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Sample records for parallel frequency-domain optical

  1. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  2. Dynamic optical frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Arbel, Dror; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-04-21

    We describe a dynamic Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) system which enables real time, long range, acoustic sensing at high sampling rate. The system is based on a fast scanning laser and coherent detection scheme. Distributed sensing is obtained by probing the Rayleigh backscattered light. The system was tested by interrogation of a 10 km communication type single mode fiber and successfully detected localized impulse and sinusoidal excitations.

  3. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968

  4. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    optical measurements on breast-like phantoms (Months 19-24) a. Prepare the breast-like phantoms (optical inhomogeneities + strongly scattering...reveals contralateral hemodynamic changes upon hemi- imaging of solid phantoms for optical mammography. Appl Opt field paradigm. Vision Res 41: 97...1064 nm for the Nd:YAG, 660-1180 nm (tunable) for the Ti:sapphire, and 625-780 nm (tunable) for dye lasers using DCM or oxanine 1 dyes. A unique

  5. Fully parallel adaptive finite element simulation using the simplified spherical harmonics approximations for frequency-domain fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yujie; Zhu, Banghe; Shen, Haiou; Rasmussen, John C.; Wang, Ge; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging/tomography may play an important role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics as a type of optical molecular. Time- and frequency-domain measurement can acquire more measurement information, reducing the ill-posedness and improving the reconstruction quality of fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography. Although the diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively in optical imaging, high-order photon migration models must be further investigated for application to complex and small tissue volumes. In this paper, a frequency-domain fully parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with the simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SPN approximations, a fast tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using the convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. With simple and real digital mouse phantoms, the results show that the significant precision and speed improvements are obtained from the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy.

  6. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammogram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    spectral features of all the tumors. Task 2. Perform the optical measurements on breast-like phantoms (Months 19-24) a. Prepare the breast-like phantoms ...a tur- ygen saturation measurements to within 15% of the bid medium can be modeled with the first-order actual values in phantoms and have reported...31. Y. Yamashita and M. Kaneko, "Visible and infrared diaphanog- ized abnormalities embedded within tissuelike phantoms ," raphy for medical diagnosis

  7. Digital parallel frequency-domain spectroscopy for tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnesano, Cosimo; Santoro, Ylenia; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-09-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) (650 to 1000 nm) optical properties of turbid media can be quantified accurately and noninvasively using methods based on diffuse reflectance or transmittance, such as frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM). Conventional FDPM techniques based on white-light steady-state (SS) spectral measurements in conjunction with the acquisition of frequency-domain (FD) data at selected wavelengths using laser diodes are used to measure broadband NIR scattering-corrected absorption spectra of turbid media. These techniques are limited by the number of wavelength points used to obtain FD data and by the sweeping technique used to collect FD data over a relatively large range. We have developed a method that introduces several improvements in the acquisition of optical parameters, based on the digital parallel acquisition of a comb of frequencies and on the use of a white laser as a single light source for both FD and SS measurements. The source, due to the high brightness, allows a higher penetration depth with an extremely low power on the sample. The parallel acquisition decreases the time required by standard serial systems that scan through a range of modulation frequencies. Furthermore, all-digital acquisition removes analog noise, avoids the analog mixer, and does not create radiofrequency interference or emission.

  8. Optical wire guided lumpectomy: frequency domain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, A. L.; Keränen, V. T.; Prahl, S. A.

    2009-02-01

    In practice, complete removal of the tumor during a lumpectomy is difficult; the published rates of positive margins range from 10% to 50%. A spherical lumpectomy specimen with tumor directly in the middle may improve the success rate. A light source placed within the tumor may accomplish this goal by creating a sphere surrounding the tumor that can serve as a guide for resection. In an optical phantom and a prophylactic mastectomy specimen, sinusoidally modulated light within the medium was collected by optical fiber(s) at fixed distance(s) from the source and used to measure the optical properties. These optical properties were then used to calculate the distance the light had traveled through the medium. The fiber was coupled to an 830nm diode laser that was modulated at 100, 200 and 300 MHz. A handheld optical probe collected the modulated light and a network analyzer measured the phase lag. This data was used to calculate the distance the light traveled from the emitting fiber tip to the probe. The optical properties were μa = 0.004mm-1 and μ1s = 0.38mm-1 in the phantom. The optical properties for the tissue were μa = 0.005mm-1 and μ1s = 0.20mm-1. The prediction of distance from the source was within 4mm of the actual distance at 30mm in the phantom and within 3mm of the actual distance at 25mm in the tissue. The feasibility of a frequency domain system that makes measurements of local optical properties and then extrapolates those optical properties to make measurements of distance with a separate probe was demonstrated.

  9. Frequency domain optical tomography in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuqi; Wang, Yao; Pei, Yaling; Zhu, Wenwu; Hu, Jenhun; Barbour, Randall L.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, a reconstruction algorithm for frequency-domain optical tomography in human tissue is presented. A fast and efficient multigrid finite difference (MGFD) method is adopted as a forward solver to obtain the simulated detector responses and the required imaging operator. The solutions obtained form MGFD method for 3D problems with weakly discontinuous cocoefficients are compared with analyzed solutions to determine the accuracy of the numerical method. Simultaneous reconstruction of both absorption and scattering coefficients for tissue-like media is accomplished by solving a perturbation equation using the Born approximation. This solution is obtained by a conjugate gradient descent method with Tikhonov regularization. Two examples are given to show the quality of the reconstruction results. Both involve the examination of anatomically accurate optical models of tissue derived from segmented 3D magnetic resonance images to which have been assigned optical coefficients to the designated tissue types. One is a map of a female breast containing two small 'added pathologies', such as tumors. The other is a map of the brain containing a 'local bleeding' area, representing a hemorrhage. The reconstruction results show that the algorithm is computationally practical and can yield qualitatively correct geometry of the objects embedded in the simulated human tissue. Acceptable results are obtaiend even when 10% noise is present in the data.

  10. Frequency domain optical tomography using a Monte Carlo perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    A frequency domain Monte Carlo method is applied to near-infrared optical tomography, where an intensity-modulated light source with a given modulation frequency is used to reconstruct optical properties. The frequency domain reconstruction technique allows for better separation between the scattering and absorption properties of inclusions, even for ill-posed inverse problems, due to cross-talk between the scattering and absorption reconstructions. The frequency domain Monte Carlo calculation for light transport in an absorbing and scattering medium has thus far been analyzed mostly for the reconstruction of optical properties in simple layered tissues. This study applies a Monte Carlo calculation algorithm, which can handle complex-valued particle weights for solving a frequency domain transport equation, to optical tomography in two-dimensional heterogeneous tissues. The Jacobian matrix that is needed to reconstruct the optical properties is obtained by a first-order "differential operator" technique, which involves less variance than the conventional "correlated sampling" technique. The numerical examples in this paper indicate that the newly proposed Monte Carlo method provides reconstructed results for the scattering and absorption coefficients that compare favorably with the results obtained from conventional deterministic or Monte Carlo methods.

  11. Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections.

    PubMed

    Fantini, S; Franceschini, M A; Gaida, G; Gratton, E; Jess, H; Mantulin, W W; Moesta, K T; Schlag, P M; Kaschke, M

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the problem of edge effects in laser-beam transillumination scanning of the human breast. Edge effects arise from tissue thickness variability along the scanned area, and from lateral photon losses through the sides of the breast. Edge effects can be effectively corrected in frequency-domain measurements by employing a two-step procedure: (1) use of the phase information to calculate an effective tissue thickness for each pixel location; (2) application of the knowledge of tissue thickness to calculate an edge-corrected optical image from the ac signal image. The measurements were conducted with a light mammography apparatus (LIMA) designed for feasibility tests in the clinical environment. Operating in the frequency-domain (110 MHz), this instrument performs a transillumination optical scan at two wavelengths (685 and 825 nm). We applied the proposed two-step procedure to data from breast phantoms and from human breasts. The processed images provide higher contrast and detectability in optical mammography with respect to raw data breast images.

  12. Broadband ultrasonic sensor array via optical frequency domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabai, Haniel; Steinberg, Idan; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a new approach for multiplexing fiber-based ultrasound sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR). In the present demonstration of the method, each sensor was a short section of Polyimide-coated single-mode fiber. One end of the sensing fiber was pigtailed to a mirror and the other end was connected, via a fiber optic delay line, to a 1X4 fiber coupler. The multiplexing was enabled by using a different delay to each sensor. Ultrasonic excitation was performed by a 1MHz transducer which transmitted 4μs tone-bursts above the sensor array. The ultrasound waves generated optical phase variations in the fibers which were detected using the OFDR method. The ultrasound field at the sensors was successfully reconstructed without any noticeable cross-talk.

  13. Frequency-domain optical tomographic imaging of arthritic finger joints.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Andreas H; Kim, Hyun Keol; Montejo, Ludguier D; Blaschke, Sabine; Netz, Uwe J; Zwaka, Paul A; Illing, Gerd; Muller, Gerhard A; Beuthan, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    We are presenting data from the largest clinical trial on optical tomographic imaging of finger joints to date. Overall we evaluated 99 fingers of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 120 fingers from healthy volunteers. Using frequency-domain imaging techniques we show that sensitivities and specificities of 0.85 and higher can be achieved in detecting RA. This is accomplished by deriving multiple optical parameters from the optical tomographic images and combining them for the statistical analysis. Parameters derived from the scattering coefficient perform slightly better than absorption derived parameters. Furthermore we found that data obtained at 600 MHz leads to better classification results than data obtained at 0 or 300 MHz.

  14. Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, M. C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Mikhail

    2010-11-01

    Beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the ``plasma afterburner,'' are a promising approach for significantly increasing the particle energies of conventional accelerators. The study and optimization of PWFA would benefit from an experimental correlation between the parameters of the drive bunch, the accelerated bunch and the corresponding, accelerating plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not yet been observed directly in PWFA. We will report our current work on noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) and Holographic (FDH) visualization of beam-driven plasma waves. Both techniques employ two laser pulses (probe and reference) co-propagating with the particle drive-beam and its plasma wake. The reference pulse precedes the drive bunch, while the probe overlaps the plasma wave and maps its longitudinal and transverse structure. The experiment is being developed at the BNL/ATF Linac to visualize wakes generated by two and multi-bunch drive beams.

  15. RA diagnostics applying optical tomography in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Prapavat, Viravuth; Minet, Olaf; Beuthan, Juergen; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    Our aim is to reconstruct the optical parameters in a slice of a finger joint phantom for further investigations about rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we have developed a flexible NIR scanning system in order to collect amplitude and phase delay of photon density waves in frequency-domain. A cylindrical finger joint phantom was embedded in a container of Intralipid solution due to the application of an inverse method for infinite geometry. The joint phantom was investigated by a laser beam obtaining several projections. The average optical parameters of each projection was calculated. Using different reconstruction techniques, e.g. ART and SIRT with a special projection operator, we reconstructed the optical parameters in a slice. The projection operator can be heuristically described by a photon path density function of a homogeneous media with infinite geometry. Applied to an object with an unknown distribution of optical parameters it calculates the expectation value of the investigated object. The potentials and limits of these fast reconstruction methods will be presented.

  16. Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields

    SciTech Connect

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Michhail; Babzien, Marcus

    2010-11-04

    Bunch driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the 'plasma afterburner', are a promising emerging method for significantly increasing the energy output of conventional particle accelerators. The study and optimization of this method would benefit from an experimental correlation of the drive bunch parameters and the accelerated particle parameters with the corresponding plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not been observed directly so far. We will report ongoing development of a noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) and Holographic (FDH) diagnostics of bunch driven plasma wakes. Both FDI and FDH have been previously demonstrated in the case of laser driven wakes. These techniques employ two laser pulses co-propagating with the drive particle bunch and the trailing plasma wave. One pulse propagates ahead of the drive bunch and serves as a reference, while the second is overlapped with the plasma wave and probes its structure. The multi-shot FDI and single-shot FDH diagnostics permit direct noninvasive observation of longitudinal and transverse structure of the plasma wakes. The experiment is being developed at the 70 MeV Linac in the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to visualize wakes generated by two and multi-bunch drive beams.

  17. Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Michhail; Babzien, Marcus

    2010-11-01

    Bunch driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the "plasma afterburner," are a promising emerging method for significantly increasing the energy output of conventional particle accelerators [1]. The study and optimization of this method would benefit from an experimental correlation of the drive bunch parameters and the accelerated particle parameters with the corresponding plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not been observed directly so far. We will report ongoing development of a noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) [2] and Holographic (FDH) [3] diagnostics of bunch driven plasma wakes. Both FDI and FDH have been previously demonstrated in the case of laser driven wakes. These techniques employ two laser pulses co-propagating with the drive particle bunch and the trailing plasma wave. One pulse propagates ahead of the drive bunch and serves as a reference, while the second is overlapped with the plasma wave and probes its structure. The multi-shot FDI and single-shot FDH diagnostics permit direct noninvasive observation of longitudinal and transverse structure of the plasma wakes. The experiment is being developed at the 70 MeV Linac in the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to visualize wakes generated by two [4] and multi-bunch [5] drive beams.

  18. High-resolution frequency domain second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianping; Tomov, I. V.; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Zhongping

    2007-02-01

    We used continuum generated in an 8.5 cm long fiber by a femtosecond Yb fiber laser to improve threefold the axial resolution of frequency domain SH-OCT to 12μm. The acquisition time was shortened by more than two orders of magnitude compared to time domain SH-OCT. The system was applied to image biological tissue of fish scales, pig leg tendon and rabbit eye sclera. Highly organized collagen fibrils can be visualized in the recorded images. Polarization dependence on second harmonic has been used to obtain polarization resolved images.

  19. New optical frequency domain differential mode delay measurement method for a multimode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Ahn, T; Moon, S; Youk, Y; Jung, Y; Oh, K; Kim, D

    2005-05-30

    A novel mode analysis method and differential mode delay (DMD) measurement technique for a multimode optical fiber based on optical frequency domain reflectometry has been proposed for the first time. We have used a conventional OFDR with a tunable external cavity laser and a Michelson interferometer. A few-mode optical multimode fiber was prepared to test our proposed measurement technique. We have also compared the OFDR measurement results with those obtained using a traditional time-domain measurement method.

  20. A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke

    2008-03-01

    We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.

  1. Parallel full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain by the Gauss-Newton method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain. We first test the inversion ability of three numerical optimization methods, i.e., the steepest-descent method, the Newton-CG method and the Gauss- Newton method, for a simple model. The results show that the Gauss-Newton method performs well and efficiently. Then numerical computations for a benchmark model named Marmousi model by the Gauss-Newton method are implemented. Parallel algorithm based on message passing interface (MPI) is applied as the inversion is a typical large-scale computational problem. Numerical computations show that the Gauss-Newton method has good ability to reconstruct the complex model.

  2. FBG sensor interrogation using fiber optical bistability in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guohui; Ou, Jinping; Ye, Hongan; Zhou, Zhi; Shang, Shaohua; Yang, Chao; Wang, Huiying

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of fiber Bragg grating interrogation by use of hybrid fiber optical bistable device (OBD). The OBD is realized in the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing element. Light source is an electronic tuned widely swept ring fiber laser. In this experiment, FBG's are acting as optical intensity modulator and sensing elements at same time. Combined with feedback control circuit, the OBD can be used as an optic-fiber sensor working in digital type through bistable switching phenomenon. We discuss the mechanism of this bistable sensor. Scanning the bias Voltage on PZT, the bistable pulse signal can be counted by circuit that operates in the manner of a pulse-equivalent. If we use 16 bit Digital Analog Converter (DAC), the resolution will achieve 1pm level. High accuracy, high speed and high ratio of signal to noise are the advantages of this scheme.

  3. Optical frequency domain reflectometry: principles and applications in fiber optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreger, Stephen T.; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Garg, Naman; Klute, Sandra M.; Metrey, Daniel R.; Beaty, Noah; Jeans, James W.; Gamber, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) is the basis of an emerging high-definition distributed fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS) technique that provides an unprecedented combination of resolution and sensitivity. OFDR employs swept laser interferometry to produce strain or temperature vs. sensor length with fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) or Rayleigh scatter as the source signal. We look at the influence of HD-FOS on design and test of new, lighter weight, stronger and more fuel efficient vehicles. Examples include defect detection, model verification and structural health monitoring of composites, and temperature distribution monitoring of battery packs and inverters in hybrid and electric powertrains.

  4. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2010-01-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling. PMID:20428484

  5. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling.

  6. Frequency-domain single-shot optical frequency comb tomography using VIPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaoka, Takumi; Shioda, Tatsutoshi

    2016-03-01

    Novel two-dimensional single-shot imaging optical system based on Frequency-domain interferometry using a virtually imaged phased array is proposed. The VIPA simultaneously outputs incoherent optical frequency combs (OFCs) whose teeth interval are scanned as a function of its output angle. Teeth intervals of the OFCs only in a reference are spatially swept by using of a VIPA whose advantage compared to an optical resonator. Thus, the single-shot imaging system can be realized with the FSR scanned frequency-domain OFC interference monitored by CCD. This system enable high speed 2-dimensional tomographic image without mechanical moving part. And the axial measurement range is not limited by using multi-order interference that is generated by OFCs interferometry. We will present the operation principle with its confirmed results in terms of both simulation and experiment.

  7. Real-time frequency-domain fiber optic sensor for intra-arterial blood oxygen measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcala, J. R.; Scott, Ian L.; Parker, Jennifer W.; Atwater, Beauford W.; Yu, Clement; Fischer, Russell; Bellingrath, K.

    1993-05-01

    A real time frequency domain phosphorimeter capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes for determining oxygen is described. This frequency domain instrument does not make use of cross correlation techniques traditionally used in frequency domain fluorometers. Instead, the electrical signal from the detector is filtered to contain only the first several harmonics. This filtered signal is then sampled and averaged over a few thousand cycles. The absolute phase and absolute modulation of each sampled harmonic of the excitation and of the luminescence is computed by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio is then calculated at each harmonic frequency. A least squares fit is performed in the frequency domain to obtain the lifetimes of discrete exponentials. Oxygen concentrations are computed from these lifetimes. Prototypes based on these techniques were built employing commercially available components. Results from measurements in saline solution and in the arterial blood of dogs show that oxygen concentrations can be determined reproducibly. The system drift is less than 1% in over 100 hours of continuous operation. The performance of fiber optic sensors was evaluated in dogs over a period of 10 hours. The sensors tracked changes in arterial oxygen tension over the course of the experiment without instabilities. The overall response of the system was about 90 seconds. The update time was 3 seconds.

  8. Note: A simple broad bandwidth undersampling frequency-domain digital diffuse optical spectroscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-07-01

    Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50-300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques.

  9. Note: A simple broad bandwidth undersampling frequency-domain digital diffuse optical spectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50–300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques. PMID:25085193

  10. High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; Mo, Jianhua; Helderman, Frank; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2013-06-01

    We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 - 12,500 rpm. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation distortion and found a location fluctuation of only 1.87° in repeated measurements of the same object. The probe was integrated in a high-speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging setup at 1310 nm. We demonstrated its performance with imaging ex vivo pig bronchial and in vivo goat lung.

  11. Nonuniform strain measurement in composite material based on optical frequency domain reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajun; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Litong; Wu, Mengqi; Wen, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Traditional electrical sensor or traditional fiber Bragg grating sensing technology is not applicable to the measurement of nonuniform strain in composite material. Therefore, the distributed nonuniform strain in the lap plate position of composite interlining material is measured using a single fiber with optical frequency domain reflection technology in this study. The experimental results show consistency with the experiment phenomena, and the measurement accuracy could be increased to the submillimeter level.

  12. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  13. Comparison of DSP schemes with frequency domain equalization for passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Ye, Jia; Liu, Yanhe; Yan, Lianshan

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, digital signal processing (DSP) has been widely investigated for the applications in future next generation passive optical networks (PONs). In this paper, we compare four transmission technologies based on DSP with frequency domain equalization (FDE) for PON transmission with double-side band (DSB) intensity modulation and direct detection. These schemes include orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), single-carrier frequency domain equalization (SCFDE), discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DFT-S-OFDM) and interleaved frequency division multiplexing (IFDM). We analyze their computational complexity and flexibility in PON applications, and compare their transmission performance by experiments. Based on above work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid DSP-enhanced PON architecture with downstream OFDM modulation and upstream SCFDE modulation.

  14. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  15. Feasibility of direct digital sampling for diffuse optical frequency domain spectroscopy in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblyer, Darren; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Warren, Robert V.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-04-01

    Frequency domain optical spectroscopy in the diffusive regime is currently being investigated for biomedical applications including tumor detection, therapy monitoring, exercise metabolism and others. Analog homodyne or heterodyne detection of sinusoidally modulated signals has been the predominant method for measuring phase and amplitude of photon density waves that have traversed through tissue. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing direct digital sampling of modulated signals using a 3.6 gigasample/second 12 bit analog to digital converter. Digitally synthesized modulated signals between 50 MHz and 400 MHz were measured on tissue-simulating phantoms at six near-infrared wavelengths. An amplitude and phase precision of 1% and 0.6° were achieved during drift tests. Amplitude, phase, scattering and absorption values were compared with a well-characterized network analyzer-based diffuse optical device. Optical properties measured with both systems were within 3.6% for absorption and 2.8% for scattering over a range of biologically relevant values. Direct digital sampling represents a viable method for frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy and has the potential to reduce system complexity, size and cost.

  16. Feasibility of Direct Digital Sampling for Diffuse Optical Frequency Domain Spectroscopy in Tissue.

    PubMed

    Roblyer, Darren; O'Sullivan, Thomas D; Warren, Robert V; Tromberg, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Frequency domain optical spectroscopy in the diffusive regime is currently being investigated for biomedical applications including tumor detection, therapy monitoring, exercise metabolism, and others. Analog homodyne or heterodyne detection of sinusoidally modulated signals have been the predominant method for measuring phase and amplitude of photon density waves that have traversed through tissue. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing direct digital sampling of modulated signals using a 3.6 Gigasample/second 12 bit Analog to Digital Converter. Digitally synthesized modulated signals between 50MHz and 400MHz were measured on tissue simulating phantoms at six near-infrared wavelengths. An amplitude and phase precision of 1% and 0.6 degrees were achieved during drift tests. Amplitude, phase, scattering and absorption values were compared with a well-characterized network analyzer based diffuse optical device. Measured optical properties measured with both systems were within 3.6% for absorption and 2.8% for scattering over a range of biologically relevant values. Direct digital sampling represents a viable method for frequency domain diffuse optical spectroscopy and has the potential to reduce system complexity, size, and cost.

  17. High-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianping; Tomov, Ivan V.; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Zhongping

    2007-04-01

    We used continuum generated in an 8.5 cm long fiber by a femtosecond Yb fiber laser to improve threefold the axial resolution of frequency domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography (SH-OCT) to 12 μm. The acquisition time was shortened by more than 2 orders of magnitude compared to the time-domain SH-OCT. The system was applied to image biological tissue of fish scales, pig leg tendon, and rabbit eye sclera. Highly organized collagen fibrils can be visualized in the recorded images. Polarization dependence on the SH has been used to obtain polarization resolved images.

  18. Real-Time FPGA Processing for High-Speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Suter, Melissa J.; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Bouma, Brett E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for reconstructing interferograms acquired in optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). The algorithm was developed specifically for processing in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and featured the use of a finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter implementation of B-spline interpolation for efficiently re-sampling k-space. When implemented in FPGAs, the algorithm allowed for real-time processing of interferograms acquired with a high-speed OFDI system at 54 kHz and a sampling rate of 100 MS/s. PMID:19336296

  19. Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netz, Uwe J.; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2008-03-01

    Frequency-domain optical imaging systems have shown great promise for characterizing blood oxygenation, hemodynamics, and other physiological parameters in human and animal tissues. However, most of the frequency domain systems presented so far operate with source modulation frequencies below 150MHz. At these low frequencies, their ability to provide accurate data for small tissue geometries such as encountered in imaging of finger joints or rodents is limited. Here, we present a new system that can provide data up to 1GHz using an intensity modulated charged coupled device camera. After data processing, the images show the two-dimensional distribution of amplitude and phase of the light modulation on the finger surface. The system performance was investigated and test measurements on optical tissue phantoms were taken to investigate whether higher frequencies yield better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). It could be shown that local changes in optical tissue properties, as they appear in the initial stages of rheumatoid arthritis in a finger joint, are detectable by simple image evaluation, with the range of modulation frequency around 500MHz proving to yield the highest SNR.

  20. Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints.

    PubMed

    Netz, Uwe J; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2008-03-01

    Frequency-domain optical imaging systems have shown great promise for characterizing blood oxygenation, hemodynamics, and other physiological parameters in human and animal tissues. However, most of the frequency domain systems presented so far operate with source modulation frequencies below 150 MHz. At these low frequencies, their ability to provide accurate data for small tissue geometries such as encountered in imaging of finger joints or rodents is limited. Here, we present a new system that can provide data up to 1 GHz using an intensity modulated charged coupled device camera. After data processing, the images show the two-dimensional distribution of amplitude and phase of the light modulation on the finger surface. The system performance was investigated and test measurements on optical tissue phantoms were taken to investigate whether higher frequencies yield better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). It could be shown that local changes in optical tissue properties, as they appear in the initial stages of rheumatoid arthritis in a finger joint, are detectable by simple image evaluation, with the range of modulation frequency around 500 MHz proving to yield the highest SNR.

  1. Two-dimensional frequency-domain visco-elastic full waveform inversion: Parallel algorithms, optimization and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, R.

    2011-04-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an appealing seismic data-fitting procedure for the derivation of high-resolution quantitative models of the subsurface at various scales. Full modelling and inversion of visco-elastic waves from multiple seismic sources allow for the recovering of different physical parameters, although they remain computationally challenging tasks. An efficient massively parallel, frequency-domain FWI algorithm is implemented here on large-scale distributed-memory platforms for imaging two-dimensional visco-elastic media. The resolution of the elastodynamic equations, as the forward problem of the inversion, is performed in the frequency domain on unstructured triangular meshes, using a low-order finite element discontinuous Galerkin method. The linear system resulting from discretization of the forward problem is solved with a parallel direct solver. The inverse problem, which is presented as a non-linear local optimization problem, is solved in parallel with a quasi-Newton method, and this allows for reliable estimation of multiple classes of visco-elastic parameters. Two levels of parallelism are implemented in the algorithm, based on message passing interfaces and multi-threading, for optimal use of computational time and the core-memory resources available on modern distributed-memory multi-core computational platforms. The algorithm allows for imaging of realistic targets at various scales, ranging from near-surface geotechnic applications to crustal-scale exploration.

  2. High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for 3D optical frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; Mo, Jianhua; Helderman, Frank; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2013-03-01

    We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 - 12,500 rpm. This is the smallest motorized high speed OCT probe to our knowledge. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation distortion and found a location fluctuation of only 1.87° in repeated measurements of the same object. The probe was integrated in a high-speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging setup at 1310 nm We demonstrated its performance with imaging ex vivo pig bronchial and in vivo goat lung.

  3. Miniature swept source for point of care Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Brian D.; Nezam, S.M. Reza Motaghian; Jillella, Priyanka; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Point of care (POC) medical technologies require portable, small, robust instrumentation for practical implementation. In their current embodiment, optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) systems employ large form-factor wavelength-swept lasers, making them impractical in the POC environment. Here, we describe a first step toward a POC OFDI system by demonstrating a miniaturized swept-wavelength source. The laser is based on a tunable optical filter using a reflection grating and a miniature resonant scanning mirror. The laser achieves 75 nm of bandwidth centered at 1340 nm, a 0.24 nm instantaneous line width, a 15.3 kHz repetition rate with 12 mW peak output power, and a 30.4 kHz A-line rate when utilizing forward and backward sweeps. The entire laser system is approximately the size of a deck of cards and can operate on battery power for at least one hour. PMID:19259202

  4. Optical-fiber frequency domain interferometer with nanometer resolution and centimeter measuring range.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jidong; Tao, Tianjiong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2013-11-01

    A new optical-fiber frequency domain interferometer (OFDI) device for accurate measurement of the absolute distance between two stationary objects, with centimeter measuring range and nanometer resolution, has been developed. Its working principle and on-line data processing method were elaborated. The new OFDI instrument was constructed all with currently available commercial communication products. It adopted the wide-spectrum amplified spontaneous emission light as the light source and optical-fiber tip as the test probe. Since this device consists of only fibers or fiber coupled components, it is very compact, convenient to operate, and easy to carry. By measuring the single-step length of a translation stage and the thickness of standard gauge blocks, its ability in implementing nanometer resolution and centimeter measuring range on-line measurements was validated.

  5. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  6. Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; de Boer, J. F.; Park, B. H.; Lee, E. C.; Yelin, R.; Yun, S. H.

    2006-06-01

    Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) in the 800-nm biological imaging window is demonstrated by using a novel wavelength-swept laser source. The laser output is tuned continuously from 815 to 870 nm at a 43.2-kHz repetition rate with 7-mW average power. Axial resolution of 10-μm in biological tissue and peak sensitivity of 96 dB are achieved. In vivo imaging of Xenopus laevis is demonstrated with an acquisition speed of 84 frames per second (512 axial lines per frame). This new imaging technique may prove useful in comprehensive retinal screening for medical diagnosis and contrast-agent-based imaging for biological investigations.

  7. Real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse using optical frequency-domain reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shoulin; Ma, Lin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Bin; He, Zuyuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse by analysing the Doppler shift of reflected light using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). Our method can detect the start of a fibre fuse within 200 ms which is equivalent to a propagation distance of about 10 cm in standard single-mode fibre. We successfully measured instantaneous speed of propagating fibre fuses and observed their subtle fluctuation owing to the laser power instability. The resolution achieved for speed measurement in our demonstration is 1 × 10−3 m/s. We studied the fibre fuse propagation speed dependence on the launched power in different fibres. Our method is promising for both real time fibre fuse monitoring and future studies on its propagation and termination. PMID:27146550

  8. Feasibility of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for optically characterizing a preclinical oncology model

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Syeda; Zhao, Yanyu; Istfan, Raeef; Wu, Junjie; Waxman, David J.; Roblyer, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Determination of chemotherapy efficacy early during treatment would provide more opportunities for physicians to alter and adapt treatment plans. Diffuse optical technologies may be ideally suited to track early biological events following chemotherapy administration due to low cost and high information content. We evaluated the use of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) to characterize a small animal tumor model in order to move towards the goal of endogenous optical monitoring of cancer therapy in a controlled preclinical setting. The effects of key measurement parameters including the choice of imaging spatial frequency and the repeatability of measurements were evaluated. The precision of SFDI optical property extractions over repeat mouse measurements was determined to be within 3.52% for move and replace experiments. Baseline optical properties and chromophore values as well as intratumor heterogeneity were evaluated over 25 tumors. Additionally, tumor growth and chemotherapy response were monitored over a 45 day longitudinal study in a small number of mice to demonstrate the ability of SFDI to track treatment effects. Optical scattering and oxygen saturation increased as much as 70% and 25% respectively in treated tumors, suggesting SFDI may be useful for preclinical tracking of cancer therapies. PMID:27867722

  9. Full-field time-encoded frequency-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Povazay, Boris; Unterhuber, Angelika; Hermann, Boris; Sattmann, Harald; Arthaber, Holger; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2006-08-21

    Ultrahigh axial resolution surface profiling as well as volumetric optical imaging based on time encoded optical coherence tomography in the frequency domain without any mechanical scanning element is presented. A frequency tuned broad bandwidth titanium sapphire laser is interfaced to an optical microscope (Axioskop 2 MAT, Carl Zeiss Meditec) that is enhanced with an interferometric imaging head. The system is equipped with a 640 x 480 pixel CMOS camera, optimized for the 800 nm wavelength tuning range for transmission and reflection measurements of a microscopic sample. Sample volume information over 1.3 x 1 x 0.2 mm(3) with ~3 mum axial and ~4 mum transverse resolution in tissue is acquired by a single wavelength scan over more than 100 nm optical bandwidth from <760 to >860 nm with 128-2048 equidistant optical frequency steps with an acquisition time of 1 to 50 ms per step. Topography and tomography with a signal to noise ratio of 83 dB is demonstrated on test surfaces and biological specimen respectively. This novel OCT technique promises to enable high speed, three dimensional imaging by employing high frame rate cameras and state of the art tunable lasers in a mechanically stable environment, due to lack of moving components while reducing the intensity on the sample.

  10. Frequency-Domain Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography of the Femoropopliteal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Karnabatidis, Dimitris Katsanos, Konstantinos; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Siablis, Dimitris

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based imaging method that employs near-infrared light to produce high-resolution intravascular images. The authors report the safety and feasibility and illustrate common imaging findings of frequency-domain OCT (FD-OCT) imaging of the femoropopliteal artery in a series of 20 patients who underwent infrainguinal angioplasty. Methods: After crossing the lesion of interest, OCT was performed with a dextrose saline flush technique with simultaneous obstructive manual groin compression. An automatic pullback FD-OCT device was employed (each scan acquiring 54 mm of vessel lumen in 271 consecutive frames). OCT images were acquired before and after balloon dilatation and following provisional stenting if necessary and were evaluated for baseline characteristics of plaque or in-stent restenosis (ISR), vessel wall trauma after angioplasty, presence of thrombus, stent apposition, and tissue prolapse. Imaging follow-up was not included in this study's protocol. Results: Twenty-seven obstructive lesions (18 cases of de novo atherosclerosis and 9 of ISR) of the femoropopliteal artery were imaged and 148 acquisitions were analyzed in total. High-resolution intravascular OCT imaging with effective blood clearance was achieved in 93.9%. Failure was mainly attributed to preocclusive proximal lesions and/or collateral flow. Mixed features of lipid pool areas, calcium deposits, necrotic core, and fibrosis were identified in all of the imaged atherosclerotic lesions, whereas ISR was purely fibrotic. After balloon angioplasty, OCT identified extensive intimal tears in all cases and one case of severe dissection that biplane subtraction angiography failed to identify. Conclusions: Infrainguinal frequency-domain optical coherence tomography is safe and feasible and may provide intravascular high-resolution imaging of the femoropopliteal artery during infrainguinal angioplasty procedures.

  11. High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Saem; Jang, Sun-Joo; Kim, Kyunghun; Dan-Chin-Yu, Alexey V.; Shishkov, Milen; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), a second-generation optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, enables imaging of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the vessel wall following a short and nonocclusive clear liquid flush. Although 3D vascular visualization provides a greater appreciation of the vessel wall and intraluminal structures, a longitudinal imaging pitch that is several times bigger than the optical imaging resolution of the system has limited true high-resolution 3D imaging, mainly due to the slow scanning speed of previous imaging catheters. Here, we demonstrate high frame-rate intravascular OFDI in vivo, acquiring images at a rate of 350 frames per second. A custom-built, high-speed, and high-precision fiber-optic rotary junction provided uniform and high-speed beam scanning through a custom-made imaging catheter with an outer diameter of 0.87 mm. A 47-mm-long rabbit aorta was imaged in 3.7 seconds after a short contrast agent flush. The longitudinal imaging pitch was 34 μm, comparable to the transverse imaging resolution of the system. Three-dimensional volume-rendering showed greatly enhanced visualization of tissue microstructure and stent struts relative to what is provided by conventional intravascular imaging speeds. PMID:24466489

  12. No-Guard-Interval Coherent Optical OFDM with Frequency Domain Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yutaka; Takatori, Yasuyuki

    This chapter describes the novel no-guard-interval (GI) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) format for high-capacity optical transport network (OTN). Unlike the conventional OFDM configuration, the proposed scheme employs a very small number of OFDM subcarriers, so simple optical analog subcarrier multiplexing can be realized without digital signal processing (DSP) in the OFDM modulation. The scheme also introduces simple OFDM demultiplexing and a digital adaptive time domain or frequency domain equalizer for DSP demodulation in the receiver, without recourse to OFDM overhead (OH) bytes such as GI and training symbols, unlike the conventional OFDM receiver. There is no line rate increase in the OTN channel due to the introduction of these OFDM OH bytes (i.e., the line rate of 111 Gb/s includes 7% OTN overhead, and 103-Gb/s payload is available for bit transparent OTN mapping of 100-GbE signals). The No-GI-OFDM proposal is experimentally tested at the channel rate of 111 Gbit/s as the first step to realizing DWDM long-haul transport at over 10 Tbps.

  13. Frequency domain model for analysis of paralleled, series-output-connected Mapham inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.; Button, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a two-port network driven by a selected periodic voltage. The two-port model is then used to model a pair of Mapham inverters connected in series and employing phasor voltage regulation. It is shown that the model is useful for predicting power output in paralleled inverter units, and for predicting harmonic current output of inverter pairs, using standard power flow techniques. Some sample results are compared to data obtained from testing hardware inverters.

  14. Frequency domain model for analysis of paralleled, series-output-connected Mapham inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.; Button, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a two-port network driven by a selected periodic voltage. The two-port model is then used to model a pair of Mapham inverters connected in series and employing phasor voltage regulation. It is shown that the model is useful for predicting power output in paralleled inverter units, and for predicting harmonic current output of inverter pairs, using standard power flow techniques. Some examples are compared to data obtained from testing hardware inverters.

  15. 3D imaging of tomato seeds using frequency domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chuanmao; Yao, Gang

    2012-05-01

    A fast imaging system that can reveal internal sample structures is important for research and quality controls of seeds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique that can acquire high speed, high resolution depth-resolved images in scattering samples. It has found numerous applications in studying various biological tissues and other materials in vivo. A few studies have reported the use of OCT in studying seed morphology. However, 3D imaging of internal seed structure has not been reported before. In this study, we used a frequency domain OCT system to image tomato seeds. The system has a central wavelength of 844nm with a 46.8 nm FWHM bandwidth. The requirement for depth scan was eliminated by using a Fourier domain implementation. The B-scan imaging speed was limited by the spectroscopic imaging CCD at 52 kHz. The calibrated system has a 6.7μm depth resolution and a 15.4μm lateral resolution. Our results show that major seed structures can be clearly visualized in OCT images.

  16. Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, DongKyun; Suter, Melissa J.; Boudoux, Caroline; Yachimski, Patrick S.; Bouma, Brett E.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-02-01

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) are two reflectancebased imaging technologies that may be utilized for high-resolution microscopic screening of internal organs. SECM provides en face images of tissues with a high lateral resolution of 1-2 μm, and a penetration depth of up to 300 μm. OFDI generates cross-sectional images of tissue architecture with a resolution of 10-20 μm and a penetration depth of 1- 2 mm. Since the two technologies yield complementary microscopic information on two different size scales (SECM-cellular and OFDI-architectural) that are commonly used for histopathologic evaluation, their combination may allow for more accurate optical diagnosis. Here, we report the integration of these two imaging modalities in a single bench top system. SECM images of swine small intestine showed the presence of goblet cells, and OFDI images revealed the finger-shaped villous architecture. In clinical study of 9 gastroesophageal biopsies from 8 patients, a diverse set of architectural and cellular features was observed, including squamous mucosa with mild hyperplasia and gastric antral mucosa with gastric pits and crypts. The capability of this multimodality device to enable the visualization of microscopic features on these two size scales supports our hypothesis that improved diagnostic accuracy may be obtained by merging these two technologies into a single instrument.

  17. Assessment of smoke inhalation injury using volumetric optical frequency domain imaging in sheep models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Matthew B.; Hariri, Lida P.; Beagle, John; Tan, Khay Ming; Chee, Chunmin; Hales, Charles A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2012-02-01

    Smoke inhalation injury is a serious threat to victims of fires and explosions, however accurate diagnosis of patients remains problematic. Current evaluation techniques are highly subjective, often involving the integration of clinical findings with bronchoscopic assessment. It is apparent that new quantitative methods for evaluating the airways of patients at risk of inhalation injury are needed. Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is a high resolution optical imaging modality that enables volumetric microscopy of the trachea and upper airways in vivo. We anticipate that OFDI may be a useful tool in accurately assessing the airways of patients at risk of smoke inhalation injury by detecting injury prior to the onset of symptoms, and therefore guiding patient management. To demonstrate the potential of OFDI for evaluating smoke inhalation injury, we conducted a preclinical study in which we imaged the trachea/upper airways of 4 sheep prior to, and up to 60 minutes post exposure to cooled cotton smoke. OFDI enabled the visualization of increased mucus accumulation, mucosal thickening, epithelial disruption and sloughing, and increased submucosal signal intensity attributed to polymorphonuclear infiltrates. These results were consistent with histopathology findings. Bronchoscopic inspection of the upper airways appeared relatively normal with only mild accumulation of mucus visible within the airway lumen. The ability of OFDI to not only accurately detect smoke inhalation injury, but to quantitatively assess and monitor the progression or healing of the injury over time may provide new insights into the management of patients such as guiding clinical decisions regarding the need for intubation and ventilator support.

  18. 3D shape tracking of minimally invasive medical instruments using optical frequency domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Francois; Kanti Mandal, Koushik; Loranger, Sebastien; Watanabe Fernandes, Eric Hideki; Kashyap, Raman; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    We propose here a new alternative to provide real-time device tracking during minimally invasive interventions using a truly-distributed strain sensor based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) in optical fibers. The guidance of minimally invasive medical instruments such as needles or catheters (ex. by adding a piezoelectric coating) has been the focus of extensive research in the past decades. Real-time tracking of instruments in medical interventions facilitates image guidance and helps the user to reach a pre-localized target more precisely. Image-guided systems using ultrasound imaging and shape sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG)-embedded optical fibers can provide retroactive feedback to the user in order to reach the targeted areas with even more precision. However, ultrasound imaging with electro-magnetic tracking cannot be used in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suite, while shape sensors based on FBG embedded in optical fibers provides discrete values of the instrument position, which requires approximations to be made to evaluate its global shape. This is why a truly-distributed strain sensor based on OFDR could enhance the tracking accuracy. In both cases, since the strain is proportional to the radius of curvature of the fiber, a strain sensor can provide the three-dimensional shape of medical instruments by simply inserting fibers inside the devices. To faithfully follow the shape of the needle in the tracking frame, 3 fibers glued in a specific geometry are used, providing 3 degrees of freedom along the fiber. Near real-time tracking of medical instruments is thus obtained offering clear advantages for clinical monitoring in remotely controlled catheter or needle guidance. We present results demonstrating the promising aspects of this approach as well the limitations of using the OFDR technique.

  19. Characterizing optical properties and spatial heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue using spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Mostafa, Atahar; Kumavor, Patrick D; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system was developed for characterizing ex vivo human ovarian tissue using wide-field absorption and scattering properties and their spatial heterogeneities. Based on the observed differences between absorption and scattering images of different ovarian tissue groups, six parameters were quantitatively extracted. These are the mean absorption and scattering, spatial heterogeneities of both absorption and scattering maps measured by a standard deviation, and a fitting error of a Gaussian model fitted to normalized mean Radon transform of the absorption and scattering maps. A logistic regression model was used for classification of malignant and normal ovarian tissues. A sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.98 were obtained using six parameters extracted from the SFDI images. The preliminary results demonstrate the diagnostic potential of the SFDI method for quantitative characterization of wide-field optical properties and the spatial distribution heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue. SFDI could be an extremely robust and valuable tool for evaluation of the ovary and detection of neoplastic changes of ovarian cancer. PMID:26822943

  20. Zero-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM with overlapped frequency-domain CD and PMD equalization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhuge, Qunbi; Plant, David V

    2011-04-11

    This paper presents a new channel estimation/equalization algorithm for coherent OFDM (CO-OFDM) digital receivers, which enables the elimination of the cyclic prefix (CP) for OFDM transmission. We term this new system as the zero-guard-interval (ZGI)-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM employs an overlapped frequency-domain equalizer (OFDE) to compensate both chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) before the OFDM demodulation. Despite the zero CP overhead, ZGI-CO-OFDM demonstrates a superior PMD tolerance than the previous reduced-GI (RGI)-CO-OFDM, which is verified under several different PMD conditions. Additionally, ZGI-CO-OFDM can improve the channel estimation accuracy under high PMD conditions by using a larger intra-symbol frequency-averaging (ISFA) length as compared to RGI-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM also enables the use of ever smaller fast Fourier transform (FFT) sizes (i.e. <128), while maintaining the zero CP overhead. Finally, we provide an analytical comparison of the computation complexity between the conventional, RGI- and ZGI- CO-OFDM. We show that ZGI-CO-OFDM requires reasonably small additional computation effort (~13.6%) compared to RGI-CO-OFDM for 112-Gb/s transmission over a 1600-km dispersion-uncompensated optical link.

  1. Characterizing optical properties and spatial heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue using spatial frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Sreyankar; Mostafa, Atahar; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2016-10-01

    A spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system was developed for characterizing ex vivo human ovarian tissue using wide-field absorption and scattering properties and their spatial heterogeneities. Based on the observed differences between absorption and scattering images of different ovarian tissue groups, six parameters were quantitatively extracted. These are the mean absorption and scattering, spatial heterogeneities of both absorption and scattering maps measured by a standard deviation, and a fitting error of a Gaussian model fitted to normalized mean Radon transform of the absorption and scattering maps. A logistic regression model was used for classification of malignant and normal ovarian tissues. A sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.98 were obtained using six parameters extracted from the SFDI images. The preliminary results demonstrate the diagnostic potential of the SFDI method for quantitative characterization of wide-field optical properties and the spatial distribution heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue. SFDI could be an extremely robust and valuable tool for evaluation of the ovary and detection of neoplastic changes of ovarian cancer.

  2. Graphics processing unit-based dispersion encoded full-range frequency-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Hofer, Bernd; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Považay, Boris

    2012-07-01

    Dispersion encoded full-range (DEFR) frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and its enhanced version, fast DEFR, utilize dispersion mismatch between sample and reference arm to eliminate the ambiguity in OCT signals caused by non-complex valued spectral measurement, thereby numerically doubling the usable information content. By iteratively suppressing asymmetrically dispersed complex conjugate artifacts of OCT-signal pulses the complex valued signal can be recovered without additional measurements, thus doubling the spatial signal range to cover the full positive and negative sampling range. Previously the computational complexity and low processing speed limited application of DEFR to smaller amounts of data and did not allow for interactive operation at high resolution. We report a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based implementation of fast DEFR, which significantly improves reconstruction speed by a factor of more than 90 in respect to CPU-based processing and thereby overcomes these limitations. Implemented on a commercial low-cost GPU, a display line rate of ~21,000 depth scans/s for 2048 samples/depth scan using 10 iterations of the fast DEFR algorithm has been achieved, sufficient for real-time visualization in situ.

  3. Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueli; Burnes, Daina L; de Bruin, Martijn; Mujat, Mircea; de Boer, Johannes F

    2009-01-01

    To compare the optical properties of the human retina, 3-D volumetric images of the same eye are acquired with two nearly identical optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems at center wavelengths of 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). To characterize the contrast of individual tissue layers in the retina at these two wavelengths, the 3-D volumetric data sets are carefully spatially matched. The relative scattering intensities from different layers such as the nerve fiber, photoreceptor, pigment epithelium, and choroid are measured and a quantitative comparison is presented. OCT retinal imaging at 1060 nm is found to have a significantly better depth penetration but a reduced contrast between the retinal nerve fiber, the ganglion cell, and the inner plexiform layers compared to the OCT retinal imaging at 845 nm.

  4. High-resolution differential mode delay measurement for a multimode optical fiber using a modified optical frequency domain reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, T-J; Kim, D

    2005-10-03

    A novel differential mode delay (DMD) measurement technique for a multimode optical fiber based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) has been proposed. We have obtained a high-resolution DMD value of 0.054 ps/m for a commercial multimode optical fiber with length of 50 m by using a modified OFDR in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure with a tunable external cavity laser and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of Michelson interferometer. We have also compared the OFDR measurement results with those obtained using a traditional time-domain measurement method. DMD resolution with our proposed OFDR technique is more than an order of magnitude better than a result obtainable with a conventional time-domain method.

  5. Three-dimensional pointwise comparison of human retinal optical property at 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueli; Burnes, Daina L.; de Bruin, Martijn; Mujat, Mircea; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2009-03-01

    To compare the optical properties of the human retina, 3-D volumetric images of the same eye are acquired with two nearly identical optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems at center wavelengths of 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). To characterize the contrast of individual tissue layers in the retina at these two wavelengths, the 3-D volumetric data sets are carefully spatially matched. The relative scattering intensities from different layers such as the nerve fiber, photoreceptor, pigment epithelium, and choroid are measured and a quantitative comparison is presented. OCT retinal imaging at 1060 nm is found to have a significantly better depth penetration but a reduced contrast between the retinal nerve fiber, the ganglion cell, and the inner plexiform layers compared to the OCT retinal imaging at 845 nm.

  6. Full field frequency domain common path optical coherence tomography with annular aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhalim, I.; Friedman, Ron; Liraz, Lior; Dadon, Ronen

    2007-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental results are presented using the common path Mirau interference microscope and using the Linnik microscope with annular masks to increase the depth of field. The competence between the spatial and temporal coherence was investigated theoretically and confirmed experimentally. Phase imaging of onion epidermis cells was presented showing the possibility of obtaining profiles of the cells. Frequency domain OCT was shown to be possible using full field setup.

  7. Evaluating the thermal stability of multi-pass cells' effective optical path length using optical frequency domain reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Cao, Xiuhan; Li, Jinyi; Du, Zhenhui

    2016-10-01

    Multi-pass cells (MPCs) are commonly used to improve the sensitivity for trace gas detection using spectroscopy technologies. The determination of Effective Optical Path Length (EOPL) of a MPC is very important and challenging in applications which aim at absolute measurements. It is well-known that the temperature changing will exercise some influence on the MPCs' spatial structure, however, measurements of the influence haven't been reported which might due to the limitation of measuring method. In this paper, we used a direct high-precision measuring method with Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) to evaluate the thermal stability of a multi-pass cell. To simulate the environment with a large range of temperature changing, this paper gave a series of experiments by setting the temperature control unit in system from 25 to 175 degree Celsius, and the MPC's EOPL was measured simultaneously for the investigation of temperature response. The results showed that the effective optical path length increase monotonically along with the variation of the temperature, and the rising rate is 0.5 mm/ºC with the total length of about 3 meters which should be pay attention to when the ultra-high accuracy results are demanded. To stabilize the EOPL of the system, if it is possible, the environment temperature of gas cell can be controlled with a constant temperature. In practical applications, the real-time monitoring of EOPL with a direct measuring method may be necessary.

  8. Improvements in frequency-domain based NIRF optical tomography modality for preclinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    Herein we present recent improvements in system design and performance evaluation of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system developed for small animal fluorescence tomography and installed within a commercial micro-CT/PET scanner. We improved system performance by increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) through use of high powered rf modulation, novel data collection scheme, and data discrimination based on the associated noise levels. Noise characteristics show improvement with these techniques and are currently being employed to improve 3-D fluorescence for tomographic reconstructions in phantoms before incorporating into hybrid scanner.

