combine low-level sensory processing and effector output with high-level cognitive planning - all computationally intensive tasks that can benefit from parallel processing. No single model of parallel programming is likely to serve for all tasks, however. Early vision algorithms are intensely data parallel, often utilizing fine-grain parallel computations that share an image, while cognition algorithms decompose naturally by function, often consisting of loosely-coupled, coarse-grain parallel units. A typical animate vision application will likely consist of many tasks, each of which may require a different parallel programming model, and all of which must cooperate to achieve the desired behavior. These multi-model programs require an underlying software system that not only supports several different models of parallel computation simultaneously, but which also allows tasks implemented in different models to interact.

  2. File concepts for parallel I/O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of input/output (I/O) was often neglected in the design of parallel computer systems, although for many problems I/O rates will limit the speedup attainable. The I/O problem is addressed by considering the role of files in parallel systems. The notion of parallel files is introduced. Parallel files provide for concurrent access by multiple processes, and utilize parallelism in the I/O system to improve performance. Parallel files can also be used conventionally by sequential programs. A set of standard parallel file organizations is proposed, organizations are suggested, using multiple storage devices. Problem areas are also identified and discussed.

  3. Matpar: Parallel Extensions for MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    Matpar is a set of client/server software that allows a MATLAB user to take advantage of a parallel computer for very large problems. The user can replace calls to certain built-in MATLAB functions with calls to Matpar functions.

  4. The AIS-5000 parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, L.A.; Wilson, S.S.

    1988-05-01

    The AIS-5000 is a commercially available massively parallel processor which has been designed to operate in an industrial environment. It has fine-grained parallelism with up to 1024 processing elements arranged in a single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) architecture. The processing elements are arranged in a one-dimensional chain that, for computer vision applications, can be as wide as the image itself. This architecture has superior cost/performance characteristics than two-dimensional mesh-connected systems. The design of the processing elements and their interconnections as well as the software used to program the system allow a wide variety of algorithms and applications to be implemented. In this paper, the overall architecture of the system is described. Various components of the system are discussed, including details of the processing elements, data I/O pathways and parallel memory organization. A virtual two-dimensional model for programming image-based algorithms for the system is presented. This model is supported by the AIS-5000 hardware and software and allows the system to be treated as a full-image-size, two-dimensional, mesh-connected parallel processor. Performance bench marks are given for certain simple and complex functions.

  5. Parallel, Distributed Scripting with Python

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P J

    2002-05-24

    Parallel computers used to be, for the most part, one-of-a-kind systems which were extremely difficult to program portably. With SMP architectures, the advent of the POSIX thread API and OpenMP gave developers ways to portably exploit on-the-box shared memory parallelism. Since these architectures didn't scale cost-effectively, distributed memory clusters were developed. The associated MPI message passing libraries gave these systems a portable paradigm too. Having programmers effectively use this paradigm is a somewhat different question. Distributed data has to be explicitly transported via the messaging system in order for it to be useful. In high level languages, the MPI library gives access to data distribution routines in C, C++, and FORTRAN. But we need more than that. Many reasonable and common tasks are best done in (or as extensions to) scripting languages. Consider sysadm tools such as password crackers, file purgers, etc ... These are simple to write in a scripting language such as Python (an open source, portable, and freely available interpreter). But these tasks beg to be done in parallel. Consider the a password checker that checks an encrypted password against a 25,000 word dictionary. This can take around 10 seconds in Python (6 seconds in C). It is trivial to parallelize if you can distribute the information and co-ordinate the work.

  6. Parallel execution of LISP programs

    SciTech Connect

    Weening, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation considers several issues in the execution of Lisp programs on shared-memory multiprocessors. An overview of constructs for explicit parallelism in Lisp is first presented. The problems of partitioning a program into processes and scheduling these processes are then described, and a number of methods for performing these are proposed. These include cutting off process creation based on properties of the computation tree of the program, and basing partitioning decisions on the state of the system at runtime instead of the program. An experimental study of these methods has been performed using a simulator for parallel Lisp. The simulator, written in common Lisp using a continuation-passing style, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of the experiments that were performed and an analysis of the results. Two programs are used as illustrations-a Fast Fourier Transform, which has an abundance of parallelism, and the Cocke-Younger-Kasami parsing algorithm, for which good speedup is not as easy to obtain. The difficulty of using cutoff-based partitioning methods, and the differences between various scheduling methods, are shown. A combination of partitioning and scheduling methods which the author calls dynamic partitioning is analyzed in more detail. This method is based on examining the machine's runtime state; it requires that the programmer only identify parallelism in the program, without deciding which potential parallelism is actually useful. Several theorems are proved providing upper bounds on the amount of overhead produced by this method. He concludes that for programs whose computation trees have small height relative to their total size, dynamic partitioning can achieve asymptotically minimal overhead in the cost of process creation.

  7. Fast parallel Markov clustering in bioinformatics using massively parallel computing on GPU with CUDA and ELLPACK-R sparse format.

    PubMed

    Bustamam, Alhadi; Burrage, Kevin; Hamilton, Nicholas A

    2012-01-01

    Markov clustering (MCL) is becoming a key algorithm within bioinformatics for determining clusters in networks. However,with increasing vast amount of data on biological networks, performance and scalability issues are becoming a critical limiting factor in applications. Meanwhile, GPU computing, which uses CUDA tool for implementing a massively parallel computing environment in the GPU card, is becoming a very powerful, efficient, and low-cost option to achieve substantial performance gains over CPU approaches. The use of on-chip memory on the GPU is efficiently lowering the latency time, thus, circumventing a major issue in other parallel computing environments, such as MPI. We introduce a very fast Markov clustering algorithm using CUDA (CUDA-MCL) to perform parallel sparse matrix-matrix computations and parallel sparse Markov matrix normalizations, which are at the heart of MCL. We utilized ELLPACK-R sparse format to allow the effective and fine-grain massively parallel processing to cope with the sparse nature of interaction networks data sets in bioinformatics applications. As the results show, CUDA-MCL is significantly faster than the original MCL running on CPU. Thus, large-scale parallel computation on off-the-shelf desktop-machines, that were previously only possible on supercomputing architectures, can significantly change the way bioinformaticians and biologists deal with their data.

  8. Parallel aeroelastic computations for wing and wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Chansup

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop computationally efficient methods for solving fluid-structural interaction problems by directly coupling finite difference Euler/Navier-Stokes equations for fluids and finite element dynamics equations for structures on parallel computers. This capability will significantly impact many aerospace projects of national importance such as Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT), where the structural stability margin becomes very critical at the transonic region. This research effort will have direct impact on the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) Program of NASA in the area of parallel computing.

  9. A parallel algorithm for 3D dislocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ghoniem, Nasr; Swaminarayan, Sriram; LeSar, Richard

    2006-12-01

    Dislocation dynamics (DD), a discrete dynamic simulation method in which dislocations are the fundamental entities, is a powerful tool for investigation of plasticity, deformation and fracture of materials at the micron length scale. However, severe computational difficulties arising from complex, long-range interactions between these curvilinear line defects limit the application of DD in the study of large-scale plastic deformation. We present here the development of a parallel algorithm for accelerated computer simulations of DD. By representing dislocations as a 3D set of dislocation particles, we show here that the problem of an interacting ensemble of dislocations can be converted to a problem of a particle ensemble, interacting with a long-range force field. A grid using binary space partitioning is constructed to keep track of node connectivity across domains. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of the parallel micro-plasticity code and discuss how O(N) methods map naturally onto the parallel data structure. Finally, we present results from applications of the parallel code to deformation in single crystal fcc metals.

  10. A Distributed, Parallel Visualization and Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-01

    VisIt is an interactive parallel visualization and graphical analysis tool for viewing scientific date on UNIX and PC platforms. Users can quickly generate visualizations from their data, animate them through time, manipulate them, and save the resulting images for presentations. VisIt contains a rich set of visualization features so that you can view your data in a variety of ways. It can be used to visualize scalar and vector fields defined on two- and three- dimensional (2D and 3D) structured and unstructured meshes. VisIt was designed to handle very large data set sizes in the terascale range and yet can also handle small data sets in the kilobyte range.

  11. A Distributed, Parallel Visualization and Analysis Tool

    2007-12-01

    VisIt is an interactive parallel visualization and graphical analysis tool for viewing scientific date on UNIX and PC platforms. Users can quickly generate visualizations from their data, animate them through time, manipulate them, and save the resulting images for presentations. VisIt contains a rich set of visualization features so that you can view your data in a variety of ways. It can be used to visualize scalar and vector fields defined on two- and three-more » dimensional (2D and 3D) structured and unstructured meshes. VisIt was designed to handle very large data set sizes in the terascale range and yet can also handle small data sets in the kilobyte range.« less

  12. Web based parallel/distributed medical data mining using software agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kargupta, H.; Stafford, B.; Hamzaoglu, I.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes an experimental parallel/distributed data mining system PADMA (PArallel Data Mining Agents) that uses software agents for local data accessing and analysis and a web based interface for interactive data visualization. It also presents the results of applying PADMA for detecting patterns in unstructured texts of postmortem reports and laboratory test data for Hepatitis C patients.

  13. A brief parallel I/O tutorial.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, H. Lee

    2010-03-01

    This document provides common best practices for the efficient utilization of parallel file systems for analysts and application developers. A multi-program, parallel supercomputer is able to provide effective compute power by aggregating a host of lower-power processors using a network. The idea, in general, is that one either constructs the application to distribute parts to the different nodes and processors available and then collects the result (a parallel application), or one launches a large number of small jobs, each doing similar work on different subsets (a campaign). The I/O system on these machines is usually implemented as a tightly-coupled, parallel application itself. It is providing the concept of a 'file' to the host applications. The 'file' is an addressable store of bytes and that address space is global in nature. In essence, it is providing a global address space. Beyond the simple reality that the I/O system is normally composed of a small, less capable, collection of hardware, that concept of a global address space will cause problems if not very carefully utilized. How much of a problem and the ways in which those problems manifest will be different, but that it is problem prone has been well established. Worse, the file system is a shared resource on the machine - a system service. What an application does when it uses the file system impacts all users. It is not the case that some portion of the available resource is reserved. Instead, the I/O system responds to requests by scheduling and queuing based on instantaneous demand. Using the system well contributes to the overall throughput on the machine. From a solely self-centered perspective, using it well reduces the time that the application or campaign is subject to impact by others. The developer's goal should be to accomplish I/O in a way that minimizes interaction with the I/O system, maximizes the amount of data moved per call, and provides the I/O system the most information about

  14. Merlin - Massively parallel heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittie, Larry; Maples, Creve

    1989-01-01

    Hardware and software for Merlin, a new kind of massively parallel computing system, are described. Eight computers are linked as a 300-MIPS prototype to develop system software for a larger Merlin network with 16 to 64 nodes, totaling 600 to 3000 MIPS. These working prototypes help refine a mapped reflective memory technique that offers a new, very general way of linking many types of computer to form supercomputers. Processors share data selectively and rapidly on a word-by-word basis. Fast firmware virtual circuits are reconfigured to match topological needs of individual application programs. Merlin's low-latency memory-sharing interfaces solve many problems in the design of high-performance computing systems. The Merlin prototypes are intended to run parallel programs for scientific applications and to determine hardware and software needs for a future Teraflops Merlin network.

  15. A generalized parallel replica dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Andrew; Lelièvre, Tony; Simpson, Gideon

    2015-03-01

    Metastability is a common obstacle to performing long molecular dynamics simulations. Many numerical methods have been proposed to overcome it. One method is parallel replica dynamics, which relies on the rapid convergence of the underlying stochastic process to a quasi-stationary distribution. Two requirements for applying parallel replica dynamics are knowledge of the time scale on which the process converges to the quasi-stationary distribution and a mechanism for generating samples from this distribution. By combining a Fleming–Viot particle system with convergence diagnostics to simultaneously identify when the process converges while also generating samples, we can address both points. This variation on the algorithm is illustrated with various numerical examples, including those with entropic barriers and the 2D Lennard-Jones cluster of seven atoms.

  16. Scans as primitive parallel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Blelloch, G.E. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    In most parallel random access machine (PRAM) models, memory references are assumed to take unit time. In practice, and in theory, certain scan operations, also known as prefix computations, can execute in no more time than these parallel memory references. This paper outlines an extensive study of the effect of including, in the PRAM models, such scan operations as unit-time primitives. The study concludes that the primitives improve the asymptotic running time of many algorithms by an O(log n) factor greatly simplify the description of many algorithms, and are significantly easier to implement than memory references. The authors argue that the algorithm designer should feel free to use these operations as if they were as cheap as a memory reference. This paper describes five algorithms that clearly illustrate how the scan primitives can be used in algorithm design. These all run on an EREW PRAM with the addition of two scan primitives.

  17. Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ošmera, Pavel

    This paper describes a Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution (TLPGE) that can evolve complete programs using a variable length linear genome to govern the mapping of a Backus Naur Form grammar definition. To increase the efficiency of Grammatical Evolution (GE) the influence of backward processing was tested and a second level with differential evolution was added. The significance of backward coding (BC) and the comparison with standard coding of GEs is presented. The new method is based on parallel grammatical evolution (PGE) with a backward processing algorithm, which is further extended with a differential evolution algorithm. Thus a two-level optimization method was formed in attempt to take advantage of the benefits of both original methods and avoid their difficulties. Both methods used are discussed and the architecture of their combination is described. Also application is discussed and results on a real-word application are described.

  18. Parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song; Tan, Yidong; Zhang, Shulian

    2013-12-15

    We present a parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometer based on spatial multiplexing which avoids the signal crosstalk in the former feedback interferometer. The interferometer outputs two close parallel laser beams, whose frequencies are shifted by two acousto-optic modulators by 2Ω simultaneously. A static reference mirror is inserted into one of the optical paths as the reference optical path. The other beam impinges on the target as the measurement optical path. Phase variations of the two feedback laser beams are simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with two different detectors. Their subtraction accurately reflects the target displacement. Under typical room conditions, experimental results show a resolution of 1.6 nm and accuracy of 7.8 nm within the range of 100 μm.

