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Sample records for parallel-group double-blind double-dummy

  1. The efficacy and safety of pramipexole ER versus IR in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Sun, Shenggang; Zhu, Suiqiang; Liu, Chunfeng; Liu, Yiming; Di, Qing; Shang, Huifang; Ren, Yan; Lu, Changhong; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Juhel, Nolwenn; Chen, Shengdi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the non-inferiority of pramipexole extended-release (ER) versus immediate-release (IR) in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. Subjects were Chinese patients with idiopathic PD with diagnosis ≥ 2 years prior to trial, age ≥ 30 years old at diagnosis, and Modified Hoehn and Yahr score 2-4 during 'on'-time. Subjects received treatment with pramipexole ER (n=234) or IR (n=239). Non-inferiority was based on the primary endpoint, the change from baseline to end of maintenance (week 18) in the UPDRS (Parts II + III) total score. For the primary endpoint, the adjusted mean changes (standard error) of UPDRS Parts II + III at week 18 were -13.81 (0.655) and -13.05 (0.643) for ER and IR formulations, respectively, using ANCOVA adjusted for treatment and centre (fixed effect) and baseline (covariate). The adjusted mean between group difference was 0.8 for the 2-sided 95% CI (-1.047, 2.566). Since the lower limit of the 2-sided 95% CI (-1.047) for treatment difference was higher than the non-inferiority margin of -4, non-inferiority between pramipexole ER and IR was demonstrated. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was 68.8% in the ER arm and 73.6% in the IR arm with few severe AEs (ER: 2.1%; IR: 3.8%). Based on the UPDRS II + III score, pramipexole ER was non-inferior to pramipexole IR. The safety profiles of pramipexole ER and IR were similar. These results were based on comparable mean daily doses and durations of treatment for both formulations.

  2. A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, double-dummy, parallel-group study to determine the safety and efficacy of oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets in patients with moderate/severe, chronic cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedzai, Sam H; Nauck, Friedemann; Bar-Sela, Gil; Bosse, Björn; Leyendecker, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An examination of whether oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets (OXN PR) can improve constipation and maintain analgesia, compared with oxycodone prolonged-release tablets (OxyPR) in patients with moderate/severe cancer pain. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, double-dummy, parallel-group study in which 185 patients were randomized to receive up to 120 mg/day of OXN PR or OxyPR over 4 weeks. Efficacy assessments included Bowel Function Index (BFI), Brief Pain Inventory Short-Form (BPI-SF), laxative and rescue medication use. Quality of life (QoL) and safety assessments were conducted. Results: After 4 weeks, mean BFI score was significantly lower with OXN PR; mean total laxative intake was 20% lower with OXN PR. Mean BPI-SF scores were similar for both treatments and the average rate of analgesic rescue medication use was low and comparable. QoL assessments were stable and comparable with greater improvements in constipation-specific QoL assessments with OXN PR. Overall, rates of adverse drug reactions were similar. Conclusions: OXN PR provides superior bowel function in cancer pain patients, compared with OxyPR, without compromising analgesic efficacy or safety. This study confirms that OXN PR is well tolerated and efficacious in cancer pain patients and results are in line with those seen in non-malignant pain patients. PMID:21937568

  3. Famciclovir suppression of asymptomatic and symptomatic recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus shedding in women: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Stephen L

    2004-04-15

    Genital herpes is most often transmitted while the patient is asymptomatic, presumably during episodes of viral shedding. To determine whether famciclovir is effective in reducing asymptomatic shedding, women with frequent, recurrent genital outbreaks were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 112-day trial of suppressive treatment with famciclovir for anogenital viral shedding. Sixty women received 125 mg of famciclovir 3 times daily, 59 received 250 mg of famciclovir 3 times daily, and 58 received placebo. Patients recorded symptoms and self-obtained cultures daily. Famciclovir reduced asymptomatic shedding, compared with placebo (P < .0001). The onset of asymptomatic shedding was also delayed (P < .0001). Famciclovir reduced symptomatic shedding in a dose-dependent manner (0.72% for 125 mg 3 times daily vs. 0.19% for 250 mg 3 times daily [P < .0001] vs. 5.53% for placebo [P < .0001]). In conclusion, suppressive treatment with famciclovir reduced both asymptomatic and symptomatic viral shedding and delayed the onset of asymptomatic shedding in women with frequently recurring genital herpes. Studies to examine the effects of suppression by famciclovir on the transmission of genital herpes are warranted.

  4. Ketoprofen versus paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen in the management of fever: results of two randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies in children.

    PubMed

    Kokki, Hannu; Kokki, Merja

    2010-01-01

    Fever is a common symptom in children and one of the major concerns of parents of younger and preschool-age children. To compare the efficacy and safety of ketoprofen with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen in the treatment of febrile conditions in children. Two prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies with two parallel groups in each study were conducted in primary-care outpatient clinics. Children aged 6 months to 6 years presenting with a febrile condition and an oral body temperature of > or =38.8 degrees C or rectal temperature of > or =39 degrees C were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized to receive either ketoprofen syrup 0.5 mg/kg, ibuprofen suspension 5 mg/kg or paracetamol suspension 15 mg/kg every 6 hours by the oral route. The primary outcome measure was the change in temperature at 3 hours (H3), compared with baseline (H0). All three treatments provided similar mean maximum decreases of 1.4-1.5 degrees C in body temperature at H3 compared with H0. Use of ketoprofen was not associated with any increased risk of adverse events compared with the two reference compounds. Ketoprofen 0.5 mg/kg appeared to be equivalent to the standard antipyretic doses of the reference products ibuprofen 5 mg/kg and paracetamol 15 mg/kg. Ketoprofen at the 0.5 mg/kg dose should be an effective and safe option for symptomatic management of fever in children.

  5. Comparison of topiroxostat and allopurinol in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout: a phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, T; Ogawa, Y; Hashimoto, H; Ohashi, T; Sakamoto, R

    2016-06-01

    There are no clinical reports that have compared topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, with allopurinol in serum urate-lowering efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of topiroxostat and allopurinol in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. A phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, parallel-group study conducted in Japan. Patients who had inadequate serum urate levels (a gout patient: serum urate level ≥416·4 μmol/L; an asymptomatic hyperuricemic patient with specific complications (urinary lithiasis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and/or diabetes): serum urate level ≥475·8 μmol/L; and an asymptomatic hyperuricemic patient with no specific complications: serum urate level ≥535·3 μmol/L) were randomized to topiroxostat 120 mg/day or allopurinol 200 mg/day, with an equal allocation ratio, for 16 weeks. To prevent the onset of gouty arthritis by rapid serum urate reduction, these doses were increased in a stepwise manner. The primary efficacy endpoint was the per cent change in serum urate level from baseline to the final visit. Overall, 206 patients were randomly assigned to topiroxostat and allopurinol. Two hundred and three patients (allopurinol: n = 105, topiroxostat: n = 98) received at least one dose of the study drug and had their serum urate level assessed at least once. The baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. The mean age of patients was 53·0 ± 11·4 years and 99% of patients were male. The primary efficacy endpoint was -34·3 ± 11·1% in the allopurinol group (n = 105) and -36·3 ± 12·7% in the topiroxostat group (n = 98). Non-inferiority of the serum urate-lowering efficacy of topiroxostat to allopurinol was proved by the predefined non-inferiority margin (95% confidence interval, -5·3 to 1·3%). The overall incidences of adverse events and adverse drug reactions were similar between both groups. Topiroxostat 120 mg

  6. Analgesic effectiveness of celecoxib and diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip requiring joint replacement surgery: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, double-dummy, noninferiority study.

    PubMed

    Emery, Paul; Koncz, Tamas; Pan, Sharon; Lowry, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The hip is the second most common large joint that is affected by osteoarthritis (OA), with prevalence ranging from 3% to 11% in patients aged > or = 35 years. OA is often associated with significant pain, disability, and impaired quality of life. Treatment should be tailored according to the level of pain, disability, and handicap. Pharmacologic treatment options for hip OA include acetaminophen (recommended by the European League Against Rheumatism as a first-line treatment), NSAIDs such as diclofenac, and cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAIDs such as celecoxib. The purpose of this study was to determine whether celecoxib 200 mg QD is noninferior to diclofenac 50 mg TID in the treatment of OA of the hip. This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, double-dummy, noninferiority study conducted at 40 centers in the United Kingdom. Patients with OA flare at baseline (determined by visual analog scale [VAS] measurement of > or = 40 to < 90 mm and patient's and physician's global assessments of arthritis ratings of "poor" or "very poor") and awaiting joint replacement surgery were randomized to receive celecoxib QD or diclofenac TID. Patients were excluded if surgery was anticipated within 8 weeks. The United Kingdom National Health Service initiatives on waiting-list times caused a reduction in the number of potential patients available for participation. Therefore, the study protocol was amended such that change from baseline to week 6 (as opposed to week 12) in the patient's assessment of arthritis pain on walking, measured by VAS (0-100 mm), was the primary outcome. Primary analysis was carried out on the evaluable population (subjects with baseline and week 6 arthritis pain on walking VAS scores and no major protocol deviations). Celecoxib was declared noninferior to diclofenac if the upper limit of the 2-sided 95% CI of the treatment difference (celecoxib vs diclofenac) in the mean change from baseline in VAS did not exceed 10 mm. Tolerability was

  7. The efficacy and safety of pramipexole ER versus IR in Chinese patients with Parkinson’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the non-inferiority of pramipexole extended-release (ER) versus immediate-release (IR) in Chinese patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. Methods Subjects were Chinese patients with idiopathic PD with diagnosis ≥ 2 years prior to trial, age ≥ 30 years old at diagnosis, and Modified Hoehn and Yahr score 2-4 during ‘on’-time. Subjects received treatment with pramipexole ER (n=234) or IR (n=239). Non-inferiority was based on the primary endpoint, the change from baseline to end of maintenance (week 18) in the UPDRS (Parts II + III) total score. Results For the primary endpoint, the adjusted mean changes (standard error) of UPDRS Parts II + III at week 18 were -13.81 (0.655) and -13.05 (0.643) for ER and IR formulations, respectively, using ANCOVA adjusted for treatment and centre (fixed effect) and baseline (covariate). The adjusted mean between group difference was 0.8 for the 2-sided 95% CI (-1.047, 2.566). Since the lower limit of the 2-sided 95% CI (-1.047) for treatment difference was higher than the non-inferiority margin of -4, non-inferiority between pramipexole ER and IR was demonstrated. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was 68.8% in the ER arm and 73.6% in the IR arm with few severe AEs (ER: 2.1%; IR: 3.8%). Conclusion Based on the UPDRS II + III score, pramipexole ER was non-inferior to pramipexole IR. The safety profiles of pramipexole ER and IR were similar. These results were based on comparable mean daily doses and durations of treatment for both formulations. PMID:25114789

  8. Efficacy of dosing and re-dosing of two oral fixed combinations of indomethacin, prochlorperazine and caffeine compared with oral sumatriptan in the acute treatment of multiple migraine attacks: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, G; Cerbo, R; Del Bene, E; Ferrari, A; Genco, S; Grazioli, I; Martelletti, P; Nappi, G; Pinessi, L; Sarchielli, P; Tamburro, P; Uslenghi, C; Zanchin, G

    2007-01-01

    Aims and methods: In this double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study, the efficacy of dosing and re-dosing of a fixed combination of indomethacin, prochlorperazine and caffeine (Indoprocaf) was compared with encapsulated sumatriptan in the acute treatment of two migraine attacks. Additionally, in the group taking Indoprocaf, two different oral formulations were tested: effervescent tablets and encapsulated coated tablets. Results: Of 297 patients randomised (150 assigned to Indoprocaf and 147 to sumatriptan), 281 were included in the intention-to-treat efficacy analysis. The initial dosing of Indoprocaf and sumatriptan was similarly effective with pain-free rates higher than 30% (95% CI of odds-ratio: 0.57–1.28) and headache relief rates of about 60% (95% CI of odds-ratio: 0.82–1.84) with both the drugs. The efficacy of re-dosing of Indoprocaf as rescue medication was more effective than that of sumatriptan with pain-free values of 47% vs. 27% in the total attacks with a statistically significant difference in the first migraine attack in favour of Indoprocaf. The efficacy of re-dosing to treat a recurrence/relapse was very high without differences between the drugs (pain-free: 60% with Indoprocaf and 50% with sumatriptan in the total attacks). Indoprocaf and sumatriptan were well-tolerated. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the efficacy of the initial dosing of Indoprocaf was not higher than that of sumatriptan, but that the strategy to use the lowest effective dose as soon as the headache occurred, followed by a second dose if the headache has not relieved or to treat a relapse, was very effective, especially with Indoprocaf. PMID:17627707

  9. Methadone versus buprenorphine in pregnant addicts: a double-blind, double-dummy comparison study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gabriele; Ortner, Romana; Rohrmeister, Klaudia; Jagsch, Reinhold; Baewert, Andjela; Langer, Martin; Aschauer, Harald

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methadone versus buprenorphine treatment in pregnant opioid-dependent women. Randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, flexible-dosing comparison study. Addiction Clinic at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Eighteen women were assigned randomly to receive either methadone (n = 9) or buprenorphine (n = 9) during weeks 24-29 of pregnancy. After dropouts, data were available from 14 cases (six in the methadone and eight in the buprenorphine group). Sublingual buprenorphine tablets (8-24 mg/day) or oral methadone solution (40-100 mg/day), with matched placebos. Mothers: retention in treatment, urine toxicology and nicotine use. Neonates: Routine birth data, neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in severity and duration. There was somewhat greater retention in the buprenorphine group but significantly lowered use of additional opioids in the methadone group (P = 0.047).Neonates: There was earlier onset of NAS in neonates born to the methadone (mean 60 hours) than to the buprenorphine groups (mean 72 hours after last medication); 43% did not require NAS-treatment with short treatment duration in both groups (mean 5 days). This preliminary study had limited power to detect differences but the trends observed suggest this kind of research is practicable and that further studies are warranted.

  10. Double-blind, double-dummy, multinational, multicenter, parallel-group design clinical trial of clinical non-inferiority of formoterol 12 microg/unit dose in a b.i.d. regimen administered via an HFA-propellant-pMDI or a dry powder inhaler in a 12-week treatment period of moderate to severe stable persistent asthma in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Dusser, D; Vicaut, E; Lefrançois, G

    2005-01-01

    Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) have traditionally used CFCs as propellants. However, the worldwide phase-out of CFCs has necessitated the development of new pMDIs that use alternative propellants. One such replacement is the hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a. This study sought to establish the clinical non-inferiority of a new HFA-134a-containing pMDI to a conventional dry powder inhaler (DPI) in the administration of formoterol to adult patients with moderate-to-severe, stable persistent asthma. The secondary aim was to collect safety data in a multiple-dose long-term study. During this multicenter, double-blind, parallel study, 500 patients were randomized to receive 12 microg of formoterol twice daily for 12 weeks via either an HFA pMDI or a DPI. If necessary, the dose could be increased to 24 microg twice daily. At baseline, all patients (aged 18-70 years) had an FEV1 40-80% of predicted and a documented positive response to the reversibility test. After 12 weeks' therapy, the adjusted mean morning PEFR was 343.69 l/min in the formoterol HFA pMDI group and 344.56 l/min in the formoterol DPI group. Because the lower limit of the 95% CI for the between-group difference (-11.64 l/min) was well within the non-inferiority margin (-20 l/min), the HFA device was deemed clinically non-inferior to the DPI device. This finding was confirmed when evening PEFR and FEV1 were assessed. Both formulations of formoterol were well tolerated during prolonged multiple dosing. This study provides evidence that the new HFA-formulated formoterol pMDI has a similar efficacy and safety profile to the conventional formoterol DPI in the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe asthma.

  11. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised phase III study comparing secnidazole and metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Bohbot, Jean-Marc; Vicaut, Eric; Fagnen, Didier; Brauman, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-dose metronidazole oral therapy is currently the reference treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV). This double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority study compared the efficacy of secnidazole, another nitroimidazole with pharmacokinetics allowing a single dose regimen, to this standard treatment. A total of 577 patients were randomized to receive metronidazole (500 mg, b.i.d for seven days) or secnidazole (2 g, once). Therapeutic cure at D28 was defined as the resolution of vaginal discharge, positive KOH whiff test, vaginal pH >4.5 and Nugent score >7 on Gram-stained vaginal fluid. According to this primary endpoint, the single-dose secnidazole regimen was shown to be at least as effective as the multiple-dose metronidazole regimen (60.1 % cured women vs 59.5% , 95% confidence interval with a noninferiority margin of 10%: [-0.082; 0.0094]). Safety profiles were comparable in both groups. The secnidazole regimen studied represents an effective, convenient therapeutic alternative that clinicians should consider in routine practice.

  12. Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Randomised Phase III Study Comparing Secnidazole and Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jean-Marc; Vicaut, Eric; Fagnen, Didier; Brauman, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Multiple-dose metronidazole oral therapy is currently the reference treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV). This double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority study compared the efficacy of secnidazole, another nitroimidazole with pharmacokinetics allowing a single dose regimen, to this standard treatment. Methods. A total of 577 patients were randomized to receive metronidazole (500 mg, b.i.d for seven days) or secnidazole (2 g, once). Therapeutic cure at D28 was defined as the resolution of vaginal discharge, positive KOH whiff test, vaginal pH >4.5 and Nugent score >7 on Gram-stained vaginal fluid. Results. According to this primary endpoint, the single-dose secnidazole regimen was shown to be at least as effective as the multiple-dose metronidazole regimen (60.1 % cured women vs 59.5% , 95% confidence interval with a noninferiority margin of 10%: [−0.082; 0.0094]). Safety profiles were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. The secnidazole regimen studied represents an effective, convenient therapeutic alternative that clinicians should consider in routine practice. PMID:20885970

  13. Once daily versus three times daily mesalazine granules in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, W; Kiudelis, G; Rácz, I; Gorelov, I A; Pokrotnieks, J; Horynski, M; Batovsky, M; Kykal, J; Boehm, S; Greinwald, R; Mueller, R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the therapeutic equivalence and safety of once daily (OD) versus three times daily (TID) dosing of a total daily dose of 3 g Salofalk (mesalazine) granules in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Design: A randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group, multicentre, international, phase III non-inferiority study. Setting: 54 centres in 13 countries. Patients: 380 patients with confirmed diagnosis of established or first attack of ulcerative colitis (clinical activity index (CAI)>4 and endoscopic index ⩾4 at baseline) were randomised and treated. Interventions: 8-week treatment with either 3 g OD or 1 g TID mesalazine granules. Main outcome measures: Clinical remission (CAI⩽4) at study end. Results: 380 patients were evaluable for efficacy and safety by intention-to-treat (ITT); 345 for per protocol (PP) analysis. In the ITT population, 79.1% in the OD group (n = 191) and 75.7% in the TID group (n = 189) achieved clinical remission (p<0.0001 for non-inferiority). Significantly more patients with proctosigmoiditis achieved clinical remission in the OD group (86%; n = 97) versus the TID group (73%; n = 100; p = 0.0298). About 70% of patients in both treatment groups achieved endoscopic remission, and 35% in the OD group and 41% in the TID group achieved histological remission. About 80% of all patients preferred OD dosing. Similar numbers of adverse events occurred in 55 patients (28.8%) in the OD group and in 61 patients (32.3%) in the TID group, indicating that the two dosing regimens were equally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions: OD 3 g mesalazine granules are as effective and safe as a TID 1 g schedule. With respect to the best possible adherence of patients to the treatment, OD dosing of mesalazine should be the preferred application mode in active ulcerative colitis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00449722 PMID:18832520

  14. Tri-potassium di citrato bismuthate chewing tablets and cimetidine tablets in the treatment of duodenal ulcers. A double-blind double-dummy comparative study.

    PubMed

    Moshal, M G; Spitaels, J M; Khan, F

    1981-09-12

    A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy comparative 6-week study of tri-potassium di-citrato bismuthate (TDB) (Ulcerone; De-Nol) chewing tables and cimetidine was carried out in 60 patients suffering from duodenal ulceration. The data on 51 patients (27 on TDB and 24 on cimetidine) were analysed (9 patients absconded). Both treatments appeared to be highly effective in ulcer healing at the 6-week endoscopic assessment. The healing rate for TDB chewing tablets was 89% and that for cimetidine tablets 92%. Both forms of therapy were comparable in respect of improvement of pain and effect on all other observed symptoms. Neither drug had a statistically significant effect on any of the haematological or clinical chemical parameters tested during the trial, except that the cimetidine-treated group showed a significant linear reduction in white blood cell count. No side-effects were reported. It is suggested that TDB chewing tablets are a safe, effective and cheaper alternative to cimetidine in the treatment of patients with duodenal ulceration.

  15. Efficacy and safety of suanzaoren decoction for chronic insomnia disorder in adults: study protocol for randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qi-Hui; Wang, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Li; Xu, Meng-Bei; Zhang, Hong-feng; Huang, Li-bo; Lin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Insomnia disorder is defined as a combination of dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality and a significant negative impact on daytime functioning. Chronic insomnia disorder refers to clinical symptoms of persistent insomnia at least three nights a week for at least 3 months. Prevalence estimates of insomnia disorder range from 12% to 20% in the adult population, with approximately 50% having a chronic course. The potential side effects of hypnotic medications hinder their clinical application. Thus, traditional Chinese medicine is considered as an alternative option for treating insomnia. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of suanzaoren decoction (SZRD), a classic Chinese herbal prescription, for adult chronic insomnia disorder. Methods/analysis This is a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 150 patients with chronic insomnia disorder are randomised, allocated in a ratio of 1:1:1 to three groups: intervention group, control group and placebo group. The intervention group receives SZRD granule plus zolpidem tartrate (ZT) placebo; the control group receives ZT tablet plus SZRD granule placebo; and the placebo group receives ZT placebo and SZRD granule placebo. The patients receive medicine or placebo for 5 weeks and are followed up at 20 weeks. The primary outcome measures are polysomnography and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Secondary outcome measures are the Insomnia Severity Index, sleep diary and safety assessment. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and after treatment. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-16009198. pre-results. PMID:28377394

  16. The efficacy and safety of continued hydroxycarbamide therapy versus switching to ruxolitinib in patients with polycythaemia vera: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, symptom study (RELIEF).

    PubMed

    Mesa, Ruben; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Yacoub, Abdulraheem; Zachee, Pierre; Garg, Mamta; Lyons, Roger; Koschmieder, Steffen; Rinaldi, Ciro; Byrne, Jennifer; Hasan, Yasmin; Passamonti, Francesco; Verstovsek, Srdan; Hunter, Deborah; Jones, Mark M; Zhen, Huiling; Habr, Dany; Martino, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3b RELIEF trial evaluated polycythaemia vera (PV)-related symptoms in patients who were well controlled with a stable dose of hydroxycarbamide (also termed hydroxyurea) but reported PV-related symptoms. Patients were randomized 1:1 to ruxolitinib 10 mg BID (n = 54) or hydroxycarbamide (prerandomization dose/schedule; n = 56); crossover to ruxolitinib was permitted after Week 16. The primary endpoint, ≥50% improvement from baseline in myeloproliferative neoplasm -symptom assessment form total symptom score cytokine symptom cluster (TSS-C; sum of tiredness, itching, muscle aches, night sweats, and sweats while awake) at Week 16, was achieved by 43·4% vs. 29·6% of ruxolitinib- and hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, respectively (odds ratio, 1·82; 95% confidence interval, 0·82-4·04; P = 0·139). The primary endpoint was achieved by 34% of a subgroup who maintained their hydroxycarbamide dose from baseline to Weeks 13-16. In a post hoc analysis, the primary endpoint was achieved by more patients with stable screening-to-baseline TSS-C scores (ratio ≤ 2) receiving ruxolitinib than hydroxycarbamide (47·4% vs. 25·0%; P = 0·0346). Ruxolitinib treatment after unblinding was associated with continued symptom score improvements. Adverse events were primarily grades 1/2 with no unexpected safety signals. Ruxolitinib was associated with a nonsignificant trend towards improved PV-related symptoms versus hydroxycarbamide, although an unexpectedly large proportion of patients who maintained their hydroxycarbamide dose reported symptom improvement. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Zhu, Han-Min; Wu, Yi-Yong; Cheng, Qun; Wu, Feng-Li; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Li; Yu, Wei; Meng, Xun-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women. Method This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236) were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 μg/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD), new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups. Results A total of 213 patients (90.3%) completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001); and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2.2% and 1.8%, respectively (P<0.001). No difference was observed between groups. There were no changes in femoral neck BMD in both groups. Two patients (1.9%, 2/108) in Group M and four patients (3.8%, 4/105) in Group A had new fracture onsets (P>0.05). In Group M, OC and ucOC decreased from baseline by 38.7% and 82.3%, respectively (P<0.001). In Group A, OC and ucOC decreased by 25.8% and 34.8%, respectively (P<0.001). Decreases in serum OC and ucOC were more obvious in Group M than in Group A (P<0.001). The safety profile of menatetrenone was similar to alfacalcidol. Conclusion Menatetrenone is an effective and safe choice in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women. PMID:24426779

  18. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy comparison of short- and long-acting dihydrocodeine in chronic non-malignant pain.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Line; Borchgrevink, Petter Christian; Breivik, Harald Petter; Fredheim, Olav Magnus Søndenå

    2014-05-01

    Guidelines for opioid treatment of chronic non-malignant pain recommend long-acting over short-acting opioid formulations. The evidence for this recommendation is weak. This study is a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 8-week comparison of long-acting dihydrocodeine tablets (DHC-Continus) with short-acting dihydrocodeine tablets in 60 patients with chronic non-malignant pain who were referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic. All patients used codeine-paracetamol tablets before the trial, and paracetamol was added in both groups during the trial. The primary outcome was stability in pain intensity, measured as the difference between the highest and least pain intensity reported on an 11-point numerical rating scale in a 7-day diary. The secondary outcomes were differences in quality of life, quality of sleep, depression, and episodes of breakthrough pain between the 2 formulations. Spontaneously reported adverse events were recorded. In all, 38 patients completed the trial, and 22 withdrew before the end. The reasons for withdrawal were adverse events, lack of efficacy, or both, and were similar between the groups. There were no significant differences in stability of pain intensity between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in quality of sleep, depression, health-related quality of life, or adverse events. Breakthrough pain was experienced in both groups during the trial. Long-acting dihydrocodeine was not observed to be superior for any of the outcomes in this trial. The results of this study do not support current guidelines recommending long-acting opioids.

  19. Double-blind, randomized, double-dummy clinical trial comparing the efficacy of ketorolac trometamol and naproxen for acute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Plapler, Pérola Grinberg; Scheinberg, Morton Aaron; Ecclissato, Christina da Cunha; Bocchi de Oliveira, Monalisa Fernanda; Amazonas, Roberto Bleuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common type of medication used in the treatment of acute pain. Ketorolac trometamol (KT) is a nonnarcotic, peripherally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic effects comparable to certain opioids. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of KT and naproxen (NA) in the treatment of acute low back pain (LBP) of moderate-to-severe intensity. Patients and methods In this 10-day, Phase III, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial, participants with acute LBP of moderate-to-severe intensity as determined through a visual analog scale (VAS) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sublingual KT 10 mg three times daily or oral NA 250 mg three times daily. From the second to the fifth day of treatment, if patient had VAS >40 mm, increased dosage to four times per day was allowed. The primary end point was the reduction in LBP as measured by VAS. We also performed a post hoc superiority analysis. Results KT was not inferior to NA for the reduction in LBP over 5 days of use as measured by VAS scores (P=0.608 for equality of variance; P=0.321 for equality of means) and by the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (P=0.180 for equality of variance test; P=0.446 for equality of means) using 95% confidence intervals. The percentage of participants with improved pain relief 60 minutes after receiving the first dose was higher in the KT group (24.2%) than in the NA group (6.5%; P=0.049). The most common adverse effects were heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. Conclusion KT is not inferior in efficacy and delivers faster pain relief than NA. PMID:27382251

  20. Double-blind, randomized, double-dummy clinical trial comparing the efficacy of ketorolac trometamol and naproxen for acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Plapler, Pérola Grinberg; Scheinberg, Morton Aaron; Ecclissato, Christina da Cunha; Bocchi de Oliveira, Monalisa Fernanda; Amazonas, Roberto Bleuel

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common type of medication used in the treatment of acute pain. Ketorolac trometamol (KT) is a nonnarcotic, peripherally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic effects comparable to certain opioids. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of KT and naproxen (NA) in the treatment of acute low back pain (LBP) of moderate-to-severe intensity. In this 10-day, Phase III, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial, participants with acute LBP of moderate-to-severe intensity as determined through a visual analog scale (VAS) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sublingual KT 10 mg three times daily or oral NA 250 mg three times daily. From the second to the fifth day of treatment, if patient had VAS >40 mm, increased dosage to four times per day was allowed. The primary end point was the reduction in LBP as measured by VAS. We also performed a post hoc superiority analysis. KT was not inferior to NA for the reduction in LBP over 5 days of use as measured by VAS scores (P=0.608 for equality of variance; P=0.321 for equality of means) and by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (P=0.180 for equality of variance test; P=0.446 for equality of means) using 95% confidence intervals. The percentage of participants with improved pain relief 60 minutes after receiving the first dose was higher in the KT group (24.2%) than in the NA group (6.5%; P=0.049). The most common adverse effects were heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. KT is not inferior in efficacy and delivers faster pain relief than NA.

  1. Chuanhu Anti-Gout Mixture versus Colchicine for Acute Gouty Arthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YanGang; Wang, Luan; Li, EnZe; Li, Yang; Wang, ZhongChao; Sun, XiaoFang; Yu, XiaoLong; Ma, Lin; Wang, YunLong; Wang, YouXin

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chuanhu anti-gout mixture has been used for many years in the treatment of gout in Chinese Traditional Medicine, and current methods for treatments for acute gouty arthritis have been either less effective or have had serious side effects. Methods In this 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority study, outpatient individuals with newly diagnosed acute gouty arthritis were randomly assigned to receive Chuanhu anti-gout mixture or colchicine. Both the study investigators and the participants were masked to the treatment assignments. The primary outcome was the recurrence rate of acute gouty arthritis, and the secondary outcomes were changes in white blood cells (WHC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). This trial is registered at ISRCTN.org as trial ISRCTN65219941. Results A total of 176 patients were randomly assigned to receive either the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture or Colchicine. The overall recurrence rates in the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture group (CH group) and the Colchicine group (Col group) were 12.50% vs 14.77% (difference -2.22%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -10.78%~6.23%), meeting the predefined non-inferiority criterion of 15%, as did the data for WHC and CRP. The incidence of adverse events (mainly diarrhea) was less in the Col group than in the CH group (2.27% vs 28.41%, 95% CI 0.01~0.26). In addition, changes in blood uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine in the CH group were significantly larger compared to those in the Col group (P<0.05). Conclusions The Chuanhu anti-gout mixture was non-inferior to colchicine for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. The study suggested that the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture can be considered an alternative choice for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis because of its lower incidence of adverse events and its protection of kidney and renal function. PMID:25013367

  2. Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Randomized Study of Continuous Intrajejunal Infusion of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olanow, C. Warren; Kieburtz, Karl; Odin, Per; Espay, Alberto J.; Standaert, David G.; Fernandez, Hubert H.; Vanagunas, Arvydas; Othman, Ahmed A.; Widnell, Katherine L.; Robieson, Weining Z.; Pritchett, Yili; Chatamra, Krai; Benesh, Janet; Lenz, Robert A.; Antonini, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Levodopa is the most effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), but chronic treatment is associated with the development of potentially disabling motor complications. Experimental studies suggest that motor complications are due to non-physiologic, intermittent administration of the drug, and can be reduced with continuous delivery. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is a form of levodopa that can be delivered continuously through an intrajejunal percutaneous tube. Methods We performed a 12-week double-blind, double-dummy, double-titration, multi-center trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LCIG compared to optimized, oral, immediate-release levodopa-carbidopa (LC-IR) in advanced PD patients with motor complications. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to final visit in motor “Off” time. Motor “On” time without troublesome dyskinesia was the key secondary endpoint. Findings 71 patients with advanced PD were randomized to receive continuous LCIG infusion plus placebo LC-IR capsules (n=37) or to receive LC-IR capsules plus continuous placebo LCIG infusion (n=34). Both groups were titrated to optimal effect. 93% of subjects (n=66) completed the trial. In comparison to LC-IR, LCIG significantly reduced “Off” time by a mean (±SE) of 1·91±0·57 hours (P=0·0015) and increased “On” time without troublesome dyskinesia by a mean of 1·86±0·65 hours (P=0·006). Adverse events were primarily related to the surgical procedure and the device, and while potentially serious, were not associated with residual deficit or mortality. Interpretation In comparison to standard oral LC-IR, LCIG significantly reduced “Off” time and increased “On” time without troublesome dyskinesia in patients with advanced PD. Adverse events were largely due to the procedure and the device. Benefits are of greater magnitude than have been obtained with medical therapies to date, and represent the first demonstration of the benefit of

  3. Comparison of Murraya koenigii- and Tribulus terrestris-based oral formulation versus tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in men aged >50 years: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Gairik; Hazra, Avijit; Kundu, Anup; Ghosh, Anirban

    2011-12-01

    Drug treatment can defer surgical intervention in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common disorder in elderly men, and is widely practiced. Various herbal formulations have been used for the treatment of BPH, but few have been compared with established modern medicines in head-to-head clinical trials. We compared the effectiveness and tolerability of an oral formulation, comprising standardized extracts of Murraya koenigii and Tribulus terrestris leaves being marketed in India under Ayurvedic license, versus tamsulosin in the treatment of symptomatic BPH. A double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted with treatment-naive ambulatory patients with BPH aged >50 years. Patients received either the plant drug in a dose of 2 capsules BID or tamsulosin 400 μg once daily for 12 weeks with 2 interim follow-up visits at the end of 4 and 8 weeks. The double-dummy technique was used to ensure double-blinding. The primary effectiveness measure was reduction in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Proportion of patients becoming completely or relatively symptom free (IPSS <8), change in prostate volume (assessed by using ultrasonography conducted by a radiologist blinded to the nature or duration of treatment), and peak urinary flow rate (assessed by using uroflowmetry) were secondary measures. Treatment-emergent adverse events, changes in weight, vital signs, and routine laboratory safety parameters were recorded. Forty-six patients were randomized (23 per group); 19 completed all study visits in the plant drug group and 21 in the tamsulosin group. However, applying modified intention-to-treat criterion, 23 and 21 patients, respectively, were considered for effectiveness analysis. Mean (SD) age and baseline weight were 58.5 (14.0) years and 57.5 (10.5) kg in the plant drug arm, and 62.9 (6.3) years and 59.8 (9.9) kg in the tamsulosin arm, respectively. Median (interquartile range) symptom duration was 12.0 (12

  4. Effect of an Echinacea-Based Hot Drink Versus Oseltamivir in Influenza Treatment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Noninferiority Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rauš, Karel; Pleschka, Stephan; Klein, Peter; Schoop, Roland; Fisher, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Echinacea has antiviral activity against influenza viruses in vitro and has traditionally been used for treatment of colds and flu. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, controlled clinical trial compared a new echinacea formulation with the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the gold standard treatment for influenza. Following informed consent, 473 patients with early influenza symptoms (≤48 hours) were recruited in primary care in the Czech Republic and randomized to either 5 days of oseltamivir followed by 5 days of placebo, or 10 days of an Echinacea purpurea-based formulation called Echinaforce Hotdrink (A. Vogel Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland). The proportion of recovered patients (influenza symptoms rated as absent or mild in the evening) was analyzed for noninferiority between treatment groups using a generalized Wilcoxon test with significance level α = 0.05 (2-sided) and using a CI approach in the per-protocol sample. Recovery from illness was comparable in the 2 treatment groups at 1.5% versus 4.1% after 1 day, 50.2% versus 48.8% after 5 days, and 90.1% versus 84.8% after 10 days of treatment with Echinaforce Hotdrink and oseltamivir, respectively. Noninferiority was demonstrated for each day and overall (95% CI, 0.487-0.5265 by generalized Wilcoxon test). Very similar results were obtained in the group with virologically confirmed influenza virus infections and in a retrospective analysis during the peak influenza period. The incidence of complications was lower with Echinaforce Hotdrink than with oseltamivir (2.46% vs 6.45%; P = 0.076) and fewer adverse events (particularly nausea and vomiting) were observed with Echinaforce Hotdrink. Echinaforce Hotdrink is as effective as oseltamivir in the early treatment of clinically diagnosed and virologically confirmed influenza virus infections with a reduced risk of complications and adverse events. It appears to be an attractive treatment option, particularly suitable for self

  5. Effect of an Echinacea-Based Hot Drink Versus Oseltamivir in Influenza Treatment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Noninferiority Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rauš, Karel; Pleschka, Stephan; Klein, Peter; Schoop, Roland; Fisher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinacea has antiviral activity against influenza viruses in vitro and has traditionally been used for treatment of colds and flu. Objectives This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, controlled clinical trial compared a new echinacea formulation with the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the gold standard treatment for influenza. Methods Following informed consent, 473 patients with early influenza symptoms (≤48 hours) were recruited in primary care in the Czech Republic and randomized to either 5 days of oseltamivir followed by 5 days of placebo, or 10 days of an Echinacea purpurea-based formulation called Echinaforce Hotdrink (A. Vogel Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland). The proportion of recovered patients (influenza symptoms rated as absent or mild in the evening) was analyzed for noninferiority between treatment groups using a generalized Wilcoxon test with significance level α = 0.05 (2-sided) and using a CI approach in the per-protocol sample. Results Recovery from illness was comparable in the 2 treatment groups at 1.5% versus 4.1% after 1 day, 50.2% versus 48.8% after 5 days, and 90.1% versus 84.8% after 10 days of treatment with Echinaforce Hotdrink and oseltamivir, respectively. Noninferiority was demonstrated for each day and overall (95% CI, 0.487–0.5265 by generalized Wilcoxon test). Very similar results were obtained in the group with virologically confirmed influenza virus infections and in a retrospective analysis during the peak influenza period. The incidence of complications was lower with Echinaforce Hotdrink than with oseltamivir (2.46% vs 6.45%; P = 0.076) and fewer adverse events (particularly nausea and vomiting) were observed with Echinaforce Hotdrink. Conclusions Echinaforce Hotdrink is as effective as oseltamivir in the early treatment of clinically diagnosed and virologically confirmed influenza virus infections with a reduced risk of complications and adverse events. It appears to be an attractive

  6. Nebulized fluticasone propionate, a viable alternative to systemic route in the management of childhood moderate asthma attack: A double-blind, double-dummy study.