  9. Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkin, J.B.; Coquoz, O.; Anderson, E.R.; Brenner, M.; Tromberg, B.J. |

    1997-01-01

    A 1-GHz multifrequency, multiwavelength frequency-domain photon migration instrument is used to measure quantitatively the optical absorption ({mu}{sub a}) and effective optical scattering ({mu}{sub s}{sup {prime}}) of normal and malignant tissues in a human subject. Large ellipsoidal ({approximately}10-cm major axis, {approximately}6-cm minor axes) subcutaneous malignant lesions were compared with adjacent normal sites in the abdomen and back. Absorption coefficients recorded at 674, 811, 849, and 956 nm were used to calculate tissue hemoglobin concentration (oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total), water concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and blood volume fraction {ital in vivo}. Our results show that the normal and the malignant tissues measured in the patient have clearly resolvable optical and physiological property differences that may be broadly useful in identifying and characterizing tumors.{copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  10. Advanced demodulation technique for the extraction of tissue optical properties and structural orientation contrast in the spatial frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Kyle P.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a method for extracting spatial frequency information content from biological tissue, which is used to calculate tissue optical properties and determine tissue structural orientation. This demodulation method employs a two-dimensional Hilbert transform using a spiral phase function in Fourier space. The approach presented here allows for the determination of tissue optical properties using a single frame of data for each modulation frequency, increasing imaging speed by two to threefold versus conventional, three-phase spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). This new single-phase Hilbert transform approach recovers optical property and scattering orientation index values within 1% and 10% of three-phase SFDI, respectively. These results suggest that, using the Hilbert demodulation technique, SFDI data acquisition speed can be increased significantly while preserving data quality, which will help us move forward toward the implementation of a real-time SFDI platform.

  11. Computer-aided classification of rheumatoid arthritis in finger joints using frequency domain optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Netz, U.; Blaschke, S.; Zwaka, P. A.; Mueller, G. A.; Beuthan, J.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2009-02-01

    Novel methods that can help in the diagnosis and monitoring of joint disease are essential for efficient use of novel arthritis therapies that are currently emerging. Building on previous studies that involved continuous wave imaging systems we present here first clinical data obtained with a new frequency-domain imaging system. Three-dimensional tomographic data sets of absorption and scattering coefficients were generated for 107 fingers. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, MANOVA, Discriminant Analysis DA, and a machine-learning algorithm that is based on self-organizing mapping (SOM) for clustering data in 2-dimensional parameter spaces. Overall we found that the SOM algorithm outperforms the more traditional analysis methods in terms of correctly classifying finger joints. Using SOM, healthy and affected joints can now be separated with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.91. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that if a combination of multiple image properties is used, statistical significant differences can be found between RA-affected finger joints that show different clinical features (e.g. effusion, synovitis or erosion).

  12. Parallel optical sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  13. All-fiber wavelength swept ring laser based on Fabry-Perot filter for optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Jun, Changsu; Villiger, Martin; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Bouma, Brett E

    2014-10-20

    Innovations in laser engineering have yielded several novel configurations for high repetition rate, broad sweep range, and long coherence length wavelength swept lasers. Although these lasers have enabled high performance frequency-domain optical coherence tomography, they are typically complicated and costly and many require access to proprietary materials or devices. Here, we demonstrate a simplified ring resonator configuration that is straightforward to construct from readily available materials at a low total cost. It was enabled by an insight regarding the significance of isolation against bidirectional operation and by configuring the sweep range of the intracavity filter to exceed its free spectral range. The design can easily be optimized to meet a range of operating specifications while yielding robust and stable performance. As an example, we demonstrate 240 kHz operation with 125 nm sweep range and >70 mW of average output power and demonstrate high quality frequency domain OCT imaging. The complete component list and directions for assembly of the laser are posted on-line at www.octresearch.org.

  14. Frequency domain photothermoacoustic signal amplitude dependence on the optical properties of water: turbid polyvinyl chloride-plastisol system.

    PubMed

    Spirou, Gloria M; Mandelis, Andreas; Vitkin, I Alex; Whelan, William M

    2008-05-10

    Photoacoustic (more precisely, photothermoacoustic) signals generated by the absorption of photons can be related to the incident laser fluence rate. The dependence of frequency domain photoacoustic (FD-PA) signals on the optical absorption coefficient (micro(a)) and the effective attenuation coefficient (micro(eff)) of a turbid medium [polyvinyl chloride-plastisol (PVCP)] with tissuelike optical properties was measured, and empirical relationships between these optical properties and the photoacoustic (PA) signal amplitude and the laser fluence rate were derived for the water (PVCP system with and without optical scatterers). The measured relationships between these sample optical properties and the PA signal amplitude were found to be linear, consistent with FD-PA theory: micro(a)=a(A/Phi)-b and micro(eff)=c(A/Phi)+d, where Phi is the laser fluence, A is the FD-PA amplitude, and a, ...,d are empirical coefficients determined from the experiment using linear frequency-swept modulation and a lock-in heterodyne detection technique. This quantitative technique can easily be used to measure the optical properties of general turbid media using FD-PAs.

  15. Full-range imaging of eye accommodation by high-speed long-depth range optical frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Satoh, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Reiko; Choi, Donghak; Nakanishi, Motoi; Igarashi, Akihito; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohbayashi, Kohji; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2010-01-01

    We describe a high-speed long-depth range optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system employing a long-coherence length tunable source and demonstrate dynamic full-range imaging of the anterior segment of the eye including from the cornea surface to the posterior capsule of the crystalline lens with a depth range of 12 mm without removing complex conjugate image ambiguity. The tunable source spanned from 1260 to 1360 nm with an average output power of 15.8 mW. The fast A-scan rate of 20,000 per second provided dynamic OFDI and dependence of the whole anterior segment change on time following abrupt relaxation from the accommodated to the relaxed status, which was measured for a healthy eye and that with an intraocular lens. PMID:21258564

  16. Analytical investigation of a novel interrogation approach of fiber Bragg grating sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksel, Kivilcim; Pala, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a novel approach in interrogating Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of cascaded identical FBGs using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). The fundamentals of both polarisation properties of uniform FBGs and polarisation-sensitive OFDR are explained and the benefits of this novel approach in measuring transversal load are discussed. The numerical programs computing the spectral evolution of PDL of the FBGs in the array as a function of grating parameters (grating length and birefringence) are presented. Our simulation results show an excellent agreement with the previously reported simulation (and experimental) results in the literature obtained on a single FBG by using classical state-of-the-art measurement techniques. As an envisaged application, the proposed system shows the feasibility of measuring the residual stresses during manufacturing process of composite materials which is not straightforward by amplitude spectrum measurements and/or considering only the axial strains.

  17. New insights into the coronary artery bifurcation hypothesis-generating concepts utilizing 3-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Vasim; Serruys, Patrick W; Heo, Jung Ho; Gogas, Bill D; Okamura, Takayuki; Gomez-Lara, Josep; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Garcìa-Garcìa, Hector M; van Geuns, Robert Jan

    2011-08-01

    Coronary artery bifurcations are a common challenging lesion subset accounting for approximately 10% to 20% of all percutaneous coronary interventions. The provisional T-stenting approach is generally recommended as the first-line management of most lesions. Carina shift is suggested to be the predominant mechanism of side-branch pinching during provisional T-stenting and has been indirectly inferred from bench work and other intravascular imaging modalities. Offline 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of patients studied in the first-in-man trial of the high-frequency (160 frames/s) Terumo optical frequency domain imaging system were undertaken using volume-rendering software. Through a series of 3D reconstructions, several novel hypothesis-generating concepts are presented.

  18. Molecular Electronics for Frequency Domain Optical Storage. Persistent Spectral Hole-Burning. A Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-25

    if applicable) Office of Naval Research IBM Almaden Research Center Chemistry Division, Code 1113 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b...NOTATION Journal of Molecular Electronics 17. .* COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse of necessary and identify by block number) FIEL GRUP SB...GOUP Molecular electronics, spectral hole-burning, frequency I I domain. optical storage, solid state photo chemistry , * I photon gating. 19. ABSTRACT

  19. Magnetic resonance guided optical spectroscopy imaging of human breast cancer using a combined frequency domain and continuous wave approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Davis, Scott C.; Jiang, Shudong; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used to image high-risk patients for breast cancer because of its higher sensitivity to tumors (approaching 100%) than traditional x-ray mammography. We focus on Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as an emerging functional and molecular imaging technique that non-invasively quantifies optical properties of total hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water content, scattering, and lipid concentration to increase the relatively low specificity of DCE-MRI. Our optical imaging system combines six frequency domain wavelengths, measured using PMT detectors with three continuous wave wavelengths measured using CCD/spectrometers. We present methods on combining the synergistic attributes of DCE-MR and NIRS for in-vivo imaging of breast cancer in three dimensions using a custom optical MR breast coil and diffusion based light modeling software, NIRFAST. We present results from phantom studies, healthy subjects, and breast cancer patients. Preliminary results show contrast recovery within 10% in phantoms and spatial resolution less than 5mm. Images from healthy subjects were recovered with properties similar to literature values and previous studies. Patient images have shown elevated total hemoglobin values and water fraction, agreeing with histology and previous results. The additional information gained from NIRS may improve the ability to distinguish between malignant and benign lesions during MR imaging. These dual modality instruments will provide complex anatomical and molecular prognostic information, and may decrease the number of biopsies, thereby improving patient care.

  20. Accurate reconstruction of the optical parameter distribution in participating medium based on the frequency-domain radiative transfer equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yao-Bin; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fang-Zhou; Ruan, Li-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing the distribution of optical parameters in the participating medium based on the frequency-domain radiative transfer equation (FD-RTE) to probe the internal structure of the medium is investigated in the present work. The forward model of FD-RTE is solved via the finite volume method (FVM). The regularization term formatted by the generalized Gaussian Markov random field model is used in the objective function to overcome the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. The multi-start conjugate gradient (MCG) method is employed to search the minimum of the objective function and increase the efficiency of convergence. A modified adjoint differentiation technique using the collimated radiative intensity is developed to calculate the gradient of the objective function with respect to the optical parameters. All simulation results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm based on FD-RTE can obtain the accurate distributions of absorption and scattering coefficients. The reconstructed images of the scattering coefficient have less errors than those of the absorption coefficient, which indicates the former are more suitable to probing the inner structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51476043), the Major National Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development Special Foundation of China (Grant No. 51327803), and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51121004).

  1. A sensitivity function-based conjugate gradient method for optical tomography with the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Keol; Charette, André

    2007-03-01

    The Sensitivity Function-based Conjugate Gradient Method (SFCGM) is described. This method is used to solve the inverse problems of function estimation, such as the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients, as applied to optical tomography for biomedical imaging. A highly scattering, absorbing, non-reflecting, non-emitting medium is considered here and simultaneous reconstructions of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the test medium are achieved with the proposed optimization technique, by using the exit intensity measured at boundary surfaces. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method on the framework of the frequency-domain full equation of radiative transfer. The modulation frequency is set to 600 MHz and the frequency data, obtained with the source modulation, is used as the input data. The inversion results demonstrate that the SFCGM can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by significantly reducing a cross-talk between inter-parameters. It is also observed that the closer-to-detector objects are better retrieved.

  2. Time-resolved blood flow measurement in the in vivo mouse model by optical frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Julia; Mueller, Gregor; Meissner, Sven; Cimalla, Peter; Homann, Hanno; Morawietz, Henning; Koch, Edmund

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that phase-resolved Doppler optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is very suitable to quantify the pulsatile blood flow within a vasodynamic measurement in the in vivo mouse model. For this, an OFDI-system with a read-out rate of 20 kHz and a center wavelength of 1320 nm has been used to image the time-resolved murine blood flow in 300 μμm vessels. Because OFDI is less sensitive to fringe washout due to axial sample motion, it is applied to analyze the blood flow velocities and the vascular dynamics in six-week-old C57BL/6 mice compared to one of the LDLR knockout strain kept under sedentary conditions or with access to voluntary wheel running. We have shown that the systolic as well as the diastolic phase of the pulsatile arterial blood flow can be well identified at each vasodynamic state. Furthermore, the changes of the flow velocities after vasoconstriction and -dilation were presented and interpreted in the entire physiological context. With this, the combined measurement of time-resolved blood flow and vessel diameter provides the basis to analyze the vascular function and its influence on the blood flow of small arteries of different mouse strains in response to different life styles.

  3. Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 1300nm bio-imaging window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meleppat, Ratheesh Kumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Seah, Leong Keey

    2015-07-01

    Optical frequency domain imaging system (OFDI) in the 1300nm biological imaging window is demonstrated by using a high speed frequency swept laser source. The output of the laser with central wave length of 1320nm is continuously tuned over a bandwidth of 100nm with a repetition rate of 16 KHz. The laser source has an instantaneous coherence length of 6mm and delivers an average power of 12mW. Axial resolution ~ 6μm in the biological tissue and peak sensitivity of 110dB are achieved. The experimentally determined values of the imaging parameters such as the axial resolution, sensitivity and depth range are found to be in good agreement with the theoretically estimated values. The developed system is capable of generating the images of size 512x1024 at a rate of 20 frames per second. High resolution and high contrast images of the finger nail and anterior chamber of a pig's eye acquired using the developed OFDI system are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of the system for in-vivo biomedical imaging applications.

  4. Invited Article: Acousto-optic finite-difference frequency-domain algorithm for first-principles simulations of on-chip acousto-optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Cerjan, Alexander; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a finite-difference frequency-domain algorithm for coupled acousto-optic simulations. First-principles acousto-optic simulation in time domain has been challenging due to the fact that the acoustic and optical frequencies differ by many orders of magnitude. We bypass this difficulty by formulating the interactions between the optical and acoustic waves rigorously as a system of coupled nonlinear equations in frequency domain. This approach is particularly suited for on-chip devices that are based on a variety of acousto-optic interactions such as the stimulated Brillouin scattering. We validate our algorithm by simulating a stimulated Brillouin scattering process in a suspended waveguide structure and find excellent agreement with coupled-mode theory. We further provide an example of a simulation for a compact on-chip resonator device that greatly enhances the effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering. Our algorithm should facilitate the design of nanophotonic on-chip devices for the harnessing of photon-phonon interactions.

  5. FWT2D: A massively parallel program for frequency-domain full-waveform tomography of wide-aperture seismic data—Part 1: Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbier, Florent; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean; Amestoy, Patrick; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    This is the first paper in a two-part series that describes a massively parallel code that performs 2D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data for imaging complex structures. Full-waveform inversion methods, namely quantitative seismic imaging methods based on the resolution of the full wave equation, are computationally expensive. Therefore, designing efficient algorithms which take advantage of parallel computing facilities is critical for the appraisal of these approaches when applied to representative case studies and for further improvements. Full-waveform modelling requires the resolution of a large sparse system of linear equations which is performed with the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS for efficient multiple-shot simulations. Efficiency of the multiple-shot solution phase (forward/backward substitutions) is improved by using the BLAS3 library. The inverse problem relies on a classic local optimization approach implemented with a gradient method. The direct solver returns the multiple-shot wavefield solutions distributed over the processors according to a domain decomposition driven by the distribution of the LU factors. The domain decomposition of the wavefield solutions is used to compute in parallel the gradient of the objective function and the diagonal Hessian, this latter providing a suitable scaling of the gradient. The algorithm allows one to test different strategies for multiscale frequency inversion ranging from successive mono-frequency inversion to simultaneous multifrequency inversion. These different inversion strategies will be illustrated in the following companion paper. The parallel efficiency and the scalability of the code will also be quantified.

  6. Comparison of frequency domain optical coherence tomography and quantitative coronary angiography for the assessment of coronary lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Haroon; Sharif, Faisal; Leahy, Martin J.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) has been used as a standard technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease for many years. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers higher resolution, faster image acquisition speeds and greater sensitivity than the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Recently developed frequency domain OCT (FD-OCT) systems overcome many technical limitations of conventional time domain OCT systems (TDOCT). The main objective of this study was to compare the FD-OCT and QCA measurements for the assessment of coronary lesions. A total of 21 stenoses in 18 patients were analysed using QCA and FD-OCT. The average minimum lumen diameter (MLD) and percent lumen area stenosis (%AS) by QCA were 1.52+/-0.44 mm and 68+/-9% respectively. The average MLD and %AS by FD-OCT were 1.32+/-0.38 mm and 63+/-14% respectively. There was a moderate but significant correlation between QCA and FD-OCT measured MLD (r = 0.5, p < 0.01) and %AS (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean differences between the QCA and FD-OCT measurements were 0.18+/-0.81 (limits of agreement: -0.63 to 0.99) for MLD and 4.4+/-22.8 (limits of agreement: -18.4 to 27.2) for %AS. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the QCA and FD-OCT measured MLD and %AS was +/-0.44 mm and +/-12.1% respectively.

  7. A parallel algorithm for 2D visco-acoustic frequency-domain full-waveform inversion: application to a dense OBS data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbier, F.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present a distributed-memory parallel algorithm for 2D visco-acoustic full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. Our code is written in fortran90 and use MPI for parallelism. The algorithm was applied to real wide-angle data set recorded by 100 OBSs with a 1-km spacing in the eastern-Nankai trough (Japan) to image the deep structure of the subduction zone. Full-waveform inversion is applied sequentially to discrete frequencies by proceeding from the low to the high frequencies. The inverse problem is solved with a classic gradient method. Full-waveform modeling is performed with a frequency-domain finite-difference method. In the frequency-domain, solving the wave equation requires resolution of a large unsymmetric system of linear equations. We use the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS (http://www.enseeiht.fr/irit/apo/MUMPS) for distributed-memory computer to solve this system. The MUMPS solver is based on a multifrontal method for the parallel factorization. The MUMPS algorithm is subdivided in 3 main steps: a symbolic analysis step that performs re-ordering of the matrix coefficients to minimize the fill-in of the matrix during the subsequent factorization and an estimation of the assembly tree of the matrix. Second, the factorization is performed with dynamic scheduling to accomodate numerical pivoting and provides the LU factors distributed over all the processors. Third, the resolution is performed for multiple sources. To compute the gradient of the cost function, 2 simulations per shot are required (one to compute the forward wavefield and one to back-propagate residuals). The multi-source resolutions can be performed in parallel with MUMPS. In the end, each processor stores in core a sub-domain of all the solutions. These distributed solutions can be exploited to compute in parallel the gradient of the cost function. Since the gradient of the cost function is a weighted stack of the shot and residual solutions of MUMPS, each processor

  8. Efficient frequency-domain channel equalization methods for dual-polarization orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing/offset quadrature amplitude modulation-passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Fang, Xi; Tang, Xuan; Lin, Chun; Li, Yiwei; Zhang, Shihao; Wu, Yi; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    We present dual-polarization orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing/offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM/OQAM) transmission for passive optical network (PON) with intensity modulation and direct detection, which has high spectral efficiency and high robustness against chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The frequency-domain optical fiber channel transmission model for dual-polarization OFDM/OQAM-PON with the CD- and PMD-induced intrinsic imaginary interference (IMI) effect is systemically deduced. The intrasymbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) and minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) with the full loaded (FL) and half loaded (HL) preamble structures are used to mitigate the IMI effect. Compared with the conventional interference approximation method, the ISFA and MMSE offer improved receiver sensitivity. For channel estimation, the FL method is more effective than the HL method in mitigating the IMI effect and optical noise.

  9. Frequency domain photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Gregor; Buchegger, Bianca; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Klar, Thomas A.; Berer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report on simultaneous frequency domain optical-resolution photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy with sub-µm lateral resolution. With the help of a blood smear, we show that photoacoustic and fluorescence images provide complementary information. Furthermore, we compare theoretically predicted signal-to-noise ratios of sinusoidal modulation in frequency domain with pulsed excitation in time domain. PMID:27446698

  10. A single-channel 1.92 Tbit/s, 64 QAM coherent optical pulse transmission over 150 km using frequency-domain equalization.

    PubMed

    Otuya, David Odeke; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2013-09-23

    We demonstrate a single-channel 1.92 Tbit/s, 64 QAM coherent optical pulse optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) transmission by utilizing frequency-domain equalization (FDE). FDE makes it possible to compensate precisely for the waveform distortions caused by hardware imperfections thus greatly improving the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the demodulated 64 QAM signal compared with that obtained with a conventional FIR filter. As a result, a coherent 64 QAM OTDM transmission over 150 km with a bit error rate of below the forward error correction limit of 2 x 10⁻³ (requiring 7% overhead) was achieved for the first time.

  11. Trajectories in parallel optics.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David

    2011-10-01

    In our previous work we showed the ability to improve the optical system's matrix condition by optical design, thereby improving its robustness to noise. It was shown that by using singular value decomposition, a target point-spread function (PSF) matrix can be defined for an auxiliary optical system, which works parallel to the original system to achieve such an improvement. In this paper, after briefly introducing the all optics implementation of the auxiliary system, we show a method to decompose the target PSF matrix. This is done through a series of shifted responses of auxiliary optics (named trajectories), where a complicated hardware filter is replaced by postprocessing. This process manipulates the pixel confined PSF response of simple auxiliary optics, which in turn creates an auxiliary system with the required PSF matrix. This method is simulated on two space variant systems and reduces their system condition number from 18,598 to 197 and from 87,640 to 5.75, respectively. We perform a study of the latter result and show significant improvement in image restoration performance, in comparison to a system without auxiliary optics and to other previously suggested hybrid solutions. Image restoration results show that in a range of low signal-to-noise ratio values, the trajectories method gives a significant advantage over alternative approaches. A third space invariant study case is explored only briefly, and we present a significant improvement in the matrix condition number from 1.9160e+013 to 34,526.

  12. Large depth-high resolution full 3D imaging of the anterior segments of the eye using high speed optical frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbage, C.; Lim, H.; Sun, W.; Mujat, M.; de Boer, J. F.

    2007-06-01

    Three dimensional rapid large depth range imaging of the anterior segments of the human eye by an optical frequency domain imaging system is presented. The tunable source spans from 1217 to 1356 nm with an average output power of 60 mW providing a measured axial resolution of 10 μm in air based on the coherence envelope. The effective depth range is 4 mm, defined as the distance over which the sensitivity drops by 6 dB, achieved by frequency shifting the optical signal using acousto-optic modulators. The measured maximum sensitivity is 109 dB at a sample arm power of 14.7mW and A-lines rate of 43,900 per second. Images consisting of 512 depth profiles are acquired at an acquisition rate of 85 frames per second. We demonstrate an optical frequency domain imaging system capable of mapping in vivo the entire area of the human anterior segment (13.4 x 12 x 4.2 mm) in 1.4 seconds.

  13. Experimental demonstration of half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM direct-detection optical communication system with data-aided estimation and overlap frequency-domain equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Danyu; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2014-12-01

    A half cycle 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Nyquist subcarrier modulation (SCM) polarization division multiplexing (PDM) intensity modulation direct detection optical communication system is experimentally demonstrated. At the receiver, training sequences-based channel estimation and an overlap frequency domain equalization method are proposed to enhance the system performance. The experimental results show that the half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM PDM signal can be transmitted over 43-km standard single-mode fibers with a bit error rate below the forward error coding threshold of 2.4×10-2.

  14. Real-time simultaneous single snapshot of optical properties and blood flow using coherent spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI)

    PubMed Central

    Ghijsen, Michael; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Gioux, Sylvain; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present and validate a wide-field method for the real-time mapping of tissue absorption, scattering and blood flow properties over wide regions of tissue (15 cm x 15 cm) with high temporal resolution (50 frames per second). We achieve this by applying Fourier Domain demodulation techniques to coherent spatial frequency domain imaging to extract optical properties and speckle flow index from a single snapshot. Applying this technique to forearm reactive hyperemia protocols demonstrates the ability to resolve intrinsic physiological signals such as the heart beat waveform and the buildup of deoxyhemoglobin associated with oxygen consumption. PMID:27231595

  15. Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lo, William C Y; Villiger, Martin; Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G Felix; Khan, Saiqa; Lian, Christine G; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin; Bouma, Brett E

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS), frequently seen after traumatic injuries and surgery, remain a major clinical challenge because of the limited success of existing therapies. A significant obstacle to understanding HTS etiology is the lack of tools to monitor scar remodeling longitudinally and noninvasively. We present an in vivo, label-free technique using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging for the 3D, longitudinal assessment of collagen remodeling in murine HTS. In this study, HTS was induced with a mechanical tension device for 4-10 days on incisional wounds and imaged up to 1 month after device removal; an excisional HTS model was also imaged at 6 months after injury to investigate deeper and more mature scars. We showed that local retardation and degree of polarization provide a robust signature for HTS. Compared with normal skin with heterogeneous local retardation and low degree of polarization, HTS was characterized by an initially low local retardation, which increased as collagen fibers remodeled, and a persistently high degree of polarization. This study demonstrates that polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging offers a powerful tool to gain significant biological insights into HTS remodeling by enabling longitudinal assessment of collagen in vivo, which is critical to elucidating HTS etiology and developing more effective HTS therapies.

  16. Bio-Photonic Detection and Quantitative Evaluation Method for the Progression of Dental Caries Using Optical Frequency-Domain Imaging Method

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-01-01

    The initial detection of dental caries is an essential biomedical requirement to barricade the progression of caries and tooth demineralization. The objective of this study is to introduce an optical frequency-domain imaging technique based quantitative evaluation method to calculate the volume and thickness of enamel residual, and a quantification method was developed to evaluate the total intensity fluctuation in depth direction owing to carious lesions, which can be favorable to identify the progression of dental caries in advance. The cross-sectional images of the ex vivo tooth samples were acquired using 1.3 μm spectral domain optical coherence tomography system (SD-OCT). Moreover, the advantages of the proposed method over the conventional dental inspection methods were compared to highlight the potential capability of OCT. As a consequence, the threshold parameters obtained through the developed method can be used as an efficient investigating technique for the initial detection of demineralization. PMID:27929440

  17. Aqueous glucose measurement using differential absorption-based frequency domain optical coherence tomography at wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1625 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Pauline; Manoj, Murali; Sujatha, N.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Rao, Suresh R.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a combination of differential absorption technique and frequency domain optical coherence tomography for detection of glucose, which is an important analyte in medical diagnosis of diabetes. Differential absorption technique is used to detect glucose selectively in the presence of interfering species especially water and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) helps to obtain faster acquisition of depth information. Two broadband super-luminescent diode (SLED) sources with centre wavelengths 1586 nm (wavelength range of 1540 to 1640 nm) and 1312 nm (wavelength range of 1240 to 1380 nm) and a spectral width of ≍ 60 nm (FWHM) are used. Preliminary studies on absorption spectroscopy using various concentrations of aqueous glucose solution gave promising results to distinguish the absorption characteristics of glucose at two wavelengths 1310 nm (outside the absorption band of glucose) and 1625 nm (within the absorption band of glucose). In order to mimic the optical properties of biological skin tissue, 2% and 10% of 20% intralipid with various concentrations of glucose (0 to 4000 mg/dL) was prepared and used as sample. Using OCT technique, interference spectra were obtained using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Further processing of the interference spectra provided information on reflections from the surfaces of the cuvette containing the aqueous glucose sample. Due to the absorption of glucose in the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1640 nm, a trend of reduction in the intensity of the back reflected light was observed with increase in the concentration of glucose.

  18. Frequency-domain endoscopic diffuse optical tomography reconstruction algorithm based on dual-modulation-frequency and dual-points source diffuse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhuanping; Hou, Qiang; Zhao, Huijuan; Yang, Yanshuang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Gao, Feng

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, frequency-domain endoscopic diffuse optical tomography image reconstruction algorithm based on dual-modulation-frequency and dual-points source diffuse equation is investigated for the reconstruction of the optical parameters including the absorption and reducing scattering coefficients. The forward problem is solved by the finite element method based on the frequency domain diffuse equation (FD-DE) for dual-points source approximation and multi-modulation-frequency. In the image reconstruction, a multi-modulation-frequency Newton-Raphson algorithm is applied to obtain the solution. To further improve the image accuracy and quality, a method based on the region of interest (ROI) is applied on the above procedures. The simulation is performed in the tubular model to verify the validity of the algorithm. Results show that the FD-DE with dual-points source approximate is more accuracy at shorter source-detector separation. The reconstruction with dual-modulation-frequency improves the image accuracy and quality compared to the results with single-modulation-frequency and triple-modulation-frequency method. The peak optical coefficients in ROI (ROI_max) are almost equivalent to the true optical coefficients with the relative error less than 6.67%. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) achieves 82% of the true radius. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image coefficient(IC) is 5.678 and 26.962, respectively. Additionally, the results with the method based on ROI show that the ROI_max is equivalent to the true value. The FWHM can improve by 88% of the true radius. The CNR and IC is improved over 7.782 and 45.335, respectively.

  19. Persistent Spectral Hole Burning Materials for Time-and- Frequency-Domain Optical Memories and Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    spectral hole burning, optical material, rare earth , photon echo, optical correlator, laser, optical, spectroscopy, coherent transient 17. SECURITY...that determine material performance, emphasizing parameters relevant to device development. Attention was focused on rare earth and transition metal...Er3+ ions and optimized their hole burning and coherent transient properties. Crystal composition and rare earth ion concentration were tailored to

  20. Quantification of airway thickness changes in smoke-inhalation injury using in-vivo 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Won; Heidary, Andrew E.; Yoon, David; Mukai, David; Ramalingam, Tirunelveli; Mahon, Sari; Yin, Jiechen; Jing, Joseph; Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury is frequently accompanied by cyanide poisoning that may result in substantial morbidity and mortality, and methods are needed to quantitatively determine extent of airway injury. We utilized a 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) constructed with a swept-source laser to investigate morphological airway changes following smoke and cyanide exposure in rabbits. The thickness of the mucosal area between the epithelium and cartilage in the airway was measured and quantified. 3-D endoscopic FD-OCT was able to detect significant increases in the thickness of the tracheal walls of the rabbit beginning almost immediately after smoke inhalation injuries which were similar to those with combined smoke and cyanide poisoning. PMID:21339870

  1. Robust and fast characterization of OCT-based optical attenuation using a novel frequency-domain algorithm for brain cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wu; Kut, Carmen; Liang, Wenxuan; Li, Xingde

    2017-03-01

    Cancer is known to alter the local optical properties of tissues. The detection of OCT-based optical attenuation provides a quantitative method to efficiently differentiate cancer from non-cancer tissues. In particular, the intraoperative use of quantitative OCT is able to provide a direct visual guidance in real time for accurate identification of cancer tissues, especially these without any obvious structural layers, such as brain cancer. However, current methods are suboptimal in providing high-speed and accurate OCT attenuation mapping for intraoperative brain cancer detection. In this paper, we report a novel frequency-domain (FD) algorithm to enable robust and fast characterization of optical attenuation as derived from OCT intensity images. The performance of this FD algorithm was compared with traditional fitting methods by analyzing datasets containing images from freshly resected human brain cancer and from a silica phantom acquired by a 1310 nm swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. With graphics processing unit (GPU)-based CUDA C/C++ implementation, this new attenuation mapping algorithm can offer robust and accurate quantitative interpretation of OCT images in real time during brain surgery.

  2. Robust and fast characterization of OCT-based optical attenuation using a novel frequency-domain algorithm for brain cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wu; Kut, Carmen; Liang, Wenxuan; Li, Xingde

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is known to alter the local optical properties of tissues. The detection of OCT-based optical attenuation provides a quantitative method to efficiently differentiate cancer from non-cancer tissues. In particular, the intraoperative use of quantitative OCT is able to provide a direct visual guidance in real time for accurate identification of cancer tissues, especially these without any obvious structural layers, such as brain cancer. However, current methods are suboptimal in providing high-speed and accurate OCT attenuation mapping for intraoperative brain cancer detection. In this paper, we report a novel frequency-domain (FD) algorithm to enable robust and fast characterization of optical attenuation as derived from OCT intensity images. The performance of this FD algorithm was compared with traditional fitting methods by analyzing datasets containing images from freshly resected human brain cancer and from a silica phantom acquired by a 1310 nm swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. With graphics processing unit (GPU)-based CUDA C/C++ implementation, this new attenuation mapping algorithm can offer robust and accurate quantitative interpretation of OCT images in real time during brain surgery. PMID:28327613

  3. Robust and fast characterization of OCT-based optical attenuation using a novel frequency-domain algorithm for brain cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu; Kut, Carmen; Liang, Wenxuan; Li, Xingde

    2017-03-22

    Cancer is known to alter the local optical properties of tissues. The detection of OCT-based optical attenuation provides a quantitative method to efficiently differentiate cancer from non-cancer tissues. In particular, the intraoperative use of quantitative OCT is able to provide a direct visual guidance in real time for accurate identification of cancer tissues, especially these without any obvious structural layers, such as brain cancer. However, current methods are suboptimal in providing high-speed and accurate OCT attenuation mapping for intraoperative brain cancer detection. In this paper, we report a novel frequency-domain (FD) algorithm to enable robust and fast characterization of optical attenuation as derived from OCT intensity images. The performance of this FD algorithm was compared with traditional fitting methods by analyzing datasets containing images from freshly resected human brain cancer and from a silica phantom acquired by a 1310 nm swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. With graphics processing unit (GPU)-based CUDA C/C++ implementation, this new attenuation mapping algorithm can offer robust and accurate quantitative interpretation of OCT images in real time during brain surgery.

  4. Long-range measurement of Rayleigh scatter signature beyond laser coherence length based on coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Shingo; Iida, Daisuke; Toge, Kunihiro; Manabe, Tetsuya

    2016-08-22

    Long-range C-OFDR measurement of fiber Rayleigh scatter signature is described. The Rayleigh scatter signature, which is an interference pattern of backscatters from the random refractive indices in fibers, is known to be applicable to fiber identification and temperature or strain sensing by measuring its repeatability and its spectral shift. However, these applications have not been realized at ranges beyond the laser coherence length since laser phase noise degrades its repeatability. This paper proposes and demonstrates a method for analyzing the optical power spectrum of local Rayleigh backscatter to overcome the limitation imposed by laser phase noise. The measurable range and spatial performance are also investigated experimentally with respect to the remaining phase noise and noise reduction by signal averaging with the proposed method. The feasibility of Rayleigh scatter signature measurement for long-range applications is confirmed.

  5. Apparatus and method for qualitative and quantitative measurements of optical properties of turbid media using frequency-domain photon migration

    DOEpatents

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tsay, Tsong T.; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lara O.; Haskell, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Optical measurements of turbid media, that is media characterized by multiple light scattering, is provided through an apparatus and method for exposing a sample to a modulated laser beam. The light beam is modulated at a fundamental frequency and at a plurality of integer harmonics thereof. Modulated light is returned from the sample and preferentially detected at cross frequencies at frequencies slightly higher than the fundamental frequency and at integer harmonics of the same. The received radiance at the beat or cross frequencies is compared against a reference signal to provide a measure of the phase lag of the radiance and modulation ratio relative to a reference beam. The phase and modulation amplitude are then provided as a frequency spectrum by an array processor to which a computer applies a complete curve fit in the case of highly scattering samples or a linear curve fit below a predetermined frequency in the case of highly absorptive samples. The curve fit in any case is determined by the absorption and scattering coefficients together with a concentration of the active substance in the sample. Therefore, the curve fitting to the frequency spectrum can be used both for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in the sample even though the sample is highly turbid.

  6. Apparatus and method for qualitative and quantitative measurements of optical properties of turbid media using frequency-domain photon migration

    DOEpatents

    Tromberg, B.J.; Tsay, T.T.; Berns, M.W.; Svaasand, L.O.; Haskell, R.C.

    1995-06-13

    Optical measurements of turbid media, that is media characterized by multiple light scattering, is provided through an apparatus and method for exposing a sample to a modulated laser beam. The light beam is modulated at a fundamental frequency and at a plurality of integer harmonics thereof. Modulated light is returned from the sample and preferentially detected at cross frequencies at frequencies slightly higher than the fundamental frequency and at integer harmonics of the same. The received radiance at the beat or cross frequencies is compared against a reference signal to provide a measure of the phase lag of the radiance and modulation ratio relative to a reference beam. The phase and modulation amplitude are then provided as a frequency spectrum by an array processor to which a computer applies a complete curve fit in the case of highly scattering samples or a linear curve fit below a predetermined frequency in the case of highly absorptive samples. The curve fit in any case is determined by the absorption and scattering coefficients together with a concentration of the active substance in the sample. Therefore, the curve fitting to the frequency spectrum can be used both for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in the sample even though the sample is highly turbid. 14 figs.

  7. Generalized regression neural network trained preprocessing of frequency domain correlation filter for improved face recognition and its optical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Pradipta K.; Datta, Asit K.

    2013-02-01

    The paper proposes an improved strategy for face recognition using correlation filter under varying lighting conditions and occlusion where spatial domain preprocessing is carried out by two convolution kernels. The first convolution kernel is a contour kernel for emphasizing high frequency components of face image and the other kernel is a smoothing kernel used for minimization of noise those may arise due to preprocessing. The convolution kernels are obtained by training a generalized regression neural network using enhanced face features. Face features are enhanced by conventional principal component analysis. The proposed method reduces the false acceptance rate and false rejection rate in comparison to other standard correlation filtering techniques. Moreover, the processing is fast when compared to the existing illumination normalization techniques. A scheme of hardware implementation of all optical correlation technique is also suggested based on single spatial light modulator in a beam folding architecture. Two benchmark databases YaleB and PIE are used for performance verification of the proposed scheme and the improved results are obtained for both illumination variations and occlusions in test face images.

  8. Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult

    PubMed Central

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Grant, P. Ellen; Sliva, Danielle D.; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Pienaar, Rudolph; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Selb, Juliette

    2011-01-01

    The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method allows for the estimation of optical properties in biological tissue using the phase and intensity of radiofrequency modulated light at different source-detector separations. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of this method to retrieve the absorption coefficient of the brain at different ages. Synthetic measurements were generated with Monte Carlo simulations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based heterogeneous head models for four ages: newborn, 6 and 12 month old infants, and adult. For each age, we determined the optimal set of source-detector separations and estimated the corresponding errors. Errors arise from different origins: methodological (FD-MD) and anatomical (curvature, head size and contamination by extra-cerebral tissues). We found that the brain optical absorption could be retrieved with an error between 8–24% in neonates and infants, while the error increased to 19–44% in adults over all source-detector distances. The dominant contribution to the error was found to be the head curvature in neonates and infants, and the extra-cerebral tissues in adults. PMID:21412461

  9. Evaluation of the accuracy of brain optical properties estimation at different ages using the frequency-domain multi-distance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Grant, P. Ellen; Sliva, Danielle D.; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Pienaar, Rudolph; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Selb, Juliette

    2011-03-01

    NIRS is safe, non-invasive and offers the possibility to record local hemodynamic parameters at the bedside, avoiding the transportation of neonates and critically ill patients. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method to retrieve brain optical properties from neonate to adult. Realistic measurements are simulated using a 3D Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation. Height different ages were investigated: a term newborn of 38 weeks gestational age, two infants of 6 and 12 months of age, a toddler of 2 year (yr.) old, two children of 5 and 10 years of age, a teenager of 14 yr. old, and an adult. Measurements are generated at multiple distances on the right parietal area of head models and fitted to a homogeneous FD-MD model to estimate the brain optical properties. In the newborn, infants, toddler and 5 yr. old child models, the error was dominated by the head curvature, while the superficial layer in the 10 yr. old child, teenager and adult heads. The influence of the CSF is also evaluated. In this case, absorption coefficients suffer from an additional error. In all cases, measurements at 5 mm provided worse estimation because of the diffusion approximation.

  10. Quantitative fluorescence imaging enabled by spatial frequency domain optical-property mapping in the sub-diffusive regime for surgical guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibai, Mira; Veilleux, Israel; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Leblond, Frederic; Roberts, David W.; Wilson, Brian C.

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence guidance enables maximum safe resection of, for example, glioblastomas by providing surgeons with real-time tumor optical contrast. Specifically, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence guided resection can improve surgical outcomes by better defining tumor margins and identifying satellite tumor foci. However, visual assessment of PpIX fluorescence is subjective and limited by the distorting effects of light attenuation (absorption and scattering) by tissue and background tissue autofluorescence. We have previously shown, using a point fluorescence-reflectance fiberoptic probe, that non-invasive measurement of the absolute PpIX concentration, [PpIX], further improves sensitivity and specificity, leading to the demonstration that the technique can also detect low-grade gliomas as well as otherwise undetectable residual tumor foci in high-grade disease. Here, we extend this approach to wide-field quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) by implementing spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) to recover the tissue optical absorption and transport scattering coefficients across the field of view. We report on the performance of this approach to determine the intrinsic fluorescence intensity in tissue-simulating phantoms in both the fully diffusive (i.e. scatter-dominated) and sub-diffusive (low transport albedo) regimes, for which higher spatial frequencies are used. The performance of qFI is compared to a Born- normalization correction scheme, as well as to the values obtained using the fiberoptic probe on homogeneous tissue phantoms containing PpIX.

  11. Comparison of intravascular optical frequency domain imaging versus intravascular ultrasound during balloon pulmonary angioplasty in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Shuji; Okazaki, Toru; Hara, Hisao; Hiroi, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study are (1) to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) during balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) procedures, (2) to assess the correlations between the vessel area (VA) and luminal area (LA) obtained by OFDI and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and (3) to compare inter‐ and intra‐observer variability among measurements taken from OFDI and IVUS images. Background The BPA in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an evolving procedure. Methods Twenty‐three consecutive attempts of pair of OFDI and IVUS during BPA were evaluated. All complications that occurred during‐BPA and up to 48 hr post‐BPA were recorded. Using side branches as landmarks, 48 pairs of regions were chosen to compare measurements of VA and LA. Results OFDI images can be obtained without any procedurally related complications. Although the VA and LA measurements obtained by OFDI were smaller than those obtained by IVUS, high correlations were found (VA: r = 0.78, P < 0.0001 and LA: r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). Less inter‐ and intra‐observer variability was found when using measurements taken from OFDI versus IVUS images. Conclusions OFDI during BPA was safe and feasible. The reproducibility of OFDI imaging was excellent and offered a favorable addition to the BPA procedures. © 2016 The Authors Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991798

  12. Longitudinal, 3D Imaging of Collagen Remodeling in Murine Hypertrophic Scars In Vivo using Polarization-sensitive Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lo, William C. Y.; Villiger, Martin; Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Khan, Saiqa; Lian, Christine G.; Austen, William G.; Yarmush, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS), frequently seen after traumatic injuries and surgery, remain a major clinical challenge due to the limited success of existing therapies. A significant obstacle to understanding HTS etiology is the lack of tools to monitor scar remodeling longitudinally and non-invasively. We present an in vivo, label-free technique using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) for the 3D, longitudinal assessment of collagen remodeling in murine HTS. In this study, HTS was induced with a mechanical tension device for 4 to 10 days on incisional wounds and imaged up to one month after device removal; an excisional HTS model was also imaged at 6 months after injury to investigate deeper and more mature scars. We showed that local retardation (LR) and degree of polarization (DOP) provide a robust signature for HTS. Compared to normal skin with heterogeneous LR and low DOP, HTS was characterized by an initially low LR, which increased as collagen fibers remodeled, and a persistently high DOP. This study demonstrates that PS-OFDI offers a powerful tool to gain significant biological insights into HTS remodeling by enabling longitudinal assessment of collagen in vivo, which is critical to elucidating HTS etiology and developing more effective HTS therapies. PMID:26763427

  13. Optical Interferometric Parallel Data Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Image data processed faster than in present electronic systems. Optical parallel-processing system effectively calculates two-dimensional Fourier transforms in time required by light to travel from plane 1 to plane 8. Coherence interferometer at plane 4 splits light into parts that form double image at plane 6 if projection screen placed there.

  14. Terahertz Frequency-Domain Spectroscopy of Low-Pressure Acetonitrile Gas by a Photomixing Terahertz Synthesizer Referenced to Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Kimura, Hiroto; Hayashi, Kenta; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    A terahertz (THz) frequency synthesizer based on photomixing of two near-infrared lasers with a sub-THz to THz frequency offset is a powerful tool for spectroscopy of polar gas molecules due to its broad spectral coverage; however, its frequency accuracy and resolution are relatively low. To tune the output frequency continuously and widely while maintaining its traceability to a frequency standard, we developed a photomixing THz synthesizer phase-locked to dual optical frequency combs (OFCs). While the phase-locking to dual OFCs ensured continuous tuning within a spectral range of 120 GHz, in addition to the traceability to the frequency standard, use of a broadband uni-traveling carrier photodiode for photomixing enabled the generation of CW-THz radiation within a frequency range from 0.2 to 1.5 THz. We demonstrated THz frequency-domain spectroscopy of gas-phase acetonitrile CH3CN and its isotope CH3 13CN in the frequency range of 0.600-0.720 THz using this THz synthesizer. Their rotational transitions were assigned with a frequency accuracy of 8.42 × 10-8 and a frequency resolution of 520 kHz. Furthermore, the concentration of the CH3CN gas at 20 Pa was determined to be (5.41 ± 0.05) × 1014 molecules/cm3 by curve fitting analysis of the measured absorbance spectrum, and the mixture ratio of the mixed CH3CN/CH3 13CN gas was determined to be 1:2.26 with a gas concentration of 1014-1015 molecules/cm3. The developed THz synthesizer is highly promising for high-precision THz-FDS of low-pressure molecular gases and will enable the qualitative and quantitative analyses of multiple gases.

  15. Method and Apparatus of Multiplexing and Acquiring Data from Multiple Optical Fibers Using a Single Data Channel of an Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jr., Allen R (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Nino) (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for multiplexing a network of parallel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-fibers to a single acquisition channel of a closed Michelson interferometer system via a fiber splitter by distinguishing each branch of fiber sensors in the spatial domain. On each branch of the splitter, the fibers have a specific pre-determined length, effectively separating each branch of fiber sensors spatially. In the spatial domain the fiber branches are seen as part of one acquisition channel on the interrogation system. However, the FBG-reference arm beat frequency information for each fiber is retained. Since the beat frequency is generated between the reference arm, the effective fiber length of each successive branch includes the entire length of the preceding branch. The multiple branches are seen as one fiber having three segments where the segments can be resolved. This greatly simplifies optical, electronic and computational complexity, and is especially suited for use in multiplexed or branched OFS networks for SHM of large and/or distributed structures which need a lot of measurement points.

  16. Correlation between skin, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid layer thickness and optical coefficients measured by multidistance frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy in term and preterm infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demel, Anja; Feilke, Katharina; Wolf, Martin; Poets, Christian F.; Franz, Axel R.

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly used in neonatal intensive care. We investigated the impact of skin, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness in term and preterm infants on absorption-(μa) and/or reduced scattering coefficients (μs‧) measured by multidistance frequency-domain (FD)-NIRS. Transcranial ultrasound was performed to measure the layer thicknesses. Correlations were only statistically significant for μa at 692 nm with bone thickness and μs‧ at 834 nm with skin thickness. There is no evidence that skin, bone, or CSF thickness have an important effect on μa and μs‧. Layer thicknesses of skin, bone, and CSF in the range studied do not seem to affect cerebral oxygenation measurements by multidistance FD-NIRS significantly.

  17. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  18. Coherent-control of linear signals: Frequency-domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-10-01

    The dependence of various types of linear signals on the phase profile of broadband optical pulses is examined using fundamental time translation invariance symmetry of multipoint correlation functions. The frequency-domain wave-mixing analysis presented here unifies several arguments made earlier with respect to the conditions whereby coherent control schemes may be used.

  19. Parallel Readout of Optical Disks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    computing , several types of neural networks including optical and optoelectronic neural networks, image classifiers, and image correlators. 14...memory with possibly a huge storage capacity. A " neural network is an example of a massively par- allel computer architecture that maps well to...image correlator and holograms stored on the disk may serve as interconnect patterns for hybrid optical/ VLSI based neural net- works. In this paper

  20. Anti-aliasing Wiener filtering for wave-front reconstruction in the spatial-frequency domain for high-order astronomical adaptive-optics systems.

    PubMed

    Correia, Carlos M; Teixeira, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Computationally efficient wave-front reconstruction techniques for astronomical adaptive-optics (AO) systems have seen great development in the past decade. Algorithms developed in the spatial-frequency (Fourier) domain have gathered much attention, especially for high-contrast imaging systems. In this paper we present the Wiener filter (resulting in the maximization of the Strehl ratio) and further develop formulae for the anti-aliasing (AA) Wiener filter that optimally takes into account high-order wave-front terms folded in-band during the sensing (i.e., discrete sampling) process. We employ a continuous spatial-frequency representation for the forward measurement operators and derive the Wiener filter when aliasing is explicitly taken into account. We further investigate and compare to classical estimates using least-squares filters the reconstructed wave-front, measurement noise, and aliasing propagation coefficients as a function of the system order. Regarding high-contrast systems, we provide achievable performance results as a function of an ensemble of forward models for the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (using sparse and nonsparse representations) and compute point-spread-function raw intensities. We find that for a 32×32 single-conjugated AOs system the aliasing propagation coefficient is roughly 60% of the least-squares filters, whereas the noise propagation is around 80%. Contrast improvements of factors of up to 2 are achievable across the field in the H band. For current and next-generation high-contrast imagers, despite better aliasing mitigation, AA Wiener filtering cannot be used as a standalone method and must therefore be used in combination with optical spatial filters deployed before image formation actually takes place.

  1. Noninvasive cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation quantification of fetal sheep under hypoxic stress in utero using frequency-domain diffuse optical two-layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Nijland, Mark J. M.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2003-07-01

    A study using pregnant sheep was designed to simulate fetal hypoxia in order to investigate the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect and quantify fetal hypoxia in utero. The near-infrared spectroscopic probe consisted of two detectors and six source positions. It was placed on the maternal ewe abdomen above the fetal head. The light sources were modulated at 70 MHz and frequency-encoded so that simultaneous measurements at 675, 786, 830 nm for each source position were possible. After the baseline measurements, fetal hypoxia was induced by blocking the aorta of pregnant ewe and thus compromising the blood supply to the uterus. Blood gas samples were concurrently drawn from the fetal brachial artery and jugular veins. Analysis of the diffuse optical data used a two-layer model to separate the maternal layer from the fetal head. The analysis also employed a priori spectral information about tissue chromophores. This approach provided good quantification of blood oxygenation changes, which correlated well with the blood gas analyses. By contrast the homogeneous model underestimated oxygenation changes during hypoxia.

  2. Integrated 10 Gb/s multilevel multiband passive optical network and 500 Mb/s indoor visible light communication system based on Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization modulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanquan; Shi, Jianyang; Yang, Chao; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel integrated passive optical network (PON) and indoor visible light communication (VLC) system based on Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization (N-SC-FDE) modulation with direct detection. In this system, a directly modulated laser and a commercially available red light emitting diode are served as the transmitters of the PON and VLC, respectively. To enable high spectral efficiency, high-speed transmission, and flexible multiple access with simplified optical network unit-side digital signal processing, multilevel, multiband quadrature amplitude modulations 128/64/16 are implemented here. VLC N-SC-FDE signals are successfully delivered a further 30 cm indoor distance after transmitting over a span of 40 km single mode fiber (SMF) together with 3 sub-band PON signals. As a proof of concept, a 10 Gb/s PON and 500 Mb/s VLC integrated system for three wired users and one wireless user is successfully achieved, which shows the promising potential and feasibility of this proposal to extend multiple services from metropolitan to suburban areas.