  19. Parallel processing spacecraft communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An uplink controlling assembly speeds data processing using a special parallel codeblock technique. A correct start sequence initiates processing of a frame. Two possible start sequences can be used; and the one which is used determines whether data polarity is inverted or non-inverted. Processing continues until uncorrectable errors are found. The frame ends by intentionally sending a block with an uncorrectable error. Each of the codeblocks in the frame has a channel ID. Each channel ID can be separately processed in parallel. This obviates the problem of waiting for error correction processing. If that channel number is zero, however, it indicates that the frame of data represents a critical command only. That data is handled in a special way, independent of the software. Otherwise, the processed data further handled using special double buffering techniques to avoid problems from overrun. When overrun does occur, the system takes action to lose only the oldest data.

  20. Parallel strategies for SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoviano, Jesus A.

    2004-12-01

    This article proposes a series of strategies for improving the computer process of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signal treatment, following the three usual lines of action to speed up the execution of any computer program. On the one hand, it is studied the optimization of both, the data structures and the application architecture used on it. On the other hand it is considered a hardware improvement. For the former, they are studied both, the usually employed SAR process data structures, proposing the use of parallel ones and the way the parallelization of the algorithms employed on the process is implemented. Besides, the parallel application architecture classifies processes between fine/coarse grain. These are assigned to individual processors or separated in a division among processors, all of them in their corresponding architectures. For the latter, it is studied the hardware employed on the computer parallel process used in the SAR handling. The improvement here refers to several kinds of platforms in which the SAR process is implemented, shared memory multicomputers, and distributed memory multiprocessors. A comparison between them gives us some guidelines to follow in order to get a maximum throughput with a minimum latency and a maximum effectiveness with a minimum cost, all together with a limited complexness. It is concluded and described, that the approach consisting of the processing of the algorithms in a GNU/Linux environment, together with a Beowulf cluster platform offers, under certain conditions, the best compromise between performance and cost, and promises the major development in the future for the Synthetic Aperture Radar computer power thirsty applications in the next years.

  1. Parallel Power Grid Simulation Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steve; Kelley, Brian; Banks, Lawrence; Top, Philip; Woodward, Carol

    2015-09-14

    ParGrid is a 'wrapper' that integrates a coupled Power Grid Simulation toolkit consisting of a library to manage the synchronization and communication of independent simulations. The included library code in ParGid, named FSKIT, is intended to support the coupling multiple continuous and discrete even parallel simulations. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and current Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  2. Parallel fabrication of nanogap electrodes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Danvers E; Strachan, Douglas R; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2007-09-01

    We have developed a technique for simultaneously fabricating large numbers of nanogaps in a single processing step using feedback-controlled electromigration. Parallel nanogap formation is achieved by a balanced simultaneous process that uses a novel arrangement of nanoscale shorts between narrow constrictions where the nanogaps form. Because of this balancing, the fabrication of multiple nanoelectrodes is similar to that of a single nanogap junction. The technique should be useful for constructing complex circuits of molecular-scale electronic devices.

  3. Massively parallel femtosecond laser processing.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Ito, Haruyasu; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    Massively parallel femtosecond laser processing with more than 1000 beams was demonstrated. Parallel beams were generated by a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The key to this technique is to optimize the CGH in the laser processing system using a scheme called in-system optimization. It was analytically demonstrated that the number of beams is determined by the horizontal number of pixels in the SLM NSLM that is imaged at the pupil plane of an objective lens and a distance parameter pd obtained by dividing the distance between adjacent beams by the diffraction-limited beam diameter. A performance limitation of parallel laser processing in our system was estimated at NSLM of 250 and pd of 7.0. Based on these parameters, the maximum number of beams in a hexagonal close-packed structure was calculated to be 1189 by using an analytical equation. PMID:27505815

  4. Highly parallel sparse Cholesky factorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Several fine grained parallel algorithms were developed and compared to compute the Cholesky factorization of a sparse matrix. The experimental implementations are on the Connection Machine, a distributed memory SIMD machine whose programming model conceptually supplies one processor per data element. In contrast to special purpose algorithms in which the matrix structure conforms to the connection structure of the machine, the focus is on matrices with arbitrary sparsity structure. The most promising algorithm is one whose inner loop performs several dense factorizations simultaneously on a 2-D grid of processors. Virtually any massively parallel dense factorization algorithm can be used as the key subroutine. The sparse code attains execution rates comparable to those of the dense subroutine. Although at present architectural limitations prevent the dense factorization from realizing its potential efficiency, it is concluded that a regular data parallel architecture can be used efficiently to solve arbitrarily structured sparse problems. A performance model is also presented and it is used to analyze the algorithms.

  5. Using the Parallel Virtual Machine for Everyday Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, M. S.; Houck, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Young, A.; Nowak, M.

    2006-07-01

    A review of the literature reveals that while parallel computing is sometimes employed by astronomers for custom, large-scale calculations, no package fosters the routine application of parallel methods to standard problems in astronomical data analysis. This paper describes our attempt to close that gap by wrapping the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) as a scriptable S-Lang module. Using PVM within ISIS, the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System, we've distributed a number of representive calculations over a network of 25+ CPUs to achieve dramatic reductions in execution times. We discuss how the approach applies to a wide class of modeling problems, outline our efforts to make it more transparent for common use, and note its growing importance in the context of the large, multi-wavelength datasets used in modern analysis.

  6. Parallel micromanipulation method for microassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Jeongsik; Stephanou, Harry E.

    2001-09-01

    Microassembly deals with micron or millimeter scale objects where the tolerance requirements are in the micron range. Typical applications include electronics components (silicon fabricated circuits), optoelectronics components (photo detectors, emitters, amplifiers, optical fibers, microlenses, etc.), and MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System) dies. The assembly processes generally require not only high precision but also high throughput at low manufacturing cost. While conventional macroscale assembly methods have been utilized in scaled down versions for microassembly applications, they exhibit limitations on throughput and cost due to the inherently serialized process. Since the assembly process depends heavily on the manipulation performance, an efficient manipulation method for small parts will have a significant impact on the manufacturing of miniaturized products. The objective of this study on 'parallel micromanipulation' is to achieve these three requirements through the handling of multiple small parts simultaneously (in parallel) with high precision (micromanipulation). As a step toward this objective, a new manipulation method is introduced. The method uses a distributed actuation array for gripper free and parallel manipulation, and a centralized, shared actuator for simplified controls. The method has been implemented on a testbed 'Piezo Active Surface (PAS)' in which an actively generated friction force field is the driving force for part manipulation. Basic motion primitives, such as translation and rotation of objects, are made possible with the proposed method. This study discusses the design of the proposed manipulation method PAS, and the corresponding manipulation mechanism. The PAS consists of two piezoelectric actuators for X and Y motion, two linear motion guides, two sets of nozzle arrays, and solenoid valves to switch the pneumatic suction force on and off in individual nozzles. One array of nozzles is fixed relative to the surface on

  7. Resolutions of the Coulomb operator: VIII. Parallel implementation using the modern programming language X10.

    PubMed

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Milthorpe, Josh; Rendell, Alistair P

    2014-10-30

    Use of the modern parallel programming language X10 for computing long-range Coulomb and exchange interactions is presented. By using X10, a partitioned global address space language with support for task parallelism and the explicit representation of data locality, the resolution of the Ewald operator can be parallelized in a straightforward manner including use of both intranode and internode parallelism. We evaluate four different schemes for dynamic load balancing of integral calculation using X10's work stealing runtime, and report performance results for long-range HF energy calculation of large molecule/high quality basis running on up to 1024 cores of a high performance cluster machine.

  8. Method for resource control in parallel environments using program organization and run-time support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekanadham, Kattamuri (Inventor); Moreira, Jose Eduardo (Inventor); Naik, Vijay Krishnarao (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system and method for dynamic scheduling and allocation of resources to parallel applications during the course of their execution. By establishing well-defined interactions between an executing job and the parallel system, the system and method support dynamic reconfiguration of processor partitions, dynamic distribution and redistribution of data, communication among cooperating applications, and various other monitoring actions. The interactions occur only at specific points in the execution of the program where the aforementioned operations can be performed efficiently.

  9. Method for resource control in parallel environments using program organization and run-time support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekanadham, Kattamuri (Inventor); Moreira, Jose Eduardo (Inventor); Naik, Vijay Krishnarao (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for dynamic scheduling and allocation of resources to parallel applications during the course of their execution. By establishing well-defined interactions between an executing job and the parallel system, the system and method support dynamic reconfiguration of processor partitions, dynamic distribution and redistribution of data, communication among cooperating applications, and various other monitoring actions. The interactions occur only at specific points in the execution of the program where the aforementioned operations can be performed efficiently.

  10. Collective Interaction of a Compressible Periodic Parallel Jet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    1997-01-01

    A linear instability model for multiple spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets is solved using Floquet-Bloch theory. The disturbance environment is investigated using a two dimensional perturbation of a mean flow. For all cases large temporal growth rates are found. This work is motivated by an increase in mixing found in experimental measurements of spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets with phase-locked screech. The results obtained in this paper suggests that phase-locked screech or edge tones may produce correlated spatially periodic jet flow downstream of the nozzles which creates a large span wise multi-nozzle region where a disturbance can propagate. The large temporal growth rates for eddies obtained by model calculation herein are related to the increased mixing since eddies are the primary mechanism that transfer energy from the mean flow to the large turbulent structures. Calculations of growth rates are presented for a range of Mach numbers and nozzle spacings corresponding to experimental test conditions where screech synchronized phase locking was observed. The model may be of significant scientific and engineering value in the quest to understand and construct supersonic mixer-ejector nozzles which provide increased mixing and reduced noise.

  11. Interacting Parallel Constructions of Knowledge in a CAS Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Ivy; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the influence of a CAS context on a learner's process of constructing a justification for the bifurcations in a logistic dynamical process. We describe how instrumentation led to cognitive constructions and how the roles of the learner and the CAS intertwine, especially close to the branching and combining of constructing actions. The…

  12. Parallel processing of atmospheric chemistry calculations: Preliminary considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Jones, P.

    1995-01-01

    Global climate calculations are already saturating the class modern vector supercomputers with only a few central processing units. Increased resolution and inclusion of routines to deal with biogeochemical portions of the terrestrial climate system will soon demand massively parallel approaches. The atmospheric photochemistry ensemble is intimately linked to climate through the trace greenhouse gases ozone and methane and modules for representing it are being attached to global three dimensional transport and GCM frameworks. Atmospheric kinetics involve dozens of highly interactive tracers and so will accentuate the need for parallel processing of earth system simulations. In the present text we lay some of the groundwork for addition of atmospheric kinetics packages to GCM and global scale atmospheric models on multiply parallel computers. The discussion is tailored for consumption by the photochemical modelling community. After a review of numerical atmospheric chemistry methods, we examine how kinetics can be implemented on a parallel computer. We concentrate especially on data layout and flexibility and how these can be implemented in various programming models. We conclude that chemistry can be implemented rather easily within existing frameworks of several parallel atmospheric models. However, memory limitations may preclude high resolution studies of global chemistry.

  13. Parallelizing alternating direction implicit solver on GPUs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a parallel Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) solver on GPUs. Our implementation significantly improves existing implementations in two aspects. First, we address the scalability issue of existing Parallel Cyclic Reduction (PCR) implementations by eliminating their hardware resource con...

  14. Implementing clips on a parallel computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1987-01-01

    The C language integrated production system (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language to provide training and delivery for expert systems. Conceptually, rule based languages have great potential for benefiting from the inherent parallelism of the algorithms that they employ. During each cycle of execution, a knowledge base of information is compared against a set of rules to determine if any rules are applicable. Parallelism also can be employed for use with multiple cooperating expert systems. To investigate the potential benefits of using a parallel computer to speed up the comparison of facts to rules in expert systems, a parallel version of CLIPS was developed for the FLEX/32, a large grain parallel computer. The FLEX implementation takes a macroscopic approach in achieving parallelism by splitting whole sets of rules among several processors rather than by splitting the components of an individual rule among processors. The parallel CLIPS prototype demonstrates the potential advantages of integrating expert system tools with parallel computers.

  15. Parallel ecological networks in ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Olff, Han; Alonso, David; Berg, Matty P.; Eriksson, B. Klemens; Loreau, Michel; Piersma, Theunis; Rooney, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In ecosystems, species interact with other species directly and through abiotic factors in multiple ways, often forming complex networks of various types of ecological interaction. Out of this suite of interactions, predator–prey interactions have received most attention. The resulting food webs, however, will always operate simultaneously with networks based on other types of ecological interaction, such as through the activities of ecosystem engineers or mutualistic interactions. Little is known about how to classify, organize and quantify these other ecological networks and their mutual interplay. The aim of this paper is to provide new and testable ideas on how to understand and model ecosystems in which many different types of ecological interaction operate simultaneously. We approach this problem by first identifying six main types of interaction that operate within ecosystems, of which food web interactions are one. Then, we propose that food webs are structured among two main axes of organization: a vertical (classic) axis representing trophic position and a new horizontal ‘ecological stoichiometry’ axis representing decreasing palatability of plant parts and detritus for herbivores and detrivores and slower turnover times. The usefulness of these new ideas is then explored with three very different ecosystems as test cases: temperate intertidal mudflats; temperate short grass prairie; and tropical savannah. PMID:19451126

  16. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO (CAPtools (Computer Aided Parallelization Toolkit) OpenMP) parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report some results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  17. Force user's manual: A portable, parallel FORTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Arenstorf, Norbert S.; Ramanan, Aruna V.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Force, a parallel, portable FORTRAN on shared memory parallel computers is described. Force simplifies writing code for parallel computers and, once the parallel code is written, it is easily ported to computers on which Force is installed. Although Force is nearly the same for all computers, specific details are included for the Cray-2, Cray-YMP, Convex 220, Flex/32, Encore, Sequent, Alliant computers on which it is installed.