    PubMed

    Demirca, Beyza Poplata; Cagan, Hasret; Kiykim, Ayca; Arig, Ulku; Arpa, Medeni; Tulunay, Aysin; Ozen, Ahmet; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Baris, Safa; Barlan, I B

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we compared the clinical and immunological efficacy of nebulized corticosteroid (CS) to systemic route during treatment of moderate asthma attack in children. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, prospective study, 81 children aged 12 months to 16 years experiencing asthma attack randomized into two treatment groups to receive, either; nebulized fluticasone propionate (n = 39, 2000 mcg/day) or oral methylprednisolone (n = 41, 1 mg/kg/day). Pulmonary index scores (PIS) were assessed at admission and at 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, 48th hours, as well as, on day 7 and peak expiratory flow (PEF) at baseline and at the 7th day. Daily symptom and medication scores were recorded for all subjects. Immunological studies included phytohemagglutinin induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells culture supernatant for cytokine responses and CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T regulatory cell (T reg) percentage at baseline and day 7. The changes in PIS and PEF were similar in both treatment groups, with a significant improvement in both values at the 7th day, when compared to baseline. In both groups, significant reductions in symptom and medication scores were observed during the treatment period with no significant difference between the groups. At day 7 of intervention, phytohemagglutinin induced IL-4 level was significantly decreased only in the nebulized group compared to baseline (p = 0.01). Evaluation of cytokine responses by means of fold increase (stimulated (S)/unstimulated (US) ratio) revealed a significant reduction in IL-4, IL-5 and IL-17 only in nebulized group (p = 0.01, 0.01, 0.02; respectively). The fold increase value of IL-5 was significantly lower at 7th day in nebulized group when compared to systemic one (p = 0.02). At 7th day, although in both treatment groups the percentage of T reg cells was suppressed, it remained significantly higher in the nebule one when compared to systemic route (p = 0.04). In the management of

  7. Efficacy and safety of lornoxicam vs ibuprofen in primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind, double dummy, active-controlled, cross over study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayshree C; Patel, Parvati B; Acharya, Hemangini; Nakum, Kanaklata; Tripathi, C B

    2015-05-01

    Study was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lornoxicam in moderate to severe menstrual pain due to primary dysmenorrhea. This doubled blind, double dummy, randomized, comparable study of lornoxicam versus ibuprofen was conducted at Sir Takhtsinghji General Hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Total 57 primary dysmenorrhea participants having mean age±standard deviation (SD) of 19.2±2.08 were analyzed. The participants were randomly allocated to either lornoxicam 8 mg or ibuprofen 400mg two times a day for maximum of three days on two consecutive menstrual periods. The different medication was taken on each cycle. The analgesic efficacy was compared by a total area under pain relief score to 4 and 8h, pain intensity difference, sum of pain intensity difference to 4 and 8h, peak pain intensity difference to 4 and 8h, peak pain relief to 4 and 8h, total medication consumption, rescue medication and participant global evaluation. Adverse effects were recorded in both groups. In both treatments, efficacy parameters were significantly reduced at measured time points as compared to baseline. No significant difference was observed between lornoxicam and ibuprofen in terms of efficacy parameters: total area under pain relief to 4h (8.0±2.6 vs 8.3±2.7), total area under pain relief to 8h (22.4±4.6 vs 23.0±4.4), sum of pain intensity difference to 4h (-5.7±1.9 vs -6.0±2.0), sum of pain intensity difference to 8h (-17.5±3.3 vs -17.8±3.5), peak pain relief to 4h (3.4±0.8 vs 3.5±0.8), peak pain relief to 8h (3.9±0.5 vs 3.9±0.4), peak pain intensity difference to 4h (-2.6±0.7 vs -2.7±0.7), peak pain intensity difference to 8h (-3.3±0.6 vs -3.3±0.6). Total medication consumption, a requirement of rescue medication and global evaluation of efficacy were comparable in both groups. The incidence of adverse effect was also similar in both groups. Lornoxicam appears to be a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015

  8. Risperidone versus pimozide in Tourette's disorder: a comparative double-blind parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, R; van der Linden, C; Buitelaar, J K; Gericke, G S; Hawkridge, S M; Temlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of Tourette's disorder with classical neuroleptics is limited by their side effects. Risperidone is a new efficacious antipsychotic with a low propensity for extrapyramidal side effects. To establish risperidone's therapeutic potential in Tourette's disorder, we studied the safety and efficacy of risperidone in comparison with pimozide in patients with Tourette's disorder diagnosed according to DSM-III-R. In a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, 26 patients were treated with risperidone (mean daily dose = 3.8 mg), and 24 patients were treated with pimozide (mean daily dose = 2.9 mg). There was significant improvement of tics with respect to the Tourette's Symptom Severity Scale (TSSS) for both groups. Forty-one patients completed the study. At endpoint, 54% (14/26) of the risperidone patients and 38% (9/24) of the pimozide patients had only very mild or no symptoms on the global severity rating of the TSSS. Both treatment groups had improved significantly at endpoint in regard to Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions scale outcomes. Symptoms of anxiety and depressive mood improved significantly from baseline in both groups. Obsessive-compulsive behavior improvement reached significance only in the risperidone group. Although the severity of extrapyramidal side effects was low in both groups, fewer patients in the risperidone group reported extrapyramidal side effects (N = 4) compared with the pimozide group (N = 8). Depression, fatigue, and somnolence were reported as the most prominent side effects in both treatment groups. Both drugs were efficacious and well tolerated in patients with Tourette's disorder. Risperidone may become the first-line drug in the treatment of Tourette's disorder owing to a more favorable efficacy and tolerability profile.

  9. Intravenous zanamivir or oral oseltamivir for hospitalised patients with influenza: an international, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Marty, Francisco M; Vidal-Puigserver, Joan; Clark, Carol; Gupta, Sandeep K; Merino, Esperanza; Garot, Denis; Chapman, Marianne J; Jacobs, Frédérique; Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Husa, Petr; Shortino, Denise; Watson, Helen A; Yates, Phillip J; Peppercorn, Amanda F

    2017-02-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza. However, there is an unmet need for intravenous treatment for patients admitted to hospital with severe influenza. We studied whether intravenous zanamivir was a suitable treatment in this setting. In this international, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 16 years or older with severe influenza admitted to 97 hospitals from 26 countries. We randomly assigned patients (1:1:1 stratified by symptom onset ≤4 days or 5-6 days) to receive 300 mg or 600 mg intravenous zanamivir, or standard-of-care (75 mg oral oseltamivir) twice a day for 5-10 days; patients were followed up for 28 days. The randomisation schedule, including stratification, was generated using GlaxoSmithKline's RandAll software. Patients, site study staff, and sponsor were masked to study treatment. The primary endpoint was time to clinical response-a composite of vital sign stabilisation and hospital discharge-in the influenza-positive population. The trial was powered to show an improvement of 1·5 days or greater with 600 mg intravenous zanamivir. Pharmacokinetic, safety, and virology endpoints were also assessed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01231620. Between Jan 15, 2011, and Feb 12, 2015, 626 patients were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg intravenous zanamivir (n=201), 600 mg intravenous zanamivir (n=209), or 75 mg oral oseltamivir (n=205) twice a day; 11 patients discontinued the study before receiving any study treatment. 488 (78%) of 626 patients had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Compared with a median time to clinical response of 5·14 days in the 600 mg intravenous zanamivir group, the median time to clinical response was 5·87 days (difference of -0·73 days, 95% CI -1·79 to 0·75; p=0·25) in the 300 mg intravenous zanamivir group and 5·63 days (difference of -0·48 days, 95% CI -2·11 to 0·97; p=0·39) in the

  10. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase III study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Gotoh, Minoru; Asako, Mikiya; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Honda, Takayuki; Ohashi, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H1 antihistamine, has been approved in most European countries since 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the superiority of bilastine over placebo in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III study (trial registration number JapicCTI-142600) evaluated the effect of a 2-week treatment period with bilastine (20 mg once daily), fexofenadine (60 mg twice daily), or a matched placebo (double dummy) in patients with PAR. All patients were instructed to record individual nasal and ocular symptoms in diaries daily. The primary endpoint was the mean change in total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) from baseline to Week 2 (Days 10-13). A total of 765 patients were randomly allocated to receive bilastine, fexofenadine, or placebo (256, 254, and 255 patients, respectively). The mean change in TNSS from baseline at Week 2 was significantly decreased by bilastine (-0.98) compared to placebo (-0.63, P = 0.023). Bilastine and fexofenadine showed no significant difference in the primary endpoint. However, the mean change in TNSS from baseline on Day 1 was more significantly decreased by bilastine (-0.99) than by placebo (-0.28, P < 0.001) or fexofenadine (-0.62, P = 0.032). The active drugs also improved instantaneous TNSS 1 h after the first and before the second drug administration on Day 1 (P < 0.05). The study drugs were well tolerated. After 2-week treatment period, bilastine 20 mg once daily was effective and tolerable in Japanese patients with PAR, and exhibited a rapid onset of action. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of tolerability and efficacy of a combination of paracetamol + caffeine and sumatriptan in the treatment of migraine attack: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Pini, Luigi Alberto; Guerzoni, Simona; Cainazzo, Michela; Ciccarese, Michela; Prudenzano, Maria Pia; Livrea, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of paracetamol 1,000 mg + caffeine 130 mg (PCF) with sumatriptan 50 mg (SUM) in migraine attacks. This was a multi-center randomized double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over controlled trial. The efficacy was assessed by the sum of pain intensity differences, the curve of mean pain intensity, the number of pain free at 2 h, and the total pain relief. Tolerability was assessed by recording adverse events within 4 h after drug assumption and evaluating the global judgement of patients. The comparison of these parameters did not show differences between the two drugs which resulted absolutely overlapping in pain relief and patients evaluation. In conclusion, we confirm the efficacy and safety of PCF such as SUM in the treatment of migraine attacks.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, efficacy study of alpha BRAIN® administered orally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Todd M; Leech, Jarrett; deBros, Guy B; Murphy, Cynthia A; Budson, Andrew E; Vassey, Elizabeth A; Solomon, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    Alpha BRAIN® is a nootropic supplement that purports to enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this self-described cognitive enhancing nootropic on cognitive functioning in a group of healthy adults by utilizing a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled design. A total of 63-treatment naïve individuals between 18 and 35 years of age completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. All participants completed a 2-week placebo run in before receiving active product, Alpha BRAIN® or new placebo, for 6 weeks. Participants undertook a battery of neuropsychological tests at randomization and at study completion. Primary outcome measures included a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of sleep. Compared with placebo, Alpha BRAIN® significantly improved on tasks of delayed verbal recall and executive functioning. Results also indicated significant time-by-group interaction in delayed verbal recall for the Alpha BRAIN® group. The use of Alpha BRAIN® for 6 weeks significantly improved recent verbal memory when compared with controls, in a group of healthy adults. While the outcome of the study is encouraging, this is the first randomized controlled trial of Alpha BRAIN®, and the results merit further study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study to Evaluate the Intranasal Human Abuse Potential and Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Extended-Release Abuse-Deterrent Formulation of Oxycodone

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Ernest A.; Smith, Michael D.; Fleming, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the human abuse potential (HAP) of an experimental, microsphere-in-capsule formulation of extended-release oxycodone (oxycodone DETERx®) (herein “DETERx”). Design. Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, positive- and placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-phase, four-treatment, crossover study. Setting. Clinical research site. Subjects. There were 39 qualifying subjects (72% male, 85% white, mean age of 27 years) with 36 completing all four Double-blind Treatment Periods. Methods. The four phases encompassed: 1) Screening; 2) Drug Discrimination; 3) Double-blind Treatment; and 4) Follow-up. Drug Discrimination tests ensured that subjects could distinguish placebo from opioid. The four Double-blind Treatments compared DETERx—administered as either a crushed intranasal (IN) or an intact oral (PO) preparation—with immediate-release oxycodone IN (OXY-IR IN) and with an intact IN and PO placebo DETERx control. Results. For primary pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments, abuse quotient (Cmax/Tmax) was lower with DETERx IN than DETERx PO; both treatments were substantially lower than OXY-IR IN (6.24, 8.60, and 69.6 ng/mL/h, respectively). For drug liking, the primary subjective pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoint, both DETERx IN and DETERx PO produced significantly lower scores than OXY-IR IN (P ≤ 0.0001 for each); DETERx IN was less liked than DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.05), mirroring the PK relationships. Objectively assessed pupillometry corroborated the more rapid and significantly greater effect of OXY-IR IN than either DETERx IN or DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.007 for each). Overall safety profiles of DETERx and OXY-IR were comparable and both were well tolerated. Conclusions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes suggest that DETERx IN has relatively low HAP; continued research in larger populations is suggested. PMID:26814256

  14. Mycophenolate mofetil versus oral cyclophosphamide in scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease (SLS II): a randomised controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Roth, Michael D; Clements, Philip J; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Kleerup, Eric C; Goldin, Jonathan; Arriola, Edgar; Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Kafaja, Suzanne; Silver, Richard; Steen, Virginia; Strange, Charlie; Wise, Robert; Wigley, Fredrick; Mayes, Maureen; Riley, David J; Hussain, Sabiha; Assassi, Shervin; Hsu, Vivien M; Patel, Bela; Phillips, Kristine; Martinez, Fernando; Golden, Jeffrey; Connolly, M Kari; Varga, John; Dematte, Jane; Hinchcliff, Monique E; Fischer, Aryeh; Swigris, Jeffrey; Meehan, Richard; Theodore, Arthur; Simms, Robert; Volkov, Suncica; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Scholand, Mary Beth; Frech, Tracy; Molitor, Jerry A; Highland, Kristin; Read, Charles A; Fritzler, Marvin J; Kim, Grace Hyun J; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Elashoff, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    12 months of oral cyclophosphamide has been shown to alter the progression of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease when compared with placebo. However, toxicity was a concern and without continued treatment the efficacy disappeared by 24 months. We hypothesised that a 2 year course of mycophenolate mofetil would be safer, better tolerated, and produce longer lasting improvements than cyclophosphamide. This randomised, double-blind, parallel group trial enrolled patients from 14 US medical centres with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease meeting defined dyspnoea, pulmonary function, and high-resolution CT (HRCT) criteria. The data coordinating centre at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA, CA, USA), randomly assigned patients using a double-blind, double-dummy, centre-blocked design to receive either mycophenolate mofetil (target dose 1500 mg twice daily) for 24 months or oral cyclophosphamide (target dose 2·0 mg/kg per day) for 12 months followed by placebo for 12 months. Drugs were given in matching 250 mg gel capsules. The primary endpoint, change in forced vital capacity as a percentage of the predicted normal value (FVC %) over the course of 24 months, was assessed in a modified intention-to-treat analysis using an inferential joint model combining a mixed-effects model for longitudinal outcomes and a survival model to handle non-ignorable missing data. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00883129. Between Sept 28, 2009, and Jan 14, 2013, 142 patients were randomly assigned to either mycophenolate mofetil (n=69) or cyclophosphamide (n=73). 126 patients (mycophenolate mofetil [n=63] and cyclophosphamide [n=63]) with acceptable baseline HRCT studies and at least one outcome measure were included in the primary analysis. The adjusted % predicted FVC improved from baseline to 24 months by 2·19 in the mycophenolate mofetil group (95% CI 0·53-3·84) and 2·88 in the cyclophosphamide group (1·19-4·58). The

  15. Comparison of antiplatelet effect and tolerability of clopidogrel resinate with clopidogrel bisulfate in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD-equivalent risks: a phase IV, prospective, double-dummy, parallel-group, 4-week noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jung-Won; Seung, Ki-Bae; Gwak, Chung-Hwan; Kim, Kwon-Sam; Hong, Soon-Jun; Park, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Young-Jin; Joo, Seung-Jea; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2011-08-01

    Clopidogrel resinate is a resinate complex of (+)-clopidogrel optical isomer, wherein the (+)-clopidogrel isomer binds to a water-soluble cation exchange resin via sulfonic acid groups. It was approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration on the basis of a Phase I study that demonstrated the bioequivalence of clopidogrel resinate and clopidogrel bisulfate. However, there are no available data regarding efficacy and tolerability in patients with vascular disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the antiplatelet efficacy and tolerability of clopidogrel resinate in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD-equivalent risks. This study was a Phase IV, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, noninferiority trial. We prospectively recruited patients in 10 centers between March 2008 and July 2008. Patients who had documented CHD or CHD-equivalent risks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group A, aspirin (100 mg) + clopidogrel bisulfate placebo + clopidogrel resinate placebo; group B, aspirin (100 mg) + clopidogrel bisulfate placebo + clopidogrel resinate (75 mg); or group C, aspirin (100 mg) + clopidogrel bisulfate (75 mg) + clopidogrel resinate placebo. The primary outcome was the percent P2Y(12) inhibition after medication, assessed by using a point-of-care assay. If the 1-sided 90% upper confidence limit for the difference was less than the prespecified delta value (-5.7), clopidogrel resinate would be considered noninferior to clopidogrel bisulfate. The secondary outcome, the prevalence of adverse events (AEs) associated with study medications, was assessed at each visit by direct interview. A total of 314 patients (mean [SD] age, 62.2 [9.0] years; male 63.7%; weight, 67.3 [13.6] kg [range, 45-102 kg]; all Asian) were enrolled, and 287 patients finished the study (group A, n = 97; group B, n = 90; and group C, n = 100). Eight patients took no study medications and were excluded from the tolerability and efficacy analyses

  16. Risperidone versus zuclopenthixol in the treatment of acute schizophrenic episodes: a double-blind parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, M O; Piepponen, T; Rantanen, H; Larmo, I; Nyholm, R; Raitasuo, V

    1995-04-01

    A double-blind, randomized, multi-center, parallel-group study was conducted in Finland to compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone with zuclopenthixol in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Ninety-eight patients were randomly assigned to treatment with risperidone (n = 48) or zuclopenthixol (n = 50), in variable doses, for 6 weeks. The mean daily doses of risperidone and zuclopenthixol at the end of the trial were 8 mg and 38 mg respectively. Efficacy was assessed throughout by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia and Clinical Global Impression. Safety assessments included the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale, UKU Side-Effect Rating Scale, vital signs, body weight and laboratory screening. The results indicate that risperidone is at least as effective as zuclopenthixol for the treatment of acute schizophrenic episodes, with a trend towards greater improvement in the overall severity of symptoms. The onset of action was significantly shorter with risperidone than with zuclopenthixol. Although the general tolerability of the two drugs was comparable, fewer patients experienced extrapyramidal symptoms with risperidone, so that significantly fewer risperidone-treated patients required antiparkinsonian medication.

  17. Efficacy and safety of carbetocin given as an intravenous bolus compared with short infusion for Caesarean section - double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Dell-Kuster, S; Hoesli, I; Lapaire, O; Seeberger, E; Steiner, L A; Bucher, H C; Girard, T

    2017-05-01

    Carbetocin is a synthetic oxytocin-analogue, which should be administered as bolus according to manufacturer's recommendations. A higher speed of oxytocin administration leads to increased cardiovascular side-effects. It is unclear whether carbetocin administration as short infusion has the same efficacy on uterine tone compared with bolus administration and whether haemodynamic parameters differ. In this randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial, women undergoing planned or unplanned Caesarean section (CS) under regional anaesthesia received a bolus and a short infusion, only one of which contained carbetocin 100 mcg (double dummy). Obstetricians quantified uterine tone two, three, five and 10 min after cord-clamping by manual palpation using a linear analogue scale from 0 to 100. We evaluated whether the lower limit of the 95% CI of the difference in maximum uterine tone within the first five min after cord-clamping did not include the pre-specified non-inferiority limit of -10. Between December 2014 and November 2015, 69 patients were randomized to receive carbetocin as bolus and 71 to receive it as short infusion. Maximal uterine tone was 89 in the bolus and 88 in the short infusion group (mean difference -1.3, 95% CI -5.7 to 3.1). Bp, calculated blood loss, use of additional uterotonics, and side-effects were comparable. Administration of carbetocin as short infusion does not compromise uterine tone and has similar cardiovascular side-effects as a slow i.v. bolus. In accordance with current recommendations for oxytocin, carbetocin can safely be administered as short -infusion during planned or unplanned CS. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02221531 and www.kofam.ch SNCTP000001197.

  18. A Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Flexible-Design Randomized Multicenter Trial: Early Safety of Single- Versus Divided-Dose Rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Induction in Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R B; Wrenshall, L E; Miles, C D; Farney, A C; Jie, T; Sandoz, J P; Rigley, T H; Osama Gaber, A

    2016-06-01

    A previous nonblinded, randomized, single-center renal transplantation trial of single-dose rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction (SD-rATG) showed improved efficacy compared with conventional divided-dose (DD-rATG) administration. The present multicenter, double-blind/double-dummy STAT trial (Single dose vs. Traditional Administration of Thymoglobulin) evaluated SD-rATG versus DD-rATG induction for noninferiority in early (7-day) safety and tolerability. Ninety-five patients (randomized 1:1) received 6 mg/kg SD-rATG or 1.5 mg/kg/dose DD-rATG, with tacrolimus-mycophenolate maintenance immunosuppression. The primary end point was a composite of fever, hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac complications, and delayed graft function. Secondary end points included 12-month patient survival, graft survival, and rejection. Target enrollment was 165 patients with an interim analysis scheduled after 80 patients. Interim analysis showed primary end point noninferiority of SD-rATG induction (p = 0.6), and a conditional probability of <1.73% of continued enrollment producing a significant difference (futility analysis), leading to early trial termination. Final analysis (95 patients) showed no differences in occurrence of primary end point events (p = 0.58) or patients with no, one, or more than one event (p = 0.81), or rejection, graft, or patient survival (p = 0.78, 0.47, and 0.35, respectively). In this rigorously blinded trial in adult renal transplantation, we have shown SD-rATG induction to be noninferior to DD-rATG induction in early tolerability and equivalent in 12-month safety. (Clinical Trials.gov #NCT00906204.).

  19. Evaluation of Bioequivalence Between the New Procaterol Hydrochloride Hydrate Dry Powder Inhaler and the Approved Dry Powder Inhaler in Patients With Asthma in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Crossover Comparison Study: A Phase 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Ryo; Suzaki, Yuki; Sato, Kyoko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Tokimatsu, Issei; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kadota, Junichi; Ohashi, Kyoichi

    2017-09-08

    Procaterol hydrochloride hydrate (procaterol) is a β2 -adrenergic receptor agonist that induces a strong bronchodilatory effect. The procaterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) has been frequently used in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety between the new procaterol DPI (new DPI) and the approved procaterol DPI (approved DPI). This study was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover comparison to evaluate the pharmacodynamic equivalence of the new DPI and the approved DPI in patients with bronchial asthma. Primary efficacy variables were area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 during the 480-minute measurement period. Patients were divided into 2 groups, New-DPI-First (n = 8) and Approved-DPI-First (n = 8), according to the investigational medical product that was administered first. Patients inhaled 20 μg of procaterol in each period. FEV1 was measured by a spirometer at predose and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, and 480 minutes after each investigational medical product administration. Equivalence was evaluated by confirming that the 2-sided 90%CIs for the difference between the new and the approved DPI in means of AUC (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 were within the acceptance criteria of -0.15 to 0.15 L. The difference in means of AUC (FEV1 )/h and maximum FEV1 was 0.041 L and 0.033 L, respectively, and the 90%CI was 0.004 to 0.078 L and -0.008 to 0.074 L, respectively. These CIs were both within the acceptance criteria. The new DPI was assessed as being bioequivalent to the approved DPI. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Roflumilast for the treatment of COPD in an Asian population: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinping; Yang, Jinghua; Zhou, Xiangdong; Zhao, Li; Hui, Fuxin; Wang, Haoyan; Bai, Chunxue; Chen, Ping; Li, Huiping; Kang, Jian; Brose, Manja; Richard, Frank; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Zhong, Nanshan

    2014-01-01

    Roflumilast is the only oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for use in the treatment of COPD. Previous studies of roflumilast have predominantly involved European and North American populations. A large study was necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in a predominantly ethnic Chinese population. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study, patients of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity (N = 626) with severe to very severe COPD were randomized 1:1 to receive either roflumilast 500 μg once daily or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change in prebronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to study end. Three hundred thirteen patients were assigned to each treatment. Roflumilast provided a sustained increase over placebo in mean prebronchodilator FEV1 (0.071 L; 95% CI, 0.046, 0.095 L; P < .0001). Similar improvements were observed in the secondary end points of postbronchodilator FEV1 (0.068 L; 95% CI 0.044, 0.092 L; P < .0001) and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FVC (0.109 L; 95% CI, 0.061, 0.157 L; P < .0001 and 0.101 L; 95% CI, 0.055, 0.146 L; P < .0001, respectively). The adverse event profile was consistent with previous roflumilast studies. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (6.0% and 1.0% of patients in the roflumilast and placebo groups, respectively). Roflumilast plays an important role in lung function improvement and is well tolerated in an Asian population. It provides an optimal treatment choice for patients with severe to very severe COPD.

  1. Results of a randomized, prospective, double-dummy, double-blind trial to compare efficacy and safety of a herbal combination containing Tropaeoli majoris herba and Armoraciae rusticanae radix with co-trimoxazole in patients with acute and uncomplicated cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Rainer; Schneider, Berthold; Albrecht, Uwe; Mueller, Valentina; Schnitker, Joerg; Michalsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate non-inferiority of an herbal combination (horseradish root and nasturtium herb) to an antibiotic (co-trimoxazole) in acute uncomplicated cystitis. Design Randomized, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, phase III clinical study, using block randomization of 4 blocks (size 2). Setting Twenty-six centers in Germany, from May 2011 to June 2013. Participants Adult patients (median age, 38.5 years; 90% female) with acute uncomplicated cystitis confirmed via urinalysis and bacterial counts. Interventions Patients received the herbal combination (five tablets, four times per day) or the antibiotic (two tablets daily) for a period of 7 or 3 days, respectively, followed by a 21-days without drug treatment. Placebos ensured blinding. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary endpoint was the percentage of responders, expressed as reduction of germ count from >105 to <103 CFU/mL of pathogens between visit 1 (day 0) and 3 (day 15). Secondary endpoints included change of symptom scores, duration of symptoms, efficacy assessments, relapse frequency, and safety. A sample size of 178 patients per group was estimated. Results Of the 96 randomized patients (intent-to-treat; 45 in the phytotherapy group, 51 in the antibiotic group), 51 were considered per-protocol patients (22 in the phytotherapy group, 29 in the antibiotic group). Responder rates were 10/22 (45.5%) for the phytotherapy group and 15/29 (51.1%) for the antibiotic group (group difference: −6.27% [95% CI: −33.90%–21.3%]). The study was terminated prematurely due to slow recruitment rates. Non-inferiority could not be assumed by predefined criteria. During the follow-up period, one relapse occurred in each group. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion This clinical trial indicates comparable efficacy of the herbal combination and antibiotic, although non-inferiority was not proved. However, the results and lessons learned are important for the planning of

  2. Efficacy and safety of aceclofenac and drotaverine fixed-dose combination in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized comparative study with aceclofenac.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Anil; Chandurkar, Nitin B; Patil, Rajeshree T; Agrawal, Swati N; Uday, Rajini B; Tambe, Sanjaykumar G

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of aceclofenac-drotaverine combination against aceclofenac alone in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea. This double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, comparative, multicentric study enrolled 200 women (100 women in each arm) in the age range of 18-35 years with primary dysmenorrhoea at four centers. The patients were randomly allocated to either aceclofenac 100mg-drotaverine 80 mg b.i.d or aceclofenac 100mg alone b.i.d for a maximum of 3 days. Primary efficacy parameters were total area under pain relief (PR) score up to 4 and 8h (TOPAR/4 and TOPAR/8). Secondary efficacy measurements were pain-intensity difference (PID), sum of PID over 4 and 8h (SPID/4 and SPID/8), peak PID over 4 and 8h and peak PR over 4 and 8h, total study drug consumption, and patient's and investigator's global evaluation of the efficacy. Both treatments showed significant improvement in baseline values in all efficacy parameters. The combination was significantly superior to monotherapy in terms of TOPAR/4 (24.0 vs 18.54) (p=0.000) and TOPAR/8 (40.3 vs 35.2) (p=0.003), SPID/4 (-17.9 vs -13.88) (p=0.000) and SPID/8 (-31.06 vs -26.8) (p=0.001), peak PID/4 (-6.60 vs -5.75) (p=0.001) and peak PR/4 (8.26 vs 7.10) (p=0.000). At the end of 8h, both treatments were comparable with respect to peak PID/8 and peak PR/8 (p>0.05). The total number of doses consumed by patients treated with combination therapy was less than with monotherapy (150 vs 168 doses). The combination was significantly superior to monotherapy with respect to patient's and investigator's global evaluation of the efficacy (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively). Both treatments were well tolerated. This study establishes the efficacy of aceclofenac-drotaverine combination in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea. The fixed-dose combination of aceclofenac and drotaverine should therefore be considered as a suitable, effective and well tolerated treatment option for primary dysmenorrhoea. Copyright 2010

  3. Enoxaparin followed by once-weekly idrabiotaparinux versus enoxaparin plus warfarin for patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism: a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Büller, Harry R; Gallus, Alex S; Pillion, Gerard; Prins, Martin H; Raskob, Gary E

    2012-01-14

    Treatment of pulmonary embolism with low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, is not ideal. We aimed to assess non-inferiority of idrabiotaparinux, a reversible longlasting indirect inhibitor of activated factor X, to warfarin in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. In our randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority trial, we enrolled adults with objectively documented acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism attending 291 centres in 37 countries. We excluded patients who were pregnant, had active bleeding, kidney failure, or malignant hypertension, or were at high risk of death, bleeding, or adverse reactions to study drugs. We randomly allocated patients to receive 5-10 days' enoxaparin 1·0 mg/kg twice daily followed by subcutaneous idrabiotaparinux (starting dose 3·0 mg) or adjusted-dose warfarin (target international normalised ratio 2·0-3·0); regimens lasted 3 months or 6 months dependent on clinical presentation. Block randomisation was done with a central interactive computerised system, stratified by study centre and intended treatment duration. The primary efficacy outcome was recurrent venous thromboembolism at 99 days after randomisation. We estimated the odds ratio and 95% CI with a Mantel-Haenzsel χ(2) analysis (non-inferiority margin 2·0) in the intention-to-treat population. The main safety outcome was clinically relevant bleeding (major or non-major) in all patients at day 99. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00345618. Between Aug 1, 2006, and Jan 31, 2010, we enrolled 3202 patients aged 18-96 years. 34 (2%) of 1599 patients randomly allocated to receive enoxaparin-idrabiotaparinux and 43 (3%) of 1603 patients randomly allocated to receive enoxaparin-warfarin had recurrent venous thromboembolism (odds ratio 0·79, 95% CI 0·50-1·25; p(non-inferiority)=0·0001). 72 (5%) of 1599 patients in the enoxaparin-idrabiotaparinux group and 106 (7%) of 1603 patients in

  4. Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment

  5. Individualized Homeopathic Treatment and Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women (HOMDEP-MENOP Study): A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Cortés, Emma del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority, three-arm trial with a 6 week follow-up study was conducted. The study was performed in a public research hospital in Mexico City in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred thirty-three peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to DSM-IV (moderate to severe intensity) were included. The outcomes were: change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Depression Inventory and Greene Scale, after 6 weeks of treatment, response and remission rates, and safety. Efficacy data were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test). Results After a 6-week treatment, homeopathic group was more effective than placebo by 5 points in Hamilton Scale. Response rate was 54.5% and remission rate, 15.9%. There was a significant difference among groups in response rate definition only, but not in remission rate. Fluoxetine-placebo difference was 3.2 points. No differences were observed among groups in the Beck Depression Inventory. Homeopathic group was superior to placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale (8.6 points). Fluoxetine was not different from placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale. Conclusion Homeopathy and fluoxetine are effective and safe antidepressants for climacteric women. Homeopathy and fluoxetine were significantly different from placebo

  6. A double-blind, randomized, parallel group study to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of slow-release oral morphine versus methadone in opioid-dependent in-patients willing to undergo detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Madlung-Kratzer, Ekkehard; Spitzer, Berhard; Brosch, Renate; Dunkel, Dirk; Haring, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Aims Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) compared with methadone for detoxification from methadone and SROM maintenance treatment. Design Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, comparative multi-centre study with parallel groups. Setting Three psychiatric hospitals in Austria specializing in in-patient detoxification. Participants Male and female opioid dependents (age > 18 years) willing to undergo detoxification from maintenance therapy in order to reach abstinence. Interventions Abstinence was reached from maintenance treatment by tapered dose reduction of either SROM or methadone over a period of 16 days. Measurements Efficacy analyses were based on the number of patients per treatment group completing the study, as well as on the control of signs and symptoms of withdrawal [measured using Short Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)] and suppression of opiate craving. In addition, self-reported somatic and psychic symptoms (measured using Symptom Checklist SCL-90-R) were monitored. Findings Of the 208 patients enrolled into the study, 202 were eligible for analysis (SROM: n = 102, methadone: n = 100). Completion rates were 51% in the SROM group and 49% in the methadone group [difference between groups: 2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −12% to 16%]. The rate of discontinuation in the study was high mainly because of patients voluntarily withdrawing from treatment. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were found in terms of signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal, craving for opiates or self-reported symptoms. SROM and methadone were both well tolerated. Conclusions Detoxification from maintenance treatment with tapered dose reduction of SROM is non-inferior to methadone. PMID:19686525

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Zhuanggu Joint Capsules in Combination with Celecoxib in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Double-dummy, and Parallel Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian-Long; Yang, Jing; Yang, Liu; Liu, Jian-Guo; Cai, Xin-Yu; Fan, Wei-Ming; Yun, Xue-Qing; Ma, Jin-Zhong; Weng, Xi-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic joint disease that manifests as knee pain as well as different degrees of lower limb swelling, stiffness, and movement disorders. The therapeutic goal is to alleviate or eliminate pain, correct deformities, improve or restore joint functions, and improve the quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Zhuanggu joint capsules combined with celecoxib and the benefit of treatment with Zhuanggu alone for KOA. Methods: This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel controlled trial, started from December 2011 to May 2014, was carried out in 6 cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Changchun, Chengdu, and Nanjing. A total of 432 patients with KOA were divided into three groups (144 cases in each group). The groups were treated, respectively, with Zhuanggu joint capsules combined with celecoxib capsule simulants, Zhuanggu joint capsules combined with celecoxib capsules, and celecoxib capsules combined with Zhuanggu joint capsule simulants for 4 weeks consecutively. The improvement of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index and the decreased rates in each dimension of WOMAC were evaluated before and after the treatment. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons of quantitative indices were performed. Statistically significant differences were evaluated with pairwise comparisons using Chi-square test (or Fisher's exact test) and an inspection level of α = 0.0167. Results: Four weeks after treatment, the total efficacies of Zhuanggu group, combination group, and celecoxib group were 65%, 80%, and 64%, respectively, with statistically significant differences among the three groups (P = 0.005). Intergroup pairwise comparisons showed that the total efficacy of the combination group was significantly higher than that of the Zhuanggu (P = 0.005) and celecoxib (P = 0.003) groups. The difference between the latter two groups was not statistically

  8. Efficacy and Tolerability of Conventional Nimesulide Versus Beta-Cyclodextrin Nimesulide in Patients with Pain After Surgical Dental Extraction: A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Mildred; Seijas, Alberto; Yibirín, Maria González

    2003-01-01

    Background: Pain following extraction of an impacted third molar is widely used to assess analgesic efficacy, especially that of a single dose of a drug. The analgesic activity of conventional nimesulide (CN) has been documented in a variety of types of acute and chronic pain. Beta-cyclodextrin nimesulide (BN) is a new formulation in which nimesulide is included in a cyclodextrin molecule, which increases its solubility in water and its dilution rate, allowing extended, rapid absorption of the drug. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of BN compared with CN in patients with pain following extraction of an impacted third molar. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study conducted at 3 dentistry centers in Venezuela. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. One group received a single dose of BN (400-mg tablet, equivalent to 100 mg of nimesulide); the other group received a single dose of CN (100-mg tablet). Both groups also received a placebo. The efficacy variables were (1) pain intensity (PI), assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at the following times: 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after drug administration; (2) time to first measurable difference in PI from baseline (PID) (PID ≥1 cm on the VAS; ie, the beginning of analgesic action); (3) maximum PID (max PID); (4) sum of PIDs in the 12-hour observation period; (5) pain relief (PR), as rated on a 5-point scale; (6) maximum PR; and (7) sum of the PR scores in the 12-hour observation period (ie, total PR). For the tolerability analysis, all adverse events (AEs) were to be recorded, and the investigators were to assess whether each AE was drug related. Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 62 patients (40 women, 22 men; mean [SD] age, 20.1 [5.9] years) were assessed; 35 were treated with BN and 27 with CN. PI reduction was more rapid and greater

  9. Gastrointestinal safety of celecoxib versus naproxen in patients with cardiothrombotic diseases and arthritis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (CONCERN): an industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Francis K L; Ching, Jessica Y L; Tse, Yee Kit; Lam, Kelvin; Wong, Grace L H; Ng, Siew C; Lee, Vivian; Au, Kim W L; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Suen, Bing Y; Chan, Heyson; Kee, Ka Man; Lo, Angeline; Wong, Vincent W S; Wu, Justin C Y; Kyaw, Moe H

    2017-06-17

    Present guidelines are conflicting for patients at high risk of both cardiovascular and gastrointestinal events who continue to require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesised that a cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor is superior to a non-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor for prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in concomitant users of aspirin with previous ulcer bleeding. For this industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial done in one academic hospital in Hong Kong, we screened patients with arthritis and cardiothrombotic diseases who were presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, were on NSAIDs, and require concomitant aspirin. After ulcer healing, an independent staff member randomly assigned (1:1) patients who were negative for Helicobacter pylori with a computer-generated list of random numbers to receive oral administrations of either celecoxib 100 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day or naproxen 500 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day for 18 months. All patients resumed aspirin 80 mg once per day. Both patients and investigators were masked to their treatments. The primary endpoint was recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 18 months. The primary endpoint and secondary safety endpoints were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153660. Between May 24, 2005, and Nov 28, 2012, we enrolled 514 patients, assigning 257 patients to each study group, all of whom were included in the intention-to-treat population. Recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 14 patients in the celecoxib group (nine gastric ulcers and five duodenal ulcers) and 31 patients in the naproxen group (25 gastric ulcers, three duodenal ulcers, one gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and two bleeding erosions). The cumulative incidence of recurrent bleeding in 18 months

  10. A 24-week multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-ranging study of rufinamide in adults and adolescents with inadequately controlled partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Elger, Christian E; Stefan, Hermann; Mann, Allison; Narurkar, Milind; Sun, Yijun; Perdomo, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    To assess the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of adjunctive rufinamide in adults and adolescents with inadequately controlled partial seizures receiving treatment with one to three concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A 24-week multicenter Phase II clinical study was conducted (n=647), comprising a 12-week prospective baseline phase and a 12-week randomized double-blind, parallel-group, five-arm (placebo and rufinamide 200, 400, 800, and 1600mg/day) treatment phase. The linear trend of dose response for seizure frequency per 28 days in the double-blind treatment phase - the primary efficacy outcome measure - was statistically significant in favor of rufinamide (estimated slope=-0.049, P=0.003; minimally efficacious dose, 400mg/day). Response rates, defined as a >or=50% reduction in seizure frequency per 28 days, also revealed a significant linear trend of dose response (P=0.0019, logistic regression analysis). Adverse events were comparable between placebo and all rufinamide groups except the 1600mg/day group; no safety signals were observed. These results suggest that in the dose range of 400-1600mg/day, add-on rufinamide therapy may benefit patients with inadequately controlled partial seizures and is generally well tolerated. These data also suggest that higher doses may confer additional efficacy without adversely affecting safety and tolerability.

  11. Efficacy and safety of pioglitazone added to alogliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Katou, M; Igeta, M; Ohira, T; Sano, H

    2015-12-01

    A phase IV, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had inadequate glycaemic control, despite treatment with alogliptin in addition to diet and/or exercise therapy. Subjects with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations of 6.9-10.5% were randomized to receive 16 weeks' double-blind treatment with pioglitazone 15 mg, 30 mg once daily or placebo added to alogliptin 25 mg once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c from baseline at the end of treatment period (week 16). Both pioglitazone 15 and 30 mg combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than alogliptin monotherapy [-0.80 and -0.90% vs 0.00% (the least squares mean using analysis of covariance model); p < 0.0001, respectively]. The overall incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar among the treatment groups. Pioglitazone/alogliptin combination therapy was effective and generally well tolerated in Japanese subjects with T2DM and is considered to be useful in clinical settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Modified-release prednisone for polymyalgia rheumatica: a multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Hopp, Michael; Liebscher, Stefan; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of modified-release (MR) versus immediate-release (IR) prednisone in newly diagnosed glucocorticoid (GC)-naïve patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods Patients were randomised to double-blind MR prednisone (taken at approximately 22:00) or IR prednisone (taken in the morning), 15 mg/day for 4 weeks. The primary end point was complete response rate (≥70% reduction in PMR visual analogue scale, duration of morning stiffness and C reactive protein (CRP) (or CRP <2× upper limit of normal (ULN))) at week 4. Non-inferiority was decided if the lower 95% confidence limit (MR vs IR prednisone) was above −15%. 400 patients were planned but only 62 were enrolled due to difficulties in recruiting GC-naïve patients with PMR with CRP ≥2×ULN. Results The percentage of complete responders at week 4 was numerically greater for MR prednisone (53.8%) than for IR prednisone (40.9%). Non-inferiority of MR versus IR prednisone was not proven in the primary analysis on the per protocol population (N=48; treatment difference: 12.22%; 95% CI −15.82% to 40.25%). However, sensitivity analysis on the full analysis population showed an evident trend favouring MR prednisone (N=62; treatment difference: 15.56%; 95% CI −9.16% to 40.28%). Adverse events were generally mild and transient with no unexpected safety observations. Conclusions The study showed a clear trend for favourable short-term efficacy of MR prednisone versus IR prednisone in early treatment of PMR. Further studies are warranted. Trial registration number EudraCT number 2011-002353-57; Results.

  13. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Nazari, Seyed Mohammad; Shamsa, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Habibollah; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Khajavi, Abdoljavad

    2015-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a man's persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain erection for a satisfactory sexual relationship. As diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men has been reported as 35% to 90%. This randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups (with 25 patients each). The intervention group was treated with topical saffron, and the control received a similar treatment with placebo. The 2 groups were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire before the intervention and 1 month after the intervention. Compared to placebo, the prepared saffron gel could significantly improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients (P < .001). This preliminary evidence suggests that saffron can be considered as a treatment option for diabetic men with erectile dysfunction.