  3. Substructure coupling in the frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis was found to be a suitable method for determining the transient response of systems subjected to a wide variety of loads. However, since a large number of calculations are performed within the discrete frequency loop, the method loses it computational efficiency if the loads must be represented by a large number of discrete frequencies. It was also discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain work particularly well for analyzing structural system with a small number of interface and loaded degrees of freedom. It was discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain can lead to an efficient method of obtaining natural frequencies of undamped structures. It was also found that the damped natural frequencies of a system may be determined using frequency domain techniques.

  4. Investigations on polarimetric terahertz frequency domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yandong; Zhang, Banghong; Notake, Takashi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Olivo, Malini; Sugii, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    A polarimetric Terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy system is presented which has an additional polarization measurement function at the Terahertz band. The achromatic Terahertz waveplate, which acts as the key device in the system, is also presented.

  5. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.

  6. Globality and speed of optical parallel processors.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, A W; Marathay, A S

    1989-09-15

    The chances of optical computing are probably best if a large number of processing elements act in parallel. The efficiency of parallel processors depends, among other things, on the time it takes to communicate signals from one processor to any other processor. In an optical parallel processor one hopes to be able to transmit a signal from one processor to any other processor within only one cycle period, no matter how far apart the processors are. Such a global communications network is desirable especially for algorithms with global interactions. The fast Fourier algorithm is an example. We define a degree of globality and we show how speed and globality are related. Our result applies to a specific architecture based on spatial filtering.

  7. Parallel Optical Random Access Memory (PORAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonse, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the need to minimize component count, power and size, and to maximize packing density require a parallel optical random access memory to be designed in a two-level hierarchy: a modular level and an interconnect level. Three module designs are proposed, in the order of research and development requirements. The first uses state-of-the-art components, including individually addressed laser diode arrays, acousto-optic (AO) deflectors and magneto-optic (MO) storage medium, aimed at moderate size, moderate power, and high packing density. The next design level uses an electron-trapping (ET) medium to reduce optical power requirements. The third design uses a beam-steering grating surface emitter (GSE) array to reduce size further and minimize the number of components.

  8. Parallel Optical Random Access Memory (PORAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alphonse, G. A.

    1989-06-01

    It is shown that the need to minimize component count, power and size, and to maximize packing density require a parallel optical random access memory to be designed in a two-level hierarchy: a modular level and an interconnect level. Three module designs are proposed, in the order of research and development requirements. The first uses state-of-the-art components, including individually addressed laser diode arrays, acousto-optic (AO) deflectors and magneto-optic (MO) storage medium, aimed at moderate size, moderate power, and high packing density. The next design level uses an electron-trapping (ET) medium to reduce optical power requirements. The third design uses a beam-steering grating surface emitter (GSE) array to reduce size further and minimize the number of components.

  9. Optical flow optimization using parallel genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala-Romero, Olmo; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Meyer Base, Uwe

    2011-06-01

    A new approach to optimize the parameters of a gradient-based optical flow model using a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed. The main characteristics of the optical flow algorithm are its bio-inspiration and robustness against contrast, static patterns and noise, besides working consistently with several optical illusions where other algorithms fail. This model depends on many parameters which conform the number of channels, the orientations required, the length and shape of the kernel functions used in the convolution stage, among many more. The GA is used to find a set of parameters which improve the accuracy of the optical flow on inputs where the ground-truth data is available. This set of parameters helps to understand which of them are better suited for each type of inputs and can be used to estimate the parameters of the optical flow algorithm when used with videos that share similar characteristics. The proposed implementation takes into account the embarrassingly parallel nature of the GA and uses the OpenMP Application Programming Interface (API) to speedup the process of estimating an optimal set of parameters. The information obtained in this work can be used to dynamically reconfigure systems, with potential applications in robotics, medical imaging and tracking.

  10. Microcirculation monitoring with real time spatial frequency domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinlin; Cao, Zili; Lin, Weihao; Zhu, Danfeng; Zhu, Xiuwei; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) study of local hemodynamics in the forearm of healthy volunteers performing paced breathing. Real time Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation - Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SSMD-SFDI) was used to map the optical properties of the subsurface of the forearm continuously. The oscillations of the concentrations of deoxy- and oxyhemoglobin at the subsurface of the forearm induced by paced breathing are found to be close to out-of-phase, attributed to the dominance of the blood flow modulation by paced breathing. The properties of local microcirculation including the blood transit times through capillaries and venules are extracted by fitting to Simplified Hemodynamics Model. Our preliminary results suggest that the real time SSMD-SFDI platform may serve as one effective imaging modality for microcirculation monitoring.

  11. Compact parallel optical interface built with optical fiber tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Gilbert, Karen; Bernabe, Stéphane; Albert, Blandine

    2006-09-01

    MultiChip Module approach and the use of micro-optics offer determinant solutions to reach the mechanical compactness required by most applications for high rate data communications transmitters and receivers. Such a miniaturization often leads to develop very challenging assembling processes when fiber coupling is needed. In this paper we present an original fabrication process to build very small parallel optical interface with optical fiber tips. This fabrication process is based on common fiber ribbon mounting into wet etched V shaped holder into silicon and a dicing-polishing step to create small pieces with optical quality considering flatness and roughness. The dicing-polishing principle is well-known in integrated waveguides technology. An example of realization is presented to connect a parallel optical subassembly transmitter with a MPO/MTP connector. The results show that the dicing-polishing step allows to obtain a diced-polished face with a roughness about 5 to 10nm onto the fiber. Such an optical quality is as good as a cleaved fiber when measuring light coupling performances. Thus, such micro-optical components offer a new building block for designers to extract the light from their photonic devices. Moreover, the fabrication process appears to be low cost and compatible with mass production.

  12. Method of parallel switching of optical channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kompanets, I N; Neevina, T A; Kompanets, S I

    2012-12-31

    The possibility of creating parallel-type switches for N Multiplication-Sign N optical waveguide channel communication is studied. A method based on bit-by-bit channel addressing is proposed and one of its possible implementations using the photorefractive effect in the waveguide material is considered. The method is modelled by the example of switching of 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 channels, controlled by reconfigurable matrix of light signals. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  13. Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppuluri, Sreemanth M. V.

    needed to bring an array of bowtie apertures into intimate contact with the photoresist surface we present an optical interference based alignment system that aligns the mask and photoresist surfaces to within 0.1 mrad of parallelism. In this work we show that bowtie apertures can be used to produce patterns in the photoresist of dimensions in the order of 85-90 nm. We also demonstrate parallel optical nanolithography using an array of bowtie apertures that opens up the possibility of using arrays of bowtie apertures to produce a large number of nanoscale light spots for parallel nano-manufacturing.

  14. Adaptive corrector operating in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikaynen, Y. M.

    1984-11-01

    An interference-immune corrector for a signal converter with automatic regulation of adaptation speed is described which operates in the frequency domain with fast convergence and high signal-to-noise ratio. It contains an analog-to-digital converter, a demodulator, and a filter array with equidistant spacing of center frequencies, three multipliers and two summators, as well as a reference signal generator, a frequency divider, a counter, and a noise meter. Filtering is done by a n-point Fourier transformation or bunching with a memory at the filter input followed by inverse Fourier transformation or debunching, respectively. The algorithm of corrector operation in the frequency domain can be constructed heuristically by an analog to the complex algorithm of minimizing the mean-square error in the time domain. Each weight factor can be processed independently and only once per Fourier transformation cycle, which ensures fast convergence without preliminary phase correction even with large distortions in the communication channel.

  15. Studies in optical parallel processing. [All optical and electro-optic approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Threshold and A/D devices for converting a gray scale image into a binary one were investigated for all-optical and opto-electronic approaches to parallel processing. Integrated optical logic circuits (IOC) and optical parallel logic devices (OPA) were studied as an approach to processing optical binary signals. In the IOC logic scheme, a single row of an optical image is coupled into the IOC substrate at a time through an array of optical fibers. Parallel processing is carried out out, on each image element of these rows, in the IOC substrate and the resulting output exits via a second array of optical fibers. The OPAL system for parallel processing which uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer for image thresholding and analog-to-digital conversion, achieves a higher degree of parallel processing than is possible with IOC.

  16. High-order wide-band frequency domain identification using composite curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented for curve fitting nonparametric frequency domain data so as to identify a parametric model composed of two models in parallel, where each model has dynamics in a specified portion of the frequency band. This decomposition overcomes the problem of numerical sensitivity since lower order polynomials can be used compared to existing methods which estimate the model as a single entity. Consequently, composite curve fitting is useful for frequency domain identification of high-order systems and/or systems whose dynamics are spread over a large bandwidth. The approach can be extended to identify an arbitrary number of parallel subsystems in specified frequency regimes.

  17. Frequency Domain Modeling of SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    New SAW sensors for integrated vehicle health monitoring of aerospace vehicles are being investigated. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. However, the lack of design tools for MEMS devices in general, and for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices specifically, has led to the development of tools that will enable integrated design, modeling, simulation, analysis and automatic layout generation of SAW devices. A frequency domain model has been created. The model is mainly first order, but it includes second order effects from triple transit echoes. This paper presents the model and results from the model for a SAW delay line device.

  18. Frequency-Domain Identification Of Aeroelastic Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes flight measurements and frequency-domain analyses of aeroelastic vibrational modes of wings of XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft. Begins with description of flight-test methods. Followed by brief discussion of methods of analysis, which include Fourier-transform computations using chirp z transformers, use of coherence and other spectral functions, and methods and computer programs to obtain frequencies and damping coefficients from measurements. Includes brief description of results of flight tests and comparisions among various experimental and theoretical results. Ends with section on conclusions and recommended improvements in techniques.

  19. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  20. Combined frequency domain photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging for intravascular applications

    PubMed Central

    Castelino, Robin F.; Hynes, Michael; Munding, Chelsea E.; Telenkov, Sergey; Foster, F. Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has the potential to characterize lipid-rich structures based on the optical absorption contrast of tissues. In this study, we explore frequency domain photoacoustics (FDPA) for intravascular applications. The system employed an intensity-modulated continuous wave (CW) laser diode, delivering 1W over an intensity modulated chirp frequency of 4-12MHz. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach on an agar vessel phantom with graphite and lipid targets, imaged using a planar acoustic transducer co-aligned with an optical fibre, allowing for the co-registration of IVUS and FDPA images. A frequency domain correlation method was used for signal processing and image reconstruction. The graphite and lipid targets show an increase in FDPA signal as compared to the background of 21dB and 16dB, respectively. Use of compact CW laser diodes may provide a valuable alternative for the development of photoacoustic intravascular devices instead of pulsed laser systems. PMID:27895986

  1. Monitoring electrical and thermal burns with Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica

    2011-10-01

    Thermal and electrical injuries are devastating and hard-to-treat clinical lesions. The pathophysiology of these injuries is not fully understood to this day. Further elucidating the natural history of this form of tissue injury could be helpful in offering stage-appropriate therapy. Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) is a novel non-invasive technique that can be used to determine optical properties of biological media. We have developed an experimental apparatus based on SFDI aimed at monitoring parameters of clinical interest such as tissue oxygen saturation, methemoglobin volume fraction, and hemoglobin volume fraction. Co- registered Laser Doppler images of the lesions are also acquired to assess tissue perfusion. Results of experiments conducted on a rat model and discussions on the systemic changes in tissue optical properties before and after injury will be presented.

  2. In vivo validation of quantitative frequency domain fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Ghijsen, Michael; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a hybrid frequency domain fluorescence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI) for small animal imaging. The main purpose of this system is to obtain quantitatively accurate fluorescence concentration and lifetime images using a multi-modality approach. In vivo experiments are undertaken to evaluate the system. We compare the recovered fluorescence parameters with and without MRI structural a priori information. In addition, we compare two optical background heterogeneity correction methods: Born normalization and utilizing diffuse optical tomography (DOT) functional a priori information. The results show that the concentration and lifetime of a 4.2-mm diameter indocyanine green inclusion located 15 mm deep inside a rat can be recovered with less than a 5% error when functional a priori information from DOT and structural a priori information from MRI are utilized.

  3. Parallel Optical and Electrochemical DNA Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Wolfgang; Liu, Jianyun; Niu, Lifang; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Tiefenauer, Louis

    This contribution introduces strategies for the sensitive detection of oligonucleotides as bio-analytes binding from solution to a variety of probe architectures assembled at the (Au-) sensor surface. Detection principles based on surface plasmon optics and electrochemical techniques are compared. In particular, cyclic- and square wave voltammetry (SWV) are applied for the read-out of ferrocene redox labels conjugated to streptavidin that binds to the (biotinylated) DNA targets after hybridizing to the interfacial probe matrix of either DNA or peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strands. By employing streptavidin modified with fluorophores the identical sensor architecture can be used for the recording of hybridization reactions by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS). The Langmuir isotherms determined by both techniques, i.e., by SWV and SPFS, give virtually identical affinity constants KA, confirming that the mode of detection has no influence on the hybridization reaction. By using semiconducting nanoparticles as luminescence labels that can be tuned in their bandgap energies over a wide range of emission wavelengths surface plasmon fluorescence microscopy allows for the parallel read-out of multiple analyte binding events simultaneously.

  4. Frequency domain laser velocimeter signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.; Murphy, R. Jay

    1991-01-01

    A new scheme for processing signals from laser velocimeter systems is described. The technique utilizes the capabilities of advanced digital electronics to yield a signal processor capable of operating in the frequency domain maximizing the information obtainable from each signal burst. This allows a sophisticated approach to signal detection and processing, with a more accurate measurement of the chirp frequency resulting in an eight-fold increase in measurable signals over the present high-speed burst counter technology. Further, the required signal-to-noise ratio is reduced by a factor of 32, allowing measurements within boundary layers of wind tunnel models. Measurement accuracy is also increased up to a factor of five.

  5. High-speed frequency-domain terahertz coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yahng, Ji Sang; Park, Choon-Su; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Chang-Seok; Yee, Dae-Su

    2016-01-25

    High-speed frequency-domain terahertz (THz) coherence tomography is demonstrated using frequency sweeping of continuous-wave THz radiation and beam steering. For axial scanning, THz frequency sweeping with a kHz sweep rate and a THz sweep range is executed using THz photomixing with an optical beat source consisting of a wavelength-swept laser and a distributed feedback laser diode. During the frequency sweep, frequency-domain THz interferograms are measured using coherent homodyne detection employing signal averaging for noise reduction and used as axial-scan data via fast Fourier transform. Axial-scan data are acquired while scanning a transverse range of 100 × 100 mm(2) by use of a THz beam scanner with moving neither sample nor THz transmitter/receiver unit. It takes 100 s to acquire axial-scan data for 100 × 100 points with 5 averaged traces at a sweep rate of 1 kHz. THz tomographic images of a glass fiber reinforced polymer sample with artificial internal defects are presented, acquired using the tomography system.

  6. Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, S.; Kajita, M.; Kasahara, K.; Kubota, K.; Kurihara, K.; Redmond, I.; Schenfeld, E.; Suzaki, T.

    1996-03-01

    A free-space optical interconnection scheme is described for massively parallel processors based on the interconnection-cached network architecture. The optical network operates in a circuit-switching mode. Combined with a packet-switching operation among the circuit-switched optical channels, a high-bandwidth, low-latency network for massively parallel processing results. The design and assembly of a 64-channel experimental prototype is discussed, and operational results are presented.

  7. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghussein, Fadi; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans.

  8. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans. PMID:23979460

  9. Frequency Domain Calculations Of Acoustic Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Two complex geometry problems are solved using the linearized Euler equations. The impedance mismatch method1 is used to impose the solid surfaces without the need to use a body-fitted grid. The problem is solved in the frequency domain to avoid long run times. Although the harmonic assumption eliminates all time dependence, a pseudo-time term is added to allow conventional iterative methods to be employed. A Jameson type, Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in pseudo time. The spatial operator is based on a seven-point, sixth-order finite difference. Constant coefficient, sixth-derivative artificial dissipation is used throughout the domain. A buffer zone technique employing a complex frequency to damp all waves near the boundaries is used to minimize reflections. The results show that the method is capable of capturing the salient features of the scattering, but an excessive number of grid points are required to resolve the phenomena in the vicinity of the solid bodies because the wavelength of the acoustics is relatively short compared with the size of the bodies. Smoothly transitioning into the immersed boundary condition alleviates the difficulties, but a fine mesh is still required.

  10. 2-GHz frequency-domain fluorometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Laczko, Gabor; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    1986-10-01

    We developed a frequency-domain fluorometer which operates from 4 to 2000 MHz. The modulated excitation is provided by the harmonic content of a laser pulse train (3.76 MHz, 5 ps) from a synchronously pumped and cavity dumped dye laser. The phase angle and modulation of the emission are measured with a microchannel-plate photomultiplier (PMT). Cross-correlation detection is performed outside the PMT. The high-frequency signals for cross correlation were obtained by multiplication of the output from a 500-MHz frequency synthesizer. The performance was verified in several ways, including measurement of known time delays and examination of standard fluorophores. The detector displayed no detectable color effect, with the 300-600-nm difference being less than 5 ps. The precision of the measurements is adequate to detect differences of 20 ps for decay times of 500 ps. A correlation time of 53 ps was found for indole in water at 20 °C. The shortest correlation time we measured was 15 ps for indole in methanol/water (75/25) at 40 °C. Also, the 2-GHz data reveal the time-dependent ((t)1/2) terms found in the presence of collisional quenching. The degree of random error is about 0.3° of phase and 0.005 in modulation throughout the frequency range.

  11. Laser Safety Method For Duplex Open Loop Parallel Optical Link

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, Steven John; Hedin, Daniel Scott; Paschal, Matthew James

    2003-12-02

    A method and apparatus are provided to ensure that laser optical power does not exceed a "safe" level in an open loop parallel optical link in the event that a fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or otherwise severed. A duplex parallel optical link includes a transmitter and receiver pair and a fiber optic ribbon that includes a designated number of channels that cannot be split. The duplex transceiver includes a corresponding transmitter and receiver that are physically attached to each other and cannot be detached therefrom, so as to ensure safe, laser optical power in the event that the fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or severed. Safe optical power is ensured by redundant current and voltage safety checks.

  12. Visible spatial frequency domain imaging with a digital light microprojector

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Alexander J.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Konecky, Soren D.; Cui, Haotian; Rice, Tyler B.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. There is a need for cost effective, quantitative tissue spectroscopy and imaging systems in clinical diagnostics and pre-clinical biomedical research. A platform that utilizes a commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) based projector, cameras, and scaled Monte Carlo model for calculating tissue optical properties is presented. These components are put together to perform spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), a model-based reflectance technique that measures and maps absorption coefficients (μa) and reduced scattering coefficients (μs′) in thick tissue such as skin or brain. We validate the performance of the flexible LED and modulation element (FLaME) system at 460, 530, and 632 nm across a range of physiologically relevant μa values (0.07 to 1.5  mm−1) in tissue-simulating intralipid phantoms, showing an overall accuracy within 11% of spectrophotometer values for μa and 3% for μs′. Comparison of oxy- and total hemoglobin fits between the FLaME system and a spectrophotometer (450 to 1000 nm) is differed by 3%. Finally, we acquire optical property maps of a mouse brain in vivo with and without an overlying saline well. These results demonstrate the potential of FLaME to perform tissue optical property mapping in visible spectral regions and highlight how the optical clearing effect of saline is correlated to a decrease in μs′ of the skull. PMID:24005154

  13. AU-FREDI - AUTONOMOUS FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification program, AU-FREDI, is a system of methods, algorithms and software that was developed for the identification of structural dynamic parameters and system transfer function characterization for control of large space platforms and flexible spacecraft. It was validated in the CALTECH/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory. Due to the unique characteristics of this laboratory environment, and the environment-specific nature of many of the software's routines, AU-FREDI should be considered to be a collection of routines which can be modified and reassembled to suit system identification and control experiments on large flexible structures. The AU-FREDI software was originally designed to command plant excitation and handle subsequent input/output data transfer, and to conduct system identification based on the I/O data. Key features of the AU-FREDI methodology are as follows: 1. AU-FREDI has on-line digital filter design to support on-orbit optimal input design and data composition. 2. Data composition of experimental data in overlapping frequency bands overcomes finite actuator power constraints. 3. Recursive least squares sine-dwell estimation accurately handles digitized sinusoids and low frequency modes. 4. The system also includes automated estimation of model order using a product moment matrix. 5. A sample-data transfer function parametrization supports digital control design. 6. Minimum variance estimation is assured with a curve fitting algorithm with iterative reweighting. 7. Robust root solvers accurately factorize high order polynomials to determine frequency and damping estimates. 8. Output error characterization of model additive uncertainty supports robustness analysis. The research objectives associated with AU-FREDI were particularly useful in focusing the identification methodology for realistic on-orbit testing conditions. Rather than estimating the entire structure, as is

  14. Polarized spatial frequency domain imaging of heart valve fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goth, Will; Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Allen, Alicia; Sacks, Michael S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Our group previously introduced Polarized Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (PSFDI), a wide-field, reflectance imaging technique which we used to empirically map fiber direction in porcine pulmonary heart valve leaflets (PHVL) without optical clearing or physical sectioning of the sample. Presented is an extended analysis of our PSFDI results using an inverse Mueller matrix model of polarized light scattering that allows additional maps of fiber orientation distribution, along with instrumentation permitting increased imaging speed for dynamic PHVL fiber measurements. We imaged electrospun fiber phantoms with PSFDI, and then compared these measurements to SEM data collected for the same phantoms. PHVL was then imaged and compared to results of the same leaflets optically cleared and imaged with small angle light scattering (SALS). The static PHVL images showed distinct regional variance of fiber orientation distribution, matching our SALS results. We used our improved imaging speed to observe bovine tendon subjected to dynamic loading using a biaxial stretching device. Our dynamic imaging experiment showed trackable changes in the fiber microstructure of biological tissue under loading. Our new PSFDI analysis model and instrumentation allows characterization of fiber structure within heart valve tissues (as validated with SALS measurements), along with imaging of dynamic fiber remodeling. The experimental data will be used as inputs to our constitutive models of PHVL tissue to fully characterize these tissues' elastic behavior, and has immediate application in determining the mechanisms of structural and functional failure in PHVLs used as bio-prosthetic implants.

  15. A frequency domain based rigid motion artifact reduction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hai; Huang, Xiaojie; Pan, Wenyu; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing

    2009-10-01

    During a CT scan, patients' conscious or unconscious motions would result in motion artifacts which undermine the image quality and hamper doctors' accurate diagnosis and therapy. It is desirable to develop a precise motion estimation and artifact reduction method in order to produce high-resolution images. Rigid motion can be decomposed into two components: translational motion and rotational motion. Since considering the rotation and translation simultaneously is very difficult, most former studies on motion artifact reduction ignore rotation. The extended HLCC based method considering the rotation and translation simultaneously relies on a searching algorithm which leads to expensive computing cost. Therefore, a novel method which does not rely on searching is desirable. In this paper, we focus on parallel-beam CT. We first propose a frequency domain based method to estimate rotational motion, which is not affected by translational motion. It realizes the separation of rotation estimation and translation estimation. Then we combine this method with the HLCC based method to construct a new method for general rigid motion called separative estimation and collective correction method. Furthermore, we present numerical simulation results to show the accuracy and robustness of our approach.

  16. A practical implementation of multi-frequency widefield frequency-domain FLIM

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime, especially in kinetic studies in biomedical researches. However, the small range of modulation frequencies available in commercial instruments makes this technique limited in its applications. Here we describe a practical implementation of multi-frequency widefield FD-FLIM using a pulsed supercontinuum laser and a direct digital synthesizer. In this instrument we use a pulse to modulate the image intensifier rather than the more conventional sine wave modulation. This allows parallel multi-frequency FLIM measurement using the Fast Fourier Transform and the cross-correlation technique, which permits precise and simultaneous isolation of individual frequencies. In addition, the pulse modulation at the cathode of image intensifier restored the loss of optical resolution caused by the defocusing effect when the voltage at the cathode is sinusoidally modulated. Furthermore, in our implementation of this technique, data can be graphically analyzed by the phasor method while data are acquired, which allows easy fit-free lifetime analysis of FLIM images. Here our measurements of standard fluorescent samples and a Föster resonance energy transfer pair demonstrate that the widefield multi-frequency FLIM system is a valuable and simple tool in fluorescence imaging studies. PMID:23296945

  17. Characterization of nonmelanoma skin cancer for light therapy using spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Zeitouni, Nathalie C.; Muffoletto, Daniel; Saager, Rolf; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Sunar, Ulas

    2015-01-01

    The dosimetry of light-based therapies critically depends on both optical and vascular parameters. We utilized spatial frequency domain imaging to quantify optical and vascular parameters, as well as estimated light penetration depth from 17 nonmelanoma skin cancer patients. Our data indicates that there exist substantial spatial variations in these parameters. Characterization of these parameters may inform understanding and optimization of the clinical response of light-based therapies. PMID:26137378

  18. Dual-thread parallel control strategy for ophthalmic adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongxin; Zhang, Yuhua

    To improve ophthalmic adaptive optics speed and compensate for ocular wavefront aberration of high temporal frequency, the adaptive optics wavefront correction has been implemented with a control scheme including 2 parallel threads; one is dedicated to wavefront detection and the other conducts wavefront reconstruction and compensation. With a custom Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that measures the ocular wave aberration with 193 subapertures across the pupil, adaptive optics has achieved a closed loop updating frequency up to 110 Hz, and demonstrated robust compensation for ocular wave aberration up to 50 Hz in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

  19. Application of bistable optical logic gate arrays to all-optical digital parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. C.

    1986-05-01

    Arrays of bistable optical gates can form the basis of an all-optical digital parallel processor. Two classes of signal input geometry exist - on- and off-axis - and lead to distinctly different device characteristics. The optical implementation of multisignal fan-in to an array of intrinsically bistable optical gates using the more efficient off-axis option is discussed together with the construction of programmable read/write memories from optically bistable devices. Finally the design of a demonstration all-optical parallel processor incorporating these concepts is presented.

  20. Frequency domain optoacoustic tomography using amplitude and phase

    PubMed Central

    Mohajerani, Pouyan; Kellnberger, Stephan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    We introduce optoacoustic tomographic imaging using intensity modulated light sources and collecting amplitude and phase information in the frequency domain. Imaging is performed at multiple modulation frequencies. The forward modeling uses the Green's function solution to the pressure wave equation in frequency domain and the resulting inverse problem is solved using regularized least squares minimization. We study the effect of the number of frequencies and of the bandwidth employed on the image quality achieved. The possibility of employing an all-frequency domain optoacoustic imaging for experimental measurements is studied as a function of noise. We conclude that frequency domain optoacoustic tomography may evolve to a practical experimental method using light intensity modulated sources, with advantages over time-domain optoacoustics. PMID:25431755

  1. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  2. Frequency domain fluorescence diffuse tomography of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, Anna G.; Turchin, Ilya V.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Plehanov, Vladimir I.; Balalaeva, Irina V.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Kleshnin, Michail S.

    2007-05-01

    Fluorescent compounds for selective cancer cell marking are used for development of novel medical diagnostic methods, investigation of the influence of external factors on tumor growth, regress and metastasis. Only special tools for turbid media imaging, such as optical diffusion tomography permit noninvasive monitoring of fluorescent-labeled tumor alterations deep in animal tissue. In this work, the results of preliminary experiments utilizing frequency-domain fluorescent diffusion tomography (FD FDT) experimental setup in small animal are presented. Low-frequency modulated light (1 kHz) from Nd:YAG laser with second harmonic generation at the wavelength of 532 nm was used in the setup. The transilluminative planar configuration was used in the setup. A series of model experiments has been conducted and show good agreement between theoretical and experimental fluorescence intensity. Models of deep tumors were created by two methods: (1) glass capsules containing fluorophore solution were inserted into esophagus of small animals to simulate marked tumors; (2) a suspension of transfected HEΚ293-Turbo-RFP cells was subcutaneously injected to small animal. The conducted experiments have shown that FD FDT allows one to detect the presence of labeled tumor cells in small animals, to determine the volume of an experimental tumor, to perform 3D tumor reconstruction, as well as to conduct monitoring investigations. The obtained results demonstrate the potential capability of the FD FDT method for noninvasive whole-body imaging in cancer studies, diagnostics and therapy.

  3. A statistical package for computing time and frequency domain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlow, J.

    1978-01-01

    The spectrum analysis (SPA) program is a general purpose digital computer program designed to aid in data analysis. The program does time and frequency domain statistical analyses as well as some preanalysis data preparation. The capabilities of the SPA program include linear trend removal and/or digital filtering of data, plotting and/or listing of both filtered and unfiltered data, time domain statistical characterization of data, and frequency domain statistical characterization of data.

  4. Parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Y C; Leitz, K H; Fardel, R; Otto, A; Schmidt, M; Arnold, C B

    2012-04-27

    There exist many optical lithography techniques for generating nanostructures on hard, flat surfaces over large areas. However, few techniques are able to create such patterns on soft materials or surfaces with pre-existing structure. To address this need, we demonstrate the use of parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN) to provide an efficient and robust direct-write method of producing nanoscale features without the need for focal plane adjustment. Parallel patterning on model surfaces of polyimide with vertical steps greater than 1.5 µm shows a feature size uncertainty better than 4% across the step and lateral positional accuracy of 25 nm. A Brownian motion model is used to describe the positional accuracy enabling one to predict how variation in system parameters will affect the nanopatterning results. These combined results suggest that OTAN is a viable technique for massively parallel direct-write nanolithography on non-traditional surfaces.

  5. Parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.-C.; Leitz, K.-H.; Fardel, R.; Otto, A.; Schmidt, M.; Arnold, C. B.

    2012-04-01

    There exist many optical lithography techniques for generating nanostructures on hard, flat surfaces over large areas. However, few techniques are able to create such patterns on soft materials or surfaces with pre-existing structure. To address this need, we demonstrate the use of parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN) to provide an efficient and robust direct-write method of producing nanoscale features without the need for focal plane adjustment. Parallel patterning on model surfaces of polyimide with vertical steps greater than 1.5 µm shows a feature size uncertainty better than 4% across the step and lateral positional accuracy of 25 nm. A Brownian motion model is used to describe the positional accuracy enabling one to predict how variation in system parameters will affect the nanopatterning results. These combined results suggest that OTAN is a viable technique for massively parallel direct-write nanolithography on non-traditional surfaces.

  6. Adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2016-08-15

    We present an adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscope (AOPCSO) using a digital micromirror device (DMD). The imaging light is modulated to be a line of point sources by the DMD, illuminating the retina simultaneously. By using a high-speed line camera to acquire the image and using adaptive optics to compensate the ocular wave aberration, the AOPCSO can image the living human eye with cellular level resolution at the frame rate of 100 Hz. AOPCSO has been demonstrated with improved spatial resolution in imaging of the living human retina compared with adaptive optics line scan ophthalmoscopy.

  7. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, K. K.; Buchholz, P.; Heidbrink, S.; Kagan, H. P.; Kass, R. D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D. S.; Vogt, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2016-09-01

    We have designed and fabricated a compact parallel optical engine for transmitting data at 5 Gb/s. The device consists of a 4-channel ASIC driving a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array in an optical package. The ASIC is designed using only core transistors in a 65 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. The ASIC contains an 8-bit DAC to control the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels in the VCSEL array. The performance of the optical engine up at 5 Gb/s is satisfactory.

  8. Parallel optics technology assessment for the versatile link project

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers.

  9. Frequency-domain photoacoustic phased array probe for biomedical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Telenkov, Sergey; Alwi, Rudolf; Mandelis, Andreas; Worthington, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    We report the development of a frequency-domain biomedical photoacoustic imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection, and processing coupled with a beam-forming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Sensitivity to optical contrast was demonstrated using tissue-mimicking phantoms and in-vivo tissue samples.

  10. 2D Seismic Imaging of Elastic Parameters by Frequency Domain Full Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.; Operto, S.

    2008-12-01

    Thanks to recent advances in parallel computing, full waveform inversion is today a tractable seismic imaging method to reconstruct physical parameters of the earth interior at different scales ranging from the near- surface to the deep crust. We present a massively parallel 2D frequency-domain full-waveform algorithm for imaging visco-elastic media from multi-component seismic data. The forward problem (i.e. the resolution of the frequency-domain 2D PSV elastodynamics equations) is based on low-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method (P0 and/or P1 interpolations). Thanks to triangular unstructured meshes, the DG method allows accurate modeling of both body waves and surface waves in case of complex topography for a discretization of 10 to 15 cells per shear wavelength. The frequency-domain DG system is solved efficiently for multiple sources with the parallel direct solver MUMPS. The local inversion procedure (i.e. minimization of residuals between observed and computed data) is based on the adjoint-state method which allows to efficiently compute the gradient of the objective function. Applying the inversion hierarchically from the low frequencies to the higher ones defines a multiresolution imaging strategy which helps convergence towards the global minimum. In place of expensive Newton algorithm, the combined use of the diagonal terms of the approximate Hessian matrix and optimization algorithms based on quasi-Newton methods (Conjugate Gradient, LBFGS, ...) allows to improve the convergence of the iterative inversion. The distribution of forward problem solutions over processors driven by a mesh partitioning performed by METIS allows to apply most of the inversion in parallel. We shall present the main features of the parallel modeling/inversion algorithm, assess its scalability and illustrate its performances with realistic synthetic case studies.

  11. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOEpatents

    St. John, Wallace B.; DuBois, David H.

    1996-01-01

    A system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway.

  12. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOEpatents

    St. John, W.B.; DuBois, D.H.

    1996-12-03

    Disclosed is a system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway. 7 figs.

  13. Robust time and frequency domain estimation methods in adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamaire, Richard Orville

    1987-01-01

    A robust identification method was developed for use in an adaptive control system. The type of estimator is called the robust estimator, since it is robust to the effects of both unmodeled dynamics and an unmeasurable disturbance. The development of the robust estimator was motivated by a need to provide guarantees in the identification part of an adaptive controller. To enable the design of a robust control system, a nominal model as well as a frequency-domain bounding function on the modeling uncertainty associated with this nominal model must be provided. Two estimation methods are presented for finding parameter estimates, and, hence, a nominal model. One of these methods is based on the well developed field of time-domain parameter estimation. In a second method of finding parameter estimates, a type of weighted least-squares fitting to a frequency-domain estimated model is used. The frequency-domain estimator is shown to perform better, in general, than the time-domain parameter estimator. In addition, a methodology for finding a frequency-domain bounding function on the disturbance is used to compute a frequency-domain bounding function on the additive modeling error due to the effects of the disturbance and the use of finite-length data. The performance of the robust estimator in both open-loop and closed-loop situations is examined through the use of simulations.

  14. Functional cerebral activation detected by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toronov, Vladislav Y.; Webb, Andrew G.; Choi, Jee H.; Wolf, Martin; Safonova, Larisa P.; Wolf, Ursula; Gratton, Enrico

    2002-07-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the possibility of detecting haemodynamic changes in the brain using frequency- domain near-IR spectroscopy by exploiting the phase of the intensity modulated optical signal. To obtain optical signals with eh highest possible signal-to-noise ratio, we performed simultaneous NIRS-fMRI measurements, with subsequent correlation of the time courses of both measurements. The cognitive paradigm used arithmetic calculations, with optical signals acquired with sensors placed on the forehead. In three subjects we demonstrated correlation between the haemodynamic signals obtained using NIRS and BOLD fMRI.

  15. Transmissive Nanohole Arrays for Massively-Parallel Optical Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput optical biosensing technique is proposed and demonstrated. This hybrid technique combines optical transmission of nanoholes with colorimetric silver staining. The size and spacing of the nanoholes are chosen so that individual nanoholes can be independently resolved in massive parallel using an ordinary transmission optical microscope, and, in place of determining a spectral shift, the brightness of each nanohole is recorded to greatly simplify the readout. Each nanohole then acts as an independent sensor, and the blocking of nanohole optical transmission by enzymatic silver staining defines the specific detection of a biological agent. Nearly 10000 nanoholes can be simultaneously monitored under the field of view of a typical microscope. As an initial proof of concept, biotinylated lysozyme (biotin-HEL) was used as a model analyte, giving a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. PMID:25530982

  16. SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-06-24

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.

  17. SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-09-02

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.

  18. Parallel multichannel optical correlator for frequency subband decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbe, J.; Campos, Juan; Iemmi, Claudio C.; Nicolas, Josep

    2001-08-01

    Many applications require a complex processing, using for it a bank of filters. Different architectures have been proposed of optical processors to perform a parallel filtering. We prose a new multichannel architecture based in the translation Fourier Transform properties. These properties allowed us to design multichannels phase filters. The architecture does not need the introduction of any additional modification in the optical processor. We developed an application for texture classification in real time. We obtain excellent results in the texture classification process, 99 percent of images have been correctly classified.

  19. Parallel approach to MEMS and micro-optics interferometric testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawińska, M.; Beer, S.; Gastinger, K.; Gorecki, C.; Haugholt, K. H.; Józwik, M.; Lambelet, P.; Paris, R.; Styk, A.; Zeitner, U.

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents the novel approach to an interferometric, quantitative, massive parallel inspection of MicroElectroMechanicalSystems (MEMS), MicroOptoElectroMechanical Systems (MOEMS) and microoptics arrays. The basic idea is to adapt a micro-optical probing wafer to the M(O)EMS wafer under test. The probing wafer is exchangeable and contains one of the micro-optical interferometer arrays based on: (1) a low coherent interferometer array based on a Mirau configuration or (2) a laser interferometer array based on a Twyman-Green configuration. The optical, mechanical, and electro-optical design of the system and data analysis concept based on this approach is presented. The interferometer arrays are developed and integrated at a standard test station for micro-fabrication together with the illumination and imaging modules and special mechanics which includes scanning and electrostatic excitation systems. The smart-pixel approach is applied for massive parallel electro-optical detection and data reduction. The first results of functional tests of the system are presented. The concept is discussed in reference to the future M(O)EMS and microoptics manufacturers needs and requirements.

  20. Parallel beam optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2005-06-01

    Since the discovery of X rays radiotherapy has had the same aim - to deliver a precisely measured dose of radiation to a defined tumour volume with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Recent developments in radiotherapy such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can generate complex shapes of dose distributions. Until recently it has not been possible to verify that the delivered dose matches the planned dose. However, one often wants to know the real three-dimensional dose distribution. Three-dimensional radiation dosimeters have been developed since the early 1980s. Most chemical formulations involve a radiosensitive species immobilised in space by gelling agent. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and optical techniques have been the most successful gel scanning techniques so far. Optical techniques rely on gels changing colour once irradiated. Parallel beam optical tomography has been developed at the University of Surrey since the late 1990s. The apparatus involves light emitting diode light source collimated to a wide (12cm) parallel beam. The beam is attenuated or scattered (depending on the chemical formulation) as it passes through the gel. Focusing optics projects the beam onto a CCD chip. The dosimeter sits on a rotation stage. The tomography scan involves continuously rotating the dosimeter and taking CCD images. Once the dosimeter has been rotated over 180 degrees the images are processed by filtered back projection. The work presented discusses the optics of the apparatus in more detail.

  1. High-resolution parallel optical coherence tomography in scattering samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, M.; Ducros, Mathieu G.; Karamata, Boris; Bourquin, Stephane; Lasser, Theo

    2001-11-01

    Parallel optical coherence tomography in scattering samples is demonstrated using a 58 by 58 smart-pixel detector array. A femtosecond mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser in combination with a free space Michelson interferometer was employed to achieve 4micrometers longitudinal resolution and 9mm transverse resolution on a 260x260 micrometers 2 field of view. We imaged a resolution target covered by an intralipid solution with different scattering coefficients as well as onion cells.

  2. Frequency domain simultaneous algebraic reconstruction techniques: algorithm and convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiong; Zheng, Yibin

    2005-03-01

    We propose a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) in the frequency domain for linear imaging problems. This algorithm has the advantage of efficiently incorporating pixel correlations in an a priori image model. First it is shown that the generalized SART algorithm converges to the weighted minimum norm solution of a weighted least square problem. Then an implementation in the frequency domain is described. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated with fan beam computed tomography (CT) examples. Compared to the traditional SART and its major alternative ART, the new algorithm offers superior image quality and potential application to other modalities.

  3. Frequency Domain Tomography Of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Peng; Reed, Stephen; Kalmykov, Serguei; Shvets, Gennady; Downer, Mike

    2009-01-22

    Frequency Domain Holography (FDH), a technique for visualizing quasistatic objects propagating near the speed of light, has produced 'snapshots' of laser wakefields, but they are averaged over structural variations that occur during propagation through the plasma medium. Here we explore via simulations a generalization of FDH--that we call Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT)--that can potentially record a time sequence of quasistatic snapshots, like the frames of a movie, of the wake structure as it propagates through the plasma. FDT utilizes a several probe-reference pulse pairs that propagate obliquely to the drive pulse and wakefield, along with tomographic reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans.

  4. Parallel optical interconnects utilizing VLSI/FLC spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, Sheryl M.

    1991-12-01

    Interconnection architectures are a cornerstone of parallel computing systems. However, interconnections can be a bottleneck in conventional computer architectures because of queuing structures that are necessary to handle the traffic through a switch at very high data rates and bandwidths. These issues must find new solutions to advance the state of the art in computing beyond the fundamental limit of silicon logic technology. Today's optoelectronic (OE) technology in particular VLSI/FLC spatial light modulators (SLMs) can provide a unique and innovative solution to these issues. This paper reports on the motivations for the system, describes the major areas of architectural requirements, discusses interconnection topologies and processor element alternatives, and documents an optical arbitration (i.e., control) scheme using `smart' SLMs and optical logic gates. The network topology is given in section 2.1 `Architectural Requirements -- Networks,' but it should be noted that the emphasis is on the optical control scheme (section 2.4) and the system.

  5. Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A

    2009-07-27

    This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.

  6. Frequency Domain Detection of Biomolecules using Silicon Nanowire Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gengfeng; Gao, Xuan P. A.; Lieber, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a new protein detection methodology based upon frequency domain electrical measurement using silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) biosensors. The power spectral density of voltage from a current-biased SiNW FET shows 1/f-dependence in frequency domain for measurements of antibody functionalized SiNW devices in buffer solution or in the presence of protein not specific to the antibody receptor. In the presence of protein (antigen) recognized specifically by the antibody-functionalized SiNW FET, the frequency spectrum exhibits a Lorentzian shape with a characteristic frequency of several kHz. Frequency and conventional time domain measurements carried out with the same device as a function of antigen concentration show more than 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity in the frequency domain data. These concentration dependent results together with studies of antibody receptor density effect further address possible origins of the Lorentzian frequency spectrum. Our results show that frequency domain measurements can be used as a complementary approach to conventional time domain measurements for ultra-sensitive electrical detection of proteins and other biomolecules using nanoscale FETs. PMID:20698634

  7. Higher order statistical frequency domain decomposition for operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, G. M.; Mahgoub, M. A.; Sharyatpanahi, S. G.; Cretu, N. C.; El-Fouly, T. M.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental methods based on modal analysis under ambient vibrational excitation are often employed to detect structural damages of mechanical systems. Many of such frequency domain methods, such as Basic Frequency Domain (BFD), Frequency Domain Decomposition (FFD), or Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFFD), use as first step a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimate of the power spectral density (PSD) associated with the response of the system. In this study it is shown that higher order statistical estimators such as Spectral Kurtosis (SK) and Sample to Model Ratio (SMR) may be successfully employed not only to more reliably discriminate the response of the system against the ambient noise fluctuations, but also to better identify and separate contributions from closely spaced individual modes. It is shown that a SMR-based Maximum Likelihood curve fitting algorithm may improve the accuracy of the spectral shape and location of the individual modes and, when combined with the SK analysis, it provides efficient means to categorize such individual spectral components according to their temporal dynamics as coherent or incoherent system responses to unknown ambient excitations.

  8. 1060-nm VCSEL-based parallel-optical modules for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, N.; Nagashima, K.; Kise, T.; Rizky, A. F.; Uemura, T.; Nekado, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Nasu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The capability of mounting a parallel-optical module onto a PCB through solder-reflow process contributes to reduce the number of piece parts, simplify its assembly process, and minimize a foot print for both AOC and on-board applications. We introduce solder-reflow-capable parallel-optical modules employing 1060-nm InGaAs/GaAs VCSEL which leads to the advantages of realizing wider modulation bandwidth, longer transmission distance, and higher reliability. We demonstrate 4-channel parallel optical link performance operated at a bit stream of 28 Gb/s 231-1 PRBS for each channel and transmitted through a 50-μm-core MMF beyond 500 m. We also introduce a new mounting technology of paralleloptical module to realize maintaining good coupling and robust electrical connection during solder-reflow process between an optical module and a polymer-waveguide-embedded PCB.

  9. Hybrid Optoelectronic Bistability in Frequency-Domain and Its Potential Application in FBG Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hong-An; Liu, Chun-Yu; Lv, Guo-Hui; Xin, Hai-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Liang

    2008-12-01

    We propose a novel optical bistable device (OBD) in frequency-domain with which we can perform optical bistable operations in a number of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) which are included in the same OBD. Such an OBD may bring more opportunities in applications and, as an example, we show the possibility of using it in an FBG sensor demodulating system. By use of a tunable light source, consisting of a broad band source and a scanning fibre F-P (FFP), we demonstrate the above-mentioned operations experimentally.

  10. Frequency-domain stimulated and spontaneous light emission signals at molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbola, Upendra; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-08-01

    Using a diagrammatic superoperator formalism we calculate optical signals at molecular junctions where a single molecule is coupled to two metal leads which are held at different chemical potentials. The molecule starts in a nonequilibrium steady state whereby it continuously exchanges electrons with the leads with a constant electron flux. Expressions for frequency domain optical signals measured in response to continuous laser fields are derived by expanding the molecular correlation functions in terms of its many-body states. The nonunitary evolution of molecular states is described by the quantum master equation.

  11. A Simple Physical Optics Algorithm Perfect for Parallel Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Cwik, T.

    1993-01-01

    One of the simplest reflector antenna computer programs is based upon a discrete approximation of the radiation integral. This calculation replaces the actual reflector surface with a triangular facet representation so that the reflector resembles a geodesic dome. The Physical Optics (PO) current is assumed to be constant in magnitude and phase over each facet so the radiation integral is reduced to a simple summation. This program has proven to be surprisingly robust and useful for the analysis of arbitrary reflectors, particularly when the near-field is desired and surface derivatives are not known. Because of its simplicity, the algorithm has proven to be extremely easy to adapt to the parallel computing architecture of a modest number of large-grain computing elements such as are used in the Intel iPSC and Touchstone Delta parallel machines.

  12. Massively parallel processor networks with optical express channels

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Brooks, III, Eugene D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; DeGroot, Anthony J.

    1999-01-01

    An optical method for separating and routing local and express channel data comprises interconnecting the nodes in a network with fiber optic cables. A single fiber optic cable carries both express channel traffic and local channel traffic, e.g., in a massively parallel processor (MPP) network. Express channel traffic is placed on, or filtered from, the fiber optic cable at a light frequency or a color different from that of the local channel traffic. The express channel traffic is thus placed on a light carrier that skips over the local intermediate nodes one-by-one by reflecting off of selective mirrors placed at each local node. The local-channel-traffic light carriers pass through the selective mirrors and are not reflected. A single fiber optic cable can thus be threaded throughout a three-dimensional matrix of nodes with the x,y,z directions of propagation encoded by the color of the respective light carriers for both local and express channel traffic. Thus frequency division multiple access is used to hierarchically separate the local and express channels to eliminate the bucket brigade latencies that would otherwise result if the express traffic had to hop between every local node to reach its ultimate destination.

  13. Massively parallel processor networks with optical express channels

    DOEpatents

    Deri, R.J.; Brooks, E.D. III; Haigh, R.E.; DeGroot, A.J.

    1999-08-24

    An optical method for separating and routing local and express channel data comprises interconnecting the nodes in a network with fiber optic cables. A single fiber optic cable carries both express channel traffic and local channel traffic, e.g., in a massively parallel processor (MPP) network. Express channel traffic is placed on, or filtered from, the fiber optic cable at a light frequency or a color different from that of the local channel traffic. The express channel traffic is thus placed on a light carrier that skips over the local intermediate nodes one-by-one by reflecting off of selective mirrors placed at each local node. The local-channel-traffic light carriers pass through the selective mirrors and are not reflected. A single fiber optic cable can thus be threaded throughout a three-dimensional matrix of nodes with the x,y,z directions of propagation encoded by the color of the respective light carriers for both local and express channel traffic. Thus frequency division multiple access is used to hierarchically separate the local and express channels to eliminate the bucket brigade latencies that would otherwise result if the express traffic had to hop between every local node to reach its ultimate destination. 3 figs.

  14. Dynamic spectrum in frequency domain on nonnvasive in vivo measurement of blood spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yunfeng

    2005-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy holds great promise for non-invasive concentration measurements of blood on the basis of its potential for reagent-less, nondestructive, and noninvasive measurements. The main difficulty for determining absolute or even exact relative concentrations is the scattering behavior of the tissue. This leads to significant differences in the ideal Lambert Beer's law. In this paper, the approach of the Dynamic Spectrum in the frequency domain was proposed by Professor LI Gang etc. is shown, it is based on Photo-plethysmography (PPG) with fast Fourier transforms. The magnitude of fundamental wave of the pulse wave at each wavelength divided by the peak value of the pulse wave, get the natural logarithm of quotient at each wavelength and then the Dynamic Spectrum in the frequency domain is got. Evaluating only the pulsatile part of the entire optical signal, this approach is rather independent of individual or time changes in scattering or absorption characteristics of the tissue. Because of the noise and the resolution of the spectrometer, the Dynamic Spectrum is very difficult to get. In this paper, a series of measures is taken, and high-precision Dynamic Spectrum in the frequency domain is got with the experiment. The approach is verified. The advantage of getting Dynamic Spectrum in the frequency domain is analyzed, and compared with the Dynamic Spectrum in the time domain. The paper shows that the technique enables high precision measurement of changes in tissue absorbance caused by blood pulsation. It is very important in the non-invasive in vivo concentration measurement of blood.