  18. Parallel machine architecture and compiler design facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David J.; Yew, Pen-Chung; Padua, David; Sameh, Ahmed; Veidenbaum, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to provide an integrated simulation environment for studying and evaluating various issues in designing parallel systems, including machine architectures, parallelizing compiler techniques, and parallel algorithms. The status of Delta project (which objective is to provide a facility to allow rapid prototyping of parallelized compilers that can target toward different machine architectures) is summarized. Included are the surveys of the program manipulation tools developed, the environmental software supporting Delta, and the compiler research projects in which Delta has played a role.

  19. Global Arrays Parallel Programming Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tipparaju, Vinod; Harrison, Robert J.; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The two predominant classes of programming models for parallel computing are distributed memory and shared memory. Both shared memory and distributed memory models have advantages and shortcomings. Shared memory model is much easier to use but it ignores data locality/placement. Given the hierarchical nature of the memory subsystems in modern computers this characteristic can have a negative impact on performance and scalability. Careful code restructuring to increase data reuse and replacing fine grain load/stores with block access to shared data can address the problem and yield performance for shared memory that is competitive with message-passing. However, this performance comes at the cost of compromising the ease of use that the shared memory model advertises. Distributed memory models, such as message-passing or one-sided communication, offer performance and scalability but they are difficult to program. The Global Arrays toolkit attempts to offer the best features of both models. It implements a shared-memory programming model in which data locality is managed by the programmer. This management is achieved by calls to functions that transfer data between a global address space (a distributed array) and local storage. In this respect, the GA model has similarities to the distributed shared-memory models that provide an explicit acquire/release protocol. However, the GA model acknowledges that remote data is slower to access than local data and allows data locality to be specified by the programmer and hence managed. GA is related to the global address space languages such as UPC, Titanium, and, to a lesser extent, Co-Array Fortran. In addition, by providing a set of data-parallel operations, GA is also related to data-parallel languages such as HPF, ZPL, and Data Parallel C. However, the Global Array programming model is implemented as a library that works with most languages used for technical computing and does not rely on compiler technology for achieving

  20. High Performance Parallel Computational Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At a recent press conference, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin encouraged NASA Ames Research Center to take a lead role in promoting research and development of advanced, high-performance computer technology, including nanotechnology. Manufacturers of leading-edge microprocessors currently perform large-scale simulations in the design and verification of semiconductor devices and microprocessors. Recently, the need for this intensive simulation and modeling analysis has greatly increased, due in part to the ever-increasing complexity of these devices, as well as the lessons of experiences such as the Pentium fiasco. Simulation, modeling, testing, and validation will be even more important for designing molecular computers because of the complex specification of millions of atoms, thousands of assembly steps, as well as the simulation and modeling needed to ensure reliable, robust and efficient fabrication of the molecular devices. The software for this capacity does not exist today, but it can be extrapolated from the software currently used in molecular modeling for other applications: semi-empirical methods, ab initio methods, self-consistent field methods, Hartree-Fock methods, molecular mechanics; and simulation methods for diamondoid structures. In as much as it seems clear that the application of such methods in nanotechnology will require powerful, highly powerful systems, this talk will discuss techniques and issues for performing these types of computations on parallel systems. We will describe system design issues (memory, I/O, mass storage, operating system requirements, special user interface issues, interconnects, bandwidths, and programming languages) involved in parallel methods for scalable classical, semiclassical, quantum, molecular mechanics, and continuum models; molecular nanotechnology computer-aided designs (NanoCAD) techniques; visualization using virtual reality techniques of structural models and assembly sequences; software required to

  1. Parallel MRI at microtesla fields.

    PubMed

    Zotev, Vadim S; Volegov, Petr L; Matlashov, Andrei N; Espy, Michelle A; Mosher, John C; Kraus, Robert H

    2008-06-01

    Parallel imaging techniques have been widely used in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple receiver coils have been shown to improve image quality and allow accelerated image acquisition. Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-low fields (ULF MRI) is a new imaging approach that uses SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors to measure the spatially encoded precession of pre-polarized nuclear spin populations at microtesla-range measurement fields. In this work, parallel imaging at microtesla fields is systematically studied for the first time. A seven-channel SQUID system, designed for both ULF MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG), is used to acquire 3D images of a human hand, as well as 2D images of a large water phantom. The imaging is performed at 46 mu T measurement field with pre-polarization at 40 mT. It is shown how the use of seven channels increases imaging field of view and improves signal-to-noise ratio for the hand images. A simple procedure for approximate correction of concomitant gradient artifacts is described. Noise propagation is analyzed experimentally, and the main source of correlated noise is identified. Accelerated imaging based on one-dimensional undersampling and 1D SENSE (sensitivity encoding) image reconstruction is studied in the case of the 2D phantom. Actual threefold imaging acceleration in comparison to single-average fully encoded Fourier imaging is demonstrated. These results show that parallel imaging methods are efficient in ULF MRI, and that imaging performance of SQUID-based instruments improves substantially as the number of channels is increased.

  2. Parallel MRI at microtesla fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotev, Vadim S.; Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Espy, Michelle A.; Mosher, John C.; Kraus, Robert H.

    2008-06-01

    Parallel imaging techniques have been widely used in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple receiver coils have been shown to improve image quality and allow accelerated image acquisition. Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-low fields (ULF MRI) is a new imaging approach that uses SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors to measure the spatially encoded precession of pre-polarized nuclear spin populations at microtesla-range measurement fields. In this work, parallel imaging at microtesla fields is systematically studied for the first time. A seven-channel SQUID system, designed for both ULF MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG), is used to acquire 3D images of a human hand, as well as 2D images of a large water phantom. The imaging is performed at 46 μT measurement field with pre-polarization at 40 mT. It is shown how the use of seven channels increases imaging field of view and improves signal-to-noise ratio for the hand images. A simple procedure for approximate correction of concomitant gradient artifacts is described. Noise propagation is analyzed experimentally, and the main source of correlated noise is identified. Accelerated imaging based on one-dimensional undersampling and 1D SENSE (sensitivity encoding) image reconstruction is studied in the case of the 2D phantom. Actual threefold imaging acceleration in comparison to single-average fully encoded Fourier imaging is demonstrated. These results show that parallel imaging methods are efficient in ULF MRI, and that imaging performance of SQUID-based instruments improves substantially as the number of channels is increased.

  3. The PARTY parallel runtime system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, J. H.; Mirchandaney, Ravi; Smith, R. M.; Crowley, Kay; Nicol, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    In the present automated system for the organization of the data and computational operations entailed by parallel problems, in ways that optimize multiprocessor performance, general heuristics for partitioning program data and control are implemented by capturing and manipulating representations of a computation at run time. These heuristics are directed toward the dynamic identification and allocation of concurrent work in computations with irregular computational patterns. An optimized static-workload partitioning is computed for such repetitive-computation pattern problems as the iterative ones employed in scientific computation.

  4. Heart Fibrillation and Parallel Supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, B. Y.; Karplus, W. J.; Chudin, E. E.

    1997-01-01

    The Luo and Rudy 3 cardiac cell mathematical model is implemented on the parallel supercomputer CRAY - T3D. The splitting algorithm combined with variable time step and an explicit method of integration provide reasonable solution times and almost perfect scaling for rectilinear wave propagation. The computer simulation makes it possible to observe new phenomena: the break-up of spiral waves caused by intracellular calcium and dynamics and the non-uniformity of the calcium distribution in space during the onset of the spiral wave.

  5. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  6. True Shear Parallel Plate Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2010-01-01

    This viscometer (which can also be used as a rheometer) is designed for use with liquids over a large temperature range. The device consists of horizontally disposed, similarly sized, parallel plates with a precisely known gap. The lower plate is driven laterally with a motor to apply shear to the liquid in the gap. The upper plate is freely suspended from a double-arm pendulum with a sufficiently long radius to reduce height variations during the swing to negligible levels. A sensitive load cell measures the shear force applied by the liquid to the upper plate. Viscosity is measured by taking the ratio of shear stress to shear rate.

  7. Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P

    2005-03-23

    The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.

  8. A parallel algorithm for implicit depletant simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Jens; Karas, Andrew S.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2015-11-01

    We present an algorithm to simulate the many-body depletion interaction between anisotropic colloids in an implicit way, integrating out the degrees of freedom of the depletants, which we treat as an ideal gas. Because the depletant particles are statistically independent and the depletion interaction is short-ranged, depletants are randomly inserted in parallel into the excluded volume surrounding a single translated and/or rotated colloid. A configurational bias scheme is used to enhance the acceptance rate. The method is validated and benchmarked both on multi-core processors and graphics processing units for the case of hard spheres, hemispheres, and discoids. With depletants, we report novel cluster phases in which hemispheres first assemble into spheres, which then form ordered hcp/fcc lattices. The method is significantly faster than any method without cluster moves and that tracks depletants explicitly, for systems of colloid packing fraction ϕc < 0.50, and additionally enables simulation of the fluid-solid transition.

  9. Identifying, Quantifying, Extracting and Enhancing Implicit Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Mayank

    2009-01-01

    The shift of the microprocessor industry towards multicore architectures has placed a huge burden on the programmers by requiring explicit parallelization for performance. Implicit Parallelization is an alternative that could ease the burden on programmers by parallelizing applications "under the covers" while maintaining sequential semantics…

  10. Parallel Computing Using Web Servers and "Servlets".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Alfred; Bloor, Chris; Choi, Y. K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes parallel computing and presents inexpensive ways to implement a virtual parallel computer with multiple Web servers. Highlights include performance measurement of parallel systems; models for using Java and intranet technology including single server, multiple clients and multiple servers, single client; and a comparison of CGI (common…

  11. Exploring Parallel Concordancing in English and Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lixun, Wang

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the value of computer technology as a medium for the delivery of parallel texts in English and Chinese for language learning. A English-Chinese parallel corpus was created for use in parallel concordancing--a technique that has been developed to respond to the desire to study language in its natural contexts of use. (Author/VWL)

  12. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly…

  13. Reservoir Thermal Recover Simulation on Parallel Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoyan; Ma, Yuanle

    The rapid development of parallel computers has provided a hardware background for massive refine reservoir simulation. However, the lack of parallel reservoir simulation software has blocked the application of parallel computers on reservoir simulation. Although a variety of parallel methods have been studied and applied to black oil, compositional, and chemical model numerical simulations, there has been limited parallel software available for reservoir simulation. Especially, the parallelization study of reservoir thermal recovery simulation has not been fully carried out, because of the complexity of its models and algorithms. The authors make use of the message passing interface (MPI) standard communication library, the domain decomposition method, the block Jacobi iteration algorithm, and the dynamic memory allocation technique to parallelize their serial thermal recovery simulation software NUMSIP, which is being used in petroleum industry in China. The parallel software PNUMSIP was tested on both IBM SP2 and Dawn 1000A distributed-memory parallel computers. The experiment results show that the parallelization of I/O has great effects on the efficiency of parallel software PNUMSIP; the data communication bandwidth is also an important factor, which has an influence on software efficiency. Keywords: domain decomposition method, block Jacobi iteration algorithm, reservoir thermal recovery simulation, distributed-memory parallel computer

  14. Parallels between wind and crowd loading of bridges.

    PubMed

    McRobie, Allan; Morgenthal, Guido; Abrams, Danny; Prendergast, John

    2013-06-28

    Parallels between the dynamic response of flexible bridges under the action of wind and under the forces induced by crowds allow each field to inform the other. Wind-induced behaviour has been traditionally classified into categories such as flutter, galloping, vortex-induced vibration and buffeting. However, computational advances such as the vortex particle method have led to a more general picture where effects may occur simultaneously and interact, such that the simple semantic demarcations break down. Similarly, the modelling of individual pedestrians has progressed the understanding of human-structure interaction, particularly for large-amplitude lateral oscillations under crowd loading. In this paper, guided by the interaction of flutter and vortex-induced vibration in wind engineering, a framework is presented, which allows various human-structure interaction effects to coexist and interact, thereby providing a possible synthesis of previously disparate experimental and theoretical results. PMID:23690640

  15. STALK : an interactive virtual molecular docking system.

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.; Facello, M.; Hallstrom, P.; Reeder, G.; Walenz, B.; Stevens, F.; Univ. of Illinois

    1997-04-01

    Several recent technologies-genetic algorithms, parallel and distributed computing, virtual reality, and high-speed networking-underlie a new approach to the computational study of how biomolecules interact or 'dock' together. With the Stalk system, a user in a virtual reality environment can interact with a genetic algorithm running on a parallel computer to help in the search for likely geometric configurations.

  16. Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Formal results

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2015-08-15

    In a recent paper, Gaelzer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 032310 (2015)] revisited the second-order nonlinear kinetic theory for turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The original work was according to Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)], but Gaelzer et al. noted that the terms pertaining to discrete-particle effects in Yoon and Fang's theory did not enjoy proper dimensionality. The purpose of Gaelzer et al. was to restore the dimensional consistency associated with such terms. However, Gaelzer et al. was concerned only with linear wave-particle interaction terms. The present paper completes the analysis by considering the dimensional correction to nonlinear wave-particle interaction terms in the wave kinetic equation.

  17. Parallel multiscale simulations of a brain aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multiscale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier-Stokes solver NɛκTαr. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers (NɛκTαr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300 K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in future

  18. Parallel multiscale simulations of a brain aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multiscale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier–Stokes solver NεκTαr. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers (NεκTαr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300 K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in

  19. Xyce parallel electronic simulator design.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Mei, Ting; Schiek, Richard Louis; Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.