  14. Safety evaluation of the consumption of high dose milk fat globule membrane in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sayaka; Ochiai, Ryuji; Shioya, Yasushi; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in combination with habitual exercise suppresses age-associated muscle loss. The effects of high dose MFGM, however, are not known. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design was conducted to evaluate the safety of consuming high dose MFGM tablets. The subjects were 32 healthy adult men and women. Subjects were given 5 times the recommended daily intake of the tablets containing 6.5 g of MFGM or whole milk powder for 4 weeks. Stomach discomfort and diarrhea were observed; however, these symptoms were transitory and slight and were not related to consumption of the test tablets. In addition, there were no clinically significant changes in anthropometric measurements or blood tests. Total degree of safety assessed by the physicians of all subjects was "safe." These findings suggest that consumption of the tablets containing 6.5 g MFGM for 4 weeks is safe for healthy adults.

  15. Effects of intake of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 on skin conditions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in women

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Yuhi; MIHARA, Toshihiro; MARUYAMA, Kentaro; SAITO, Jiro; IKEDA, Masumi; TOMONAGA, Akihito; KUMAGAI, Takehisa

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are gut flora that play key roles in intestinal homeostasis, which may affect a variety of physiological functions. Our preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials have suggested that intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 (designated L. K-1) is effective for improving skin conditions. The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of L. K-1 intake in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in healthy female volunteers. Sixty-four subjects were allocated to either the placebo food group (group P, n=32) or active food group (group A, n=32), in which subjects consumed lactobacillus K-1 50 mg (approximately 1 × 1011 bacteria) daily for 8 weeks. After excluding subjects who declined to participate (n=1), violated restrictions (n=4), or were judged ineligible by the principal investigators (n=1), data obtained with 58 subjects (30 in group A and 28 in group P) were analyzed for efficacy by comparing differences from pretrial levels between the two groups. When the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured at the arm, the level of TEWL at week 4 of the intake period was significantly lower in group A than group P (p=0.021), suggesting an improvement of skin barrier function. Analysis of skin condition questionnaire data revealed a significant reduction in skin flakiness on the face (week 4). No adverse events were associated with intake of the test foods. The safety of L. K-1 was also confirmed in an independent open-label trial in 11 healthy subjects who consumed excessive amounts of L. K-1 250 mg (approximately 5 × 1011 bacteria). Intake of L. K-1 may therefore be beneficial to skin condition improvement. PMID:28748132

  16. Randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema

    PubMed Central

    Gandy, Justin J; Snyman, Jacques R; van Rensburg, Constance EJ

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydratederived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) in the treatment of eczema in patients two years and older. Methods In this single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study, 36 volunteers with predetermined eczema were randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or placebo twice daily for four weeks. Results All safety parameters remained within normal limits, with no significant differences in either group. Significant differences were observed for both severity and erythema in the placebo and CHD-FA treated groups, and a significant difference was observed for scaling in the placebo-treated group. With regard to the investigator assessment of global response to treatment, a significant improvement was observed in the CHD-FA group when compared with the placebo group. A statistically significant decrease in visual analog scale score was observed in both groups, when comparing the baseline with the final results. Conclusion CHD-FA was well tolerated, with no difference in reported side effects other than a short-lived burning sensation on application. CHD-FA significantly improved some aspects of eczema. Investigator assessment of global response to treatment with CHD-FA was significantly better than that with emollient therapy alone. The results of this small exploratory study suggest that CHD-FA warrants further investigation in the treatment of eczema. PMID:21931500

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of borage oil in adults and children with atopic eczema: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial.

    PubMed

    Takwale, A; Tan, E; Agarwal, S; Barclay, G; Ahmed, I; Hotchkiss, K; Thompson, J R; Chapman, T; Berth-Jones, J

    2003-12-13

    To study the efficacy and tolerability of borage oil, which contains a high concentration of gamma linolenic acid, in children and adults with atopic eczema. Single centre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial. Acute district general hospital in Nuneaton, England. 151 patients, of whom 11 failed to return for assessment, leaving an evaluable population of 140 (including 69 children). Adults received four capsules of borage oil twice daily (920 mg gamma linolenic acid), and children received two capsules twice daily, for 12 weeks. Change in total sign score at 12 weeks measured with the six area, six sign, atopic dermatitis (SASSAD) score (primary endpoint); symptom scores, assessed on visual analogue scales; topical corticosteroid requirement, assessed on a five point scale; global assessment of response by participants; adverse events and tolerability. The mean SASSAD score fell from 30 to 27 in the borage oil group and from 28 to 23 in the placebo group. The difference between the mean improvements in the two groups was 1.4 (95% confidence interval -2.2 to 5.0) points in favour of placebo (P = 0.45). No significant differences occurred between treatment groups in the other assessments. Subset analysis of adults and children did not indicate any difference in response. The treatments were well tolerated. Gamma linolenic acid is not beneficial in atopic dermatitis.

  18. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Dakhale, Ganesh; Tathod, Yogesh; Patel, Seema; Pimpalkhute, Sonali; Raghute, Latesh; Khamkar, Ajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis (AR). Materials and Methods: A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with AR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were total nasal symptom score (TNSS), change in total and differential count of eosinophil. Results: In olopatadine group, there was a significantly higher reduction in TNSS (P < 0.05) than that of rupatadine. Both the drugs significantly reduced the absolute eosinophil count, but olopatadine (P < 0.001) was found to be superior. The incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Conclusion: Olopatadine is a better choice in AR in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy and safety profile. PMID:28163538

  19. Comparison of Efficacy, Safety and Cost-effectiveness of Rupatadine and Olopatadine in Patients of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Randomized, Double-blind, Comparative, Parallel Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dakhale, Ganesh N; Wankhede, Sumit S; Mahatme, Mohini S; Hiware, Sachin K; Mishra, Dharmendra B; Dudhgaonkar, Sujata S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Materials and Methods: A 6-week, single-centered, randomized, double blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 patients were recruited and were randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 6 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were mean total symptom score (MTSS) calculated by adding the mean number of wheals (MNW) and the mean pruritus score (MPS), number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep (SIWS). Results: Both the drugs significantly reduced the MTSS, number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep, but olopatadine was found to be superior. In olopatadine group, there was significantly higher reduction in MTSS (p = 0.01), Number of wheals (P < 0.05), Size of wheals (p < 0.05), Scale for intensity of erythema (p < 0.05) and change in eosinopils count (p = 0.015) than that of rupatadine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Cost effectiveness ratio was less in olopatadine group as compared to rupatadine group throughout the treatment. Conclusions: Olopatadine is a better choice in chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness profile. PMID:26955097

  20. A parallel group double-blind RCT of vitamin D3 assessing physical function: is the biochemical response to treatment affected by overweight and obesity?

    PubMed

    Wood, A D; Secombes, K R; Thies, F; Aucott, L S; Black, A J; Reid, D M; Mavroeidi, A; Simpson, W G; Fraser, W D; Macdonald, H M

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D may affect skeletal muscle function. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we found that vitamin D3 supplementation (400 or 1,000 I.U. vs. placebo daily for 1 year with bimonthly study visits) does not improve grip strength or reduce falls. This study aimed to test the supplementation effects of vitamin D3 on physical function and examine associations between overweight/obesity and the biochemical response to treatment. In a parallel group double-blind RCT, healthy postmenopausal women from North East Scotland (latitude-57° N) aged 60-70 years (body mass index (BMI), 18-45 kg/m(2)) were assigned (computer randomisation) to daily vitamin D3 (400 I.U. (n = 102)/1,000 I.U. (n = 101)) or matching placebo (n = 102) (97, 96 and 100 participants analysed for outcomes, respectively) from identical coded containers for 1 year. Grip strength (primary outcome), falls, diet, physical activity and ultraviolet B radiation exposure were measured bimonthly, as were serum 25(OH)D, adjusted calcium (ACa) and phosphate. Fat/lean mass (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), anthropometry, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were measured at baseline and 12 months. Participants and researchers were blinded throughout intervention and analysis. Treatment had no effect on grip strength (mean change (SD)/year = -0.5 (2.5), -0.9 (2.7) and -0.4 (3.3) kg force for 400/1,000 I.U. vitamin D3 and placebo groups, respectively (P = .10, ANOVA)) or falls (P = .65, chi-squared test). Biochemical responses were similar across BMI categories (<25.25-29.99, ≥30 kg/m(2)) with the exception of a small change at 12-months in serum ACa in overweight compared to non-overweight participants (P = .01, ANOVA; 1,000 I.U. group). In the placebo group, 25(OH)D peak concentration change (winter to summer) was negatively associated with weight (r = -.268), BMI (r = -.198), total (r = -.278) and trunk fat mass (r = -.251), with total and trunk fat mass predictive of winter to

  1. A phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing SB4 with etanercept reference product in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Paul; Vencovský, Jiří; Sylwestrzak, Anna; Leszczyński, Piotr; Porawska, Wieslawa; Baranauskaite, Asta; Tseluyko, Vira; Zhdan, Vyacheslav M; Stasiuk, Barbara; Milasiene, Roma; Barrera Rodriguez, Aaron Alejandro; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of SB4 (an etanercept biosimilar) with reference product etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Methods This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 24-week primary endpoint. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite MTX treatment were randomised to receive weekly dose of 50 mg of subcutaneous SB4 or ETN. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 24. Other efficacy endpoints as well as safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic parameters were also measured. Results 596 patients were randomised to either SB4 (N=299) or ETN (N=297). The ACR20 response rate at week 24 in the per-protocol set was 78.1% for SB4 and 80.3% for ETN. The 95% CI of the adjusted treatment difference was −9.41% to 4.98%, which is completely contained within the predefined equivalence margin of −15% to 15%, indicating therapeutic equivalence between SB4 and ETN. Other efficacy endpoints and pharmacokinetic endpoints were comparable. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (55.2% vs 58.2%), and the incidence of antidrug antibody development up to week 24 was lower in SB4 compared with ETN (0.7% vs 13.1%). Conclusions SB4 was shown to be equivalent with ETN in terms of efficacy at week 24. SB4 was well tolerated with a lower immunogenicity profile. The safety profile of SB4 was comparable with that of ETN. Trial registration numbers NCT01895309, EudraCT 2012-005026-30. PMID:26150601

  2. A topical microemulsion for the prevention of allergic rhinitis symptoms: results of a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre, multinational clinical trial (Nares study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since barrier protection measures to avoid contact with allergens are being increasingly developed, we assessed the clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical nasal microemulsion made of glycerol esters in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods Randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre, multinational clinical trial in which adult patients with allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis due to sensitization to birch, grass or olive tree pollens received treatment with topical microemulsion or placebo during the pollen seasons. Efficacy variables included scores in the mini-RQLQ questionnaire, number and severity of nasal, ocular and lung signs and symptoms, need for symptomatic medications and patients’ satisfaction with treatment. Adverse events were also recorded. Results Demographic characteristics were homogeneous between groups and mini-RQLQ scores did not differ significantly at baseline (visit 1). From symptoms recorded in the diary cards, the ME group showed statistically significant better scores for nasal congestion (0.72 vs. 1.01; p = 0.017) and mean total nasal symptoms (0.7 vs. 0.9; p = 0.045). At visit 2 (pollen season), lower values were observed in the mini-RQLQ in the ME group, although there were no statistically significant differences between groups in both full analysis set (FAS) and patients completing treatment (PPS) populations. The results obtained in the nasal symptoms domain of the mini-RQLQ at visit 2 showed the highest difference (−0.43; 95% CI: -0.88 to 0.02) for the ME group in the FAS population. The topical microemulsion was safe and well tolerated and no major discomforts were observed. Satisfaction rating with the treatment was similar between the groups. Conclusions The topical application of the microemulsion is a feasible and safe therapy in the prevention of allergic symptoms, particularly nasal congestion. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01478425 PMID

  3. Desvenlafaxine compared with placebo for treatment of menopausal vasomotor symptoms: a 12-week, multicenter, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Constantine, Ginger; Hwang, Eunhee; Cheng, Ru-Fong J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 12-week efficacy of desvenlafaxine in treating moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and the clinical relevance of improvements in postmenopausal women experiencing 50 or more moderate to severe hot flashes per week. Participants were randomized to placebo or desvenlafaxine 100 mg/day in the 12-week efficacy substudy of a year-long, multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind study. Coprimary outcomes were changes from baseline in the daily number and severity of hot flashes on weeks 4 and 12. The percentage of women achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in the number of hot flashes on week 12 was determined. The efficacy substudy modified intent-to-treat population included 365 women (desvenlafaxine, n = 184; placebo, n = 181). Desvenlafaxine 100 mg/day significantly reduced the number and severity of hot flashes versus placebo on week 4 (P < 0.001) and week 12 (P < 0.001). On week 12, desvenlafaxine reduced the number of moderate and severe hot flashes by 7.3 (62%) per day (placebo, -4.5 [38%] per day) and the severity score by 0.59 (25%) per day (placebo, -0.28 [12%] per day). MCID-a reduction of 5.35 moderate and severe hot flashes per day-was achieved by 64% of desvenlafaxine-treated women (placebo, 41%; P < 0.001). In all, 17.2% (67/390) of participants discontinued, 10.0% (20/200) of participants taking desvenlafaxine and 3.7% (7/190) of participants taking placebo discontinued because of adverse events (P = 0.016), and 2.5% (5/200) of participants taking desvenlafaxine and 8.4% (16/190) of participants taking placebo discontinued because of lack of efficacy (P = 0.012). Postmenopausal women with moderate to severe hot flashes who are treated with desvenlafaxine achieve rapid symptom reduction that is clinically relevant based on MCID.

  4. Twice weekly fluticasone propionate added to emollient maintenance treatment to reduce risk of relapse in atopic dermatitis: randomised, double blind, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Berth-Jones, John; Damstra, Robert J; Golsch, Stefan; Livden, John K; Van Hooteghem, Oliver; Allegra, Fulvio; Parker, Christine A

    2003-06-21

    To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse of chronic recurrent atopic dermatitis. Randomised, double blind, parallel group study of 20 weeks' duration. Dermatology outpatient clinics (6 countries, 39 centres). Adult (aged 12-65) patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis who were experiencing a flare. Participants applied fluticasone propionate (0.05% cream or 0.005% ointment; once or twice daily) regularly for four weeks to stabilise their condition. The patients whose disease was brought under control then continued into a 16 week maintenance phase, applying emollient on a daily basis with a bath oil as needed and either the same formulation of fluticasone propionate or its placebo base (emollient alone) twice weekly to the areas that were usually affected. Time to relapse of atopic dermatitis during maintenance phase. 376 patients entered the stabilisation phase, and 295 continued into the maintenance phase. After 16 weeks in the maintenance phase, the disease remained under control in 133 patients (87 using fluticasone propionate twice weekly, 46 using emollient alone), 135 (40 fluticasone propionate, 95 emollient) had experienced a relapse, and 27 had discontinued. Median time to relapse was six weeks for emollient alone compared with more than 16 weeks for additional fluticasone propionate. Patients who applied fluticasone propionate cream twice weekly were 5.8 times less likely (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.8, P < 0.001) and patients using fluticasone propionate ointment 1.9 times less likely (1.2 to 3.2, P=0.010) to have a relapse than patients applying emollient alone. The groups showed no differences in adverse events. After atopic dermatitis had been stabilised the addition of fluticasone propionate twice weekly to maintenance treatment with emollients significantly reduced the risk of relapse.

  5. Twice weekly fluticasone propionate added to emollient maintenance treatment to reduce risk of relapse in atopic dermatitis: randomised, double blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Berth-Jones, John; Damstra, Robert J; Golsch, Stefan; Livden, John K; Van Hooteghem, Oliver; Allegra, Fulvio; Parker, Christine A

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse of chronic recurrent atopic dermatitis. Design Randomised, double blind, parallel group study of 20 weeks' duration. Setting Dermatology outpatient clinics (6 countries, 39 centres). Participants Adult (aged 12-65) patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis who were experiencing a flare. Methods Participants applied fluticasone propionate (0.05% cream or 0.005% ointment; once or twice daily) regularly for four weeks to stabilise their condition. The patients whose disease was brought under control then continued into a 16 week maintenance phase, applying emollient on a daily basis with a bath oil as needed and either the same formulation of fluticasone propionate or its placebo base (emollient alone) twice weekly to the areas that were usually affected. Main outcome measure Time to relapse of atopic dermatitis during maintenance phase. Results 376 patients entered the stabilisation phase, and 295 continued into the maintenance phase. After 16 weeks in the maintenance phase, the disease remained under control in 133 patients (87 using fluticasone propionate twice weekly, 46 using emollient alone), 135 (40 fluticasone propionate, 95 emollient) had experienced a relapse, and 27 had discontinued. Median time to relapse was six weeks for emollient alone compared with more than 16 weeks for additional fluticasone propionate. Patients who applied fluticasone propionate cream twice weekly were 5.8 times less likely (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.8, P < 0.001) and patients using fluticasone propionate ointment 1.9 times less likely (1.2 to 3.2, P=0.010) to have a relapse than patients applying emollient alone. The groups showed no differences in adverse events. Conclusion After atopic dermatitis had been stabilised the addition of fluticasone propionate twice weekly

  6. A phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing SB4 with etanercept reference product in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy.

    PubMed

    Emery, Paul; Vencovský, Jiří; Sylwestrzak, Anna; Leszczyński, Piotr; Porawska, Wieslawa; Baranauskaite, Asta; Tseluyko, Vira; Zhdan, Vyacheslav M; Stasiuk, Barbara; Milasiene, Roma; Barrera Rodriguez, Aaron Alejandro; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of SB4 (an etanercept biosimilar) with reference product etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 24-week primary endpoint. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite MTX treatment were randomised to receive weekly dose of 50 mg of subcutaneous SB4 or ETN. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 24. Other efficacy endpoints as well as safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic parameters were also measured. 596 patients were randomised to either SB4 (N=299) or ETN (N=297). The ACR20 response rate at week 24 in the per-protocol set was 78.1% for SB4 and 80.3% for ETN. The 95% CI of the adjusted treatment difference was -9.41% to 4.98%, which is completely contained within the predefined equivalence margin of -15% to 15%, indicating therapeutic equivalence between SB4 and ETN. Other efficacy endpoints and pharmacokinetic endpoints were comparable. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (55.2% vs 58.2%), and the incidence of antidrug antibody development up to week 24 was lower in SB4 compared with ETN (0.7% vs 13.1%). SB4 was shown to be equivalent with ETN in terms of efficacy at week 24. SB4 was well tolerated with a lower immunogenicity profile. The safety profile of SB4 was comparable with that of ETN. NCT01895309, EudraCT 2012-005026-30. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of THC/CBD spray in peripheral neuropathic pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Serpell, M; Ratcliffe, S; Hovorka, J; Schofield, M; Taylor, L; Lauder, H; Ehler, E

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) associated with allodynia poses a significant clinical challenge. The efficacy of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray, a novel cannabinoid formulation, was investigated in this 15-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. In total, 303 patients with PNP associated with allodynia were screened; 128 were randomized to THC/CBD spray and 118 to placebo, in addition to their current analgesic therapy. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the 30% responder rate in PNP 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) score and the mean change from baseline to the end of treatment in this score. Various key secondary measures of pain and functioning were also investigated. At the 30% responder level, there were statistically significant treatment differences in favour of THC/CBD spray in the full analysis (intention-to-treat) dataset [p = 0.034; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-3.70]. There was also a reduction in mean PNP 0-10 NRS scores in both treatment groups that was numerically higher in the THC/CBD spray group, but which failed to reach statistical significance. Secondary measures of sleep quality 0-10 NRS score (p = 0.0072) and Subject Global Impression of Change (SGIC) (p = 0.023) also demonstrated statistically significant treatment differences in favour of THC/CBD spray treatment. These findings demonstrate that, in a meaningful proportion of otherwise treatment-resistant patients, clinically important improvements in pain, sleep quality and SGIC of the severity of their condition are obtained with THC/CBD spray. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated and no new safety concerns were identified. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. Botulinum toxin type-A in the prophylactic treatment of medication-overuse headache: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Giorgio; Perrotta, Armando; Tassorelli, Cristina; Torelli, Paola; Brighina, Filippo; Sances, Grazia; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) represents a severely disabling condition, with a low response to prophylactic treatments. Recently, consistent evidences have emerged in favor of botulinum toxin type-A (onabotulinum toxin A) as prophylactic treatment in chronic migraine. In a 12-week double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study, we tested the efficacy and safety of onabotulinum toxin A as prophylactic treatment for MOH. A total of 68 patients were randomized (1:1) to onabotulinum toxin A (n = 33) or placebo (n = 35) treatment and received 16 intramuscular injections. The primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline in the frequency of headache days for the 28-day period ending with week 12. No significant differences between onabotulinum toxin A and placebo treatment were detected in the primary (headache days) end point (12.0 vs. 15.9; p = 0.81). A significant reduction was recorded in the secondary end point, mean acute pain drug consumption at 12 weeks in onabotulinum toxin A-treated patients when compared with those with placebo (12.1 vs. 18.0; p = 0.03). When we considered the subgroup of patients with pericranial muscle tenderness, we recorded a significant improvement in those treated with onabotulinum toxin A compared to placebo treated in both primary (headache days) and secondary end points (acute pain drug consumption, days with drug consumption), as well as in pain intensity and disability measures (HIT-6 and MIDAS) at 12 weeks. Onabotulinum toxin A was safe and well tolerated, with few treatment-related adverse events. Few subjects discontinued due to adverse events. Our data identified the presence of pericranial muscle tenderness as predictor of response to onabotulinum toxin A in patients with complicated form of migraine such as MOH, the presence of pericranial muscle tenderness and support it as prophylactic treatment in these patients.

  9. Intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic enhances salivary release of secretory IgA: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    NAKASONE, YASUSHI; SATO, NORIMASA; AZUMA, TAKAYUKI; HASUMI, KEIJI

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have provided evidence that suggests the beneficial effects of garlic and black vinegar on human health, including benefits to immune function. The preliminary study indicated that the intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food, created from aged garlic pickled in the mash of black vinegar, enhanced the release of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the saliva. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the food in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The trial was conducted in subjects aged between 30 and 60 years whose rate of salivary sIgA release was moderately low. Subjects consumed 2.49 g of placebo or black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food (active food) daily for 8 weeks. The data obtained with 54 eligible subjects (n=28 and 26 for placebo and active, respectively) were analyzed for efficacy. The rates of salivary sIgA release in the active food group (35.9±84.6 and 47.9±123.4 µg/min at weeks 4 and 8 of intake; changes from pretrial value) were higher compared to the respective rates in the placebo food group (−12.3±72.1 and −3.2±85.9 µg/min, P=0.028 and 0.082, respectively). These findings indicate that intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food enhanced the intraoral immune response. There was no adverse event associated with the intake of active food. PMID:27347407

  10. Intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic enhances salivary release of secretory IgA: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Yasushi; Sato, Norimasa; Azuma, Takayuki; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-07-01

    Several previous studies have provided evidence that suggests the beneficial effects of garlic and black vinegar on human health, including benefits to immune function. The preliminary study indicated that the intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food, created from aged garlic pickled in the mash of black vinegar, enhanced the release of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the saliva. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the food in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The trial was conducted in subjects aged between 30 and 60 years whose rate of salivary sIgA release was moderately low. Subjects consumed 2.49 g of placebo or black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food (active food) daily for 8 weeks. The data obtained with 54 eligible subjects (n=28 and 26 for placebo and active, respectively) were analyzed for efficacy. The rates of salivary sIgA release in the active food group (35.9±84.6 and 47.9±123.4 µg/min at weeks 4 and 8 of intake; changes from pretrial value) were higher compared to the respective rates in the placebo food group (-12.3±72.1 and -3.2±85.9 µg/min, P=0.028 and 0.082, respectively). These findings indicate that intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food enhanced the intraoral immune response. There was no adverse event associated with the intake of active food.

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of rufinamide as adjunctive therapy for refractory partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Biton, Victor; Krauss, Gregory; Vasquez-Santana, Blanca; Bibbiani, Francesco; Mann, Allison; Perdomo, Carlos; Narurkar, Milind

    2011-02-01

    Efficacy and safety of adjunctive rufinamide (3,200 mg/day) was assessed in adolescents and adults with inadequately controlled partial-onset seizures receiving maintenance therapy with up to three antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study comprised a 56-day baseline phase (BP), 12-day titration phase, and 84-day maintenance phase (MP). The primary efficacy variable was percentage change in total partial seizure frequency per 28 days (MP vs. BP). Secondary efficacy outcome measures included ≥50% responder rate and reduction in mean total partial seizure frequency during the MP. Safety and tolerability evaluation included adverse events (AEs), physical and neurologic examinations, and laboratory values. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments were conducted. Three hundred fifty-seven patients were randomized: 176 to rufinamide and 181 to placebo. Patients had a median of 13.3 seizures per 28 days during BP; 86% were receiving ≥2 AEDs. For the intent-to-treat population, the median percentage reduction in total partial seizure frequency per 28 days was 23.25 for rufinamide versus 9.80 for placebo (p = 0.007). Rufinamide-treated patients were more than twice as likely to have had a ≥50% reduction in partial seizure frequency (32.5% vs. 14.3%; p < 0.001) and had a greater reduction in median total partial seizure rate per 28 days during the MP (13.2 vs. 5.2; p < 0.001). Treatment-emergent AEs occurring at ≥5% higher incidence in the rufinamide group compared with placebo were dizziness, fatigue, nausea, somnolence, and diplopia. Adjunctive treatment with rufinamide reduced total partial seizures in refractory patients. AEs reported were consistent with the known tolerability profile of rufinamide. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Mechanisms Regulating Insulin Response to Intragastric Glucose in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Cajacob, Lucian; Riva, Daniele; Herzog, Raphael; Drewe, Juergen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives The changes in blood glucose concentrations that result from an oral glucose challenge are dependent on the rate of gastric emptying, the rate of glucose absorption and the rate of insulin-driven metabolism that include the incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The rate of insulin-driven metabolism is clearly altered in obese subjects, but it is controversial which of these factors is predominant. We aimed to quantify gastric emptying, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and glucose responses, as well as incretin hormone secretions in obese subjects and healthy controls during increasing glucose loads. Subjects/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial in a hospital research unit. A total of 12 normal weight (6 men and 6 women) and 12 non-diabetic obese (BMI > 30, 6 men and 6 women) participants took part in the study. Subjects received intragastric loads of 10 g, 25 g and 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml tap water. Results Main outcome measures were plasma GLP-1 and GIP, plasma glucagon, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and gastric emptying. The primary findings are: i) insulin resistance (P < 0.001) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001); ii) decreased insulin disposal (P < 0.001); iii) trend for reduced GLP-1 responses at 75 g glucose; and iv) increased fasting glucagon levels (P < 0.001) in obese subjects. Conclusions It seems that, rather than changes in incretin secretion, fasting hyperglucagonemia and consequent hyperglycemia play a role in reduced disposal of insulin, contributing to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01875575 PMID:26942445

  13. Randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of VVZ-149 injections for postoperative pain following laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Correll, Darin J; Bao, Xiaodong; Zamor, Natacha; Zeballos, Jose L; Zhang, Yi; Young, Mark J; Ledley, Johanna; Sorace, Jessica; Eng, Kristen; Hamsher, Carlyle P; Maniam, Rajivan; Chin, Jonathan W; Tsui, Becky; Cho, Sunyoung; Lee, Doo H

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods and analysis Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ-149 with intravenous (IV) hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or the control intervention (IV PCA alone) in the postoperative period. The primary outcome is the Sum of Pain Intensity Difference over 8 hours (SPID-8 postdose). Participants receive VVZ-149 for 8 hours postoperatively to the primary study end point, after which they continue to be assessed for up to 24 hours. We measure opioid consumption, record pain intensity and pain relief, and evaluate the number of rescue doses and requests for opioid. To assess safety, we record sedation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, laboratory tests and ECG readings after study drug administration. We evaluate for possible confounders of analgesic response, such as anxiety, depression and catastrophising behaviours. The study will also collect blood sample data and evaluate for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from

  14. Sulglycotide in the prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury. A controlled double-blind, double-dummy, randomized endoscopic study versus placebo in rheumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Bianchi Porro, G; Montrone, F; Petrillo, M; Caruso, I; Ardizzone, S

    1993-10-01

    The aim of this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate whether sulglycotide prevents the onset of gastroduodenal mucosal injury in patients with rheumatic disease treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). One hundred patients, free from endoscopically detectable lesions of the gastroduodenal mucosa, affected either by rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, and candidates for NSAID therapy, were randomly allocated either to 200 mg sulglycotide three times daily (n = 50) or to an indistinguishable placebo (n = 50) for 4 weeks, together with standard NSAID administration (50 mg diclofenac three times daily (n = 50); 50 mg indomethacin three times daily (n = 50)). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was repeated at the end of the study. It was possible to evaluate 86 patients after treatment (sulglycotide = 42, placebo = 44); diclofenac = 45, indomethacin = 41). Six of 42 patients (14%) in the sulglycotide group and 15 of 44 (34%) in the placebo group had developed gastric or duodenal ulcerative lesions (p = 0.02). These data suggest that sulglycotide prophylaxis may be useful for the prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcer associated with NSAID therapy in rheumatic patients.

  15. The Efficacy and Safety of Wenxin Keli in Patients with Frequent Premature Ventricular Contractions: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei; Gao, Run-Lin; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xu-Hua; Cai, Chi; Zhang, Shu

    2015-10-05

    Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are common in the general population, and frequent PVCs may result in the poor quality of life or even the damage of cardiac function. We examined the efficacy and safety of a traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli for the treatment of frequent PVCs among a relatively large Chinese cohort. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. A total of 1200 eligible participants were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive Wenxin Keli or the placebo for 4 weeks. The primary and secondary endpoint was the change of PVC numbers and PVC-related symptoms after a 4-week treatment compared with baseline, respectively. In addition, vital signs, laboratory values, and electrocardiographic parameters were assessed in a safety analysis. At the initial evaluation, no significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the Wenxin Keli group and the placebo group. A smaller number of PVCs was observed after the 4-week treatment than at baseline, in both the Wenxin Keli group (5686 ± 5940 vs. 15,138 ± 7597 beats/d, P < 0.001) and the placebo group (10,592 ± 8009 vs. 14,529 ± 5929 beats/d, P < 0.001); moreover, the Wenxin Keli group demonstrated a significantli greater reduction in the frequency of PVCs than the placebo group (P < 0.001). In a full analysis set, patients in the Wenxin Keli group exhibited significantly higher total effective responses in the reduction of PVCs compared to those in the placebo group (83.8% vs. 43.5%,P < 0.001). The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results (83.0% vs. 39.3%,P < 0.001). Treatment with Wenxin Keli also demonstrated superior performance compared to the placebo with respect to PVC-related symptoms. No severe adverse effects attributable to Wenxin Keli were reported. Wenxin Keli treatment effectively reduced the overall number of PVCs and alleviated PVC-related symptoms in patients without structural heart

  16. Randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of VVZ-149 injections for postoperative pain following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Correll, Darin J; Bao, Xiaodong; Zamor, Natacha; Zeballos, Jose L; Zhang, Yi; Young, Mark J; Ledley, Johanna; Sorace, Jessica; Eng, Kristen; Hamsher, Carlyle P; Maniam, Rajivan; Chin, Jonathan W; Tsui, Becky; Cho, Sunyoung; Lee, Doo H

    2017-02-17

    In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ-149 with intravenous (IV) hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or the control intervention (IV PCA alone) in the postoperative period. The primary outcome is the Sum of Pain Intensity Difference over 8 hours (SPID-8 postdose). Participants receive VVZ-149 for 8 hours postoperatively to the primary study end point, after which they continue to be assessed for up to 24 hours. We measure opioid consumption, record pain intensity and pain relief, and evaluate the number of rescue doses and requests for opioid. To assess safety, we record sedation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, laboratory tests and ECG readings after study drug administration. We evaluate for possible confounders of analgesic response, such as anxiety, depression and catastrophising behaviours. The study will also collect blood sample data and evaluate for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from Institutional Review Boards at the participating institutions

  17. A double blind, randomised, parallel group study on the efficacy and safety of treating acute lateral ankle sprain with oral hydrolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoffs, G; Struijs, P; de Wit, C; Rahlfs, V; Zwipp, H; van Dijk, C N

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of the triple combination Phlogenzym (rutoside, bromelain, and trypsin) with double combinations, the single substances, and placebo. Design: Multinational, multicentre, double blind, randomised, parallel group design with eight groups structured according to a factorial design. Setting: Orthopaedic surgery and emergency departments in 27 European hospitals. Participants: A total of 721 patients aged 16–53 years presenting with acute unilateral sprain of the lateral ankle joint. Primary efficacy criteria: (a) Pain on walking one or two steps, as defined by the patient on a visual analogue scale. (b) The range of motion, as measured by the investigator and expressed as a sum of flexion and extension. (c) The volume of the injured ankle measured with a volometer. Results: At the primary end point at seven days, the greatest reduction in pain was in the bromelain/trypsin group (73.7%). The Phlogenzym group showed a median reduction of 60.3%, and the placebo group showed a median reduction of 73.3%. The largest increase in range of motion (median) was in the placebo group (60% change from baseline). The Phlogenzym group showed a median increase of 42.9%. The biggest decrease in swelling was in the trypsin group (3.9% change from baseline). The Phlogenzym group showed a –2.30% change from baseline and the placebo group a –2.90% change. In the subgroup analysis of patients who did not use a Caligamed brace, Phlogenzym was superior to placebo for the summarising directional test of the primary efficacy criteria (MW = 0.621; LB-CI 0.496; p = 0.029; one sided Wei-Lachin procedure). The vast majority of doctors and patients rated the tolerability of all treatments tested as very good or at least good. Conclusions: Phlogenzym was not found to be superior to the three two-drug combinations, the three single substances, or placebo for treatment of patients with acute unilateral sprain of the lateral ankle joint. The small

  18. Efficacy and safety of valsartan compared to enalapril in hypertensive children: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Franz; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Zachwieja, Jacek; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Turi, Sandor; Grosso, Amie; Pezous, Nicole; Kadwa, Mahomed

    2011-12-01

    This study compares efficacy and safety of valsartan with enalapril in hypertensive children aged 6-17 years. This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled study. After a single-blind placebo run-in period (4-28 days), patients with mean sitting systolic blood pressure (BP) (MSSBP) at least 95th percentile for age, gender, and height were randomized to receive half the assigned dose for first week, and force-titrated to full dose for 11 weeks (≥18 to <35 kg - valsartan: 80 mg, enalapril: 10 mg; ≥35 to <80 kg - valsartan: 160 mg, enalapril: 20 mg; ≥80 to ≤160 kg - valsartan: 320 mg, enalapril: 40 mg). The primary efficacy variable was changed from baseline in MSSBP to show noninferiority of valsartan to enalapril. Other efficacy variables were changed from baseline in MSDBP, SBP control rate, and 24-h ambulatory BP parameters. Of 300 randomized patients, 281 (94%) completed the study. At week 12, MSSBP reductions were similar for valsartan and enalapril (primary endpoint of noninferiority, P < 0.0001). Least square mean BP reductions from baseline of -15.4/-9.4 mmHg were observed for valsartan compared with -14.1/-8.5 mmHg for enalapril. A similar proportion of patients achieved SBP control (valsartan: 67%; enalapril: 70%). In the subset of patients who underwent ambulatory BP assessments, valsartan provided greater reductions than enalapril in mean 24-h SBP (valsartan: -9.8 mmHg, enalapril: -7.2 mmHg: P = 0.03). The overall incidence of AEs was similar (valsartan 60%, enalapril 58%) with headache, cough, and nasopharyngitis reported most frequently. Valsartan and enalapril provided comparable BP reductions and effective BP control and were well tolerated in hypertensive children aged 6-17 years.