  15. Improvement of matrix condition of Hybrid, space variant optics by the means of parallel optics design.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Iftach; Mendlovic, David

    2009-07-06

    The problem of image restoration of space variant blur is common and important. One of the most useful descriptions of this problem is in its algebraic form I=H*O, where O is the object represented as a column vector, I is the blur image represented as a column vector and H is the PSF matrix that represents the optical system. When inverting the problem to restore the geometric object from the blurred image and the known system matrix, restoration is limited in speed and quality by the system condition. Current optical design methods focus on image quality, therefore if additional image processing is needed the matrix condition is taken "as is". In this paper we would like to present a new optical approach which aims to improve the system condition by proper optical design. In this new method we use Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to define the weak parts of the matrix condition. We design a second optical system based on those weak SVD parts and then we add the second system parallel to the first one. The original and second systems together work as an improved parallel optics system. Following that, we present a method for designing such a "parallel filter" for systems with a spread SVD pattern. Finally we present a study case in which by using our new method we improve a space variant image system with an initial condition number of 8.76e4, down to a condition number of 2.29e3. We use matrix inversion to simulate image restoration. Results show that the new parallel optics immunity to Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is much better then that of the original simple lens. Comparing the original and the parallel optics systems, the parallel optics system crosses the MSEIF=0 [db] limit in SNR value which is more than 50db lower then the SNR value in the case of the original simple lens. The new parallel optics system performance is also compared to another method based on the MTF approach.

  16. Solution to the indexing problem of frequency domain simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, Mousumi; Park, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    A frequency domain simulation experiment is one in which selected system parameters are oscillated sinusoidally to induce oscillations in one or more system statistics of interest. A spectral (Fourier) analysis of these induced oscillations is then performed. To perform this spectral analysis, all oscillation frequencies must be referenced to a common, independent variable - an oscillation index. In a discrete-event simulation, the global simulation clock is the most natural choice for the oscillation index. However, past efforts to reference all frequencies to the simulation clock generally yielded unsatisfactory results. The reason for these unsatisfactory results is explained in this paper and a new methodology which uses the simulation clock as the oscillation index is presented. Techniques for implementing this new methodology are demonstrated by performing a frequency domain simulation experiment for a network of queues.

  17. Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) Technique for Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1996-01-01

    The Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) technique is applied to a generalized frequency domain electromagnetic problem. Most of the frequency domain techniques in computational electromagnetics result in a matrix equation, which is solved at a single frequency. In the AWE technique, the Taylor series expansion around that frequency is applied to the matrix equation. The coefficients of the Taylor's series are obtained in terms of the frequency derivatives of the matrices evaluated at the expansion frequency. The coefficients hence obtained will be used to predict the frequency response of the system over a frequency range. The detailed derivation of the coefficients (called 'moments') is given along with an illustration for electric field integral equation (or Method of Moments) technique. The radar cross section (RCS) frequency response of a square plate is presented using the AWE technique and is compared with the exact solution at various frequencies.

  18. Multifunction tests of a frequency domain based flutter suppression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Adams, William M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The process is described of analysis, design, digital implementation, and subsonic testing of an active control flutter suppression system for a full span, free-to-roll wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter concept. The design technique uses a frequency domain representation of the plant and used optimization techniques to generate a robust multi input/multi output controller. During testing in a fixed-in-roll configuration, simultaneous suppression of both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter was successfully shown. For a free-to-roll configuration, symmetric flutter was suppressed to the limit of the tunnel test envelope. During aggressive rolling maneuvers above the open-loop flutter boundary, simultaneous flutter suppression and maneuver load control were demonstrated. Finally, the flutter damping controller was reoptimized overnight during the test using combined experimental and analytical frequency domain data, resulting in improved stability robustness.

  19. Identification of characteristic components in frequency domain from signal singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2010-03-01

    In rotating machinery condition monitoring, identification of characteristic components is fundamental in many engineering applications so as to obtain fault sensitive features for fault detection and diagnosis. This paper proposed a novel method for the identification of characteristic components in frequency domain based on singularity analysis. In this process, Lipschitz exponent function is constructed from the signal through wavelet-based singularity analysis. In order to highlight the periodic phenomena, autocorrelation transform is employed to extract the periodic exponents and Fourier transform is used to map the time-domain information into frequency domain. Case study with rolling element bearing vibration data shows that the proposed has very excellent capability for the identification of characteristic components compared with traditional methods.

  20. Identification of characteristic components in frequency domain from signal singularities.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2010-03-01

    In rotating machinery condition monitoring, identification of characteristic components is fundamental in many engineering applications so as to obtain fault sensitive features for fault detection and diagnosis. This paper proposed a novel method for the identification of characteristic components in frequency domain based on singularity analysis. In this process, Lipschitz exponent function is constructed from the signal through wavelet-based singularity analysis. In order to highlight the periodic phenomena, autocorrelation transform is employed to extract the periodic exponents and Fourier transform is used to map the time-domain information into frequency domain. Case study with rolling element bearing vibration data shows that the proposed has very excellent capability for the identification of characteristic components compared with traditional methods.

  1. The Peltier driven frequency domain approach in thermal analysis.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Andrea; Giaretto, Valter

    2014-10-01

    The merits of Frequency Domain analysis as a tool for thermal system characterization are discussed, and the complex thermal impedance approach is illustrated. Pure AC thermal flux generation with negligible DC component is possible with a Peltier device, differently from other existing methods in which a significant DC component is intrinsically attached to the generated AC flux. Such technique is named here Peltier Driven Frequency Domain (PDFD). As a necessary prerequisite, a novel one-dimensional analytical model for an asymmetrically loaded Peltier device is developed, which is general enough to be useful in most practical situations as a design tool for measurement systems and as a key for the interpretation of experimental results. Impedance analysis is possible with Peltier devices by the inbuilt Seebeck effect differential thermometer, and is used in the paper for an experimental validation of the analytical model. Suggestions are then given for possible applications of PDFD, including the determination of thermal properties of materials.

  2. The Peltier driven frequency domain approach in thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Andrea De; Giaretto, Valter

    2014-10-01

    The merits of Frequency Domain analysis as a tool for thermal system characterization are discussed, and the complex thermal impedance approach is illustrated. Pure AC thermal flux generation with negligible DC component is possible with a Peltier device, differently from other existing methods in which a significant DC component is intrinsically attached to the generated AC flux. Such technique is named here Peltier Driven Frequency Domain (PDFD). As a necessary prerequisite, a novel one-dimensional analytical model for an asymmetrically loaded Peltier device is developed, which is general enough to be useful in most practical situations as a design tool for measurement systems and as a key for the interpretation of experimental results. Impedance analysis is possible with Peltier devices by the inbuilt Seebeck effect differential thermometer, and is used in the paper for an experimental validation of the analytical model. Suggestions are then given for possible applications of PDFD, including the determination of thermal properties of materials.

  3. Acousto-optic parallel read/write head for optical disk data storage.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Robert R; Walter, Sarah K

    2006-09-20

    Parallel read and write of optical disks has traditionally used a static grating for read or a linear array of independent lasers for read and write. Depending on the implementation, these systems suffer from coherent cross talk, excessive space between spots, and an inability to independently track. We show that a dynamic acousto-optic grating can generate multiple parallel read/write spots on the disk, each of which can be independently modulated and tracked and all of which are incoherent in less that a bit period. The resulting disk pickup can potentially reach gigabit per second transfer rates with only a modest increase in the drive complexity.

  4. Acousto-optic parallel read/write head for optical disk data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Robert R.; Walter, Sarah K.

    2006-09-01

    Parallel read and write of optical disks has traditionally used a static grating for read or a linear array of independent lasers for read and write. Depending on the implementation, these systems suffer from coherent cross talk, excessive space between spots, and an inability to independently track. We show that a dynamic acousto-optic grating can generate multiple parallel read/write spots on the disk, each of which can be independently modulated and tracked and all of which are incoherent in less that a bit period. The resulting disk pickup can potentially reach gigabit per second transfer rates with only a modest increase in the drive complexity.

  5. Image-based tracking of optically detunable parallel resonant circuits.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Holger; Weiss, Steffen; Boernert, Peter; Boesiger, Peter

    2003-06-01

    In this work strategies for the robust localization of parallel resonant circuits are investigated. These strategies are based on the subtraction of two images, which ideally differ in signal intensity at the positions of the devices only. To modulate their signal amplification, and thereby generate the local variations, the parallel resonant circuits are alternately detuned and retuned during the acquisition. The integration of photodiodes into the devices permits their fast optical switching. Radial and spiral imaging sequences are modified to provide the data for the two images in addition to those for a conventional image in the same acquisition time. The strategies were evaluated by phantom experiments with stationary and moving catheter-borne devices. In particular, rapid detuning and retuning during the sampling of single profiles is shown to lead to a robust localization. Moreover, this strategy eliminates most of the drawbacks usually associated with image-based tracking, such as low temporal resolution. Image-based tracking may thus become a competitive (if not superior) alternative to projection-based tracking of parallel resonant circuits.

  6. Autonomous Frequency-Domain System-Identification Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Yeung; Mettler, Edward; Bayard, David S.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Milman, Mark H.; Scheid, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification (AU-FREDI) computer program implements system of methods, algorithms, and software developed for identification of parameters of mathematical models of dynamics of flexible structures and characterization, by use of system transfer functions, of such models, dynamics, and structures regarded as systems. Software considered collection of routines modified and reassembled to suit system-identification and control experiments on large flexible structures.

  7. Terahertz grayscale imaging using spatial frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhihui; Sun, Lin; Zhang, Dongwen; Yuan, Jianmin

    2011-11-01

    We reported a technology of gray-scale imaging using broadband terahertz pulse. Utilizing the spatial distribution of different frequency content, image information can be acquired from the terahertz frequency domain analysis. Unlike CCDs(charge-coupled devices) or spot scanning technology are used in conversional method, a single-pixels detector with single measurement can meet the demand of our scheme. And high SNR terahertz imaging with fast velocity is believed.

  8. Terahertz grayscale imaging using spatial frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhihui; Sun, Lin; Zhang, Dongwen; Yuan, Jianmin

    2012-03-01

    We reported a technology of gray-scale imaging using broadband terahertz pulse. Utilizing the spatial distribution of different frequency content, image information can be acquired from the terahertz frequency domain analysis. Unlike CCDs(charge-coupled devices) or spot scanning technology are used in conversional method, a single-pixels detector with single measurement can meet the demand of our scheme. And high SNR terahertz imaging with fast velocity is believed.

  9. Three-dimensional phantoms for curvature correction in spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Le, Hanh N. D.; Vo, Minh; Wang, Zhaoyang; Luu, Long; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity to surface profile of non-contact optical imaging, such as spatial frequency domain imaging, may lead to incorrect measurements of optical properties and consequently erroneous extrapolation of physiological parameters of interest. Previous correction methods have focused on calibration-based, model-based, and computation-based approached. We propose an experimental method to correct the effect of surface profile on spectral images. Three-dimensional (3D) phantoms were built with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic using an accurate 3D imaging and an emergent 3D printing technique. In this study, our method was utilized for the correction of optical properties (absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs′) of objects obtained with a spatial frequency domain imaging system. The correction method was verified on three objects with simple to complex shapes. Incorrect optical properties due to surface with minimum 4 mm variation in height and 80 degree in slope were detected and improved, particularly for the absorption coefficients. The 3D phantom-based correction method is applicable for a wide range of purposes. The advantages and drawbacks of the 3D phantom-based correction methods are discussed in details. PMID:22741068

  10. A frequency domain blind deconvolution algorithm in acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, Mark R.; Erling, Josh G.; Roan, Michael J.

    2003-10-01

    It is common in acoustics to measure a signal that has been corrupted by an unknown filtering function during propagation from an unknown source. Blind deconvolution is a technique for learning and applying the inverse of the unknown channel impulse response in order to recover the original source signal. One approach to accomplishing this task is based on an adaptive nonlinear algorithm using mutual information as a cost function [A. J. Bell and T. J. Sejnowski, Neural Comput. 7, 1129-1159 (1995)]. A new frequency domain implementation of this algorithm is presented which greatly reduces computational cost. The frequency domain approach allows adaptive learning rates to be applied individually to each frequency bin of the inverse filter. This technique can lead to improved convergence times for filters with a large spread of frequency response magnitudes. Preliminary results suggest that a factor of two reduction in convergence time and a factor of ten reduction in computational cost can be attained. Experimental results for several simple acoustical systems are presented comparing the performance of the pre-existing time domain algorithm and the new frequency domain implementation. [Work supported by Dr. David Drumheller, ONR Code 333, Contract No. N00014-00-G-0058.

  11. Finding the Secret of Image Saliency in the Frequency Domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Duan, Ling-Yu; Chen, Xiaowu; Huang, Tiejun; Tian, Yonghong

    2015-12-01

    There are two sides to every story of visual saliency modeling in the frequency domain. On the one hand, image saliency can be effectively estimated by applying simple operations to the frequency spectrum. On the other hand, it is still unclear which part of the frequency spectrum contributes the most to popping-out targets and suppressing distractors. Toward this end, this paper tentatively explores the secret of image saliency in the frequency domain. From the results obtained in several qualitative and quantitative experiments, we find that the secret of visual saliency may mainly hide in the phases of intermediate frequencies. To explain this finding, we reinterpret the concept of discrete Fourier transform from the perspective of template-based contrast computation and thus develop several principles for designing the saliency detector in the frequency domain. Following these principles, we propose a novel approach to design the saliency detector under the assistance of prior knowledge obtained through both unsupervised and supervised learning processes. Experimental results on a public image benchmark show that the learned saliency detector outperforms 18 state-of-the-art approaches in predicting human fixations.

  12. Frequency-domain multiscale quantum mechanics/electromagnetics simulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Lingyi; Yin, Zhenyu; Yam, ChiYung E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk; Koo, SiuKong; Chen, GuanHua E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk; Chen, Quan; Wong, Ngai

    2013-12-28

    A frequency-domain quantum mechanics and electromagnetics (QM/EM) method is developed. Compared with the time-domain QM/EM method [Meng et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 1190–1199 (2012)], the newly developed frequency-domain QM/EM method could effectively capture the dynamic properties of electronic devices over a broader range of operating frequencies. The system is divided into QM and EM regions and solved in a self-consistent manner via updating the boundary conditions at the QM and EM interface. The calculated potential distributions and current densities at the interface are taken as the boundary conditions for the QM and EM calculations, respectively, which facilitate the information exchange between the QM and EM calculations and ensure that the potential, charge, and current distributions are continuous across the QM/EM interface. Via Fourier transformation, the dynamic admittance calculated from the time-domain and frequency-domain QM/EM methods is compared for a carbon nanotube based molecular device.

  13. Application of frequency-domain-method to rotorcraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish

    A formulation is developed to compute the flow around a helicopter rotor in the frequency domain combined with computational fluid dynamics software. The solution in frequency domain is obtained using a harmonic balance method. This approach is found to be very suitable for problems involving periodic flow like oscillating airfoils and wings. Helicopter rotor in forward flight encounters periodic flow variation around the azimuth and therefore lends itself very well to frequency-domain-based solution methods. In the frequency-domain approach, the periodicity is enforced in the solution methodology as opposed to traditional time-domain approaches, where periodicity evolves after transients are damped out during the solution procedure. This leads to a huge leap in efficiency for the frequency-domain approach as compared to the time-domain approach. The solution can also be obtained using a single blade with phase-shifted periodic boundary conditions. This reduction in domain leads to an increase in efficiency by a factor equal to the number of blades in the rotor. In the current work, the feasibility as well as potential advantages of obtaining helicopter flow solution in multiblade coordinates is also explored. The process of transformation of flow equations from a conventional rotor coordinate system to a multiblade coordinate system leads to the cancellation of harmonics other than those at the blade passage frequencies. Therefore, a reduced number of time locations per revolution are required to capture the retained harmonics. This further reduces the processing time and storage memory requirements. Another advantage of multiblade coordinate system is the simplicity of coupled aeroelastic formulation due to a direct relation between rotor aerodynamic forces and rotor motion parameters. The developed software implements the formulation based on Euler equations and incorporates a structured grid generation method. A distributed programming technique is implemented

  14. Parallel optical-path-length-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Takamasa; Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Kenichi; Shimozato, Yuki; Kaneko, Atsushi; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    The authors propose an optical-path-length-shifting digital holography as a technique capable of single-shot recording of three-dimensional information of objects. With a single image sensor, the proposed technique can simultaneously record all of the holograms required for the in-line digital holography that reconstruct the image of an object from two intensity measurements at different planes. The technique can be optically implemented by using an optical-path-length-shifting array device located in the common path of the reference and object waves. The array device has periodic structure of two-step optical-path difference. The configuration of the array device of the proposed technique is simpler than the phase-shifting array device required for parallel phase-shifting digital holographies. Therefore, the optical system of the proposed technique is more suitable for the realization of a single-shot in-line digital holography system that removes the conjugate image from the reconstructed image. The authors conducted both a numerical simulation and a preliminary experiment of the proposed technique. The reconstructed images were quantitatively evaluated by using root mean squared error. In comparison to single-shot digital holography using the Fresnel transform alone, with the proposed technique the root mean squared errors of the technique were reduced to less than 1/6 in amplitude and 1/3 in phase. Also the results of the simulation and experiment agreed well with the images of an object. Thus the effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified.

  15. 3D frequency-domain finite-difference modeling of acoustic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present a 3D frequency-domain finite-difference method for acoustic wave propagation modeling. This method is developed as a tool to perform 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. For wide-angle data, frequency-domain full-waveform inversion can be applied only to few discrete frequencies to develop reliable velocity model. Frequency-domain finite-difference (FD) modeling of wave propagation requires resolution of a huge sparse system of linear equations. If this system can be solved with a direct method, solutions for multiple sources can be computed efficiently once the underlying matrix has been factorized. The drawback of the direct method is the memory requirement resulting from the fill-in of the matrix during factorization. We assess in this study whether representative problems can be addressed in 3D geometry with such approach. We start from the velocity-stress formulation of the 3D acoustic wave equation. The spatial derivatives are discretized with second-order accurate staggered-grid stencil on different coordinate systems such that the axis span over as many directions as possible. Once the discrete equations were developed on each coordinate system, the particle velocity fields are eliminated from the first-order hyperbolic system (following the so-called parsimonious staggered-grid method) leading to second-order elliptic wave equations in pressure. The second-order wave equations discretized on each coordinate system are combined linearly to mitigate the numerical anisotropy. Secondly, grid dispersion is minimized by replacing the mass term at the collocation point by its weighted averaging over all the grid points of the stencil. Use of second-order accurate staggered- grid stencil allows to reduce the bandwidth of the matrix to be factorized. The final stencil incorporates 27 points. Absorbing conditions are PML. The system is solved using the parallel direct solver MUMPS developed for distributed

  16. Development of a finger joint phantom for evaluation of frequency domain measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Netz, Uwe J; Scheel, Alexander K; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2006-01-01

    For development and test of new optical imaging devices, phantoms are widely used to emulate the tissue to be imaged. Phantom design gets more difficult the more complex the tissue is structured. We report on developing and testing a solid, stable finger joint phantom to simulate transillumination of finger joints in frequency-domain imaging systems. The phantom consists of the bone, capsule, skin, the capsule volume, and the joint gap. Silicone was used to build the solid parts and a glycerol-water solution for the fluid in the capsule volume and joint gap. The system to test the phantom is an optical frequency-domain scanning set-up. Different stages of joint inflammation as they occur in rheumatoid arthritis (BA) were emulated by assembling the phantom with capsule and fluid having different optical properties. Reliability of the phantom measurement was investigated by repeated assembling. The results show clear discrimination between different stages of joints within the signal deviation due to reassembling of the phantom.

  17. Optical path difference in a plane-parallel uniaxial plate.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha

    2006-04-01

    The flux of energy given by the Poynting vector Se and the kt-wave vector normal to the geometrical wavefront for the extraordinary ray propagating through uniaxial crystals can be evaluated by using the theory developed by Avendaño-Alejo et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1668 (2002)] and Avendaño-Alejo and Stavroudis [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1674 (2002)]. We give here the equations necessary to evaluate the general dispersion angle Se x kt. Additionally we define two new dispersion angles, Se x A and kt x A, where A is the crystal axis vector. With these new dispersion angles we evaluate the optical path length traversed by the extraordinary ray in a plane-parallel uniaxial plate when the crystal axis lies in the plane of incidence.

  18. SPA- STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlow, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The need for statistical analysis often arises when data is in the form of a time series. This type of data is usually a collection of numerical observations made at specified time intervals. Two kinds of analysis may be performed on the data. First, the time series may be treated as a set of independent observations using a time domain analysis to derive the usual statistical properties including the mean, variance, and distribution form. Secondly, the order and time intervals of the observations may be used in a frequency domain analysis to examine the time series for periodicities. In almost all practical applications, the collected data is actually a mixture of the desired signal and a noise signal which is collected over a finite time period with a finite precision. Therefore, any statistical calculations and analyses are actually estimates. The Spectrum Analysis (SPA) program was developed to perform a wide range of statistical estimation functions. SPA can provide the data analyst with a rigorous tool for performing time and frequency domain studies. In a time domain statistical analysis the SPA program will compute the mean variance, standard deviation, mean square, and root mean square. It also lists the data maximum, data minimum, and the number of observations included in the sample. In addition, a histogram of the time domain data is generated, a normal curve is fit to the histogram, and a goodness-of-fit test is performed. These time domain calculations may be performed on both raw and filtered data. For a frequency domain statistical analysis the SPA program computes the power spectrum, cross spectrum, coherence, phase angle, amplitude ratio, and transfer function. The estimates of the frequency domain parameters may be smoothed with the use of Hann-Tukey, Hamming, Barlett, or moving average windows. Various digital filters are available to isolate data frequency components. Frequency components with periods longer than the data collection interval

  19. Frequency domain, waveform inversion of laboratory crosswell radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    A new waveform inversion for crosswell radar is formulated in the frequency-domain for a 2.5D model. The inversion simulates radar waves using the vector Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. The objective function is minimized using a backpropagation method suitable for a 2.5D model. The inversion is tested by processing crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The estimated model is consistent with the known electromagnetic properties of the tank. The formulation for the 2.5D model can be extended to inversions of acoustic and elastic data.

  20. Frequency domain quantum optimal control under multiple constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Ho, Tak-San; Xing, Xi; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-03-01

    Optimal control of quantum systems with complex constrained external fields is one of the longstanding theoretical and numerical challenges at the frontier of quantum control research. Here, we present a theoretical method that can be utilized to optimize the control fields subject to multiple constraints while guaranteeing monotonic convergence towards desired physical objectives. This optimization method is formulated in the frequency domain in line with the current ultrafast pulse shaping technique, providing the possibility for performing quantum optimal control simulations and experiments in a unified fashion. For illustrations, this method is successfully employed to perform multiple constraint spectral-phase-only optimization for maximizing resonant multiphoton transitions with desired pulses.

  1. Baseband feedback for SAFARI-SPICA using Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounab, A.; de Korte, P.; Cros, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Monna, B.; Mossel, R.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; Ravera, L.

    We report on the performance of the digital baseband feedback circuit developed to readout and process signals from arrays of transition edge sensors for SPICA-SAFARI in frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). The standard procedure to readout the SQUID current amplifiers is to use a feedback loop (flux-locked loop: FLL). However the achievable FFL bandwidth is limited by the cable transport delay t_d, which makes standard feedback inconvenient. A much better approach is to use baseband feedback. We have developed a model of the electronic readout chain for SPICA-SAFARI instrument by using an Anlog-digital co-simulation based on Simulink-System Generator environment.

  2. Pole-zero form fractional model identification in frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mansouri, R.; Djamah, T.; Djennoune, S.; Bettayeb, M.

    2009-03-05

    This paper deals with system identification in the frequency domain using non integer order models given in the pole-zero form. The usual identification techniques cannot be used in this case because of the non integer orders of differentiation which makes the problem strongly nonlinear. A general identification method based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is developed and allows to estimate the (2n+2m+1) parameters of the model. Its application to identify the ''skin effect'' of a squirrel cage induction machine modeling is then presented.

  3. A frequency domain approach to handling qualities design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolovich, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for designing linear multivariable feedback control systems based on desired closed loop transfer matrix information is introduced. The technique which was employed to achieve the final design was based on a theoretical result, known as the structure theorem. The structure theorem was a frequency domain relationship which simplified the expression for the transfer matrix (matrix of transfer functions) of a linear time-invariant multivariable system. The effect of linear state variable feedback on the closed loop transfer matrix of the system was also clarified.

  4. Single SQUID frequency-domain multiplexer for large bolometer arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jongsoo; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, M.J.; Skidmore, J.T.; Richards, P.L.; Spieler, H.G.

    2001-08-20

    We describe the development of a frequency-domain superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer which monitors a row of low-temperature sensors simultaneously with a single SQUID. Each sensor is ac biased with a unique frequency and all the sensor currents are added in a superconducting summing loop. A single SQUID measures the current in the summing loop, and the individual signals are lock-in detected after the room temperature SQUID electronics. The current in the summing loop is nulled by feedback to eliminate direct crosstalk. We have built an eight-channel prototype and demonstrated channel separation and signal recovery.

  5. Frequency domain multiplexing for large-scale bolometer arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, Helmuth

    2002-05-31

    The development of planar fabrication techniques for superconducting transition-edge sensors has brought large-scale arrays of 1000 pixels or more to the realm of practicality. This raises the problem of reading out a large number of sensors with a tractable number of connections. A possible solution is frequency-domain multiplexing. I summarize basic principles, present various circuit topologies, and discuss design trade-offs, noise performance, cross-talk and dynamic range. The design of a practical device and its readout system is described with a discussion of fabrication issues, practical limits and future prospects.

  6. Blurred and noisy image pairs in parallel optics.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David

    2014-11-01

    In previous works we have shown that parallel optics (PO) architecture can be used to improve the system matrix condition, which results in improving its immunity to additive noise in the image restoration process. PO is composed of a "main" system and an "auxiliary" system. Previously, we suggested the "trajectories" method to realize PO. In that method, a required auxiliary system is composed from auxiliary optics with a pixel confined response, followed by signal processing. In this paper, we emphasize the important secondary effects of the trajectories method. We show that in such a system, where the postprocessing comes after the detection, the postprocessing acts as a noise filter, hence allowing us to work with noisy data in the auxiliary channel. Roughly speaking, the SNR of an imaging system depends on the numerical aperture (NA). It follows that the main system, which typically has a higher NA, also has a higher SNR. Hence in the PO system, the ratio between the NA values of the main and auxiliary systems is expected to dictate the gap between their SNR values. In this paper, we show that when the system is implemented by the trajectories method, this expectation is too conservative. It is shown that due to the noise filtering, the auxiliary system can be noisier than expected. This claim is proved analytically and verified and exemplified by using experimental measurements.

  7. Dynamic fluorescence anisotropy imaging microscopy in the frequency domain (rFLIM).

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Andrew H A; Hanley, Quentin S; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J; Subramaniam, Vinod; Jovin, Thomas M

    2002-01-01

    We describe a novel variant of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), denoted anisotropy-FLIM or rFLIM, which enables the wide-field measurement of the anisotropy decay of fluorophores on a pixel-by-pixel basis. We adapted existing frequency-domain FLIM technology for rFLIM by introducing linear polarizers in the excitation and emission paths. The phase delay and intensity ratios (AC and DC) between the polarized components of the fluorescence signal are recorded, leading to estimations of rotational correlation times and limiting anisotropies. Theory is developed that allows all the parameters of the hindered rotator model to be extracted from measurements carried out at a single modulation frequency. Two-dimensional image detection with a sensitive CCD camera provides wide-field imaging of dynamic depolarization with parallel interrogation of different compartments of a complex biological structure such as a cell. The concepts and technique of rFLIM are illustrated with a fluorophore-solvent (fluorescein-glycerol) system as a model for isotropic rotational dynamics and with bacteria expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exhibiting depolarization due to homotransfer of electronic excitation energy (emFRET). The frequency-domain formalism was extended to cover the phenomenon of emFRET and yielded data consistent with a concentration depolarization mechanism resulting from the high intracellular concentration of EGFP. These investigations establish rFLIM as a powerful tool for cellular imaging based on rotational dynamics and molecular proximity. PMID:12202387

  8. Frequency Domain Beamforming for a Deep Space Network Downlink Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain beamformer to array up to 8 antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network currently in development. The objective of this array is to replace and enhance the capability of the DSN 70m antennas with multiple 34m antennas for telemetry, navigation and radio science use. The array will coherently combine the entire 500 MHz of usable bandwidth available to DSN receivers. A frequency domain beamforming architecture was chosen over a time domain based architecture to handle the large signal bandwidth and efficiently perform delay and phase calibration. The antennas of the DSN are spaced far enough apart that random atmospheric and phase variations between antennas need to be calibrated out on an ongoing basis in real-time. The calibration is done using measurements obtained from a correlator. This DSN Downlink Array expands upon a proof of concept breadboard array built previously to develop the technology and will become an operational asset of the Deep Space Network. Design parameters for frequency channelization, array calibration and delay corrections will be presented as well a method to efficiently calibrate the array for both wide and narrow bandwidth telemetry.

  9. Frequency domain analysis of triggered lightning return stroke luminosity velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, F. L.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-02-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to time domain return stroke luminosity signals to calculate the phase and group velocities and the amplitude of the luminosity signals as a function of frequency measured between 4 m and 115 m during 12 triggered lightning strokes. We show that pairs of time domain luminosity signals measured at different heights can be interpreted as the input and the output of a system whose frequency domain transfer function can be determined from the measured time domain signals. From the frequency domain transfer function phase we find the phase and group velocities, and luminosity amplitude as a function of triggered lightning channel height and signal frequency ranging from 50 kHz to 300 kHz. We show that higher-frequency luminosity components propagate faster than the lower frequency components and that higher-frequency luminosity components attenuate more rapidly than lower frequency components. Finally, we calculate time domain return stroke velocities as a function of channel height using two time delay techniques: (1) measurement at the 20% amplitude level and (2) cross correlation.

  10. An implementation of synthetic aperture focusing technique in frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2007-07-01

    A new implementation of a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) based on concepts used in synthetic aperture radar and sonar is presented in the paper. The algorithm, based on the convolution model of the imaging system developed in frequency domain, accounts for the beam pattern of the finite-sized transducer used in the synthetic aperture. The 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for the calculation of a 2D spectrum of the ultrasonic data. The spectrum is then interpolated to convert the polar coordinate system used for the acquisition of ultrasonic signals to the rectangular coordinates used for the presentation of imaging results. After compensating the transducer lobe amplitude profile using a Wiener filter, the transformed spectrum is subjected to the 2D inverse Fourier transform to get the time-domain image again. The algorithm is computationally attractive due to the use of 2D FFT. The performance of the proposed frequency-domain algorithm and the classical time-domain SAFT are compared in the paper using simulated and real ultrasonic data.

  11. Blind separation of multiple vehicle signatures in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi-Sadjadi, M. R.; Srinivasan, S.

    2005-05-01

    This paper considers the problem of classifying ground vehicles using their acoustic signatures recorded by unattended passive acoustic sensors. Using these sensors, acoustic signatures of a wide variety of sources such as trucks, tanks, personnel, and airborne targets can be recorded. Additionally, interference sources such as wind noise and ambient noise are typically present. The proposed approach in this paper relies on the blind source separation of the recorded signatures of various sources. Two different frequency domain source separation methods have been employed to separate the vehicle signatures that overlap both spectrally and temporally. These methods rely on the frequency domain extension of the independent component analysis (ICA) method and a joint diagonalization of the time varying spectra. Spectral and temporal-dependent features are then extracted from the separated sources using a new feature extraction method and subsequently used for target classification using a three-layer neural network. The performance of the developed algorithms are demonstrated on a subset of a real acoustic signature database acquired from the US Army TACOM-ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  12. Quantitative analysis of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Brent O; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Miller, Kyle G

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, quantitative understanding of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator is developed. The indicator is derived from an ensemble-averaged, frequency-domain version of the generalized Burgers equation, which can be rearranged in order to directly compare the effects of nonlinearity, absorption, and geometric spreading on the pressure spectrum level with frequency and distance. The nonlinear effect is calculated using pressure-squared-pressure quadspectrum. Further theoretical development has given an expression for the role of the normalized quadspectrum, referred to as Q/S by Morfey and Howell [AIAA J. 19, 986-992 (1981)], in the spatial rate of change of the pressure spectrum level. To explore this finding, an investigation of the change in level for initial sinusoids propagating as plane waves through inviscid and thermoviscous media has been conducted. The decibel change with distance, calculated through Q/S, captures the growth and decay of the harmonics and indicates that the most significant changes in level occur prior to sawtooth formation. At large distances, the inviscid case results in a spatial rate of change that is uniform across all harmonics. For thermoviscous media, large positive nonlinear gains are observed but offset by absorption, which leads to a greater overall negative spatial rate of change for higher harmonics.

  13. Parametric study of the frequency-domain thermoreflectance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, C.; Jensen, C.; Hua, Z.; Ban, H.; Hurley, D. H.; Khafizov, M.; Kennedy, J. R.

    2012-11-01

    Without requiring regression for parameter determination, one-dimensional (1D) analytical models are used by many research groups to extract the thermal properties in frequency-domain thermoreflectance measurements. Experimentally, this approach involves heating the sample with a pump laser and probing the temperature response with spatially coincident probe laser. Micron order lateral resolution can be obtained by tightly focusing the pump and probe lasers. However, small laser beam spot sizes necessarily bring into question the assumptions associated with 1D analytical models. In this study, we analyzed the applicability of 1D analytical models by comparing to 2D analytical and fully numerical models. Specifically, we considered a generic n-layer two-dimensional (2D), axisymmetric analytical model including effects of volumetric heat absorption, contact resistance, and anisotropic properties. In addition, a finite element numerical model was employed to consider nonlinear effects caused by temperature dependent thermal conductivity. Nonlinearity is of germane importance to frequency domain approaches because the experimental geometry is such that the probe is always sensing the maximum temperature fluctuation. To quantify the applicability of the 1D model, parametric studies were performed considering the effects of: film thickness, heating laser size, probe laser size, substrate-to-film effusivity ratio, interfacial thermal resistance between layers, volumetric heating, substrate thermal conductivity, nonlinear boundary conditions, and anisotropic and temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

  14. Parametric Study of the Frequency-Domain Thermoreflectance Technique

    SciTech Connect

    C. Xing; C. Jensen; Z. Hua; H. Ban; D. H. Hurley; M. Khafizov; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-11-01

    Without requiring regression for parameter determination, one-dimensional (1D) analytical models are used by many research groups to extract the thermal properties in frequency-domain thermoreflectance measurements. Experimentally, this approach involves heating the sample with a pump laser and probing the temperature response with spatially coincident probe laser. Micron order lateral resolution can be obtained by tightly focusing the pump and probe lasers. However, small laser beam spot sizes necessarily bring into question the assumptions associated with 1D analytical models. In this study, we analyzed the applicability of 1D analytical models by comparing to 2D analytical and fully numerical models. Specifically, we considered a generic nlayer two-dimensional (2D), axisymmetric analytical model including effects of volumetric heat absorption, contact resistance, and anisotropic properties. In addition, a finite element numerical model was employed to consider nonlinear effects caused by temperature dependent thermal conductivity. Nonlinearity is of germane importance to frequency domain approaches because the experimental geometry is such that the probe is always sensing the maximum temperature fluctuation. To quantify the applicability of the 1D model, parametric studies were performed considering the effects of: film thickness, heating laser size, probe laser size, substrate-to-film effusivity ratio, interfacial thermal resistance between layers, volumetric heating, substrate thermal conductivity, nonlinear boundary conditions, and anisotropic and temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

  15. Design and realization of photoelectric instrument binocular optical axis parallelism calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jia-ju; Chen, Yu-dan; Liu, Jie; Wu, Dong-sheng; Lu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The maladjustment of photoelectric instrument binocular optical axis parallelism will affect the observe effect directly. A binocular optical axis parallelism digital calibration system is designed. On the basis of the principle of optical axis binocular photoelectric instrument calibration, the scheme of system is designed, and the binocular optical axis parallelism digital calibration system is realized, which include four modules: multiband parallel light tube, optical axis translation, image acquisition system and software system. According to the different characteristics of thermal infrared imager and low-light-level night viewer, different algorithms is used to localize the center of the cross reticle. And the binocular optical axis parallelism calibration is realized for calibrating low-light-level night viewer and thermal infrared imager.

  16. 3D micro profile measurement with the method of spatial frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongxiang

    2015-10-01

    3D micro profiles are often needed for measurement in many fields, e.g., binary optics, electronic industry, mechanical manufacturing, aeronautic and space industry, etc. In the case where height difference between two neighboring points of a test profile is equal to or greater than λ / 4, microscopic interferometry based on laser source will no longer be applicable because of the uncertainty in phase unwrapping. As white light possesses the characteristic of interference length approximate to zero, applying it for micro profilometry can avoid the trouble and can yield accurate results. Using self-developed Mirau-type scanning interference microscope, a step-like sample was tested twice, with 128 scanning interferograms recorded for each test. To process each set of the interferograms, the method of spatial frequency domain analysis was adopted. That is, for each point, by use of Furrier transform, white-light interference intensities were decomposed in spatial frequency domain, thus obtaining phase values corresponding to different wavenumbers; by using least square fitting on phases and wave numbers, a group-velocity OPD was gained for the very point; and finally in terms of the relation between relative height and the group-velocity OPD, the profile of the test sample was obtained. Two tests yielded same profile result for the sample, and step heights obtained were 50.88 nm and 50.94 nm, respectively. Meantime, the sample was also measured with a Zygo Newview 7200 topography instrument, with same profile result obtained and step height differing by 0.9 nm. In addition, data processing results indicate that chromatic dispersion equal to and higher than 2nd order is negligible when applying spatial frequency domain analysis method.

  17. Digitalized detection of optical axes' parallelism in multi-optical axes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingqi; Ling, Jun; Zhou, Bing; Zhao, Xilin

    2002-09-01

    Automation and intelligent function in performance testing of optical instrument are the key problems in modern detection technology. In this paper a testing system based on the detection in laboratory is proposed and has successfully realized the detection of multi-optical axes" parallelism. This system is on the base of optics, mechanics and electricity, and combines the modern computer technology to gather and process the data obtained in the experiment, finally high-precision quantified results can be gotten, so these results can provide reliable data for the alignment of optical axes. The paper introduces the whole testing system"s design options, system composition, operational principle and software design in detail, and it"s technical difficulties and emphases are also analyzed and discussed.

  18. Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Felix; Wagner, Norman; Lünenschloß, Peter; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter; Kaliorias, Andreas; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric

  19. Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric

  20. Parallel processing using an optical delay-based reservoir computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Delay systems subject to delayed optical feedback have recently shown great potential in solving computationally hard tasks. By implementing a neuro-inspired computational scheme relying on the transient response to optical data injection, high processing speeds have been demonstrated. However, reservoir computing systems based on delay dynamics discussed in the literature are designed by coupling many different stand-alone components which lead to bulky, lack of long-term stability, non-monolithic systems. Here we numerically investigate the possibility of implementing reservoir computing schemes based on semiconductor ring lasers. Semiconductor ring lasers are semiconductor lasers where the laser cavity consists of a ring-shaped waveguide. SRLs are highly integrable and scalable, making them ideal candidates for key components in photonic integrated circuits. SRLs can generate light in two counterpropagating directions between which bistability has been demonstrated. We demonstrate that two independent machine learning tasks , even with different nature of inputs with different input data signals can be simultaneously computed using a single photonic nonlinear node relying on the parallelism offered by photonics. We illustrate the performance on simultaneous chaotic time series prediction and a classification of the Nonlinear Channel Equalization. We take advantage of different directional modes to process individual tasks. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk between the tasks. Our results indicate that prediction/classification with errors comparable to the state-of-the-art performance can be obtained even with noise despite the two tasks being computed simultaneously. We also find that a good performance is obtained for both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. The results are discussed in detail in [Nguimdo et al., IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 26, pp. 3301-3307, 2015

  1. Determine electric field directions at semiconductor surfaces by femtosecond frequency domain interferometric second harmonic (FDISH) generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2016-10-01

    Optical excitations at semiconductor surfaces or interfaces are accompanied by transient interfacial electric fields due to charge redistribution or transfer. While such transient fields may be probed by time-resolved second harmonic generation (TR-SHG), it is difficult to determine the field direction, which is invaluable to unveiling the underlying physics. Here we apply a time-resolved frequency domain interferometric second harmonic (TR-FDISH) generation technique to determine the phase relationship between the SH field emitted from bulk GaAs(1 0 0) and the transient SH field from the space charge region. The interference between these two SH fields allow us to unambiguously determine the directions of transient electric fields. Since SH fields from a static bulk contribution and a changing electric field contribution are present at most semiconductor surfaces or interfaces under optical excitation, the TR-FDISH technique is of general significance to probing the dynamics of interfacial charge transfer/redistribution.

  2. Angle correction for small animal tumor imaging with spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Piracha, Shaheer; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Viapiano, Mariano; Roblyer, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a widefield imaging technique that allows for the quantitative extraction of tissue optical properties. SFDI is currently being explored for small animal tumor imaging, but severe imaging artifacts occur for highly curved surfaces (e.g. the tumor edge). We propose a modified Lambertian angle correction, adapted from the Minnaert correction method for satellite imagery, to account for tissue surface angles up to 75°. The method was tested in a hemisphere phantom study as well as a small animal tumor model. The proposed method reduced µa and µs` extraction errors by an average of 64% and 16% respectively compared to performing no angle correction, and provided more physiologically agreeable optical property and chromophore values on tumors. PMID:27375952

  3. Frequency-domain method for measuring spectral properties in multiple-scattering media: methemoglobin absorption spectrum in a tissuelike phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishkin, Joshua B.; So, Peter T. C.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    1995-03-01

    We have measured the optical absorption and scattering coefficient spectra of a multiple-scattering medium (i.e., a biological tissue-simulating phantom comprising a lipid colloid) containing methemoglobin by using frequency-domain techniques. The methemoglobin absorption spectrum determined in the multiple-scattering medium is in excellent agreement with a corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum obtained from a steady-state spectrophotometer measurement of the optical density of a minimally scattering medium. The determination of the corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum takes into account the scattering from impurities in the methemoglobin solution containing no lipid colloid. Frequency-domain techniques allow for the separation of the absorbing from the scattering properties of multiple-scattering media, and these techniques thus provide an absolute

  4. Recursive least-squares algorithms for fast discrete frequency domain equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picchi, G.; Prati, G.

    A simple least-squares initialization algorithm (IA) is defined for use with a self-orthogonalizing equalization algorithm in the discrete frequency domain (DFD). A parallel recursive relation is formulated for updating the Kalman vector in the Kalman/Godard algorithm. The DFD is shown to be a modified LS algorithm, thus permitting an exact solution of the LS problem during the equalizer fill-up stage when the data correlation matrix is singular. The solution to the LS problem provides a basis for initialization of the DFD equalizer coefficients. The results of a simulation of on-line initialization of a DFD equalizer with a recursive initialization algorithm demonstrate a weighting capability that minimizes the effects of mean square errors of poorly estimated small-value taps.

  5. Face identification with frequency domain matched filtering in mobile environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Woo, Yong-Hyun; Yeom, Seokwon; Kim, Shin-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Face identification at a distance is very challenging since captured images are often degraded by blur and noise. Furthermore, the computational resources and memory are often limited in the mobile environments. Thus, it is very challenging to develop a real-time face identification system on the mobile device. This paper discusses face identification based on frequency domain matched filtering in the mobile environments. Face identification is performed by the linear or phase-only matched filter and sequential verification stages. The candidate window regions are decided by the major peaks of the linear or phase-only matched filtering outputs. The sequential stages comprise a skin-color test and an edge mask filtering test, which verify color and shape information of the candidate regions in order to remove false alarms. All algorithms are built on the mobile device using Android platform. The preliminary results show that face identification of East Asian people can be performed successfully in the mobile environments.

  6. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).

  7. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.

  8. Modeling of photon density waves in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, V. L.; Zubkov, L. A.; Papazoglou, E.

    2012-08-01

    We have described the transfer of modulated radiation in a random medium in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Based on the obtained expression for the scattering intensity, we have developed an original technique of modeling the photon density waves in terms of the Monte Carlo method. Expressions for measurable parameters in the frequency domain have been derived, and, based on them, the amplitude and phase of the photon density waves have been calculated. We have studied how the parameters of the photon density waves depend on the scattering anisotropy for model states with the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. The range of applicability of the diffusion approximation for the interpretation of signals of photon density waves has been investigated.

  9. Remote Strain Sensing of CFRP Using Microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Project is investigating technologies that increase automated remote inspection of aircraft composite structures. Therefore, microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) is being investigated as a method of enabling rapid remote measurement of strain occurring at the first ply of a composite fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structure using Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-Magnetic (EM) radiation. While microwave reflectometry has been used to detect disbonds in CFRP structures, its use in detecting strain has been limited. This work will present data demonstrating the measurement of the reactance changes due to loading conditions that are indicative of strain in a CFRP structure. In addition, the basic EM signature will be presented along with an analysis of temperature and humidity effects.

  10. Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear dynamic state-space model was developed and studied. The application is aircraft dynamic model parameter estimation from measured data in flight. Equation error in the frequency domain was used with a recursive Fourier transform for the real-time data analysis. Linear and nonlinear simulation examples and flight test data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were used to demonstrate that the technique produces accurate model parameter estimates with appropriate error bounds. Parameter estimates converged in less than one cycle of the dominant dynamic mode, using no a priori information, with control surface inputs measured in flight during ordinary piloted maneuvers. The real-time parameter estimation method has low computational requirements and could be implemented

  11. Frequency domain identification for robust large space structure control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.; Bayard, D. S.; Scheid, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is demonstrated for frequency domain identification of large space structures which systematically transforms experimental raw data into a form required for synthesizing H(infinity) controllers using modern robust control design software (e.g., Matlab Toolboxes). A unique feature of this approach is that the additive uncertainty is characterized to a specified statistic confidence rather than with hard bounds. In this study, the difference in robust performance is minimal between the two levels of confidence. In general cases, the present methodology provides a tool for performance/confidence level tradeoff studies. For simplicity, the additive uncertainty on a frequency grid is considered and the interpolation error in between grid points is neglected.

  12. Frequency domain identification experiment on a large flexible structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Hadaegh, F. Y.; Yam, Y.; Scheid, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Milman, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiences in the field of flexible structure control in space have indicated a need for on-orbit system identification to support robust control redesign to avoid in-flight instabilities and maintain high spacecraft performance. The authors highlight an automated frequency domain system identification methodology recently developed to fill this need. The methodology supports (1) the estimation of system quantities useful for robust control analysis and design, (2) experiment design tailored to performing system identification in a typically constrained on-orbit environment, and (3) the automation of operations to reduce human-in-the-loop requirements. A basic overview of the methodology is presented first, followed by an experimental verification of the approach performed on the JPL/AFAL testbed facility.

  13. Frequency-domain imaging of thick tissues using a CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Todd E.; Gratton, Enrico; Maier, John S.

    1992-04-01

    Imaging of thick tissue has been an area of active research during the past several years. Among the methods proposed to deal with the high scattering of biological tissues, the time resolution of a short light probe traversing a tissue seems to be the most promising. Time resolution can be achieved in the time domain using correlated single photon counting techniques or in the frequency domain using phase resolved methods. We have developed a CCD camera system which provides ultra high time resolution on the entire field of view. The phase of the photon diffusion wave traveling in the highly turbid medium can be measured with an accuracy of about one degree at each pixel. The camera has been successfully modulated at frequencies on the order of 100 MHz. At this frequency, one degree of phase shift corresponds to about 30 ps maximum time resolution. Powerful image processing software displays in real time the phase resolved image on the computer screen.

  14. Advancements in frequency-domain methods for rotorcraft system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for frequency-domain identification of rotorcraft dynamics is presented. Nonparametric frequency-response identification and parametric transfer-function modeling methods are extended to allow the extraction of state-space (stability and control derivative) representations. An interactive computer program DERIVID is described for the iterative solution of the multi-input/multi-output frequency-response matching approach used in the identification. Theoretical accuracy methods are used to determine the appropriate model structure and degree-of-confidence in the identified parameters. The method is applied to XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft data in hover. Bare-airframe stability and control derivatives for the lateral/directional dynamics are shown to compare favorably with models previously obtained using time-domain identification methods and the XV-15 simulation program.

  15. Advancements in frequency-domain methods for rotorcraft system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for frequency-domain identification of rotorcraft dynamics is presented. Nonparametric frequency-response identification and parametric tranfer-function modeling methods are extended to allow the extraction of state-space (stability and control derivative) representations. An interactive computer program DERIVID is described for the iterative solution of the multi-input/multi-output frequency-response matching approach used in the identification. Theoretical accuracy methods are used to determine the appropriate model structure and degree-of-confidence in the identified parameters. The method is applied to XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft data in hover. Bare-airframe stability and control derivatives for the lateral/directional dynamics are shown to compare favorably with models previously obtained using time-domain identification methods and the XV-15 simulation program.

  16. Noise characteristics of heterodyne/homodyne frequency-domain measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We theoretically develop and experimentally validate the noise characteristics of heterodyne and/or homodyne measurements that are widely used in frequency-domain diffusive imaging. The mean and covariance of the modulated heterodyne output are derived by adapting the random amplification of a temporal point process. A multinomial selection rule is applied to the result of the temporal noise analysis to additionally model the spatial distribution of intensified photons measured by a charge-coupled device (CCD), which shows that the photon detection efficiency of CCD pixels plays an important role in the noise property of detected photons. The approach of using a multinomial probability law is validated from experimental results. Also, experimentally measured characteristics of means and variances of homodyne outputs are in agreement with the developed theory. The developed noise model can be applied to all photon amplification processes. PMID:22352646

  17. Optical Digital Parallel Truth-Table Look-Up Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsalehi, Mir Mojtaba

    During the last decade, a number of optical digital processors have been proposed that combine the parallelism and speed of optics with the accuracy and flexibility of a digital representation. In this thesis, two types of such processors (an EXCLUSIVE OR-based processor and a NAND-based processor) that function as content-addressable memories (CAM's) are analyzed. The main factors that affect the performance of the EXCLUSIVE OR-based processor are found to be the Gaussian nature of the reference beam and the finite square aperture of the crystal. A quasi-one-dimensional model is developed to analyze the effect of the Gaussian reference beam, and a circular aperture is used to increase the dynamic range in the output power. The main factors that affect the performance of the NAND-based processor are found to be the variations in the amplitudes and the relative phase of the laser beams during the recording process. A mathematical model is developed for analyzing the probability of error in the output of the processor. Using this model, the performance of the processor for some practical cases is analyzed. Techniques that have been previously used to reduce the number of reference patterns in a CAM include: using the residue number system and applying logical minimization methods. In the present work, these and additional techniques are investigated. A systematic procedure is developed for selecting the optimum set of moduli. The effect of coding is investigated and it is shown that multi-level coding, when used in conjunction with logical minimization techniques, significantly reduces the number of reference patterns. The Quine-McCluskey method is extended to multiple -valued logic and a computer program based on this extension is used for logical minimization. The results show that for moduli expressable as p('n), where p is a prime number and n is an integer greater than one, p-level coding provides significant reduction. The NAND-based processor is modified for

  18. Clinical skin imaging using color spatial frequency domain imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin J.; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin diseases are typically associated with underlying biochemical and structural changes compared with normal tissues, which alter the optical properties of the skin lesions, such as tissue absorption and scattering. Although widely used in dermatology clinics, conventional dermatoscopes don't have the ability to selectively image tissue absorption and scattering, which may limit its diagnostic power. Here we report a novel clinical skin imaging technique called color spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI) which enhances contrast by rendering color spatial frequency domain (SFD) image at high spatial frequency. Moreover, by tuning spatial frequency, we can obtain both absorption weighted and scattering weighted images. We developed a handheld imaging system specifically for clinical skin imaging. The flexible configuration of the system allows for better access to skin lesions in hard-to-reach regions. A total of 48 lesions from 31 patients were imaged under 470nm, 530nm and 655nm illumination at a spatial frequency of 0.6mm^(-1). The SFD reflectance images at 470nm, 530nm and 655nm were assigned to blue (B), green (G) and red (R) channels to render a color SFD image. Our results indicated that color SFD images at f=0.6mm-1 revealed properties that were not seen in standard color images. Structural features were enhanced and absorption features were reduced, which helped to identify the sources of the contrast. This imaging technique provides additional insights into skin lesions and may better assist clinical diagnosis.