    2010-09-01

    This document is the Xyce Circuit Simulator developer guide. Xyce has been designed from the 'ground up' to be a SPICE-compatible, distributed memory parallel circuit simulator. While it is in many respects a research code, Xyce is intended to be a production simulator. As such, having software quality engineering (SQE) procedures in place to insure a high level of code quality and robustness are essential. Version control, issue tracking customer support, C++ style guildlines and the Xyce release process are all described. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been under development at Sandia since 1999. Historically, Xyce has mostly been funded by ASC, the original focus of Xyce development has primarily been related to circuits for nuclear weapons. However, this has not been the only focus and it is expected that the project will diversify. Like many ASC projects, Xyce is a group development effort, which involves a number of researchers, engineers, scientists, mathmaticians and computer scientists. In addition to diversity of background, it is to be expected on long term projects for there to be a certain amount of staff turnover, as people move on to different projects. As a result, it is very important that the project maintain high software quality standards. The point of this document is to formally document a number of the software quality practices followed by the Xyce team in one place. Also, it is hoped that this document will be a good source of information for new developers.

  20. A CS1 pedagogical approach to parallel thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rague, Brian William

    Almost all collegiate programs in Computer Science offer an introductory course in programming primarily devoted to communicating the foundational principles of software design and development. The ACM designates this introduction to computer programming course for first-year students as CS1, during which methodologies for solving problems within a discrete computational context are presented. Logical thinking is highlighted, guided primarily by a sequential approach to algorithm development and made manifest by typically using the latest, commercially successful programming language. In response to the most recent developments in accessible multicore computers, instructors of these introductory classes may wish to include training on how to design workable parallel code. Novel issues arise when programming concurrent applications which can make teaching these concepts to beginning programmers a seemingly formidable task. Student comprehension of design strategies related to parallel systems should be monitored to ensure an effective classroom experience. This research investigated the feasibility of integrating parallel computing concepts into the first-year CS classroom. To quantitatively assess student comprehension of parallel computing, an experimental educational study using a two-factor mixed group design was conducted to evaluate two instructional interventions in addition to a control group: (1) topic lecture only, and (2) topic lecture with laboratory work using a software visualization Parallel Analysis Tool (PAT) specifically designed for this project. A new evaluation instrument developed for this study, the Perceptions of Parallelism Survey (PoPS), was used to measure student learning regarding parallel systems. The results from this educational study show a statistically significant main effect among the repeated measures, implying that student comprehension levels of parallel concepts as measured by the PoPS improve immediately after the delivery of

  1. Efficient parallel global garbage collection on massively parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Tomio; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Akinori

    1994-12-31

    On distributed-memory high-performance MPPs where processors are interconnected by an asynchronous network, efficient Garbage Collection (GC) becomes difficult due to inter-node references and references within pending, unprocessed messages. The parallel global GC algorithm (1) takes advantage of reference locality, (2) efficiently traverses references over nodes, (3) admits minimum pause time of ongoing computations, and (4) has been shown to scale up to 1024 node MPPs. The algorithm employs a global weight counting scheme to substantially reduce message traffic. The two methods for confirming the arrival of pending messages are used: one counts numbers of messages and the other uses network `bulldozing.` Performance evaluation in actual implementations on a multicomputer with 32-1024 nodes, Fujitsu AP1000, reveals various favorable properties of the algorithm.

  2. Implementation and performance of parallelized elegant.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Borland, M.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The program elegant is widely used for design and modeling of linacs for free-electron lasers and energy recovery linacs, as well as storage rings and other applications. As part of a multi-year effort, we have parallelized many aspects of the code, including single-particle dynamics, wakefields, and coherent synchrotron radiation. We report on the approach used for gradual parallelization, which proved very beneficial in getting parallel features into the hands of users quickly. We also report details of parallelization of collective effects. Finally, we discuss performance of the parallelized code in various applications.

  3. Parallel Visualization Co-Processing of Overnight CFD Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David E.; Haimes, Robert

    1999-01-01

    An interactive visualization system pV3 is being developed for the investigation of advanced computational methodologies employing visualization and parallel processing for the extraction of information contained in large-scale transient engineering simulations. Visual techniques for extracting information from the data in terms of cutting planes, iso-surfaces, particle tracing and vector fields are included in this system. This paper discusses improvements to the pV3 system developed under NASA's Affordable High Performance Computing project.

  4. Parallel Rendering of Large Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbutt, Alexander E.

    2005-01-01

    Interactive visualization of large time-varying 3D volume datasets has been and still is a great challenge to the modem computational world. It stretches the limits of the memory capacity, the disk space, the network bandwidth and the CPU speed of a conventional computer. In this SURF project, we propose to develop a parallel volume rendering program on SGI's Prism, a cluster computer equipped with state-of-the-art graphic hardware. The proposed program combines both parallel computing and hardware rendering in order to achieve an interactive rendering rate. We use 3D texture mapping and a hardware shader to implement 3D volume rendering on each workstation. We use SGI's VisServer to enable remote rendering using Prism's graphic hardware. And last, we will integrate this new program with ParVox, a parallel distributed visualization system developed at JPL. At the end of the project, we Will demonstrate remote interactive visualization using this new hardware volume renderer on JPL's Prism System using a time-varying dataset from selected JPL applications.

  5. Hybrid Optimization Parallel Search PACKage

    2009-11-10

    HOPSPACK is open source software for solving optimization problems without derivatives. Application problems may have a fully nonlinear objective function, bound constraints, and linear and nonlinear constraints. Problem variables may be continuous, integer-valued, or a mixture of both. The software provides a framework that supports any derivative-free type of solver algorithm. Through the framework, solvers request parallel function evaluation, which may use MPI (multiple machines) or multithreading (multiple processors/cores on one machine). The framework providesmore » a Cache and Pending Cache of saved evaluations that reduces execution time and facilitates restarts. Solvers can dynamically create other algorithms to solve subproblems, a useful technique for handling multiple start points and integer-valued variables. HOPSPACK ships with the Generating Set Search (GSS) algorithm, developed at Sandia as part of the APPSPACK open source software project.« less

  6. Embodied and Distributed Parallel DJing.

    PubMed

    Cappelen, Birgitta; Andersson, Anders-Petter

    2016-01-01

    Everyone has a right to take part in cultural events and activities, such as music performances and music making. Enforcing that right, within Universal Design, is often limited to a focus on physical access to public areas, hearing aids etc., or groups of persons with special needs performing in traditional ways. The latter might be people with disabilities, being musicians playing traditional instruments, or actors playing theatre. In this paper we focus on the innovative potential of including people with special needs, when creating new cultural activities. In our project RHYME our goal was to create health promoting activities for children with severe disabilities, by developing new musical and multimedia technologies. Because of the users' extreme demands and rich contribution, we ended up creating both a new genre of musical instruments and a new art form. We call this new art form Embodied and Distributed Parallel DJing, and the new genre of instruments for Empowering Multi-Sensorial Things.

  7. Parallel network simulations with NEURON.

    PubMed

    Migliore, M; Cannia, C; Lytton, W W; Markram, Henry; Hines, M L

    2006-10-01

    The NEURON simulation environment has been extended to support parallel network simulations. Each processor integrates the equations for its subnet over an interval equal to the minimum (interprocessor) presynaptic spike generation to postsynaptic spike delivery connection delay. The performance of three published network models with very different spike patterns exhibits superlinear speedup on Beowulf clusters and demonstrates that spike communication overhead is often less than the benefit of an increased fraction of the entire problem fitting into high speed cache. On the EPFL IBM Blue Gene, almost linear speedup was obtained up to 100 processors. Increasing one model from 500 to 40,000 realistic cells exhibited almost linear speedup on 2,000 processors, with an integration time of 9.8 seconds and communication time of 1.3 seconds. The potential for speed-ups of several orders of magnitude makes practical the running of large network simulations that could otherwise not be explored.

  8. Embodied and Distributed Parallel DJing.

    PubMed

    Cappelen, Birgitta; Andersson, Anders-Petter

    2016-01-01

    Everyone has a right to take part in cultural events and activities, such as music performances and music making. Enforcing that right, within Universal Design, is often limited to a focus on physical access to public areas, hearing aids etc., or groups of persons with special needs performing in traditional ways. The latter might be people with disabilities, being musicians playing traditional instruments, or actors playing theatre. In this paper we focus on the innovative potential of including people with special needs, when creating new cultural activities. In our project RHYME our goal was to create health promoting activities for children with severe disabilities, by developing new musical and multimedia technologies. Because of the users' extreme demands and rich contribution, we ended up creating both a new genre of musical instruments and a new art form. We call this new art form Embodied and Distributed Parallel DJing, and the new genre of instruments for Empowering Multi-Sensorial Things. PMID:27534347

  9. Nanocapillary Adhesion between Parallel Plates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Robbins, Mark O

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study capillary adhesion from a nanometer scale liquid bridge between two parallel flat solid surfaces. The capillary force, Fcap, and the meniscus shape of the bridge are computed as the separation between the solid surfaces, h, is varied. Macroscopic theory predicts the meniscus shape and the contribution of liquid/vapor interfacial tension to Fcap quite accurately for separations as small as two or three molecular diameters (1-2 nm). However, the total capillary force differs in sign and magnitude from macroscopic theory for h ≲ 5 nm (8-10 diameters) because of molecular layering that is not included in macroscopic theory. For these small separations, the pressure tensor in the fluid becomes anisotropic. The components in the plane of the surface vary smoothly and are consistent with theory based on the macroscopic surface tension. Capillary adhesion is affected by only the perpendicular component, which has strong oscillations as the molecular layering changes.

  10. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  11. Information hiding in parallel programs

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1992-01-30

    A fundamental principle in program design is to isolate difficult or changeable design decisions. Application of this principle to parallel programs requires identification of decisions that are difficult or subject to change, and the development of techniques for hiding these decisions. We experiment with three complex applications, and identify mapping, communication, and scheduling as areas in which decisions are particularly problematic. We develop computational abstractions that hide such decisions, and show that these abstractions can be used to develop elegant solutions to programming problems. In particular, they allow us to encode common structures, such as transforms, reductions, and meshes, as software cells and templates that can reused in different applications. An important characteristic of these structures is that they do not incorporate mapping, communication, or scheduling decisions: these aspects of the design are specified separately, when composing existing structures to form applications. This separation of concerns allows the same cells and templates to be reused in different contexts.

  12. Parallel processing for scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkhatib, Hasan S.

    1991-01-01

    The main contribution of the effort in the last two years is the introduction of the MOPPS system. After doing extensive literature search, we introduced the system which is described next. MOPPS employs a new solution to the problem of managing programs which solve scientific and engineering applications on a distributed processing environment. Autonomous computers cooperate efficiently in solving large scientific problems with this solution. MOPPS has the advantage of not assuming the presence of any particular network topology or configuration, computer architecture, or operating system. It imposes little overhead on network and processor resources while efficiently managing programs concurrently. The core of MOPPS is an intelligent program manager that builds a knowledge base of the execution performance of the parallel programs it is managing under various conditions. The manager applies this knowledge to improve the performance of future runs. The program manager learns from experience.

  13. Nanocapillary Adhesion between Parallel Plates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Robbins, Mark O

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study capillary adhesion from a nanometer scale liquid bridge between two parallel flat solid surfaces. The capillary force, Fcap, and the meniscus shape of the bridge are computed as the separation between the solid surfaces, h, is varied. Macroscopic theory predicts the meniscus shape and the contribution of liquid/vapor interfacial tension to Fcap quite accurately for separations as small as two or three molecular diameters (1-2 nm). However, the total capillary force differs in sign and magnitude from macroscopic theory for h ≲ 5 nm (8-10 diameters) because of molecular layering that is not included in macroscopic theory. For these small separations, the pressure tensor in the fluid becomes anisotropic. The components in the plane of the surface vary smoothly and are consistent with theory based on the macroscopic surface tension. Capillary adhesion is affected by only the perpendicular component, which has strong oscillations as the molecular layering changes. PMID:27413872

  14. Parallel Performance Characterization of Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak

    2004-01-01

    Using a collection of benchmark problems of increasing levels of realism and computational effort, we will characterize the strengths and limitations of the 10,240 processor Columbia system to deliver supercomputing value to application scientists. Scientists need to be able to determine if and how they can utilize Columbia to carry extreme workloads, either in terms of ultra-large applications that cannot be run otherwise (capability), or in terms of very large ensembles of medium-scale applications to populate response matrices (capacity). We select existing application benchmarks that scale from a small number of processors to the entire machine, and that highlight different issues in running supercomputing-calss applicaions, such as the various types of memory access, file I/O, inter- and intra-node communications and parallelization paradigms. http://www.nas.nasa.gov/Software/NPB/

  15. A parallel dipole line system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Oki; Virgus, Yudistira; Tai, Kong Fai

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of a parallel linear distribution of dipole system, which can be realized using a pair of cylindrical diametric magnets and yields several interesting properties and applications. The system serves as a trap for cylindrical diamagnetic object, produces a fascinating one-dimensional camelback potential profile at its center plane, yields a technique for measuring magnetic susceptibility of the trapped object and serves as an ideal system to implement highly sensitive Hall measurement utilizing rotating magnetic field and lock-in detection. The latter application enables extraction of low carrier mobility in several materials of high interest such as the world-record-quality, earth abundant kesterite solar cell, and helps elucidate its fundamental performance limitation.

  16. Device for balancing parallel strings

    DOEpatents

    Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.

  17. Parallel computing in enterprise modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Shneider, Max S.; Vanderveen, Keith; Ray, Jaideep; Heath, Zach; Allan, Benjamin A.