  19. A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel-group study of the effectiveness of a pharmacist-acquired medication history in an emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Admission to an emergency department (ED) is a key vulnerable moment when patients are at increased risk of medication discrepancies and medication histories are an effective way of ensuring that fewer errors are made. This study measured whether a pharmacist-acquired medication history in an ED focusing on a patient’s current home medication regimen, and available to be used by a doctor when consulting in the ED, would reduce the number of patients having at least 1 medication discrepancy related to home medication. Methods This multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled parallel-group study was conducted at 3 large teaching hospitals. Two hundred and seventy participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 134) or a standard care (n = 136) arm. All consecutive patients >18 years old admitted through the ED were eligible. The intervention consisted of pharmacists conducting a standardised comprehensive medication history interview focusing on a patient’s current home medication regimen, prior to being seen by a doctor. Data recorded on the admission medication order form was available to be used by a doctor during consultation in the ED. The admission medication order form was given to doctors at a later stage in the control arm for them to amend prescriptions. The effect of the intervention was assessed primarily by comparing the number of patients having at least 1 admission medication discrepancy regarding medication being taken at home. Secondary outcomes concerned the characteristics and clinical severity of such medication discrepancies. Results The intervention reduced discrepancies occurring by 33% (p < 0.0001; 0.1055 odds ratio, 0.05-0.24 95% confidence interval), despite recall bias. Regarding total discrepancies, omitting medication occurred most frequently (55.1%) and most discrepancies (42.7%) were judged to have the potential to cause moderate discomfort or clinical deterioration. Conclusions A pharmacist

  20. Single inhaler extrafine triple therapy versus long-acting muscarinic antagonist therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRINITY): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Papi, Alberto; Corradi, Massimo; Blazhko, Viktor; Montagna, Isabella; Francisco, Catherine; Cohuet, Géraldine; Vezzoli, Stefano; Scuri, Mario; Singh, Dave

    2017-05-13

    Limited data are available for the efficacy of triple therapy with two long-acting bronchodilators and an inhaled corticosteroid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We compared treatment with extrafine beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium bromide (BDP/FF/GB; fixed triple) with tiotropium, and BDP/FF plus tiotropium (open triple). For this double-blind, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial, eligible patients had COPD, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of less than 50%, at least one moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation in the previous 12 months, and a COPD Assessment Test total score of at least 10. After a 2-week run-in period receiving one inhalation per day via single-dose dry-powder inhaler of open-label 18 μg tiotropium, patients were randomised (2:2:1) using a interactive response technology system to 52 weeks treatment with tiotropium, fixed triple, or open triple. Randomisation was stratified by country and severity of airflow limitation. The primary endpoint was moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation rate. The key secondary endpoint was change from baseline in pre-dose FEV1 at week 52. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01911364. Between Jan 21, 2014, and March 18, 2016, 2691 patients received fixed triple (n=1078), tiotropium (n=1075), or open triple (n=538). Moderate-to-severe exacerbation rates were 0·46 (95% CI 0·41-0·51) for fixed triple, 0·57 (0·52-0·63) for tiotropium, and 0·45 (0·39-0·52) for open triple; fixed triple was superior to tiotropium (rate ratio 0·80 [95% CI 0·69-0·92]; p=0·0025). For week 52 pre-dose FEV1, fixed triple was superior to tiotropium (mean difference 0·061 L [0·037 to 0·086]; p<0·0001) and non-inferior to open triple (-0·003L [-0·033 to 0·027]; p=0·85). Adverse events were reported by 594 (55%) patients with fixed triple, 622 (58%) with tiotropium, and 309 (58%) with open triple. In our TRINITY study

  1. Analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations with the dual bronchodilator QVA149 compared with glycopyrronium and tiotropium (SPARK): a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Decramer, Marc; Ficker, Joachim H; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sandström, Thomas; Taylor, Angel Fowler; D'Andrea, Peter; Arrasate, Christie; Chen, Hungta; Banerji, Donald

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of dual, longacting inhaled bronchodilator treatment on exacerbations in patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this parallel-group study, 2224 patients (aged ≥40 years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages III-IV, and one or more moderate COPD exacerbation in the past year) were randomly assigned (1:1:1; via interactive voice response or web system; stratified for smoking status) to once-daily QVA149 (fixed-dose combination of indacaterol 110 μg and glycopyrronium 50 μg), glycopyrronium 50 μg, or tiotropium 18 μg for 64 weeks. Assignment to QVA149 and glycopyrronium was double-blind; tiotropium was open-label. Efficacy was assessed in all patients randomly assigned to treatment groups who received at least one dose of study drug; safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose whether or not they were assigned to a group. The primary objective was to show superiority of QVA149 versus glycopyrronium for rate of moderate to severe COPD exacerbations (defined by worsening symptoms and categorised by treatment requirements) during treatment. This completed trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01120691. Between April 27, 2010, and July 11, 2012, 741 patients were randomly assigned to receive QVA149, 741 to receive glycopyrronium, and 742 to receive tiotropium (729, 739, and 737 patients, respectively, analysed for efficacy). QVA149 significantly reduced the rate of moderate to severe exacerbations versus glycopyrronium by 12% (annualised rate of exacerbations 0·84 [95% CI 0·75-0·94] vs 0·95 [0·85-1·06]; rate ratio 0·88, 95% CI 0·77-0·99, p=0·038). Adverse events (including exacerbations) were reported for 678 (93%) of 729 patients on QVA149, 694 (94%) of 740 on glycopyrronium, and 686 (93%) of 737 on tiotropium. Incidence of serious adverse events was similar between groups (167 [23%] patients on QVA149, 179 [24%] on glycopyrronium

  2. The Efficacy and Safety of Wenxin Keli in Patients with Frequent Premature Ventricular Contractions: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wei; Gao, Run-Lin; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xu-Hua; Cai, Chi; Zhang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are common in the general population, and frequent PVCs may result in the poor quality of life or even the damage of cardiac function. We examined the efficacy and safety of a traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli for the treatment of frequent PVCs among a relatively large Chinese cohort. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. A total of 1200 eligible participants were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive Wenxin Keli or the placebo for 4 weeks. The primary and secondary endpoint was the change of PVC numbers and PVC-related symptoms after a 4-week treatment compared with baseline, respectively. In addition, vital signs, laboratory values, and electrocardiographic parameters were assessed in a safety analysis. Results: At the initial evaluation, no significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the Wenxin Keli group and the placebo group. A smaller number of PVCs was observed after the 4-week treatment than at baseline, in both the Wenxin Keli group (5686 ± 5940 vs. 15,138 ± 7597 beats/d, P < 0.001) and the placebo group (10,592 ± 8009 vs. 14,529 ± 5929 beats/d, P < 0.001); moreover, the Wenxin Keli group demonstrated a significantli greater reduction in the frequency of PVCs than the placebo group (P < 0.001). In a full analysis set, patients in the Wenxin Keli group exhibited significantly higher total effective responses in the reduction of PVCs compared to those in the placebo group (83.8% vs. 43.5%, P < 0.001). The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results (83.0% vs. 39.3%, P < 0.001). Treatment with Wenxin Keli also demonstrated superior performance compared to the placebo with respect to PVC-related symptoms. No severe adverse effects attributable to Wenxin Keli were reported. Conclusions: Wenxin Keli treatment effectively reduced the overall number of PVCs and alleviated PVC

  3. The effect of umeclidinium added to inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist in patients with symptomatic COPD: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana R; Riley, John H; Church, Alison; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Punekar, Yogesh S; Fahy, William A

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of triple therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), added to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), have been demonstrated. Limited data assessing the efficacy of the LAMA umeclidinium (UMEC) added to ICS/LABA are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UMEC added to ICS/LABAs in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients were symptomatic (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale score ⩾2), despite receiving ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL, branded) 500/50 mcg, budesonide/formoterol (BD/FOR, branded) 200/6 mcg or 400/12 mcg, or other ICS/LABAs) ⩾30 days before the run-in (7±2 days). Patients were randomised 1:1 to once-daily UMEC 62.5 mcg or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily open-label ICS/LABA for 12 weeks. Primary end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Day 85; secondary end point was weighted mean (WM) 0–6 h FEV1 at Day 84; other end points included COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score. Adverse events (AEs) were investigated. In the UMEC+ICS/LABA and PBO+ICS/LABA groups, 119 and 117 patients were randomised, respectively. Patients received FP/SAL (40%), BD/FOR (43%) and other ICS/LABAs (17%). UMEC+ICS/LABA resulted in significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85) and in WM 0–6 h FEV1 (Day 84) versus PBO+ICS/LABA (difference: 123 and 148 ml, respectively, both P<0.001). Change from baseline for UMEC+ICS/LABA versus PBO+ICS/LABA was significantly different for CAT score at Day 84 (−1.31, P<0.05), but not for TDI score (0.40, P=0.152). AE incidence was similar with UMEC+ICS/LABA (38%) and PBO+ICS/LABA (42%). UMEC+ICS/LABA improved lung function and CAT score in patients with symptomatic COPD versus PBO+ICS/LABA (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257372). PMID:27334739

  4. Efficacy of tibolone and raloxifene for the maintenance of skeletal muscle strength, bone mineral density, balance, body composition, cognitive function, mood/depression, anxiety and quality of life/well-being in late postmenopausal women ≥ 70 years: Study design of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, single-center trial

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Didy E; Samson, Monique M; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Grobbee, Diederick E; Verhaar, Harald JJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal women are prone to develop functional disabilities as a result of reduction in muscle strength and muscle mass caused by diminished levels of female sex hormones. While hormone replacement therapy may counteract these changes, conventional hormone replacement therapy is associated with potential harmful effects, such as an increased risk of breast cancer, and its prescription is not recommended. For this reason newer alternative drugs, such as tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activity, and raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, may be more appropriate. This trial investigates the effect of tibolone and raloxifene on muscle strength. Methods We recruited 318 elderly women in our single-center randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to tibolone 1.25 mg (Org OD 14, Organon NV, the Netherlands) plus placebo, raloxifene 60 mg (Evista®, Eli Lilly, United States) plus placebo or two placebo tablets daily for 24 months. The primary aim is to determine if there is a difference between tibolone and placebo or if there is a difference between raloxifene and placebo. Primary endpoints are muscle strength and bone mineral density. The secondary endpoints are postural balance, body composition, cognitive function, anxiety, mood and quality of life. The secondary aim is to determine if there is a difference between tibolone and raloxifene. The measure of effect is the change from the baseline visit to the visits after 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. A follow-up measurement is planned at 30 months to determine whether any effects are sustained after cessation of the study. By December 2007 the blind will be broken and the data analyzed. Trial registration number NTR: 1232 PMID:18533987

  5. Triple therapy with olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine besylate, and hydrochlorothiazide in adult patients with hypertension: The TRINITY multicenter, randomized, double-blind, 12-week, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Oparil, Suzanne; Melino, Michael; Lee, James; Fernandez, Victor; Heyrman, Reinilde

    2010-07-01

    Patients with hypertension may require a combination of > or =2 antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine whether a triple combination of olmesartan medoxomil (OM), amlodipine besylate (AML), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) had a clinically significant benefit compared with dual combinations of the individual components in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. This was a multicenter, randomized, doubleblind, parallel-group study in which triple combination treatment with OM 40 mg + AML 10 mg + HCTZ 25 mg was compared with dual combinations of the individual components-OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg in fixed-dose combination, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg in fixed-dose combination, and AML 10 mg + HCTZ 25 mg-in patients aged > or =18 years who had a mean seated BP > or =140/100 mm Hg or > or =160/90 mm Hg. The study consisted of a 3-week washout period with no study medication and a 12-week double-blind treatment period. In the first 2 weeks of the double-blind treatment period, all patients were randomized to receive dual combination treatment or placebo. All patients assigned to a dual combination treatment group continued the assigned treatment until week 4, and all patients assigned to placebo were switched at week 2 to receive 1 of the dual combination treatments until week 4. At week 4, patients either continued dual combination treatment or switched to triple combination treatment until week 12. The primary end point was the change in seated diastolic BP (SeDBP) from baseline to week 12; SeDBP reduction of > or =2 mm Hg was considered a clinically significant benefit. Secondary efficacy end points included the change in seated systolic BP (SeSBP) at week 12 and the percentages of patients achieving BP targets of <140/90 mm Hg, <120/80 mm Hg, SeSBP <140 mm Hg, and SeDBP <90 mm Hg at week 12. The tolerability of the treatments was also evaluated based on adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory evaluations

  6. PRO2000 vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection (Microbicides Development Programme 301): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Sheena; Ramjee, Gita; Kamali, Anatoli; Rees, Helen; Crook, Angela M; Gafos, Mitzy; Jentsch, Ute; Pool, Robert; Chisembele, Maureen; Kapiga, Saidi; Mutemwa, Richard; Vallely, Andrew; Palanee, Thesla; Sookrajh, Yuki; Lacey, Charles J; Darbyshire, Janet; Grosskurth, Heiner; Profy, Albert; Nunn, Andrew; Hayes, Richard; Weber, Jonathan

    2010-10-16

    Innovative prevention strategies for HIV-1 transmission are urgently needed. PRO2000 vaginal gel was efficacious against HIV-1 transmission in studies in macaques; we aimed to assess efficacy and safety of 2% and 0·5% PRO2000 gels against vaginal HIV-1 transmission in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Microbicides Development Programme 301 was a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial, undertaken at 13 clinics in South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. We randomly assigned sexually active women, aged 18 years or older (≥16 years in Tanzania and Uganda) without HIV-1 infection in a 1:1:1 ratio to 2% PRO2000, 0·5% PRO2000, or placebo gel groups for 52 weeks (up to 104 weeks in Uganda). Randomisation was done by computerised random number generator. Investigators and participants were masked to group assignment. The primary efficacy outcome was incidence of HIV-1 infection before week 52, which was censored for pregnancy and excluded participants without HIV-1 follow-up data or with HIV-1 infection at enrolment. HIV-1 status was established by rapid tests or ELISA at screening at 12 weeks, 24 weeks, 40 weeks, and 52 weeks, and confirmed in a central reference laboratory. The primary safety endpoint was an adverse event of grade 3 or worse. Use of 2% PRO2000 gel was discontinued on Feb 14, 2008, on the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee because of low probability of benefit. This trial is registered at http://isrctn.org, number ISRCTN 64716212. We enrolled 9385 of 15 818 women screened. 2591 (95%) of 2734 participants enrolled to the 2% PRO2000 group, 3156 (95%) of 3326 in the 0·5% PRO2000 group, and 3112 (94%) of 3325 in the placebo group were included in the primary efficacy analysis. Mean reported gel use at last sex act was 89% (95% CI 86-91). HIV-1 incidence was much the same between groups at study end (incidence per 100 woman-years was 4·5 [95% CI 3·8-5·4] for 0·5% PRO2000 vs 4·3 [3·6-5·2] for placebo, hazard

  7. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): a parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Salsbury, Jackie; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Potassium depletion by thiazide diuretics is associated with a rise in blood glucose. We assessed whether addition or substitution of a potassium-sparing diuretic, amiloride, to treatment with a thiazide can prevent glucose intolerance and improve blood pressure control. Methods We did a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind trial in 11 secondary and two primary care sites in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18–80 years; had clinic systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and home systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher on permitted background drugs of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or direct renin inhibitors (previously untreated patients were also eligible in specific circumstances); and had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome in addition to hypertension. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with starting doses of 10 mg amiloride, 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide, or 5 mg amiloride plus 12·5 mg hydrochlorothiazide; all doses were doubled after 12 weeks. Random assignment was done via a central computer system. Both participants and investigators were masked to assignment. Our hierarchical primary endpoints, assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis at 12 and 24 weeks, were the differences from baseline in blood glucose measured 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared first between the hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride groups, and then between the hydrochlorothiazide and combination groups. A key secondary endpoint was change in home systolic blood pressure at 12 and 24 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00797862, and the MHRA, Eudract number 2009-010068-41, and is now complete. Findings Between Nov 18, 2009, and Dec 15, 2014, 145 patients were randomly assigned to amiloride, 146 to

  8. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): a parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial.

    PubMed

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Salsbury, Jackie; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    Potassium depletion by thiazide diuretics is associated with a rise in blood glucose. We assessed whether addition or substitution of a potassium-sparing diuretic, amiloride, to treatment with a thiazide can prevent glucose intolerance and improve blood pressure control. We did a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind trial in 11 secondary and two primary care sites in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18-80 years; had clinic systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and home systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher on permitted background drugs of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or direct renin inhibitors (previously untreated patients were also eligible in specific circumstances); and had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome in addition to hypertension. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with starting doses of 10 mg amiloride, 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide, or 5 mg amiloride plus 12·5 mg hydrochlorothiazide; all doses were doubled after 12 weeks. Random assignment was done via a central computer system. Both participants and investigators were masked to assignment. Our hierarchical primary endpoints, assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis at 12 and 24 weeks, were the differences from baseline in blood glucose measured 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared first between the hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride groups, and then between the hydrochlorothiazide and combination groups. A key secondary endpoint was change in home systolic blood pressure at 12 and 24 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00797862, and the MHRA, Eudract number 2009-010068-41, and is now complete. Between Nov 18, 2009, and Dec 15, 2014, 145 patients were randomly assigned to amiloride, 146 to hydrochlorothiazide, and 150 to the combination group

  9. Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, 2-center, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, Michael S; Gibel, Anatoly; Shleifer, Tatyana; Boguslavsky, Igor; Zayed, Ahmad; Maayan, Rachel; Weizman, Abraham; Lerner, Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Pregnenolone (PREG) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are reported to have a modulatory effect on neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and response to stress; they are associated with mood regulation and cognitive performance. We investigated the influence of PREG and DHEA on psychotic symptoms and cognitive functioning as an add-on to ongoing antipsychotic treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-center study compared 30 mg/d of PREG (PREG-30), 200 mg/d of PREG (PREG-200), 400 mg/d of DHEA, and placebo as an adjunctive treatment of 58 chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder patients (DSM-IV). The data were collected from February 2005 until June 2007. The outcome measures were symptomatic and neurocognitive changes, functioning, and tolerability as assessed primarily by the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Analyses are presented for 44 patients who completed 8 weeks of treatment and for 14 noncompleters. Compared with subjects who received placebo, those administered PREG-30 had significant reductions in positive symptom scores and extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and improvement in attention and working memory performance, whereas subjects treated with PREG-200 did not differ on outcome variable scores for the study period. The general psychopathology severity and general functioning of patients receiving placebo and PREG-30 improved more than that of those subjects treated with DHEA, while EPS improved more in subjects treated with DHEA than in patients receiving placebo. Negative symptoms and akathisia were not significantly benefited by any treatment. The administration of PREG and DHEA was well tolerated. Low-dose PREG augmentation demonstrated significant amelioration of positive symptoms and EPS and improvement in attention and working memory performance of schizophrenia and

  10. [Sucrose gel for treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized, double-blind, multi-center, parallel-group, phase III clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bing-bing; Zhang, Dai; Chen, Rui; Shi, Hui-rong; Xin, Xiao-ran; Wang, Hui-lan; Pang, Yi-cun; Zhu, Sai-nan; Yao, Chen; Liao, Qin-ping

    2015-12-18

    To evaluate the cure effectiveness and safety of sucrose gel in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis through a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled clinical study. A clinical research method of multi-center, randomly double-blind, and dose group parallel comparison was adopted. In the study, 533 patients with bacterial vaginosis were randomly divided into two groups, which included 214 cases in the control group (5.0 g metronidazole gel) and 319 cases in the trial group (5.0 g sucrose gel ). The patients were treated with different medication according to the group where they were. All the cases in these two groups were treated with drugs vaginally twice in a day, morning and evening separately, for 5 days. The curative effect and safety evaluation were assessed from 7 to 10 days and 21 to 30 days after treatment respectively. The efficacy of the comprehensive clinical treatment showed that the cure rate of metronidazole gel group and sucrose gel group were 70.53% and 80.83% respectively 7 to 10 days after treatment. The recovery rate of Nugent score for vaginal smear were 71.50% and 81.15% respectively. The differences in the efficacy between these two groups were significant statistically (P<0.05). However, the cure rates of metronidazole gel group and sucrose gel group were 63.29% and 61.98% respectively 21 to 30 days after treatment. No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) could be found in the cure rates of the two groups. The clinical comprehensive efficacy and recovery of vaginal bacteria of sucrose gel group in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis were obviously superior to those of metronidazole gel 7 to 10 days after treatment. The susucrose gel could improve the clinical efficacy index and laboratory index of bacterial vaginosis. Other effects included the release of clinical symptoms, and the recovery of the normal micro-environment in the vagina according to the Nugent score. The curative efficacy of sucrose gel was

  11. Efficacy and safety of oral betaine glucuronate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Miglio, F; Rovati, L C; Santoro, A; Setnikar, I

    2000-08-01

    In a prospective, randomized, double-blind therapeutic trial, 191 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were treated for 8 weeks daily b.i.d. orally either with betaine glucuronate combined with diethanolamine glucuronate and nicotinamide ascorbate (Ietepar) (96 patients) or with undistinguishable placebo capsules (95 patients). The verum treatment effectively reduced by 25% hepatic steatosis (p < 0.01) and by 6% hepatomegaly (p < 0.05), while placebo did not significantly reduce the disorders. Verum was also more effective than placebo on discomfort in abdominal upper right quadrant. The global efficacy of treatment was rated by the doctor "very good" or "good" in 48% of verum treated patients and only in 17% after placcbo (P of difference = 9 x 10(-6)). 52% of patients self-rated efficacy as "very good" or "good" after verum and only 34% after placebo (P of difference = 0.017). The verum treatment provoked a significant reduction of the increased liver transaminases (ALT, AST and gamma-GT) while placebo was ineffective. Adverse events were recorded in 10% of verum-treated patients and in 7% under placebo (no significant difference). In both groups the adverse events were mild and transient, did not require treatment discontinuation and were undistinguishable from common symptoms of liver disorders. In conclusion, the 8-week treatment with betaine glucuronate combined with diethanolamine glucuronate and nicotinamide ascorbate was found effective in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a disorder for which the hitherto pharmacological interventions were poorly and inconsistently effective.

  12. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results from two phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, vehicle-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Mark; Dinehart, Scott; Whiting, David; Lee, Peter K; Tawfik, Naji; Jorizzo, Joseph; Lee, James H; Fox, Terry L

    2004-05-01

    The immune system plays a critical role in the development and pathogenesis of actinic keratosis (AK). Imiquimod has been shown to stimulate the cutaneous immune response and be effective for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Two phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled studies evaluated the efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream compared with vehicle in the treatment of AK lesions on the face and balding scalp. A total of 436 participants at 24 centers in the United States and Canada were randomized to either imiquimod 5% or vehicle cream. Study cream was applied one time per day, 2 days per week for 16 weeks. Clearance of AK lesions was clinically assessed at an 8-week posttreatment visit. The complete clearance rate was 45.1% for the imiquimod group and 3.2% for the vehicle group. The difference in complete clearance rates (imiquimod minus vehicle) was 41.9% with a 95% confidence interval of 34.9% to 49%. The partial (> or =75%) clearance rate was 59.1% for the imiquimod group and 11.8% for the vehicle group. The difference in partial clearance rates (imiquimod minus vehicle) was 47.3% with a 95% confidence interval of 39.5% to 55.1%. The median percent reduction in AK lesions was 83.3% for the imiquimod group and 0% for the vehicle group. Local skin reactions were common. Severe erythema was reported by 17.7% of participants who received imiquimod and 2.3% of participants who received vehicle. Overall, imiquimod was very well tolerated. Imiquimod 5% cream used 2 times per week for 16 weeks is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for AK.

  13. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, flexible-dose study of venlafaxine extended release capsules in adult outpatients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, Michael R; Asnis, Gregory; Mangano, Richard; Tzanis, Evan

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of venlafaxine extended release (ER) in short-term treatment of panic disorder. In this multicenter, double-blind study, conducted from April 2001 to December 2002, 343 adult outpatients who met criteria for panic disorder (with and without agoraphobia) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, were randomly assigned to flexible-dose venlafaxine ER (75-225 mg/d) or placebo for 10 weeks (N = 155 per group, intent-to-treat population). The primary outcome measure was the percentage of panic-free patients as assessed using the Sheehan Panic and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale. Key secondary measures included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) score and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale response (score = 1 or 2). Last-observation-carried-forward data were analyzed, and statistical significance was set at p

  14. Fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate versus betahistine dimesylate in the treatment of Ménière's disease: a randomized, double-blind, parallel group clinical study.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Miroslav; Kostrica, Rom

    2002-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind clinical study, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of cinnarizine, 20 mg, and dimenhydrinate, 40 mg (Arlevert [ARL]) in comparison to betahistine dimesylate (12 mg) in 82 patients suffering from Ménière's disease for at least 3 months and showing the characteristic triad of symptoms (paroxysmal vertigo attacks, cochlear hearing loss, and tinnitus). The treatment (one tablet three times daily) extended to 12 weeks, with control visits at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks after drug intake. The study demonstrated for both the fixed-combination ARL and for betahistine a highly efficient reduction of vertigo symptoms in the course of the 12 weeks of treatment; however, no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups could be established. Similar results were found for tinnitus (approximately 60% reduction) and for the associated vegetative symptoms (almost complete disappearance). Vestibulospinal reactions, recorded by means of craniocorpography, also improved distinctly, with a statistically significant superiority of ARL versus betahistine (p < .042) for the parameter of lateral sway (Unterberger's test). The caloric tests (electronystagmography) showed only minor changes for both treatment groups in the course of the study. A statistically significant improvement of hearing function of the affected ear (p = .042) was found for the combination preparation after 12 weeks of treatment. The tolerability was judged by the vast majority of patients (97.5%) in both groups to be very good. Only one patient (betahistine group) reported a nonserious adverse event, and two betahistine patients did not complete the study. In conclusion, the combination preparation proved to be a highly efficient and safe treatment option for Ménière's disease and may be used both in the management of acute episodes and in long-term treatment. Efficacy and safety were found to be similar to the widely used standard

  15. Safety and Effectiveness of Continuation Antidepressant Versus Mood Stabilizer Monotherapy for Relapse-prevention of Bipolar II Depression: A Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Amsterdam, Jay D.; Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Soeller, Irene; Li, Susan Qing; Mao, Jun J.; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compare the safety and effectiveness of continuation antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy for preventing depressive relapse in bipolar II disorder. Methods Subjects ≥18 years old with bipolar II depression (n=129) were randomized to double-blind venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders with a ≥50% reduction in depression score were continued for an additional 6 months of relapse-prevention monotherapy. Primary outcome was depressive relapse during continuation monotherapy. Secondary outcomes included sustained response rate from initiation of treatment to study end-point, relapse hazard, time to relapse, change in mania ratings, and frequency of treatment-emergent sub-syndromal hypomania and/or depressive episodes. Results Venlafaxine produced greater sustained response rate versus lithium (p<0.0001); however, there was no difference in relapse rate for venlafaxine (7.5%) versus lithium (26.7%) (p=0.079); relapse hazard (p=0.073), or time to relapse (p=0.090) between treatment conditions during continuation monotherapy. There were no group differences in mania rating scores over time and no difference in frequency or duration of syndromal or sub-syndromal hypomanic episodes. There were more sub-syndromal depressive episodes during lithium monotherapy (p=0.03). Limitations Sample size was limited by the lower sustained response rate for lithium versus venlafaxine; study was not specifically powered to detect differences in treatment-emergent hypomanic or depressive episodes between groups. Conclusion Results suggest that continuation venlafaxine monotherapy may provide similar prophylactic effectiveness relative to lithium, with no difference in treatment-emergent hypomanic episodes and without the need for frequent serum lithium level and metabolic monitoring. Larger, prospective trials are needed to confirm these observations. PMID:26143402

  16. Efficacy and safety of sarilumab monotherapy versus adalimumab monotherapy for the treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (MONARCH): a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Gerd R; Lin, Yong; Patel, Rahul; van Adelsberg, Janet; Mangan, Erin K; Graham, Neil M H; van Hoogstraten, Hubert; Bauer, Deborah; Ignacio Vargas, Juan; Lee, Eun Bong

    2017-05-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of sarilumab monotherapy with adalimumab monotherapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who should not continue treatment with methotrexate (MTX) due to intolerance or inadequate response. MONARCH was a randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, phase III superiority trial. Patients received sarilumab (200 mg every 2 weeks (q2w)) or adalimumab (40 mg q2w) monotherapy for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in 28-joint disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) at week 24. Sarilumab was superior to adalimumab in the primary end point of change from baseline in DAS28-ESR (-3.28 vs -2.20; p<0.0001). Sarilumab-treated patients achieved significantly higher American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 response rates (sarilumab: 71.7%/45.7%/23.4%; adalimumab: 58.4%/29.7%/11.9%; all p≤0.0074) and had significantly greater improvement in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (p=0.0037). Importantly, at week 24, more patients receiving sarilumab compared with adalimumab achieved Clinical Disease Activity Index remission (7.1% vs 2.7%; nominal p=0.0468) and low disease activity (41.8% vs 24.9%; nominal p=0.0005, supplemental analysis). Adverse events occurred in 63.6% (adalimumab) and 64.1% (sarilumab) of patients, the most common being neutropenia and injection site reactions (sarilumab) and headache and worsening RA (adalimumab). Incidences of infections (sarilumab: 28.8%; adalimumab: 27.7%) and serious infections (1.1%, both groups) were similar, despite neutropenia differences. Sarilumab monotherapy demonstrated superiority to adalimumab monotherapy by improving the signs and symptoms and physical functions in patients with RA who were unable to continue MTX treatment. The safety profiles of both therapies were consistent with anticipated class effects. NCT02332590. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  17. Efficacy and safety of sarilumab monotherapy versus adalimumab monotherapy for the treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (MONARCH): a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    Burmester, Gerd R; Lin, Yong; Patel, Rahul; van Adelsberg, Janet; Mangan, Erin K; Graham, Neil M H; van Hoogstraten, Hubert; Bauer, Deborah; Ignacio Vargas, Juan; Lee, Eun Bong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare efficacy and safety of sarilumab monotherapy with adalimumab monotherapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who should not continue treatment with methotrexate (MTX) due to intolerance or inadequate response. Methods MONARCH was a randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, phase III superiority trial. Patients received sarilumab (200 mg every 2 weeks (q2w)) or adalimumab (40 mg q2w) monotherapy for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in 28-joint disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) at week 24. Results Sarilumab was superior to adalimumab in the primary end point of change from baseline in DAS28-ESR (−3.28 vs −2.20; p<0.0001). Sarilumab-treated patients achieved significantly higher American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 response rates (sarilumab: 71.7%/45.7%/23.4%; adalimumab: 58.4%/29.7%/11.9%; all p≤0.0074) and had significantly greater improvement in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (p=0.0037). Importantly, at week 24, more patients receiving sarilumab compared with adalimumab achieved Clinical Disease Activity Index remission (7.1% vs 2.7%; nominal p=0.0468) and low disease activity (41.8% vs 24.9%; nominal p=0.0005, supplemental analysis). Adverse events occurred in 63.6% (adalimumab) and 64.1% (sarilumab) of patients, the most common being neutropenia and injection site reactions (sarilumab) and headache and worsening RA (adalimumab). Incidences of infections (sarilumab: 28.8%; adalimumab: 27.7%) and serious infections (1.1%, both groups) were similar, despite neutropenia differences. Conclusions Sarilumab monotherapy demonstrated superiority to adalimumab monotherapy by improving the signs and symptoms and physical functions in patients with RA who were unable to continue MTX treatment. The safety profiles of both therapies were consistent with anticipated class effects. Trial registration number NCT02332590. PMID

  18. Association of soybean-based extenders with field fertility of stored ram (Ovis aries) semen: a randomized double-blind parallel group design.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Tarek; Lymberopoulos, Aristotelis; Theodosiadou, Ekaterini

    2013-02-01

    Two consecutive randomized double-blind field fertility experiments were conducted over a 4-month period and aimed at evaluating the association of two commercial soybean lecithin-based extenders (AndroMed [Minitub, Tiefenbach, Germany] and BioXcell [IMV Technologies, L'Aigle, France]) with pregnancy rates of chilled-stored (CS) and frozen-thawed (FT) ram semen. Semen samples with more than 2 × 10(9) sperm per mL and 70% progressive motile spermatozoa were collected via an artificial vagina from twelve proven fertile Chios rams, split-diluted with the above mentioned extenders, packaged in 0.25 mL straws and either stored at 5 ± 1 °C for 30 to 36 hours or frozen and thawed. Non-lactating multiparous ewes were inseminated in progestagen-synchronized estrus either with CS (AndroMed: N = 212 and BioXcell: N = 206; intracervical AI) or with FT (AndroMed: N = 114 and BioXcell: N = 92; laparoscopic intrauterine AI) semen. Ovulation was confirmed in all ewes based on determination of blood plasma progesterone (>1 ng/mL) 8 days post AI. Ewes were screened for pregnancy diagnosis by transabdominal ultrasonography 65 days post AI. BioXcell was superior to AndroMed in preserving the fertilizing potential of CS (P < 0.05) and FT (P < 0.005) semen. In AndroMed-stored semen, young rams (1.5-2.5 years old, N = 8) had a pregnancy rate (59.1%; 124/210) lower than that (72.4%; 84/116) of mature rams (4.5 to 5.5 years, N = 4; P < 0.025). Compared with AndroMed extender, processing of young ram semen in BioXcell extender improved pregnancy rates of CS (66.7%; 88/132 vs. 83.9%; 94/112; P < 0.005) and FT (46.2%; 36/78 vs. 71.0%; 44/62; P < 0.01) spermatozoa. Both extenders were similarly effective in preserving pregnancy rates of mature ram semen (P > 0.05). Ram-by-extender interactions were significant for pregnancy rates of CS and FT semen. Irrespective of extenders, overall pregnancy rates after intracervical and intrauterine AI were 75.1% and 62.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). In

  19. Mycophenolate Mofetil versus Oral Cyclophosphamide in Scleroderma-related Interstitial Lung Disease: Scleroderma Lung Study II (SLS-II), a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tashkin, Donald P; Roth, Michael D; Clements, Philip J; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Kleerup, Eric C; Goldin, Jonathan; Arriola, Edgar; Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Kafaja, Suzanne; Silver, Richard; Steen, Virginia; Strange, Charlie; Wise, Robert; Wigley, Fredrick; Mayes, Maureen; Riley, David J; Hussain, Sabiha; Assassi, Shervin; Hsu, Vivien M; Patel, Bela; Phillips, Kristine; Martinez, Fernando; Golden, Jeffrey; Connolly, M Kari; Varga, John; Dematte, Jane; Hinchcliff, Monique; Fischer, Aryeh; Swigris, Jeffrey; Meehan, Richard; Theodore, Arthur; Simms, Robert; Volkov, Suncica; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Scholand, Mary Beth; Frech, Tracy; Molitor, Jerry A; Highland, Kristin; Read, Charles A; Fritzler, Marvin J; Kim, Grace Hyun J; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Elashoff, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Twelve months of oral cyclophosphamide (CYC) has been shown to alter the progression of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) when compared to placebo. However, toxicity was a concern and without continued treatment the efficacy disappeared by 24 months. We hypothesized that a two-year course of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) would be safer, better tolerated and produce longer lasting improvements than CYC. METHODS Patients with SSc-ILD meeting defined dyspnea, pulmonary function and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) criteria were randomized in a double-blind, two-arm trial at 14 medical centers. MMF (target dose 1500 mg twice daily) was administered for 24 months in one arm and oral CYC (target dose 2·0 mg/kg/day) administered for 12 months followed by placebo for 12 months in the other arm. The primary endpoint, change in forced vital capacity as a percent of the predicted normal value (FVC %) over the course of 24 months, was assessed in a modified intention-to-treat analysis using an inferential joint model combining a mixed effects model for longitudinal outcomes and a survival model to handle non-ignorable missing data. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00883129, and is closed. RESULTS Between November, 2009, and January, 2013, 142 patients were randomized. 126 patients (63 MMF; 63 CYC) with acceptable baseline HRCT studies and at least one outcome measure were included in the analysis. The adjusted FVC % (primary endpoint) improved from baseline to 24 months by 2.17 in the MMF arm (95% CI, 0.53–3.84) and 2·86 in the CYC arm (95% confidence interval 1·19–4·58) with no significant between-treatment difference (p=0·24), indicating that the trial was negative for the primary endpoint. However, in a post-hoc analysis of the primary endpoint, within-treatment improvements from baseline to 24 months were noted in both the CYC and MMF arms. A greater number of patients on CYC than on MMF

  20. Naldemedine versus placebo for opioid-induced constipation (COMPOSE-1 and COMPOSE-2): two multicentre, phase 3, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group trials.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin; Wild, James; Reddy, Jyotsna; Yamada, Tadaaki; Arjona Ferreira, Juan Camilo

    2017-08-01

    Opioid-induced constipation is a frequent side-effect of opioid treatment, and standard interventions have limited or inconsistent efficacy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of naldemedine, a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. We report two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials in adults with chronic non-cancer pain and opioid-induced constipation. The first (COMPOSE-1) was done in 68 outpatient sites in seven countries and the second (COMPOSE-2) at 69 outpatient sites in six countries; both studies were done in Europe and the USA. Eligible patients were aged 18-80 years, did not use laxatives, and had a stable opioid regimen for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain with a total daily dose averaging at least 30 mg (morphine equivalent) for at least 1 month before screening. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral naldemedine 0·2 mg or matching placebo once a day for 12 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by average total daily opioid dose (30-100 mg and >100 mg equivalents of oral morphine sulphate). The primary endpoint was proportion of responders. A responder had at least three spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) per week with an increase from baseline of at least one SBM per week for at least 9 weeks of the 12-week treatment period including at least three of the last 4 weeks. Efficacy endpoints were analysed by intention to treat and the safety population included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. These trials have both been completed and are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01965158 and NCT01993940. In COMPOSE-1, 547 patients were recruited between Aug 29, 2013, and Jan 22, 2015, and were randomly assigned to receive naldemedine (n=274) or placebo (n=273). Patients for COMPOSE-2 were recruited between Nov 4, 2013, and June 9, 2015; 553 patients were randomly assigned to

  1. Tazarotene 0.1% cream versus tretinoin 0.05% emollient cream in the treatment of photodamaged facial skin: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Nicholas; Gifford, Michael; Tanghetti, Emil; Poulin, Yves; Goldman, Mitchel; Tse, Yardy; Yamauchi, Paul; Rosenzweig, Helene; Kang, Sewon

    2004-06-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tazarotene 0.1% cream and tretinoin 0.05% emollient cream in the treatment of photodamaged facial skin. Subjects were eligible to enroll in this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study if they had at least mild levels of facial fine wrinkling and mottled hyperpigmentation, and at least moderate levels of one of these. Subjects were randomly assigned to apply either tazarotene cream or tretinoin emollient cream to their faces once each evening for 24 weeks. A total of 173 subjects were enrolled, of whom 157 completed. All significant between-group differences in efficacy measures were in favor of tazarotene - for fine wrinkling at the study endpoint and, at earlier timepoints, for treatment success (> or =50% global improvement), and the overall integrated assessment of photodamage, mottled hyperpigmentation, and coarse wrinkling. Both products were comparable in terms of cosmetic acceptability and tolerability except that tazarotene was associated with a transiently higher incidence of a burning sensation on the skin (in the first week of treatment but not thereafter). Tazarotene 0.1% cream can offer superior efficacy over tretinoin 0.05% emollient cream in the treatment of facial photodamage, particularly with respect to the speed of improvement.

  2. Twelve-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative phase II/III study of benzoyl peroxide gel in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Igarashi, Atsuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-03-11

    A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel, administrated once daily for 12 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Efficacy was evaluated by counting all inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. All 609 subjects were randomly assigned to receive the study products (2.5% and 5% BPO and placebo), and 607 subjects were included in the full analysis set, 544 in the per protocol set and 609 in the safety analyses. The median rates of reduction from baseline to the last evaluation of the inflammatory lesion counts, the primary end-point, in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 72.7% and 75.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than that in the placebo group (41.7%). No deaths or other serious adverse events were observed. The incidences of adverse events in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 56.4% and 58.8%, respectively; a higher incidence than in the placebo group, but there was no obvious difference between the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Most adverse events did not lead to study product discontinuation. The results suggested that both 2.5% and 5% BPO are useful for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  3. Influence of the antiseptic agents polyhexanide and octenidine on FL cells and on healing of experimental superficial aseptic wounds in piglets. A double-blind, randomised, stratified, controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Roth, B; Müller, G; Rudolph, P; Klöcker, N

    2004-01-01

    The main target of the combination of octenidine with phenoxyethanol (Octenisept) is the antisepsis of acute wounds, whereas polyhexanide combined with polyethylene glycol in Ringer solution (Lavasept) is the agent of choice for antisepsis of chronic wounds and burns. Because comparative data for both agents on the effects on wound healing are lacking, we investigated the influence of preparations based on polyhexanide and octenidine versus placebo (Ringer solution) in experimental superficial aseptic skin wounds (n = 108) of 20 mm diameter, using a double-blind, randomised, stratified, controlled, parallel-group design in piglets. Computerised planimetry and histopathological methods were used for the assessment of wound healing. Histologically, no significant differences could be verified at any time between the 3 groups. However, in the early phase (day 9 after wounding), the octenidine-based product retarded wound contraction to a significantly greater extent than placebo and polyhexanide, whereas in the later phase (days 18 and 28), polyhexanide promoted contraction significantly more than did placebo and octenidine. The consequence is complete wound closure after 22.9 days using polyhexanide, in comparison to the placebo after 24.1 days (p < 0.05) and octenidine after 28.3 days (no statistical difference to placebo). This may be explained by the better tolerance of polyhexanide in vitro, which was demonstrated with dose and time dependence in cytotoxicity tests on human amnion cells. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Results of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo- and active-controlled, multicenter study of mirabegron, a β3-adrenoceptor agonist, in patients with overactive bladder in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Na, Yanqun; Sood, Rajeev; Nakaji, Shigeru; Kubota, Yosuke; Kuroishi, Kentarou

    2015-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of mirabegron 50 mg once daily compared with placebo and the active control, tolterodine extended-release (ER) 4 mg once daily, in patients with symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in Taiwan, Korea, China, and India. A 12-week multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group placebo- and active-controlled trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to final visit in mean number of micturitions/24 hr. Secondary endpoints were: mean number of urgency episodes, incontinence episodes and urge incontinence episodes/24 hr, mean number of nocturia episodes per night, mean volume voided per micturition, and quality-of-life (QoL) scores as assessed by the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). Of 1,126 patients who were randomized to receive double-blind study drug, 921 patients (300, 311, and 310 in the placebo, mirabegron 50 mg, and tolterodine ER 4 mg groups, respectively) completed the treatment period. Demographic characteristics were similar across treatment groups. A statistically significant improvement versus placebo in mean number of micturitions/24 hr was seen with mirabegron 50 mg at all timepoints (P < 0.05) as well as final visit (-0.57 with 95% confidence intervals [CIs] of [-1.04, -0.09], P = 0.019). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in improvement from baseline to final visit in any of the secondary outcome measures except volume voided per micturition. The overall incidence of drug-related adverse events was 17.2%, 15.8%, and 21.3%, in the placebo, mirabegron 50 mg, and tolterodine ER 4 mg groups, respectively. Mirabegron 50 mg once daily for 12 weeks was superior to placebo in reducing the frequency of micturitions in patients with symptoms of OAB in Taiwan, Korea, China, and India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Efficacy and safety of Postoperative Intravenous Parecoxib sodium Followed by ORal CElecoxib (PIPFORCE) post-total knee arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis: a study protocol for a multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Qianyu; Bian, Yanyan; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Jingmei; Feng, Bin; Sun, Tiezheng; Lin, Jianhao; Zhang, Miaofeng; Yan, Shigui; Shen, Bin; Pei, Fuxing; Weng, Xisheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been regarded as a most painful orthopaedic surgery. Although many surgeons sequentially use parecoxib and celecoxib as a routine strategy for postoperative pain control after TKA, high quality evidence is still lacking to prove the effect of this sequential regimen, especially at the medium-term follow-up. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to evaluate efficacy and safety of postoperative intravenous parecoxib sodium followed by oral celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing TKA. The hypothesis is that compared to placebo with opioids as rescue treatment, sequential use of parecoxib and celecoxib can achieve less morphine consumption over the postoperative 2 weeks, as well as better pain control, quicker functional recovery in the postoperative 6 weeks and less opioid-related adverse events during the 12-week recovery phase. Methods and analysis This study is designed as a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group and placebo-controlled trial. The target sample size is 246. All participants who meet the study inclusion and exclusion criteria will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either the parecoxib/celecoxib group or placebo group. The randomisation and allocation will be study site based. The study will consist of three phases: an initial screening phase; a 6-week double-blind treatment phase; and a 6-week follow-up phase. The primary end point is cumulative opioid consumption during 2 weeks postoperation. Secondary end points consist of the postoperative visual analogue scale score, knee joint function, quality of life, local skin temperature, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, cytokines and blood coagulation parameters. Safety end points will be monitored too. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study has been obtained from the Ethics Committee, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China (Protocol number: S-572) Study results will be

  6. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Mares, J; Novotna, A; Vachova, M; Novakova, I; Notcutt, W; Ratcliffe, S

    2013-04-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) occurs in many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The provision of adequate pain relief to these patients can very difficult. Here we report the first phase III placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the endocannabinoid system modulator delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (USAN name, nabiximols; Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK), to alleviate CNP. Patients who had failed to gain adequate analgesia from existing medication were treated with THC/CBD spray or placebo as an add-on treatment, in a double-blind manner, for 14 weeks to investigate the efficacy of the medication in MS-induced neuropathic pain. This parallel-group phase of the study was then followed by an 18-week randomized-withdrawal study (14-week open-label treatment period plus a double-blind 4-week randomized-withdrawal phase) to investigate time to treatment failure and show maintenance of efficacy. A total of 339 patients were randomized to phase A (167 received THC/CBD spray and 172 received placebo). Of those who completed phase A, 58 entered the randomized-withdrawal phase. The primary endpoint of responder analysis at the 30 % level at week 14 of phase A of the study was not met, with 50 % of patients on THC/CBD spray classed as responders at the 30 % level compared to 45 % of patients on placebo (p = 0.234). However, an interim analysis at week 10 showed a statistically significant treatment difference in favor of THC/CBD spray at this time point (p = 0.046). During the randomized-withdrawal phase, the primary endpoint of time to treatment failure was statistically significant in favor of THC/CBD spray, with 57 % of patients receiving placebo failing treatment versus 24 % of patients from the THC/CBD spray group (p = 0.04). The mean change from baseline in Pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) (p = 0.028) and sleep quality NRS (p = 0.015) scores, both secondary endpoints in phase B, were also statistically

  7. Triple-Combination therapy with olmesartan, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in black and non-black study participants with hypertension: the TRINITY randomized, double-blind, 12-week, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Littlejohn, Thomas; Izzo, Joseph L; Kereiakes, Dean J; Oparil, Suzanne; Melino, Michael; Lee, James; Fernandez, Victor; Heyrman, Reinilde

    2012-08-01

    Although awareness of hypertension in Black patients has increased, blood pressure (BP) is frequently inadequately controlled. This prespecified subgroup analysis of the TRINITY study evaluated the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg triple-combination treatment compared with the component dual-combination treatments in Black and non-Black study participants. TRINITY was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group evaluation. The first patient was enrolled in May 2008 and the last patient completed the study in February 2009. The study consisted of a 3-week washout period for participants receiving antihypertensive therapy and a 12-week double-blind treatment period. For the treatment phase, all study participants were stratified by age, race, and diabetes mellitus status and randomized to a treatment sequence that led to their final treatment assignment, which they received from weeks 4 to 12 (OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg). In the first 2 weeks of the double-blind treatment period, all participants received either dual-combination treatment or placebo. Participants assigned to dual-combination treatment continued treatment until week 4, and participants receiving placebo were switched at week 2 to receive one of the dual-combination treatments until week 4. At week 4, participants either continued dual-combination treatment or randomly received triple-combination treatment until week 12. 317 clinical sites in the USA and Puerto Rico were included in the study. Study participants eligible for randomization (N = 2492) were ≥18 years of age with mean seated blood pressure (SeBP) ≥140/100 mmHg or ≥160/90 mmHg (off antihypertensive medication). The intervention was with dual- or triple-combination antihypertensive treatment: OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or

  8. Maintaining Optimal Surgical Conditions With Low Insufflation Pressures is Possible With Deep Neuromuscular Blockade During Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Hwa; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Kang-Young; Min, Byung-Soh; Yoo, Young Chul

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and increased intra-abdominal pressure can adversely affect perioperative physiology and postoperative recovery. Deep muscle relaxation is known to improve the surgical conditions during laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to compare the effects of deep and moderate neuromuscular block in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, including intra-abdominal pressure. In this prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 72 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomized using an online randomization generator to achieve either moderate (1-2 train-of-four response, n = 36) or deep (1-2 post-tetanic count, n = 36) neuromuscular block by receiving a continuous infusion of rocuronium. Adjusted intra-abdominal pressure, which was titrated by a surgeon with maintaining the operative field during pneumoperitoneum, was recorded at 5-minute intervals. Perioperative hemodynamic parameters and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Six patients from the deep and 5 from the moderate neuromuscular block group were excluded, leaving 61 for analysis. The average adjusted IAP was lower in the deep compared to the moderate neuromuscular block group (9.3 vs 12 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The postoperative pain scores (P < 0.001) and incidence of postoperative shoulder tip pain were lower, whereas gas passing time (P = 0.002) and sips of water time (P = 0.005) were shorter in the deep neuromuscular block than in the moderate neuromuscular block group. Deep neuromuscular blocking showed several benefits compared to conventional moderate neuromuscular block, including a greater intra-abdominal pressure lowering effect, whereas surgical conditions are maintained, less severe postoperative pain and faster bowel function recovery.