  19. A scheme of optical interconnection for super high speed parallel computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Youju; Lv, Yi; Liu, Jiang; Dang, Mingrui

    2004-11-01

    An optical cross connection network which adopts coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) and data packet is introduced. It can be used to realize communication between multi-CPU and multi-MEM in parallel computing system. It provides an effective way to upgrade the capability of parallel computer by combining optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and data packet switching technology. CWDM used in network construction, optical cross connection (OXC) based on optical switch arrays, and data packet format used in network construction were analyzed. We have also done the optimizing analysis of the number of optical switches needed in different scales of network in this paper. The architecture of the optical interconnection for 8 wavelength channels and 128 bits parallel transmission has been researched. Finally, a parallel transmission system with 4 nodes, 8 channels per node, has been designed.

  20. A Simple Physical Optics Algorithm Perfect for Parallel Computing Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W. A.; Cwik, T.

    1994-01-01

    A reflector antenna computer program based upon a simple discreet approximation of the radiation integral has proven to be extremely easy to adapt to the parallel computing architecture of the modest number of large-gain computing elements such as are used in the Intel iPSC and Touchstone Delta parallel machines.

  1. A new image cipher in time and frequency domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu; Amin, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Recently, various encryption techniques based on chaos have been proposed. However, most existing chaotic encryption schemes still suffer from fundamental problems such as small key space, weak security function and slow performance speed. This paper introduces an efficient encryption scheme for still visual data that overcome these disadvantages. The proposed scheme is based on hybrid Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) and chaotic systems in hybrid domains. The core idea is to scramble the pixel positions based on 2D chaotic systems in frequency domain. Then, the diffusion is done on the scrambled image based on cryptographic primitive operations and the incorporation of LFSR and chaotic systems as round keys. The hybrid compound of LFSR, chaotic system and cryptographic primitive operations strengthen the encryption performance and enlarge the key space required to resist the brute force attacks. Results of statistical and differential analysis show that the proposed algorithm has high security for secure digital images. Furthermore, it has key sensitivity together with a large key space and is very fast compared to other competitive algorithms.

  2. An analog filter approach to frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Trainham, Clifford P.; O'Neill, Mary D.; McKenna, Ian J.

    2015-10-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modeled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as Spicea can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modeling of the entiremore » system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. Furthermore, the techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.« less

  3. An analog filter approach to frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, Clifford P.; O'Neill, Mary D.; McKenna, Ian J.

    2015-10-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modeled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as Spicea can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modeling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. Furthermore, the techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.

  4. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: electromyography in a frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, D. S.; Kuriki, H. U.; Polito, L. F.; Azevedo, F. M.; Negrão Filho, R. F.; Alves, N.

    2011-09-01

    The Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), has a multifactorial etiology and affects approximately 7 to 15% of the population, mostly women, youth, adults and active persons. PFPS causes anterior or retropatelar pain that is exacerbated during functional motor gestures, such as up and down stairs or spending long periods of time sitting, squatting or kneeling. As the diagnostic evaluation of this syndrome is still indirect, different mechanisms and methodologies try to make a classification that distinguishes patients with PFPS in relation to asymptomatic. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signal in the frequency domain of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) in patients with PFPS, during the ascent of stairs. 33 young women (22 control group and 11 PFPS group), were evaluated by EMG during ascent of stairs. The VMO mean power frequency (MPF) and the VL frequency 95% (F95) were lower in symptomatic individuals. This may be related to the difference in muscle recruitment strategy exerted by each muscle in the PFPS group compared to the control group.

  5. Calibration and filtering strategies for frequency domain electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Smith, Bruce D.; Hammack, Richard; Sams, James I.; Veloski, Garret

    2012-05-01

    Repeat frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys have been acquired over agricultural fields in the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming, where subsurface drip irrigation is being utilized for the beneficial dispersal of coalbed methane produced water. The purpose of the FDEM surveys is to monitor changes in subsurface electrical properties due to the injection of the produced water. In order to quantitatively interpret the data, however, both systematic and random errors must be accounted for. A calibration procedure, adapted from airborne geophysical data processing, corrects for systematic errors by making the FDEM data consistent with the results of a direct current resistivity survey that is coincident with a portion of the FDEM data. Calibration is shown to improve the inter-frequency relationships within the data, resulting in reduced misfit when the data are inverted and therefore added confidence in the inversion results. A filtering approach that is based on principal component analysis is used to attenuate random errors in the data. This type of filter is advantageous because it has a physical-basis in the fact that FDEM data are highly correlated across frequencies, and does not require an arbitrarily-defined spatial filter window length. The calibration and filtering methods are successfully applied to approximately 15 line-km of data in the PRB. It is apparent, however, that calibration parameters may drift in time and should be re-assessed at regular intervals throughout a survey.

  6. Frequency domain analysis of noise in autoregulated gene circuits

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Michael L.; Cox, Chris D.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a frequency domain technique for the analysis of intrinsic noise within negatively autoregulated gene circuits. This approach is based on the transfer function around the feedback loop (loop transmission) and the equivalent noise bandwidth of the system. The loop transmission, T, is shown to be a determining factor of the dynamics and the noise behavior of autoregulated gene circuits, and this T-based technique provides a simple and flexible method for the analysis of noise arising from any source within the gene circuit. We show that negative feedback not only reduces the variance of the noise in the protein concentration, but also shifts this noise to higher frequencies where it may have a negligible effect on the noise behavior of following gene circuits within a cascade. This predicted effect is demonstrated through the exact stochastic simulation of a two-gene cascade. The analysis elucidates important aspects of gene circuit structure that control functionality, and may provide some insights into selective pressures leading to this structure. The resulting analytical relationships have a simple form, making them especially useful as synthetic gene circuit design equations. With the exception of the linearization of Hill kinetics, this technique is general and may be applied to the analysis or design of networks of higher complexity. This utility is demonstrated through the exact stochastic simulation of an autoregulated two-gene cascade operating near instability. PMID:12671069

  7. Damping identification in frequency domain using integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Ma, Jiangang; Zhang, Wulin

    2015-03-01

    A new method for damping identification of linear system in frequency domain is presented, by using frequency response function (FRF) with integral method. The FRF curve is firstly transformed to other type of frequency-related curve by changing the representations of horizontal and vertical axes. For the newly constructed frequency-related curve, integral is conducted and the area forming from the new curve is used to determine the damping. Three different methods based on integral are proposed in this paper, which are called FDI-1, FDI-2 and FDI-3 method, respectively. For a single degree of freedom (Sdof) system, the formulated relation of each method between integrated area and loss factor is derived theoretically. The numeral simulation and experiment results show that, the proposed integral methods have high precision, strong noise resistance and are very stable in repeated measurements. Among the three integral methods, FDI-3 method is the most recommended because of its higher accuracy and simpler algorithm. The new methods are limited to linear system in which modes are well separated, and for closely spaced mode system, mode decomposition process should be conducted firstly.

  8. A Frequency-Domain Substructure System Identification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blades, Eric L.; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A new frequency-domain system identification algorithm is presented for system identification of substructures, such as payloads to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. In the vibration test, all interface degrees of freedom where the substructure is connected to the carrier structure are either subjected to active excitation or are supported by a test stand with the reaction forces measured. The measured frequency-response data is used to obtain a linear, viscous-damped model with all interface-degree of freedom entries included. This model can then be used to validate analytical substructure models. This procedure makes it possible to obtain not only the fixed-interface modal data associated with a Craig-Bampton substructure model, but also the data associated with constraint modes. With this proposed algorithm, multiple-boundary-condition tests are not required, and test-stand dynamics is accounted for without requiring a separate modal test or finite element modeling of the test stand. Numerical simulations are used in examining the algorithm's ability to estimate valid reduced-order structural models. The algorithm's performance when frequency-response data covering narrow and broad frequency bandwidths is used as input is explored. Its performance when noise is added to the frequency-response data and the use of different least squares solution techniques are also examined. The identified reduced-order models are also compared for accuracy with other test-analysis models and a formulation for a Craig-Bampton test-analysis model is also presented.

  9. A development of a generalized frequency - domain transient program - FTP

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, N.; Ametani, A. )

    1988-10-01

    A generalized frequency-domain transient program (FTP) is developed in the paper. The FTP is based on a frequency-time transform method adopting nodal analysis, admittance parameter and modal theories. Discontinuous and nonlinear elements are solved as initial condition problems using a piece-wise linear approximation of the nonlinear characteristics. The FTP is used to solve the transient and steady states of a network composed of an arbitrary interconnection of basic circuit elements. The FTP is structured to be compatible with the EMTP so that the same input data and output formats are those of the EMTP can be used. The present version of the FTP can deal with a network with over a hundred of nodes and branches. Comparisons of calculated results by the FTP with field test results and calculated results by the EMTP confirm a high accuracy and a satisfactory efficiency of the FTP. The FTP is of great advantage to offer the most accurate or theoretically exact solutions of transients on distributed-parameter lines.

  10. Color-signal filtering in the Fourier-frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Romero, Javier; Valero, Eva; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Nieves, Juan L

    2003-09-01

    We have analyzed the Fourier-frequency content of spectral power distributions deriving from three types of illuminants (daylight, incandescent, and fluorescent) and the color signals from both biochrome and nonbiochrome surfaces lit by these illuminants. As far as daylight and the incandescent illuminant are concerned, after filtering the signals through parabolic (low-pass) filters in the Fourier-frequency domain and then reconstructing them, we found that most of the spectral information was contained below 0.016 c/nm. When fluorescent illuminants were involved, we were unable to recover either the original illuminants or color signals to any satisfactory degree. We also used the spectral modulation sensitivity function, which is related to the human visual system's color discrimination thresholds, as a Fourier-frequency filter and obtained consistently less reliable results than with low-pass filtering. We provide comparative results for daylight signals recovered by three different methods. We found reconstructions based on linear models to be the most effective.

  11. Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Marco; De Blasi, Roberto A.; Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Barbieri, Beniamino B.; Quaresima, Valentina; Gratton, Enrico

    1995-05-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at 715 and 825 nm as well as hemoglobin saturation and content of the forehead and the forearm were measured by a 110 MHz frequency-domain multisource instrument. The absolute data obtained by the frequency- domain spectrometer were compared with oxygenation changes measured by a continuous wave instrument during quadriceps ischemia and postural changes. These preliminary results indicate that portable frequency-domain instruments could be very helpful to investigate brain and muscle pathophysiology.

  12. Quantifying the properties of two-layer turbid media with frequency-domain diffuse reflectance.

    PubMed

    Pham, T H; Spott, T; Svaasand, L O; Tromberg, B J

    2000-09-01

    Noncontact, frequency-domain measurements of diffusely reflected light are used to quantify optical properties of two-layer tissuelike turbid media. The irradiating source is a sinusoidal intensity-modulated plane wave, with modulation frequencies ranging from 10 to 1500 MHz. Frequency-dependent phase and amplitude of diffusely reflected photon density waves are simultaneously fitted to a diffusion-based two-layer model to quantify absorption (mu(a)) and reduced scattering (mu(s)') parameters of each layer as well as the upper-layer thickness (l). Study results indicate that the optical properties of two-layer media can be determined with a percent accuracy of the order of +/-9% and +/-5% for mu(a) and mu(s)', respectively. The accuracy of upper-layer thickness (l) estimation is as good as +/-6% when optical properties of upper and lower layers are known. Optical property and layer thickness prediction accuracy degrade significantly when more than three free parameters are extracted from data fits. Problems with convergence are encountered when all five free parameters (mu(a) and mu(s)' of upper and lower layers and thickness l) must be deduced.

  13. Frequency-domain sensitivity analysis for small imaging domains using the equation of radiative transfer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuejun; Ren, Kui; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2007-04-01

    Optical tomography of small imaging domains holds great promise as the signal-to-noise ratio is usually high, and the achievable spatial resolution is much better than in large imaging domains. Emerging applications range from the imaging of joint diseases in human fingers to monitoring tumor growth or brain activity in small animals. In these cases, the diameter of the tissue under investigation is typically smaller than 3 cm, and the optical path length is only a few scattering mean-free paths. It is well known that under these conditions the widely applied diffusion approximation to the equation of radiative transfer (ERT) is of limited applicability. To accurately model light propagation in these small domains, the ERT has to be solved directly. We use the frequency-domain ERT to perform a sensitivity study for small imaging domains. We found optimal source-modulation frequencies for which variations in optical properties, size, and location of a tissue inhomogeneity lead to maximal changes in the amplitude and phase of the measured signal. These results will be useful in the design of experiments and optical tomographic imaging systems that probe small tissue volumes.

  14. Microwave signal processing in two-frequency domain for ROF systems implementation: training course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Morozov, Gennady A.

    2014-04-01

    This article is presented materials from two tutorials: "Optical two-frequency domain reflectometry1, 2" and "Microwave technologies in industry, living systems and telecommunications3". These materials were prepared for master training courses and listed in the "SPIE Optical Education Directory" for 2013/2014. The main its theme is microwave photonics. Microwave photonics has been defined as the study of photonic devices operating at microwave frequencies and their application to microwave and optical systems. Its initial rationale was to use the advantages of photonic technologies to provide functions in microwave systems that are very complex or even impossible to carry out directly in the radiofrequency domain. But microwave photonics is also succeeding in incorporating a variety of techniques used in microwave engineering to improve the performance of photonic communication networks and systems. Three parts of this chapter are devoted to applications and construction principles of systems forming microwave photonic filters, measuring instantaneous frequency of microwave heterodyne signals and characterizing stimulated Mandelstam- Brillouin scattering spectrum in ROF systems. The main emphasis is on the use of the two-frequency symmetric radiation, generated by the Il'in-Morozov's method4, in given systems. It is forming radiation for the synthesis of optical filters coefficients, it's application and processing determine the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio during heterodyne frequencies monitoring and characterization of nonlinear effects spectrum.

  15. Spatial and temporal frequency domain laser-ultrasound applied in the direct measurement of dispersion relations of surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünsteidl, Clemens; Veres, István A.; Roither, Jürgen; Burgholzer, Peter; Murray, Todd W.; Berer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a laser-ultrasound measurement technique which combines adjustable spatial and temporal modulation of the excitation laser beam. Our method spreads the intensity of an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser over a micro-scale pattern on the sample surface to excite surface acoustic waves. The excitation pattern consists of parallel, equidistant lines and the waves generated from the individual lines interfere on the sample surface. Measurement is done in the spatial-temporal frequency domain allowing the direct determination of dispersion relations. The technique performs with high signal-to-noise-ratios and low peak power densities on the sample.

  16. Parallelized unscented Kalman filters for carrier recovery in coherent optical communication.

    PubMed

    Jignesh, Jokhakar; Corcoran, Bill; Lowery, Arthur

    2016-07-15

    We show that unscented Kalman filters can be used to mitigate local oscillator phase noise and to compensate carrier frequency offset in coherent single-carrier optical communication systems. A parallel processing architecture implementing the unscented Kalman filter is proposed, improving upon a previous parallelized linear Kalman filter (LKF) implementation.

  17. Parallel optical Walsh expansion in a pattern recognition preprocessor using planar microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashige, Kimio; Akiba, Atsushi; Baba, Toshihiko; Iga, Kenichi

    1992-05-01

    A parallel optical processor developed for a pattern recognition system using a planar microlens array and a Walsh orthogonal expansion spatial filter is developed. The parallel optical Walsh expansion of multiple images made by the planar microlens array with good accuracy, which assures 99-percent recognition of simple numeral characters in the system, is demonstrated. A novel selection method of Walsh expansion coefficients is proposed in order to enlarge the tolerance of the recognition rate against the deformation of input patterns.

  18. Frequency Domain Magnetic Measurements from Kilohertz to Gigahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, John F.

    "......we applied much prolonged labor on investigating the magnetical forces; so wonderful indeed are they, compared with the forces in all other minerals, surpassing even the virtues of all bodies around us. Nor have we found this labor idle or unfruitful; since daily in our experimenting new unexpected properties came to light."William Gilbert, De Magnete, 1600Abstract. This review deals with practical aspects of making frequency-domain measurements of magnetic susceptibility and magnetic losses from 200 kHz up to 10 GHz. It sets out the types of measurement concerned, distinguishing resonant from nonresonant phenomena. The techniques available are categorized according to suitability for the different frequency regimes and types of investigation. Practical recipes are provided for undertaking such experiments across the entire frequency range. Marginal oscillator spectrometry is discussed which is applicable across the whole frequency range. Different instruments are presented, and particular emphasis is placed on designs which function on the Robinson principle. Analysis of oscillation condition and signal-to-noise performance is dealt with, also sample considerations such as filling factor. Practical circuits are presented and their merits and demerits evaluated. Layout and radio-frequency design considerations are dealt with. Ultrahigh/microwave frequency marginal oscillator spectrometry is given special treatment and several practical designs are given. The essentials of good microwave design are emphasized. A general discussion of resonant structures is included which treats multiple layer coil design, slow wave line structures, stripline and cavities. Unusual cavity designs such as the rhumbatron are treated. Use of striplines with microwave marginal spectrometry is described and compared with conventional network-analysis techniques. The use of parameter matrices for high-frequency analysis is alluded to. Some details of good construction practice are

  19. Experience with parallel optical link for the CDF silicon detector

    SciTech Connect

    S. Hou

    2003-04-11

    The Dense Optical Interface Module (DOIM) is a byte-wide optical link developed for the Run II upgrade of the CDF silicon tracking system [1]. The module consists of a transmitter with a laser-diode array for conversion of digitized detector signals to light outputs, a 22 m optical fiber ribbon cable for light transmission, and a receiver converting the light pulses back to electrical signals. We report on the design feature, characteristics, and radiation tolerance.

  20. Frequency domain fluorescence lifetime microwell-plate platform for respirometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, M. R.; Yale, G.; Van Ryckeghem, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally micro-well plate based platforms used in biology utilize fluorescence intensity based methods to measure processes of biological relevance. However, fluorescence intensity measurements suffer from calibration drift due to a variety of factors. Photobleaching and self-quenching of the fluorescent dyes cause the intensity signal to drop over the lifetime of sensor immobilized inside the well. Variation in turbidity of the sample during the course of the measurement affects the measured fluorescence intensity. In comparison, fluorescence lifetime measurements are not significantly affected by these factors because fluorescence lifetime is a physico-chemical property of the fluorescent dye. Reliable and inexpensive frequency domain fluorescence lifetime instrumentation platforms are possible because the greater tolerance for optical alignment, and because they can be performed using inexpensive light sources such as LEDs. In this paper we report the development of a frequency domain fluorescence lifetime well-plate platform utilizing an oxygen sensitive transition-metal ligand complex fluorophore with a lifetime in the microsecond range. The fluorescence lifetime dye is incorporated in a polymer matrix and immobilized on the base of micro-well of a 60 well micro-well plate. Respiration measurements are performed in both aqueous and non-aqueous environment. Respirometry measurements were recorded from single Daphnia magna egg in hard water. Daphnia is an aquatic organism, important in environmental toxicology as a standard bioassay and early warning indicator for water quality monitoring. Also respirometry measurements were recorded from Tribolium castaneum eggs, which are common pests in the processed flour industry. These eggs were subjected to mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitor such as potassium cyanide (KCN) and its effects on egg respiration were measured in real-time.

  1. Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging: Applications in Preclinical Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alexander Justin

    A clinical challenge in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosing and treating patients earlier, before symptoms of cognitive dysfunction occur. A good screening test would be sensitive to the AD brain pathology, safe, and cost-effective. Diffuse optical imaging, which measures how non-ionizing light is absorbed and scattered in tissue, may fulfill these three parameters. We imaged the brains of transgenic AD mouse models in vivo with a quantitative, camera-based, diffuse optical imaging technology called spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) to characterize near-infrared (650-970nm) optical biomarkers of AD. Compared to age-matched control mice, we found a decrease in light absorption --- due to lower oxygenated and total hemoglobin concentrations in the brain --- correlating to decreased blood vessel volume and density in histology. Light scattering also increased in AD mice, correlating to brain structural changes caused by neuron loss and activation of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, inhaled gas challenges revealed brain vascular function was diminished. To investigate how AD affects the small changes in blood perfusion caused by increased brain activity, we built a new SFDI system from a commercial light-emitting diode microprojector and off-the-shelf optical components and cameras to measure optical properties in the visible range (460-632nm). Our measurements showed a reduced amplitude and duration of blood vessel dilation to increased brain activity in the AD mice. Altogether, this work increased our understanding of AD pathogenesis, explored optical biomarkers of AD, and improved technology access to other research labs. These results and technologies can further be used to facilitate longitudinal drug therapy trials in mice and provide a roadmap to diffuse optical spectroscopy studies in humans.

  2. Dynamics of low-frequency phonons in the YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor studied by time- and frequency-domain spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misochko, O. V.; Kisoda, K.; Sakai, K.; Nakashima, S.

    2000-02-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the optical reflectivity at femtosecond scale in YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors. In both normal and superconducting states, we detect the oscillations associated with two A1g metal-ion modes and compare the phonon dynamics to those obtained by frequency-domain (Raman) spectroscopy. Apart from the considerable increase of amplitude for low-frequency mode in the superconducting state, we observe that its initial phase in the time domain is approximately π/4 shifted by the superconductivity, whereas for the high-frequency mode the initial phase shift is almost two times larger. Even though similar lattice anomalies are observed in both time and frequency domains, the systematic analysis shows that the coherent lattice dynamics is different from the ordinary (thermal state) dynamics probed by frequency-domain spectroscopy.

  3. Electromagnetic coupling in frequency domain induced polarisation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Partha Sarathi

    2000-11-01

    Frequency domain induced polarization (IP) surveys are commonly carried out to provide information about the chargeability structure of the earth. The goals might be as diverse as trying to delineate a mineralized and/or alteration zone for mineral exploration, or to find a region of contaminants for an environmental problem. Unfortunately, the measured responses can have contributions from inductive and galvanic effects of the ground. The inductive components are called EM coupling effects. They are considered to be ``noise'' and much of this thesis is devoted towards either removing these effects, or reformulating the inverse problem so that inductive effects are part of the ``signal''. If the forward modeling is based on galvanic responses only, then the inductive responses must first be removed from the data. The motivation for attacking the problem in this manner is that it is easier to solve D.C. resistivity equation than the full Maxwell's equation. The separation of the inductive response from the total response is derived by expressing the total electric field as a product of an IP response function, and an electric field which depends on EM coupling response. This enables me to generate formulae to obtain IP amplitude (PFE) and phase response from the raw data. The data can then be inverted, using a galvanic forward modeling. I illustrate this with 1D and 3D synthetic examples. To handle field data sets, I have developed an approximate method for estimating the EM coupling effects based upon the assumption that the earth is locally 1D. The 1D conductivity is obtained from a 2D inversion of the low frequency DC resistivity data. Application of this method to a field data set has shown encouraging results. I also examine the EM coupling problem in terms of complex conductivity. I show that if the forward modeling is carried out with full Maxwell's equation, then there is no need to remove EM coupling. I illustrate this with 1D synthetic example. In summary

  4. Analysis of frequency domain frame detection and synchronization in OQAM-OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein, Christoph; Schellmann, Malte; Peissig, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    For future communication systems, filter bank multicarrier schemes offer the flexibility to increase spectrum utilization in heterogeneous wireless environments by good separation of signals in the frequency domain. To fully exploit this property for frame detection and synchronization, the advantage of the filter bank should be taken at the receiver side. In this work, the concept of frequency domain processing for frame detection and synchronization is analyzed and a suitable preamble design as well as corresponding estimation algorithms is discussed. The theoretical performance of the detection and estimation schemes is derived and compared with simulation-based assessments. The results show that, even though the frequency domain algorithms are sensitive to carrier frequency offsets, satisfactory frame detection and synchronization can be achieved in the frequency domain. In comparison to time domain synchronization methods, the computational complexity increases; however, enhanced robustness in shared spectrum access scenarios is gained in case the described frequency domain approach is utilized.

  5. Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

  6. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers. Application to Planck/HFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic

    2016-12-01

    Context: Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν < 1 Hz, and secondly the Analog To digital Converter (ADC) component had been insufficiently characterized on-ground. These two problems require an exquisite knowledge of detector response. However bolometers have highly nonlinear characteristics, coming from their electrical and thermal coupling making them very difficult to model. Goal: We present a method to build the analytical transfer function in frequency domain which describe the voltage response of an Alternative Current (AC) biased bolometer to optical excitation, based on the standard bolometer model. This model is built using the setup of the Planck/HFI instrument and offers the major improvement of being based on a physical model rather than the currently in use had-hoc model based on Direct Current (DC) bolometer theory. Method: The analytical transfer function expression will be presented in matrix form. For this purpose, we build linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. Results: The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.

  7. Parallel optical information, concept, and response evolver: POINCARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John; Caulfield, Kimberly

    1991-08-01

    It is now possible to build a nonlinear adaptive system which will incorporate many of the properties of the human mind, such as true originality in such skills as reasoning by analogy and reasoning by retrodiction, including literally unpredictable thoughts; and development of individual styles, personalities, expertise, etc. Like humans, these optical processors will have a rich `subconscious'' experience. Like humans, they will be clonable, but clones will develop differently as they experience the world differently, make different decisions, develop different habits, etc. In short, powerful optical processors with some of the properties normally associated with human intelligence can be made. This approach can result in a powerful optical processor with those properties. A demonstration chosen for simplicity of implementation is suggested. This could be the first computer of any type which uses quantum indeterminacy in an integral and important way.

  8. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  9. High-Throughput, Protein-Targeted Biomolecular Detection Using Frequency-Domain Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Richard J; Putnam, Shawn A; Das, Soumen; Gupta, Ankur; Chase, Elyse D Z; Seal, Sudipta

    2017-01-16

    A clinically relevant magneto-optical technique (fd-FRS, frequency-domain Faraday rotation spectroscopy) for characterizing proteins using antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is demonstrated. This technique distinguishes between the Faraday rotation of the solvent, iron oxide core, and functionalization layers of polyethylene glycol polymers (spacer) and model antibody-antigen complexes (anti-BSA/BSA, bovine serum albumin). A detection sensitivity of ≈10 pg mL(-1) and broad detection range of 10 pg mL(-1) ≲ cBSA ≲ 100 µg mL(-1) are observed. Combining this technique with predictive analyte binding models quantifies (within an order of magnitude) the number of active binding sites on functionalized MNPs. Comparative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies are conducted, reproducing the manufacturer advertised BSA ELISA detection limits from 1 ng mL(-1) ≲ cBSA ≲ 500 ng mL(-1) . In addition to the increased sensitivity, broader detection range, and similar specificity, fd-FRS can be conducted in less than ≈30 min, compared to ≈4 h with ELISA. Thus, fd-FRS is shown to be a sensitive optical technique with potential to become an efficient diagnostic in the chemical and biomolecular sciences.

  10. Frequency domain approach for time-resolved pump-probe microscopy using intensity modulated laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, J.; Kawasumi, K.; Kobayashi, T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a scheme for time-resolved pump-probe microscopy using intensity modulated laser diodes. The modulation frequencies of the pump and probe beams are varied up to 500 MHz with fixed frequency detuning typically set at 15 kHz. The frequency response of the pump-probe signal is detected using a lock-in amplifier referenced at the beat frequency. This frequency domain method is capable of characterizing the nanosecond to picosecond relaxation dynamics of sample species without the use of a high speed detector or a high frequency lock-in amplifier. Furthermore, as the pump-probe signal is based on the nonlinear interaction between the two laser beams and the sample, our scheme provides better spatial resolution than the conventional diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Time-resolved pump-probe imaging of fluorescence beads and aggregates of quantum dots demonstrates that this method is useful for the microscopic analysis of optoelectronic devices. The system is implemented using compact and low-cost laser diodes, and thus has a broad range of applications in the fields of photochemistry, optical physics, and biological imaging.

  11. Wide-field quantitative imaging of tissue microstructure using sub-diffuse spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    McClatchy, David M; Rizzo, Elizabeth J; Wells, Wendy A; Cheney, Philip P; Hwang, Jeeseong C; Paulsen, Keith D; Pogue, Brian W; Kanick, Stephen C

    2016-06-20

    Localized measurements of scattering in biological tissue provide sensitivity to microstructural morphology but have limited utility to wide-field applications, such as surgical guidance. This study introduces sub-diffusive spatial frequency domain imaging (sd-SFDI), which uses high spatial frequency illumination to achieve wide-field sampling of localized reflectances. Model-based inversion recovers macroscopic variations in the reduced scattering coefficient [Formula: see text] and the phase function backscatter parameter (γ). Measurements in optical phantoms show quantitative imaging of user-tuned phase-function-based contrast with accurate decoupling of parameters that define both the density and the size-scale distribution of scatterers. Measurements of fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples revealed, for the first time, unique clustering of sub-diffusive scattering properties for different tissue types. The results support that sd-SFDI provides maps of microscopic structural biomarkers that cannot be obtained with diffuse wide-field imaging and characterizes spatial variations not resolved by point-based optical sampling.

  12. Frequency-Domain Identification With Composite Curve Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved method of parameter identification based on decomposing single wide-band model into two or more component systems in parallel. Each component model predominates in specific frequency range. Wide-band mathematical model of system identified as two narrow-band models: one containing most of information on high-frequency components of dynamics, and one containing most of information on low-frequency components. Applicable to diverse systems, including vibrating structures, electronic circuits, and control systems.

  13. Multipactor radiation analysis within a waveguide region based on a frequency-domain representation of the dynamics of charged particles.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, B; Sorolla, E; Anza, S; Vicente, C; Gil, J; Pérez, A M; Boria, V E; Pérez-Soler, F J; Quesada, F; Alvarez, A; Raboso, D

    2009-04-01

    A technique for the accurate computation of the electromagnetic fields radiated by a charged particle moving within a parallel-plate waveguide is presented. Based on a transformation of the time-varying current density of the particle into a time-harmonic current density, this technique allows the evaluation of the radiated electromagnetic fields both in the frequency and time domains, as well as in the near- and far-field regions. For this purpose, several accelerated versions of the parallel-plate Green's function in the frequency domain have been considered. The theory has been successfully applied to the multipactor discharge occurring within a two metal-plates region. The proposed formulation has been tested with a particle-in-cell code based on the finite-difference time-domain method, obtaining good agreement.

  14. A review of snapshot multidimensional optical imaging: Measuring photon tags in parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-02-01

    Multidimensional optical imaging has seen remarkable growth in the past decade. Rather than measuring only the two-dimensional spatial distribution of light, as in conventional photography, multidimensional optical imaging captures light in up to nine dimensions, providing unprecedented information about incident photons' spatial coordinates, emittance angles, wavelength, time, and polarization. Multidimensional optical imaging can be accomplished either by scanning or parallel acquisition. Compared with scanning-based imagers, parallel acquisition-also dubbed snapshot imaging-has a prominent advantage in maximizing optical throughput, particularly when measuring a datacube of high dimensions. Here, we first categorize snapshot multidimensional imagers based on their acquisition and image reconstruction strategies, then highlight the snapshot advantage in the context of optical throughput, and finally we discuss their state-of-the-art implementations and applications.

  15. Applications of Emerging Parallel Optical Link Technology to High Energy Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Modern particle detectors depend upon optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from the telecommunications and storage area network market segments. These links support data transfers in each direction at rates up to 120 Gbps in packages that minimize or even eliminate edge connector requirements. Emerging products include a class of devices known as optical engines which permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to the electrical interfaces of ASICs and FPGAs which handle the data in parallel electrical format. Such assemblies will reduce required printed circuit board area and minimize electromagnetic interference and susceptibility. We will present test results of some of these parallel components and report on the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

  16. IQ imbalance tolerable parallel-channel DMT transmission for coherent optical OFDMA access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sang-Min; Mun, Kyoung-Hak; Jung, Sun-Young; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-12-01

    Phase diversity of coherent optical communication provides spectrally efficient higher-order modulation for optical communications. However, in-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalance in coherent optical communication degrades transmission performance by introducing unwanted signal distortions. In a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) passive optical network (PON), IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions degrade transmission performance by interferences of mirror subcarriers, inter-symbol interference (ISI), and inter-channel interference (ICI). We propose parallel-channel discrete multitone (DMT) transmission to mitigate transceiver IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of parallel-channel DMT transmission compared with that of OFDM transmission in the presence of IQ imbalance.

  17. A review of snapshot multidimensional optical imaging: measuring photon tags in parallel

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Multidimensional optical imaging has seen remarkable growth in the past decade. Rather than measuring only the two-dimensional spatial distribution of light, as in conventional photography, multidimensional optical imaging captures light in up to nine dimensions, providing unprecedented information about incident photons’ spatial coordinates, emittance angles, wavelength, time, and polarization. Multidimensional optical imaging can be accomplished either by scanning or parallel acquisition. Compared with scanning-based imagers, parallel acquisition—also dubbed snapshot imaging—has a prominent advantage in maximizing optical throughput, particularly when measuring a datacube of high dimensions. Here, we first categorize snapshot multidimensional imagers based on their acquisition and image reconstruction strategies, then highlight the snapshot advantage in the context of optical throughput, and finally we discuss their state-of-the-art implementations and applications. PMID:27134340

  18. Voltage-clamp frequency domain analysis of NMDA-activated neurons.

    PubMed

    Moore, L E; Hill, R H; Grillner, S

    1993-02-01

    1. Voltage and current-clamp steps were added to a sum of sine waves to measure the tetrodotoxin-insensitive membrane properties of neurons in the intact lamprey spinal cord. A systems analysis in the frequency domain was carried out on two types of cells that have very different morphologies in order to investigate the structural dependence of their electrophysiological properties. The method explicitly takes into account the geometrical shapes of (i) nearly spherical dorsal cells with one or two processes and (ii) motoneurons and interneurons that have branched dendritic structures. Impedance functions were analysed to obtain the cable properties of these in situ neurons. These measurements show that branched neurons are not isopotential and, therefore, a conventional voltage-clamp analysis is not valid. 2. The electrophysiological data from branched neurons were curve-fitted with a lumped soma-equivalent cylinder model consisting of eight equal compartments coupled to an isopotential cell body to obtain membrane parameters for both passive and active properties. The analysis provides a quantitative description of both the passive electrical properties imposed by the geometrical structure of neurons and the voltage-dependent ionic conductances determined by ion channel kinetics. The model fitting of dorsal cells was dominated by a one-compartment resistance and capacitance in parallel (RC) corresponding to the spherical, non-branched shape of these cells. Branched neurons required a model that contained both an RC compartment and a cable that reflected the structure of the cells. At rest, the electrotonic length of the cable was about two. Uniformly distributed voltage-dependent ionic conductance sites were adequate to describe the data at different membrane potentials. 3. The frequency domain admittance method in conjunction with a step voltage clamp was used to control and measure the oscillatory behavior induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on lamprey spinal

  19. Simulation of optically encoded multiplexing for parallel multipoint sensing.

    PubMed

    Babu Rao, C; Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan

    2015-06-20

    Spectral emission/absorption-based sensors are commonly used to monitor explosives, narcotics, and other restricted materials in high-security zones such as airports. Monitoring a broad range of spectral wavelengths with high spectral resolution would increase the repertoire of chemicals that can be monitored. However, a portable unit will have limitations in meeting these requirements. Optical fibers can be employed for collecting and transmitting spectral signals from portable sensor heads (PSHs) to a sensitive central spectral analyzer. However, simultaneous detection by sensors in multiple PSHs needs to be differentiated for identifying individual PSHs. An optical encoding method is presented in this paper for use of a portable unit for highly sensitive measurement. The methodology is demonstrated through a simulation using MATLAB Simulink.

  20. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    DOEpatents

    St. John, Wallace B.; DuBois, David H.

    1998-08-11

    A digital system provides sending and receiving gateways for HIPPI interfaces. Electronic logic circuitry formats data signals and overhead signals in a data frame that is suitable for transmission over a connecting fiber optic link. Multiplexers route the data and overhead signals to a framer module. The framer module allocates the data and overhead signals to a plurality of 9-byte words that are arranged in a selected protocol. The formatted words are stored in a storage register for output through the gateway.

  1. Optical coupling and splitting with two parallel waveguide tapers.

    PubMed

    Tao, S H

    2011-01-17

    A coupling and splitting device comprising a width taper and a spatial-modulated subwavelength grating waveguide (SSGW) is proposed. The width taper is a waveguide with increasing width and the SSGW is a waveguide grating whose width and thickness are constant but the filling factor increases along the light propagation. Thus, the effective index of the subwavelength grating increases according to the effective medium theory. Light of orthogonal polarizations from a single-mode fiber can be coupled efficiently with the two parallel tapers. Furthermore, the coupled lights of orthogonal polarizations in the two tapers can be further split with connecting bent waveguides. Fabrication of the device is fully compatible with current complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology.

  2. Efficient parallel algorithms for optical computing with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) primitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, John H.; Tyagi, Akhilesh

    1997-10-01

    Optical-computing technology offers new challenges to algorithm designers since it can perform an n -point discrete Fourier transform (DFT) computation in only unit time. Note that the DFT is a nontrivial computation in the parallel random-access machine model, a model of computing commonly used by parallel-algorithm designers. We develop two new models, the DFT VLSIO (very-large-scale integrated optics) and the DFT circuit, to capture this characteristic of optical computing. We also provide two paradigms for developing parallel algorithms in these models. Efficient parallel algorithms for many problems, including polynomial and matrix computations, sorting, and string matching, are presented. The sorting and string-matching algorithms are particularly noteworthy. Almost all these algorithms are within a polylog factor of the optical-computing (VLSIO) lower bounds derived by Barakat and Reif Appl. Opt. 26, 1015 (1987) and by Tyagi and Reif Proceedings of the Second IEEE Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990) p. 14 .

  3. Parallel lensless optical correlator based on two phase-only spatial light modulators.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xu; Inoue, Takashi; Fukuchi, Norihiro; Bai, Jian

    2011-06-20

    In this paper, we proposed a parallel phase-only lensless optical correlator based on two pieces of Liquid Crystal on Silicon Spatial Light Modulators. Phase Fresnel Lens Array and specialized grating are implemented to realize multi-channel and multiplexed LOC. Experimental results of Chinese characters' recognitions are given as demonstration of proposed technique. High uniformity of processing channels has been verified by autocorrelation process of four same Chinese characters. The technique is programmable and adjustment of optical path could be realized without changing of optical setup. The implementations could be performed on the same configuration as single channel optical correlator without mechanical alternation.

  4. Effects of error sources on the parallelism of an optical matrix-vector processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlee, Caroline J.; Casasent, David P.

    1990-01-01

    The error sources in a high accuracy optical matrix-vector processor are analyzed by numerical simulation in terms of their effects on the parallelism and speed of the processor. These effects are detailed for radices -2, -4 and -8. Radix -4 is shown to provide maximum parallel processing capabilities under the effects of the system's error sources. Processing speed is shown to be a function of matrix partitioning and the number of parallel processing channels. Consequently, radix -4 operation provides a higher processing speed than radix -2 and -8 for most matrix-vector multiplications when error source effects are considered.

  5. Architectures for parallel DSP-based adaptive optics feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Daniel F.

    1999-11-01

    We have developed a digital image processing system for real-time digital image processing feedback control of adaptive optics systems and simulation of optical image processing algorithms. The system uses multi-computer architecture to capture data from an imaging device such as a charge coupled device camera, process the image data, and control a spatial light-modulator, typically a liquid crystal modulator or a micro-electro mechanical system. The system is a Windows NT Pentium-based system combined with a commercial off-the-shelf peripheral component interconnect bus multi-processor system. The multi-processor is based on the Analog Devices super Harvard architecture computer (SHARC) processor, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The SHARCs provide a scalable reconfigurable C language-based digital signal processing (DSP) development environment. The FPGAs are typically used as reprogrammable interface controllers designed to integrate several off-the- shelf and custom imagers and light modulators into the system. The FPGAs can also be used in concert with the SHARCs for implementation of application-specific high-speed DSP algorithms.

  6. Tissue blood flow and oxygen consumption measured with near-infrared frequency-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunescu, Lelia Adelina

    2001-12-01

    For decades, researchers have contributed with new ways of applying physics' principles to medicine. Moreover, researchers were involved in developing new, non-invasive instrumentation for medical applications. Recently, application of optical techniques in biology and medicine became an important field. Researchers found a non- invasive approach of using visible and near-infrared light as a probe for tissue investigation. Optical methods can contribute to medicine by offering the possibility of rapid, low-resolution, functional images and real-time devices. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful technique for the investigation of biological tissues because of the relatively low absorption of water and high absorption of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin in the near- infrared region of 750-900 nm. Due to these properties, the near-infrared light can penetrate biological tissues in the range of 0.5-2 cm, offering investigation possibility of deep tissues and differentiate among healthy and diseased tissues. This work represents the initial steps towards understanding and improving of the promising near- infrared frequency-domain technique. This instrument has a very important advantage: it can be used non-invasively to investigate many parts of the human body, including the brain. My research consists primarily of in vivo measurements of optical parameters such as absorption and reduced scattering coefficients and consequently, blood parameters such as oxy, deoxy, and total hemoglobin concentrations, tissue oxygen saturation, blood flow and oxygen consumption of skeletal muscle of healthy and diseased subjects. This research gives a solid background towards a ready- to-use instrument that can continuously, in real-time, measure blood parameters and especially blood oxygenation. This is a very important information in emergency medicine, for persons under intensive care, or undergoing surgery, organ transplant or other interventions.

  7. Ruby crystal for demonstrating time- and frequency-domain methods of fluorescence lifetime measurements.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Danielle E; Majumdar, Zigurts K; Heiss, Gregor J; Clegg, Robert M

    2006-11-01

    We present experiments that are convenient and educational for measuring fluorescence lifetimes with both time- and frequency-domain methods. The sample is ruby crystal, which has a lifetime of about 3.5 milliseconds, and is easy to use as a class-room demonstration. The experiments and methods of data analysis are used in the lab section of a class on optical spectroscopy, where we go through the theory and applications of fluorescence. Because the fluorescence decay time of ruby is in the millisecond region, the instrumentation for this experiment can be constructed easily and inexpensively compared to the nanosecond-resolved instrumentation required for most fluorescent compounds, which have nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes. The methods are applicable to other luminescent compounds with decay constants from microseconds and longer, such as transition metal and lanthanide complexes and phosphorescent samples. The experiments, which clearly demonstrate the theory and methods of measuring temporally resolved fluorescence, are instructive and demonstrate what the students have learned in the lectures without the distraction of highly sophisticated instrumentation.

  8. Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Roblyer, Darren M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    We present an application of spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) to the wide-field imaging of drug delivery to brain tissue. Measurements were compared with values obtained by a previously validated variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the method of optical pharmacokinetics (OP). We demonstrate a cross-correlation between the two methods for absorption extraction and drug concentration determination in both experimental tissue phantoms and freshly extracted rodent brain tissue. These methods were first used to assess intra-arterial (IA) delivery of cationic liposomes to brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats under transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Results were found to be in agreement with previously published experimental data and pharmacokinetic models of IA drug delivery. We then applied the same scheme to evaluate IA mitoxantrone delivery to glioma-bearing rats. Good correlation was seen between OP and SFDI determined concentrations taken from normal and tumor averaged sites. This study shows the feasibility of mapping drug/tracer distributions and encourages the use of SFDI for spatial imaging of tissues for drug/tracer-tagged carrier deposition and pharmacokinetic studies.

  9. Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Roblyer, Darren M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Joshi, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We present an application of spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) to the wide-field imaging of drug delivery to brain tissue. Measurements were compared with values obtained by a previously validated variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the method of optical pharmacokinetics (OP). We demonstrate a cross-correlation between the two methods for absorption extraction and drug concentration determination in both experimental tissue phantoms and freshly extracted rodent brain tissue. These methods were first used to assess intra-arterial (IA) delivery of cationic liposomes to brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats under transient cerebral hypoperfusion. Results were found to be in agreement with previously published experimental data and pharmacokinetic models of IA drug delivery. We then applied the same scheme to evaluate IA mitoxantrone delivery to glioma-bearing rats. Good correlation was seen between OP and SFDI determined concentrations taken from normal and tumor averaged sites. This study shows the feasibility of mapping drug/tracer distributions and encourages the use of SFDI for spatial imaging of tissues for drug/tracer-tagged carrier deposition and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25199058

  10. Inspection of functionally graded coating materials using frequency domain photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, Thomas Lowell

    A frequency domain photoacoustic microscopy system has been developed for the inspection of functionally graded mullite coatings deposited on SiC substrates. Narrow-bandwidth surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are generated with an amplitude modulated laser source. A photorefractive crystal based interferometer coupled to a lock-in amplifier is used for the detection of the resulting surface displacements. The complex displacement field is mapped over a source-to-receiver distance of approximately 500mum in order to extract the wavelengths of SAWs at a given excitation frequency, from which the phase velocities are determined. SAW dispersion characteristics are sensitive to the elastic properties of the near surface region. The measured SAW dispersion is compared to a theoretical model in order to extract the elastic properties and thickness of the coatings. Frequency domain photoacoustic microscopy allows for the rapid, non-contact characterization of graded coatings and is potentially suitable for in-situ process control. The velocities of SAWs propagating in graded materials are found using the reflectance function technique combined with a transfer matrix approach. Theoretical results demonstrate that SAW dispersion in micron-scale functionally graded coatings over the 100-200 MHz frequency range is most sensitive to the mean elastic modulus of the coating and the coating thickness. In addition, the dispersion behavior is also influenced by the form of the elastic property variation through the coating thickness and can, in some cases, be used to determine the elastic property distribution. The photoacoustic microscopy technique was used to measure SAW dispersion on as-grown mullite coatings, and a simplex optimization algorithm was used to determine the mean elastic modulus and thickness through minimization of the error between measured and calculated SAW velocities. The results show agreement with independent measurements of the mean elastic modulus and thickness

  11. Algorithm for solving the equation of radiative transfer in the frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kui; Abdoulaev, Gassan S; Bal, Guillaume; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2004-03-15

    We present an algorithm that provides a frequency-domain solution of the equation of radiative transfer (ERT) for heterogeneous media of arbitrary shape. Although an ERT is more accurate than a diffusion equation, no ERT code for the widely employed frequency-domain case has been developed to date. In this work the ERT is discretized by a combination of discrete-ordinate and finite-volume methods. Two numerical simulations are presented.

  12. Optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.

  13. Characterization of an intraluminal differential frequency-domain photoacoustics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkari, Bahman; Son, Jungik; Liang, Simon; Castelino, Robin; Foster, F. Stuart; Courtney, Brian; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular related diseases are ranked as the second highest cause of death in Canada. Among the most important cardiovascular diseases is atherosclerosis. Current methods of diagnosis of atherosclerosis consist of angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). None of these methods possesses adequate sensitivity, as the ideal technique should be capable of both depth profiling, as well as functional imaging. An alternative technique is photoacoustics (PA) which can perform deep imaging and spectroscopy. The presented study explores the application of wavelength-modulated differential photoacoustic radar (WM-DPAR) for characterizing arterial vessels. The wavelength-modulated differential photoacoustic technique was shown to be able to substantially increase the dynamic range and sensitivity of hemoglobin oxygenation level detection. In this work the differential PA technique was used with a very high frequency modulation range. To perform spectroscopic PA imaging, at least two wavelengths are required. The selected wavelengths for this work are 1210 nm and 980 nm. 1210 nm corresponds to the maximum optical absorption coefficient of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters which are the main constituents of plaques. Since water, elastin and collagen also have high absorption coefficients at 1210 nm, this wavelength alone cannot provide very high sensitivity and specificity. The additional wavelength, 980 nm corresponds to high absorption coefficient of those constituents of healthy artery tissue. The simultaneous application of the abovementioned wavelengths can provide higher sensitivity and improved specificity in detecting lipids in the arterial vessels.