    2008-08-01

    This report presents the results of our efforts to apply high-performance computing to entity-based simulations with a multi-use plugin for parallel computing. We use the term 'Entity-based simulation' to describe a class of simulation which includes both discrete event simulation and agent based simulation. What simulations of this class share, and what differs from more traditional models, is that the result sought is emergent from a large number of contributing entities. Logistic, economic and social simulations are members of this class where things or people are organized or self-organize to produce a solution. Entity-based problems never have an a priori ergodic principle that will greatly simplify calculations. Because the results of entity-based simulations can only be realized at scale, scalable computing is de rigueur for large problems. Having said that, the absence of a spatial organizing principal makes the decomposition of the problem onto processors problematic. In addition, practitioners in this domain commonly use the Java programming language which presents its own problems in a high-performance setting. The plugin we have developed, called the Parallel Particle Data Model, overcomes both of these obstacles and is now being used by two Sandia frameworks: the Decision Analysis Center, and the Seldon social simulation facility. While the ability to engage U.S.-sized problems is now available to the Decision Analysis Center, this plugin is central to the success of Seldon. Because Seldon relies on computationally intensive cognitive sub-models, this work is necessary to achieve the scale necessary for realistic results. With the recent upheavals in the financial markets, and the inscrutability of terrorist activity, this simulation domain will likely need a capability with ever greater fidelity. High-performance computing will play an important part in enabling that greater fidelity.

  18. Integrated Task and Data Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers 1995 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  19. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2014-10-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Initial results of the code parallelization will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  20. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2013-10-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Preliminary results of the code parallelization will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  1. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang

    2015-11-01

    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Results of MARS parallelization and of the development of a new fix boundary equilibrium code adapted for MARS input will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.

  2. Development of parallel wire regenerator for cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes development of a novel regenerator geometry for cryocoolers. Parallel wire type is a wire bundle stacked in parallel with the flow in the housing, which is similar to a conventional parallel plate or tube. Simple and unique fabrication procedure is developed and fully depicted in this paper. Hydrodynamic and thermal experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the parallel wire regenerator. First, pressure drop characteristic of the parallel wire regenerator is compared to that of the screen mesh regenerator. Experimental result shows that the steady flow friction factor of the parallel wire type is three to five times smaller than that of the screen mesh type. Second, thermal ineffectiveness is determined by measuring the instantaneous pressure, the flow rate and the gas temperature at the warm and cold ends of the regenerator. The measured ineffectiveness of the parallel wire regenerator is larger than that of the screen regenerator due to the excessive axial conduction loss. To alleviate the intrinsic axial conduction loss of the parallel wire regenerator, segmentation is introduced and the experimental results reveal the favorable effect of the segmentation. Entropy generation calculation is adopted to compare the total losses between the screen regenerator and the parallel wire regenerator for various operating ranges. Simulation results show that the parallel wire regenerator can be an attractive candidate to improve cryocooler performance especially for the case of smaller NTU and lower cold-end temperature.

  3. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  4. Toward an automated parallel computing environment for geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huai; Liu, Mian; Shi, Yaolin; Yuen, David A.; Yan, Zhenzhen; Liang, Guoping

    2007-08-01

    Software for geodynamic modeling has not kept up with the fast growing computing hardware and network resources. In the past decade supercomputing power has become available to most researchers in the form of affordable Beowulf clusters and other parallel computer platforms. However, to take full advantage of such computing power requires developing parallel algorithms and associated software, a task that is often too daunting for geoscience modelers whose main expertise is in geosciences. We introduce here an automated parallel computing environment built on open-source algorithms and libraries. Users interact with this computing environment by specifying the partial differential equations, solvers, and model-specific properties using an English-like modeling language in the input files. The system then automatically generates the finite element codes that can be run on distributed or shared memory parallel machines. This system is dynamic and flexible, allowing users to address different problems in geosciences. It is capable of providing web-based services, enabling users to generate source codes online. This unique feature will facilitate high-performance computing to be integrated with distributed data grids in the emerging cyber-infrastructures for geosciences. In this paper we discuss the principles of this automated modeling environment and provide examples to demonstrate its versatility.

  5. “Serial” effects in parallel models of reading

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence showing that the time to read a word out loud is influenced by an interaction between orthographic length and lexicality. Given that length effects are interpreted by advocates of dual-route models as evidence of serial processing this would seem to pose a serious challenge to models of single word reading which postulate a common parallel processing mechanism for reading both words and nonwords (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Rastle, Havelka, Wydell, Coltheart, & Besner, 2009). However, an alternative explanation of these data is that visual processes outside the scope of existing parallel models are responsible for generating the word-length related phenomena (Seidenberg & Plaut, 1998). Here we demonstrate that a parallel model of single word reading can account for the differential word-length effects found in the naming latencies of words and nonwords, provided that it includes a mapping from visual to orthographic representations, and that the nature of those orthographic representations are not preconstrained. The model can also simulate other supposedly “serial” effects. The overall findings were consistent with the view that visual processing contributes substantially to the word-length effects in normal reading and provided evidence to support the single-route theory which assumes words and nonwords are processed in parallel by a common mechanism. PMID:22343366

  6. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  7. Towards Distributed Memory Parallel Program Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Barany, G; Panas, T

    2008-06-17

    This paper presents a parallel attribute evaluation for distributed memory parallel computer architectures where previously only shared memory parallel support for this technique has been developed. Attribute evaluation is a part of how attribute grammars are used for program analysis within modern compilers. Within this work, we have extended ROSE, a open compiler infrastructure, with a distributed memory parallel attribute evaluation mechanism to support user defined global program analysis required for some forms of security analysis which can not be addressed by a file by file view of large scale applications. As a result, user defined security analyses may now run in parallel without the user having to specify the way data is communicated between processors. The automation of communication enables an extensible open-source parallel program analysis infrastructure.

  8. Parallel reactor systems for bioprocess development.

    PubMed

    Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Controlled parallel bioreactor systems allow fed-batch operation at early stages of process development. The characteristics of shaken bioreactors operated in parallel (shake flask, microtiter plate), sparged bioreactors (small-scale bubble column) and stirred bioreactors (stirred-tank, stirred column) are briefly summarized. Parallel fed-batch operation is achieved with an intermittent feeding and pH-control system for up to 16 bioreactors operated in parallel on a scale of 100 ml. Examples of the scale-up and scale-down of pH-controlled microbial fed-batch processes demonstrate that controlled parallel reactor systems can result in more effective bioprocess development. Future developments are also outlined, including units of 48 parallel stirred-tank reactors with individual pH- and pO2-controls and automation as well as liquid handling system, operated on a scale of ml.

  9. Design considerations for parallel graphics libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Applications which run on parallel supercomputers are often characterized by massive datasets. Converting these vast collections of numbers to visual form has proven to be a powerful aid to comprehension. For a variety of reasons, it may be desirable to provide this visual feedback at runtime. One way to accomplish this is to exploit the available parallelism to perform graphics operations in place. In order to do this, we need appropriate parallel rendering algorithms and library interfaces. This paper provides a tutorial introduction to some of the issues which arise in designing parallel graphics libraries and their underlying rendering algorithms. The focus is on polygon rendering for distributed memory message-passing systems. We illustrate our discussion with examples from PGL, a parallel graphics library which has been developed on the Intel family of parallel systems.

  10. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  11. A generic fine-grained parallel C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamet, L.; Dorband, John E.

    1988-01-01

    With the present availability of parallel processors of vastly different architectures, there is a need for a common language interface to multiple types of machines. The parallel C compiler, currently under development, is intended to be such a language. This language is based on the belief that an algorithm designed around fine-grained parallelism can be mapped relatively easily to different parallel architectures, since a large percentage of the parallelism has been identified. The compiler generates a FORTH-like machine-independent intermediate code. A machine-dependent translator will reside on each machine to generate the appropriate executable code, taking advantage of the particular architectures. The goal of this project is to allow a user to run the same program on such machines as the Massively Parallel Processor, the CRAY, the Connection Machine, and the CYBER 205 as well as serial machines such as VAXes, Macintoshes and Sun workstations.

  12. Multipactor saturation in parallel-plate waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Sorolla, E.; Mattes, M.

    2012-07-15

    The saturation stage of a multipactor discharge is considered of interest, since it can guide towards a criterion to assess the multipactor onset. The electron cloud under multipactor regime within a parallel-plate waveguide is modeled by a thin continuous distribution of charge and the equations of motion are calculated taking into account the space charge effects. The saturation is identified by the interaction of the electron cloud with its image charge. The stability of the electron population growth is analyzed and two mechanisms of saturation to explain the steady-state multipactor for voltages near above the threshold onset are identified. The impact energy in the collision against the metal plates decreases during the electron population growth due to the attraction of the electron sheet on the image through the initial plate. When this growth remains stable till the impact energy reaches the first cross-over point, the electron surface density tends to a constant value. When the stability is broken before reaching the first cross-over point the surface charge density oscillates chaotically bounded within a certain range. In this case, an expression to calculate the maximum electron surface charge density is found whose predictions agree with the simulations when the voltage is not too high.

  13. Running Geant on T. Node parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Jejcic, A.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J. ); Mignot, B. )

    1990-08-01

    AnInmos transputer-based computer has been utilized to overcome the difficulties due to the limitations on the processing abilities of event parallelism and multiprocessor farms (i.e., the so called bus-crisis) and the concern regarding the growing sizes of databases typical in High Energy Physics. This study was done on the T.Node parallel computer manufactured by TELMAT. Detailed figures are reported concerning the event parallelization. (AIP)

  14. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report first results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  15. Use Computer-Aided Tools to Parallelize Large CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, H.; Frumkin, M.; Yan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Greenwich, to reduce potential errors made by users. Earlier tests on NAS Benchmarks and ARC3D have demonstrated good success of this tool. In this study, we have applied CAPO to parallelize three large applications in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD): OVERFLOW, TLNS3D and INS3D. These codes are widely used for solving Navier-Stokes equations with complicated boundary conditions and turbulence model in multiple zones. Each one comprises of from 50K to 1,00k lines of FORTRAN77. As an example, CAPO took 77 hours to complete the data dependence analysis of OVERFLOW on a workstation (SGI, 175MHz, R10K processor). A fair amount of effort was spent on correcting false dependencies due to lack of necessary knowledge during the analysis. Even so, CAPO provides an easy way for user to interact with the parallelization process. The OpenMP version was generated within a day after the analysis was completed. Due to sequential algorithms involved, code sections in TLNS3D and INS3D need to be restructured by hand to produce more efficient parallel codes. An included figure shows preliminary test results of the generated OVERFLOW with several test cases in single zone. The MPI data points for the small test case were taken from a handcoded MPI version. As we can see, CAPO's version has achieved 18 fold speed up on 32 nodes of the SGI O2K. For the small test case, it outperformed the MPI version. These results are very encouraging, but further work is needed. For example, although CAPO attempts to place directives on the outer- most parallel loops in an interprocedural framework, it does not insert directives based on the best manual strategy. In particular, it lacks the support of parallelization at the multi-zone level. Future work will emphasize on the development of methodology to work in a multi-zone level and with a hybrid approach. Development of tools to perform more complicated code transformation is also needed.

  16. Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Alpha Spectra Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Orellana, Carlos J.; Rubio-Montero, Pilar; González-Velasco, Horacio

    2005-01-01

    We present a performance study of alpha-particle spectra fitting using parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method uses a two-step approach. In the first step we run parallel GA to find an initial solution for the second step, in which we use Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for a precise final fit. GA is a high resources-demanding method, so we use a Beowulf cluster for parallel simulation. The relationship between simulation time (and parallel efficiency) and processors number is studied using several alpha spectra, with the aim of obtaining a method to estimate the optimal processors number that must be used in a simulation.

  17. Parallel auto-correlative statistics with VTK.

    SciTech Connect

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Bennett, Janine Camille

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK and presents both the serial and parallel auto-correlative statistics engines. It is a sequel to [PT08, BPRT09b, PT09, BPT09, PT10] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, contingency, k-means, and order statistics engines. The ease of use of the new parallel auto-correlative statistics engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets and algorithm verification is provided. This report justifies the design of the statistics engines with parallel scalability in mind, and provides scalability and speed-up analysis results for the autocorrelative statistics engine.

  18. A parallel algorithm for global routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall J.; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1990-01-01

    A Parallel Hierarchical algorithm for Global Routing (PHIGURE) is presented. The router is based on the work of Burstein and Pelavin, but has many extensions for general global routing and parallel execution. Main features of the algorithm include structured hierarchical decomposition into separate independent tasks which are suitable for parallel execution and adaptive simplex solution for adding feedthroughs and adjusting channel heights for row-based layout. Alternative decomposition methods and the various levels of parallelism available in the algorithm are examined closely. The algorithm is described and results are presented for a shared-memory multiprocessor implementation.

  19. Data-parallel algorithms for image computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotto, Mark J.

    1990-11-01

    Data-parallel algorithms for image computing on the Connection Machine are described. After a brief review of some basic programming concepts in *Lip, a parallel extension of Common Lisp, data-parallel programming paradigms based on a local (diffusion-like) model of computation, the scan model of computation, a general interprocessor communications model, and a region-based model are introduced. Algorithms for connected component labeling, distance transformation, Voronoi diagrams, finding minimum cost paths, local means, shape-from-shading, hidden surface calculations, affine transformation, oblique parallel projection, and spatial operations over regions are presented. An new algorithm for interpolating irregularly spaced data via Voronoi diagrams is also described.

  20. Analysis of the numerical effects of parallelism on a parallel genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.E.; Belew, R.K.; Kohn, S.; Baden, S.

    1995-09-18

    This paper examines the effects of relaxed synchronization on both the numerical and parallel efficiency of parallel genetic algorithms (GAs). We describe a coarse-grain geographically structured parallel genetic algorithm. Our experiments show that asynchronous versions of these algorithms have a lower run time than-synchronous GAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this improvement in performance is partly due to the fact that the numerical efficiency of the asynchronous genetic algorithm is better than the synchronous genetic algorithm. Our analysis includes a critique of the utility of traditional parallel performance measures for parallel GAs, and we evaluate the claims made by several researchers that parallel GAs can have superlinear speedup.