  9. Duloxetine and pregabalin: high-dose monotherapy or their combination? The "COMBO-DN study"--a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Wilhelm, Stefan; Lledo, Alberto; Schacht, Alexander; Tölle, Thomas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Skljarevski, Vladimir; Freynhagen, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    This multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group study in diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain addressed whether, in patients not responding to standard doses of duloxetine or pregabalin, combining both medications is superior to increasing each drug to its maximum recommended dose. For initial 8-week therapy, either 60 mg/day duloxetine (groups 1, 2) or 300 mg/day pregabalin (groups 3, 4) was given. Thereafter, in the 8-week combination/high-dose therapy period, only nonresponders received 120 mg/day duloxetine (group 1), a combination of 60 mg/day duloxetine and 300 mg/day pregabalin (groups 2, 3), or 600 mg/day pregabalin (group 4). Primary outcome (Brief Pain Inventory Modified Short Form [BPI-MSF] 24-hour average pain change after combination/high-dose therapy) was analyzed comparing combination (groups 2, 3 pooled) with high-dose monotherapy (groups 1, 4 pooled). Secondary end points included response rates, BPI-MSF severity items, and comparison of duloxetine and pregabalin in BPI-MSF average pain. Eight hundred four patients were evaluated for initial therapy and 339 for combination/high-dose therapy. There were no significant differences between combination and high-dose monotherapy regarding BPI-MSF average pain (mean change: combination: -2.35; high-dose monotherapy: -2.16; P = 0.370) and most secondary end points, which, however, consistently favoured combination therapy. Fifty-percent response rates were 52.1% for combination and 39.3% for high-dose monotherapy (P = 0.068). In exploratory analyses of the initial 8-week therapy uncorrected for multiple comparisons, 60 mg/day duloxetine was found superior to 300 mg/day pregabalin (P < 0.001). Both drugs and their combination were well tolerated. Although not significantly superior to high-dose monotherapy, combination therapy was considered to be effective, safe, and well tolerated.

  10. Dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes increases interferon-γ activity without causing adverse effects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes (rice bran exo-biopolymer, RBEP), a substance known to contain arabinoxylan, enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity and modulates cytokine production in healthy adults. Methods This study was designed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-group format. Eighty healthy participants with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000 cells/μL were randomly assigned to take six capsules per day of either 3 g RBEP or 3 g placebo for 8 weeks. Three participants in the placebo group were excluded after initiation of the protocol; no severe adverse effects from RBEP supplementation were reported. NK cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured using nonradioactive cytotoxicity assay kits and serum cytokine concentrations included interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by Bio-Plex cytokine assay kit. This study was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0000536). Results Supplementation of RBEP significantly increased IFN-γ production compared with the placebo group (P = 0.012). However, RBEP supplementation did not affect either NK cell activity or cytokine levels, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α, compared with the placebo group. Conclusions The data obtained in this study indicate that RBEP supplementation increases IFN-γ secretion without causing significant adverse effects, and thus may be beneficial to healthy individuals. This new rice bran-derived product may therefore be potentially useful to include in the formulation of solid and liquid foods designed for treatment and prevention of pathological states associated with defective immune responses. PMID:24755139

  11. Dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes increases interferon-γ activity without causing adverse effects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kwon, Dae Young; Park, Yongsoon

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes (rice bran exo-biopolymer, RBEP), a substance known to contain arabinoxylan, enhances natural killer (NK) cell activity and modulates cytokine production in healthy adults. This study was designed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-group format. Eighty healthy participants with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000 cells/μL were randomly assigned to take six capsules per day of either 3 g RBEP or 3 g placebo for 8 weeks. Three participants in the placebo group were excluded after initiation of the protocol; no severe adverse effects from RBEP supplementation were reported. NK cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured using nonradioactive cytotoxicity assay kits and serum cytokine concentrations included interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by Bio-Plex cytokine assay kit. This study was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0000536). Supplementation of RBEP significantly increased IFN-γ production compared with the placebo group (P = 0.012). However, RBEP supplementation did not affect either NK cell activity or cytokine levels, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α, compared with the placebo group. The data obtained in this study indicate that RBEP supplementation increases IFN-γ secretion without causing significant adverse effects, and thus may be beneficial to healthy individuals. This new rice bran-derived product may therefore be potentially useful to include in the formulation of solid and liquid foods designed for treatment and prevention of pathological states associated with defective immune responses.

  12. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, single-dose study comparing the fixed combination of acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and caffeine with ibuprofen for acute treatment of patients with severe migraine.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jerome; Hagen, Martina; Gold, Morris

    2014-11-01

    In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, single-dose study (n = 1555), a fixed combination of acetaminophen 500 mg, acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg, and caffeine 130 mg (AAC) was compared with ibuprofen 400 mg (IB) and placebo (PLA) for acute treatment of migraine. An exploratory post-hoc analysis compared AAC with IB and PLA in the subset of patients with severe pain at baseline (n = 660). At most time points, AAC and IB relieved the pain and associated symptoms of severe migraine significantly better than PLA (p ≤ 0.05). AAC was significantly superior to IB for pain relief at 45 minutes and at one, two, three, and four hours postdose (p < 0.04); pain intensity difference from one hour through three hours (p < 0.05); headache response at two hours (p = 0.04); functional disability reduced to little or none at three hours (p = 0.013); freedom from phonophobia at three hours (p = 0.04) and photophobia at 15 minutes postdose (p = 0.03); and use of rescue medication (p = 0.018). AAC patients also reported meaningful pain relief 16 minutes faster than IB patients (132 minutes vs 148 minutes, p = 0.026). In patients with severe baseline migraine pain, AAC and IB are significantly more effective than PLA, and AAC provides significantly faster and more effective pain relief than IB. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Alkalinized lidocaine versus lidocaine gel as local anesthesia prior to intra-vesical botulinum toxin (BoNTA) injections: A prospective, single center, randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial of efficacy and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Arjun K; Younis, Ayman; Khan, Zainab A; Hildrup, Iona; Emery, Simon J; Lucas, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and morbidity of alkalinized lidocaine solution compared to lidocaine gel for intra-vesical anesthesia during botulinum toxin (BoNTA) injections in a statistically powered, prospective, parallel group, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-four patients of either sex were randomized to receive either alkalinized lidocaine (AL) solution (10 ml 8.4% sodium bicarbonate + 20 ml 2% lidocaine solution + 22 ml sterile Aquagel®) or lidocaine gel (LG) (22 ml standard 2% lidocaine gel Instillagel® + 30 ml 0.9% normal saline solution). Primary outcome was average pain (assessed by 100 mm visual analog score) felt during intra-vesical BoNTA injections performed at least 20 min after instillation. Secondary outcome was the rate of adverse events. Of 60 randomized patients 54 received the allocated intervention and were analyzed. Mean pain score in the AL group was 17.11 mm (95%CI 8.65-25.57 mm) and in the LG group was 19.53 mm (95%CI 13.03-26.03mm) with no significant difference between the groups. Cost of interventional medication in the AL group was almost double that of the LG group. No adverse events were attributable to local anesthetic instillation in either group. Alkalinized lidocaine solution is not superior to lidocaine gel for anesthesia during intra-vesical BoNTA injections, and the higher cost precludes its use over lidocaine gel at our centre. We have used the results of this study to adapt our local protocol for BoNTA injections and continue to use lidocaine gel as the local anesthetic of choice. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:522-527, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects on hemodynamics and gas exchange of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Sabater, Joan; Masclans, Joan Ramon; Sacanell, Judit; Chacon, Pilar; Sabin, Pilar; Planas, Merce

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effects on hemodynamics and gas exchange of a lipid emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with ARDS. Methods The design was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study in our Intensive Medicine Department of Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona-Spain). We studied 16 consecutive patients with ARDS and intolerance to enteral nutrition (14 men and 2 women; mean age: 58 ± 13 years; APACHE II score: 17.8 ± 2.3; Lung Injury Score: 3.1 ± 0.5; baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 149 ± 40). Patients were randomized into 2 groups: Group A (n = 8) received the study emulsion Lipoplus® 20%, B.Braun Medical (50% MCT, 40% LCT, 10% ω-3); Group B (n = 8) received the control emulsion Intralipid® Fresenius Kabi (100% LCT). Lipid emulsions were administered during 12 h at a dose of 0.12 g/kg/h. Measurements of the main hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters were made at baseline (immediately before administration of the lipid emulsions), every hour during the lipid infusion, at the end of administration, and six hours after the end of administration lipid infusion. Results No statistically significant changes were observed in the different hemodynamic values analyzed. Likewise, the gas exchange parameters did not show statistically significant differences during the study. No adverse effect attributable to the lipid emulsions was seen in the patients analyzed. Conclusion The lipid emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids was safe and well tolerated in short-term administration to patients with ARDS. It did not cause any significant changes in hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters. Trial registration ISRCTN63673813 PMID:18947396

  15. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion. Participants/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control treatments. Results Results of the study are: i) L-trp at the higher dose stimulates CCK release (p = 0.0018), and induces a significant retardation in gastric emptying (p = 0.0033); ii) L-trp at the higher dose induced a small increase in GLP-1 secretion (p = 0.0257); iii) neither of the amino acids modulated subjective appetite feelings; and iv) the two amino acids did not alter insulin or glucose concentrations. Conclusions L-trp is a luminal regulator of CCK release with effects on gastric emptying, an effect that could be mediated by CCK. L-trp’s effect on GLP-1 secretion is only minor. At the doses given, the two amino acids did not affect subjective appetite feelings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02563847 PMID:27875537

  16. The combination of oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein for the control of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: Results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Alexea, Octavian; Bacarea, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Background A medical device containing the film-forming agent reticulated protein and a prebiotic mixture of vegetable oligo- and polysaccharides has been developed, recently receiving European approval as MED class III for the treatment of chronic/functional or recidivant diarrhoea due to different causes including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the present paper, we evaluate a protein preparation containing these components in comparison with placebo in adult patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS. Methods In a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre clinical trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive the combination of oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein and placebo (four oral tablets/day for 56 days). Demographic, clinical and quality of life characteristics and presence and intensity of abdominal pain and flatulence (seven-point Likert scale) were assessed at three study visits (baseline and at 28 and 56 days). Stool emissions were recorded on the diary card using the seven-point Bristol Stool Scale. Results A total of 128 patients were randomised to receive either tablets containing the combination (n = 63) or placebo (n = 65). Treatment with oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein was safe and well tolerated. A significant improvement in symptoms across the study was observed in patients treated with oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein between visit 2 and visit 3 in abdominal pain (p = 0.0167) and flatulence (p = 0.0373). We also detected a statistically significant increase in the quality of life of patients receiving the active treatment from baseline to visit 3 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Treatment with oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein is safe, improving IBS symptoms and quality of life of patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS. PMID:27403313

  17. A Novel Highly Bioavailable Curcumin Formulation Improves Symptoms and Diagnostic Indicators in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Dose, Three-Arm, and Parallel-Group Study.

    PubMed

    Amalraj, Augustine; Varma, Karthik; Jacob, Joby; Divya, Chandradhara; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Stohs, Sidney J; Gopi, Sreeraj

    2017-08-29

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, chronic systemic inflammatory disorder. The long-term use of currently available drugs for the treatment of RA has many potential side effects. Natural phytonutrients may serve as alternative strategies for the safe and effective treatment of RA, and curcuminoids have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions for centuries. In this study, a novel, highly bioavailable form of curcumin in a completely natural turmeric matrix was evaluated for its ability to improve the clinical symptoms of RA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different doses of curcumin with that of a placebo in active RA patients. Twelve patients in each group received placebo, 250 or 500 mg of the curcumin product twice daily for 90 days. The responses of the patients were assessed using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response, visual analog scale (VAS), C-reactive protein (CRP), Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF) values. RA patients who received the curcumin product at both low and high doses reported statistically significant changes in their clinical symptoms at the end of the study. These observations were confirmed by significant changes in ESR, CPR, and RF values in patients receiving the study product compared to baseline and placebo. The results indicate that this novel curcumin in a turmeric matrix acts as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of RA at a dose as low as 250 mg twice daily as evidenced by significant improvement in the ESR, CRP, VAS, RF, DAS28, and ACR responses compared to placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects.

  18. A phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japanese haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fukagawa, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Shigematsu, Takashi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujii, Akifumi; Kuramoto, Takuto; Odani, Motoi; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-10-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, in Japanese haemodialysis patients with SHPT. In this phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, etelcalcetide was administered three times per week at an initial dose of 5 mg, and subsequently adjusted to doses between 2.5 and 15 mg at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. A total of 155 SHPT patients with serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels ≥300 pg/mL were assigned to receive etelcalcetide (n = 78) or placebo (n = 77). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with decreased serum iPTH to the target range proposed by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (60-240 pg/mL). The major secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with ≥30% reductions in serum iPTH from baseline. The proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (59.0%) versus placebo (1.3%). Similarly, the proportion of patients meeting the major secondary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (76.9%) versus placebo (5.2%). Serum albumin-corrected calcium, phosphorus and intact fibroblast growth factor-23 levels were decreased in the etelcalcetide group. Nausea, vomiting and symptomatic hypocalcaemia were mild with etelcalcetide. Serious adverse events related to etelcalcetide were not observed. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide. As the only available intravenous calcium-sensing receptor agonist, etelcalcetide is likely to provide a new treatment option for SHPT in haemodialysis patients.

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support. Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLP-2–dependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects, as measured by the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. Methods This double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study enrolled and randomized 36 healthy subjects (22 men, 14 women) to receive subcutaneous doses of teduglutide 4 mg or placebo (2:1 ratio; 23:13) once daily on Days 1 through 10 in the morning. Gastric emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal was assessed by measuring acetaminophen levels predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen on Days 0 and 10. The primary study endpoint was a pharmacokinetic analysis of acetaminophen absorption in subjects receiving teduglutide or placebo. Results No significant differences in gastric emptying of liquids (acetaminophen area under the concentration [AUC] vs time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration [Cmax], and time to Cmax) were observed on Day 10 in subjects receiving teduglutide 4 mg versus subjects receiving placebo. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), deaths, or discontinuations due to an AE reported during the study. Conclusions Teduglutide 4 mg/day for 10 days does not affect gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects as measured by acetaminophen pharmacokinetics. No unexpected safety signals were observed. Trial registration This study was registered at Clinical

  20. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study to demonstrate equivalence in efficacy and safety of CT-P13 compared with innovator infliximab when coadministered with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: the PLANETRA study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Hyun; Hrycaj, Pawel; Miranda, Pedro; Ramiterre, Edgar; Piotrowski, Mariusz; Shevchuk, Sergii; Kovalenko, Volodymyr; Prodanovic, Nenad; Abello-Banfi, Mauricio; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Morales-Olazabal, Luis; Tee, Michael; Jimenez, Renato; Zamani, Omid; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, HoUng; Park, Won; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of innovator infliximab (INX) and CT-P13, an INX biosimilar, in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods Phase III randomised, double-blind, multicentre, multinational, parallel-group study. Patients with active disease despite MTX (12.5–25 mg/week) were randomised to receive 3 mg/kg of CT-P13 (n=302) or INX (n=304) with MTX and folic acid. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Therapeutic equivalence of clinical response according to ACR20 criteria was concluded if the 95% CI for the treatment difference was within ±15%. Secondary endpoints included ACR response criteria, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, change in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Simplified Disease Activity Index, Clinical Disease Activity Index, as well as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, safety and immunogenicity. Results At week 30, ACR20 responses were 60.9% for CT-P13 and 58.6% for INX (95% CI −6% to 10%) in the intention-to-treat population. The proportions in CT-P13 and INX groups achieving good or moderate EULAR responses (C reactive protein (CRP)) at week 30 were 85.8% and 87.1%, respectively. Low disease activity or remission according to DAS28–CRP, ACR–EULAR remission rates, ACR50/ACR70 responses and all other PK and PD endpoints were highly similar at week 30. Incidence of drug-related adverse events (35.2% vs 35.9%) and detection of antidrug antibodies (48.4% vs 48.2%) were highly similar for CT-P13 and INX, respectively. Conclusions CT-P13 demonstrated equivalent efficacy to INX at week 30, with a comparable PK profile and immunogenicity. CT-P13 was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable with that of INX. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01217086 PMID:23687260

  1. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy R; Burnell-Nugent, Mary; Lossignol, Dominique; Ganae-Motan, Elena Doina; Potts, Richard; Fallon, Marie T

    2010-02-01

    This study compared the efficacy of a tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) extract, a nonopioid analgesic endocannabinoid system modulator, and a THC extract, with placebo, in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 177 patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, entered a two-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to THC:CBD extract (n = 60), THC extract (n = 58), or placebo (n = 59). The primary analysis of change from baseline in mean pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) score was statistically significantly in favor of THC:CBD compared with placebo (improvement of -1.37 vs. -0.69), whereas the THC group showed a nonsignificant change (-1.01 vs. -0.69). Twice as many patients taking THC:CBD showed a reduction of more than 30% from baseline pain NRS score when compared with placebo (23 [43%] vs. 12 [21%]). The associated odds ratio was statistically significant, whereas the number of THC group responders was similar to placebo (12 [23%] vs. 12 [21%]) and did not reach statistical significance. There was no change from baseline in median dose of opioid background medication or mean number of doses of breakthrough medication across treatment groups. No significant group differences were found in the NRS sleep quality or nausea scores or the pain control assessment. However, the results from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Cancer Questionnaire showed a worsening in nausea and vomiting with THC:CBD compared with placebo (P = 0.02), whereas THC had no difference (P = 1.0). Most drug-related adverse events were mild/moderate in severity. This study shows that THC:CBD extract is efficacious for relief of pain in patients with advanced cancer pain not fully relieved by strong opioids. Copyright 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive benefits of theophylline in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of low-dose, slow-release theophylline in the treatment of COPD for 1 year.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yumin; Wang, Xiaoping; Zeng, Xiangyi; Qiu, Rong; Xie, Junfeng; Liu, Shengming; Zheng, Jingping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2006-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low-dose theophylline has anti-inflammatory benefits and is safe in the treatment of COPD. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose, slow-release oral theophylline administered over a 1-year period in patients with COPD. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. In total, 110 participants with COPD were randomly assigned to receive slow-release theophylline (100 mg b.i.d.) or placebo for 1 year. Use of medicine and symptoms recorded by diary cards; pulmonary function, exacerbations of COPD, quality of life and the use of rescue medicine were evaluated. Superiority test was used to estimate the efficacy. Of 110 participants, 85 (77.3%) complied with the protocol, with 42 subjects in theophylline and 43 subjects on placebo. In both intention-to-treat and per-protocol population analysis, greater improvement in pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (P = 0.038 and P = 0.070, respectively), lower frequency of COPD exacerbations (P = 0.047 and P = 0.035, respectively), fewer days of COPD exacerbations (P = 0.045 and P = 0.046, respectively), lower frequency of clinical visits (P = 0.017 and P = 0.039, respectively), greater improvement in satisfaction with treatment (P = 0.014 and P = 0.004, respectively) were found in the theophylline group than in the placebo group. In per-protocol population, greater improvements in quality of life (P = 0.047) were also observed in the theophylline group and the mean time to the first exacerbation was delayed in theophylline group in comparison with placebo group (P = 0.047). Drug-related adverse events such as stomach discomfort (3.51%), headache (3.51%), insomnia (1.75%) and palpitation (1.75%) were found in the theophylline group. Low-dose, slow-release oral theophylline is effective and well-tolerated in the long term treatment of stable COPD, although it does not improve post-bronchodilator lung function.

  3. Comparison between zofenopril and ramipril in combination with acetylsalicylic acid in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction: results of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, European study (SMILE-4).

    PubMed

    Borghi, Claudio; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Novo, Salvatore; Vinereanu, Dragos; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are largely employed for treating patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), but their efficacy may be negatively affected by concomitant administration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), with some difference among the different compounds. The interaction between ASA and the two ACEIs zofenopril and ramipril may result in a different impact on survival of cardiac patients, due to differences in the pharmacological properties of the two ACEIs. This phase IIIb, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, European study compared the safety and efficacy of zofenopril (60 mg/day) and ramipril (10 mg/day) plus ASA (100 mg/day), in 771 patients with LVD (clinical signs of heart failure or a left ventricular ejection fraction <45%) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The primary study end point was 1-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. In the intention-to-treat population, the primary outcome was significantly reduced by zofenopril (n = 365) vs ramipril (n = 351) (odds ratio [OR]: 0.70, and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-0.96; P = 0.028) as a result of a decrease in cardiovascular hospitalization (OR: 0.64,95% CI: 0.46-0.88; P = 0.006). Mortality rate was not significantly different between the 2 treatments (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.70-3.27; P = 0.293). Blood pressure values did not significantly change during the 1-year follow-up. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels were progressively reduced during the study, with no statistically significant between-treatment differences. Proportion of patients with deterioration of renal function during the study was similar between the 2 groups. Drug safety profile was comparable between treatments. In patients with LVD following AMI, the efficacy of zofenopril associated with ASA was superior to that of ramipril plus ASA, indicating some important clinical implications for the future use of ACEIs in patients

  4. Effects of an omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion on eicosanoid synthesis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of lipid emulsions has been associated with changes in lung function and gas exchange which may be mediated by biologically active metabolites derived from arachidonic acid. The type and quantity of the lipid emulsions used could modulate this response, which is mediated by the eicosanoids. This study investigates the use of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsions in ARDS patients and their effects on eicosanoid values. Methods Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study carried out at the Intensive Medicine Department of Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona-Spain). We studied 16 consecutive patients with ARDS and intolerance to enteral nutrition (14 men; age: 58 ± 13 years; APACHE II score 17.8 ± 2.3; Lung Injury Score: 3.1 ± 0.5; baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio: 149 ± 40). Patients were randomized into two groups: Group A (n = 8) received the study emulsion Lipoplus® 20%, B. Braun Medical (50% MCT, 40% LCT, 10% fish oil (FO)); Group B (n = 8) received the control emulsion Intralipid® Fresenius Kabi (100% LCT). Lipid emulsions were administered for 12 h at a dose of 0.12 g/kg/h. We measured LTB4, TXB2, and 6-keto prostaglandin F1α values at baseline [immediately before the administration of the lipid emulsions (T-0)], at the end of the administration (T-12) and 24 hours after the beginning of the infusion (T 24) in arterial and mixed venous blood samples. Results In group A (FO) LTB4, TXB2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α levels fell during omega-3 administration (T12). After discontinuation (T24), levels of inflammatory markers (both systemic and pulmonary) behaved erratically. In group B (LCT) all systemic and pulmonary mediators increased during lipid administration and returned to baseline levels after discontinuation, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. There was a clear interaction between the treatment in group A (fish oil) and changes in LTB4 over time. Conclusions Infusion of lipids enriched

  5. Diclofenac epolamine plus heparin plaster versus diclofenac epolamine plaster in mild to moderate ankle sprain: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Cosimo; Kwarecki, Jacek; Samokhin, Anatoly V; Mautone, Giuseppe; Rovati, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In general sports, ankle sprain is the most frequently reported ankle injury and can cause chronic lateral ankle pain and tenderness. Treatment with NSAIDs is preferred, and several topical NSAID formulations are now available, helping to avoid the systemic adverse events typically associated with oral preparations. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a newly developed fixed-dose diclofenac epolamine (diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine, DHEP)/heparin plaster (Flectoparin® Tissugel) with that of a DHEP (Flector EP Tissugel®) or placebo plaster in the treatment of mild to moderate ankle sprain in adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase III study conducted in the emergency medical centres of hospitals or private clinics in Europe. Outpatients aged 18-65 years who had suffered an acute ankle sprain (O'Donoghue grade I or II in severity, with external lateral ligament involvement) within the previous 48 hours and had peri-malleolar oedema were eligible for inclusion. A total of 430 patients were randomized to receive a DHEP/heparin 1.3%/5600 IU (n = 142), DHEP 1.3% (n = 146) or placebo (n = 142) plaster, applied once daily to the injured ankle for a total of 7 days. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline in pain on movement on day 3, as measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS). The DHEP/heparin plaster was associated with a significantly (p = 0.002) greater mean reduction from baseline in pain on movement after 3 days of treatment than the DHEP plaster (-24.2 vs -18.8 mm VAS), with each active treatment providing significantly (p ≤ 0.005) greater pain relief than placebo (-13.7 mm VAS). Both DHEP/heparin and DHEP were also effective in relieving other measures of pain, with DHEP/heparin recipients experiencing significantly less daily pain while leaning on the injured limb than DHEP recipients (p < 0.001). In addition, oedema was reduced to a

  6. Customized Single-agent Therapy Management of Severe Inflammatory Acne: A Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group, Controlled Study of a New Treatment--Adapalene 0.3%-Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan; Stein Gold, Linda; Leoni, Matthew; Rueda, Maria Jose; Liu, Hong; Tanghetti, Emil

    2015-12-01

    More effective therapies are needed in the specific treatment of severe inflammatory acne vulgaris. To demonstrate superior efficacy of adapalene 0.3%-benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (0.3% A/BPO) vs. vehicle, and to assess efficacy of 0.3% A/BPO vs. 0.1% A/BPO in subjects with severe inflammatory acne (Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA] of 4) in the context of a larger trial in a moderate and severe population. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 12-week study. Subjects were randomized to receive 0.3% A/BPO, 0.1% A/BPO (benchmark) or vehicle (comparator) once daily for 12 weeks. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were success rate at week 12 (percentage of subjects rated "clear" or "almost clear," ≥ 3-grade IGA improvement), and change in inflammatory (IN) and noninflammatory (NIN) lesion counts from baseline to week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints were percent changes in IN and NIN lesion counts. Safety endpoints were incidence of adverse events (AEs) and local tolerability signs/symptoms. In the severe inflammatory acne population, a total of 252 subjects were randomized with 106, 112 and 34 subjects in the 0.3% A/BPO, 0.1% A/BPO and vehicle groups, respectively, reaching a high rate of study completion (88.5%). At week 12, both 0.3% A/BPO and 0.1% A/BPO were superior to vehicle in terms of lesion count reduction. However for success rate, only 0.3% A/BPO achieved significantly greater efficacy over vehicle with a treatment difference of 20.1% (31.9% vs. 11.8%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): [6.0%, 34.2%], P=.029), whereas 0.1% A/BPO did not (treatment difference vs. vehicle of 8.8%; P=.443). This translates to an 11% difference between active treatments in favor of 0.3% A/BPO. Also, 0.3% A/BPO was safe and well tolerated. Availability of this new treatment option should allow clinicians to better customize severe inflammatory acne management, and the high-strength product provides a step-up treatment when needed.

  7. A two-site, two-arm, 34-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes in smokers with mood and/or anxiety disorders: trial design and protocol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sophia I; Foulds, Jonathan; Pachas, Gladys N; Veldheer, Susan; Cather, Corinne; Azzouz, Nour; Hrabovsky, Shari; Hameed, Ahmad; Yingst, Jessica; Hammett, Erin; Modesto, Jennifer; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Liao, Jason; Muscat, Joshua E; Richie, John; Evins, A Eden

    2017-01-19

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can set standards for cigarettes that could include reducing their nicotine content. Such a standard should improve public health without causing unintended serious consequences for sub-populations. This study evaluates the effect of progressive nicotine reduction in cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, and psychiatric symptoms in smokers with comorbid mood and/or anxiety disorders using a two-site, two-arm, double-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) in four phases over 34 weeks. Adult smokers (N = 200) of 5 or more cigarettes per day will be randomized across two sites (Penn State and Massachusetts General). Participants must have not had a quit attempt in the prior month, nor be planning to quit in the next 6 months, meet criteria for a current or lifetime unipolar mood and/or anxiety disorder based on the structured Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and must not have an unstable medical or psychiatric condition. After a week of smoking their own cigarettes, participants receive two weeks of Spectrum research cigarettes with usual nicotine content (11.6 mg). After this baseline period, participants will be randomly assigned to continue smoking Spectrum research cigarettes that contain either (a) Usual Nicotine Content (11.6 mg); or (b) Reduced Nicotine Content: the nicotine content per cigarette is progressively reduced from approximately 11.6 mg to 0.2 mg in five steps over 18 weeks. At the end of the randomization phase, participants will be offered the choice to either (a) quit smoking with assistance, (b) continue smoking free research cigarettes, or (c) return to purchasing their own cigarettes, for the final 12 weeks of the study. The primary outcome measure is blood cotinine; key secondary outcomes are: exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary total NNAL- 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and 1-hydroxypyrene, oxidative stress biomarkers including 8

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the extended-release tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablet for the treatment of chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Chong-Suh

    2013-11-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. The combination of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in an extended-release formulation has been shown to provide rapid and long-lasting analgesic effects resulting from the synergistic activity of these 2 active ingredients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol hydrochloride 75-mg/acetaminophen 650-mg fixed-dose combination tablets (TA-ER) for the treatment of chronic low back pain. This Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled 245 patients with moderate to severe (≥4 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale) chronic (≥3 months') low back pain insufficiently controlled by previous NSAIDs or cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors and randomly assigned them to receive 4 weeks of either TA-ER or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% from baseline to final evaluation. Secondary end points included quality of life (Korean Short Form-36), functionality (Korean Oswestry Disability Index), and adverse events. The percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the TA-ER group than in the placebo group for both the full analysis set and the per-protocol population. Pain relief success rate from baseline was significantly higher with TA-ER versus placebo at days 8 and 15 but not at the final visit. Patients in the TA-ER group had significant improvements versus placebo in role-physical, general health, and reported health transition domains of the Korean Short Form-36 and significantly higher functional improvements in the personal care section of the Korean Oswestry Disability Index. Patient assessment of overall pain control as "very good" was also significantly higher with TA-ER than with placebo. Adverse events were reported more frequently with TA-ER than with placebo; the

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed low-dose combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of vertigo: a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, parallel-group, outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Joseph; Nagy, György; Tóth, Agnes; Spellenberg, Sándor; Schwarz, Mario; Répassy, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    Most cases of vertigo are attributable to both peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Therefore, it would be of interest to determine whether a combination therapy having both peripheral and central actions would translate into more efficient symptom relief. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed low-dose combination of cinnarizine 20 mg + dimenhydrinate 40 mg in the treatment of vertigo of central, peripheral, or combined central/peripheral origin. This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled, parallel-group, outpatient study in men and women (age >30 years) with central, peripheral, or combined central/peripheral vestibular vertigo. Patients who assessed > or =1 vertigo symptom as being of medium intensity (> or =2) on a 5-point visual analog scale (from 0 = no symptoms to 4 = very severe symptoms) and who had abnormal vestibulospinal movement patterns on cramocorpography were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 tablet of the fixed combination of cinnarizine 20 mg + dimenhydrinate 40 mg, cinnarizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 100 mg, or placebo 3 times daily for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the decrease in mean vertigo score (MVS), which was composed of 12 individual vertigo symptoms, each assessed on the 5-point visual analog scale after 4 weeks of treatment. The study enrolled 246 patients, of whom 239 were evaluable for efficacy. Approximately two thirds of the efficacy population were female and one third male. The mean age was 51.3 years, and the mean duration of vertigo was 2.6 years. The least squares mean (SD) change from baseline in MVS was significantly greater in the group receiving the fixed combination (1.37 [0.66]) than in any of the comparator groups (cinnarizine 50 mg: 0.87 [0.53]; dimenhydrinate 100 mg: 0.83 [0.66]; placebo: 0.76 [0.48]; all comparisons, P < 0.001). The differences were clinically relevant, based on the Mann

  10. Trospium chloride and oxybutynin hydrochloride in a german study of adults with urinary urge incontinence: results of a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, flexible-dose noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Michael; Madersbacher, Helmut; Palmtag, Hans; Stöhrer, Manfred; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether oral trospium chloride is noninferior to oxy-butynin for urinary urge incontinence and to evaluate its efficacy, tolerability, and health-related quality of life parameters. In this randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, Phase IIIb trial conducted in Germany, male and female outpatients aged >or=18 years with documented urinary frequency (>or=8 micturitions/24 hours) plus urge incontinence (>or=5 episodes/week) were randomized to receive oral treatment with trospium chloride 15 mg TID or oxybutynin hydrochloride 2.5 mg TID for 12 weeks. Daily doses could be adjusted upward after 4 weeks, to 90 mg of trospium (30 mg TID) and 15 mg of oxybutynin (5 mg TID), respectively, if needed. The absolute reduction in weekly episodes of urinary urge incontinence was evaluated as the primary efficacy variable. Secondary variables included the absolute reduction of micturitions per 24 hours, intensity of urgency, and mean voided volume. Qualitative symptom changes were recorded from the patients' entries in their micturition diaries at baseline, at week 4, and at week 12 of treatment. Subjective treatment outcome was assessed by patient ratings on a visual analog scale (VAS), the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and the 36-Item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36); intensity of dry mouth was also recorded on a scale. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Of the 1658 patients treated, 828 patients (49.9%) received trospium 45 mg/d and 830 patients (50.1%) received oxybutynin 7.5 mg/d. After 4 weeks, daily doses were doubled in 29.2% (242/828) of patients in the trospium chloride group, and in 23.3% (193/830) of patients in the oxybutynin group, until the end of treatment. No clinically relevant differences in demographic characteristics were observed between the treatment groups. Trospium was noninferior to oxybutynin hydrochloride in terms of the reduction in the number

  11. Effects of single-dose injectable paracetamolversus propacetamol in pain management after minor gynecologic surgery: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, two-parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Marty, Jean; Benhamou, Dan; Chassard, Dominique; Emperaire, Nicole; Roche, Alain; Mayaud, Annick; Haro, Dominique; Baron, Xavier; Hiesse-Provost, Odile

    2005-07-01

    Intravenous administration is the route of choice for drug therapy in the immediate postoperative period. Propacetamol (ProAPAP), an injectable prodrug of paracetamol requiring reconstitution, has demonstrated efficacy in managing acute pain and fever. However, it has been associated with pain at the injection site. A stable, ready-to-use formulation of paracetamol solution infused intravenously (IV-APAP) has been developed and might be associated with less pain at the injection site compared with ProAPAR. The objective of this study was to assess the tolerability and efficacy of a single dose of IV APAP 1 g compared with those of a single dose of ProAPAP 2 g in patients with moderate to severe pain after minor gynecologic surgery. This single-dose, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled,2-parallel-group study was conducted at 23 hospitals and outpatient clinics in France. After minor gynecologic surgery, patients reporting moderate to severe pain were randomized to receive a single 15-minute infusion of IV-APAP 1 g or ProAPAP 2 g (bioeyuivalent doses). Tolerability was monitored using local and systemic adverse event (AE) reporting, clinical examination including vital sign measurement, and patients' ratings of acceptability of the infusion. Efficacy end points included pain intensity at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours; median time to rescue medication (defined as the time at which 50% of patients requested rescue medication); and percentage of patients requesting rescue medication. Patients' satisfaction with the study drugs was assessed using patient's global evaluation (PGE) and the percentage of patients willing to receive the treatment again. Of the 163 women who were randomized, 161 received the studymedication. The IV-APAP group comprised 80 patients (mean [SD] age, 38.3 [12.8] years [range, 18.0-69.0 years]; mean [SD] weight, 61.1 [11.0] kg [range, 49.0-90.0 kg]), and the ProAPAP group comprised 81 patients (mean [SD] age, 33.9 [12.0] years [range, 18

  12. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group trial of the long-term (6-12 months) safety of acetaminophen in adult patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Temple, Anthony R; Benson, Gordon D; Zinsenheim, Joyce R; Schweinle, Jo Ellen