  14. Quantitative frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in tissues and tissue-like media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert Edward

    1999-09-01

    In the never-ending quest for improved medical technology at lower cost, modern near-infrared optical spectroscopy offers the possibility of inexpensive technology for quantitative and non-invasive diagnoses. Hemoglobin is the dominant chromophore in the 700-900 nm spectral region and as such it allows for the optical assessment of hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygenation by absorption spectroscopy. However, there are many other important physiologically relevant compounds or physiological states that cannot be effectively sensed via optical methods because of poor optical contrast. In such cases, contrast enhancements are required. Fluorescence spectroscopy is an attractive component of optical tissue spectroscopy. Exogenous fluorophores, as well as some endogenous ones, may furnish the desperately needed sensitivity and specificity that is lacking in near-infrared optical tissue spectroscopy. The main focus of this thesis was to investigate the generation and propagation of fluorescence photons inside tissues and tissue-like media (i.e., scattering dominated media). The standard concepts of fluorescence spectroscopy have been incorporated into a diffusion-based picture that is sometimes referred to as photon migration. The novelty of this work lies in the successful quantitative recovery of fluorescence lifetimes, absolute fluorescence quantum yields, fluorophore concentrations, emission spectra, and both scattering and absorption coefficients at the emission wavelength from a tissue-like medium. All of these parameters are sensitive to the fluorophore local environment and hence are indicators of the tissue's physiological state. One application demonstrating the capabilities of frequency-domain lifetime spectroscopy in tissue-like media is a study of the binding of ethidium bromide to bovine leukocytes in fresh milk. Ethidium bromide is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used to label DNA, and hence visualize chromosomes in cells. The lifetime of

  15. Postoperative Quantitative Assessment of Reconstructive Tissue Status in Cutaneous Flap Model using Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yafi, Amr; Vetter, Thomas S; Scholz, Thomas; Patel, Sarin; Saager, Rolf B; Cuccia, David J; Evans, Gregory R; Durkin, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the capabilities of a novel optical wide-field imaging technology known as Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) to quantitatively assess reconstructive tissue status. Methods Twenty two cutaneous pedicle flaps were created on eleven rats based on the inferior epigastric vessels. After baseline measurement, all flaps underwent vascular ischemia, induced by clamping the supporting vessels for two hours (either arterio-venous or selective venous occlusions) normal saline was injected to the control flap, and hypertonic hyperoncotic saline solution to the experimental flap. Flaps were monitored for two hours after reperfusion. The SFDI system was used for quantitative assessment of flap status over the duration of the experiment. Results All flaps demonstrated a significant decline in oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation in response to occlusion. Total hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin were markedly increased in the selective venous occlusion group. After reperfusion and the solutions were administered, oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation in those flaps that survived gradually returned to the baseline levels. However, flaps for which oxy-hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation didn’t show any signs of recovery appeared to be compromised and eventually became necrotic within 24–48 hours in both occlusion groups. Conclusion SFDI technology provides a quantitative, objective method to assess tissue status. This study demonstrates the potential of this optical technology to assess tissue perfusion in a very precise and quantitative way, enabling wide-field visualization of physiological parameters. The results of this study suggest that SFDI may provide a means for prospectively identifying dysfunctional flaps well in advance of failure. PMID:21200206

  16. Noninvasive absolute cerebral oximetry with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of absolute concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin in the human brain can provide critical information about cerebral physiology in terms of cerebral blood volume, blood flow, oxygen delivery, and metabolic rate of oxygen. We developed several frequency domain NIRS data acquisition and analysis methods aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral tissue of adult human subjects. Extensive experimental investigations were carried out in various homogenous and two-layered tissue-mimicking phantoms, and biological tissues. The advantages and limitations of commonly used homogenous models and inversion strategies were thoroughly investigated. Prior to human subjects, extensive studies were carried out in in vivo animal models. In rabbits, absolute hemoglobin oxygen desaturation was shown to depend strongly on surgically induced testicular torsion. Methods developed in this study were then adapted for measurements in the rat brain. Absolute values were demonstrated to discern cerebrovascular impairment in a rat model of diet-induced vascular cognitive impairment. These results facilitated the development of clinically useful optical measures of cerebrovascular health. In a large group of human subjects, employing a homogeneous model for absolute measurements was shown to be reliable and robust. However, it was also shown to be limited due to the relatively thick extracerebral tissue. The procedure we develop in this work and the thesis thereof performs a nonlinear inversion procedure with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of time-dependent, transport-limited fluorescent boundary measurements in frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianshu; Rasmussen, John C; Lee, Jae Hoon; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2007-04-01

    Recently, we have presented and experimentally validated a unique numerical solver of the coupled radiative transfer equations (RTEs) for rapidly computing time-dependent excitation and fluorescent light propagation in small animal tomography. Herein, we present a time-dependent Monte Carlo algorithm to validate the forward RTE solver and investigate the impact of physical parameters upon transport-limited measurements in order to best direct the development of the RTE solver for optical tomography. Experimentally, the Monte Carlo simulations for both transport-limited and diffusion-limited propagations are validated using frequency domain photon migration measurements for 1.0%, 0.5%, and 0.2% intralipid solutions containing 1 microM indocyanine green in a 49 cm3 cylindrical phantom corresponding to the small volume employed in small animal tomography. The comparisons between Monte Carlo simulations and the numerical solutions result in mean percent error in amplitude and the phase shift less than 5.0% and 0.7 degrees, respectively, at excitation and emission wavelengths for varying anisotropic factors, lifetimes, and modulation frequencies. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the accuracy of the forward model is enhanced using (i) suitable source models of photon delivery, (ii) accurate anisotropic factors, and (iii) accurate acceptance angles of collected photons. Monte Carlo simulations also show that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation in the small phantom depends upon (i) the ratio d(phantom)/l(tr), where d(phantom) is the phantom diameter and l(tr) is the transport mean free path; and (ii) the anisotropic factor of the medium. The Monte Carlo simulations validates and guides the future development of an appropriate RTE solver for deployment in small animal optical tomography.

  18. Development of a portable frequency-domain angle-resolved low coherence interferometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyhtila, John W.; Wax, Adam

    2007-02-01

    Improved methods for detecting dysplasia, or pre-cancerous growth, are a current clinical need. Random biopsy and subsequent diagnosis through histological analysis is the current gold standard in endoscopic surveillance for dysplasia. However, this approach only allows limited examination of the at-risk tissue and has the drawback of a long delay in time-to-diagnosis. In contrast, optical scattering spectroscopy methods offer the potential to assess cellular structure and organization in vivo, thus allowing for instantaneous diagnosis and increased coverage of the at-risk tissue. Angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (a/LCI), a novel scattering spectroscopy technique, combines the ability of low-coherence interferometry to isolate scattered light from sub-surface tissue layers with the ability of light scattering spectroscopy to obtain structural information on sub-wavelength scales, specifically by analyzing the angular distribution of the backscattered light. In application to examining tissue, a/LCI enables depthresolved quantitative measurements of changes in the size and texture of cell nuclei, which are characteristic biomarkers of dysplasia. The capabilities of a/LCI were demonstrated initially by detecting pre-cancerous changes in epithelial cells within intact, unprocessed, animal tissues. Recently, we have developed a new frequency-domain a/LCI system, with sub-second acquisition time and a novel fiber optic probe. Preliminary results using the fa/LCI system to examine human esophageal tissue in Barrett's esophagus patients demonstrate the clinical viability of the approach. In this paper, we present a new portable system which improves upon the design of the fa/LCI system to allow for higher quality data to be collected in the clinic. Accurate sizing of polystyrene microspheres and cell nuclei from ex vivo human esophageal tissue is presented. These results demonstrate the promise of a/LCI as a clinically viable diagnostic tool.

  19. Computational helioseismology in the frequency domain: acoustic waves in axisymmetric solar models with flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Barucq, Hélène; Duruflé, Marc; Hanson, Chris S.; Leguèbe, Michael; Birch, Aaron C.; Chabassier, Juliette; Fournier, Damien; Hohage, Thorsten; Papini, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    Context. Local helioseismology has so far relied on semi-analytical methods to compute the spatial sensitivity of wave travel times to perturbations in the solar interior. These methods are cumbersome and lack flexibility. Aims: Here we propose a convenient framework for numerically solving the forward problem of time-distance helioseismology in the frequency domain. The fundamental quantity to be computed is the cross-covariance of the seismic wavefield. Methods: We choose sources of wave excitation that enable us to relate the cross-covariance of the oscillations to the Green's function in a straightforward manner. We illustrate the method by considering the 3D acoustic wave equation in an axisymmetric reference solar model, ignoring the effects of gravity on the waves. The symmetry of the background model around the rotation axis implies that the Green's function can be written as a sum of longitudinal Fourier modes, leading to a set of independent 2D problems. We use a high-order finite-element method to solve the 2D wave equation in frequency space. The computation is embarrassingly parallel, with each frequency and each azimuthal order solved independently on a computer cluster. Results: We compute travel-time sensitivity kernels in spherical geometry for flows, sound speed, and density perturbations under the first Born approximation. Convergence tests show that travel times can be computed with a numerical precision better than one millisecond, as required by the most precise travel-time measurements. Conclusions: The method presented here is computationally efficient and will be used to interpret travel-time measurements in order to infer, e.g., the large-scale meridional flow in the solar convection zone. It allows the implementation of (full-waveform) iterative inversions, whereby the axisymmetric background model is updated at each iteration.

  20. Optical Trapping Enabled Parallel Delivery of Biological Stimuli with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Daniel R.; Schneider, Thomas; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method that employs nanocapsules, optical trapping, and single-pulse laser photolysis for delivering bioactive molecules to cells with both high spatial and temporal resolutions. This method is particularly suitable for a cell-culture setting, in which a single nanocapsule can be optically trapped and positioned at a pre-defined location next to the cell, followed by single-pulse laser photolysis to release the contents of the nanocapsule onto the cell. To parallelize this method such that a large array of nanocapsules can be manipulated, positioned, and photolyzed simultaneously, we have turned to the use of spatial light modulators and holographic beam shaping techniques. This paper outlines the progress we have made so far and details the issues we had to address in order to achieve efficient parallel optical manipulations of nanocapsules and particles. PMID:24465114

  1. Monochromatic subdiffusive spatial frequency domain imaging provides in-situ sensitivity to intratumoral morphological heterogeneity in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    McClatchy, David M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Pogue, Brian W.; Kanick, Stephen Chad

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, spatially resolved quantitative metrics of light scattering recovered with sub-diffusive spatial frequency domain imaging (sd-SFDI) are shown to be sensitive to changes in intratumoral morphology and viability by direct comparison to histopathological analysis. Two freshly excised subcutaneous murine tumor cross-sections were measured with sd-SFDI, and recovered optical scatter parameter maps were co-registered to whole mount histology. Unique clustering of the optical scatter parameters μs′ vs. γ (i.e. diffuse scattering vs. relative backscattering) evaluated at a single wavelength showed complete separation between regions of viable tumor, aggresive tumor with stromal growth, varying levels of necrotic tumor, and also peritumor muscle. The results suggest that with further technical development, sd-SFDI may represent a non-destructive screening tool for analysis of excised tissue or a non-invasive approach to investigate suspicious lesions without the need for exogenous labels or spectrally resolved imaging. PMID:27807933

  2. Optical, mechanical, and electro-optical design of an interferometric test station for massive parallel inspection of MEMS and MOEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastinger, Kay; Haugholt, Karl Henrik; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Jozwik, Michal; Schaeffel, Christoph; Beer, Stephan

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents the optical, mechanical, and electro-optical design of an interferometric inspection system for massive parallel inspection of MicroElectroMechanicalSystems (MEMS) and MicroOptoElectroMechanicalSystems (MOEMS). The basic idea is to adapt a micro-optical probing wafer to the M(O)EMS wafer under test. The probing wafer is exchangeable and contains a micro-optical interferometer array. A low coherent and a laser interferometer array are developed. Two preliminary interferometer designs are presented; a low coherent interferometer array based on a Mirau configuration and a laser interferometer array based on a Twyman-Green configuration. The optical design focuses on the illumination and imaging concept for the interferometer array. The mechanical design concentrates on the scanning system and the integration in a standard test station for micro-fabrication. Models of single channel low coherence and laser interferometers and preliminary measurement results are presented. The smart-pixel approach for massive parallel electro-optical detection and data reduction is discussed.

  3. Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.

    2012-01-01

    Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

  4. Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2001-04-01

    Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

  5. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S; Paltiel, Harriet J; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  7. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Robert M. Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-02-10

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  8. Frequency Domain Fluorescent Molecular Tomography and Molecular Probes for Small Animal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujala, Naresh Gandhi

    Fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) is a noninvasive biomedical optical imaging that enables 3-dimensional quantitative determination of fluorochromes distributed in biological tissues. There are three methods for imaging large volume tissues based on different light sources: (a) using a light source of constant intensity, through a continuous or constant wave, (b) using a light source that is intensity modulated with a radio frequency (RF), and (c) using ultrafast pulses in the femtosecond range. In this study, we have developed a frequency domain fluorescent molecular tomographic system based on the heterodyne technique, using a single source and detector pair that can be used for small animal imaging. In our system, the intensity of the laser source is modulated with a RF frequency to produce a diffuse photon density wave in the tissue. The phase of the diffuse photon density wave is measured by comparing the reference signal with the signal from the tissue using a phasemeter. The data acquisition was performed by using a Labview program. The results suggest that we can measure the phase change from the heterogeneous inside tissue. Combined with fiber optics and filter sets, the system can be used to sensitively image the targeted fluorescent molecular probes, allowing the detection of cancer at an early stage. We used the system to detect the tumor-targeting molecular probe Alexa Fluor 680 and Alexa Fluor 750 bombesin peptide conjugates in phantoms as well as mouse tissues. We also developed and evaluated fluorescent Bombesin (BBN) probes to target gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors for optical molecular imaging. GRP receptors are over-expressed in several types of human cancer cells, including breast, prostate, small cell lung, and pancreatic cancers. BBN is a 14 amino acid peptide that is an analogue to human gastrin-releasing peptide that binds specifically to GRPr receptors. BBN conjugates are significant in cancer detection and therapy. The

  9. Time-Domain vs. Frequency-Domain CSEM: Implications for Marine Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, D. M.; Key, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    The frequency-domain marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method is now routinely applied to map resistive hydrocarbons buried beneath the seabed in deepwater. Alternatively, it has been suggested that time-domain CSEM methods may offer improved resolution of difficult targets such as deeply buried reservoirs. Furthermore, time-domain methods may overcome a sensitivity limitation imposed by the airwave saturation that is experienced for shallow-water frequency-domain CSEM. In order to examine and test these claims, we have developed a modeling code for computing time-domain responses for layered 1D models with arbitrarily located and oriented transmitters and receivers. Our code extends the open-source frequency domain code Dipole1D by efficiently computing the time-domain step-on and impulse responses by Fourier transformation of the frequency-domain kernels. By applying a realistic noise model to synthetic data generated from this code, we systematically examine the sensitivity and resolution of time-domain and frequency-domain CSEM to representative targets of interest for offshore hydrocarbon exploration and exploration surveys of seafloor volcanic and hydrothermal systems. These studies have practical implications for marine EM survey systems that use either towed or stationary transmitters and receivers.

  10. Maximum likelihood method for estimating airplane stability and control parameters from flight data in frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, V.

    1980-01-01

    A frequency domain maximum likelihood method is developed for the estimation of airplane stability and control parameters from measured data. The model of an airplane is represented by a discrete-type steady state Kalman filter with time variables replaced by their Fourier series expansions. The likelihood function of innovations is formulated, and by its maximization with respect to unknown parameters the estimation algorithm is obtained. This algorithm is then simplified to the output error estimation method with the data in the form of transformed time histories, frequency response curves, or spectral and cross-spectral densities. The development is followed by a discussion on the equivalence of the cost function in the time and frequency domains, and on advantages and disadvantages of the frequency domain approach. The algorithm developed is applied in four examples to the estimation of longitudinal parameters of a general aviation airplane using computer generated and measured data in turbulent and still air. The cost functions in the time and frequency domains are shown to be equivalent; therefore, both approaches are complementary and not contradictory. Despite some computational advantages of parameter estimation in the frequency domain, this approach is limited to linear equations of motion with constant coefficients.

  11. Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Na; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-12-01

    Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.

  12. Low-cost high-efficiency optical coupling using through-silicon-hole in parallel optical transceiver module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxia; Wan, Lixi; Lv, Yao; Gao, Wei; Yang, Chengyue; Li, Zhihua; Zhang, Xu

    2009-06-01

    We present a cost-efficient parallel optical transceiver module based on a 1×4 VCSEL array, a 1×4 PD array, and a 12-wide multimode fiber ribbon for very-short-reach application. A passive alignment technique using through-silicon-hole (TSH) has been developed to realize high-efficient butt-coupling between optoelectronic arrays and multimode fibers. In this paper, the detail optical coupling structure, misalignment tolerance, micro-assembly process, and measurement results are mainly discussed. Finally, lensed multimode fibers formed by chemical etching are proposed, which exhibit a great potential for further improvement of coupling performance.

  13. Development of an optical parallel logic device and a half-adder circuit for digital optical processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athale, R. A.; Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and operation of an optical parallel logic (OPAL) device which performs Boolean algebraic operations on binary images. Several logic operations on two input binary images were demonstrated using an 8 x 8 device with a CdS photoconductor and a twisted nematic liquid crystal. Two such OPAL devices can be interconnected to form a half-adder circuit which is one of the essential components of a CPU in a digital signal processor.

  14. Frequency domain phase noise analysis of dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Jahanbakht, Sajad

    2016-10-01

    Dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators (DIL-OEOs) have been introduced as a means to achieve very low-noise microwave oscillations while avoiding the large spurious peaks that occur in the phase noise of the conventional single-loop OEOs. In these systems, two OEOs are inter-injection locked to each other. The OEO with the longer optical fiber delay line is called the master OEO, and the other is called the slave OEO. Here, a frequency domain approach for simulating the phase noise spectrum of each of the OEOs in a DIL-OEO system and based on the conversion matrix approach is presented. The validity of the new approach is verified by comparing its results with previously published data in the literature. In the new approach, first, in each of the master or slave OEOs, the power spectral densities (PSDs) of two white and 1/f noise sources are optimized such that the resulting simulated phase noise of any of the master or slave OEOs in the free-running state matches the measured phase noise of that OEO. After that, the proposed approach is able to simulate the phase noise PSD of both OEOs at the injection-locked state. Because of the short run-time requirements, especially compared to previously proposed time domain approaches, the new approach is suitable for optimizing the power injection ratios (PIRs), and potentially other circuit parameters, in order to achieve good performance regarding the phase noise in each of the OEOs. Through various numerical simulations, the optimum PIRs for achieving good phase noise performance are presented and discussed; they are in agreement with the previously published results. This further verifies the applicability of the new approach. Moreover, some other interesting results regarding the spur levels are also presented.

  15. Adaptive multidirectional frequency domain filter for noise removal in wrapped phase patterns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guixiong; Chen, Dongxue; Peng, Yanhua; Zeng, Qilin

    2016-08-01

    In order to avoid the detrimental effects of excessive noise in the phase fringe patterns of a laser digital interferometer over the accuracy of phase unwrapping and the successful detection of mechanical fatigue defects, an effective method of adaptive multidirectional frequency domain filtering is introduced based on the characteristics of the energy spectrum of localized wrapped phase patterns. Not only can this method automatically set the cutoff frequency, but it can also effectively filter out noise while preserving the image edge information. Compared with the sine and cosine transform filtering and the multidirectional frequency domain filtering, the experimental results demonstrate that the image filtered by our method has the fewest number of residues and is the closest to the noise-free image, compared to the two aforementioned methods, demonstrating the effectiveness of this adaptive multidirectional frequency domain filter.

  16. Demultiplexing based on frequency-domain joint decision MMA for MDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caili, Gong; Li, Li; Guijun, Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a demultiplexing method based on frequency-domain joint decision multi-modulus algorithm (FD-JDMMA) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) system. The performance of FD-JDMMA is compared with frequency-domain multi-modulus algorithm (FD-MMA) and frequency-domain least mean square (FD-LMS) algorithm. The simulation results show that FD-JDMMA outperforms FD-MMA in terms of BER and convergence speed in the cases of mQAM (m=4, 16 and 64) formats. And it is also demonstrated that FD-JDMMA achieves better BER performance and converges faster than FD-LMS in the cases of 16QAM and 64QAM. Furthermore, FD-JDMMA maintains similar computational complexity as the both equalization algorithms.

  17. Parallel processing demonstrator with plug-on-top free-space interconnect optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ekman, Jeremy T.; Marchand, Philippe J.; Spaanenburg, Henk; Wang, Mark M.; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2001-05-01

    We demonstrate a setup with 10 optically interconnected chips,k which can perform a distributed radix-2-butterfly calculation for fast Fourier transformation. The setup consists of a motherboard, five multi-chip-modules (MCMs, with processor/transceiver chips and laser/detector chips), four plug-on-top optics modules that provide the bi- directional optical links between the MCMs, and external control electronics. The design of the optics and optomechanics satisfies numerous real-world constraints, such as compact size (< 1 inch thick), suitability for mass-production, suitability for large arrays (up to 103 parallel channels), compatibility with standard electronics fabrication and packaging technology, and potential for active misalignment compensation by integrating MEMS technology.

  18. Parallel force measurement with a polymeric microbeam array using an optical microscope and micromanipulator.

    PubMed

    Sasoglu, F Mert; Bohl, Andrew J; Allen, Kathleen B; Layton, Bradley E

    2009-01-01

    An image analysis method and its validation are presented for tracking the displacements of parallel mechanical force sensors. Force is measured using a combination of beam theory, optical microscopy, and image analysis. The primary instrument is a calibrated polymeric microbeam array mounted on a micromanipulator with the intended purpose of measuring traction forces on cell cultures or cell arrays. One application is the testing of hypotheses involving cellular mechanotransduction mechanisms. An Otsu-based image analysis code calculates displacement and force on cellular or other soft structures by using edge detection and image subtraction on digitally captured optical microscopy images. Forces as small as 250+/-50 nN and as great as 25+/-2.5 microN may be applied and measured upon as few as one or as many as hundreds of structures in parallel. A validation of the method is provided by comparing results from a rigid glass surface and a compliant polymeric surface.

  19. Comparison of several stochastic parallel optimization algorithms for adaptive optics system without a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huizhen; Li, Xinyang

    2011-04-01

    Optimizing the system performance metric directly is an important method for correcting wavefront aberrations in an adaptive optics (AO) system where wavefront sensing methods are unavailable or ineffective. An appropriate "Deformable Mirror" control algorithm is the key to successful wavefront correction. Based on several stochastic parallel optimization control algorithms, an adaptive optics system with a 61-element Deformable Mirror (DM) is simulated. Genetic Algorithm (GA), Stochastic Parallel Gradient Descent (SPGD), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Algorithm Of Pattern Extraction (Alopex) are compared in convergence speed and correction capability. The results show that all these algorithms have the ability to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Compared with least squares fitting, they almost obtain the best correction achievable for the 61-element DM. SA is the fastest and GA is the slowest in these algorithms. The number of perturbation by GA is almost 20 times larger than that of SA, 15 times larger than SPGD and 9 times larger than Alopex.

  20. The capability of time- and frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Viet T.; Sjögren, Thomas K.; Pettersson, Mats I.

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a study of the capability of time- and frequency-domain algorithms for bistatic SAR processing. Two typical algorithms, Bistatic Fast Backprojection (BiFBP) and Bistatic Range Doppler (BiRDA), which are both available for general bistatic geometry, are selected as the examples of time- and frequency-domain algorithms in this study. Their capability is evaluated based on some criteria such as processing time required by the algorithms to reconstruct SAR images from bistatic SAR data and the quality assessments of those SAR images.

  1. Application of frequency domain line edge roughness characterization methodology in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Beique, Genevieve; Wood, Obert; Kim, Ryoung-Han

    2015-03-01

    A frequency domain 3 sigma LER characterization methodology combining the standard deviation and power spectral density (PSD) methods is proposed. In the new method, the standard deviation is calculated in the frequency domain instead of the spatial domain as in the conventional method. The power spectrum of the LER is divided into three regions: low frequency (LF), middle frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) regions. The frequency region definition is based on process visual comparisons. Three standard deviation numbers are used to characterize the LER in the three frequency regions. Pattern wiggling can be detected quantitatively with a wiggling factor which is also proposed in this paper.

  2. Combined failure acoustical diagnosis based on improved frequency domain blind deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Nan; Wu, Xing; Chi, YiLin; Liu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chang

    2012-05-01

    According to gear box combined failure extraction in complex sound field, an acoustic fault detection method based on improved frequency domain blind deconvolution was proposed. Follow the frequency-domain blind deconvolution flow, the morphological filtering was firstly used to extract modulation features embedded in the observed signals, then the CFPA algorithm was employed to do complex-domain blind separation, finally the J-Divergence of spectrum was employed as distance measure to resolve the permutation. Experiments using real machine sound signals was carried out. The result demonstrate this algorithm can be efficiently applied to gear box combined failure detection in practice.

  3. Optical binary de Bruijn networks for massively parallel computing: design methodology and feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louri, Ahmed; Sung, Hongki

    1995-10-01

    The interconnection network structure can be the deciding and limiting factor in the cost and the performance of parallel computers. One of the most popular point-to-point interconnection networks for parallel computers today is the hypercube. The regularity, logarithmic diameter, symmetry, high connectivity, fault tolerance, simple routing, and reconfigurability (easy embedding of other network topologies) of the hypercube make it a very attractive choice for parallel computers. Unfortunately the hypercube possesses a major drawback, which is the links per node increases as the network grows in size. As an alternative to the hypercube, the binary de Bruijn (BdB) network has recently received much attention. The BdB not only provides a logarithmic diameter, fault tolerance, and simple routing but also requires fewer links than the hypercube for the same network size. Additionally, a major advantage of the BdB edges per node is independent of the network size. This makes it very desirable for large-scale parallel systems. However, because of its asymmetrical nature and global connectivity, it poses a major challenge for VLSI technology. Optics, owing to its three-dimensional and global-connectivity nature, seems to be very suitable for implementing BdB networks. We present an implementation methodology for optical BdB networks. The distinctive feature of the proposed implementation methodology is partitionability of the network into a few primitive operations that can be implemented efficiently. We further show feasibility of the

  4. A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.

    1993-08-03

    The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).

  5. Efficient uncertainty quantification of large two-dimensional optical systems with a parallelized stochastic Galerkin method.

    PubMed

    Zubac, Z; Fostier, J; De Zutter, D; Vande Ginste, D

    2015-11-30

    It is well-known that geometrical variations due to manufacturing tolerances can degrade the performance of optical devices. In recent literature, polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) methods were proposed to model this statistical behavior. Nonetheless, traditional PCE solvers require a lot of memory and their computational complexity leads to prohibitively long simulation times, making these methods non-tractable for large optical systems. The uncertainty quantification (UQ) of various types of large, two-dimensional lens systems is presented in this paper, leveraging a novel parallelized Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) based Stochastic Galerkin Method (SGM). It is demonstrated that this technique can handle large optical structures in reasonable time, e.g., a stochastic lens system with more than 10 million unknowns was solved in less than an hour by using 3 compute nodes. The SGM, which is an intrusive PCE method, guarantees the accuracy of the method. By conjunction with MLFMM, usage of a preconditioner and by constructing and implementing a parallelized algorithm, a high efficiency is achieved. This is demonstrated with parallel scalability graphs. The novel approach is illustrated for different types of lens system and numerical results are validated against a collocation method, which relies on reusing a traditional deterministic solver. The last example concerns a Cassegrain system with five random variables, for which a speed-up of more than 12× compared to a collocation method is achieved.

  6. Frequency-Domain Streak Camera and Tomography for Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving and Channeled Plasma Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang Xiaoming; Reed, Stephen; Dong Peng; Downer, Michael C.

    2010-11-04

    We demonstrate a prototype Frequency Domain Streak Camera (FDSC) that can capture the picosecond time evolution of the plasma accelerator structure in a single shot. In our prototype Frequency-Domain Streak Camera, a probe pulse propagates obliquely to a sub-picosecond pump pulse that creates an evolving nonlinear index 'bubble' in fused silica glass, supplementing a conventional Frequency Domain Holographic (FDH) probe-reference pair that co-propagates with the 'bubble'. Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT) generalizes Frequency-Domain Streak Camera by probing the 'bubble' from multiple angles and reconstructing its morphology and evolution using algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans. Multiplexing methods (Temporal Multiplexing and Angular Multiplexing) improve data storage and processing capability, demonstrating a compact Frequency Domain Tomography system with a single spectrometer.

  7. Frequency-Domain Streak Camera and Tomography for Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving and Channeled Plasma Accelerator Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Reed, Stephen; Dong, Peng; Downer, Michael C.

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate a prototype Frequency Domain Streak Camera (FDSC) that can capture the picosecond time evolution of the plasma accelerator structure in a single shot. In our prototype Frequency-Domain Streak Camera, a probe pulse propagates obliquely to a sub-picosecond pump pulse that creates an evolving nonlinear index "bubble" in fused silica glass, supplementing a conventional Frequency Domain Holographic (FDH) probe-reference pair that co-propagates with the "bubble". Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT) generalizes Frequency-Domain Streak Camera by probing the "bubble" from multiple angles and reconstructing its morphology and evolution using algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans. Multiplexing methods (Temporal Multiplexing and Angular Multiplexing) improve data storage and processing capability, demonstrating a compact Frequency Domain Tomography system with a single spectrometer.

  8. A finite-difference frequency-domain code for electromagnetic induction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, R M; Berryman, J G; Buettner, H M; Champagne, N J.,II; Grant, J B

    1998-12-17

    We are developing a new 3D code for application to electromagnetic induction tomography and applications to environmental imaging problems. We have used the finite-difference frequency- domain formulation of Beilenhoff et al. (1992) and the anisotropic PML (perfectly matched layer) approach (Berenger, 1994) to specify boundary conditions following Wu et al. (1997). PML deals with the fact that the computations must be done in a finite domain even though the real problem is effectively of infinite extent. The resulting formulas for the forward solver reduce to a problem of the form Ax = y, where A is a non-Hermitian matrix with real values off the diagonal and complex values along its diagonal. The matrix A may be either symmetric or nonsymmetric depending on details of the boundary conditions chosen (i.e., the particular PML used in the application). The basic equation must be solved for the vector x (which represents field quantities such as electric and magnetic fields) with the vector y determined by the boundary conditions and transmitter location. Of the many forward solvers that could be used for this system, relatively few have been thoroughly tested for the type of matrix encountered in our problem. Our studies of the stability characteristics of the Bi-CG algorithm raised questions about its reliability and uniform accuracy for this application. We have found the stability characteristics of Bi-CGSTAB [an alternative developed by van der Vorst (1992) for such problems] to be entirely adequate for our application, whereas the standard Bi-CG was quite inadequate. We have also done extensive validation of our code using semianalytical results as well as other codes. The new code is written in Fortran and is designed to be easily parallelized, but we have not yet tested this feature of the code. An adjoint method is being developed for solving the inverse problem for conductivity imaging (for mapping underground plumes), and this approach, when ready, will

  9. Statistics and frequency-domain moveout for multiple-taper receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Levin, V.

    2016-10-01

    The multiple-taper correlation (MTC) algorithm for the estimation of teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) has desirable statistical properties. This paper presents several adaptations to the MTC algorithm that exploit its frequency-domain uncertainty estimates to generate stable RFs that include moveout corrections for deeper interfaces. Narrow-band frequency averaging implicit in spectral cross-correlation restricts the MTC-based RF estimates to resolve Ps converted phases only at short delay times, appropriate to the upper 100 km of Earth's lithosphere. The Ps conversions from deeper interfaces can be reconstructed by the MTC algorithm in two ways. Event cross-correlation computes a cross-correlation of single-taper spectrum estimates for a cluster of events rather than for a set of eigenspectrum estimates of a single P coda. To extend the reach of the algorithm, pre-stack moveout corrections in the frequency domain preserves the formal uncertainties of the RF estimates, which are used to weight RF stacks. Moving-window migration retains the multiple-taper approach, but cross-correlates the P-polarized motion with time-delayed SH and SV motion to focus on a Ps phase of interest. The frequency-domain uncertainties of bin-averaged RFs do not translate directly into the time domain. A jackknife over data records in each bin stack offers uncertainty estimates in the time domain while preserving uncertainty weighting in the frequency-domain RF stack.

  10. Design PID controllers for desired time-domain or frequency-domain response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yugeng; Yang, Genke; Xu, Xiaoming

    2002-10-01

    Practical requirements on the design of control systems, especially process control systems, are usually specified in terms of time-domain response, such as overshoot and rise time, or frequency-domain response, such as resonance peak and stability margin. Although numerous methods have been developed for the design of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, little work has been done in relation to the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses. In this paper, we study the following problem: Given a nominal stable process with time delay, we design a suboptimal PID controller to achieve the required time-domain response or frequency-domain response for the nominal system or the uncertain system. An H(infinity) PID controller is developed based on optimal control theory and the parameters are derived analytically. Its properties are investigated and compared with that of two developed suboptimal controllers: an H2 PID controller and a Maclaurin PID controller. It is shown that all three controllers can provide the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses.

  11. Frequency domain probe design for high frequency sensing of soil moisture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate moisture sensing is an important need for many research programs as well as in control of industrial processes. This paper covers the development of a frequency domain sensing probe for use in obtaining measurements of material properties suitable for work ranging from 0 to 6GHz. The probe ...

  12. Frequency-Domain Green's Functions for Radar Waves in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green’s functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...

  13. Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-06-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.

  14. Application of spatial filtering techniques to frequency domain imaging through scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Stephen P.; Somekh, Michael G.

    1995-12-01

    The application of spatial filtering techniques to frequency domain imaging through scattering media has been investigated using a diffusion model. The criterion used to evaluate the imaging performance of any given system is the trade-off between signal to noise ratio and resolution. Spatial filtering is shown to offer the greatest improvement in system performance for objects positioned near to the detector.

  15. Postural Analysis in Time and Frequency Domains in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Celletti, Claudia; Mainardi, Luca; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to analyze postural control in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) participants in time and frequency domain. This study considered a pathological group composed by 22 EDS participants performing a postural test consisting in maintaining standing position over a force platform for 30 s in two conditions: open eyes (OE) and closed…

  16. Spectral tomography with diffuse near-infrared light: inclusion of broadband frequency domain spectral data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Davis, Scott C.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) region-based spectroscopy is examined for accuracy with spectral recovery using frequency domain data at a discrete number of wavelengths, as compared to that with broadband continuous wave data. Data with more wavelengths in the frequency domain always produce superior quantitative spectroscopy results with reduced noise and error in the chromophore concentrations. Performance of the algorithm in the situation of doing region-guided spectroscopy within the MRI is also considered, and the issue of false positive prior regions being identified is examined to see the effect of added wavelengths. The results indicate that broadband frequency domain data are required for maximal accuracy. A broadband frequency domain experimental system was used to validate the predictions, using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser for the source between 690- and 850-nm wavelengths. The 80-MHz pulsed signal is heterodyned with photomultiplier tube detection, to lower frequency for data acquisition. Tissue-phantom experiments with known hemoglobin absorption and tissue-like scatter values are used to validate the system, using measurements every 10 nm. More wavelengths clearly provide superior quantification of total hemoglobin values. The system and algorithms developed here should provide an optimal way to quantify regions with the goal of image-guided breast tissue spectroscopy within the MRI. PMID:19021313

  17. FOCEX: A fiber-optic extender for a high speed parallel RS485 data cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, J. T.; Anderson, J. T.; Cooper, P. S.; Engelfried, J.; Franzen, J. W.; Forster, B. G.; Levinson, F.; Rawls, J.; Haber, S.

    1995-05-01

    For longer-distant, high speed data links, optical fiber becomes most cost-effective than copper or other hard wire cable systems. Fermilab supplied to Finisar Corp. of Menlo Park, CA, a set of specifications for card functions, sizes and interconnector pin assignments. Finisar designed and assembled a set of fiber optical P.C. cards using 100 megabyte/sec commercial optoelectronics and a serialization and deserialization HOT-ROD chipset designed by GAZELLE Microcircuits, Inc. (A Tri Quint Semiconductors company). The cooperative effort between Fermilab and Finisar has allowed Fermilab to created a reliable 50 Megabytes/sec (40 bit parallel RS485 DART data bus) cable to cable extender using a virtually invisible Fiber Channel point-to-point(FC-0) fiber optical single-simplex system. The system is easily capable of sustaining a 50 megabytes/sec of data, control and status line throughput at distances of 1625 feet (500 meters) using standard multi-mode fiber.

  18. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; DeGroot, Anthony J.; Haigh, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  19. Method of optical coherence tomography with parallel depth-resolved signal reception and fibre-optic phase modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A N; Turchin, I V

    2013-12-31

    The method of optical coherence tomography with the scheme of parallel reception of the interference signal (P-OCT) is developed on the basis of spatial paralleling of the reference wave by means of a phase diffraction grating producing the appropriate time delay in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The absence of mechanical variation of the optical path difference in the interferometer essentially reduces the time required for 2D imaging of the object internal structure, as compared to the classical OCT that uses the time-domain method of the image construction, the sensitivity and the dynamic range being comparable in both approaches. For the resulting field of the interfering object and reference waves an analytical expression is derived that allows the calculation of the autocorrelation function in the plane of photodetectors. For the first time a method of linear phase modulation by 2π is proposed for P-OCT systems, which allows the use of compact high-frequency (a few hundred kHz) piezoelectric cell-based modulators. For the demonstration of the P-OCT method an experimental setup was created, using which the images of the inner structure of biological objects at the depth up to 1 mm with the axial spatial resolution of 12 μm were obtained. (optical coherence tomography)

  20. Efficiency analysis of parallelized wavelet-based FDTD model for simulating high-index optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Rong; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Xiyan; Lu, Yunqing; Xu, Ji

    2014-10-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which solves time-dependent Maxwell's curl equations numerically, has been proved to be a highly efficient technique for numerous applications in electromagnetic. Despite the simplicity of the FDTD method, this technique suffers from serious limitations in case that substantial computer resource is required to solve electromagnetic problems with medium or large computational dimensions, for example in high-index optical devices. In our work, an efficient wavelet-based FDTD model has been implemented and extended in a parallel computation environment, to analyze high-index optical devices. This model is based on Daubechies compactly supported orthogonal wavelets and Deslauriers-Dubuc interpolating functions as biorthogonal wavelet bases, and thus is a very efficient algorithm to solve differential equations numerically. This wavelet-based FDTD model is a high-spatial-order FDTD indeed. Because of the highly linear numerical dispersion properties of this high-spatial-order FDTD, the required discretization can be coarser than that required in the standard FDTD method. In our work, this wavelet-based FDTD model achieved significant reduction in the number of cells, i.e. used memory. Also, as different segments of the optical device can be computed simultaneously, there was a significant gain in computation time. Substantially, we achieved speed-up factors higher than 30 in comparisons to using a single processor. Furthermore, the efficiency of the parallelized computation such as the influence of the discretization and the load sharing between different processors were analyzed. As a conclusion, this parallel-computing model is promising to analyze more complicated optical devices with large dimensions.

  1. Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Pei Yu; Ohta, Aaron T; Wu, Ming C

    2005-07-21

    The ability to manipulate biological cells and micrometre-scale particles plays an important role in many biological and colloidal science applications. However, conventional manipulation techniques--including optical tweezers, electrokinetic forces (electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis, travelling-wave dielectrophoresis), magnetic tweezers, acoustic traps and hydrodynamic flows--cannot achieve high resolution and high throughput at the same time. Optical tweezers offer high resolution for trapping single particles, but have a limited manipulation area owing to tight focusing requirements; on the other hand, electrokinetic forces and other mechanisms provide high throughput, but lack the flexibility or the spatial resolution necessary for controlling individual cells. Here we present an optical image-driven dielectrophoresis technique that permits high-resolution patterning of electric fields on a photoconductive surface for manipulating single particles. It requires 100,000 times less optical intensity than optical tweezers. Using an incoherent light source (a light-emitting diode or a halogen lamp) and a digital micromirror spatial light modulator, we have demonstrated parallel manipulation of 15,000 particle traps on a 1.3 x 1.0 mm2 area. With direct optical imaging control, multiple manipulation functions are combined to achieve complex, multi-step manipulation protocols.

  2. Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Pei Yu; Ohta, Aaron T.; Wu, Ming C.

    2005-07-01

    The ability to manipulate biological cells and micrometre-scale particles plays an important role in many biological and colloidal science applications. However, conventional manipulation techniques-including optical tweezers, electrokinetic forces (electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis, travelling-wave dielectrophoresis), magnetic tweezers, acoustic traps and hydrodynamic flows-cannot achieve high resolution and high throughput at the same time. Optical tweezers offer high resolution for trapping single particles, but have a limited manipulation area owing to tight focusing requirements; on the other hand, electrokinetic forces and other mechanisms provide high throughput, but lack the flexibility or the spatial resolution necessary for controlling individual cells. Here we present an optical image-driven dielectrophoresis technique that permits high-resolution patterning of electric fields on a photoconductive surface for manipulating single particles. It requires 100,000 times less optical intensity than optical tweezers. Using an incoherent light source (a light-emitting diode or a halogen lamp) and a digital micromirror spatial light modulator, we have demonstrated parallel manipulation of 15,000 particle traps on a 1.3 × 1.0mm2 area. With direct optical imaging control, multiple manipulation functions are combined to achieve complex, multi-step manipulation protocols.

  3. Comparison of Frequency-Domain Array Methods for Studying Earthquake Rupture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic array methods, in both time- and frequency- domains, have been widely used to study the rupture process and energy radiation of earthquakes. With better spatial resolution, the high-resolution frequency-domain methods, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) (Schimdt, 1986; Meng et al., 2011) and the recently developed Compressive Sensing (CS) technique (Yao et al., 2011, 2013), are revealing new features of earthquake rupture processes. We have performed various tests on the methods of MUSIC, CS, minimum-variance distortionless response (MVDR) Beamforming and conventional Beamforming in order to better understand the advantages and features of these methods for studying earthquake rupture processes. We use the ricker wavelet to synthesize seismograms and use these frequency-domain techniques to relocate the synthetic sources we set, for instance, two sources separated in space but, their waveforms completely overlapping in the time domain. We also test the effects of the sliding window scheme on the recovery of a series of input sources, in particular, some artifacts that are caused by the sliding window scheme. Based on our tests, we find that CS, which is developed from the theory of sparsity inversion, has relatively high spatial resolution than the other frequency-domain methods and has better performance at lower frequencies. In high-frequency bands, MUSIC, as well as MVDR Beamforming, is more stable, especially in the multi-source situation. Meanwhile, CS tends to produce more artifacts when data have poor signal-to-noise ratio. Although these techniques can distinctly improve the spatial resolution, they still produce some artifacts along with the sliding of the time window. Furthermore, we propose a new method, which combines both the time-domain and frequency-domain techniques, to suppress these artifacts and obtain more reliable earthquake rupture images. Finally, we apply this new technique to study the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake

  4. Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) has proven to be a reliable method for quantification of tissue absolute optical properties. We present a full-sampling direct analog-to-digital conversion FD-NIR imager. While we developed this instrument with a focus on high-speed optical breast tomographic imaging, the proposed design is suitable for a wide-range of biophotonic applications where fast, accurate quantification of absolute optical properties is needed. Simultaneous dual wavelength operation at 685 and 830 nm is achieved by concurrent 67.5 and 75 MHz frequency modulation of each laser source, respectively, followed by digitization using a high-speed (180  MS/s) 16-bit A/D converter and hybrid FPGA-assisted demodulation. The instrument supports 25 source locations and features 20 concurrently operating detectors. The noise floor of the instrument was measured at <1.4  pW/√Hz, and a dynamic range of 115+ dB, corresponding to nearly six orders of magnitude, has been demonstrated. Titration experiments consisting of 200 different absorption and scattering values were conducted to demonstrate accurate optical property quantification over the entire range of physiologically expected values. PMID:26813081

  5. Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Fang, Qianqian; Boas, David A.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) has proven to be a reliable method for quantification of tissue absolute optical properties. We present a full-sampling direct analog-to-digital conversion FD-NIR imager. While we developed this instrument with a focus on high-speed optical breast tomographic imaging, the proposed design is suitable for a wide-range of biophotonic applications where fast, accurate quantification of absolute optical properties is needed. Simultaneous dual wavelength operation at 685 and 830 nm is achieved by concurrent 67.5 and 75 MHz frequency modulation of each laser source, respectively, followed by digitization using a high-speed (180 MS/s) 16-bit A/D converter and hybrid FPGA-assisted demodulation. The instrument supports 25 source locations and features 20 concurrently operating detectors. The noise floor of the instrument was measured at <1.4 pW/√Hz, and a dynamic range of 115+ dB, corresponding to nearly six orders of magnitude, has been demonstrated. Titration experiments consisting of 200 different absorption and scattering values were conducted to demonstrate accurate optical property quantification over the entire range of physiologically expected values.

  6. Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J

    2006-04-21

    Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow ( approximately 9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry.

  7. Implantable fiber-optic interface for parallel multisite long-term optical dynamic brain interrogation in freely moving mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ivashkina, O. I.; Zots, M. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Seeing the big picture of functional responses within large neural networks in a freely functioning brain is crucial for understanding the cellular mechanisms behind the higher nervous activity, including the most complex brain functions, such as cognition and memory. As a breakthrough toward meeting this challenge, implantable fiber-optic interfaces integrating advanced optogenetic technologies and cutting-edge fiber-optic solutions have been demonstrated, enabling a long-term optogenetic manipulation of neural circuits in freely moving mice. Here, we show that a specifically designed implantable fiber-optic interface provides a powerful tool for parallel long-term optical interrogation of distinctly separate, functionally different sites in the brain of freely moving mice. This interface allows the same groups of neurons lying deeply in the brain of a freely behaving mouse to be reproducibly accessed and optically interrogated over many weeks, providing a long-term dynamic detection of genome activity in response to a broad variety of pharmacological and physiological stimuli.

  8. Simple integration technique to realize parallel optical interconnects: implementation of a pluggable two-dimensional optical data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulet, Alain; Naruse, Makoto; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2002-09-01

    An assembly technique is presented to realize pluggable or fully integrated optoelectronic systems based on image relays. A method to visually align and assemble optoelectronic chips or fiber bundles to half of a relay is explained. To validate this technique, two-dimensional arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors and a fiber image guide have been integrated to gradient index lenses with simple optomechanical parts. Although the connection of these modules was realized with +/-0.5 mm lateral tolerances, parallel optical interconnects were successfully achieved at 10 MHz. The lateral misalignment between chips was on average 20 μm and at worst 60 μm.

  9. Optical phase cloning by an integrated dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Johannes; Sala, Tommaso; Kassi, Samir; Romanini, Daniele; Marangoni, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The use of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator in a feed-forward configuration is shown to serve the purpose of cloning the optical phase of a master oscillator on a distributed-feed-back (DFB) slave laser exhibiting a multi-MHz-wide frequency noise spectrum. A residual phase error of 113 mrad is obtained together with an extremely high control bandwidth of hundreds of megahertz and a gigahertz-level capture and tuning range. Besides offering a dramatic improvement over feedback loops, this approach is susceptible of hybrid integration in a cost-effective compact device benefiting from the wide tunability of DFB lasers.

  10. Modulated imaging: A spatial frequency domain imaging method for wide-field spectroscopy and tomography of turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, David John

    Modulated Imaging (MI) is a fast, scan-free method that enables one to image and quantify the optical properties of turbid media. The technology can simultaneously map surface and sub-surface tissue structure, function and composition. Based on frequency-domain measurement principles, MI uses spatially-periodic or "structured" illumination and camera-based detection to separate and quantify the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence optical properties over a wide field-of-view (many cm) without the need for sample contact. Resolution is depth-dependent and thus scalable (sub-millimeter to millimeter), with depth sensitivity up to a few cm. This method has particularly strong potential for in-vivo clinical and pre-clinical imaging, where optical properties at several wavelengths provide quantitative information on endogeneous chromophore concentrations (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, fat, and water). These parameters reflect quantitative, localized tissue status such as blood volume, tissue oxygenation, and edema. Using multispectral MI instrumentation, demonstrations of two in-vivo applications are investigated: (1) pre-clinical functional imaging of brain injury in a rodent model and (2) clinical imaging spectroscopy of human skin. Also, preliminary 3D fluorescence tomography data suggest that MI may provide a convenient, low-cost platform for localizing and quantifying exogenous molecular probes in-vivo.

  11. Parallel Photonic Quantum Computation Assisted by Quantum Dots in One-Side Optical Microcavities

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we investigate the possibility of parallel quantum computations dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gates operating on the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of two-photon or one-photon systems by exploring the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. These hyper-CNOT gates show that the quantum states of two DOFs can be viewed as independent qubits without requiring auxiliary DOFs in theory. This result can reduce the quantum resources by half for quantum applications with large qubit systems, such as the quantum Shor algorithm. PMID:25030424

  12. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for a high contrast imaging coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bing; Ren, De-Qing; Zhang, Xi

    2011-08-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) system based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of a stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of the SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of the SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by an experimental system featured with a 140-actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph to improve the contrast. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask of any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10-3 to 10-4.5 at an angular distance of 2λ/D after being corrected by SPGD based AO.

  13. Parallel programming of gradient-based iterative image reconstruction schemes for optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Andreas H; Bartel, Sebastian

    2004-02-01

    Optical tomography (OT) is a fast developing novel imaging modality that uses near-infrared (NIR) light to obtain cross-sectional views of optical properties inside the human body. A major challenge remains the time-consuming, computational-intensive image reconstruction problem that converts NIR transmission measurements into cross-sectional images. To increase the speed of iterative image reconstruction schemes that are commonly applied for OT, we have developed and implemented several parallel algorithms on a cluster of workstations. Static process distribution as well as dynamic load balancing schemes suitable for heterogeneous clusters and varying machine performances are introduced and tested. The resulting algorithms are shown to accelerate the reconstruction process to various degrees, substantially reducing the computation times for clinically relevant problems.

  14. Determining XV-15 aeroelastic modes from flight data with frequency-domain methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1993-01-01

    The XV-15 tilt-rotor wing has six major aeroelastic modes that are close in frequency. To precisely excite individual modes during flight test, dual flaperon exciters with automatic frequency-sweep controls were installed. The resulting structural data were analyzed in the frequency domain (Fourier transformed). All spectral data were computed using chirp z-transforms. Modal frequencies and damping were determined by fitting curves to frequency-response magnitude and phase data. The results given in this report are for the XV-15 with its original metal rotor blades. Also, frequency and damping values are compared with theoretical predictions made using two different programs, CAMRAD and ASAP. The frequency-domain data-analysis method proved to be very reliable and adequate for tracking aeroelastic modes during flight-envelope expansion. This approach required less flight-test time and yielded mode estimations that were more repeatable, compared with the exponential-decay method previously used.

  15. Control system design using frequency domain models and parameter optimization, with application to supersonic inlet controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Lehtinen, B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for designing feedback control systems using frequency domain models, a quadratic cost function, and a parameter optimization computer program. FORTRAN listings for the computer program are included. The approach is applied to the design of shock position controllers for a supersonic inlet. Deterministic or random system disturbances, and the presence of random measurement noise are considered. The cost function minimization is formulated in the time domain, but the problem solution is obtained using a frequency domain system description. A scaled and constrained conjugate gradient algorithm is used for the minimization. The approach to a supersonic inlet included the calculations of the optimal proportional-plus integral (PI) and proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers. A single-loop PI controller was the most desirable of the designs considered.

  16. Surrogate model reduction for linear dynamic systems based on a frequency domain modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.

    2015-10-01

    A novel model reduction methodology for linear dynamic systems with parameter variations is presented based on a frequency domain formulation and use of the proper orthogonal decomposition. For an efficient treatment of parameter variations, the system matrices are divided into a nominal and an incremental part. It is shown that the perturbed part is modally equivalent to a new system where the incremental matrices are isolated into the forcing term. To account for the continuous changes in the parameters, the single-composite-input is invoked with a finite number of predetermined incremental matrices. The frequency-domain Karhunen-Loeve procedure is used to calculate a rich set of basis modes accounting for the variations. For demonstration, the new procedure is applied to a finite element model of the Goland wing undergoing oscillations and shown to produce extremely accurate reduced-order surrogate model for a wide range of parameter variations.

  17. A Frequency Domain Approach for Controlling Fast-Scale Instabilities in Switching Power Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Alarcón, E.; Iu, H. H. C.; El Aroudi, A.

    This paper deals with controllers of fast-scale instabilities in DC-DC switching power converters from a frequency domain standpoint with the aim of understanding their working principle and hence simplifying their design. Some approaches for controlling fast-scale instabilities and their limitations are revisited. Considering the frequency domain transfer function of already existing controllers, a simple and extended notch filter centered at half of the switching frequency is proposed to avoid these instabilities. However, a switching converter under this controller may still exhibit the undesired slow-scale instability. Accordingly, the paper explores an alternative approach based on amplifying the harmonic at the switching frequency. Numerical simulations show that the new proposed controller can concurrently improve both fast-scale and slow-scale stability margins. The results from the different controllers are contrasted in terms of stability boundaries, indicating that the last one presents a wider stability range.