  1. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  2. Parallel processing in immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Bartolucci, Silvia; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Moauro, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we adopt a statistical-mechanics approach to investigate basic, systemic features exhibited by adaptive immune systems. The lymphocyte network made by B cells and T cells is modeled by a bipartite spin glass, where, following biological prescriptions, links connecting B cells and T cells are sparse. Interestingly, the dilution performed on links is shown to make the system able to orchestrate parallel strategies to fight several pathogens at the same time; this multitasking capability constitutes a remarkable, key property of immune systems as multiple antigens are always present within the host. We also define the stochastic process ruling the temporal evolution of lymphocyte activity and show its relaxation toward an equilibrium measure allowing statistical-mechanics investigations. Analytical results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations and signal-to-noise outcomes showing overall excellent agreement. Finally, within our model, a rationale for the experimentally well-evidenced correlation between lymphocytosis and autoimmunity is achieved; this sheds further light on the systemic features exhibited by immune networks.

  3. Parallel processing for scientific computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkhatib, Hasan S.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this project dealt with the investigation of the requirements to support distributed computing of scientific computations over a cluster of cooperative workstations. Various experiments on computations for the solution of simultaneous linear equations were performed in the early phase of the project to gain experience in the general nature and requirements of scientific applications. A specification of a distributed integrated computing environment, DICE, based on a distributed shared memory communication paradigm has been developed and evaluated. The distributed shared memory model facilitates porting existing parallel algorithms that have been designed for shared memory multiprocessor systems to the new environment. The potential of this new environment is to provide supercomputing capability through the utilization of the aggregate power of workstations cooperating in a cluster interconnected via a local area network. Workstations, generally, do not have the computing power to tackle complex scientific applications, making them primarily useful for visualization, data reduction, and filtering as far as complex scientific applications are concerned. There is a tremendous amount of computing power that is left unused in a network of workstations. Very often a workstation is simply sitting idle on a desk. A set of tools can be developed to take advantage of this potential computing power to create a platform suitable for large scientific computations. The integration of several workstations into a logical cluster of distributed, cooperative, computing stations presents an alternative to shared memory multiprocessor systems. In this project we designed and evaluated such a system.

  4. Dynamic force spectroscopy of parallel individual mucin1-antibody bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Sulchek, T A; Friddle, R W; Langry, K; Lau, E; Albrecht, H; Ratto, T; DeNardo, S; Colvin, M E; Noy, A

    2005-05-02

    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the binding forces between Mucin1 (MUC1) peptide and a single chain antibody fragment (scFv) selected from a scFv library screened against MUC1. This binding interaction is central to the design of the molecules for targeted delivery of radioimmunotherapeutic agents for prostate and breast cancer treatment. Our experiments separated the specific binding interaction from non-specific interactions by tethering the antibody and MUC1 molecules to the AFM tip and sample surface with flexible polymer spacers. Rupture force magnitude and elastic characteristics of the spacers allowed identification of the bond rupture events corresponding to different number of interacting proteins. We used dynamic force spectroscopy to estimate the intermolecular potential widths and equivalent thermodynamic off rates for mono-, bi-, and tri-valent interactions. Measured interaction potential parameters agree with the results of molecular docking simulation. Our results demonstrate that an increase of the interaction valency leads to a precipitous decline in the dissociation rate. Binding forces measured for mono and multivalent interactions match the predictions of a Markovian model for the strength of multiple uncorrelated bonds in parallel configuration. Our approach is promising for comparison of the specific effects of molecular modifications as well as for determination of the best configuration of antibody-based multivalent targeting agents.

  5. On the dimensionally correct kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaelzer, R. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Ziebell, L. F. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Yoon, P. H. E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Kim, Sunjung E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br

    2015-03-15

    Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)] formulated a second-order nonlinear kinetic theory that describes the turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Their theory also includes discrete-particle effects, or the effects due to spontaneously emitted thermal fluctuations. However, terms associated with the spontaneous fluctuations in particle and wave kinetic equations in their theory contain proper dimensionality only for an artificial one-dimensional situation. The present paper extends the analysis and re-derives the dimensionally correct kinetic equations for three-dimensional case. The new formalism properly describes the effects of spontaneous fluctuations emitted in three-dimensional space, while the collectively emitted turbulence propagates predominantly in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. As a first step, the present investigation focuses on linear wave-particle interaction terms only. A subsequent paper will include the dimensionally correct nonlinear wave-particle interaction terms.

  6. Parallel line analysis: multifunctional software for the biomedical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, P. R.; Lewis, M. L.; Damron, K. L.; Morrison, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    An easy to use, interactive FORTRAN program for analyzing the results of parallel line assays is described. The program is menu driven and consists of five major components: data entry, data editing, manual analysis, manual plotting, and automatic analysis and plotting. Data can be entered from the terminal or from previously created data files. The data editing portion of the program is used to inspect and modify data and to statistically identify outliers. The manual analysis component is used to test the assumptions necessary for parallel line assays using analysis of covariance techniques and to determine potency ratios with confidence limits. The manual plotting component provides a graphic display of the data on the terminal screen or on a standard line printer. The automatic portion runs through multiple analyses without operator input. Data may be saved in a special file to expedite input at a future time.

  7. [Parallel virtual reality visualization of extreme large medical datasets].

    PubMed

    Tang, Min

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of a brief description of grid computing, the essence and critical techniques of parallel visualization of extreme large medical datasets are discussed in connection with Intranet and common-configuration computers of hospitals. In this paper are introduced several kernel techniques, including the hardware structure, software framework, load balance and virtual reality visualization. The Maximum Intensity Projection algorithm is realized in parallel using common PC cluster. In virtual reality world, three-dimensional models can be rotated, zoomed, translated and cut interactively and conveniently through the control panel built on virtual reality modeling language (VRML). Experimental results demonstrate that this method provides promising and real-time results for playing the role in of a good assistant in making clinical diagnosis. PMID:20481303

  8. Automated Parallel Recordings of Topologically Identified Single Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Ryuji; Tsuji, Yutaro; Sato, Koji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Hirano, Minako; Ide, Toru; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Although ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery, the systematic screening of ion channel-targeted drugs remains challenging. To facilitate automated single ion-channel recordings for the analysis of drug interactions with the intra- and extracellular domain, we have developed a parallel recording methodology using artificial cell membranes. The use of stable lipid bilayer formation in droplet chamber arrays facilitated automated, parallel, single-channel recording from reconstituted native and mutated ion channels. Using this system, several types of ion channels, including mutated forms, were characterised by determining the protein orientation. In addition, we provide evidence that both intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta fragments directly inhibit the channel open probability of the hBK channel. This automated methodology provides a high-throughput drug screening system for the targeting of ion channels and a data-intensive analysis technique for studying ion channel gating mechanisms. PMID:23771282

  9. Parallelization of MRCI based on hole-particle symmetry.

    PubMed

    Suo, Bing; Zhai, Gaohong; Wang, Yubin; Wen, Zhenyi; Hu, Xiangqian; Li, Lemin

    2005-01-15

    The parallel implementation of multireference configuration interaction program based on the hole-particle symmetry is described. The platform to implement the parallelization is an Intel-Architectural cluster consisting of 12 nodes, each of which is equipped with two 2.4-G XEON processors, 3-GB memory, and 36-GB disk, and are connected by a Gigabit Ethernet Switch. The dependence of speedup on molecular symmetries and task granularities is discussed. Test calculations show that the scaling with the number of nodes is about 1.9 (for C1 and Cs), 1.65 (for C2v), and 1.55 (for D2h) when the number of nodes is doubled. The largest calculation performed on this cluster involves 5.6 x 10(8) CSFs.

  10. Parallel flow in hele-shaw cells with ferrofluids

    PubMed

    Miranda; Widom

    2000-02-01

    Parallel flow in a Hele-Shaw cell occurs when two immiscible liquids flow with relative velocity parallel to the interface between them. The interface is unstable due to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type of instability in which fluid flow couples with inertial effects to cause an initial small perturbation to grow. Large amplitude disturbances form stable solitons. We consider the effects of applied magnetic fields when one of the two fluids is a ferrofluid. The dispersion relation governing mode growth is modified so that the magnetic field can destabilize the interface even in the absence of inertial effects. However, the magnetic field does not affect the speed of wave propogation for a given wave number. We note that the magnetic field creates an effective interaction between the solitons. PMID:11046508

  11. Reducing neural network training time with parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1995-01-01

    Obtaining optimal solutions for engineering design problems is often expensive because the process typically requires numerous iterations involving analysis and optimization programs. Previous research has shown that a near optimum solution can be obtained in less time by simulating a slow, expensive analysis with a fast, inexpensive neural network. A new approach has been developed to further reduce this time. This approach decomposes a large neural network into many smaller neural networks that can be trained in parallel. Guidelines are developed to avoid some of the pitfalls when training smaller neural networks in parallel. These guidelines allow the engineer: to determine the number of nodes on the hidden layer of the smaller neural networks; to choose the initial training weights; and to select a network configuration that will capture the interactions among the smaller neural networks. This paper presents results describing how these guidelines are developed.

  12. The language parallel Pascal and other aspects of the massively parallel processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, A. P.; Bruner, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    A high level language for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) was designed. This language, called Parallel Pascal, is described in detail. A description of the language design, a description of the intermediate language, Parallel P-Code, and details for the MPP implementation are included. Formal descriptions of Parallel Pascal and Parallel P-Code are given. A compiler was developed which converts programs in Parallel Pascal into the intermediate Parallel P-Code language. The code generator to complete the compiler for the MPP is being developed independently. A Parallel Pascal to Pascal translator was also developed. The architecture design for a VLSI version of the MPP was completed with a description of fault tolerant interconnection networks. The memory arrangement aspects of the MPP are discussed and a survey of other high level languages is given.

  13. Support for Debugging Automatically Parallelized Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robert; Jost, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on support sources available for the automatic parallelization of computer program. CAPTools, a support tool developed at the University of Greenwich, transforms, with user guidance, existing sequential Fortran code into parallel message passing code. Comparison routines are then run for debugging purposes, in essence, ensuring that the code transformation was accurate.

  14. Parallel processing of numerical transport algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Wienke, B.R.; Hiromoto, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The multigroup, discrete ordinates representation for the linear transport equation enjoys widespread computational use and popularity. Serial solution schemes and numerical algorithms developed over the years provide a timely framework for parallel extension. On the Denelcor HEP, we investigate the parallel structure and extension of a number of standard S/sub n/ approaches. Concurrent inner sweeps, coupled acceleration techniques, synchronized inner-outer loops, and chaotic iteration are described, and results of computations are contrasted. The multigroup representation and serial iteration methods are also detailed. The basic iterative S/sub n/ method lends itself to parallel tasking, portably affording an effective medium for performing transport calculations on future architectures. This analysis represents a first attempt to extend serial S/sub n/ algorithms to parallel environments and provides good baseline estimates on ease of parallel implementation, relative algorithm efficiency, comparative speedup, and some future directions. We find basic inner-outer and chaotic iteration strategies both easily support comparably high degrees of parallelism. Both accommodate parallel rebalance and diffusion acceleration and appear as robust and viable parallel techniques for S/sub n/ production work.

  15. Software For Diagnosis Of Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hontalas, Philip; Yan, Jerry; Fineman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Ames Instrumentation System (AIMS) computer program package of software tools measuring and analyzing performances of parallel-processing application programs. Helps programmer to debug and refine, and to monitor and visualize execution of, parallel-processing application software for Intel iPSC/860 (or equivalent) multicomputer. Performance data collected displayed graphically on computer workstations supporting X-Windows.

  16. Parallel unstructured grid generation for computational aerosciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop efficient parallel automatic grid generation procedures for use in computational aerosciences. This effort is focused on a parallel version of the Finite Octree grid generator. Progress made during the first six months is reported.

  17. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

  18. RAM-Based parallel-output controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niswander, J. K.; Stattel, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Selected bit strings in serial-data link are extracted for processing. Controller is programmable interface between serial-data link and peripherals that accept parallel data. It can be used to drive displays, printers, plotters, digital-to-analog converters, and parallel-output ports.

  19. Parallel Computing Strategies for Irregular Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid; Shan, Hongzhang; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Parallel computing promises several orders of magnitude increase in our ability to solve realistic computationally-intensive problems, but relies on their efficient mapping and execution on large-scale multiprocessor architectures. Unfortunately, many important applications are irregular and dynamic in nature, making their effective parallel implementation a daunting task. Moreover, with the proliferation of parallel architectures and programming paradigms, the typical scientist is faced with a plethora of questions that must be answered in order to obtain an acceptable parallel implementation of the solution algorithm. In this paper, we consider three representative irregular applications: unstructured remeshing, sparse matrix computations, and N-body problems, and parallelize them using various popular programming paradigms on a wide spectrum of computer platforms ranging from state-of-the-art supercomputers to PC clusters. We present the underlying problems, the solution algorithms, and the parallel implementation strategies. Smart load-balancing, partitioning, and ordering techniques are used to enhance parallel performance. Overall results demonstrate the complexity of efficiently parallelizing irregular algorithms.

  20. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  1. Bayer image parallel decoding based on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rihui; Xu, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuxing; Sun, Shaohua

    2012-11-01

    In the photoelectrical tracking system, Bayer image is decompressed in traditional method, which is CPU-based. However, it is too slow when the images become large, for example, 2K×2K×16bit. In order to accelerate the Bayer image decoding, this paper introduces a parallel speedup method for NVIDA's Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) which supports CUDA architecture. The decoding procedure can be divided into three parts: the first is serial part, the second is task-parallelism part, and the last is data-parallelism part including inverse quantization, inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) as well as image post-processing part. For reducing the execution time, the task-parallelism part is optimized by OpenMP techniques. The data-parallelism part could advance its efficiency through executing on the GPU as CUDA parallel program. The optimization techniques include instruction optimization, shared memory access optimization, the access memory coalesced optimization and texture memory optimization. In particular, it can significantly speed up the IDWT by rewriting the 2D (Tow-dimensional) serial IDWT into 1D parallel IDWT. Through experimenting with 1K×1K×16bit Bayer image, data-parallelism part is 10 more times faster than CPU-based implementation. Finally, a CPU+GPU heterogeneous decompression system was designed. The experimental result shows that it could achieve 3 to 5 times speed increase compared to the CPU serial method.