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the safety of acetaminophen 4 g/d administered for up to 12 months to adult patients with osteoarthritis pain, using naproxen 750 mg/d as an active comparator. This multicenter, multidose, single-dummy, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis pain of the hip or knee. Patients received acetaminophen 4 g/d or naproxen 750 mg/d for 12 months (group 1) or 6 months (group 2). Patients in both groups had follow-up visits at months 1, 3, and 6 of treatment (or at the time of study withdrawal). Patients in group 1 also had follow-up visits at months 9 and 12 (or at the time of study withdrawal). Tolerability evaluations consisted of determinations of hepatic (aminotransferase activities) and renal (serum creatinine) function, adverse events, and physical examinations. Adverse events reported by the patient or observed by the investigator during clinical evaluation were recorded. In addition, patients were questioned at each visit regarding the occurrence of adverse events using a nonspecific question. Investigators rated the intensity of adverse events and their subjective assessment of the relationship to study medication while blinded to the treatment group. At all visits, patients completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), in visual analog scale format, to assess pain, stiffness, and physical function over the previous 2 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from baseline in the WOMAC pain subscale score at 6 months. Data from the 6- and 12-month groups were combined for analysis. Of 581 randomized patients, the safety population included 571 patients who received > or = 1 dose of study medication. The 571 patients had a mean (SD) age of 59.3 (8.6) years, 395 (69.2%) were female, and 480 (84.1%) were white. Of 290 patients randomized to receive acetaminophen, 134 completed 3 months of treatment, 96 completed

  13. Comparison of lidocaine, metoclopramide, and flurbiprofen axetil for reducing pain on injection of propofol in Japanese adult surgical patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshitaka; Itakura, Michiyo

    2008-02-01

    Pain on injection is a recognized adverse event (AE) of propofol administration for the induction of general anesthesia. Pretreatment with lidocaine, metoclopramide, or flurbiprofen axetil has been reported to be effective in reducing propofol-induced pain. However, no studies comparing the efficacy of these 3 drugs for preventing pain on injection of propofol have been identified. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of lidocaine, metoclopramide, and flurbiprofen axetil for reducing pain on injection of propofol in Japanese adult surgical patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, Ushiku Aiwa General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan. Japanese patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were randomized into 4 groups to receive IV lidocaine 40 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg, flurbiprofen axetil 50 mg, or placebo (saline), preceded by venous occlusion with a rubber tourniquet for 2 minutes, and followed by the administration of propofol 0.5 mg/kg into the largest vein of the hand through a 20-gauge IV cannula. Immediately after the administration of propofol, an investigator blinded to treatment interviewed each patient on injection-site pain. Responses were scored on a 4-point verbal rating scale (0 = none, 1 = mild pain, 2 = moderate pain, and 3 = severe pain). Incidence and intensity of pain (as assessed by mean pain scores) were determined in each of the 4 study groups. AEs at the injection site (eg, pain, edema, wheal, inflammation), extrapyramidal disturbance, and symptoms or signs associated with gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration were assessed by the study investigator for 24 hours following surgery using spontaneous reporting and patient interview. A total of 100 patients (54 women, 46 men) aged 22 to 65 years were enrolled in the study. The patients' mean (SD) age was 42 (12) years. Their mean (SD) height

  14. Influence of age on flurbiprofen axetil requirements for preventing pain on injection of propofol in Japanese adult surgical patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Masahiro

    2006-08-01

    Pain on injection is a recognized adverse event (AE) of propofol administration for the induction of general anesthesia. Preceded by venous occlusion, flurbiprofen axetil, a prodrug of the NSAID flurbiprofen, has been associated with a reduction in pain induced by propofol injection. A review of the literature determined that no published data were available on the influence of age on the requirements for flurbiprofen axetil dose. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of age on flurbiprofen axetil requirements for the treatment of propofol-induced pain on injection in Japanese adult surgical patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. Young (age 20-40 years) and older (age 60-80 years) Japanese patients scheduled for various types of surgery (eg, cholecystectomy) were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive flurbiprofen axetil at 1 of 2 doses (25 or 50 mg, regardless of body weight) or inactive vehicle (saline), preceded by manual venous occlusion with a rubber tourniquet for 2 minutes and followed by the infusion of the first 25% of calculated propofol dose (0.5 mg/kg at room temperature, 23 degrees C) into the largest dorsal vein of the hand through a 20-G IV cannula (without local anesthesia), followed by the release of the occlusion and delivery of propofol 2 mg/kg. An investigator blinded to treatment questioned each patient about pain intensity during propofol injection which was assessed using a verbal rating scale: 0 = none; 1 = mild; 2 = moderate; and 3 = severe. The overall prevalence of pain was calculated in each group. AEs at the injection site (pain, edema, wheal, inflammation) were assessed by the study investigator for 24 hours after surgery using spontaneous reporting and patient interview. A total of 150 patients, 75 young adults (38 men, 37

  15. Single inhaler triple therapy versus inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β2-agonist therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRILOGY): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dave; Papi, Alberto; Corradi, Massimo; Pavlišová, Ilona; Montagna, Isabella; Francisco, Catherine; Cohuet, Géraldine; Vezzoli, Stefano; Scuri, Mario; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2016-09-03

    Few data are available for the efficacy of "triple therapy" with two long-acting bronchodilators and an inhaled corticosteroid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We designed this study to assess efficacy of single-inhaler combination of an extra fine formulation of beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium bromide (BDP/FF/GB) in COPD compared with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate (BDP/FF) treatment. TRILOGY was a randomised, parallel group, double-blind, active-controlled study done in 159 sites across 14 countries. The sites were a mixture of primary, secondary, and tertiary care providers, and specialist investigation units. Eligible patients with COPD had post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of lower than 50%, one or more moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation in the previous 12 months, COPD Assessment Test total score of 10 or more, and a Baseline Dyspnea Index focal score of 10 or less. Patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria at screening entered a 2-week open-label run-in period where they received beclometasone dipropionate (100 μg) and formoterol fumarate (6 μg) in two actuations twice daily. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive response technology system to either continue BDP (100 μg) and FF (6 μg) or step-up to BDP (100 μg), FF (6 μg), and GB (12·5 μg) in two actuations twice daily for 52 weeks via pressurised metered-dose inhaler. The three co-primary endpoints were pre-dose FEV1, 2-h post-dose FEV1, and Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) focal score, all measured at week 26 in the intention-to-treat population (all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-baseline efficacy assessment). Safety outcomes were measured in the safety population (all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of study drug). Secondary endpoints included moderate

  16. Efficacy of mepolizumab add-on therapy on health-related quality of life and markers of asthma control in severe eosinophilic asthma (MUSCA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3b trial.

    PubMed

    Chupp, Geoffrey L; Bradford, Eric S; Albers, Frank C; Bratton, Daniel J; Wang-Jairaj, Jie; Nelsen, Linda M; Trevor, Jennifer L; Magnan, Antoine; Ten Brinke, Anneke

    2017-05-01

    Mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody approved as add-on therapy to standard of care for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, has been shown in previous studies to reduce exacerbations and dependency on oral corticosteroids compared with placebo. We aimed to further assess mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma by examining its effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3b trial (MUSCA) in 146 hospitals or research centres in 19 countries worldwide. Eligible participants were patients aged 12 years or older with severe eosinophilic asthma and a history of at least two exacerbations requiring treatment in the previous 12 months before screening despite regular use of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus other controller medicines. Exclusion criteria included current smokers or former smokers with a history of at least ten pack-years. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) by country to receive a subcutaneous injection of either mepolizumab 100 mg or placebo, plus standard of care, every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (the final dose was given at week 20). We did the randomisation using an interactive voice response system and a centralised, computer-generated, permuted-block design of block size six. The two treatments were identical in appearance and administered in a masked manner; patients, investigators, other site staff and the entire study team including those assessing outcomes data were also masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline in the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score at week 24 in the modified intention-to-treat (modified ITT) population (analysed according to their randomly assigned treatment). Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of trial medication (analysed according to the actual treatment received). This trial is registered

  17. The Cannabinoid Use in Progressive Inflammatory brain Disease (CUPID) trial: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group multicentre trial and economic evaluation of cannabinoids to slow progression in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ball, Susan; Vickery, Jane; Hobart, Jeremy; Wright, Dave; Green, Colin; Shearer, James; Nunn, Andrew; Cano, Mayam Gomez; MacManus, David; Miller, David; Mallik, Shahrukh; Zajicek, John

    2015-02-01

    The Cannabinoid Use in Progressive Inflammatory brain Disease (CUPID) trial aimed to determine whether or not oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) slowed the course of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS); evaluate safety of cannabinoid administration; and, improve methods for testing treatments in progressive MS. There were three objectives in the CUPID study: (1) to evaluate whether or not Δ(9)-THC could slow the course of progressive MS; (2) to assess the long-term safety of Δ(9)-THC; and (3) to explore newer ways of conducting clinical trials in progressive MS. The CUPID trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre trial. Patients were randomised in a 2 : 1 ratio to Δ(9)-THC or placebo. Randomisation was balanced according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, study site and disease type. Analyses were by intention to treat, following a pre-specified statistical analysis plan. A cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy, Rasch measurement theory (RMT) analyses and an economic evaluation were undertaken. Twenty-seven UK sites. Adults aged 18-65 years with primary or secondary progressive MS, 1-year evidence of disease progression and baseline EDSS 4.0-6.5. Oral Δ(9)-THC (maximum 28 mg/day) or matching placebo. Three and 6 months, and then 6-monthly up to 36 or 42 months. Primary outcomes were time to EDSS progression, and change in Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 version 2 (MSIS-29v2) 20-point physical subscale (MSIS-29phys) score. Various secondary patient- and clinician-reported outcomes and MRI outcomes were assessed. RMT analyses examined performance of MS-specific rating scales as measurement instruments and tested for a symptomatic or disease-modifying treatment effect. Economic evaluation estimated mean incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Effectiveness - recruitment targets were achieved. Of the 498 randomised patients (332 to active and 166 to placebo

  18. Efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide monotherapy versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN 1): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multinational, multicentre phase 3a trial.

    PubMed

    Sorli, Christopher; Harashima, Shin-Ichi; Tsoukas, George M; Unger, Jeffrey; Karsbøl, Julie Derving; Hansen, Thomas; Bain, Stephen C

    2017-04-01

    Despite a broad range of pharmacological options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, optimum glycaemic control remains challenging for many patients and new therapies are necessary. Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue in phase 3 development for type 2 diabetes. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of semaglutide monotherapy, compared with placebo, in treatment-naive patients with type 2 diabetes who had insufficient glycaemic control with diet and exercise alone. We did a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, international, placebo-controlled phase 3a trial (SUSTAIN 1) at 72 sites in Canada, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, UK, and USA (including hospitals, clinical research units, and private offices). Eligible participants were treatment-naive individuals aged 18 years or older with type 2 diabetes treated with only diet and exercise alone for at least 30 days before screening, with a baseline HbA1c of 7·0%-10·0% (53-86 mmol/mol). We randomly assigned participants (2:2:1:1) to either once-weekly subcutaneously injected semaglutide (0·5 mg or 1·0 mg), or volume-matched placebo (0·5 mg or 1·0 mg), for 30 weeks via prefilled PDS290 pen-injectors. Participants did their own injections and were encouraged to administer them on the same day of each week in the same area of their body; the time of day and proximity of meal times was not specified. We did the randomisation with an interactive voice or web response system. Investigators, participants, and the funder of the study remained masked throughout the trial. The primary endpoint was the change in mean HbA1c from baseline to week 30, and the confirmatory secondary endpoint was the change in mean bodyweight from baseline to week 30. We assessed efficacy and safety in the modified intention-to-treat population (ie, all participants who were exposed to at least one dose of study drug); both placebo groups were pooled for assessment. This trial was registered

  19. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, flexible-dose study to evaluate the tolerability, efficacy and effects of treatment discontinuation with escitalopram and paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; Cooper, James A; Huusom, Anna K T; Hindmarch, Ian

    2006-05-01

    This multinational, randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose study evaluated the short- and long-term antidepressant tolerability and efficacy of escitalopram and paroxetine. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring adverse events throughout the study, and discontinuation events during brief treatment interruption and tapered withdrawal. Discontinuation-emergent effects were evaluated in two separate double-blind periods. First, to mimic the consequences of non-compliance, patients were randomized to one of two treatment interruption periods (placebo-substitution for 3-5 days). Second, patients were randomized to a 1-2-week tapered withdrawal period randomly scheduled between weeks 28 and 31. The pre-specified primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change from baseline in total Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score at week 8, using the principle of last observation carried forward. A total of 323 patients entered 8 weeks of double-blind treatment and received at least one flexible dose of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) or paroxetine (20-40 mg/day). Patients who demonstrated evidence of a significant clinical improvement (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement of 1 or 2) at week 8 entered a 19-week, double-blind maintenance period during which they were treated with the same dose they received at week 8, followed by a 1-2-week tapered withdrawal period. A total of 89 patients (28%) withdrew during the study; significantly (P<0.01) more patients withdrew from the paroxetine group (34%) than from the escitalopram group (21%), and significantly (P<0.05) more paroxetine patients withdrew due to lack of efficacy. The mean MADRS total score improved for both treatment groups from baseline to week 8, with no statistical difference between groups. In severely depressed patients (baseline MADRS total score >or=30), escitalopram was superior (P<0.05) to paroxetine at week 27 (end of maintenance treatment). There was a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction at

  20. Does hormone therapy improve age-related skin changes in postmenopausal women? A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled multicenter study assessing the effects of norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol in the improvement of mild to moderate age-related skin changes in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tania J; Symons, James; Menon, Sandeep

    2008-09-01

    In postmenopausal women, declining estrogen levels are associated with a variety of skin changes, many of which are reportedly improved by estrogen supplementation. A study was conducted to assess the effects of continuous combined norethindrone acetate (NA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in the control of mild to moderate age-related skin changes in postmenopausal women. Four hundred eighty-five subjects were enrolled in this 48-week randomized, double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to one of three study arms: placebo group (165 subjects), 1 mg NA/5 microg EE group (162 subjects), or a 1 mg NA/10 microg EE group (158 subjects). The primary efficacy parameters of the study were investigator global assessment of coarse and fine facial wrinkling at week 48 and subjective self-assessment of changes in wrinkling from baseline at week 48. Secondary parameters included investigator global assessment of skin laxity/sagging at week 48, investigator global assessment of skin texture/dryness at week 48, patient self-assessment of laxity/sagging, texture/dryness, and wrinkle depth determined by image analysis of skin replicas of the periorbital (crow's feet) and jowl areas, and skin elasticity determined by timed deformation and recoil. There were similar scores in investigator global assessment in wrinkling and sagging modules at baseline across all three treatment groups. There were slight decreases in all parameters for all treatment groups for the primary subject end points, but there were no statistically significant differences between the NA/EE groups and placebo. For subject self-assessment of overall severity of skin wrinkling, there were no significant changes at weeks 24 and 48 compared to baseline. These data were unaffected by smoking status or alcohol consumption. This study assessed the effects of 48 weeks of low-dose estrogen upon facial skin in women who were, on average, 5 years postmenopausal. The effects of higher estrogen doses, longer treatment

  1. Comparative study of the efficacy and safety between blonanserin and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: A double-blind, parallel-group multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Yao, Chen; Shi, Jianguo; Yang, Fude; Qi, Shuguang; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Honggeng; Li, Jie; Wang, Chuanyue; Wang, Chuansheng; Liu, Cui; Li, Lehua; Wang, Qiang; Li, Keqing; Luo, Xiaoyan; Gu, Niufan

    2015-10-01

    This randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of blonanserin and risperidone to treat Chinese schizophrenia patients aged ≥18 and < 65 years. Patients with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores ≥70 and ≤ 120 were randomized to receive blonanserin or risperidone using a gradual dose-titration method (blonanserin tablets: 8-24 mg/day; risperidone tablets: 2-6 mg/day), twice daily. Treatment populations consisted of 128 blonanserin-treated patients and 133 risperidone-treated patients. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using the last observation carried forward method. Reductions of PANSS total scores by blonanserin and risperidone treatment were -30.59 and -33.56, respectively. Risperidone treatment was associated with elevated levels of serum prolactin (67.16% risperidone versus 52.31% blonanserin) and cardiac-related abnormalities (22.39% risperidone versus 12.31% blonanserin), and blonanserin patients were more prone to extrapyramidal side effects (48.46% blonanserin versus 29.10% risperidone). In conclusion, blonanserin was as effective as risperidone for the treatment of Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The overall safety profiles of these drugs are comparable, although blonanserin was associated with a higher incidence of EPS and risperidone was associated with a higher incidence of prolactin elevation and weight gain. Thus, blonanserin is useful for the treatment of Chinese schizophrenia patients.

  2. A-101, a Proprietary Topical Formulation of High-Concentration Hydrogen Peroxide Solution: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled, Parallel Group Study of the Dose-Response Profile in Subjects With Seborrheic Keratosis of the Face.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Janet C; Jarratt, Michael; Beger, Brian B; Bradshaw, Mark; Powala, Christopher V; Shanler, Stuart D

    2017-09-04

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a common benign skin tumor, yet no topical treatments are approved in the United States. To evaluate the proprietary, stabilized, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide-based topical solution A-101 (32.5% and 40% concentrations) for treatment of facial SK lesions. In this multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive up to 2 treatments of A-101 40%, A-101 32.5%, or vehicle solution applied to a single facial SK lesion. The primary efficacy assessment was the Physician's Lesion Assessment (PLA), a validated 4-ordinal scale. The primary end point, the mean reduction in PLA grade from baseline to Day 106 was 1.7 for A-101 40%, 1.4 for A-101 32.5%, and 0.1 for vehicle (p < .001, both concentrations vs vehicle). Lesions for 68%, 62%, and 5% of subjects, respectively, were judged to be clear or near clear (p < .001, both concentrations vs vehicle). Local skin reactions were predominantly mild and transient. No subjects discontinued because of treatment-related adverse events. A-101 solution demonstrated efficacy in treating SKs on the face. Greater magnitude of effect was seen with the 40% concentration than the 32.5% concentration. A-101 solution had a favorable safety and tolerability profile at both concentrations.

  3. Agrobacterium sp.-derived β-1,3-glucan enhances natural killer cell activity in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kwon, Dae Young; Yang, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated the hypothesis that a highly pure linear β-1,3-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. R259 enhances human natural killer (NK) cell activity and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines. SUBJECTS/METHODS In an eight-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 83 healthy adults with white blood cell counts of 4,000-8,000 cells/µL were participated and randomly assigned to take two capsules per day containing either 350 mg β-1,3-glucan or placebo. Six participants withdrew their study consent or were excluded due to NK cell activity levels outside the normal range. NK cell activity and serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. RESULTS NK cell activity and the serum levels of IL-10 were significantly higher from baseline to week 8 in the β-glucan group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.048, P = 0.029). Consumption of β-1,3-glucan also significantly increased NK cell activity compared with placebo after adjusting for smoking and stress status (P = 0.009). In particular, the effect of β-1,3-glucan on NK cell activity was greater in participants with severe stress than in those experiencing mild stress. However, the administration β-1,3-glucan did not significantly modulate the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IgG compared with the placebo. CONCLUSION The results showed that supplementation with bacterial β-1,3-glucan significantly increased NK cell activity without causing any adverse effects. Additionally, the beneficial effect of β-1,3-glucan on NK cell activity was greater in participants experiencing severe stress. PMID:28194264

  4. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase II/III study.

    PubMed

    Hide, Michihiro; Yagami, Akiko; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-04-01

    Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H1-antihistamine, has been widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria with a recommended dose of 20 mg once daily in most European countries since 2010. We evaluated its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II/III study (trial registration No. JapicCTI-142574). Patients (age, 18-74 years) were randomly assigned to receive bilastine 20 mg, 10 mg or placebo once daily for 2 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline (Day -3 to 0) in total symptom score (TSS) at 2 weeks (Day 8-14), consisting of the itch and rash scores. A total of 304 patients were randomly allocated to bilastine 20 mg (101 patients), bilastine 10 mg (100 patients), and placebo (103 patients). The changes in TSS at 2 weeks were significantly decreased by bilastine 20 mg than did placebo (p < 0.001), demonstrating the superiority of bilastine 20 mg. Bilastine 10 mg also showed a significant difference from placebo (p < 0.001). The TSS changes for the bilastine showed significant improvement from Day 1, and were maintained during the treatment period. The Dermatology Life Quality Index scores were also improved in bilastine than in placebo. The bilastine treatments were safe and well tolerated. Two-week treatment with bilastine (20 or 10 mg) once daily was effective and tolerable in Japanese patients with CSU, demonstrating an early onset of action. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group, active controlled study to compare efficacy and safety of biosimilar adalimumab (Exemptia; ZRC-3197) and adalimumab (Humira) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jani, Rajendrakumar H; Gupta, Rajiv; Bhatia, Girish; Rathi, Gaurav; Ashok Kumar, Patnala; Sharma, Reena; Kumar, Uma; Gauri, Liyakat A; Jadhav, Praveen; Bartakke, Girishchandra; Haridas, Vikram; Jain, Dinesh; Mendiratta, Sanjeev K

    2016-11-01

    In this study, efficacy, tolerability and safety of biosimilar adalimumab (Exemptia; Zydus Cadila) was compared with reference adalimumab (Humira; AbbVie) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this multicentre, prospective, randomized, double-blind, active controlled parallel arm study, 120 patients with moderate to severe RA were given 40 mg of either test adalimumab (Exemptia) or reference adalimumab (Humira) by subcutaneous route every other week for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was proportion of responders in two tretament groups by American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) at week 12. The secondary endpoints were change in Disease Activity Score of 28 joints - C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and proportion of patients with an ACR50 and ACR70 response in two treatment groups at week 12. Safety outcomes were also assessed. After 12 weeks, patients treated every other week with test adalimumab (Zydus Cadila) had statistically similar response rates as compared to reference adalimumab (AbbVie): ACR20 (82% vs. 79.2%; P > 0.7); ACR50 (46%, vs. 43.4%; P > 0.7); ACR70 (14% vs. 15.1%; P > 0.8). The change in DAS28-CRP score was -2.1 ± 1.09 and -2.1 ± 1.21, in test and reference products, respectively. It was statistically significant compared to baseline, but not significantly different between the two products. Three serious adverse events and no death was reported during the study. Both adalimumab preparations were safe and well tolerated in this study. The results demonstrated biosimilarity with respect to efficacy, tolerability and safety of test adalimumab (Exemptia) and reference adalimumab (Humira) in patients with moderate to severe RA. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases published by Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial Comparing a Powder Vehicle Compound of Vitamin D With an Oil Vehicle Compound in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Wendy A; Alvarez, Jessica A; Lee, Moon J; Chesdachai, Supavit; Lodin, Daud; Horst, Ron; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-02-22

    There is little consensus on the most efficacious vehicle substance for vitamin D supplements. Fat malabsorption may impede the ability of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to absorb vitamin D in an oil vehicle. We hypothesized that vitamin D contained in a powder vehicle would be absorbed more efficiently than vitamin D contained in an oil vehicle in patients with CF. In this double-blind, randomized controlled trial, hospitalized adults with CF were given a one-time bolus dose of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol (D3) in a powder-based or oil-based vehicle. Serum D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone concentrations were analyzed at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours posttreatment. The area under the curve for serum D3 and the 12-hour time point were also assessed as indicators of D3 absorption. This trial was completed by 15 patients with CF. The median (interquartile range) age, body mass index, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were 23.7 (19.9-33.2) years, 19.9 (18.6-22.6) kg/m(2), and 63% (37%-80%), respectively. The increase in serum D3 and the area under the curve was greater in the powder group (P = .002 and P = .036, respectively). Serum D3 was higher at 12 hours in the powder group compared with the oil group (P = .002), although levels were similar between groups by 48 hours. In adults with CF, cholecalciferol is more efficiently absorbed in a powder compared with an oil vehicle. Physicians should consider prescribing vitamin D in a powder vehicle in patients with CF to improve the absorption of vitamin D from supplements. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322 PMID:19922649

  8. A double-blind, randomized parallel-group, efficacy and safety study of intramuscular S-adenosyl-L-methionine 1,4-butanedisulphonate (SAMe) versus imipramine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pancheri, Paolo; Scapicchio, Pierluigi; Chiaie, Roberto Delle

    2002-12-01

    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) is a natural substance which constitutes the most important methyl donor in transmethylation reactions in the central nervous system. Several clinical trials have shown that SAMe possesses an antidepressant activity. This multicentre study was carried out to confirm both efficacy and safety of SAMe in the treatment of major depression. SAMe was given intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 400 mg/d, double-blind, vs. 150 mg/d oral Imipramine (IMI) in patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode, with a baseline score on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) of >or=18. A total of 146 patients received SAMe whereas 147 received IMI for a period of 4 wk. The two main efficacy measures were endpoint HAMD score and percentage of responders to Clinical Global Impression (CGI) at week 4. Secondary efficacy measures were the final Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the response rate intended as a fall in HAMD scores of at least 50% with respect to baseline. The analysis of safety and tolerability was conducted in all treated patients. SAMe and IMI did not differ significantly on any efficacy measure, either main or secondary. Adverse events were significantly less in patients treated with SAMe compared to those treated with IMI. These data show 400 mg/d i.m. SAMe to be comparable to 150 mg/d oral IMI in terms of antidepressive efficacy, but significantly better tolerated. These findings suggest interesting perspectives for the use of SAMe in depression.

  9. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M

    2015-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points - defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being - in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50% of the time was 1·31 (95% CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95% CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all P<0·05). Effects on defecation frequency were similar for the two doses tested, suggesting that a ceiling effect was reached with the one billion dose. Overall, 4 weeks' supplementation with the probiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency. The results suggest that consumption of BB-12® improves the GI health of individuals whose symptoms are not sufficiently severe to consult a doctor (ISRCTN18128385).

  10. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Nakazato, Koichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil (EPA + DHA) supplementation on eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage. Twenty-four healthy men were randomly assigned to consume the EPA + DHA supplement (EPA, n = 12) or placebo (PL, n = 12) by the double-blind method. Participants consumed EPA + DHA or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise and continued it until 5 days after exercise. The EPA group consumed EPA + DHA-rich fish oil containing 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA per day. Subjects performed five sets of six maximal eccentric elbow flexion exercises. Changes in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness as well as serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in blood were assessed before, immediately after, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. MVC was significantly higher in the EPA group than in the PL group at 2-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). ROM was also significantly greater in the EPA group than in the PL group at 1-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). At only 3 days after exercise, muscle soreness of the brachialis was significantly greater in the PL group than in the EPA group (p < 0.05), with a concomitant increase in serum IL-6 levels in the PL group. Eight-week EPA + DHA supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited ROM after exercise. The supplementation also attenuates muscle soreness and elevates cytokine level, but the effect is limited.

  11. Effect of Omacor on HRV parameters in patients with recent uncomplicated myocardial infarction – A randomized, parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: study design [ISRCTN75358739

    PubMed Central

    Pater, Cornel; Compagnone, Daniele; Luszick, Joachim; Verboom, Cees-Nico

    2003-01-01

    followed in double-blind fashion for a six-month period after randomization. Visits, including 24-hour Holter recording and assessment of adverse events, will take place at one-month intervals ± five days after randomization, i.e., six times in all. PMID:14613518

  12. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; van der Heijde, Désirée; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. (NCT01451203). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Effects of low-dose oral enoximone administration on mortality, morbidity, and exercise capacity in patients with advanced heart failure: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group ESSENTIAL trials.

    PubMed

    Metra, Marco; Eichhorn, Eric; Abraham, William T; Linseman, Jennifer; Böhm, Michael; Corbalan, Ramon; DeMets, David; De Marco, Teresa; Elkayam, Uri; Gerber, Michael; Komajda, Michel; Liu, Peter; Mareev, Vyacheslev; Perrone, Sergio V; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Roecker, Ellen; Stewart, Jennifer; Swedberg, Karl; Tendera, Michal; Wiens, Brian; Bristow, Michael R

    2009-12-01

    Use of inotropic agents in patients with heart failure (HF) has been limited by adverse effects on outcomes. However, administration of positive inotropes at lower doses and concomitant treatment with beta-blockers might increase benefit-risk ratio. We investigated the effects of low doses of the positive inotrope enoximone on symptoms, exercise capacity, and major clinical outcomes in patients with advanced HF who were also treated with beta-blockers and other guideline-recommended background therapy. The Studies of Oral Enoximone Therapy in Advanced HF (ESSENTIAL) programme consisted of two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that differed only by geographic location (North and South America: ESSENTIAL-I; Europe: ESSENTIAL-II). Patients with New York Heart Association class III-IV HF symptoms, left ventricular ejection fraction < or = 30%, and one hospitalization or two ambulatory visits for worsening HF in the previous year were eligible for participation in the trials. The trials had three co-primary endpoints: (i) the composite of time to all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, analysed in the two ESSENTIAL trials combined; (ii) the 6 month change from baseline in the 6 min walk test distance (6MWTD); and (iii) the Patient Global Assessment (PGA) at 6 months, both analysed in each trial separately. ESSENTIAL-I and -II randomized 1854 subjects at 211 sites in 16 countries. In the combined trials, all-cause mortality and the composite, first co-primary endpoint did not differ between the two treatment groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.17; and HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.86-1.12, respectively, for enoximone vs. placebo]. The two other co-primary endpoints were analysed separately in the two ESSENTIAL trials, as prospectively designed in the protocol. The 6MWTD increased with enoximone, compared with placebo, in ESSENTIAL-I (P = 0.025, not reaching, however, the pre-specified criterion for

  14. Efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg compared with cetirizine 10 mg and placebo for the symptomatic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Kuna, P; Bachert, C; Nowacki, Z; van Cauwenberge, P; Agache, I; Fouquert, L; Roger, A; Sologuren, A; Valiente, R

    2009-09-01

    Bilastine is a new non-sedative H(1) receptor antagonist, indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) (seasonal and perennial). To assess and compare the efficacy and safety of bilastine 20 mg vs. cetirizine 10 mg and placebo in relieving the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Overall, 683 SAR patients, aged 12-70 years, were randomized to a double-blind treatment with bilastine 20 mg, cetirizine 10 mg or placebo, once daily for 14 days, in 61 centres across Europe. Patients recorded reflective (over the past 12 h) and instantaneous nasal (obstruction, rhinorrhoea, itching and sneezing) and non-nasal (ocular tearing, redness and itching) symptom scores (NSS and NNSS, respectively) twice daily, according to a pre-determined severity scale to provide reflective and instantaneous total symptom scores (TSS). The primary efficacy measure was the area under curve (AUC) of reflective TSS over 14 days of treatment (TSS-AUC(0-14 days)). Secondary efficacy measures included mean change from baseline in TSS, NSS and NNSS; discomfort caused by AR; and investigator's clinical global impression of the treatment. Safety was assessed according to adverse events (AEs), laboratory tests and electrocardiograms. The mean TSS-AUC(0-14 days) (score x day) was reduced in bilastine- and cetirizine-treated groups to a similar and significantly greater extent, compared with placebo (76.5, 72.3 and 100.6, respectively; P<0.001). Similarly, bilastine and cetirizine were comparable and significantly superior to placebo for all secondary outcomes. While all treatments were well tolerated and the AE profiles of bilastine and placebo were similar, significantly fewer patients in the bilastine-treated group experienced somnolence (1.8%; P<0.001) and fatigue (0.4%; P=0.02) than patients in the cetirizine-treated group (7.5% and 4.8%, respectively). Bilastine 20 mg once daily was significantly superior to placebo and comparable to cetirizine 10 mg in relieving symptoms of SAR

  15. The effect of addition of low dose fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine (0.5%) in patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Parate, LH; Manjrekar, SP; Anandaswamy, TC; Manjunath, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opioids have synergistic action with local anesthetics which may alter characteristics of epidural block. Giving opioids to mother before delivery of baby is still fully not accepted with some fearing risk of neonatal depression. Aims: Our primary aim was to evaluate the analgesic effect of addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine in patients undergoing elective caesarean section using visual analog scale. The secondary aim was to assess onset of analgesia, volume of drug required to achieve T6 level, grade and duration of motor block and Apgar score. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study 64 patients scheduled for elective caesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 32 each. The fentanyl group received 1ml of 50 μg fentanyl and the saline group received 1ml of normal saline mixed with 10ml of 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia. VAS score, time to achieve T6 level, dose of bupivacaine, intraoperative analgesic consumption and duration of analgesia, grade and duration of motor block and any adverse maternal and neonatal effects were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using Students t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Fentanyl improved the VAS score significantly (1.6 ± 1.32) compared to the saline group (3.77 ± 1.0, P < 0.0001). It also reduced the intraoperaitve analgesic supplementation compared to the saline group. (P = 0.031). The postoperative duration of analgesia was prolonged in the fentanyl group (275.80 ± 13.61 min) compared to the saline group (191.47 ± 12.16 min, P < 0.0001). The other characteristics of epidural block were unaltered. Conclusion: Addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine significantly reduces the VAS score. It also reduces intra-operative analgesia supplementation and prolongs the duration

  16. Twenty-four hour and early morning blood pressure control of olmesartan vs. ramipril in elderly hypertensive patients: pooled individual data analysis of two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies.

    PubMed

    Omboni, Stefano; Malacco, Ettore; Mallion, Jean-Michel; Volpe, Massimo; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    To assess the antihypertensive efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil and ramipril on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in elderly hypertensive patients by pooled data analysis of two studies with identical designs (one Italian, one European). After a 2-week placebo wash-out 1453 elderly hypertensive patients (65-89 years; sitting office DBP 90-109 mmHg and/or sitting office SBP 140-179 mmHg) were randomized to a 12-week double-blind treatment with olmesartan medoxomil 10 mg or ramipril 2.5 mg once-daily, up-titrated (20 and 40 mg olmesartan medoxomil; 5 and 10 mg ramipril) after 2 and 6 weeks in patients without normalized office BP. 24-h ABP was recorded at randomization and after 12 weeks. In 715 patients with valid baseline and end-of-treatment recordings baseline-adjusted 24-h SBP and DBP reductions were greater with olmesartan medoxomil (n = 356) than with ramipril (n = 359) [between-treatment differences and 95% confidence interval (CI), SBP: 2.2 (3.8, 0.6), P = 0.006; DBP: 1.3 (2.2, 0.3), P = 0.009]. Olmesartan medoxomil showed larger BP reductions in the last 6 h from the dosing interval and higher smoothness indices than ramipril. Olmesartan medoxomil reduced the SBP morning rise [-2.8 (-4.9, -0.8) mmHg], whereas ramipril did not [+1.5 (-0.6, +3.6) mmHg; P = 0.004 between-treatments]. Five hundred and eighty-two patients with sustained hypertension (office and 24-h ambulatory hypertension) showed the largest antihypertensive effect, with between-treatment differences still in favor of olmesartan medoxomil [SBP: 2.1 (3.9, 0.4), P = 0.019; DBP: 1.2 (2.3, 0.1), P = 0.032]. Olmesartan medoxomil provides a more effective and sustained 24-h BP control than ramipril in elderly hypertensive patients, particularly in the hours farthest from last intake.

  17. Effects of low-dose oral enoximone administration on mortality, morbidity, and exercise capacity in patients with advanced heart failure: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group ESSENTIAL trials

    PubMed Central

    Metra, Marco; Eichhorn, Eric; Abraham, William T.; Linseman, Jennifer; Böhm, Michael; Corbalan, Ramon; DeMets, David; De Marco, Teresa; Elkayam, Uri; Gerber, Michael; Komajda, Michel; Liu, Peter; Mareev, Vyacheslev; Perrone, Sergio V.; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Roecker, Ellen; Stewart, Jennifer; Swedberg, Karl; Tendera, Michal; Wiens, Brian; Bristow, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Use of inotropic agents in patients with heart failure (HF) has been limited by adverse effects on outcomes. However, administration of positive inotropes at lower doses and concomitant treatment with beta-blockers might increase benefit–risk ratio. We investigated the effects of low doses of the positive inotrope enoximone on symptoms, exercise capacity, and major clinical outcomes in patients with advanced HF who were also treated with beta-blockers and other guideline-recommended background therapy. Methods and results The Studies of Oral Enoximone Therapy in Advanced HF (ESSENTIAL) programme consisted of two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that differed only by geographic location (North and South America: ESSENTIAL-I; Europe: ESSENTIAL-II). Patients with New York Heart Association class III–IV HF symptoms, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, and one hospitalization or two ambulatory visits for worsening HF in the previous year were eligible for participation in the trials. The trials had three co-primary endpoints: (i) the composite of time to all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, analysed in the two ESSENTIAL trials combined; (ii) the 6 month change from baseline in the 6 min walk test distance (6MWTD); and (iii) the Patient Global Assessment (PGA) at 6 months, both analysed in each trial separately. ESSENTIAL-I and -II randomized 1854 subjects at 211 sites in 16 countries. In the combined trials, all-cause mortality and the composite, first co-primary endpoint did not differ between the two treatment groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80–1.17; and HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.86–1.12, respectively, for enoximone vs. placebo]. The two other co-primary endpoints were analysed separately in the two ESSENTIAL trials, as prospectively designed in the protocol. The 6MWTD increased with enoximone, compared with placebo, in ESSENTIAL-I (P = 0.025, not reaching, however, the pre

  18. Olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in participants with hypertension and diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or chronic cardiovascular disease: a subanalysis of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group TRINITY study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually require two or more antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. Methods The efficacy/safety of olmesartan (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg versus the component dual-combinations (OM 40/AML 10 mg, OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg) was evaluated in participants with diabetes, CKD, or chronic CVD in the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY). The primary efficacy end point was least squares (LS) mean reduction from baseline in seated diastolic BP (SeDBP) at week 12. Secondary end points included LS mean reduction in SeSBP and proportion of participants achieving BP goal (<130/80 mm Hg) at week 12 (double-blind randomized period), and LS mean reduction in SeBP and BP goal achievement at week 52/early termination (open-label period). Results At week 12, OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg resulted in significantly greater SeBP reductions in participants with diabetes (−37.9/22.0 mm Hg vs −28.0/17.6 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, −26.4/14.7 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and −27.6/14.8 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), CKD (−44.3/25.5 mm Hg vs −39.5/23.8 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, −25.3/17.0 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and −33.4/20.6 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), and chronic CVD (−37.8/20.6 mm Hg vs −31.7/18.2 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, −30.9/17.1 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and −27.5/16.1 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg) (P<0.05 for all subgroups vs dual-component treatments). BP goal achievement was greater for participants receiving triple-combination treatment compared with the dual-combination treatments, and was achieved in 41.1%, 55.0%, and 38.9% of participants with diabetes, CKD, and chronic CVD on OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, respectively. At week 52, there was sustained BP lowering with the OM

  19. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase III study of shortening the dosing interval of subcutaneous tocilizumab monotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to subcutaneous tocilizumab every other week: Results of the 12-week double-blind period.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Ishii, Tomonori; Kaneko, Motohide; Miwa, Hiroko; Ohsawa, Shino

    2017-06-16

    To determine the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) monotherapy every week (qw) versus every other week (q2w) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to TCZ-SC q2w. Adult patients in Japan with inadequate response to TCZ-SC q2w were randomized to either TCZ-SC 162 mg qw monotherapy or TCZ-SC 162 mg q2w monotherapy for 12 weeks (double-blind). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in adjusted Disease Activity Score 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) at week 12. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were assessed. TCZ-SC qw was superior to TCZ-SC q2w for adjusted mean change in DAS28-ESR from baseline to week 12. The difference in the change in DAS28-ESR between TCZ-SC qw and q2w was -1.21 (95%CI: -2.13, -0.30, p = .0108). A higher proportion of patients receiving TCZ-SC qw achieved DAS28-ESR remission/low disease activity than TCZ-SC q2w. Adverse events were 71.4% and 66.7% for TCZ-SC qw and q2w, respectively; infection was the most common event with one fatal case with TCZ-SC qw. In patients with inadequate response to TCZ-SC q2w, shortening the dosing interval to qw improved efficacy with acceptable tolerability. Occurrence of infection for both TCZ q2w and qw is important and needs careful attention.