  18. Frequency-domain localization of alpha rhythm in humans via a maximum entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pankaj; Khosla, Deepak; Al-Dayeh, Louai; Singh, Manbir

    1997-05-01

    Generators of spontaneous human brain activity such as alpha rhythm may be easier and more accurate to localize in frequency-domain than in time-domain since these generators are characterized by a specific frequency range. We carried out a frequency-domain analysis of synchronous alpha sources by generating equivalent potential maps using the Fourier transform of each channel of electro-encephalographic (EEG) recordings. SInce the alpha rhythm recorded by EEG scalp measurements is probably produced by several independent generators, a distributed source imaging approach was considered more appropriate than a model based on a single equivalent current dipole. We used an imaging approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy technique. Reconstructed sources were superposed on corresponding anatomy form magnetic resonance imaging. Results from human studies suggest that reconstructed sources responsible for alpha rhythm are mainly located in the occipital and parieto- occipital lobes.

  19. Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement.

  20. Three-dimensional migration velocity analysis in the space-frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, T. R.

    1981-02-01

    Through the use of general techniques of image formation, two algorithms that yield both optimum velocity for migration, and strike and dip parameters is presented. The formation and evaluation of acoustic images is of prime importance to the methods employed. The particular images of interest are the source image for field gathers and the common reflection 'point' for common midpoint gathers. Through the use of two forms of the Rayleigh Sommerfield diffraction formula, acoustic images for these types of recordings are formed for a range of parameters (velocity, dip, and strike), the image of highest intensity corresponding to the 'best fit' set of trial parameters. Both algorithms operate in the temporal frequency domain and present new methods for frequency domain velocity and dip analysis and direct extraction or strike information.

  1. Iterative Frequency Domain Decision Feedback Equalization and Decoding for Underwater Acoustic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Ge, Jian-Hua

    2012-12-01

    Single-carrier (SC) transmission with frequency-domain equalization (FDE) is today recognized as an attractive alternative to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for communication application with the inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation, especially in shallow water channel. In this paper, we investigate an iterative receiver based on minimum mean square error (MMSE) decision feedback equalizer (DFE) with symbol rate and fractional rate samplings in the frequency domain (FD) and serially concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) decoder. Based on sound speed profiles (SSP) measured in the lake and finite-element ray tracking (Bellhop) method, the shallow water channel is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed iterative receiver. Performance results show that the proposed iterative receiver can significantly improve the performance and obtain better data transmission than FD linear and adaptive decision feedback equalizers, especially in adopting fractional rate sampling.

  2. Frequency-domain method for discrete frequency noise prediction of rotors in arbitrary steady motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, M.; Testa, C.; Bernardini, G.

    2012-12-01

    A novel frequency-domain formulation for the prediction of the tonal noise emitted by rotors in arbitrary steady motion is presented. It is derived from Farassat's 'Formulation 1A', that is a time-domain boundary integral representation for the solution of the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings equation, and represents noise as harmonic response to body kinematics and aerodynamic loads via frequency-response-function matrices. The proposed frequency-domain solver is applicable to rotor configurations for which sound pressure levels of discrete tones are much higher than those of broadband noise. The numerical investigation concerns the analysis of noise produced by an advancing helicopter rotor in blade-vortex interaction conditions, as well as the examination of pressure disturbances radiated by the interaction of a marine propeller with a non-uniform inflow.

  3. Biochemical Applications Of Frequency-Domain Fluorometry; Determination Of Time-Resolved Anisotropies And Emission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Gryczynski, Ignazy; Cherek, Henryh; Laczko, Gabor; Joshi, Nanda

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of time-resolved fluorescence are often used for studies of biological macromolecules. Such measurements are usually performed in the time-domain, by measurement of the time-dependent emission following pulsed excitation. It has recently become possible to measure the frequency-response of the emission to intensity modulated light, over a wide range of modulation frequencies. We used frequency-domain fluorometers which operates from 1 to 220 MHz, and more recently to 2000 MHz. The frequency-domain data provide excellent resolution of time-dependent spectral parameters. It is now possible to resolve closely spaced fluorescence lifetimes, to determine multi-exponential decays of anisotropy and to determine time-resolved emission spectra of samples which display time-dependent spectral shifts. In this article we show representative results on tryptophan fluorescence from proteins and for protein-bound fluorophores.

  4. Frequency domain volume rendering by the wavelet X-ray transform.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, M A; Roerdink, J M

    2000-01-01

    We describe a wavelet based X-ray rendering method in the frequency domain with a smaller time complexity than wavelet splatting. Standard Fourier volume rendering is summarized and interpolation and accuracy issues are briefly discussed. We review the implementation of the fast wavelet transform in the frequency domain. The wavelet X-ray transform is derived, and the corresponding Fourier-wavelet volume rendering algorithm (FWVR) is introduced, FWVR uses Haar or B-spline wavelets and linear or cubic spline interpolation. Various combinations are tested and compared with wavelet splatting (WS). We use medical MR and CT scan data, as well as a 3-D analytical phantom to assess the accuracy, time complexity, and memory cost of both FWVR and WS. The differences between both methods are enumerated.

  5. Frequency Domain Beamformer for a 3-D Sediment Volume Imaging Synthetic Aperture Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Frequency Domain Beamformer for a 3-D Sediment Volume Imaging Synthetic Aperture Sonar Jonathan R. Pearson Magoon,a Matthew A. Nelson,a Daniel D...synthetic aperture sonars (SAS). The beamformer, designed for systems with receiver arrays oriented transverse to the vehicle, performs standard delay and...volume imaging synthetic aperture sonars (SAS). The beamformer is designed for systems with receiver arrays oriented transverse to the vehicle such

  6. Nonlinear Cascades of Surface Oceanic Geostrophic Kinetic Energy in the Frequency Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    in frequency ai space, as diagnostics of the impact of nonlinearity on the frequency spectra of surface ocean geostrophic flows. Our analysis of...non- linearities in the frequency domain is somewhat similar to the diagnostics employed by Sheng and Hayashi (1990a,b) on realistic atmospheric...results in Fig. 8c, we also anticipate that the spectral transfers T(ai) could be useful diagnostics of the role of non- linearity in maintaining

  7. High-Performance Computational Electromagnetics in Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-04

    for sound-hard acoustic scattering problems were put forth in [15]; use of these equations gives rise to very significant improvements in iterations...Bruno, O., Elling, T. and Turc, C., Regularized integral equations and fast high-order solvers for sound-hard acoustic scattering problems...solutions for some of the most challenging scattering problems in science and engineering. Electromagnetic scattering . Frequency domain solvers. Integral

  8. Phase-modulation method for AWG phase-error measurement in the frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazumasa; Hirose, Tomohiro

    2009-12-15

    We report a phase-modulation method for measuring arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) phase error in the frequency domain. By combining the method with a digital sampling technique that we have already reported, we can measure the phase error within an accuracy of +/-0.055 rad for the center 90% waveguides in the array even when no carrier frequencies are generated in the beat signal from the interferometer.

  9. Phase-locked 10 MHz reference signal for frequency domain time-resolved fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor A.; Bird, Damian K.; Nuske, John W.

    2007-05-01

    A complete electronic system that is suitable for use in megahertz frequency domain time-resolved fluorescence instruments based on mode-locked lasers is described. The circuit produces a 10MHz signal, phase locked to the mode-locked laser pulse frequency, which is required by many commercial frequency synthesizers as the external reference signal. This device is particularly useful in conjunction with ultrafast gated intensified charge coupled device cameras capable of being frequency modulated for time-resolved fluorescence imaging.

  10. Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat plug-on-top optics package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Ekman, Jeremy T.; Wang, Xiaoqing; Marchand, Philippe J.; Spaanenburg, Henk; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2000-05-01

    We report about ongoing work on a free-space optical interconnect system, which will demonstrate a Fast Fourier Transformation calculation, distributed among six processor chips. Logically, the processors are arranged in two linear chains, where each element communicates optically with its nearest neighbors. Physically, the setup consists of a large motherboard, several multi-chip carrier modules, which hold the processor/driver chips and the optoelectronic chips (arrays of lasers and detectors), and several plug-on-top optics modules, which provide the optical links between the chip carrier modules. The system design tries to satisfy numerous constraints, such as compact size, potential for mass-production, suitability for large arrays (up to 1024 parallel channels), compatibility with standard electronics fabrication and packaging technology, potential for active misalignment compensation by integration MEMS technology, and suitability for testing different imaging topologies. We present the system architecture together with details of key components and modules, and report on first experiences with prototype modules of the setup.

  11. Simulation of optical devices using parallel finite-difference time-domain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kang; Kong, Fanmin; Mei, Liangmo; Liu, Xin

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a new parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical method in a low-cost network environment to stimulate optical waveguide characteristics. The PC motherboard based cluster is used, as it is relatively low-cost, reliable and has high computing performance. Four clusters are networked by fast Ethernet technology. Due to the simplicity nature of FDTD algorithm, a native Ethernet packet communication mechanism is used to reduce the overhead of the communication between the adjacent clusters. To validate the method, a microcavity ring resonator based on semiconductor waveguides is chosen as an instance of FDTD parallel computation. Speed-up rate under different division density is calculated. From the result we can conclude that when the decomposing size reaches a certain point, a good parallel computing speed up will be maintained. This simulation shows that through the overlapping of computation and communication method and controlling the decomposing size, the overhead of the communication of the shared data will be conquered. The result indicates that the implementation can achieve significant speed up for the FDTD algorithm. This will enable us to tackle the larger real electromagnetic problem by the low-cost PC clusters.

  12. Noncontact and Wide-Field Characterization of the Absorption and Scattering Properties of Apple Fruit Using Spatial-Frequency Domain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dong; Fu, Xiaping; He, Xueming; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-01

    Spatial-frequency domain imaging (SFDI), as a noncontact, low-cost and wide-field optical imaging technique, offers great potential for agro-product safety and quality assessment through optical absorption (μa) and scattering (μ) property measurements. In this study, a laboratory-based SFDI system was constructed and developed for optical property measurement of fruits and vegetables. The system utilized a digital light projector to generate structured, periodic light patterns and illuminate test samples. The diffuse reflected light was captured by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with the resolution of 1280 × 960 pixels. Three wavelengths (460, 527, and 630 nm) were selected for image acquisition using bandpass filters in the system. The μa and μ were calculated in a region of interest (ROI, 200 × 300 pixels) via nonlinear least-square fitting. Performance of the system was demonstrated through optical property measurement of ‘Redstar’ apples. Results showed that the system was able to acquire spatial-frequency domain images for demodulation and calculation of the μa and μ. The calculated μa of apple tissue experiencing internal browning (IB) were much higher than healthy apple tissue, indicating that the SFDI technique had potential for IB tissue characterization.

  13. Noncontact and Wide-Field Characterization of the Absorption and Scattering Properties of Apple Fruit Using Spatial-Frequency Domain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Fu, Xiaping; He, Xueming; Ying, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Spatial-frequency domain imaging (SFDI), as a noncontact, low-cost and wide-field optical imaging technique, offers great potential for agro-product safety and quality assessment through optical absorption (μa) and scattering (μ) property measurements. In this study, a laboratory-based SFDI system was constructed and developed for optical property measurement of fruits and vegetables. The system utilized a digital light projector to generate structured, periodic light patterns and illuminate test samples. The diffuse reflected light was captured by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with the resolution of 1280 × 960 pixels. Three wavelengths (460, 527, and 630 nm) were selected for image acquisition using bandpass filters in the system. The μa and μ were calculated in a region of interest (ROI, 200 × 300 pixels) via nonlinear least-square fitting. Performance of the system was demonstrated through optical property measurement of ‘Redstar’ apples. Results showed that the system was able to acquire spatial-frequency domain images for demodulation and calculation of the μa and μ. The calculated μa of apple tissue experiencing internal browning (IB) were much higher than healthy apple tissue, indicating that the SFDI technique had potential for IB tissue characterization. PMID:27910871

  14. Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.

  15. Joint AVO inversion in the time and frequency domain with Bayesian interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhao-Yun; Yin, Xing-Yao; Li, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Amplitude variations with offset or incident angle (AVO/AVA) inversion are typically combined with statistical methods, such as Bayesian inference or deterministic inversion. We propose a joint elastic inversion method in the time and frequency domain based on Bayesian inversion theory to improve the resolution of the estimated P- and S-wave velocities and density. We initially construct the objective function using Bayesian inference by combining seismic data in the time and frequency domain. We use Cauchy and Gaussian probability distribution density functions to obtain the prior information for the model parameters and the likelihood function, respectively. We estimate the elastic parameters by solving the initial objective function with added model constraints to improve the inversion robustness. The results of the synthetic data suggest that the frequency spectra of the estimated parameters are wider than those obtained with conventional elastic inversion in the time domain. In addition, the proposed inversion approach offers stronger antinoising compared to the inversion approach in the frequency domain. Furthermore, results from synthetic examples with added Gaussian noise demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach. From the real data, we infer that more model parameter details can be reproduced with the proposed joint elastic inversion.

  16. Frequency domain response of a parametrically excited riser under random wave forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Song; Zhang, Wen-Shou; Lin, Jia-Hao; Yue, Qian-Jin; Kennedy, D.; Williams, F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Floating Production, Drilling, Storage and Offloading units represent a new technology with a promising future in the offshore oil industry. An important role is played by risers, which are installed between the subsea wellhead and the Tension Leg Deck located in the middle of the moon-pool in the hull. The inevitable heave motion of the floating hull causes a time-varying axial tension in the riser. This time dependent tension may have an undesirable influence on the lateral deflection response of the riser, with random wave forces in the frequency domain. To investigate this effect, a riser is modeled as a Bernoulli-Euler beam. The axial tension is expressed as a static part, along with a harmonic dynamic part. By linearizing the wave drag force, the riser's lateral deflection is obtained through a partial differential equation containing a time-dependent coefficient. Applying the Galerkin method, the equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation that can be solved using the pseudo-excitation method in the frequency domain. Moreover, the Floquet-Liapunov theorem is used to estimate the stability of the vibration system in the space of parametric excitation. Finally, stability charts are obtained for some numerical examples, the correctness of the proposed method is verified by comparing with Monte-Carlo simulation and the influence of the parametric excitation on the frequency domain responses of the riser is discussed.

  17. Visualization of evolving laser-generated structures by frequency domain tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yenyu; Li, Zhengyan; Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We introduce frequency domain tomography (FDT) for single-shot visualization of time-evolving refractive index structures (e.g. laser wakefields, nonlinear index structures) moving at light-speed. Previous researchers demonstrated single-shot frequency domain holography (FDH), in which a probe-reference pulse pair co- propagates with the laser-generated structure, to obtain snapshot-like images. However, in FDH, information about the structure's evolution is averaged. To visualize an evolving structure, we use several frequency domain streak cameras (FDSCs), in each of which a probe-reference pulse pair propagates at an angle to the propagation direction of the laser-generated structure. The combination of several FDSCs constitutes the FDT system. We will present experimental results for a 4-probe FDT system that has imaged the whole-beam self-focusing of a pump pulse propagating through glass in a single laser shot. Combining temporal and angle multiplexing methods, we successfully processed data from four probe pulses in one spectrometer in a single-shot. The output of data processing is a multi-frame movie of the self- focusing pulse. Our results promise the possibility of visualizing evolving laser wakefield structures that underlie laser-plasma accelerators used for multi-GeV electron acceleration.

  18. Finite Difference Time Marching in the Frequency Domain: A Parabolic Formulation for the Convective Wave Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Kreider, K. L.

    1996-01-01

    An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in ducts. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.

  19. Flight testing and frequency domain analysis for rotorcraft handling qualities characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Johnnie A.; Gardner, Charles K.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1993-01-01

    A demonstration of frequency domain flight testing techniques and analyses was performed on a U.S. Army OH-58D helicopter in support of the OH-58D Airworthiness and Flight Characteristics Evaluation and the Army's development and ongoing review of Aeronautical Design Standard 33C, Handling Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft. Hover and forward flight (60 knots) tests were conducted in 1 flight hour by Army experimental test pilots. Further processing of the hover data generated a complete database of velocity, angular rate, and acceleration frequency responses to control inputs. A joint effort was then undertaken by the Airworthiness Qualification Test Directorate (AQTD) and the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) to derive handling qualities information from the frequency response database. A significant amount of information could be extracted from the frequency domain database using a variety of approaches. This report documents numerous results that have been obtained from the simple frequency domain tests; in many areas, these results provide more insight into the aircraft dynamics that affect handling qualities than to traditional flight tests. The handling qualities results include ADS-33C bandwidth and phase delay calculations, vibration spectral determinations, transfer function models to examine single axis results, and a six degree of freedom fully coupled state space model. The ability of this model to accurately predict aircraft responses was verified using data from pulse inputs. This report also documents the frequency-sweep flight test technique and data analysis used to support the tests.

  20. Comparison of back projection methods of determining earthquake rupture process in time and frequency domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Back projection is a method to back project the seismic energy recorded in a seismic array back to the earthquake source region and determine the rupture process of a large earthquake. The method takes advantage of the coherence of seismic energy in a seismic array and is quick in determining some important properties of earthquake source. The method can be performed in both time and frequency domains. In time domain, the most conventional procedure is beam forming with some measures of suppressing the noise, such as the Nth root stacking, etc. In the frequency domain, the multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) estimates the direction of arrivals of multiple waves propagating through an array using the subspace method. The advantage of this method is the ability to study rupture properties at various frequencies and to resolve simultaneous arrivals making it suitable for detecting biliteral rupture of an earthquake source. We present a comparison of back projection results on some large earthquakes between the methods in time domain and frequency domain. The time-domain procedure produces an image that is smeared and exhibits some artifacts, although some enhancing stacking methods can at some extent alleviate the problem. On the other hand, the MUSIC method resolves clear multiple arrivals and provides higher resolution of rupture imaging.

  1. Finite Difference Time Marching in the Frequency Domain: A Parabolic Formulation for Aircraft Acoustic Nacelle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1996-01-01

    An explicit finite difference iteration scheme is developed to study harmonic sound propagation in aircraft engine nacelles. To reduce storage requirements for large 3D problems, the time dependent potential form of the acoustic wave equation is used. To insure that the finite difference scheme is both explicit and stable, time is introduced into the Fourier transformed (steady-state) acoustic potential field as a parameter. Under a suitable transformation, the time dependent governing equation in frequency space is simplified to yield a parabolic partial differential equation, which is then marched through time to attain the steady-state solution. The input to the system is the amplitude of an incident harmonic sound source entering a quiescent duct at the input boundary, with standard impedance boundary conditions on the duct walls and duct exit. The introduction of the time parameter eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with frequency domain solutions, and time marching attains the steady-state quickly enough to make the method favorable when compared to frequency domain methods. For validation, this transient-frequency domain method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D hard wall duct with plug flow.

  2. Testing for Granger Causality in the Frequency Domain: A Phase Resampling Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces phase resampling, an existing but rarely used surrogate data method for making statistical inferences of Granger causality in frequency domain time series analysis. Granger causality testing is essential for establishing causal relations among variables in multivariate dynamic processes. However, testing for Granger causality in the frequency domain is challenging due to the nonlinear relation between frequency domain measures (e.g., partial directed coherence, generalized partial directed coherence) and time domain data. Through a simulation study, we demonstrate that phase resampling is a general and robust method for making statistical inferences even with short time series. With Gaussian data, phase resampling yields satisfactory type I and type II error rates in all but one condition we examine: when a small effect size is combined with an insufficient number of data points. Violations of normality lead to slightly higher error rates but are mostly within acceptable ranges. We illustrate the utility of phase resampling with two empirical examples involving multivariate electroencephalography (EEG) and skin conductance data.

  3. A novel optoelectronic serial-to-parallel converter for 25-Gbps burst-mode optical packets.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Salah; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Ryo

    2014-01-13

    A new optoelectronic serial-to-parallel converter (SPC) has been developed to interface 25-Gbps asynchronous optical packets to CMOS circuitry. Other than all previous optoelectronic SPCs that are limited to single-shot operation and hence that can only be used for packet label processing, the SPC presented here can operate repeatedly with a period of as low as 640 ps to perform 1:16 conversion for an entire burst-mode 25-Gbps optical packet. The new SPC adopts a shared-trigger configuration and hence a single device can either convert a single packet or dual packets simultaneously. In this paper, the design and operation of the new SPC is explained after reviewing the fundamentals of performing bit-by-bit serial-to-parallel conversion by using HEMT-arrays and MSM-PDs. The response of the fabricated SPC device is presented and explained, together with the experimental work done to demonstrate 1:16 dual packet conversion at 25 Gbps.

  4. Polarization insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF systems based on parallel pump FWM in a SOA.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia; Dong, Ze; Cao, Zizheng; Chen, Lin; Wen, Shuangchun; Yu, Jianguo

    2009-04-27

    We have proposed and experimentally investigated polarization insensitive all-optical up-conversion for ROF system based on FWM in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The parallel pump is generated based on odd-order optical sidebands and carrier suppression using an external intensity modulator and a cascaded optical filter. Therefore, the two pumps are always parallel and phase locked, which makes system polarization insensitive. After FWM in a SOA and optical filtering, similar to single sideband (SSB) 40 GHz optical millimeter-wave is generated only using 10 GHz RF as local oscillator (LO). The receiver sensitivity at a BER of 10(-9) for the up-converted signals is -28.4 dBm. The power penalty for the up-converted downstream signals is smaller than 1 dBm after 20 km SSMF-28 transmission.

  5. Parallel robot for micro assembly with integrated innovative optical 3D-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbach, Juergen; Ispas, Diana; Pokar, Gero; Soetebier, Sven; Tutsch, Rainer

    2002-10-01

    Recent advances in the fields of MEMS and MOEMS often require precise assembly of very small parts with an accuracy of a few microns. In order to meet this demand, a new approach using a robot based on parallel mechanisms in combination with a novel 3D-vision system has been chosen. The planar parallel robot structure with 2 DOF provides a high resolution in the XY-plane. It carries two additional serial axes for linear and rotational movement in/about z direction. In order to achieve high precision as well as good dynamic capabilities, the drive concept for the parallel (main) axes incorporates air bearings in combination with a linear electric servo motors. High accuracy position feedback is provided by optical encoders with a resolution of 0.1 μm. To allow for visualization and visual control of assembly processes, a camera module fits into the hollow tool head. It consists of a miniature CCD camera and a light source. In addition a modular gripper support is integrated into the tool head. To increase the accuracy a control loop based on an optoelectronic sensor will be implemented. As a result of an in-depth analysis of different approaches a photogrammetric system using one single camera and special beam-splitting optics was chosen. A pattern of elliptical marks is applied to the surfaces of workpiece and gripper. Using a model-based recognition algorithm the image processing software identifies the gripper and the workpiece and determines their relative position. A deviation vector is calculated and fed into the robot control to guide the gripper.

  6. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  7. In vivo measurements of cutaneous melanin across spatial scales: using multiphoton microscopy and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Balu, Mihaela; Crosignani, Viera; Sharif, Ata; Durkin, Anthony J.; Kelly, Kristen M.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-06-01

    The combined use of nonlinear optical microscopy and broadband reflectance techniques to assess melanin concentration and distribution thickness in vivo over the full range of Fitzpatrick skin types is presented. Twelve patients were measured using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy (SFDS) on both dorsal forearm and volar arm, which are generally sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas, respectively. Both MPM and SFDS measured melanin volume fractions between ˜5% (skin type I non-sun-exposed) and 20% (skin type VI sun exposed). MPM measured epidermal (anatomical) thickness values ˜30-65 μm, while SFDS measured melanin distribution thickness based on diffuse optical path length. There was a strong correlation between melanin concentration and melanin distribution (epidermal) thickness measurements obtained using the two techniques. While SFDS does not have the ability to match the spatial resolution of MPM, this study demonstrates that melanin content as quantified using SFDS is linearly correlated with epidermal melanin as measured using MPM (R2=0.8895). SFDS melanin distribution thickness is correlated to MPM values (R2=0.8131). These techniques can be used individually and/or in combination to advance our understanding and guide therapies for pigmentation-related conditions as well as light-based treatments across a full range of skin types.

  8. In vivo measurements of cutaneous melanin across spatial scales: using multiphoton microscopy and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Saager, Rolf B.; Balu, Mihaela; Crosignani, Viera; Sharif, Ata; Durkin, Anthony J.; Kelly, Kristen M.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The combined use of nonlinear optical microscopy and broadband reflectance techniques to assess melanin concentration and distribution thickness in vivo over the full range of Fitzpatrick skin types is presented. Twelve patients were measured using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy (SFDS) on both dorsal forearm and volar arm, which are generally sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas, respectively. Both MPM and SFDS measured melanin volume fractions between ∼5% (skin type I non-sun-exposed) and 20% (skin type VI sun exposed). MPM measured epidermal (anatomical) thickness values ∼30–65  μm, while SFDS measured melanin distribution thickness based on diffuse optical path length. There was a strong correlation between melanin concentration and melanin distribution (epidermal) thickness measurements obtained using the two techniques. While SFDS does not have the ability to match the spatial resolution of MPM, this study demonstrates that melanin content as quantified using SFDS is linearly correlated with epidermal melanin as measured using MPM (R2=0.8895). SFDS melanin distribution thickness is correlated to MPM values (R2=0.8131). These techniques can be used individually and/or in combination to advance our understanding and guide therapies for pigmentation-related conditions as well as light-based treatments across a full range of skin types. PMID:26065839

  9. In vivo measurements of cutaneous melanin across spatial scales: using multiphoton microscopy and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Saager, Rolf B; Balu, Mihaela; Crosignani, Viera; Sharif, Ata; Durkin, Anthony J; Kelly, Kristen M; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2015-06-01

    The combined use of nonlinear optical microscopy and broadband reflectance techniques to assess melanin concentration and distribution thickness in vivo over the full range of Fitzpatrick skin types is presented. Twelve patients were measured using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy (SFDS) on both dorsal forearm and volar arm, which are generally sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas, respectively. Both MPM and SFDS measured melanin volume fractions between (skin type I non-sun-exposed) and 20% (skin type VI sun exposed). MPM measured epidermal (anatomical) thickness values ~30-65 μm, while SFDS measured melanin distribution thickness based on diffuse optical path length. There was a strong correlation between melanin concentration and melanin distribution (epidermal) thickness measurements obtained using the two techniques. While SFDS does not have the ability to match the spatial resolution of MPM, this study demonstrates that melanin content as quantified using SFDS is linearly correlated with epidermal melanin as measured using MPM (R² = 0.8895). SFDS melanin distribution thickness is correlated to MPM values (R² = 0.8131). These techniques can be used individually and/or in combination to advance our understanding and guide therapies for pigmentation-related conditions as well as light-based treatments across a full range of skin types.

  10. Frequency-Domain Laser Ultrasound (FDLU) Non-destructive Evaluation of Stress-Strain Behavior in an Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Huiting; Mandelis, Andreas; Lashkari, Bahman; Liu, Lixian

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of the stress-strain state of metallic materials is an important problem in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT). Prolonged cyclic loading or overloading will lead to permanent changes of material strength in an inconspicuous manner that poses threat to the safety of structures, components and products. This research focuses on gauging the mechanical strength of metallic alloys through the application of frequency-domain laser ultrasound (FDLU) based on a continuous-wave diode laser source. The goal is to develop industrial NDT procedures for fatigue monitoring in metallic substrates and coatings so that the technique can be used for mechanical strength assessment. A small-scale, non-commercial rig was fabricated to hold the sample and conduct tensile FDLU testing in parallel with an adhesive strain gauge affixed on the tested sample for independent measurement of the applied stress. Harmonic modulation and lock-in detection were used to investigate the LU signal sensitivity to the stress-strain state of ordinary aluminum alloy samples. A 1 MHz focused piezoelectric transducer was used to detect the LU signal. During the tensile procedure, both amplitude and phase signals exhibited good repeatability and sensitivity to the increasing stress-strain within the elastic regime. Signals beyond the elastic limit also revealed significant change patterns.

  11. Identification of surface defects on glass by parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyan; Shen, Yi; Bao, Wen; Li, Peng; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zhihua

    2015-09-07

    Defects can dramatically degrade glass quality, and automatic inspection is a trend of quality control in modern industry. One challenge in inspection in an uncontrolled environment is the misjudgment of fake defects (such as dust particles) as surface defects. Fortunately, optical changes within the periphery of a surface defect are usually introduced while those of a fake defect are not. The existence of changes within the defect peripheries can be adopted as a criterion for defect identification. However, modifications within defect peripheries can be too small to be noticeable in intensity based optical image of the glass surface, and misjudgments of modifications may occur due to the incorrectness in defect demarcation. Thus, a sensitive and reliable method for surface defect identification is demanded. To this end, a nondestructive method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is proposed to precisely demarcate surface defects and sensitively measure surface deformations. Suspected surface defects are demarcated using the algorithm based on complex difference from expectation. Modifications within peripheries of suspected surface defects are mapped by phase information from complex interface signal. In this way, surface defects are discriminated from fake defects using a parallel spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) system. Both simulations and experiments are conducted, and these preliminary results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method to identify glass surface defects.

  12. CMOS VCSEL driver circuit for 25+Gbps/channel short-reach parallel optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masumi

    This thesis proposes a new CMOS driver for Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting LASER (VCSEL) diode arrays. A VCSEL is a promising light source for optical communication. However, its threshold voltage (1.5V for a 850-nm VCSEL) exceeds the rated supply voltage of nanoscale CMOS technologies. This makes difficult designing a driver sourcing a modulated current to a VCSELs anode directly, an arrangement suitable for low-cost parallel optical links. To overcome this problem, a combination of analog circuit techniques is proposed including a novel pad shield driving technique. A prototype fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology achieved 26-Gb/s bit-rate and 1.80-pJ/b power efficiency with an optical modulation amplitude (OMA) of +1.8dBm and 3.1ps-rms jitter when driving a 850-nm 14Gb/s commercial VCSEL. This is the highest-speed anode-driving CMOS VCSEL driver reported to date. Also it has the best power efficiency and the smallest area (0:024 mm2) amongst anode-driving drivers in any process technology.

  13. Optical Feedback Interferometry for Velocity Measurement of Parallel Liquid-Liquid Flows in a Microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E.; Perchoux, Julien; Loubière, Karine; Tronche, Clément; Prat, Laurent; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Optical feedback interferometry (OFI) is a compact sensing technique with recent implementation for flow measurements in microchannels. We propose implementing OFI for the analysis at the microscale of multiphase flows starting with the case of parallel flows of two immiscible fluids. The velocity profiles in each phase were measured and the interface location estimated for several operating conditions. To the authors knowledge, this sensing technique is applied here for the first time to multiphase flows. Theoretical profiles issued from a model based on the Couette viscous flow approximation reproduce fairly well the experimental results. The sensing system and the analysis presented here provide a new tool for studying more complex interactions between immiscible fluids (such as liquid droplets flowing in a microchannel). PMID:27527178

  14. Electro-optic directed XOR logic circuits based on parallel-cascaded micro-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yonghui; Zhao, Yongpeng; Chen, Wenjie; Guo, Anqi; Li, Dezhao; Zhao, Guolin; Liu, Zilong; Xiao, Huifu; Liu, Guipeng; Yang, Jianhong

    2015-10-05

    We report an electro-optic photonic integrated circuit which can perform the exclusive (XOR) logic operation based on two silicon parallel-cascaded microring resonators (MRRs) fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. PIN diodes embedded around MRRs are employed to achieve the carrier injection modulation. Two electrical pulse sequences regarded as two operands of operations are applied to PIN diodes to modulate two MRRs through the free carrier dispersion effect. The final operation result of two operands is output at the Output port in the form of light. The scattering matrix method is employed to establish numerical model of the device, and numerical simulator SG-framework is used to simulate the electrical characteristics of the PIN diodes. XOR operation with the speed of 100Mbps is demonstrated successfully.

  15. All optical parallel-to-serial conversion by modified spectral holography structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Cao, L.; Dai, Y.; Yang, X.; Bai, L.; Ma, G.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a modified spectral holography structure is demonstrated. Combining the direct space-to-time pulse shaping theory with the modified structure, we can convert a spatial domain x- y image into a y- t image, where one spatial dimension is now transformed into the time domain. Thus we realize the space-to-time or parallel-to-serial conversion. As an example, we generate the temporal equivalent of letter "A", where each pixel of the image is now represented by a short optical pulse. As a possible application of our scheme, we demonstrate the generation of trains of a femtosecond pulse sequence by our structure. The results of the paper can be applied in ultrashort pulse shaping, ultrafast communication and other relevant areas.

  16. Magneto-optic imaging: Normal and parallel field components of in-plane magnetized samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, H.; Bekeris, V.; Thibeault, M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2007-06-01

    Magneto-optical (MO) imaging has become a powerful tool for determining magnetic properties of materials by detecting the stray magnetic fields. The technique consists in measuring the Faraday rotation, θF, in the light polarization plane when light travels through a transparent sensitive garnet (ferrite garnet film, FGF) placed in close contact to the sample. For in-plane magnetized samples, the MO image is not trivially related to the sample magnetization, and to contribute to this understanding we have imaged commercial audio tapes in which computer-generated functions were recorded. We present MO images of periodically in-plane magnetized tapes with square, sawtooth, triangular and sinusoidal waveforms, for which we analytically calculate the perpendicular and parallel stray magnetic field components generated by the tape. As a first approach we correlate the measured light intensity with the perpendicular magnetic field component at the FGF, and we show that it can be approximated to the gradient of the sample magnetization. A more detailed calculation, taking into account the effect of both field components in the Faraday rotation, is presented and satisfactorily compared with the obtained MO images. The presence of magnetic domains in the garnet is shown to be related to the change in sign of the parallel component of the stray magnetic field, which can be approximated to the second derivative of the sample magnetization.

  17. Measuring frequency domain granger causality for multiple blocks of interacting time series.

    PubMed

    Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2013-04-01

    In the past years, several frequency-domain causality measures based on vector autoregressive time series modeling have been suggested to assess directional connectivity in neural systems. The most followed approaches are based on representing the considered set of multiple time series as a realization of two or three vector-valued processes, yielding the so-called Geweke linear feedback measures, or as a realization of multiple scalar-valued processes, yielding popular measures like the directed coherence (DC) and the partial DC (PDC). In the present study, these two approaches are unified and generalized by proposing novel frequency-domain causality measures which extend the existing measures to the analysis of multiple blocks of time series. Specifically, the block DC (bDC) and block PDC (bPDC) extend DC and PDC to vector-valued processes, while their logarithmic counterparts, denoted as multivariate total feedback [Formula: see text] and direct feedback [Formula: see text], represent into a full multivariate framework the Geweke's measures. Theoretical analysis of the proposed measures shows that they: (i) possess desirable properties of causality measures; (ii) are able to reflect either direct causality (bPDC, [Formula: see text] or total (direct + indirect) causality (bDC, [Formula: see text] between time series blocks; (iii) reduce to the DC and PDC measures for scalar-valued processes, and to the Geweke's measures for pairs of processes; (iv) are able to capture internal dependencies between the scalar constituents of the analyzed vector processes. Numerical analysis showed that the proposed measures can be efficiently estimated from short time series, allow to represent in an objective, compact way the information derived from the causal analysis of several pairs of time series, and may detect frequency domain causality more accurately than existing measures. The proposed measures find their natural application in the evaluation of directional

  18. Statistical significance of task related deep brain EEG dynamic changes in the time-frequency domain.

    PubMed

    Chládek, J; Brázdil, M; Halámek, J; Plešinger, F; Jurák, P

    2013-01-01

    We present an off-line analysis procedure for exploring brain activity recorded from intra-cerebral electroencephalographic data (SEEG). The objective is to determine the statistical differences between different types of stimulations in the time-frequency domain. The procedure is based on computing relative signal power change and subsequent statistical analysis. An example of characteristic statistically significant event-related de/synchronization (ERD/ERS) detected across different frequency bands following different oddball stimuli is presented. The method is used for off-line functional classification of different brain areas.

  19. Frequency domain active vibration control of a flexible plate based on neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxin; Chen, Xuefeng; He, Zhengjia

    2013-06-01

    A neural-network (NN)-based active control system was proposed to reduce the low frequency noise radiation of the simply supported flexible plate. Feedback control system was built, in which neural network controller (NNC) and neural network identifier (NNI) were applied. Multi-frequency control in frequency domain was achieved by simulation through the NN-based control systems. A pre-testing experiment of the control system on a real simply supported plate was conducted. The NN-based control algorithm was shown to perform effectively. These works lay a solid foundation for the active vibration control of mechanical structures.

  20. Time-resolved experiments in the frequency domain using synchrotron radiation (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    De Stasio, G. ); Giusti, A.M.; Parasassi, T.; Ravagnan, G. ); Sapora, O. )

    1992-01-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beam line in the world that performs time-resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and the dynamics of molecules. This technique measures fluorescence lifetimes with picosecond resolution in the near UV spectral range. Such accurate measurements are rendered possible by taking phase and modulation data, and by the advantages of the cross-correlation technique. A successful experiment demonstrated the radiation damage induced by low doses of radiation on rabbit blood cell membranes.

  1. Nonlinear Cascades of Surface Oceanic Geostrophic Kinetic Energy in the Frequency Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    spectral transfers T(v) 5 2 › ›v P(v) of kinetic energy in frequency v space, as diagnostics of the impact of nonlinearity on the frequency spectra of...surface ocean geostrophic flows. Our analysis of non- linearities in the frequency domain is somewhat similar to the diagnostics employed by Sheng and...transfers T(v) could be useful diagnostics of the role of non- linearity in maintaining low-frequency variability in the climate system. In ocean models, T

  2. Nonfragile filtering for discrete-time linear systems in finite-frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Da-Wei; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Youyi

    2013-04-01

    This article investigates the problem of nonfragile filter design for discrete-time linear systems subject to noises with known frequency ranges. Additive interval uncertainty reflecting imprecision in filter implementation is considered. By the aid of generalised KYP lemma, both deterministic and randomised filtering algorithms are proposed to deal with noises in low-, middle- and high-frequency domain, respectively. The proposed nonfragile finite-frequency filters can get a better noise attenuation performance when frequency ranges of noises are known beforehand. An example about F-18 aircraft model is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  3. Aero-acoustics source separation with sparsity inducing priors in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwander, Olivier; Picheral, José; Gac, Nicolas; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali; Blacodon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of acoustic sources is of great interest in many industrial applications, in particular for the aeronautic or automotive industry for the development of new products. While localization of sources using observations from a wind tunnel is a well-known subject, the characterization and separation of the sources still needs to be explored. We present here a Bayesian approach for sources separation. Two prior modeling of the sources are considered: a sparsity inducing prior in the frequency domain and an autoregressive model in the time domain. The proposed methods are evaluated on synthetic data simulating noise sources emitting from an airfoil inside a wind tunnel.

  4. Time domain and frequency domain design techniques for model reference adaptive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1971-01-01

    Some problems associated with the design of model-reference adaptive control systems are considered and solutions to these problems are advanced. The stability of the adapted system is a primary consideration in the development of both the time-domain and the frequency-domain design techniques. Consequentially, the use of Liapunov's direct method forms an integral part of the derivation of the design procedures. The application of sensitivity coefficients to the design of model-reference adaptive control systems is considered. An application of the design techniques is also presented.

  5. Determination of medium electrical properties through full-wave modelling of frequency domain reflectrometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric; Lambot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the shallow soil properties is of prime importance in agricultural, hydrological and environmental engineering. During the last decade, numerous geophysical techniques, either invasive or resorting to proximal or remote sensing, have been developed and applied for quantitative characterization of soil properties. Amongst them, time domain reflectrometry (TDR) and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) are recognized as standard techniques for the determination of soil dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity, based on the reflected electromagnetic waves from a probe inserted into the soil. TDR data were first commonly analyzed in the time domain using methods considering only a part of the waveform information. Later, advancements have led to the possibility of analyzing the TDR signal through full-wave inverse modeling either in the time or the frequency domains. A major advantage of FDR compared to TDR is the possibility to increase the bandwidth, thereby increasing the information content of the data and providing more detailed characterization of the medium. Amongst the recent works in this field, Minet et al. (2010) developed a modeling procedure for processing FDR data based on an exact solution of Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in one-dimensional multilayered media. In this approach, the probe head is decoupled from the medium and is fully described by characteristic transfer functions. The authors successfully validated the method for homogeneous sand subject to a range of water contents. In the present study, we further validated the modelling approach using reference liquids with well-characterized frequency-dependent electrical properties. In addition, the FDR model was coupled with a dielectric mixing model to investigate the ability of retrieving water content, pore water electrical conductivity and sand porosity from inversion of FDR data acquired in sand subject to different water content levels. Finally, the

  6. Aircraft on-board SAR processing using a frequency-domain fast correlation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Kuang Y.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a frequency-domain fast correlation processor for aircraft onboard synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) applications is described. The design uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) fast correlation technique to perform both range and azimuth pulse compression functions for the NASA/JPL L-band, quad-polarization airborne SAR. The subject processor is computationally efficient and requires a simple control unit. It is capable of producing single-look, 8-m (slant range) by 10-m (azimuth) resolution, SAR images of a selected polarization over a swath width of up to 15 km in real time onboard the aircraft.

  7. Using frequency-domain methods to identify XV-15 aeroelastic modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt-Rotor wing has six major aeroelastic modes that are close in frequency. To precisely excite individual modes during flight test, dual flaperon exciters with automatic frequency-sweep controls were installed. The resulting structural data were analyzed in the frequency domain (Fourier transformed) with cross spectral and transfer function methods. Modal frequencies and damping were determined by performing curve fits to transfer function magnitude and phase data and to cross spectral magnitude data. Results are given for the XV-15 with its original metal rotor blades. Frequency and damping values are also compared with earlier predictions.

  8. Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Johnson, Matthew D.; McCullough, John P.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    The SLS GNC team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these considerations and will present a framework for responding to

  9. Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew; McCullough, John

    2017-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these

  10. Dynamic analysis of offshore structures with non-zero initial conditions in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fushun; Lu, Hongchao; Li, Huajun

    2016-03-01

    The state of non-zero conditions is typically treated as fact when considering the dynamic analysis of offshore structures. This article extends a newly proposed method [1] to manage the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures in the frequency domain, including new studies on original environmental loads reconstruction, response comparisons with the commercial software ANSYS, and a demonstration using an experimental cantilever beam. The original environmental loads, such as waves, currents, and winds, that act on a structure are decomposed into multiple complex exponential components are represented by a series of poles and corresponding residues. Counter to the traditional frequency-domain method, the non-zero initial conditions of offshore structures could be solved in the frequency domain. Compared with reference [1], an improvement reported in this article is that practical issues, including the choice of model order and central-processing-unit (CPU) time consumption, are further studied when applying this new method to offshore structures. To investigate the feasibility of the representation of initial environmental loads by their poles and corresponding residues, a measured random wave force collected from a column experiment at the Lab of Ocean University of China is used, decomposed, reconstructed and then compared with the original wave force; then, a numerical offshore platform is used to study the performance of the proposed method in detail. The numerical results of this study indicate that (1) a short duration of environmental loads are required to obtain their constitutive poles and residues, which implies good computational efficiency; and (2) the proposed method has a similar computational efficiency to traditional methods due to the use of the inverse Fourier transform technique. To better understand the performance, of time consumption and accuracy of the proposed method, the commercial software ANSYS is used to determine responses

  11. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  12. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  13. Design of frequency domain multiplexing of TES signals by multi-input SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Masui, Kensuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Morooka, Toshimitsu; Nakayama, Satoshi; Takei, Yoh

    2006-04-01

    In frequency-domain Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexing for Transition Edge Sensor (TES) readout, a magnetic field summation method utilizing multi-input SQUIDs has a fundamental merit of small degradation of signal-to-noise ratio. Independent wiring without common impedance avoids the cross talk current, and the current induced by magnetic coupling between the input coils is suppressed by the direct feedback at the summing point. A multi-input SQUID which has 8 input coils has been fabricated and requirements for Flux Locked Loop (FLL) circuits are summarized.

  14. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  15. Automated on-orbit frequency domain identification for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Hadaegh, F. Y.; Yam, Y.; Scheid, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Milman, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiences in the field of flexible structure control in space have indicated a need for on-orbit system identification to support robust control redesign to avoid in-flight instabilities and maintain high spacecraft performance. This paper highlights an automated frequency domain system identification methodology recently developed to fulfill this need. The methodology is focused to support (1) the estimation of system quantities useful for robust control analysis and design; (2) experiment design tailored to performing system identification in a typically constrained on-orbit environment; and (3) the automation of operations to reduce 'human in the loop' requirements.

  16. Stability and stabilisation of linear multidimensional discrete systems in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lizhen; Xu, Li; Lin, Zhiping

    2013-11-01

    This paper gives a reasonably detailed review of advances in stability and stabilisation of linear multidimensional (N-D) discrete systems in the frequency domain. The emphasis is on the recent progress, especially in the past decade. The discussion will focus on two topics: (i) stability test. Determination of whether a given N-D (N ≥ 2) system is stable; (ii) stabilisation. Parameterisation of all stabilising compensators for a stabilisable N-D system. After reviewing the progress and several state of the art methods in these two topics with illustrative examples, some related issues are also briefly mentioned at the end.

  17. Identification of XV-15 aeroelastic modes using frequency-domain methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, Cecil W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1989-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt-Rotor wing has six major aeroelastic modes that are close in frequency. To precisely excite individual modes during flight test, dual flaperon exciters with automatic frequency-sweep controls were installed. The resulting structural data were analyzed in the frequency domain (Fourier transformed) with cross spectral and transfer function methods. Modal frequencies and damping were determined by performing curve fits to transfer function magnitude and phase data and to cross spectral magnitude data. Results are given for the XV-15 with its original metal rotor blades. Frequency and damping values are also compared with earlier predictions.

  18. Figure of merit for task-based assessment of frequency-domain diffusive imaging.

    PubMed

    Kang, DongYel; Kupinski, Matthew A

    2013-01-15

    A figure of merit (FOM) for frequency-domain diffusive imaging (FDDI) is theoretically developed adapting the concept of Hotelling observer signal-to-noise ratio. Different from conventionally used FOMs for FDDI, the newly developed FOM considers diffused intensities, modulation amplitudes, and phases in combination. The FOM applied to Monte Carlo simulations of signal- and background-known-exactly problems shows unique characteristics that are in agreement with findings in the literature. We believe that a task based assessment using the FOM improves the characterization of FDDI systems and allows for complete system optimization.

  19. On the implementation of a real-time information security architecture in frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Abhishek; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the real-time implementation of a watermarking-based information security architecture in frequency domain. The scheme emphasises on the human visual system (HVS)-supported watermarking approach using wavelet-lifting technique. In addition to HVS, image registration algorithm is also introduced in order to increase the resiliency as well as the security of the estimated recovered watermark image. The algorithmic steps with optimisation considerations about the real-time implementation on TMS320CDSK6416/6713 fixed/floating point digital signal processor are also projected.

  20. Nonlinear (time domain) and linearized (time and frequency domain) solutions to the compressible Euler equations in conservation law form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreenivas, Kidambi; Whitfield, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Two linearized solvers (time and frequency domain) based on a high resolution numerical scheme are presented. The basic approach is to linearize the flux vector by expressing it as a sum of a mean and a perturbation. This allows the governing equations to be maintained in conservation law form. A key difference between the time and frequency domain computations is that the frequency domain computations require only one grid block irrespective of the interblade phase angle for which the flow is being computed. As a result of this and due to the fact that the governing equations for this case are steady, frequency domain computations are substantially faster than the corresponding time domain computations. The linearized equations are used to compute flows in turbomachinery blade rows (cascades) arising due to blade vibrations. Numerical solutions are compared to linear theory (where available) and to numerical solutions of the nonlinear Euler equations.

  1. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    DOEpatents

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  2. Adaptive modulation and intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging scheme for multiband OFDM UWB over fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Li, Teng; Wen, Xuejie; Deng, Rui; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the unbalanced error bit distribution among subcarriers caused by inter-subcarriers mixing interference (ISMI) and frequency selective fading (FSF), an adaptive modulation scheme based on 64/16/4QAM modulation is proposed and experimentally investigated in the intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM/DD) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) over fiber system. After 50 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission, at the bit error ratio (BER) of 1×10-3, the experimental results show that the power penalty of the IM/DD MB-OFDM UWBoF system with 64/16/4QAM adaptive modulation scheme is about 3.6 dB, compared to that with the 64QAM modulation scheme. Moreover, the receiver sensitivity has been improved about 0.52 dB when the intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) algorithm is employed in the IM/DD MB-OFDM UWBoF system based on the 64/16/4QAM adaptive modulation scheme. Meanwhile, after 50 km SSMF transmission, there is a negligible power penalty in the adaptively modulated IM/DD MB-OFDM UWBoF system, compared to the optical back-to-back case.

  3. Coupling effect and control strategies of the maglev dual-stage inertially stabilization system based on frequency-domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhuchong; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Delin

    2016-09-01

    Maglev dual-stage inertially stabilization (MDIS) system is a newly proposed system which combines a conventional two-axis gimbal assembly and a 5-DOF (degree of freedom) magnetic bearing with vernier tilting capacity to perform dual-stage stabilization for the LOS of the suspended optical instrument. Compared with traditional dual-stage system, maglev dual-stage system exhibits different characteristics due to the negative position stiffness of the magnetic forces, which introduces additional coupling in the dual stage control system. In this paper, the coupling effect on the system performance is addressed based on frequency-domain analysis, including disturbance rejection, fine stage saturation and coarse stage structural resonance suppression. The difference between various control strategies is also discussed, including pile-up(PU), stabilize-follow (SF) and stabilize-compensate (SC). A number of principles for the design of a maglev dual stage system are proposed. A general process is also suggested, which leads to a cost-effective design striking a balance between high performance and complexity. At last, a simulation example is presented to illustrate the arguments in the paper.