  2. Parallel hypergraph partitioning for scientific computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, Robert; Devine, Karen Dragon; Catalyurek, Umit; Bisseling, Robert; Hendrickson, Bruce Alan; Boman, Erik Gunnar

    2005-07-01

    Graph partitioning is often used for load balancing in parallel computing, but it is known that hypergraph partitioning has several advantages. First, hypergraphs more accurately model communication volume, and second, they are more expressive and can better represent nonsymmetric problems. Hypergraph partitioning is particularly suited to parallel sparse matrix-vector multiplication, a common kernel in scientific computing. We present a parallel software package for hypergraph (and sparse matrix) partitioning developed at Sandia National Labs. The algorithm is a variation on multilevel partitioning. Our parallel implementation is novel in that it uses a two-dimensional data distribution among processors. We present empirical results that show our parallel implementation achieves good speedup on several large problems (up to 33 million nonzeros) with up to 64 processors on a Linux cluster.

  3. Differences Between Distributed and Parallel Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brightwell, R.; Maccabe, A.B.; Rissen, R.

    1998-10-01

    Distributed systems have been studied for twenty years and are now coming into wider use as fast networks and powerful workstations become more readily available. In many respects a massively parallel computer resembles a network of workstations and it is tempting to port a distributed operating system to such a machine. However, there are significant differences between these two environments and a parallel operating system is needed to get the best performance out of a massively parallel system. This report characterizes the differences between distributed systems, networks of workstations, and massively parallel systems and analyzes the impact of these differences on operating system design. In the second part of the report, we introduce Puma, an operating system specifically developed for massively parallel systems. We describe Puma portals, the basic building blocks for message passing paradigms implemented on top of Puma, and show how the differences observed in the first part of the report have influenced the design and implementation of Puma.

  4. A paradigm for parallel unstructured grid generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaither, A.; Marcum, D.; Reese, D.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, a sequential 2D unstructured grid generator based on iterative point insertion and local reconnection is coupled with a Delauney tessellation domain decomposition scheme to create a scalable parallel unstructured grid generator. The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is used for distributed communication in the parallel grid generator. This work attempts to provide a generic framework to enable the parallelization of fast sequential unstructured grid generators in order to compute grand-challenge scale grids for Computational Field Simulation (CFS). Motivation for moving from sequential to scalable parallel grid generation is presented. Delaunay tessellation and iterative point insertion and local reconnection (advancing front method only) unstructured grid generation techniques are discussed with emphasis on how these techniques can be utilized for parallel unstructured grid generation. Domain decomposition techniques are discussed for both Delauney and advancing front unstructured grid generation with emphasis placed on the differences needed for both grid quality and algorithmic efficiency.

  5. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Berg, Jeremy E.; Faraj, Ahmad A.

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  6. Configuration space representation in parallel coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Inselberg, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    By means of a system of parallel coordinates, a nonprojective mapping from R exp N to R squared is obtained for any positive integer N. In this way multivariate data and relations can be represented in the Euclidean plane (embedded in the projective plane). Basically, R squared with Cartesian coordinates is augmented by N parallel axes, one for each variable. The N joint variables of a robotic device can be represented graphically by using parallel coordinates. It is pointed out that some properties of the relation are better perceived visually from the parallel coordinate representation, and that new algorithms and data structures can be obtained from this representation. The main features of parallel coordinates are described, and an example is presented of their use for configuration space representation of a mechanical arm (where Cartesian coordinates cannot be used).

  7. Genetic Parallel Programming: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Cheang, Sin Man; Leung, Kwong Sak; Lee, Kin Hong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Genetic Parallel Programming (GPP) paradigm for evolving parallel programs running on a Multi-Arithmetic-Logic-Unit (Multi-ALU) Processor (MAP). The MAP is a Multiple Instruction-streams, Multiple Data-streams (MIMD), general-purpose register machine that can be implemented on modern Very Large-Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIs) in order to evaluate genetic programs at high speed. For human programmers, writing parallel programs is more difficult than writing sequential programs. However, experimental results show that GPP evolves parallel programs with less computational effort than that of their sequential counterparts. It creates a new approach to evolving a feasible problem solution in parallel program form and then serializes it into a sequential program if required. The effectiveness and efficiency of GPP are investigated using a suite of 14 well-studied benchmark problems. Experimental results show that GPP speeds up evolution substantially.

  8. Parallel tempering for the traveling salesman problem

    SciTech Connect

    Percus, Allon; Wang, Richard; Hyman, Jeffrey; Caflisch, Russel

    2008-01-01

    We explore the potential of parallel tempering as a combinatorial optimization method, applying it to the traveling salesman problem. We compare simulation results of parallel tempering with a benchmark implementation of simulated annealing, and study how different choices of parameters affect the relative performance of the two methods. We find that a straightforward implementation of parallel tempering can outperform simulated annealing in several crucial respects. When parameters are chosen appropriately, both methods yield close approximation to the actual minimum distance for an instance with 200 nodes. However, parallel tempering yields more consistently accurate results when a series of independent simulations are performed. Our results suggest that parallel tempering might offer a simple but powerful alternative to simulated annealing for combinatorial optimization problems.

  9. Randomized parallel speedups for list ranking

    SciTech Connect

    Vishkin, U.

    1987-06-01

    The following problem is considered: given a linked list of length n, compute the distance of each element of the linked list from the end of the list. The problem has two standard deterministic algorithms: a linear time serial algorithm, and an O(n log n)/ rho + log n) time parallel algorithm using rho processors. The authors present a randomized parallel algorithm for the problem. The algorithm is designed for an exclusive-read exclusive-write parallel random access machine (EREW PRAM). It runs almost surely in time O(n/rho + log n log* n) using rho processors. Using a recently published parallel prefix sums algorithm the list-ranking algorithm can be adapted to run on a concurrent-read concurrent-write parallel random access machine (CRCW PRAM) almost surely in time O(n/rho + log n) using rho processors.

  10. National Combustion Code: Parallel Implementation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, A.; Ryder, R.; Norris, A.; Liu, N.-S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. CORSAIR-CCD is the current baseline reacting flow solver for NCC. This is a parallel, unstructured grid code which uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC flow solver to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This paper describes the parallel implementation of the NCC flow solver and summarizes its current parallel performance on an SGI Origin 2000. Earlier parallel performance results on an IBM SP-2 are also included. The performance improvements which have enabled a turnaround of less than 15 hours for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation are described.

  11. Implementation and performance of parallel Prolog interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Kale, L.V.; Balkrishna, R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the implementation of a parallel Prolog interpreter on different parallel machines. The implementation is based on the REDUCE--OR process model which exploits both AND and OR parallelism in logic programs. It is machine independent as it runs on top of the chare-kernel--a machine-independent parallel programming system. The authors also give the performance of the interpreter running a diverse set of benchmark pargrams on parallel machines including shared memory systems: an Alliant FX/8, Sequent and a MultiMax, and a non-shared memory systems: Intel iPSC/32 hypercube, in addition to its performance on a multiprocessor simulation system.

  12. A parallel variable metric optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An algorithm, designed to exploit the parallel computing or vector streaming (pipeline) capabilities of computers is presented. When p is the degree of parallelism, then one cycle of the parallel variable metric algorithm is defined as follows: first, the function and its gradient are computed in parallel at p different values of the independent variable; then the metric is modified by p rank-one corrections; and finally, a single univariant minimization is carried out in the Newton-like direction. Several properties of this algorithm are established. The convergence of the iterates to the solution is proved for a quadratic functional on a real separable Hilbert space. For a finite-dimensional space the convergence is in one cycle when p equals the dimension of the space. Results of numerical experiments indicate that the new algorithm will exploit parallel or pipeline computing capabilities to effect faster convergence than serial techniques.

  13. Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, U M

    2004-11-11

    The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.

  14. Conservation of writhe helicity under anti-parallel reconnection

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Christian E.; Ricca, Renzo L.; Sumners, De Witt L.

    2015-01-01

    Reconnection is a fundamental event in many areas of science, from the interaction of vortices in classical and quantum fluids, and magnetic flux tubes in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, to the recombination in polymer physics and DNA biology. By using fundamental results in topological fluid mechanics, the helicity of a flux tube can be calculated in terms of writhe and twist contributions. Here we show that the writhe is conserved under anti-parallel reconnection. Hence, for a pair of interacting flux tubes of equal flux, if the twist of the reconnected tube is the sum of the original twists of the interacting tubes, then helicity is conserved during reconnection. Thus, any deviation from helicity conservation is entirely due to the intrinsic twist inserted or deleted locally at the reconnection site. This result has important implications for helicity and energy considerations in various physical contexts. PMID:25820408

  15. Virtual reality visualization of parallel molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.; Papka, M.; Stevens, R.; Pellegrino, M.; Taylor, V.

    1995-12-31

    When performing communications mapping experiments for massively parallel processors, it is important to be able to visualize the mappings and resulting communications. In a molecular dynamics model, visualization of the atom to atom interaction and the processor mappings provides insight into the effectiveness of the communications algorithms. The basic quantities available for visualization in a model of this type are the number of molecules per unit volume, the mass, and velocity of each molecule. The computational information available for visualization is the atom to atom interaction within each time step, the atom to processor mapping, and the energy resealing events. We use the CAVE (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) to provide interactive, immersive visualization experiences.

  16. Blade-mounted trailing edge flap control for BVI noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, A. A.; Charles, B. D.; Tadghighi, H.; Sankar, L. N.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical procedures based on the 2-D and 3-D full potential equations and the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations were developed to study the effects of leading and trailing edge flap motions on the aerodynamics of parallel airfoil-vortex interactions and on the aerodynamics and acoustics of the more general self-generated rotor blade vortex interactions (BVI). For subcritical interactions, the 2-D results indicate that the trailing edge flap can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil. For supercritical interactions, the results show the necessity of using a leading edge flap, rather than a trailing edge flap, to alleviate the interaction. Results for various time dependent flap motions and their effect on the predicted temporal sectional loads, differential pressures, and the free vortex trajectories are presented. For the OLS model rotor, contours of a BVI noise metric were used to quantify the effects of the trailing edge flap on the size and directivity of the high/low intensity noise region(s). Average reductions in the BVI noise levels on the order of 5 dB with moderate power penalties on the order of 18 pct. for a four bladed rotor and 58 pct. for a two bladed rotor were obtained.

  17. Blade-mounted trailing edge flap control for BVI noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, A. A.; Charles, B. D.; Tadghighi, H.; Sankar, L. N.

    1992-02-01

    Numerical procedures based on the 2-D and 3-D full potential equations and the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations were developed to study the effects of leading and trailing edge flap motions on the aerodynamics of parallel airfoil-vortex interactions and on the aerodynamics and acoustics of the more general self-generated rotor blade vortex interactions (BVI). For subcritical interactions, the 2-D results indicate that the trailing edge flap can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil. For supercritical interactions, the results show the necessity of using a leading edge flap, rather than a trailing edge flap, to alleviate the interaction. Results for various time dependent flap motions and their effect on the predicted temporal sectional loads, differential pressures, and the free vortex trajectories are presented. For the OLS model rotor, contours of a BVI noise metric were used to quantify the effects of the trailing edge flap on the size and directivity of the high/low intensity noise region(s). Average reductions in the BVI noise levels on the order of 5 dB with moderate power penalties on the order of 18 pct. for a four bladed rotor and 58 pct. for a two bladed rotor were obtained.

  18. Integrated Optoelectronics for Parallel Microbioanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirbl, Robert; Moynihan, Philip; Bearman, Gregory; Lane, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Miniature, relatively inexpensive microbioanalytical systems ("laboratory-on-achip" devices) have been proposed for the detection of hazardous microbes and toxic chemicals. Each system of this type would include optoelectronic sensors and sensor-output-processing circuitry that would simultaneously look for the optical change, fluorescence, delayed fluorescence, or phosphorescence signatures from multiple redundant sites that have interacted with the test biomolecules in order to detect which one(s) was present in a given situation. These systems could be used in a variety of settings that could include doctors offices, hospitals, hazardous-material laboratories, biological-research laboratories, military operations, and chemical-processing plants.

  19. A flight investigation of blade section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having NLR-1T airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Stevens, D. D.; Tomaine, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted using a teetering-rotor AH-1G helicopter to obtain data on the aerodynamic behavior of main-rotor blades with the NLR-1T blade section. The data system recorded blade-section aerodynamic pressures at 90 percent rotor radius as well as vehicle flight state, performance, and loads. The test envelope included hover, forward flight, and collective-fixed maneuvers. Data were obtained on apparent blade-vortex interactions, negative lift on the advancing blade in high-speed flight and wake interactions in hover. In many cases, good agreement was achieved between chordwise pressure distributions predicted by airfoil theory and flight data with no apparent indications of blade-vortex interactions.

  20. Theoretical and experimental correlation of low-speed model helicopter blade slap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Daniel Chin-Leung; Hubbard, James E., Jr.

    1985-09-01

    The operating conditions under which the assumptions made in the Widnall and Wolf (1980) model of low-speed helicopter blade slap are correct are investigated. Using a limited number of miniature pressure transducers on a scale model helicopter rotor blade, the load distribution near the tip is estimated and used as input to the Widnall and Wolf model to determine the structure of the trailing vortex. The geometry of the blade-vortex interaction is determined by smoke visualization techniques. The unsteady load on the blade resulting from the blade-gust interaction is modeled as a distribution of acoustic dipoles. The predicted sound pressure level is compared with the experimentally obtained far-field acoustic signature. Good agreement is found between the Widnall and Wolf model and the experimental results for the blade-vortex interactions in the region outside the vortex core.