  20. Early (≤ 1-h) vs. late (>1-h) administration of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen combination vs. frovatriptan monotherapy in the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura: a post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomized, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Bussone, Gennaro; Tullo, Vincenzo; Cortelli, Pietro; Valguarnera, Fabio; Barbanti, Piero; Sette, Giuliano; Frediani, Fabio; D'Arrigo, Giacomo; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Comi, Giancarlo; Curone, Marcella; Colombo, Bruno; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    The early use of triptan in combination with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug after headache onset may improve the efficacy of acute migraine treatment. In this retrospective analysis of a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, we assessed the efficacy of early or late intake of frovatriptan 2.5 mg + dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex 25 and FroDex 37.5) vs. frovatriptan 2.5 mg alone (Frova) in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. In this double-blind, randomized parallel group study 314 subjects with acute migraine with or without aura were randomly assigned to Frova, FroDex 25, or FroDex 37.5. Pain free (PF) at 2-h (primary endpoint), PF at 4-h and pain relief (PR) at 2 and 4-h, speed of onset at 60, 90, 120 and 240-min, and sustained pain free (SPF) at 24-h were compared across study groups according to early (≤1-h; n = 220) or late (>1-h; n = 59) intake. PF rates at 2 and 4-h were significantly larger with FroDex 37.5 vs. Frova (early intake, n = 71 FroDex 37.5 and n = 75 Frova: 49 vs. 32 % and 68 vs. 52 %, p < 0.05; late intake, n = 20 Frodex 37.5, and n = 18 Frova: 55 vs. 17 %, p < 0.05 and 85 vs. 28 %, p < 0.01). Also with FroDex 25, in the early intake group (n = 74) PF episodes were significantly higher than Frova. PR at 2 and 4-h was significantly better under FroDex 37.5 than Frova (95 % vs. 50 %, p < 0.001, 100 % vs. 72 %, p < 0.05) in the late intake group (n = 21). SPF episodes at 24-h after early dosing were 25 % (Frova), 45 % (FroDex 25) and 41 % (FroDex 37.5, p < 0.05 combinations vs. monotherapy), whereas they were not significantly different with late intake. All treatments were equally well tolerated. FroDex was similarly effective regardless of intake timing from headache onset.

  1. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Zolpidem Extended-Release 12.5 mg, Administered 3 to 7 Nights Per Week for 24 Weeks, in Patients With Chronic Primary Insomnia: A 6-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, Andrew D.; Erman, Milton; Zammit, Gary K.; Soubrane, C.; Roth, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of zolpidem extended-release 3 to 7 nights/week for chronic primary insomnia. Design: Multicenter, 25-week, phase IIIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. Setting: Outpatient; visits every 4 weeks. Patients: Aged 18 to 64 years; DSM-IV criteria for chronic primary insomnia; ≥3 months of difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or experiencing nonrestorative sleep. Interventions: Single-dose zolpidem extended-release 12.5 mg (n = 669) or placebo (n = 349), self-administered from a minimum of 3 nights/week to a maximum of 7 nights/week. Measurements and Results: Patient's Global Impression (PGI) and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) were assessed every 4 weeks up to week 24. Patient Morning Questionnaire (PMQ), recorded daily, assessed subjective sleep measures—sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), number of awakenings (NAW), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and quality of sleep (QOS)—and next-day functioning. At week 12, PGI, Item 1 (aid to sleep), the primary endpoint, was scored as favorable (i.e., “helped me sleep”) by 89.8% of zolpidem patients vs. 51.4% of placebo patients (P < 0.0001, based on rank score) and at week 24 by 92.3% of zolpidem extended-release patients vs. 59.7% of placebo patients. Zolpidem extended-release also was statistically significantly superior to placebo at every time point for PGI (Items 1–4) and CGI-I (P < 0.0001, rank score), TST, WASO, QOS (P < 0.0001), and SOL (P ≤ 0.0014); NAW (Months 2–6; P < 0.0001). Sustained improvement (P < 0.0001, all time points) was observed in morning sleepiness and ability to concentrate (P = 0.0014, month 6) with zolpidem extended-release compared with placebo. Most frequent adverse events for zolpidem extended-release were headache, anxiety and somnolence. No rebound effect was observed during the first 3 nights of discontinuation. Conclusions: These findings establish

  2. NeuroThera® Efficacy and Safety Trial-3 (NEST-3): a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, parallel group, multicenter, pivotal study to assess the safety and efficacy of transcranial laser therapy with the NeuroThera® Laser System for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke within 24 h of stroke onset.

    PubMed

    Zivin, J A; Sehra, R; Shoshoo, A; Albers, G W; Bornstein, N M; Dahlof, B; Kasner, S E; Howard, G; Shuaib, A; Streeter, J; Richieri, S P; Hacke, W

    2014-10-01

    Transcranial laser therapy is undergoing clinical trials in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The NeuroThera® Efficacy and Safety Trial-1 was strongly positive for 90-day functional benefit with transcranial laser therapy, and post hoc analyses of the subsequent NeuroThera® Efficacy and Safety Trial-2 trial suggested a meaningful beneficial effect in patients with moderate to moderately severe ischemic stroke within 24 h of onset. These served as the basis for the NeuroThera® Efficacy and Safety Trial-3 randomized controlled trial. The purpose of this pivotal study was to demonstrate safety and efficacy of transcranial laser therapy with the NeuroThera® Laser System in the treatment of subjects diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. NeuroThera® Efficacy and Safety Trial-3 is a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, parallel group, multicenter, pivotal study that will enroll 1000 subjects at up to 50 sites. All subjects will receive standard medical management based on the American Stroke Association and European Stroke Organization Guidelines. In addition to standard medical management, both groups will undergo the transcranial laser therapy procedure between 4·5 and 24 h of stroke onset. The study population will be randomized into two arms: the sham control group will receive a sham transcranial laser therapy procedure and the transcranial laser therapy group will receive an active transcranial laser therapy procedure. The randomization ratio will be 1:1 and will be stratified to ensure a balanced subject distribution between study arms. The primary efficacy end point is disability at 90 days (or the last rating), as assessed on the modified Rankin Scale, dichotomized as a success (a score of 0-2) or a failure (a score of 3 to 6). © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  3. Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Kohei; Watada, Hirotaka; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Terauchi, Yasuo; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tanizawa, Yukio; Araki, Eiichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Suganami, Hideki; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2014-03-28

    In recent years, several oral antidiabetic drugs with new mechanisms of action have become available, expanding the number of treatment options. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs with an insulin-independent mechanism promoting urinary glucose excretion. We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Overall, 229 patients were included in the full analysis set (placebo: n = 56; tofogliflozin 10 mg: n = 57; tofogliflozin 20 and 40 mg: n = 58 each). The least squares (LS) mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 was -0.028% (-0.192 to 0.137) in the placebo group, compared with -0.797% (-0.960 to -0.634) in the tofogliflozin 10 mg group, -1.017% (-1.178 to -0.856) in the tofogliflozin 20 mg group, and -0.870% (-1.031 to -0.709) in the tofogliflozin 40 mg group (p < 0.0001 for the LS mean differences in all tofogliflozin groups vs placebo). There were also prominent decreases in fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and body weight in all tofogliflozin groups compared with the placebo group. The main adverse events were hyperketonemia, ketonuria, and pollakiuria. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low. Furthermore, most adverse events were classified as mild or moderate in severity

  4. Nifedipine controlled-release 40 mg b.i.d. in Japanese patients with essential hypertension who responded insufficiently to nifedipine controlled-release 40 mg q.d.: a phase III, randomized, double-blind and parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Hasebe, Naoyuki; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Dohi, Yasuaki; Kawano, Yuhei; Rakugi, Hiromi; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Ohya, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    This phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of nifedipine controlled-release (CR) 40 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) and once daily (q.d.) in 325 Japanese patients with essential hypertension uncontrolled with nifedipine CR 40 mg q.d. (ClinicalTrials.gov record: NCT01287260). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in trough seated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) after 8 weeks. Nifedipine CR 40 mg b.i.d. showed significantly greater reductions in trough seated DBP (-7.7±0.6 mm Hg vs. -3.6±0.6 mm Hg) and trough seated systolic blood pressure (BP) (-11.1±0.9 mm Hg vs. -3.7±0.9 mm Hg) after 8 weeks of treatment compared with nifedipine CR 40 mg q.d. (both P<0.0001). At week 8, BP target achievement and responder rates were higher with nifedipine CR 40 mg b.i.d. (21.5% and 42.4% vs. 10.3% and 19.5%, respectively). Adverse events considered related to the study drug were reported in 9.0 and 9.7% of patients receiving nifedipine CR 40 mg b.i.d. and q.d., respectively. The frequency of drug-related adverse events commonly reported with nifedipine CR (headache, hot flush, palpitations, peripheral edema, hypotension, dizziness, tachycardia) was low and the results were similar between the treatment groups. In conclusion, a higher dose of nifedipine CR was associated with greater efficacy and a safety profile similar to that of the currently approved dose (40 mg q.d.) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, and it may offer a valuable treatment choice for patients who do not achieve target BP levels with standard treatment.

  5. Long-term efficacy and safety of zolpidem extended-release 12.5 mg, administered 3 to 7 nights per week for 24 weeks, in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Krystal, Andrew D; Erman, Milton; Zammit, Gary K; Soubrane, C; Roth, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of zolpidem extended-release 3 to 7 nights/week for chronic primary insomnia. Multicenter, 25-week, phase IIIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. Outpatient; visits every 4 weeks. Aged 18 to 64 years; DSM-IV criteria for chronic primary insomnia; > or =3 months of difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or experiencing nonrestorative sleep. Single-dose zolpidem extended-release 12.5 mg (n = 669) or placebo (n = 349), self-administered from a minimum of 3 nights/week to a maximum of 7 nights/week. Patient's Global Impression (PGI) and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) were assessed every 4 weeks up to week 24. Patient Morning Questionnaire (PMQ), recorded daily, assessed subjective sleep measures-sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), number of awakenings (NAW), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and quality of sleep (QOS)-and next-day functioning. At week 12, PGI, Item 1 (aid to sleep), the primary endpoint, was scored as favorable (i.e., "helped me sleep") by 89.8% of zolpidem patients vs. 51.4% of placebo patients (P < 0.0001, based on rank score) and at week 24 by 92.3% of zolpidem extended-release patients vs. 59.7% of placebo patients. Zolpidem extended-release also was statistically significantly superior to placebo at every time point for PGI (Items 1-4) and CGI-I (P < 0.0001, rank score), TST, WASO, QOS (P < 0.0001), and SOL (P < or = 0.0014); NAW (Months 2-6; P < 0.0001). Sustained improvement (P < 0.0001, all time points) was observed in morning sleepiness and ability to concentrate (P = 0.0014, month 6) with zolpidem extended-release compared with placebo. Most frequent adverse events for zolpidem extended-release were headache, anxiety and somnolence. No rebound effect was observed during the first 3 nights of discontinuation. These findings establish the efficacy of 3 to 7 nights per week dosing of zolpidem extended-release 12.5 mg for up to 6 months

  6. Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, several oral antidiabetic drugs with new mechanisms of action have become available, expanding the number of treatment options. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs with an insulin-independent mechanism promoting urinary glucose excretion. We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Results Overall, 229 patients were included in the full analysis set (placebo: n = 56; tofogliflozin 10 mg: n = 57; tofogliflozin 20 and 40 mg: n = 58 each). The least squares (LS) mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 was −0.028% (−0.192 to 0.137) in the placebo group, compared with −0.797% (−0.960 to −0.634) in the tofogliflozin 10 mg group, −1.017% (−1.178 to −0.856) in the tofogliflozin 20 mg group, and −0.870% (−1.031 to −0.709) in the tofogliflozin 40 mg group (p < 0.0001 for the LS mean differences in all tofogliflozin groups vs placebo). There were also prominent decreases in fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and body weight in all tofogliflozin groups compared with the placebo group. The main adverse events were hyperketonemia, ketonuria, and pollakiuria. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low. Furthermore, most adverse events were

  7. Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate versus chlorproguanil-dapsone: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial in African children, adolescents, and adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Tiono, Alfred B; Dicko, Alassane; Ndububa, Dennis A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Pitmang, Simon; Awobusuyi, Jacob; Pamba, Allan; Duparc, Stephan; Goh, Li-Ean; Harrell, Emma; Carter, Nick; Ward, Stephen A; Greenwood, Brian; Winstanley, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    This multi-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study compared the efficacy and safety of chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) and chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS) in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria). Six hundred patients (>or= 1 year of age) received CDA 2.0/2.5/4.0 mg/kg, and 292 CPG-DDS 2.0/2.5 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days. Day 28 parasitologic cure rate (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-corrected, per-protocol population) was 89.1% (416/467) for CDA, non-inferior but also superior to CPG-DDS, 83.0% (176/212) (treatment difference 6.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 11.9). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genotype was available for 844/892 (95%) patients. Occurrences of a composite hemoglobin safety endpoint (hemoglobin drop >or= 40 g/L or >or= 40% versus baseline, hemoglobin < 50 g/L, or blood transfusion) were CDA 13/44 (30%), CPG-DDS 7/24 (29%) in G6PD-deficient patients versus CDA 4/448 (< 1%), CPG-DDS 6/221 (3%) in G6PD-normal patients. No deaths occurred. CDA was more efficacious than CPG-DDS. However, the hemolytic potential in G6PD-deficient patients does not support further development of CDA.

  8. Analgesic efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg compared with those of oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg and hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg in patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, parallel-group study in a dental pain model.

    PubMed

    Litkowski, Leonard J; Christensen, Steven E; Adamson, Dennis N; Van Dyke, Thomas; Han, Seung-Ho; Newman, Kenneth B

    2005-04-01

    Combination therapy has been widely used for the clinical management of acute pain. By combining 2 drugs with different mechanisms of action, such therapy provides additive analgesic effects while reducing the risk for adverse effects. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg with those of oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, and placebo in a dental pain model. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group, single-dose study in patients experiencing moderate to severe pain after surgical removal of > or = 2 ipsilateral impacted third molars. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg, oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, or placebo. The primary outcome measures were total pain relief through 6 hours after dosing (TOTPAR6), sum of pain intensity differences through 6 hours (SPID6), and adverse events. Secondary efficacy measures included SPID3 and TOTPAR3, peak pain relief, peak pain intensity difference, time to onset of pain relief, time to use of rescue medication, proportion of patients reporting pain half gone, and the patient's global evaluation. Two hundred forty-nine patients (43.5% male; 87.5% white; mean age, 19.1 years; mean body weight, 153.6 pounds) were randomized to treatment as follows: 62 to oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg, 61 to oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, 63 to hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, and 63 to placebo. Oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg provided significantly greater analgesia compared with oxycodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg, hydrocodone 7.5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg, and placebo (mean [SD] TOTPAR6, 14.98 [5.37], 9.53 [6.77], 8.36 [6.68], and 5.05 [6.49], respectively; P < 0.001, oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg vs all other treatments). SPID6 values also differed significantly for oxycodone 5 mg/ibuprofen 400 mg

  9. Moderate and Severe Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris Effectively Treated with Single-Agent Therapy by a New Fixed-Dose Combination Adapalene 0.3 %/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5 % Gel: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Stein Gold, Linda; Weiss, Jonathan; Rueda, Maria Jose; Liu, Hong; Tanghetti, Emil

    2016-06-01

    A need exists for topical treatments in managing more severe inflammatory acne. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adapalene 0.3 %/benzoyl peroxide 2.5 % (0.3 % A/BPO) topical gel in subjects with moderate and severe inflammatory acne. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Randomization was stratified by acne severity (50 % moderate and 50 % severe). Subjects received 0.3 % A/BPO, 0.1 % A/BPO (benchmark), or vehicle (comparator) once daily for 12 weeks. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were success rate at week 12 (the percentage of subjects rated 'clear' or 'almost clear' with at least a 2-grade improvement on Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA]) and change in inflammatory (IN) and noninflammatory (NIN) lesion counts from baseline to week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints were percent changes in IN and NIN lesion counts. Safety endpoints were incidence of adverse events (AEs) and local tolerability signs/symptoms. A total of 503 subjects were randomized: 217, 217, and 69 subjects in the 0.3 % A/BPO, 0.1 % A/BPO, and vehicle groups, respectively. For success rate (subjects rated 'clear' or 'almost clear' with ≥2-grade improvement in IGA), 0.3 % A/BPO was superior to vehicle, with a treatment difference of 22.7 % (33.7 vs. 11.0 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 12.8-32.6, p < 0.001). At week 12, 0.3 % A/BPO was superior to vehicle for mean reduction from baseline in IN (27.0 vs. 14.4) and NIN lesion counts (40.2 vs. 18.5), as well as for percentage reduction from baseline in IN (68.7 vs. 39.2 %) and NIN lesion counts (68.3 vs. 37.4 %) (all p < 0.001). Among subjects with severe inflammatory acne (IGA = 4), 0.1 % A/BPO did not reach statistical significance for success rate compared with vehicle (p = 0.443), whereas 0.3 % A/BPO demonstrated significantly greater efficacy (p = 0.029, requiring ≥3-point IGA improvement). Additionally, 0.3 % A/BPO was safe and well

  10. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine and methylcobalamin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheyu; Chen, Xiang; Li, Qianrui; Du, Juan; Liu, Zhimin; Peng, Yongde; Xu, Mian; Li, Qifu; Lei, Minxiang; Wang, Changjiang; Zheng, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Hongling; Shi, Jinyu; Tao, Shibing; Feng, Ping; Tian, Haoming

    2016-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with methylcobalamin (MC). This was a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy, positive-controlled, non-inferior phase II clinical trial. Diabetic patients with abnormal nerve conduction test results were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral ALC 500 mg t.i.d. or MC 0.5 mg t.i.d. for 24 weeks. The neuropathy symptom score, neuropathy disability score and neurophysiological parameters were measured during follow up. A total of 232 patients were randomized (ALC n = 117, MC n = 115), 88% of which completed the trial. At week 24, patients from both groups had significant reductions in both neuropathy symptom score and neuropathy disability score with no significant difference between two groups (neuropathy symptom score reduction: ALC vs MC 2.35 ± 2.23, P < 0.0001 vs 2.11 ± 2.48, P < 0.0001, intergroup P = 0.38; neuropathy disability score reduction ALC vs MC 1.66 ± 1.90, P < 0.0001 vs 1.35 ± 1.65, P < 0.0001, intergroup P = 0.23). Neurophysiological parameters were also improved in both groups. No significant difference was found between groups in the development of adverse events. ALC is as effective as MC in improving clinical symptoms and neurophysiological parameters for patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy over a 24-week period with good tolerance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

  12. Efficacy evaluation of highly purified intra-articular hyaluronic acid (Sinovial(®)) vs hylan G-F20 (Synvisc(®)) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A double-blind, controlled, randomized, parallel-group non-inferiority study.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, K; Uebelhart, D

    2011-11-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a major cause of disability and pain. This phase III, double-blind (patient and observer blinded,) multicenter, randomized, non-inferiority study was conducted to demonstrate the non-inferiority of the highly purified intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (Sinovial(®)) in comparison to Hylan G-F20 (Synvisc(®)) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A total of 381 patients were randomly assigned to receive either the test drug, 16 mg/2 ml (0.8%) highly purified ia hyaluronic acid of biofermentative origin (Sinovial(®)), or the comparative drug, 16 mg/2 ml of 0.8% hylan G-F20 (Synvisc(®)). The duration of the treatment was 2 weeks (three injections at 1-week interval), followed by an observation period of 6 months. The primary efficacy variable was the improvement in mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) pain subscore from baseline to the final visit (week 26), compared between the two treatment groups. The acceptable margin for non-inferiority was chosen to be 8 mm. At week 26, WOMAC pain subscores decreased by a mean of 32.5 for both Sinovial(®) and Synvisc(®). These results met prespecified criteria for non-inferiority for both the Intent-to-Treat and Per-Protocol populations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups at 26 weeks, although Sinovial(®)-treated patients tended to have a slightly better outcome for select variables, as they did at earlier time-points, some of which reached statistical significance. Both hyaluronic acid preparations were well-tolerated, with no statistically significant differences in tolerability profile between groups. Sinovial(®) and Synvisc(®) treatments were found to be equivalent, both in terms of efficacy and safety. NCT00556608 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A randomized, double-blind study comparing 5 days oral gemifloxacin with 7 days oral levofloxacin in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, S; Fogarty, C; Fulambarker, A

    2004-08-01

    To demonstrate that 5 days of treatment with a new fluoroquinolone, gemifloxacin, is at least as effective as 7 days of treatment with levofloxacin in adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Randomized, double-blind, double dummy, multicentre, parallel group study Sixty different medical centers in US, UK and Germany. A total of 360 adults (>40 years of age) with AECB were randomly assigned to receive gemifloxacin 320 mg once daily for 5 days or levofloxacin 500mg once daily for 7 days. The primary efficacy parameter was a clinical response at follow-up (Days 14-21). In total, 335/360 patients completed the study (93.1%). Seven patients receiving gemifloxacin withdrew from the study compared to 18 patients receiving levofloxacin; this difference was statistically significant (Fisher's exact test: p=0.02). In the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, the clinical success rate at follow-up (Days 14-21) was 85.2% (155/182) with gemifloxacin and 78.1% (139/178) with levofloxacin. Clinical success rate in the per-protocol (PP) population was 88.2% (134/152) with gemifloxacin and 85.1% (126/148) with levofloxacin. At long-term follow-up (Days 28-35), the clinical success rates in the PP population were 83.7% (123/147) with gemifloxacin and 78.4% (109/139) with levofloxacin. The difference in success rates was 5.26% (95% CI: -3.83, 14.34). The clinical efficacy of gemifloxacin 320 mg once daily for 5 days in AECB was at least as good as levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days. Fewer withdrawals and superior clinical efficacy at long-term follow-up were also seen with gemifloxacin.

  14. Efficacy and safety of etodolac-paracetamol fixed dose combination in patients with knee osteoarthritis flare-up: a randomized, double-blind comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Anil; Chandurkar, Nitin; Ambade, Ratnakar; Chandanwale, Ajay; Bartakke, Girish

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of etodolac-paracetamol combination in comparison with etodolac alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) flare-up. In this double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, comparative, multicentric, parallel group study, 220 patients of either sex in the age range of 40 to 70 years with an OA flare-up were randomized either to etodolac (300 mg)-paracetamol (500 mg) combination or etodolac (300 mg) alone twice a day for 10 days. Efficacy outcomes were an average daily pain intensity score on 11-point visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster score (WOMAC), and Lequesne Severity Index; total pain relief score at 30 minutes, 1, 2, and 4 hours after first-dose administration; OA flare-up symptoms resolution; patient's and investigator's overall assessment of study treatments. Etodolac-paracetamol was significantly superior to etodolac alone in reducing pain intensity (P<0.001), achieving pain relief (P<0.05) during the first 4 hours after the study dose administration, and resolution of the clinical signs and symptoms of OA flare-up such as morning stiffness, swelling/inflammation, and erythema. The combination showed significantly greater improvement in WOMAC scores and Lequesne Severity Index (P<0.001) than in etodolac monotherapy. Peak pain intensity difference over a period of 10 days was also significantly (P<0.001) higher in combination-treated patients compared with monotherapy-treated patients. The combination had significantly better patient's and investigator's global efficacy assessment (P=0.001). Both treatments were well tolerated and safe in patients with OA flare-up. For the treatment of painful OA flare-ups, the etodolac-paracetamol combination can offer improved clinical outcomes by targeting multiple pain pathways. The results of the current study show that etodolac-paracetamol is more effective in the treatment of OA flare-up than etodolac alone.

  15. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of a combination of formoterol and ciclesonide with ciclesonide alone in asthma subjects with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Sundeep S; Vaidya, Abhijit J; Kodgule, Rahul R; Gogtay, Jaideep A

    2016-01-01

    Context: The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) is widely used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma uncontrolled by ICS alone. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new ICS-LABA combination inhaler containing Formoterol (F) and Ciclesonide (C). Settings and Design: A double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group fashion, multi-centric study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 169 asthma patients received Ciclesonide 80 μg once daily during a 4-week run-in period, after which, they were randomized to receive either C (80 μg) or a combination of F (4.5 μg) and C (80 μg) (FC) both delivered through a hydro-fluro-alkane pressurized-metered-dose inhaler as 1 puff twice daily, for 6 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Inter-group differences were compared using t-test for independent samples at a significance level of 5%. Results: From baseline, the improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (110 ml vs. 40 ml, 140 ml vs. 20 ml, and 110 ml vs. 40 ml, respectively, all P < 0.05). From baseline, the improvements in mean morning peak expiratory flow at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (17 L/min vs.−3 L/min, 22 L/min vs. 3 L/min, and 30 ml vs. 8 L/min respectively, all P < 0.05). The changes in symptom scores were similar in both the groups. The adverse events in the FC group were not significantly different from those in the C group. Conclusions: FC provides better improvement than C alone in terms of lung function and symptoms without increased risk of adverse events in asthma patients. PMID:27185990

  16. Double-blind study of the actively transported levodopa prodrug XP21279 in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    LeWitt, Peter A; Huff, F Jacob; Hauser, Robert A; Chen, Dan; Lissin, Dmitri; Zomorodi, Katie; Cundy, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of XP21279-carbidopa in patients with Parkinson's disease who experience motor fluctuations compared with immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa tablets. XP21279 is a levodopa prodrug that is actively absorbed by high-capacity nutrient transporters expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and then rapidly converted to levodopa by carboxylesterases. XP21279-carbidopa sustained-release bilayer tablets were developed to overcome pharmacokinetic limitations of levodopa by providing more continuous exposure. Patients with motor fluctuations who required carbidopa-levodopa four or five times daily were optimized for 2 weeks each on carbidopa-levodopa four or five times daily and XP21279-carbidopa three times daily in a randomized sequence. Next, they received each optimized treatment for 2 weeks in a double-blind/double-dummy, randomized sequence. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in daily off time at the end of each double-blind treatment period. All patients at 2 sites underwent pharmacokinetic analyses. Twenty-eight of 35 enrolled patients completed both double-blind treatments. The mean total daily off time was reduced from baseline by a mean (± standard error) of 2.7 hours (± 0.48 hours) for immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa and 3.0 hours (± 0.57 hours) for XP21279-carbidopa (P = 0.49). Among 11 patients who completed pharmacokinetic sampling on each optimized treatment, the percentage deviation from the mean levodopa concentration was lower (P < 0.05) for XP21279-carbidopa than carbidopa-levodopa. Both treatments had a similar incidence of new or worsening dyskinesias. XP21279-carbidopa administered three times daily produced a reduction in off time similar to that of carbidopa-levodopa administered four or five times daily, and the difference was not statistically significant. XP21279-carbidopa significantly reduced variability in levodopa

  17. Clinical efficacy of Spasmofen® suppository in the emergency treatment of renal colic: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Salem, Amel; Yousef, Sameh; Helmy, Sherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal colic is typically characterized by the sudden onset of severe pain radiating from the flank to the groin and its acute management in emergency departments essentially aims at rapid pain relief. Spasmofen® is a brand of Amriya Pharmaceutical Industries in the form of rectal suppositories containing ketoprofen 100 mg and hyoscine butylbromide 10 mg. This combination is intended for the rapid relief of severe colicky pain in the renal system, hepatobiliary system, or gastrointestinal tract. This trial aims to compare a single-dose of Spasmofen rectal suppository to a single intravenous (IV) ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg/2 mL dose in patients with acute renal colic. Methods A total of 80 eligible consecutive patients presenting to the emergency departments of two medical centers with acute renal colic were included in the study. Eligible patients who signed the informed consent were randomly assigned into two treatment groups: an experimental group (Spasmofen group) who received one Spasmofen rectal suppository plus an IV injection of 2 mL of normal saline solution; and a control group (ketorolac group) who received one ketorolac 30 mg/2 mL ampoule IV plus one placebo suppository. Treatment success, defined as a change in the verbal rating score from severe or moderate pain to none or mild at 60 minutes after the dose, was compared between groups using the chi-square/Fisher’s exact test. Percentage reductions in visual pain analog scale (VPAS) scores at 15 and 60 minutes after the dose were compared between groups using the Z-test for proportions. Results Successful treatment at 60 minutes occurred in 35 of 40 (87.5%) of Spasmofen-treated patients and in 33 of 40 (82.5%) of ketorolac-treated patients. The difference was not statistically significant by Fisher’s exact test (P=0.755). The mean percentage reduction of VPAS after 15 minutes was 61.82% in the Spasmofen-treated group and 64.76% in the ketorolac-treated group. The difference was also not statistically significant by the Z-test for proportions (P=0.795). Sixty minutes after being treated, Spasmofen was associated with a statistically significant greater reduction in VPAS (mean% reduction =92.36%) than ketorolac (75.06%; P=0.0466). Conclusion Single-dose Spasmofen rectal suppository might be a safe and effective first-aid treatment for the emergency department relief of acute renal colic. PMID:24851039

  18. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  19. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  20. Do open label blinded outcome studies of novel anticoagulants versus warfarin have equivalent validity to those carried out under double-blind conditions?

    PubMed

    O'Neil, William M; Welner, Sharon A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2013-03-01

    Recent anticoagulants for stroke prevention in AF have been tested in active comparator controlled studies versus warfarin using two designs: double-blind, double-dummy and prospective randomised, open blinded endpoint (PROBE). The former requires elaborate procedures to maintain blinding, while PROBE does not. Outcomes of double-blind and PROBE designed studies of novel anticoagulants for AF, focusing on warfarin controls, were explored. Major, Phase III warfarin-controlled trials for stroke prevention in AF were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) of key outcomes for active comparators versus VKA and event rates for VKA arms were compared between designs, in context of baseline demographics and inclusion criteria. Identified trials studied five novel anticoagulants in three each of PROBE and double-blind design. For ORs of results across studies and outcomes, there was little pattern differentiating the two designs. Among VKA-control subjects, event rates for the primary outcome (stroke or systemic embolism) in PROBE trials at 1.74 %/year (95% confidence interval: 1.54-1.95) was not significantly different from that in double-blind trials, at 1.88 (1.73-2.03). Among other outcomes, VKA-treated subjects in both trial designs had similar event rates, apart from higher all-cause mortality in ROCKET AF, and lower myocardial infarction rates among the PROBE study patients. Although there are differences in outcome between PROBE and double blind trials, they do not appear to be design-related. The exacting requirements of double-blinding in AF trials may not be necessary.

  1. How "Blind" Are Double-Blind Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margraf, Jurgen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder patients (n=59) to investigate concerns about the internal validity of the double-blind design. Found that the great majority of patients and physicians were able to rate accurately whether active drug or placebo had been given and physicians could distinguish between…

  2. A randomized, double-blind study of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets versus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for cancer pain: efficacy and safety in Japanese cancer patients (EXHEAL: a Phase III study of EXtended-release HydromorphonE for cAncer pain reLief).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Satoshi; Saito, Yoji; Tsuneto, Satoru; Aruga, Etsuko; Ide, Azusa; Kakurai, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    In Japan, there are limited options for switching opioid analgesics. Hydromorphone is an opioid analgesic that is routinely used instead of morphine for cancer pain; however, it is not yet available in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone (DS-7113b) extended-release tablets in opioid-naïve patients with cancer pain not relieved by non-opioid analgesics. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. A double-dummy method was used for blinding. Each randomized subject received either hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus placebo oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 4 mg/day (n=88) or placebo hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 10 mg/day (n=93) orally for 7 days (once-daily dosing for hydromorphone and twice-daily dosing for oxycodone). The doses were adjusted as necessary. Efficacy was evaluated by change in visual analog scale (VAS) score from baseline to completion of treatment. The between-group difference in least squares mean changes in VAS score from baseline to completion or discontinuation of treatment was -0.4 mm (95% CI -5.9 to 5 mm) by analysis of covariance where the baseline VAS score was used as a covariate. The upper limit of the 95% CI was below 10 mm, which was predefined as the noninferiority limit. This verified the noninferiority of hydromorphone tablets relative to oxycodone tablets. The incidence of adverse events was 80.7% (71 of 88) in the hydromorphone group and 83.7% (77 of 93) in the oxycodone group. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, somnolence, diarrhea, and constipation, most of which are commonly observed with opioid analgesics. The efficacy and safety of hydromorphone extended-release tablets were equivalent to those of the oxycodone extended-release formulation.

  3. Double-blind, randomized, controlled, pilot study comparing classic ayurvedic medicine, methotrexate, and their combination in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Furst, Daniel E; Venkatraman, Manorama M; McGann, Mary; Manohar, P Ram; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Sarin, Reshmi; Sekar, P G; Raveendran, K G; Mahapatra, Anita; Gopinath, Jidesh; Kumar, P R Krishna

    2011-06-01

    To compare classic Ayurveda, methotrexate (MTX), and their combination in a double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, pilot trial in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 36 weeks. Forty-three seropositive RA patients by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria with disease duration of less than 7 years were assigned to the following treatment groups: MTX plus Ayurvedic placebo (n = 14), Ayurveda plus MTX placebo (n = 12), or Ayurveda plus MTX (n = 17). Outcomes included the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-CRP), ACR20/50/70, and Health Assessment Questionnaire--Disability Index. All measures were obtained every 12 weeks for 36 weeks. Analyses included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, χ², or Student t test. The unique features of this study included the development of placebos for each Ayurvedic pharmacological dosage form and individualization of Ayurvedic therapy. All groups were comparable at baseline in demographics and disease characteristics. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups on the efficacy measures. ACR20 results were MTX 86%, Ayurveda 100%, and combination 82%, and DAS28-CRP response were MTX -2.4, Ayurveda -1.7, and combination -2.4. Differences in adverse events among groups were also not statistically significant, although the MTX groups experienced more adverse event (MTX 174, Ayurveda 112, combination 176). No deaths occurred. In this first-ever, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study comparing Ayurveda, MTX, and their combination, all 3 treatments were approximately equivalent in efficacy, within the limits of a pilot study. Adverse events were numerically fewer in the Ayurveda-only group. This study demonstrates that double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies are possible when testing individualized classic Ayurvedic versus allopathic treatment in ways acceptable to western standards and to Ayurvedic physicians. It also justifies the need for larger studies.

  4. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to assess the relative efficacy of a sage/echinacea spray and a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial carried out in eleven general practices in Switzerland. A total of 154 patients (133 analyzed in per protocol collective) at least 12 years old with acute sore throat present for not more than 72 hours prior to inclusion and with a throat score ≥6 participated in the study. They used either an echinacea/sage spray or a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray with two puffs every 2 hours, in a double-dummy blinded manner, up to 10 times daily until they were symptom-free, for a maximum of 5 days. The main outcome measures was the comparison of response rates during the first three days. A response was defined as a decrease of at least 50% of the total symptoms compared to baseline. Results The echinacea/sage treatment exhibited similar efficacy to the chlorhexidine/lidocaine treatment in reducing sore throat symptoms during the first 3 days (P(x < Y) = .5083). Response rates after 3 days were 63.8% in the echinacea/sage group and 57.8% in the chlorhexidine/lidocaine group. For all secondary parameters, such as time to becoming symptom free, throat pain, and global assessments of efficacy by the physician and patient, no difference between the two treatments was seen. They were both very well tolerated. Conclusion An echinacea/sage preparation is as efficacious and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. PMID:19748859

  5. Efficacy and safety of extended- versus immediate-release pramipexole in Japanese patients with advanced and L-dopa-undertreated Parkinson disease: a double-blind, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Yamamoto, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Sadako; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Kagimura, Tatsuro; Sarashina, Akiko; Rascol, Olivier; Schapira, Anthony H V; Barone, Paolo; Hauser, Robert A; Poewe, Werner

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels of pramipexole extended-release (ER) and pramipexole immediate-release (IR), and to assess the effects of overnight switching from an IR to an ER formulation, in L-dopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease (PD). After a 1- to 4-week screening/enrollment, 112 patients who had exhibited L-dopa-related problems or were receiving suboptimal L-dopa dosage were randomized in double-blind, double-dummy, 1:1 fashion to pramipexole ER once daily or pramipexole IR 2 to 3 times daily for 12 weeks, both titrated to a maximum daily dose of 4.5 mg. Successful completers of double-blind treatment were switched to open-label pramipexole ER, beginning with a 4-week dose-adjustment phase. Among the double-blind treatment patients (n = 56 in each group), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Parts II+III total scores decreased significantly from baseline and to a similar degree with pramipexole ER and IR formulations. In each group, 47 double-blind patients (83.9%) reported adverse events (AEs), requiring withdrawal of 3 ER patients (5.4%) and 2 IR patients (3.6%). Trough plasma levels at steady state (at the same doses and dose-normalized concentrations) were also similar with both formulations. Among open-label treatment patients (n = 53 from IR to ER), 83% were successfully switched (no worsening of PD symptoms) to pramipexole ER. In L-dopa-treated patients, pramipexole ER and pramipexole IR demonstrated similar efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels. Patients can be safely switched overnight from pramipexole IR to pramipexole ER with no impact on efficacy.

  6. Efficacy and safety of eperisone in patients with low back pain: a double blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cabitza, P; Randelli, P

    2008-01-01

    Eperisone hydrochloride (4'-ethyl-2-methyl-3-piperidinopropiophenone hydrochloride) is an antispastic agent used for treatment of diseases characterized by muscle stiffness and pain. The aim of this research was to investigate the efficacy of eperisone in patients with acute low back pain and spasticity of spinal muscles. The study design was a randomized, double-blind (double-dummy) study in 160 patients with low back pain and no Rx finding of major spinal diseases, randomly assigned to a treatment with oral eperisone 100 mg three times daily (t.i.d.) or thiocolchicoside 8 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) for 12 consecutive days. Analgesic activity was evaluated by scoring "spontaneous pain" (VAS) and pain on movement and pression (4-digit scale), while muscle relaxant activity of the medication was evaluated by means of the "hand-to-floor" distance and the Lasegue's manoeuvre. All the measures were done at the inclusion day and after 3, 7 and 12 days of treatment. The two medications had comparable analgesic and muscle relaxant efficacy. Sponta-neous pain and pain on movement/pressure were significantly reduced by both treatments. Moreover, both eperisone- and thiocolchicoside-treated patients showed a clinically evident muscle relaxation as proved by a progressive reduction in the "hand-to-floor" distance and increase in the articular excursion (Lasegue's manoeuvre). Only 5% of eperisone-treated patients showed minor gastrointestinal side effects, while the incidence of side effects in the thiocolchicoside group was 21.25%. Moreover, in the thiocolchicoside-treated patients also diarrhoea was present, which reached a moderate intensity in some cases. In conclusions, eperisone represents a valuable and safer alternative to other muscle relaxant agents for treatment of low back pain.

  7. Randomized double-blind comparison of cognitive and EEG effects of lacosamide and carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Loring, David W; Boyd, Alan; Echauz, Javier; LaRoche, Suzette; Velez-Ruiz, Naymee; Korb, Pearce; Byrnes, William; Dilley, Deanne; Borghs, Simon; De Backer, Marc; Story, Tyler; Dedeken, Peter; Webster, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Differential effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is more commonly determined by tolerability than efficacy. Cognitive effects of AEDs can adversely affect tolerability and quality of life. This study evaluated cognitive and EEG effects of lacosamide (LCM) compared with carbamazepine immediate-release (CBZ-IR). A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, two-period crossover, fixed-dose study in healthy subjects compared neuropsychological and EEG effects of LCM (150mg, b.i.d.) and CBZ-IR (200mg, t.i.d.). Testing was conducted at screening, predrug baseline, the end of each treatment period (3-week titration; 3-week maintenance), and the end of each washout period (4weeks after treatment). A composite Z-score was derived for the primary outcome variable (computerized cognitive tests and traditional neuropsychological measures) and separately for the EEG measures. Other variables included individual computer, neuropsychological, and EEG scores and adverse events (AEs). Subjects included 60 healthy adults (57% female; mean age: 34.4years [SD: 10.5]); 44 completed both treatments; 41 were per protocol subjects. Carbamazepine immediate-release had worse scores compared with LCM for the primary composite neuropsychological outcome (mean difference=0.33 [SD: 1.36], p=0.011) and for the composite EEG score (mean difference=0.92 [SD: 1.77], p=0.003). Secondary analyses across the individual variables revealed that CBZ-IR was statistically worse than LCM on 36% (4/11) of the neuropsychological tests (computerized and noncomputerized) and 0% of the four EEG measures; none favored CBZ-IR. Drug-related AEs occurred more with CBZ-IR (49%) than LCM (22%). Lacosamide had fewer untoward neuropsychological and EEG effects and fewer AEs and AE-related discontinuations than CBZ-IR in healthy subjects. Lacosamide exhibits a favorable cognitive profile.

  8. Clinical, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and pseudoephedrine for the symptomatic treatment of nasal congestion associated with common cold.