  4. Macular thickness measurements with frequency domain-OCT for quantification of axonal loss in chronic papilledema from pseudotumor cerebri syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, M L R; Afonso, C L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of frequency domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT)-measured macular thickness parameters to differentiate between eyes with resolved chronic papilledema and healthy eyes and to evaluate the correlation between FD-OCT measures and visual field (VF) loss on standard automated perimetry (SAP). Methods Fifty-two eyes from 29 patients suffering from pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTC) and 62 eyes from 31 normal controls underwent FD-OCT scanning and ophthalmic evaluation including VF with SAP. All patients had previously been submitted to treatment of PTC and had clinically resolved papilledema and stable VF for at least 6 months before the study. Macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements were determined for both groups. Comparisons were made using Generalized Estimated Equations. Correlations between FD-OCT and VF measurements were verified. Results In eyes with resolved papilledema, the macular thickness parameters corresponding to the inner and outer superior, temporal, inferior and nasal segments, average macular thickness and most RNFL thickness measurements were significantly reduced when compared with controls. The discrimination ability was similar for macular thickness measurements and RNFL thickness measurements. Both sets of OCT measurements correlated well with VF sensitivity loss. Conclusions Eyes with resolved chronic papilledema show a significant reduction in macular thickness, which is well correlated with the severity of VF loss. Macular thickness measurements can potentially be used to estimate and monitor the amount of ganglion cell loss in eyes with papilledema from patients with PTC. PMID:24406417

  5. The Development of Low Threshold Laser Arrays and Their Applications in Parallel Optical Datalinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hanmin

    We present the analytical and experimental study for the development of ultra-low threshold InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well semiconductor lasers and laser arrays grown on non planar substrates by MOCVD. This study has resulted in the demonstration of some of the lowest threshold currents and current densities yet reported as well as the demonstration of multichannel optical datalinks working at 1Gbit/sec/channel. The gain properties of the InGaAs/GaAs strained quantum wells and the lasing properties of InGaAs/GaAs lasers were theoretically analysed. Using MOCVD growth technique, the growth condition for InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and InGaAs/GaAs broad area lasers were optimized. InGaAs/GaAs broad area laser threshold current density as low as 56 A/cm^{-2} were obtained. The growth and doping properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and AlGaAs bulk layer on non planar substrates were studied and the unique properties we learned from the above study were used to design and fabricate a new buried heterostructure InGaAs/GaAs laser for low threshold and high efficiency operation. Record low threshold current of 0.5 mA and 0.6 mA were obtained for as cleaved DQW lasers and SQW lasers respectively. HR coated SQW laser threshold currents as low as 0.15 mA were obtained which is the lowest reported threshold current in a diode laser. This new technique produces high yield and high laser uniformity because of the simple growth and processing procedures involved. Highly uniform InGaAs/GaAs SQW and DQW laser arrays with sub-milliampere threshold currents were obtained. Using the above low threshold lasers, a unique three terminal laser structure that is suitable for high speed, high efficiency, large signal, digital modulation was investigated. Three terminal laser arrays were used in a wide bandwidth parallel optical datalink system. High data transfer rate (1GBit/sec/channel) and low bit error rate (BER) ({<}10^{-13}) with large phase margin were obtained. This parallel

  6. Not extinct yet: innovations in frequency domain HEM triggered by sea ice studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffhuber, Andreas A.; Hendricks, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The last 15 years have brought major innovations in helicopter towed time domain electromagnetics (EM), while few further developments have been made within the classic frequency domain segment. Operational use of frequency domain EM for sea ice thickness mapping acted as a driving force to develop new concepts such as the system under our consideration. Since its introduction we have implemented new concepts aiming at noise reduction and drift elimination. We decreased signal noise base levels by one to two orders of magnitude with changes to the signal transmission concept. Further, we increased the receiver coil dynamic range creating an EM setup without the need for primary field bucking. Finally, we implemented control signals inside the receiver coils to potentially eliminate system drift. Ground tests demonstrate the desired noise reduction and demonstrate drift control, leading to essentially drift free data. Airborne field data confirm these results, yet also show that the procedures can still be improved. The remaining quest is whether these specialised system improvements could also be implemented in exploration helicopter EM (HEM) systems to increase accuracy and efficiency.

  7. Evaluation of a wave-vector-frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Clement, Greg T

    2011-01-01

    A wave-vector-frequency-domain method is presented to describe one-directional forward or backward acoustic wave propagation in a nonlinear homogeneous medium. Starting from a frequency-domain representation of the second-order nonlinear acoustic wave equation, an implicit solution for the nonlinear term is proposed by employing the Green's function. Its approximation, which is more suitable for numerical implementation, is used. An error study is carried out to test the efficiency of the model by comparing the results with the Fubini solution. It is shown that the error grows as the propagation distance and step-size increase. However, for the specific case tested, even at a step size as large as one wavelength, sufficient accuracy for plane-wave propagation is observed. A two-dimensional steered transducer problem is explored to verify the nonlinear acoustic field directional independence of the model. A three-dimensional single-element transducer problem is solved to verify the forward model by comparing it with an existing nonlinear wave propagation code. Finally, backward-projection behavior is examined. The sound field over a plane in an absorptive medium is backward projected to the source and compared with the initial field, where good agreement is observed.

  8. Symmetry based frequency domain processing to remove harmonic noise from surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Annette; Larsen, Jakob Juul; Parsekian, Andrew D.

    2017-02-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a unique geophysical method due to its direct sensitivity to water. A key limitation to overcome is the difficulty of making surface NMR measurements in environments with anthropogenic electromagnetic noise, particularly constant frequency sources such as powerlines. Here we present a method of removing harmonic noise by utilizing frequency domain symmetry of surface NMR signals to reconstruct portions of the spectrum corrupted by frequency-domain noise peaks. This method supplements the existing NMR processing workflow and is applicable after despiking, coherent noise cancellation, and stacking. The symmetry based correction is simple, grounded in mathematical theory describing NMR signals, does not introduce errors into the data set, and requires no prior knowledge about the harmonics. Modelling and field examples show that symmetry based noise removal reduces the effects of harmonics. In one modelling example, symmetry based noise removal improved signal-to-noise ratio in the data by 10 per cent. This improvement had noticeable effects on inversion parameters including water content and the decay constant T2*. Within water content profiles, aquifer boundaries and water content are more accurate after harmonics are removed. Fewer spurious water content spikes appear within aquifers, which is especially useful for resolving multilayered structures. Within T2* profiles, estimates are more accurate after harmonics are removed, especially in the lower half of profiles.

  9. Generalized frequency-domain synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic imaging of irregularly layered objects.

    PubMed

    Qin, Kaihuai; Yang, Chun; Sun, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT), the phase shift migration (PSM) technique, as a frequency-domain implementation of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), can be adopted for imaging of regularly layered objects that are inhomogeneous only in depth but isotropic and homogeneous in the lateral direction. To deal with irregularly layered objects that are anisotropic and inhomogeneous in both the depth and lateral directions, a generalized frequency- domain SAFT, called generalized phase shift migration (GPSM), is proposed in this paper. Compared with PSM, the most significant innovation of GPSM is that the phase shift factor is generalized to handle anisotropic media with lateral velocity variations. The generalization is accomplished by computer programming techniques without modifying the PSM model. In addition, SRFFT (split-radix fast Fourier transform) input/output pruning algorithms are developed and employed in the GPSM algorithm to speed up the image reconstructions. The experiments show that the proposed imaging techniques are capable of reconstructing accurate shapes and interfaces of irregularly layered objects. The computing time of the GPSM algorithm is much less than the time-domain SAFT combined with the ray-tracing technique, which is, at present, the common method used in ultrasonic NDT industry for imaging layered objects. Furthermore, imaging regularly layered objects can be regarded as a special case of the presented technique.

  10. Allan deviation computations of a linear frequency synthesizer system using frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Andy

    1995-01-01

    Allan Deviation computations of linear frequency synthesizer systems have been reported previously using real-time simulations. Even though it takes less time compared with the actual measurement, it is still very time consuming to compute the Allan Deviation for long sample times with the desired confidence level. Also noises, such as flicker phase noise and flicker frequency noise, can not be simulated precisely. The use of frequency domain techniques can overcome these drawbacks. In this paper the system error model of a fictitious linear frequency synthesizer is developed and its performance using a Cesium (Cs) atomic frequency standard (AFS) as a reference is evaluated using frequency domain techniques. For a linear timing system, the power spectral density at the system output can be computed with known system transfer functions and known power spectral densities from the input noise sources. The resulting power spectral density can then be used to compute the Allan Variance at the system output. Sensitivities of the Allan Variance at the system output to each of its independent input noises are obtained, and they are valuable for design trade-off and trouble-shooting.

  11. Enhancement of frequency domain indices of heart rate variability by cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine bromide.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Ali Asghar; Foroutan, Seyyed Abbas; Foroutan, Seyyed Mohsen; Erfanian Omidvar, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of orally administration of single dose sustained-released tablet of pyridostigmine bromide (PBSR) on the frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV). Thirty-two healthy young men were participated in this study. They were divided into 2 groups; the pyridostigmine group (n = 22) and the placebo group (n = 10). Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded at 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300 and 420 min after PBSR administration. At each time, simultaneously, a blood sample was prepared and PB plasma concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Statistical analysis showed that in different indices of HRV, there is a significant increase in low frequency (LF) band at 300 min, but no difference in high frequency band (HF). It also showed significant decreases in normalized high frequency band (Hfnu), normalized low frequency band (Lfnu) and LF/HF ratio at 120, 240 and 300 min after PBSR administration. Maximum plasma concentration of PB was 150 min after the administration. In conclusion, administration of a single dose PBSR can enhance the frequency domains indices of HRV and improvesympathovagal balance.

  12. A Unified Frequency Domain Model to Study the Effect of Demyelination on Axonal Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Chaubey, Saurabh; Goodwin, Shikha J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease caused by demyelination of nerve fibers. In order to determine the loss of signal with the percentage of demyelination, we need to develop models that can simulate this effect. Existing time-based models does not provide a method to determine the influences of demyelination based on simulation results. Our goal is to develop a system identification approach to generate a transfer function in the frequency domain. The idea is to create a unified modeling approach for neural action potential propagation along the length of an axon containing number of Nodes of Ranvier (N). A system identification approach has been used to identify a transfer function of the classical Hodgkin–Huxley equations for membrane voltage potential. Using this approach, we model cable properties and signal propagation along the length of the axon with N node myelination. MATLAB/Simulink platform is used to analyze an N node-myelinated neuronal axon. The ability to transfer function in the frequency domain will help reduce effort and will give a much more realistic feel when compared to the classical time-based approach. Once a transfer function is identified, the conduction as a cascade of each linear time invariant system-based transfer function can be modeled. Using this approach, future studies can model the loss of myelin in various parts of nervous system. PMID:27103847

  13. A Unified Frequency Domain Model to Study the Effect of Demyelination on Axonal Conduction.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Saurabh; Goodwin, Shikha J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease caused by demyelination of nerve fibers. In order to determine the loss of signal with the percentage of demyelination, we need to develop models that can simulate this effect. Existing time-based models does not provide a method to determine the influences of demyelination based on simulation results. Our goal is to develop a system identification approach to generate a transfer function in the frequency domain. The idea is to create a unified modeling approach for neural action potential propagation along the length of an axon containing number of Nodes of Ranvier (N). A system identification approach has been used to identify a transfer function of the classical Hodgkin-Huxley equations for membrane voltage potential. Using this approach, we model cable properties and signal propagation along the length of the axon with N node myelination. MATLAB/Simulink platform is used to analyze an N node-myelinated neuronal axon. The ability to transfer function in the frequency domain will help reduce effort and will give a much more realistic feel when compared to the classical time-based approach. Once a transfer function is identified, the conduction as a cascade of each linear time invariant system-based transfer function can be modeled. Using this approach, future studies can model the loss of myelin in various parts of nervous system.

  14. Frequency-Domain Tomography for Single-shot, Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Intense laser pulses propagating through plasma create plasma wakefields that often evolve significantly, e.g. by expanding and contracting. However, such dynamics are known in detail only through intensive simulations. Laboratory visualization of evolving plasma wakes in the ``bubble'' regime is important for optimizing and scaling laser-plasma accelerators. Recently snap-shots of quasi-static wakes were recorded using frequency-domain holography (FDH). To visualize the wake's evolution, we have generalized FDH to frequency-domain tomography (FDT), which uses multiple probes propagating at different angles with respect to the pump pulse. Each probe records a phase streak, imprinting a partial record of the evolution of pump-created structures. We then topographically reconstruct the full evolution from all phase streaks. To prove the concept, a prototype experiment visualizing nonlinear index evolution in glass is demonstrated. Four probes propagating at 0, 0.6, 2, 14 degrees to the index ``bubble'' are angularly and temporally multiplexed to a single spectrometer to achieve cost-effective FDT. From these four phase streaks, an FDT algorithm analogous to conventional CT yields a single-shot movie of the pump's self-focusing dynamics.

  15. Simultaneous storage of medical images in the spatial and frequency domain: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Jagadish; Bhat, P Subbanna; Acharya U, Rajendra; UC, Niranjan

    2004-01-01

    Background Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. This technique is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. Methods The patient information is encrypted before interleaving with images to ensure greater security. The bio-signals are compressed and subsequently interleaved with the image. This interleaving is carried out in the spatial domain and Frequency domain. The performance of interleaving in the spatial, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) coefficients is studied. Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) is employed for data compression as well as encryption and results are tabulated for a specific example. Results It can be seen from results, the process does not affect the picture quality. This is attributed to the fact that the change in LSB of a pixel changes its brightness by 1 part in 256. Spatial and DFT domain interleaving gave very less %NRMSE as compared to DCT and DWT domain. Conclusion The Results show that spatial domain the interleaving, the %NRMSE was less than 0.25% for 8-bit encoded pixel intensity. Among the frequency domain interleaving methods, DFT was found to be very efficient. PMID:15180899

  16. Comparison of frequency-domain and time-domain rotorcraft vibration control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Active control of rotor-induced vibration in rotorcraft has received significant attention recently. Two classes of techniques have been proposed. The more developed approach works with harmonic analysis of measured time histories and is called the frequency-domain approach. The more recent approach computes the control input directly using the measured time history data and is called the time-domain approach. The report summarizes the results of a theoretical investigation to compare the two approaches. Five specific areas were addressed: (1) techniques to derive models needed for control design (system identification methods), (2) robustness with respect to errors, (3) transient response, (4) susceptibility to noise, and (5) implementation difficulties. The system identification methods are more difficult for the time-domain models. The time-domain approach is more robust (e.g., has higher gain and phase margins) than the frequency-domain approach. It might thus be possible to avoid doing real-time system identification in the time-domain approach by storing models at a number of flight conditions. The most significant error source is the variation in open-loop vibrations caused by pilot inputs, maneuvers or gusts. The implementation requirements are similar except that the time-domain approach can be much simpler to implement if real-time system identification were not necessary.

  17. Signals features extraction in liquid-gas flow measurements using gamma densitometry. Part 2: frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Jaszczur, Marek; Hanus, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the structure of a flow is really significant for the proper conduct a number of industrial processes. In this case a description of a two-phase flow regimes is possible by use of the time-series analysis e.g. in frequency domain. In this article the classical spectral analysis based on Fourier Transform (FT) and Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) were applied for analysis of signals obtained for water-air flow using gamma ray absorption. The presented method was illustrated by use data collected in experiments carried out on the laboratory hydraulic installation with a horizontal pipe of 4.5 m length and inner diameter of 30 mm equipped with two 241Am radioactive sources and scintillation probes with NaI(Tl) crystals. Stochastic signals obtained from detectors for plug, bubble, and transitional plug - bubble flows were considered in this work. The recorded raw signals were analyzed and several features in the frequency domain were extracted using autospectral density function (ADF), cross-spectral density function (CSDF), and the STFT spectrogram. In result of a detail analysis it was found that the most promising to recognize of the flow structure are: maximum value of the CSDF magnitude, sum of the CSDF magnitudes in the selected frequency range, and the maximum value of the sum of selected amplitudes of STFT spectrogram.

  18. Symmetry based frequency domain processing to remove harmonic noise from surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Annette; Larsen, Jakob Juul; Parsekian, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a unique geophysical method due to its direct sensitivity to water. A key limitation to overcome is the difficulty of making surface NMR measurements in environments with anthropogenic electromagnetic noise, particularly constant frequency sources such as powerlines. Here we present a method of removing harmonic noise by utilizing frequency domain symmetry of surface NMR signals to reconstruct portions of the spectrum corrupted by frequency-domain noise peaks. This method supplements the existing NMR processing workflow and is applicable after despiking, coherent noise cancellation, and stacking. The symmetry based correction is simple, grounded in mathematical theory describing NMR signals, does not introduce errors into the dataset, and requires no prior knowledge about the harmonics. Modeling and field examples show that symmetry based noise removal reduces the effects of harmonics. In one modeling example, symmetry based noise removal improved signal to noise ratio in the data by 10%. This improvement had noticeable effects on inversion parameters including water content and the decay constant T2*. Within water content profiles, aquifer boundaries and water content are more accurate after harmonics are removed. Fewer spurious water content spikes appear within aquifers, which is especially useful for resolving multi-layered structures. Within T2* profiles, estimates are more accurate after harmonics are removed, especially in the lower half of profiles.

  19. Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging of Port Wine Stain Biochemical Composition in Response to Laser Therapy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, Amaan; Sharif, Seyed A.; Cuccia, J. David; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Objective methods to assess port wine stain (PWS) response to laser treatment have been the subject of various research efforts for several years. Herein, we present a pilot study using a newly developed, light emitting diode (LED) based spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) device to record quantitatively biochemical compositional changes in PWS after laser therapy. Study Design/Patients and Methods A SFDI system was used to image before, and after, five PWS treatment sessions [n = 4 subjects (one subject was imaged before and after two consecutive laser treatments)]. SFDI derived wide-field optical properties (absorption and scattering) and tissue chromophore concentrations including oxy-hemoglobin (ctO2Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (ctHHb), total hemoglobin (ctTHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (stO2) are presented for skin imaged prior to and immediately after laser treatment. The SFDI derived images were analyzed by comparing the above measurements in PWS to those of normal skin and tracking changes immediately after laser exposure. Results Elevated oxy-hemoglobin (>20%) and tissue oxygen saturation (>5%) were measured in all PWS lesions and compared to values for normal skin prior to treatment. Laser treatment resulted in an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin (>100%), decrease in tissue oxygen saturation (>10%), and reduced scattering (>15%) in all PWS lesions. One subject was followed before and after two consecutive laser treatments and the overall improvement in PWS lesion blanching was quantitatively assessed by measuring a 45% decrease in dermal blood volume. Conclusion SFDI is a rapid non-contact wide-field optical technique that shows potential as an imaging device that can be used to quantify biochemical compositional changes in PWS after laser therapy. Future work will investigate the potential of SFDI to provide intra-operative guidance for laser therapy of PWS lesions on an individual patient basis. PMID:22911574

  20. Frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion using encoded simultaneous sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, W.; Son, W.; Pyun, S.; Min, D.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, numerous studies have endeavored to develop robust full waveform inversion and migration algorithms. These processes require enormous computational costs, because of the number of sources in the survey. To avoid this problem, the phase encoding technique for prestack migration was proposed by Romero (2000) and Krebs et al. (2009) proposed the encoded simultaneous-source inversion technique in the time domain. On the other hand, Ben-Hadj-Ali et al. (2011) demonstrated the robustness of the frequency-domain full waveform inversion with simultaneous sources for noisy data changing the source assembling. Although several studies on simultaneous-source inversion tried to estimate P- wave velocity based on the acoustic wave equation, seismic migration and waveform inversion based on the elastic wave equations are required to obtain more reliable subsurface information. In this study, we propose a 2-D frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion technique using phase encoding methods. In our algorithm, the random phase encoding method is employed to calculate the gradients of the elastic parameters, source signature estimation and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix. The crosstalk for the estimated source signature and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix are suppressed with iteration as for the gradients. Our 2-D frequency-domain elastic waveform inversion algorithm is composed using the back-propagation technique and the conjugate-gradient method. Source signature is estimated using the full Newton method. We compare the simultaneous-source inversion with the conventional waveform inversion for synthetic data sets of the Marmousi-2 model. The inverted results obtained by simultaneous sources are comparable to those obtained by individual sources, and source signature is successfully estimated in simultaneous source technique. Comparing the inverted results using the pseudo Hessian matrix with previous inversion results

  1. Lithospheric imaging from teleseismic data by frequency-domain elastic full-waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pageot, D.; Operto, S.; Vallée, M.; Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.; Seiscope

    2010-12-01

    Teleseismic data recorded by dense multicomponent surveys are potentially amenable to multichannel processing such as full waveform inversion to develop high-resolution lithospheric models. In this study, 2D frequency-domain full waveform tomography (FWT) is tailored to suit teleseismic geometries. Frequency-domain FWT seeks to estimate the elastic properties of the Earth by minimizing a misfit function between recorded and modeled full wavefields. FWT is designed to invert few discrete frequencies by proceeding hierarchically from the low frequencies to the higher ones, following a multiscale approach useful to mitigate the inversion nonlinearity. In teleseismic framework, seismic sources are planar incident wavefields impinging the base of the lithosphere with arbitrary incidence and obliquity angles. The full wavefield is computed using a scattered-field formulation in the frequency domain. First, an analytical wavefield is computed in a homogeneous background model with free surface on the topside for an incident compressional plane wave. Then, a scattering source is formed by the product of the analytical planewave with the difference of the forward problem operators associated with the homogeneous background and lithospheric models. The scattered wavefield is then computed by performing a simulation in the lithospheric model using the scattering source, and, finally, the full wavefield is built by summation of the analytical wavefield and of the scattered wavefield. The 2D P-SV wave modeling is performed with a finite element discontinuous Galerkin method allowing for unstructured triangular meshes. Teleseismic experiments are characterized by a narrow illumination of aperture angles because of the limited number of planewave sources related to the teleseismic earthquake distribution. This narrow aperture bandwith requires the use of finely-sampled frequencies to prevent spatial aliasing in the reconstructed FWT models. Moreover, planewave propagation from

  2. Uncertainty quantification of dynamic responses in the frequency domain in the context of virtual testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Maik; Deraemaeker, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    For the development of innovative materials, construction types or maintenance strategies, experimental investigations are inevitable to validate theoretical approaches in praxis. Numerical simulations, embedded in a general virtual testing approach, are alternatives to expensive experimental investigations. The statistical properties of the dynamic response in the frequency domain obtained from continuously measured data are often the basis for many developments, such as the optimization of damage indicators for structural health monitoring systems or the investigation of data-based frequency response function estimates. Two straightforward numerical simulation approaches exist to derive the statistics of a response due to random excitation and measurement errors. One approach is the sample-based technique, wherein for each excitation sample a time integration solution is needed. This can be computationally very demanding if a high accuracy of the statistical properties is of interest. The other approach consists in using the relationship between the excitation and the response directly in the frequency domain, wherein a weakly stationary process is assumed. This approach is inherently related to an infinite time response, which can hardly be derived from measured data. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed that overcomes the limitation of both aforementioned methods, by providing a fast analytical probabilistic framework for uncertainty quantification to determine accurately the statistics of short time dynamic responses. It is assumed that the structural system is known and can be described by deterministic parameters. The influences of signal processing techniques, such as linear combinations, windowing, and segmentation used in Welch's method, are considered as well. The performance of the new algorithm is investigated in comparison to both previous approaches on a three degrees of freedom system. The benchmark shows that the novel approach outperforms

  3. Optical encryption of parallel quadrature phase shift keying signals based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yue; Zhang, Min; Zhan, Yueying; Wang, Danshi; Huang, Shanguo

    2016-08-01

    A scheme for optical parallel encryption/decryption of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signals is proposed, in which three QPSK signals at 10 Gb/s are encrypted and decrypted simultaneously in the optical domain through nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber. The results of theoretical analysis and simulations show that the scheme can perform high-speed wiretapping against the encryption of parallel signals and receiver sensitivities of encrypted signal and the decrypted signal are -25.9 and -23.8 dBm, respectively, at the forward error correction threshold. The results are useful for designing high-speed encryption/decryption of advanced modulated signals and thus enhancing the physical layer security of optical networks.

  4. Performance of multi-hop parallel free-space optical communication over gamma-gamma fading channel with pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengguang; Liu, Hongzhan; Ma, Xiaoping; Lu, Wei

    2016-11-10

    Multi-hop parallel relaying is considered in a free-space optical (FSO) communication system deploying binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation under the combined effects of a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution and misalignment fading. Based on the best path selection criterion, the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of this cooperative random variable is derived. Then the performance of this optical mesh network is analyzed in detail. A Monte Carlo simulation is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results for the average bit error rate (ABER) and outage probability. The numerical result proves that it needs a smaller average transmitted optical power to achieve the same ABER and outage probability when using the multi-hop parallel network in FSO links. Furthermore, the system use of more number of hops and cooperative paths can improve the quality of the communication.

  5. Punch stretching process monitoring using acoustic emission signal analysis. II - Application of frequency domain deconvolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Steven Y.; Dornfeld, David A.; Nickerson, Jackson A.

    1987-01-01

    The coloring effect on the acoustic emission signal due to the frequency response of the data acquisition/processing instrumentation may bias the interpretation of AE signal characteristics. In this paper, a frequency domain deconvolution technique, which involves the identification of the instrumentation transfer functions and multiplication of the AE signal spectrum by the inverse of these system functions, has been carried out. In this way, the change in AE signal characteristics can be better interpreted as the result of the change in only the states of the process. Punch stretching process was used as an example to demonstrate the application of the technique. Results showed that, through the deconvolution, the frequency characteristics of AE signals generated during the stretching became more distinctive and can be more effectively used as tools for process monitoring.

  6. Wave-number-based assessment of the doubly asymptotic approximation. I. Frequency domain wet surface impedance

    PubMed

    Ginsberg

    2000-04-01

    The doubly asymptotic approximation (DAA) is a canonical relationship for the interaction between surface normal velocity and pressure. Its validity for a slender hemicapped cylinder is examined by formulating a frequency domain version of DAA using the global basis functions employed in the wave-number-based formulation of the surface variational principle [K. Wu and J. H. Ginsberg, ASME J. Vib. Acoust. 120, 392-400 (1998)]. The wet surface impedance matrix, which relates the spectral representation of normal velocity to a corresponding representation of pressure, is obtained according to a second-order version of DAA and according to the surface variational principle. Comparison and interpretation of the results reveals that DAA fails to account for highlights associated with transition from supersonic to subsonic surface waves as the surface wavelength decreases with frequency held constant.

  7. On the use of frequency-domain reconstruction algorithms for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Rainer; Zangerl, Gerhard; Holotta, Markus; Meyer, Dirk; Handle, Florian; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther; Scherzer, Otmar

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the use of a frequency-domain reconstruction algorithm based on the nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) for photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Standard algorithms based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are computationally efficient, but compromise the image quality by artifacts. In our previous work we have developed an algorithm for PAI based on the NUFFT which is computationally efficient and can reconstruct images with the quality known from temporal backprojection algorithms. In this paper we review imaging qualities, such as resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and the effects of artifacts in real-world situations. Reconstruction examples show that artifacts are reduced significantly. In particular, image details with a larger distance from the detectors can be resolved more accurately than with standard FFT algorithms.

  8. Frequency-Domain Analysis of Diffusion-Cooled Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, A.; McGrath, W. R.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    1998-01-01

    A new theoretical model is introduced to describe heterodyne mixer conversion efficiency and noise (from thermal fluctuation effects) in diffusion-cooled superconducting hot-electron bolometers. The model takes into account the non-uniform internal electron temperature distribution generated by Wiedemann-Franz heat conduction, and accepts for input an arbitrary (analytical or experimental) superconducting resistance-versus- temperature curve. A non-linear large-signal solution is solved iteratively to calculate the temperature distribution, and a linear frequency-domain small-signal formulation is used to calculate conversion efficiency and noise. In the small-signal solution the device is discretized into segments, and matrix algebra is used to relate the heating modulation in the segments to temperature and resistance modulations. Matrix expressions are derived that allow single-sideband mixer conversion efficiency and coupled noise power to be directly calculated. The model accounts for self-heating and electrothermal feedback from the surrounding bias circuit.

  9. Single channel speech separation in modulation frequency domain based on a novel pitch range estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Azar; Abutalebi, Hamid Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Sheikhzadeh, Hamid

    2012-12-01

    Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) has been the focus in recent literature for speech separation from monaural mixtures. The performance of current CASA systems on voiced speech separation strictly depends on the robustness of the algorithm used for pitch frequency estimation. We propose a new system that estimates pitch (frequency) range of a target utterance and separates voiced portions of target speech. The algorithm, first, estimates the pitch range of target speech in each frame of data in the modulation frequency domain, and then, uses the estimated pitch range for segregating the target speech. The method of pitch range estimation is based on an onset and offset algorithm. Speech separation is performed by filtering the mixture signal with a mask extracted from the modulation spectrogram. A systematic evaluation shows that the proposed system extracts the majority of target speech signal with minimal interference and outperforms previous systems in both pitch extraction and voiced speech separation.

  10. Performance comparison of five frequency domain system identification techniques for helicopter higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a computer simulation comparing the performance of five system identification techniques currently proposed for use with helicopter, frequency domain, higher harmonic vibration control algorithms. The system identification techniques studied were: (1) the weighted least squares method in moving block format, (2) the classical Kalman filter, (3) a generalized Kalman filter, (4) the classical least mean square (LMS) filter, and (5) a generalized LMS filter. The generalized Kalman and LMS filters were derived by allowing for multistep operation, rather than the single-step update approach used by their classical versions. Both open-loop and closed-loop (vibration control mode) identification results are presented in the paper. The algorithms are evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and the relative ease with which these techniques may be directly applied to the helicopter vibration control problem.

  11. Subspace-based identification of a nonlinear spacecraft in the time and frequency domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, J. P.; Marchesiello, S.; Kerschen, G.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to address the identification of a strongly nonlinear satellite structure. To this end, two nonlinear subspace identification methods formulated in the time and frequency domains are exploited, referred to as the TNSI and FNSI methods, respectively. The modal parameters of the underlying linear structure and the coefficients of the nonlinearities will be estimated by these two approaches based on periodic random measurements. Their respective merits will also be discussed in terms of both accuracy and computational efficiency and the use of stabilisation diagrams in nonlinear system identification will be introduced. The application of interest is the SmallSat spacecraft developed by EADS-Astrium, which possesses an impact-type nonlinear device consisting of eight mechanical stops limiting the motion of an inertia wheel mounted on an elastomeric interface. This application is challenging for several reasons including the non-smooth nature of the nonlinearities, high modal density and high non-proportional damping.

  12. Frequency-domain method based on the singular value decomposition for frequency-selective NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Petre; Sandgren, Niclas; Selén, Yngve; Vanhamme, Leentje; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2003-11-01

    In several applications of NMR spectroscopy the user is interested only in the components lying in a small frequency band of the spectrum. A frequency selective analysis deals precisely with this kind of NMR spectroscopy: parameter estimation of only those spectroscopic components that lie in a preselected frequency band of the NMR data spectrum, with as little interference as possible from the out-of-band components and in a computationally efficient way. In this paper we introduce a frequency-domain singular value decomposition (SVD)-based method for frequency selective spectroscopy that is computationally simple, statistically accurate, and which has a firm theoretical basis. To illustrate the good performance of the proposed method we present a number of numerical examples for both simulated and in vitro NMR data.

  13. Time and frequency domain analysis of sampled data controllers via mixed operation equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1981-01-01

    Specification of the mathematical equations required to define the dynamic response of a linear continuous plant, subject to sampled data control, is complicated by the fact that the digital components of the control system cannot be modeled via linear ordinary differential equations. This complication can be overcome by introducing two new mathematical operations; namely, the operation of zero order hold and digial delay. It is shown that by direct utilization of these operations, a set of linear mixed operation equations can be written and used to define the dynamic response characteristics of the controlled system. It also is shown how these linear mixed operation equations lead, in an automatable manner, directly to a set of finite difference equations which are in a format compatible with follow on time and frequency domain analysis methods.

  14. Application of Frequency Domain Substructure Synthesis Technique for Plates Loaded with Complex Attachments

    SciTech Connect

    RL Campbell; SA Hambric

    2004-02-05

    Frequency domain substructure synthesis is a modeling technique that enables the prediction of a combined response of individual structures using experimentally measured or numerically predicted frequency response functions (FRFs). The traditional synthesis algorithm [1,2] operates on component impedances and thus generally requires several matrix inversions. An improved algorithm, developed by Jetmundsen et al. [3], requires a single matrix inversion with a completely arbitrary interface definition that can easily incorporate connection impedances. The main limitations of the method are the large data requirements and sensitivity to data truncation. The utility of this technique is demonstrated through a comparison of synthesized and measured admittances of an edge-stiffened plate with attached equipment. The plate mobilities are obtained from a numerical analysis because of the ability to accurately model this structure using a finite element representation. The attachments are characterized experimentally because of their complexity. The sections describe the synthesis technique and show numerical and experimental results for the plate and equipment.

  15. Determination of delayed neutrons source in the frequency domain based on in-pile oscillation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yedvab, Y.; Reiss, I.; Bettan, M.; Harari, R.; Grober, A.; Ettedgui, H.; Caspi, E. N.

    2006-07-01

    A method for determining delayed neutrons source in the frequency domain based on measuring power oscillations in a non-critical reactor is presented. This method is unique in the sense that the delayed neutrons source is derived from the dynamic behavior of the reactor, which serves as the measurement system. An algorithm for analyzing power oscillation measurements was formulated, which avoids the need for a multi-parameter non-linear fit process used by other methods. Using this algorithm results of two sets of measurements performed in IRR-I and IRR-II (Israeli Research Reactors I and II) are presented. The agreement between measured values from both reactors and calculated values based on Keepin (and JENDL-3.3) group parameters is very good. (authors)

  16. Adaptive eigenspace method for inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, Marcus J.; Kray, Marie; Nahum, Uri

    2017-02-01

    A nonlinear optimization method is proposed for the solution of inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain, when the scattered field is governed by the Helmholtz equation. The time-harmonic inverse medium problem is formulated as a PDE-constrained optimization problem and solved by an inexact truncated Newton-type iteration. Instead of a grid-based discrete representation, the unknown wave speed is projected to a particular finite-dimensional basis of eigenfunctions, which is iteratively adapted during the optimization. Truncating the adaptive eigenspace (AE) basis at a (small and slowly increasing) finite number of eigenfunctions effectively introduces regularization into the inversion and thus avoids the need for standard Tikhonov-type regularization. Both analytical and numerical evidence underpins the accuracy of the AE representation. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency and robustness to missing or noisy data of the resulting adaptive eigenspace inversion method.

  17. 2-Step Maximum Likelihood Channel Estimation for Multicode DS-CDMA with Frequency-Domain Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yohei; Takeda, Kazuaki; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    Frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion can provide better downlink bit error rate (BER) performance of direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) than the conventional rake combining in a frequency-selective fading channel. FDE requires accurate channel estimation. In this paper, we propose a new 2-step maximum likelihood channel estimation (MLCE) for DS-CDMA with FDE in a very slow frequency-selective fading environment. The 1st step uses the conventional pilot-assisted MMSE-CE and the 2nd step carries out the MLCE using decision feedback from the 1st step. The BER performance improvement achieved by 2-step MLCE over pilot assisted MMSE-CE is confirmed by computer simulation.

  18. Spectral analysis of GEOS-3 altimeter data and frequency domain collocation. [to estimate gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eren, K.

    1980-01-01

    The mathematical background in spectral analysis as applied to geodetic applications is summarized. The resolution (cut-off frequency) of the GEOS 3 altimeter data is examined by determining the shortest wavelength (corresponding to the cut-off frequency) recoverable. The data from some 18 profiles are used. The total power (variance) in the sea surface topography with respect to the reference ellipsoid as well as with respect to the GEM-9 surface is computed. A fast inversion algorithm for matrices of simple and block Toeplitz matrices and its application to least squares collocation is explained. This algorithm yields a considerable gain in computer time and storage in comparison with conventional least squares collocation. Frequency domain least squares collocation techniques are also introduced and applied to estimating gravity anomalies from GEOS 3 altimeter data. These techniques substantially reduce the computer time and requirements in storage associated with the conventional least squares collocation. Numerical examples given demonstrate the efficiency and speed of these techniques.

  19. Broadband absorption spectroscopy by combining frequency-domain and steady-state techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota B.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Butler, John A.; Hsiang, D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2001-06-01

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media is presented using a combination of frequency-domain (FD) and steady-state (SS) reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light SS measurement, while the FD data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption ((mu) a) and reduced scattering ((mu) s') derived from the FD data are used to intensity-calibrate the SS measurements and to estimate (mu) s' at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. After these steps are performed, (mu) a can be determined by comparing the SS reflectance values to the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. We present an application of this method to breast tumor characterization. A case study of a fibroadenoma is shown, where different absorption spectra were found between the normal and the tumor sides.

  20. A microcomputer based frequency-domain processor for laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Adair, Desmond

    1988-01-01

    A prototype multi-channel laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) processor was assembled using a wideband transient recorder and a microcomputer with an array processor for fast Fourier transform (FFT) computations. The prototype instrument was used to acquire, process, and record signals from a three-component wind tunnel LDA system subject to various conditions of noise and flow turbulence. The recorded data was used to evaluate the effectiveness of burst acceptance criteria, processing algorithms, and selection of processing parameters such as record length. The recorded signals were also used to obtain comparative estimates of signal-to-noise ratio between time-domain and frequency-domain signal detection schemes. These comparisons show that the FFT processing scheme allows accurate processing of signals for which the signal-to-noise ratio is 10 to 15 dB less than is practical using counter processors.

  1. Rolling element bearing faults diagnosis based on kurtogram and frequency domain correlated kurtosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaohui; Yang, Shaopu; Liu, Yongqiang; Hao, Rujiang

    2016-12-01

    Envelope analysis is one of the most useful methods in localized fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. However, there is a challenge in selecting the optimal resonance band. In this paper, a novel method based on kurtogram and frequency domain correlated kurtosis is proposed. To obtain the correct relationship between the node and frequency band in wavelet packet transform, a vital process named frequency ordering is conducted to solve the frequency folding problem due to down sampling. Correlated kurtosis of envelope spectrum instead of correlated kurtosis of envelope signal or kurtosis of envelope spectrum is utilized to generate the kurtogram, in which the maximum value can indicate the optimal band for envelope analysis. Several cases of experimental bearing fault signals are used to evaluate the immunity of the proposed method to strong noise interference. The improved performance has also been compared with two previous developed methods. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the method in fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings.

  2. Numerical methods for time-domain and frequency-domain analysis: applications in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamas, R. D.

    2015-11-01

    Numerical methods are widely used for modeling different physical phenomena in engineering, especially when an analytic approach is not possible. Time-domain or frequency- domain type variations are generally investigated, depending on the nature of the process under consideration. Some methods originate from mechanics, although most of their applications belong to other fields, such as electromagnetism. Conversely, other methods were firstly developed for electromagnetism, but their field of application was extended to other fields. This paper presents some results that we have obtained by using a general purpose method for solving linear equations, i.e., the method of moments (MoM), and a time-domain method derived for electromagnetism, i.e., the Transmission Line Matrix method (TLM).

  3. Effect of bird maneuver on frequency-domain helicopter EM response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.; Yin, C.

    2004-01-01

    Bird maneuver, the rotation of the coil-carrying instrument pod used for frequency-domain helicopter electromagnetic surveys, changes the nominal geometric relationship between the bird-coil system and the ground. These changes affect electromagnetic coupling and can introduce errors in helicopter electromagnetic, (HEM) data. We analyze these effects for a layered half-space for three coil configurations: vertical coaxial, vertical coplanar, and horizontal coplanar. Maneuver effect is shown to have two components: one that is purely geometric and another that is inductive in nature. The geometric component is significantly larger. A correction procedure is developed using an iterative approach that uses standard HEM inversion routines. The maneuver effect correction reduces inversion misfit error and produces laterally smoother cross sections than obtained from uncorrected data. ?? 2004 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  4. Iterative Receiver in Time-Frequency Domain for Shallow Water Acoustic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Ge, Jianhua

    2012-03-01

    Inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation, especially in shallow water channel, degrades the performance of underwater acoustic (UWA) communication systems. In this paper, we combine soft minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalization and the serially concatenated trellis coded modulation (SCTCM) decoding to develop an iterative receiver in time-frequency domain (TFD) for underwater acoustic point to point communications. Based on sound speed profile (SSP) measured in the lake and finite-element ray (FER) tracing method (Bellhop), the shallow water channel is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed iterative receiver. The results suggest that the proposed iterative receiver can reduce the calculation complexity of the equalizer and obtain better performance using less receiving elements.

  5. 2 × 2 MIMO radio-over-fiber system at 60 GHz employing frequency domain equalization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Ng'oma, Anthony; Lee, Wei-Yuan; Wei, Chia-Chien; Wang, Chih-Yun; Lu, Tsung-Hung; Chen, Jyehong; Jiang, Wen-Jr; Ho, Chun-Hung

    2012-01-02

    This work experimentally demonstrates the efficacy of the 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique for capacity improvement of a 60-GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) system employing single-carrier modulation format. We employ frequency domain equalization (FDE) to estimate the channel response, including frequency response of the 60 GHz RoF system and the MIMO wireless channel. Using FDE and MIMO techniques, we experimentally demonstrate the doubling the of wireless data capacity of a 60 GHz RoF system to 27.15 Gb/s using 16-QAM modulation format, with transmission over 25 km of standard single-mode fiber and 3 m wireless distance.

  6. EMGAN: A computer program for time and frequency domain reduction of electromyographic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hursta, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment in electromyography utilizing surface electrode techniques was developed for the Apollo-Soyuz test project. This report describes the computer program, EMGAN, which was written to provide first order data reduction for the experiment. EMG signals are produced by the membrane depolarization of muscle fibers during a muscle contraction. Surface electrodes detect a spatially summated signal from a large number of muscle fibers commonly called an interference pattern. An interference pattern is usually so complex that analysis through signal morphology is extremely difficult if not impossible. It has become common to process EMG interference patterns in the frequency domain. Muscle fatigue and certain myopathic conditions are recognized through changes in muscle frequency spectra.

  7. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  8. An improved wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Cannata, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a recently developed wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling is improved and verified by numerical simulations and underwater experiments. Higher order numeric schemes are proposed that significantly increase the modeling accuracy, thereby allowing for a larger step size and shorter computation time. The improved algorithms replace the left-point Riemann sum in the original algorithm by the trapezoidal or Simpson's integration. Plane waves and a phased array were first studied to numerically validate the model. It is shown that the left-point Riemann sum, trapezoidal, and Simpson's integration have first-, second-, and third-order global accuracy, respectively. A highly focused therapeutic transducer was then used for experimental verifications. Short high-intensity pulses were generated. 2-D scans were conducted at a prefocal plane, which were later used as the input to the numerical model to predict the acoustic field at other planes. Good agreement is observed between simulations and experiments.

  9. [Modeling and experimental study on frequency-domain electricity properties of biological materials].

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Luo, Shiqiang; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Gang; Huang, Hua

    2009-12-01

    Frequency-domain electricity properties of four objects, including bullfrog skin, bullfrog muscle, triply distilled water and 0.9% NaCl, were tested in the range of 100Hz-10MHz using home-made electrode and measuring system. The experimental results showed that the resistance of 0.9% NaCl decreased dramatically, that the amplitude frequency characteristics of bullfrog's muscle and skin were similar, but that of triply distilled water did not change significantly. The frequency dependence of 0.9% NaCl showed that the electrode had great influence on the measuring system, so a new equivalent circuit model based on the electrode system was needed. These findings suggest that the new five-parameter equivalent circuit model, which embodies considerations on the interaction between electrodes and tissues, is a reasonable equivalent circuit for studying the electrical characteristics of biological materials.

  10. Frequency-Domain Equalization for Broadband Single-Carrier Multiple Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Tomeba, Hiromichi; Takeda, Kazuki

    Single-carrier (SC) multiple access is a promising uplink multiple access technique because of its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) property and high frequency diversity gain that is achievable through simple one-tap frequency-domain equalization (FDE) in a strong frequency-selective channel. The multiple access capability can be obtained by combining either frequency division multiple access (FDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA) with SC transmission. In this article, we review the recent research on the SC multiple access techniques with one-tap FDE. After introducing the principle of joint FDE/antenna diversity combining, we review various SC multiple access techniques with one-tap FDE, i.e., SC-FDMA, SC-CDMA, block spread CDMA, and delay-time/CDMA.

  11. Propagation Characteristics of Rectangular Waveguides at Terahertz Frequencies with Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Binke; Zhao, Chongfeng

    2014-01-01

    The 2-D finite-difference frequency-domain method (FDFD) combined with the surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC) was employed to analyze the propagation characteristics of hollow rectangular waveguides at Terahertz (THz) frequencies. The electromagnetic field components, in the interior of the waveguide, were discretized using central finite-difference schemes. Considering the hollow rectangular waveguide surrounded by a medium of finite conductivity, the electric and magnetic tangential field components on the metal surface were related by the SIBC. The surface impedance was calculated by the Drude dispersion model at THz frequencies, which was used to characterize the conductivity of the metal. By solving the Eigen equations, the propagation constants, including the attenuation constant and the phase constant, were obtained for a given frequency. The proposed method shows good applicability for full-wave analysis of THz waveguides with complex boundaries.

  12. Gigahertz Frequency-Domain Fluorometry: Applications To Picosecond Processes And Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Laczko, Gabor; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Cherek, Henryk; Wiczk, Wieslaw

    1988-06-01

    We describe our frequency-domain fluorometer which allows phase angle and demodulation measurements from 8 MHz to 2 GHz. This instrument using the harmonic content of a 7.59 MHz train of 5 ps pulses as the modulated excitation source. The detector is a microchannel plate PMT (R1564U), whose bandwidth extends to 2 GHz. Using this instrument we examined rapid rotational motions of indole in low viscosity solvents. To date, the shortest correlation time we have determined was 7 ps, for indole in methanol at 80°C. For indole in cyclohexane at 20°C we were able to resolve two rotational correlation times of 17 and 73 ps. It now appears that the frequency range can be extended to 8 GHz, so still faster processes should be observable.

  13. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  14. Tuning fractional PID controllers for a Steward platform based on frequency domain and artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copot, Cosmin; Zhong, Yu; Ionescu, Clara; Keyser, Robin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, two methods to tune a fractional-order PI λ D μ controller for a mechatronic system are presented. The first method is based on a genetic algorithm to obtain the parameter values for the fractionalorder PI λ D μ controller by global optimization. The second method used to design the fractional-order PI λ D μ controller relies on an auto-tuning approach by meeting some specifications in the frequency domain. The real-time experiments are conducted using a Steward platform which consists of a table tilted by six servo-motors with a ball on the top of the table. The considered system is a 6 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) motion platform. The feedback on the position of the ball is obtained from images acquired by a visual sensor mounted above the platform. The fractional-order controllers were implemented and the performances of the steward platform are analyzed.

  15. Effect of noise on modulation amplitude and phase in frequency-domain diffusive imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We theoretically investigate the effect of noise on frequency-domain heterodyne and/or homodyne measurements of intensity-modulated beams propagating through diffusive media, such as a photon density wave. We assumed that the attenuated amplitude and delayed phase are estimated by taking the Fourier transform of the noisy, modulated output data. We show that the estimated amplitude and phase are biased when the number of output photons is small. We also show that the use of image intensifiers for photon amplification in heterodyne or homodyne measurements increases the amount of biases. Especially, it turns out that the biased estimation is independent of AC-dependent noise in sinusoidal heterodyne or homodyne outputs. Finally, the developed theory indicates that the previously known variance model of modulation amplitude and phase is not valid in low light situations. Monte-Carlo simulations with varied numbers of input photons verify our theoretical trends of the bias. PMID:22352660

  16. Demonstrations of analog-to-digital conversion using a frequency domain stretched processor.

    PubMed

    Reibel, Randy Ray; Harrington, Calvin; Dahl, Jason; Ostrander, Charles; Roos, Peter Aaron; Berg, Trenton; Mohan, R Krishna; Neifeld, Mark A; Babbitt, Wm R

    2009-07-06

    The first proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a broadband photonic-assisted analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on spatial spectral holography (SSH). The SSH-ADC acts as a frequency-domain stretch processor converting high bandwidth input signals to low bandwidth output signals, allowing the system to take advantage of high performance, low bandwidth electronic ADCs. Demonstrations with 50 MHz effective bandwidth are shown to highlight basic performance with approximately 5 effective bits of vertical resolution. Signal capture with 1600 MHz effective bandwidth is also shown. Because some SSH materials span over 100 GHz and have large time apertures (approximately 10 micros), this technique holds promise as a candidate for the next generation of ADCs.

  17. A doubly logarithmic communication algorithm for the Completely Connected Optical Communication Parallel Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; Leighton, T.; Rao, S.

    1993-01-20

    In this paper we consider the problem of interprocessor communication on a Completely Connected Optical Communication Parallel Computer (OCPC). The particular problem we study is that of realizing an h-relation. In this problem, each processor has at most h messages to send and at most h messages to receive. It is clear that any 1-relation can be realized in one communication step on an OCPC. However, the best known p-processor OCPC algorithm for realizing an arbitrary h-relation for h > 1 requires {Theta}(h + log p) expected communication steps. (This algorithm is due to Valiant and is based on earlier work of Anderson and Miller.) Valiant`s algorithm is optimal only for h = {Omega}(log p) and it is an open question of Gereb-Graus and Tsantilas whether there is a faster algorithm for h = o(log p). In this paper we answer this question in the affirmative by presenting a {Theta} (h + log log p) communication step algorithm that realizes an arbitrary h-relation on a p-processor OCPC. We show that if h {le} log p then the failure probability can be made as small as p{sup -{alpha}} for any positive constant {alpha}.

  18. Imaging weak zones in the foundation using frequency domain attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, V. R.; Jha, P. C.; Chandrasekhar, E.; Babu, B. Butchi; Sivaram, Y. V.; Sandeep, N.

    2013-10-01

    Cross-hole imaging method using Time Domain (TD) and Frequency Domain (FD) parts of cross-hole radar tomography data acquired using Step Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SFGPR) was implemented. This method was adopted for imaging foundation of a dam to check if the foundation was free of geological weak zones. The dam site is characterised by massive and jointed-phyllites associated with major and minor shears. The cross-hole radar tomography data was acquired in the frequency bandwidth of 250 MHz, from the deepest level gallery up to a depth of 40 m in the foundation. In TD, first arrival time and amplitudes of radio waves were inverted using Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) resulting in velocity and attenuation tomograms. The tomograms showed nearly uniform velocity or attenuation structure in the respective tomographic plane. Subsequently, cross-hole radar tomography data was analysed in FD for a variation of spectrum-amplitude at different frequencies. Amplitudes picked at each single frequency were then inverted using SIRT for obtaining frequency domain attenuation tomogram (FDAT). The FDAT clearly showed presence of anomalous high attenuation zones in the depth range of 23-33 m of the tomographic plane. The anomalous zones in the attenuation tomogram are weak zones in the foundation. To validate the above observations, cross-hole seismic tomography was also done in the same boreholes. Cross-hole seismic tomography results showed low velocity (p-wave) zones around the same location corresponding to the high attenuation zone in FDAT, bringing the dormant weak zone to light. This enabled fine-tuning of the reinforcement design and strengthening the weak zone. This paper discusses the cross-hole radar tomography imaging method, the results of its application in imaging weak zones in the foundation and the comparison of cross-hole radar tomography results (in TD and FD) with the cross-hole seismic tomography results.

  19. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate. PMID:23585669

  20. Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of 'vulnerability segmentation' between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection, together with evidence from air injection and xylem dye perfusion, indicate that embolized vessels can be refilled by active root pressure but not in the absence of root pressure. The precise, continuous, and non-destructive measurement of wood water content using frequency domain sensors provides an ideal way to probe many hydraulic processes in large tree trunks that are otherwise difficult to investigate.