  1. High-Throughput parallel blind Virtual Screening using BINDSURF

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual Screening (VS) methods can considerably aid clinical research, predicting how ligands interact with drug targets. Most VS methods suppose a unique binding site for the target, usually derived from the interpretation of the protein crystal structure. However, it has been demonstrated that in many cases, diverse ligands interact with unrelated parts of the target and many VS methods do not take into account this relevant fact. Results We present BINDSURF, a novel VS methodology that scans the whole protein surface in order to find new hotspots, where ligands might potentially interact with, and which is implemented in last generation massively parallel GPU hardware, allowing fast processing of large ligand databases. Conclusions BINDSURF is an efficient and fast blind methodology for the determination of protein binding sites depending on the ligand, that uses the massively parallel architecture of GPUs for fast pre-screening of large ligand databases. Its results can also guide posterior application of more detailed VS methods in concrete binding sites of proteins, and its utilization can aid in drug discovery, design, repurposing and therefore help considerably in clinical research. PMID:23095663

  2. Applications of Parallel Processing in Configuration Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Ppchuraman; Hager, James O.; Biedron, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the recent progress made towards developing an efficient and user-friendly parallel environment for routine analysis of large CFD problems. The coarse-grain parallel version of the CFL3D Euler/Navier-Stokes analysis code, CFL3Dhp, has been ported onto most available parallel platforms. The CFL3Dhp solution accuracy on these parallel platforms has been verified with the CFL3D sequential analyses. User-friendly pre- and post-processing tools that enable a seamless transfer from sequential to parallel processing have been written. Static load balancing tool for CFL3Dhp analysis has also been implemented for achieving good parallel efficiency. For large problems, load balancing efficiency as high as 95% can be achieved even when large number of processors are used. Linear scalability of the CFL3Dhp code with increasing number of processors has also been shown using a large installed transonic nozzle boattail analysis. To highlight the fast turn-around time of parallel processing, the TCA full configuration in sideslip Navier-Stokes drag polar at supersonic cruise has been obtained in a day. CFL3Dhp is currently being used as a production analysis tool.

  3. Portable parallel programming in a Fortran environment

    SciTech Connect

    May, E.N.

    1989-01-01

    Experience using the Argonne-developed PARMACs macro package to implement a portable parallel programming environment is described. Fortran programs with intrinsic parallelism of coarse and medium granularity are easily converted to parallel programs which are portable among a number of commercially available parallel processors in the class of shared-memory bus-based and local-memory network based MIMD processors. The parallelism is implemented using standard UNIX (tm) tools and a small number of easily understood synchronization concepts (monitors and message-passing techniques) to construct and coordinate multiple cooperating processes on one or many processors. Benchmark results are presented for parallel computers such as the Alliant FX/8, the Encore MultiMax, the Sequent Balance, the Intel iPSC/2 Hypercube and a network of Sun 3 workstations. These parallel machines are typical MIMD types with from 8 to 30 processors, each rated at from 1 to 10 MIPS processing power. The demonstration code used for this work is a Monte Carlo simulation of the response to photons of a ''nearly realistic'' lead, iron and plastic electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter, using the EGS4 code system. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. On the Scalability of Parallel UCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Richard B.

    The parallelization of MCTS across multiple-machines has proven surprisingly difficult. The limitations of existing algorithms were evident in the 2009 Computer Olympiad where Zen using a single four-core machine defeated both Fuego with ten eight-core machines, and Mogo with twenty thirty-two core machines. This paper investigates the limits of parallel MCTS in order to understand why distributed parallelism has proven so difficult and to pave the way towards future distributed algorithms with better scaling. We first analyze the single-threaded scaling of Fuego and find that there is an upper bound on the play-quality improvements which can come from additional search. We then analyze the scaling of an idealized N-core shared memory machine to determine the maximum amount of parallelism supported by MCTS. We show that parallel speedup depends critically on how much time is given to each player. We use this relationship to predict parallel scaling for time scales beyond what can be empirically evaluated due to the immense computation required. Our results show that MCTS can scale nearly perfectly to at least 64 threads when combined with virtual loss, but without virtual loss scaling is limited to just eight threads. We also find that for competition time controls scaling to thousands of threads is impossible not necessarily due to MCTS not scaling, but because high levels of parallelism can start to bump up against the upper performance bound of Fuego itself.

  5. Performance of the Galley Parallel File System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David

    1996-01-01

    As the input/output (I/O) needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. This interface conceals the parallism within the file system, which increases the ease of programmability, but makes it difficult or impossible for sophisticated programmers and libraries to use knowledge about their I/O needs to exploit that parallelism. Furthermore, most current parallel file systems are optimized for a different workload than they are being asked to support. We introduce Galley, a new parallel file system that is intended to efficiently support realistic parallel workloads. Initial experiments, reported in this paper, indicate that Galley is capable of providing high-performance 1/O to applications the applications that rely on them. In Section 3 we describe that access data in patterns that have been observed to be common.

  6. Automatic Generation of Directive-Based Parallel Programs for Shared Memory Parallel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Frumkin, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The shared-memory programming model is a very effective way to achieve parallelism on shared memory parallel computers. As great progress was made in hardware and software technologies, performance of parallel programs with compiler directives has demonstrated large improvement. The introduction of OpenMP directives, the industrial standard for shared-memory programming, has minimized the issue of portability. Due to its ease of programming and its good performance, the technique has become very popular. In this study, we have extended CAPTools, a computer-aided parallelization toolkit, to automatically generate directive-based, OpenMP, parallel programs. We outline techniques used in the implementation of the tool and present test results on the NAS parallel benchmarks and ARC3D, a CFD application. This work demonstrates the great potential of using computer-aided tools to quickly port parallel programs and also achieve good performance.

  7. Xyce parallel electronic simulator : users' guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Ting; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Santarelli, Keith R.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Warrender, Christina E.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2011-05-01

    This manual describes the use of the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator. Xyce has been designed as a SPICE-compatible, high-performance analog circuit simulator, and has been written to support the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. This development has focused on improving capability over the current state-of-the-art in the following areas: (1) Capability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms (up to thousands of processors). Note that this includes support for most popular parallel and serial computers; (2) Improved performance for all numerical kernels (e.g., time integrator, nonlinear and linear solvers) through state-of-the-art algorithms and novel techniques. (3) Device models which are specifically tailored to meet Sandia's needs, including some radiation-aware devices (for Sandia users only); and (4) Object-oriented code design and implementation using modern coding practices that ensure that the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator will be maintainable and extensible far into the future. Xyce is a parallel code in the most general sense of the phrase - a message passing parallel implementation - which allows it to run efficiently on the widest possible number of computing platforms. These include serial, shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel as well as heterogeneous platforms. Careful attention has been paid to the specific nature of circuit-simulation problems to ensure that optimal parallel efficiency is achieved as the number of processors grows. The development of Xyce provides a platform for computational research and development aimed specifically at the needs of the Laboratory. With Xyce, Sandia has an 'in-house' capability with which both new electrical (e.g., device model development) and algorithmic (e.g., faster time-integration methods, parallel solver algorithms) research and development can be performed. As a result, Xyce is a unique

  8. SLAPP: A systolic linear algebra parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, B.L.; Luk, F.T.; Speiser, J.M.; Symanski, J.J.

    1987-07-01

    Systolic array computer architectures provide a means for fast computation of the linear algebra algorithms that form the building blocks of many signal-processing algorithms, facilitating their real-time computation. For applications to signal processing, the systolic array operates on matrices, an inherently parallel view of the data, using numerical linear algebra algorithms that have been suitably parallelized to efficiently utilize the available hardware. This article describes work currently underway at the Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, California, to build a two-dimensional systolic array, SLAPP, demonstrating efficient and modular parallelization of key matric computations for real-time signal- and image-processing problems.

  9. Parallelization of the Implicit RPLUS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orkwis, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    The multiblock reacting Navier-Stokes flow solver RPLUS2D was modified for parallel implementation. Results for non-reacting flow calculations of this code indicate parallelization efficiencies greater than 84% are possible for a typical test problem. Results tend to improve as the size of the problem increases. The convergence rate of the scheme is degraded slightly when additional artificial block boundaries are included for the purpose of parallelization. However, this degradation virtually disappears if the solution is converged near to machine zero. Recommendations are made for further code improvements to increase efficiency, correct bugs in the original version, and study decomposition effectiveness.

  10. Parallelization of the Implicit RPLUS Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orkwis, Paul D.

    1994-01-01

    The multiblock reacting Navier-Stokes flow-solver RPLUS2D was modified for parallel implementation. Results for non-reacting flow calculations of this code indicate parallelization efficiencies greater than 84% are possible for a typical test problem. Results tend to improve as the size of the problem increases. The convergence rate of the scheme is degraded slightly when additional artificial block boundaries are included for the purpose of parallelization. However, this degradation virtually disappears if the solution is converged near to machine zero. Recommendations are made for further code improvements to increase efficiency, correct bugs in the original version, and study decomposition effectiveness.

  11. Parallel optical memories for very large databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitkas, Pericles A.; Berra, P. B.

    1993-02-01

    The steady increase in volume of current and future databases dictates the development of massive secondary storage devices that allow parallel access and exhibit high I/O data rates. Optical memories, such as parallel optical disks and holograms, can satisfy these requirements because they combine high recording density and parallel one- or two-dimensional output. Several configurations for database storage involving different types of optical memory devices are investigated. All these approaches include some level of optical preprocessing in the form of data filtering in an attempt to reduce the amount of data per transaction that reach the electronic front-end.

  12. Time-parallel multiscale/multiphysics framework

    SciTech Connect

    Frantziskonis, G.; Muralidharan, Krishna; Deymier, Pierre; Simunovic, Srdjan; Nukala, Phani K; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the time-parallel compound wavelet matrix method (tpCWM) for modeling the temporal evolution of multiscale and multiphysics systems. The method couples time parallel (TP) and CWM methods operating at different spatial and temporal scales. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach on two examples: a chemical reaction kinetic system and a non-linear predator prey system. Our results indicate that the tpCWM technique is capable of accelerating time-to-solution by 2 3-orders of magnitude and is amenable to efficient parallel implementation.

  13. Parallel electric fields from ionospheric winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakada, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    The possible production of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field by dynamo winds in the E region is examined, using a jet stream wind model. Current return paths through the F region above the stream are examined as well as return paths through the conjugate ionosphere. The Wulf geometry with horizontal winds moving in opposite directions one above the other is also examined. Parallel electric fields are found to depend strongly on the width of current sheets at the edges of the jet stream. If these are narrow enough, appreciable parallel electric fields are produced.

  14. On the parallel solution of parabolic equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallopoulos, E.; Saad, Youcef

    1989-01-01

    Parallel algorithms for the solution of linear parabolic problems are proposed. The first of these methods is based on using polynomial approximation to the exponential. It does not require solving any linear systems and is highly parallelizable. The two other methods proposed are based on Pade and Chebyshev approximations to the matrix exponential. The parallelization of these methods is achieved by using partial fraction decomposition techniques to solve the resulting systems and thus offers the potential for increased time parallelism in time dependent problems. Experimental results from the Alliant FX/8 and the Cray Y-MP/832 vector multiprocessors are also presented.

  15. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  16. Structural mechanics computations on parallel computing platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Plaskacz, E.J.; Pfeiffer, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    With recent advances in parallel supercomputers and network-connected workstations, the solution to large scale structural engineering problems has now become tractable. High-performance computer architectures, which are usually available at large universities and national laboratories, now can solve large nonlinear problems. At the other end of the spectrum, network connected workstations can be configured to become a distributed-parallel computer. This approach is attractive to small, medium and large engineering firms. This paper describes the development of a parallelized finite element computer program for the solution of static, nonlinear structural mechanics problems.

  17. Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems with Regular Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardubská, Dana; Plátek, Martin; Otto, Friedrich

    Parallel communicating grammar systems with regular control (RPCGS, for short) are introduced, which are obtained from returning regular parallel communicating grammar systems by restricting the derivations that are executed in parallel by the various components through a regular control language. For the class of languages that are generated by RPCGSs with constant communication complexity we derive a characterization in terms of a restricted type of freely rewriting restarting automaton. From this characterization we obtain that these languages are semi-linear, and that centralized RPCGSs with constant communication complexity are of the same generative power as non-centralized RPCGSs with constant communication complexity.

  18. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  19. Knowledge representation into Ada parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Babikyan, Carol; Harper, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The Knowledge Representation into Ada Parallel Processing project is a joint NASA and Air Force funded project to demonstrate the execution of intelligent systems in Ada on the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory fault-tolerant parallel processor (FTPP). Two applications were demonstrated - a portion of the adaptive tactical navigator and a real time controller. Both systems are implemented as Activation Framework Objects on the Activation Framework intelligent scheduling mechanism developed by Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The implementations, results of performance analyses showing speedup due to parallelism and initial efficiency improvements are detailed and further areas for performance improvements are suggested.

  20. Semi-automatic process partitioning for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbel, Charles; Mehrotra, Piyush; Vanrosendale, John

    1988-01-01

    On current multiprocessor architectures one must carefully distribute data in memory in order to achieve high performance. Process partitioning is the operation of rewriting an algorithm as a collection of tasks, each operating primarily on its own portion of the data, to carry out the computation in parallel. A semi-automatic approach to process partitioning is considered in which the compiler, guided by advice from the user, automatically transforms programs into such an interacting task system. This approach is illustrated with a picture processing example written in BLAZE, which is transformed into a task system maximizing locality of memory reference.