    PubMed

    Loose, Irene; Winkel, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    It was the aim of this clinical study to demonstrate the efficacy of 1000 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, CAS 50-78-2) in combination with 60 mg pseudoephedrine (PSE, CAS 90-82-4), compared with placebo, in the symptomatic treatment of nasal congestion associated with the common cold. A further aim was to demonstrate the efficacy of 500 mg ASA + 30 mg PSE and of 1000 mg paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) + 60 mg PSE (active control) in the symptomatic treatment of nasal congestion. The study was designed as a randomized, two-center, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-dose efficacy and safety trial over 6 h and was carried out in the USA. In total, at two centers, 643 patients who had a history and diagnosis of acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), were included; they showed symptoms such as nasal congestion, scratchy/sore throat, headache, generalized muscle ache, earache, runny nose, fever, sneezing etc. The investigational drugs ASA and PSE were both provided as granules in sachets and the granules were dissolved in water before administration; the combined preparation of paracetamol + PSE was administered as commercially available tablets encapsulated for blinding. For all preparations, matching placebos were provided. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve for differences from baseline on a nasal congestion scale in the first 2 h after treatment. To be eligible for the study, otherwise healthy volunteers were to present with nasal stuffiness of recent onset that reached a score of at least 6 on the 11-point scale for nasal congestion (0 = not stuffy, 10 = very stuffy). The primary analysis of the primary efficacy variable was calculated by analysis of variance including treatment group, severity (moderate/severe) and center as main strata. The analysis was performed using the intent-to-treat population. All active treatments proved to be statistically significantly superior to placebo with regard to the

  9. Ketanserin in essential hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, H. A.; Ramsay, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of the selective serotonin antagonist ketanserin was examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 20 patients with essential hypertension. After 7 weeks treatment with ketanserin (mean dose 71 mg/d) there was a significant fall of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as compared to placebo, with a peak effect of 19.1/9.1 mmHg lying (P less than 0.01/P less than 0.01), and 16.5/11.3 mmHg standing (P less than 0.01/P less than 0.01); twice daily dosage appeared satisfactory. Subjective side effects were similar in the ketanserin and placebo groups. Ketanserin is an effective antihypertensive drug of moderate potency when given twice daily, with no orthostatic effect. PMID:3161013

  10. Moclobemide versus clomipramine in the treatment of depression: a double-blind multicentre study in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Dierick, M; Cattiez, P; Franck, G; Burton, P; Defleur, J; Hermans, W; Roelandts, A; Wolfrum, C; Berger, M; Hellstern, K

    1990-01-01

    Moclobemide and clomipramine were compared for efficacy, tolerance and safety in 63 mixed endogenous and nonendogenous depressed patients. Treatment was given for at least 4 weeks in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. The mean Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score decreased gradually during treatment with no differences between groups. Two patients on clomipramine and none on moclobemide were withdrawn for lack of efficacy, and poor tolerance caused 3 patients on moclobemide and 7 on clomipramine to stop treatment prematurely. Patients with endogenous depression responded better to clomipramine, whereas nonendogenous disorders did better on moclobemide. Adverse events were more frequent in the clomipramine group and more of these were severe or very severe than for moclobemide. Thus, although no significant difference in efficacy was seen, moclobemide appeared to be tolerated better than clomipramine. The numbers were small, however, and many patients received concomitant medication, and the results are therefore difficult to interpret.

  11. [A double-blind nomifensine-nortriptyline trial in ambulatory patients conducted by psychiatrists in private practice: results and comments].

    PubMed

    Coudray, J P; Dufour, H; Garello, J L; Mollo, Y; Pascal, F; Poisson, D; Scotto, J C; Simart, G; Sormani, J; Tourame, G

    1978-06-28

    Nomifensine and nortriptyline were compared in a collaborative trial by psychiatrists in private practice. The trial impiled:--selection of ambulatory depressed patients--randomization in parallel groups (respectively 31 and 34 subjects)--administration in double-blind condition of 4 capsuels daily of either compound during 4 weeks--quotation of depressvie syndrom with Hamilton depression scale before treatment after 2 and 4 weeks. The analysis of results shows clear improvment of depression scores, equivalent in both groups (non significant difference and posterior rejection of an alternative hypothesis). Practical problems encountered in controlled trials in psychiatrist's outpatients are discussed.

  12. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  13. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Chinese women aged 14-25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (-0.71, CI -1.37 to -0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. NCT00104546; Results

  14. Randomized, double-blind study of grepafloxacin versus amoxycillin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Langan, C E; Cranfield, R; Breisch, S; Pettit, R

    1997-12-01

    This randomized, multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy study compared the efficacy and safety of grepafloxacin and amoxycillin in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB). Patients were randomized to receive grepafloxacin 400 mg or 600 mg od, or amoxycillin 500 mg tds, for 7 or 10 days. The trial recruited 656 patients, of whom 566 (86%) completed the study. Clinical success rates at the 2 week follow-up visit for the population evaluable for clinical efficacy were 82% (165/202 patients) in the grepafloxacin 400 mg group, 85% (175/206) in the grepafloxacin 600 mg group and 85% (172/203 patients) in the amoxycillin group. The 95% confidence interval confirmed the equivalence of the two grepafloxacin doses and amoxycillin, with no significant difference between the grepafloxacin groups. The microbiological success rates at follow-up showed equivalence between the grepafloxacin 400 mg and amoxycillin groups: 86% (144/168 isolates) and 83% (162/195), respectively. The grepafloxacin 600 mg group achieved a statistically significantly higher eradication rate (92%, 150/164; 95% CI 2.0%, 16.1%) than the amoxycillin group in the follow-up assessment for microbiological and clinical efficacy (evaluable population). There was no significant difference between the two grepafloxacin treatment groups (95% CI -13.3%, 0.9%; P= 0.087). All three treatment regimens successfully eradicated the pathogens most commonly isolated during the study, including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Grepafloxacin had a good safety profile, comparable to that of amoxycillin, although grepafloxacin 600 mg was associated with a higher incidence of nausea, dyspepsia and taste perversion than amoxycillin. It can be concluded that grepafloxacin 400 mg or 600 mg od is as effective as amoxycillin 500 mg tds in the treatment of ABECB.

  15. IDEAL: a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the first skin patch for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Winblad, B; Grossberg, G; Frölich, L; Farlow, M; Zechner, S; Nagel, J; Lane, R

    2007-07-24

    The rivastigmine patch is the first transdermal treatment for Alzheimer disease (AD). By providing continuous delivery of drug into the bloodstream over 24 hours, transdermal delivery may offer benefits superior to those of oral administration. This study compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of rivastigmine patches with capsules and placebo. IDEAL (Investigation of transDermal Exelon in ALzheimer's disease) was a 24-week, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled study. Patients with AD were randomized to placebo or one of three active treatment target dose groups: 10-cm(2) rivastigmine patch (delivering 9.5 mg/24 hours); 20-cm(2) rivastigmine patch (17.4 mg/24 hours); or 6-mg BID rivastigmine capsules. Primary efficacy measures were the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale and Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change. Secondary outcome measures assessed a range of domains, including behavior, cognitive performance, attention, executive functions, and activities of daily living. A total of 1,195 AD patients participated. All rivastigmine treatment groups showed significant improvement relative to placebo. The 10-cm(2) patch showed similar efficacy to capsules, with approximately two-thirds fewer reports of nausea (7.2% vs 23.1%) and vomiting (6.2% vs 17.0%), incidences statistically not significantly different from placebo (5.0% and 3.3% for nausea and vomiting, respectively). The 20-cm(2) patch showed earlier improvement and numerically superior cognitive scores vs the 10-cm(2) patch with similar tolerability to capsules. Local skin tolerability was good. The transdermal patch with rivastigmine may offer additional therapeutic benefits and may prove to be the best delivery system for this drug to treat AD.

  16. Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle A J; ter Riet, Gerben; Nys, Sita; van der Wal, Willem M; de Borgie, Corianne A J M; de Reijke, Theo M; Prins, Jan M; Koeijers, Jeanne; Verbon, Annelies; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2011-07-25

    The increasing prevalence of uropathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in cranberries to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). In a double-blind, double-dummy noninferiority trial, 221 premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs were randomized to 12-month prophylaxis use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 480 mg once daily, or cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily. Primary end points were the mean number of symptomatic UTIs over 12 months, the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI, the median time to first UTI, and development of antibiotic resistance in indigenous Escherichia coli. After 12 months, the mean number of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (4.0 vs 1.8; P = .02), and the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (78.2% vs 71.1%). Median time to the first symptomatic UTI was 4 months for the cranberry and 8 months for the TMP-SMX group. After 1 month, in the cranberry group, 23.7% of fecal and 28.1% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant, whereas in the TMP-SMX group, 86.3% of fecal and 90.5% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant. Similarly, we found increased resistance rates for trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin in these E coli isolates after 1 month in the TMP-SMX group. After discontinuation of TMP-SMX, resistance reached baseline levels after 3 months. Antibiotic resistance did not increase in the cranberry group. Cranberries and TMP-SMX were equally well tolerated. In premenopausal women, TMP-SMX, 480 mg once daily, is more effective than cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily, to prevent recurrent UTIs, at the expense of emerging antibiotic resistance. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN50717094.

  17. Can Acupuncture Treatment Be Double-Blinded? An Evaluation of Double-Blind Acupuncture Treatment of Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed “de qi” in East Asian medicine), and patients’ pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015) for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027), suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients’ acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in

  18. Homeopathic Individualized Q-Potencies versus Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression: Double-Blind, Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Adler, U. C.; Paiva, N. M. P.; Cesar, A. T.; Adler, M. S.; Molina, A.; Padula, A. E.; Calil, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies)] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = .654) and 8th weeks (P = .965) of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine) were −3.04 (95% CI −6.95, 0.86) and −2.4 (95% CI −6.05, 0.77) at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of outpatients

  19. On-demand treatment of acute heartburn with the antacid hydrotalcite compared with famotidine and placebo: randomized double-blind cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Holtmann, Gerald; Caspary, Wolfgang F; Weingärtner, Ulrike

    2007-07-01

    Antacids are widely used in the self-treatment of gastroesophageal reflux-induced complaints, but respective studies are lacking. To compare the efficacy and safety of hydrotalcite with the H2 receptor antagonist famotidine and placebo in the on-demand treatment of acute heartburn under daily practice conditions. Five hundred sixty-two individuals in 4 centers were randomized in a double-blind, double-dummy, 3-fold cross-over study to single-dose treatments of 1000 mg hydrotalcite, 10 mg famotidine, or placebo. Heartburn severity and relief was measured with numerical and visual rating scales. A significantly better heartburn relief score was achieved 60 minutes after administration of hydrotalcite compared with placebo (primary end point, P<0.0001). Better efficacy was also observed 30 minutes and 3 hours after the intake of hydrotalcite in comparison with famotidine or placebo. A significant decrease in heartburn severity compared with placebo occurred within 10 minutes for hydrotalcite and was faster compared with both controls. For subjects self-administering antacids for episodic heartburn, antacid hydrotalcite provides symptom relief significantly faster and, within the first 3 hours postdosing, more effective than famotidine or placebo. These results suggest that on-demand treatment of hydrotalcite is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for heartburn.

  20. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leino, M; Ennevaara, K; Latvala, A L; Nordgren, P; Posti, A M; Suves, R; Takalo, E

    1992-10-01

    A 4 week, multicentre, double-blind, double dummy, placebo controlled group comparative study was carried out during the birch pollen season to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops (twice daily) and 2% sodium cromoglycate eye drops (four times daily). Participants with a history of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) were randomized to receive nedocromil sodium (60), sodium cromoglycate (61) or placebo (64). Clinical assessment of SAC showed improvement with both active treatments compared to placebo but symptomatology was low and only changes in photophobia and grittiness reached significance (P < 0.05). Patient diaries showed significant control of itching by both active treatments, compared to placebo, with no differences between the active preparations. Patients' opinions indicated a marked placebo effect: 73% of this group reported full or moderate control of symptoms, compared with 75% in sodium cromoglycate and 80% in the nedocromil sodium group. Unusual symptoms were most common (27 patients) with nedocromil sodium eye drops: P < 0.05 vs. placebo (15 patients). There were no serious adverse events. Nedocromil sodium eye drops (b.d.) and sodium cromoglycate eye drops (q.i.d.) were both considered clinically more effective than placebo in controlling symptoms of SAC due to birch pollen.

  1. Valacyclovir for prevention of recurrent herpes labialis: 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Baker, David; Eisen, Drore

    2003-03-01

    The oral antiviral valacyclovir, which is 3 to 5 times more bioavailable than its parent compound acyclovir, is a good candidate for effective therapy to suppress recurrent herpes labialis lesions. The efficacy of oral valacyclovir in the suppression of herpes labialis has not previously been reported. Two identical, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of oral valacyclovir 500 mg (n=49) versus placebo (n=49) once daily for 16 weeks in the suppression of herpes labialis among patients with a history of 4 or more recurrent lesions in the previous year. Data from the studies were pooled for analysis. Twenty-eight patients (60%) in the valacyclovir group compared with only 18 patients (38%) in the placebo group were recurrence-free throughout the 4-month treatment period (P=.041). The mean time to first recurrence was significantly longer with valacyclovir (13.1 weeks) compared with placebo (9.6 weeks) (P=.016). The total number of recurrences in patients using valacyclovir was 24 compared with 41 in patients using placebo. The incidence of adverse events during the 4-month treatment period was slightly lower in the valacyclovir group (22 events, 33% of patients) compared with the placebo group (29 events, 39% of patients). The results of these small double-blind, placebo-controlled studies suggest that oral valacyclovir 500 mg once daily for 4 months is effective and well tolerated for the prevention of recurrent herpes labialis. More research with larger patient numbers is warranted to corroborate and extend these findings.

  2. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of fast-dissolving paracetamol on postsurgical dental pain: two randomized, single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yong; Collaku, Agron; Brown, Jean; Buchanan, William L; Reed, Kenneth; Cooper, Stephen A; Otto, James

    2013-09-01

    Paracetamol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the-counter analgesic for the treatment of mild-to-moderate pain. However, the speed of onset of pain relief is limited mainly to the standard, immediate-release formulation. Efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief are critical in acute pain situations such as postsurgical dental pain, because reducing pain can improve clinical outcome and reduce the risk of transition from acute pain to more chronic pain. Efficacy and rapid onset also reduce the risk of excessive dosing with the analgesic. We sought to investigate the dose-response efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of a fast-dissolving APAP formulation compared with lower doses of APAP and placebo in dental patients after impacted third molar extraction. Two single-center, single-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group studies (Study I and Study II) were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and speed of onset of pain relief of different doses of a fast-dissolving APAP tablet (FD-APAP), standard APAP, and placebo in patients with postsurgical dental pain following third molar extraction. In Study I, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, FD-APAP 500 mg, or placebo was given to 300 patients; in Study II, a single dose of FD-APAP 1000 mg, standard APAP 650 mg, or placebo was given to 401 patients. All 701 patients from both studies were included in the analysis and safety assessment. FD-APAP 1000 mg demonstrated significantly greater effect compared with FD-APAP 500 mg, APAP 650 mg, and placebo for all efficacy measurements, including sum of pain relief and pain intensity difference, total pain relief, sum of pain intensity difference, pain intensity difference, and pain relief score during 6 hours after the dose. Onset of confirmed first perceptible relief in subjects treated with FD-APAP 1000 mg was 15 minutes, which was 32% and 25% significantly shorter than onset of pain relief of FD

  3. Baclofen for stroke patients with persistent hiccups: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238

  4. Fluvoxamine versus imipramine and placebo: a double-blind comparison in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Fabre, L; Birkhimer, L J; Zaborny, B A; Wong, L F; Kapik, B M

    1996-06-01

    Approximately 20 million patients suffer from major depressive disorder each year, indicating a need for antidepressant agents that are synonymous with effectiveness, tolerability and patient compliance. The authors examined the effects of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the treatment of outpatients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive disorder. A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo- and imipramine-controlled single center study was conducted in 150 outpatients. Patients were randomized to receive up to 150 mg/day of fluvoxamine as a single bedtime dose, 240 mg/day of imipramine on a twice-daily (BID) schedule, or placebo for six weeks. Efficacy measurements included HAM-D, MADRS, CGI, Raskin-Covi and SCL-56 scales. The HAM-D total score indicated that both active treatment groups showed significantly (p < or = 0.05) greater therapeutic benefit than did placebo. Severely depressed patients (HAM-D > or = 30) responded better to fluvoxamine in five of six measures. Side-effects from fluvoxamine were similar to those reported for other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (nausea, somnolence) and were well tolerated. Imipramine was associated with anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth and dizziness. The pharmacokinetic properties of fluvoxamine which allow the drug to be administered as a single daily dose should aid in the maintenance of patient compliance, while offering significant clinical benefit in the improvement of depressive symptoms.

  5. Randomised, double blind comparison of omeprazole and cimetidine in the treatment of symptomatic gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bate, C M; Wilkinson, S P; Bradby, G V; Bateson, M C; Hislop, W S; Crowe, J P; Willoughby, C P; Peers, E M; Richardson, P D

    1989-01-01

    In a randomised, double blind, parallel group study in patients with symptomatic gastric ulcer (94% greater than or equal to 5 mm diameter), 102 received omeprazole 20 mg om and 87 cimetidine 400 mg bd. After four weeks 73% and 58% (p less than 0.05) respectively had healed (eight weeks: 84% and 75%, ns). After four weeks, a greater proportion (81%) of omeprazole treated patients was symptom free than of those receiving cimetidine (60%; p less than 0.01). Over the first two weeks, patients receiving omeprazole had less day pain, less night pain and took fewer antacids than those receiving cimetidine (all p less than 0.05). The difference between omeprazole and cimetidine was not appreciably affected by age, smoking, size of the ulcer and trial centre. Tolerability was similar in the two treatment groups. In the treatment of symptomatic gastric ulcer, omeprazole relieves the symptoms more quickly than cimetidine and heals a greater proportion of ulcers within four weeks. PMID:2684802

  6. Double-blind comparison of moclobemide, imipramine and placebo in depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Ucha Udabe, R; Márquez, C A; Traballi, C A; Portes, N

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective, randomized double-blind study, moclobemide was compared with imipramine and placebo in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Three parallel groups of 24 patients each received capsules containing 100 mg moclobemide, 33 mg imipramine or placebo for 6 weeks; the maximum daily dose was 6 capsules. The only concomitant psychotropic medication allowed was diazepam for severe agitation or insomnia, and continuation of established lithium prophylaxis; no tyramine restrictions were imposed. Both moclobemide and imipramine were clearly superior to placebo in reducing depressive symptoms, moclobemide showing a somewhat faster response on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than imipramine; the mean final improvement in total score compared with baseline was 48.3% for moclobemide, 50.2% for imipramine and 18.6% for placebo. The difference between moclobemide and imipramine was not significant. Placebo was clearly better tolerated than either active drug, and moclobemide slightly but not significantly better than imipramine. A 52-week assessment in 22 of the patients receiving moclobemide showed that the clinical response was maintained and the long-term treatment was well tolerated. It is concluded that both moclobemide and imipramine were superior to placebo in treatment of major depressive episodes in outpatients. There was a slight tendency to earlier response with moclobemide, probably because it can be given in the full dose from the start of treatment.

  7. A double-blind study comparing paroxetine and maprotiline in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Szegedi, A; Wetzel, H; Angersbach, D; Dunbar, G C; Schwarze, H; Philipp, M; Benkert, O

    1997-05-01

    A double-blind multicenter randomized parallel group study comparing paroxetine and maprotiline was carried out in a total of 544 outpatients. Included were patients with varying degrees of severity of depressive symptoms who fulfilled modified RDC criteria for either Minor or Major Depression and showed a HAMD-17 score of > or = 13. No concomitant benzodiazepine treatment was allowed. Duration of treatment was 6 weeks, after an initial wash-out period. Doses were fixed during the first 3 weeks of treatment, patients receiving either 20 mg paroxetine or 100 mg maprotiline daily. An option for dose escalation was provided for insufficient responders after 3 weeks. The weekly assessments comprised rating of the HAMD-17, MADRS, BRMS, RDS, HAMA, CAS, and CGI scales and registration of adverse events by non-leading questions. An intention-to-treat and a completer analysis were performed. Response was defined as a HAMD-17 reduction of > or = 50% or a HAMD-17 score of < or = 9 at the end of the study or at dropout. The treatment groups were comparable according to demographic data. Overall evaluation indicated equieffective and good antidepressant and anxiety-reducing properties for paroxetine and maprotiline. No persistent significant differences between treatment groups were observed on any assessment instrument. There was no difference in the frequency of observed side-effects, but side-effect profiles were markedly different, as maprotiline patients had more anticholinergic and paroxetine patients more SSRI-typical side-effects.

  8. Meige syndrome: double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate.

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, J W; van Weerden, T W; Teelken, A W; van den Burg, W; Lakke, J P

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate and placebo was conducted in five patients with Meige syndrome. CSF neurotransmitter studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. GABA levels were not influenced by the administration of sodium valproate. An increase in HVA levels was observed in every patient, which may reflect an increase in central dopaminergic activity. This finding may explain the trend towards clinical deterioration which was observed during treatment with sodium valproate. Sodium valproate appears to be ineffective in Meige syndrome. PMID:3121795

  9. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral human immunoglobulin for gastrointestinal dysfunction in children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Handen, Benjamin L; Melmed, Raun D; Hansen, Robin L; Aman, Michael G; Burnham, David L; Bruss, Jon B; McDougle, Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI symptoms. Endpoint analysis revealed no significant differences across treatment groups on a modified global improvement scale (validated in irritable bowel syndrome studies), number of daily bowel movements, days of constipation, or severity of problem behaviors. IGOH was well-tolerated; there were no serious adverse events. This study demonstrates the importance of conducting rigorous trials in children with autism and casts doubt on one GI mechanism presumed to exert etiological and/or symptomatic effects in this population.

  10. Heroin Dependence Treatment in Malaysia: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Chawarski, Marek C.; Mazlan, Mahmud

    2011-01-01

    Background Expanding access to effective treatments for heroin dependence is a global health priority that will also reduce HIV transmission. This study compares the efficacy for maintaining heroin abstinence, preventing relapse, and reducing HIV risk behaviors of three common treatments: detoxification followed by drug counseling only or drug counseling combined with opioid antagonist (naltrexone) or agonist (buprenorphine) maintenance treatment. Methods 126 detoxified heroin dependent patients in Malaysia were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of medication maintenance with naltrexone, buprenorphine, or placebo, provided double-blind and double-dummy. All patients received manual-guided drug counseling. Primary outcomes, assessed by three times per week urine testing, were days to first heroin use, days to heroin relapse (3 consecutive opioid-positive urine tests), maximum consecutive days heroin abstinence, and, assessed by self-report at baseline, 3- and 6-months, reductions in HIV risk behaviors. The study was terminated after 22 months of enrolment, based on findings of superior buprenorphine efficacy in an interim safety analysis and the recommendation of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, with the number NCT00383045. Findings We observed consistent, significant linear contrasts in days to first heroin use (p<0.001), days to heroin relapse (p<0.001), maximum consecutive days heroin abstinence (p<0.01), and retention (p<0.001), with all results best for buprenorphine, intermediate for naltrexone, and worst for placebo. Buprenorphine was associated with significantly greater time to first heroin use and retention compared to naltrexone (p<0.01 for both measures) or placebo (p<0.001 for both measures) and also significantly greater time to heroin relapse (p<0.01) and maximum consecutive weeks abstinent (p<0.01) compared to placebo. There were no significant differences between naltrexone and placebo on these

  11. Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of grepafloxacin and amoxycillin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, B; Dutchman, D A; Pettit, R; Maroli, A

    1997-12-01

    This randomized, multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy study assessed the efficacy and safety of 7 or 10 day regimens of grepafloxacin, 600 mg od, compared with amoxycillin, 500 mg tds, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 264 patients were recruited at 43 centres (127 received grepafloxacin and 137 received amoxycillin), of whom 207 patients (78%) completed the study. Clinical and microbiological efficacy were assessed at the end-of-treatment visit (3-5 days after the last dose) and at the follow-up visit (28-42 days after the last dose). At follow-up, patients in the evaluable population treated with grepafloxacin demonstrated a clinical response rate (76%; 87/114) equivalent to that seen with amoxycillin (74%, 85/111, 95% CI = -12%, 10%) while, in the intent-to-treat population with a documented bacterial pathogen, the clinical success rate in the grepafloxacin group (78%, 29/37) was significantly higher than in the amoxycillin group (58%, 28/48), 95% CI = 2%, 43%). In patients from the evaluable population in whom the pathogens were documented the clinical success rate favoured grepafloxacin, compared with amoxycillin (79%, 26/33 versus 63%, 26/42, respectively; 95% CI = -5.2%, 38.1%). Microbiological eradication with grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in the evaluable population; the success rate was 89% (32/36) in the grepafloxacin group compared with 71% (32/45) for the amoxycillin group (95% CI = 2%, 37%). The pathogens most commonly isolated from patients were Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The success rates for infections caused by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae at follow-up were higher with grepafloxacin than with amoxycillin. Grepafloxacin was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable to that of amoxycillin. The therapeutic judgement of patients and investigators at the patient's last visit, as well as the assessment of individual respiratory signs

  12. An exploratory short-term double-blind randomized trial of varenicline versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation in women.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kevin M; McClure, Erin A; Baker, Nathaniel L; Hartwell, Karen J; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Within a parent study examining ovarian hormone effects on smoking cessation in women, we conducted an exploratory short-term trial of varenicline versus transdermal nicotine patch. Double-blind double-dummy randomized trial. Single-site out-patient research clinic in the United States. Female smokers, ages 18-45 years and averaging ≥10 cigarettes per day for at least 6 months (n=140). Participants were randomized to receive a 4-week course of (a) varenicline tablets and placebo patches (n = 67) or (b) placebo tablets and nicotine patches (n=73). Two brief cessation counseling sessions were provided for all participants. The outcome of primary clinical interest was 2-week end-of-treatment abstinence. Secondary outcomes included 1- and 4-week end-of treatment abstinence and abstinence at a post-treatment follow-up visit occurring 4 weeks after treatment conclusion. Breath carbon monoxide (≤ 10 parts per million) was used to confirm biochemically self-reported abstinence. Two-week end-of-treatment abstinence was achieved by 37.3% (25 of 67) of varenicline participants and by 17.8% (13 of 73) of nicotine patch participants [odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3-6.0, P=0.011]. One-week (44.8 versus 20.6%, OR=3.1, 95% CI=1.5-6.6, P=0.003) and 4-week (22.4 versus 9.6%, OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.0-7.2, P=0.043) end-of-treatment abstinence similarly favored varenicline, although post-treatment follow-up Russell Standard abstinence was not significantly different between groups (23.9 versus 13.7%, OR=2.0, 95% CI=0.8-4.7, P=0.126). In an exploratory 4-week head-to-head trial in female smokers, varenicline, compared with nicotine patch, more than doubled the odds of end-of-treatment abstinence, although this diminished somewhat at post-treatment follow-up. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. An Exploratory Short-Term Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Varenicline versus Nicotine Patch for Smoking Cessation in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; McClure, Erin A.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Within a parent study examining ovarian hormone effects on smoking cessation in women, we conducted an exploratory short-term trial of varenicline versus transdermal nicotine patch. Design Double-blind double-dummy randomized trial. Setting Single-site outpatient research clinic in the United States. Participants Female smokers, ages 18-45 and averaging ≥10 cigarettes per day for at least 6 months (N=140). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive a four-week course of (a) varenicline tablets and placebo patches (n=67), or (b) placebo tablets and nicotine patches (n=73). Two brief cessation counseling sessions were provided for all participants. Measurements The outcome of primary clinical interest was two-week end-of-treatment abstinence. Secondary outcomes included one- and four-week end-of treatment abstinence and abstinence at a post-treatment follow-up visit occurring four weeks after treatment conclusion. Breath carbon monoxide (≤10 parts per million) was used to confirm biochemically self-reported abstinence. Findings Two-week end-of-treatment abstinence was achieved by 37.3% (25/67) of varenicline participants and by 17.8% (13/73) of nicotine patch participants (odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) 2.7 (1.3-6.0), p=0.011). One-week (44.8% vs 20.6%, OR 3.1 (1.5-6.6), p=0.003) and four-week (22.4% vs 9.6%, OR 2.7 (1.0-7.2), p=0.043) end-of-treatment abstinence similarly favored varenicline, though post-treatment follow-up Russell Standard abstinence was not significantly different between groups (23.9% vs 13.7%, OR 2.0 (0.8-4.7), p=0.126). Conclusion In an exploratory four-week head-to-head trial in female smokers, varenicline, compared with nicotine patch, more than doubled the odds of end-of-treatment abstinence, although this diminished somewhat at post-treatment follow-up. PMID:25727442

  14. Comparative study of the efficacy of limaprost and pregabalin as single agents and in combination for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kim, Jin Hyok; Park, Ye Soo; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jae Hyup; Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    Although the simultaneous management of neuronal ischemia-related pain and compression-demyelination-related neuropathic pain is considered optimal in treating lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), the effect of combination therapy with pregabalin and limaprost has not been elucidated. This study aimed to compare the effects of limaprost and pregabalin individually and in combination for the treatment of LSS. This is a prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial. The sample consists of patients with LSS. The baseline-adjusted Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, visual analog scale (VAS) scores for leg pain, the European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D), and initial claudication distance (ICD). The present study (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01888536) was a prospective, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial designed to determine the efficacy of limaprost in alleviating leg pain, improving disability, and increasing walking distance in persons with degenerative LSS in three different treatment groups: limaprost alone, pregabalin alone, and combined limaprost and pregabalin through 1:1:1 allocation. The primary outcome was the baseline-adjusted ODI score at 8 weeks after treatment. The non-inferior margin of the ODI was set at δ=10 points. The baseline-adjusted ODI score (primary outcome) at 8 weeks after treatment in the limaprost group was not inferior to those in the pregabalin and limaprost+pregabalin groups. The overall changes of the baseline-adjusted ODI scores, VAS scores for leg pain, the EQ-5D, and ICD during the follow-up assessments over an 8-week period (secondary end point) were not different among the three groups. The baseline-adjusted ODI scores and VAS scores for leg pain decreasedsignificantly over time after treatment in all three groups. The baseline-adjusted EQ-5D score and ICD also increased significantly over time after treatment in all three groups. The efficacy of limaprost for lumbar spinal

  15. Direct phase retrieval in double blind Fourier holography.

    PubMed

    Raz, Oren; Leshem, Ben; Miao, Jianwei; Nadler, Boaz; Oron, Dan; Dudovich, Nirit

    2014-10-20

    Phase measurement is a long-standing challenge in a wide range of applications, from X-ray imaging to astrophysics and spectroscopy. While in some scenarios the phase is resolved by an interferometric measurement, in others it is reconstructed via numerical optimization, based on some a-priori knowledge about the signal. The latter commonly use iterative algorithms, and thus have to deal with their convergence, stagnation, and robustness to noise. Here we combine these two approaches and present a new scheme, termed double blind Fourier holography, providing an efficient solution to the phase problem in two dimensions, by solving a system of linear equations. We present and experimentally demonstrate our approach for the case of lens-less imaging.

  16. Phase III randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose intravenous peramivir with oral oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Shigeru; Yen, Muh-Yong; Cheong, Hee-Jin; Hirotsu, Nobuo; Ishida, Tadashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kida, Hiroshi; Shimada, Jingoro

    2011-11-01

    Antiviral medications with activity against influenza viruses are important in controlling influenza. We compared intravenous peramivir, a potent neuraminidase inhibitor, with oseltamivir in patients with seasonal influenza virus infection. In a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study, patients aged ≥ 20 years with influenza A or B virus infection were randomly assigned to receive either a single intravenous infusion of peramivir (300 or 600 mg) or oral administration of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 5 days). To demonstrate the noninferiority of peramivir in reducing the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms with hazard model analysis and a noninferiority margin of 0.170, we planned to recruit 1,050 patients in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. A total of 1,091 patients (364 receiving 300 mg and 362 receiving 600 mg of peramivir; 365 receiving oseltamivir) were included in the intent-to-treat infected population. The median durations of influenza symptoms were 78.0, 81.0, and 81.8 h in the groups treated with 300 mg of peramivir, 600 mg of peramivir, and oseltamivir, respectively. The hazard ratios of the 300- and 600-mg-peramivir groups compared to the oseltamivir group were 0.946 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 0.793, 1.129) and 0.970 (97.5% CI, 0.814, 1.157), respectively. Both peramivir groups were noninferior to the oseltamivir group (97.5% CI, <1.170). The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the 300-mg-peramivir group, but the incidence of severe reactions in either peramivir group was not different from that in the oseltamivir group. Thus, a single intravenous dose of peramivir may be an alternative to a 5-day oral dose of oseltamivir for patients with seasonal influenza virus infection.

  17. Sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol for moderate to severe post-traumatic bone pain in children: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Neri, Elena; Maestro, Alessandra; Minen, Federico; Montico, Marcella; Ronfani, Luca; Zanon, Davide; Favret, Anna; Messi, Gianni; Barbi, Egidio

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol in reducing the pain associated with fracture or dislocation of extremities in children. A double-blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted in the paediatric emergency department of a research institute. One hundred and thirty-one children aged 4-17 years with suspected bone fracture or dislocation were enrolled. Eligible children were randomised to ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo, or to tramadol (2 mg/kg) and placebo by sublingual administration, using a double-dummy technique. Pain was assessed by the patients every 20 min, for a maximum period of 2 h, using the McGrath scale for patients up to 6 years of age, and the Visual Analogue Scale for those older than 6 years of age. The mean pain scores fell significantly from eight to four and five in the ketorolac and tramadol groups, respectively, by 100 min (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p<0.001). The mean pain scores for ketorolac were lower than those for tramadol, but these differences were not significant at any time point (Mann-Whitney U Test, p values: 0-20 min: 0.167; 20-40 min: 0.314; 40-60 min: 0.223; 60-80 min: 0.348; 80-100 min: 0.166; 100-120 min: 0.08). The rescue dose of paracetamol-codeine was administered in 2/60 children in the ketorolac group versus 8/65 in the tramadol group (Fisher exact test, p=0.098). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the frequency of adverse effects. Both sublingual ketorolac and tramadol were equally effective for pain management in children with suspected fractures or dislocations.

  18. Effects of Two Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuxue; Du, Yijie; Zhang, Hongying; Luo, Qingli; Li, Bei; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Sun, Jing; Jin, Hualiang; Wei, Kai; Zhao, Zhengxiao; Kong, Lingwen; Zhou, Xianmei; Miao, Qing; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Qingwei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of stable COPD. Methods A multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. All groups were treated with additional conventional medicines. There were a 6-month treatment and a 12-month follow-up for 5 times. Primary outcomes included lung function test, exacerbation frequency, score of SGRQ. Second outcomes consisted of 6MWD, BODE index, psychological field score, inflammatory factors and cortisol. Results A total of 331 patients were randomly divided into two active treatment groups (Bushen Yiqi (BY) granule group, n = 109; Bushen Fangchuan (BF) tablet group, n = 109) and a placebo group (n = 113). Finally 262 patients completed the study. BY granule & BF tablet increased the values of VC, FEV1 (%) and FEV1/FVC (%), compared with placebo. BY granule improved PEF. Both treatments reduced acute exacerbation frequency (P = 0.067), BODE index and psychological field score, while improved 6MWD. In terms of descent rang of SGRQ score, both treatments increased (P = 0.01). Both treatments decreased inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, and IL-17(P = 0.0219). BY granule obviously descended IL-17(P<0.05), IL-1β (P = 0.05), IL-6, compared with placebo. They improved the level of IL-10 and cortisol. BY granule raised cortisol (P = 0.07) and decreased TNF-α. Both treatments slightly descended TGF-β1. In terms of safety, subject compliance and drug combination, there were no differences (P>0.05) among three groups. Conclusions BY granule and BF tablet were positively effective for the treatment of COPD, and the former performed better in general. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register center ChiCTR-TRC-09000530 PMID:25118962

  19. Medical treatments for opioid use disorder in Iran: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of buprenorphine/naloxone and naltrexone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Mokri, Azarakhsh; Chawarski, Marek C; Taherinakhost, Hamidreza; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2016-05-01

    With the broad goals of developing a clinical research and training program and disseminating effective opioid use disorder treatments in Iran, this pilot clinical trial compared the effectiveness of oral naltrexone (NTX) and sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (BNX). Twelve-week single-site, two-group parallel randomized double-blind clinical trial. An out-patient clinical research program in Tehran, Iran. Following medically assisted withdrawal, participants with opioid use disorder were assigned randomly to NTX (n = 51) or BNX (n = 51). Medications were administered three times per week, double-blind, double-dummy for 12 weeks. All participants received weekly group drug counseling. The primary outcome was initial duration of opioid abstinence verified by urine toxicology tests. Secondary outcomes included the number of opioid-negative urine tests, treatment retention and proportions with sustained, verified opioid-abstinence for 12 weeks. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] number of days of initial duration of verified abstinence was 28.8 (20.0-37.5) with BNX and 21.6 (14.4-28.7) with NTX (P = 0.205). The mean (95% CI) number of opioid-negative urine tests was 19.7 (17.7-21.6) with BNX and 15.4 (13.1-17.8) with NTX (P = 0.049). The mean (95% CI) number of days in treatment was 70.6 (63.6-77.7) with BNX versus 56.5 (47.8-65.3) with NTX (P = 0.013). The rate of sustained, 12-week opioid abstinence was 16% (8/51) in the BNX group and 8% (4/51) in the NTX group (P = 0.219). Among patients with opioid use disorder in Iran, sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone was associated with a greater number of opioid-negative urine tests and treatment retention than oral naltrexone, but not significantly greater initial abstinence duration or proportions with sustained abstinence. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Double-Blind Controlled Randomized Trial of Cyclophosphamide versus Methylprednisolone in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brochet, Bruno; Deloire, Mathilde S. A.; Perez, Paul; Loock, Timothé; Baschet, Louise; Debouverie, Marc; Pittion, Sophie; Ouallet, Jean-Christophe; Clavelou, Pierre; de Sèze, Jérôme; Collongues, Nicolas; Vermersch, Patrick; Zéphir, Hélène; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Labauge, Pierre; Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Ruet, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options are limited in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Open-label studies suggested efficacy of monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CPM) without induction for delaying progression but no randomized trial was conducted so far. Objective To compare CPM to methylprednisolone (MP) in SPMS. Methods Randomized, double-blind clinical trial on two parallel groups. Patient with SPMS, with a documented worsening of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score during the last year and an EDSS score between 4·0 and 6·5 were recruited and received one intravenous infusion of treatment (CPM: 750 mg /m2 body surface area—MP: 1g) every four weeks for one year, and every eight weeks for the second year. The primary endpoint was the time to EDSS deterioration, when confirmed sixteen weeks later, analyzed using a Cox model. Results Due to recruitment difficulties, the study was terminated prematurely after 138 patients were included (CPM, n = 72; MP, n = 66). In the CPM group, 33 patients stopped treatment prematurely, mainly due to tolerability, compared with 22 in the MP group. Primary endpoint: the hazard ratio for EDSS deterioration in the CPM in comparison with the MP group was 0.61 [95% CI: 0·31–1·22](p = 0·16). According to the secondary multistate model analysis, patients in the CPM group were 2.2 times more likely ([1·14–4.29]; p = 0.02) to discontinue treatment than those in the MP group and 2.7 times less likely (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.17–0.84; p = 0.02) to experience disability progression when they did not stop treatment prematurely. Safety profile was as expected. Conclusion Although the primary end-point was negative, secondary analysis suggested that CPM decreases the risk of progression in SPMS, but its use may be limited by low tolerability. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00241254 PMID:28045953

  1. Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial of pentoxifylline in the treatment of venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Dale, J J; Ruckley, C V; Harper, D R; Gibson, B; Nelson, E A; Prescott, R J

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pentoxifylline 400 mg (Trental 400) taken orally three times daily, in addition to ambulatory compression bandages and dressings, improves the healing rate of pure venous ulcers. Design Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group study of factorial design, permitting the simultaneous evaluation of alternative pharmaceutical, bandaging, and dressings materials. Setting Leg ulcer clinics of a teaching and a district general hospital in southern Scotland. Participants 200 patients with confirmed venous ulcers and in whom other major causal factors were excluded. Interventions Pentoxifylline 400 mg three times daily or placebo. Main outcome measure Complete healing (full epithelialisation) of all ulcers on the trial leg. Results Complete healing occurred in 65 of the 101 (64%) patients receiving pentoxifylline and 52 of the 99 (53%) patients receiving placebo. Conclusions The difference in the healing rates between patients taking pentoxifylline and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Key messagesLeg ulcers cost the NHS around £400 million per annum50%-75% of venous leg ulcers can be succesfully treated with dressings and compression bandages but take many months to healA drug that reduced the healing time of venous ulcers would be useful, although no agent has been proved to be effective to dateTrials with pentoxifylline, a vasoactive drug used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, as an adjunct to the treatment of venous ulcers have been inconclusiveAt the 5% level, pentoxifylline had a non-significant effect on healing rates of pure venous ulcers PMID:10506039

  2. Effect of a Prebiotic Formulation on Frailty Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buigues, Cristina; Fernández-Garrido, Julio; Pruimboom, Leo; Hoogland, Aldert J.; Navarro-Martínez, Rut; Martínez-Martínez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Mascarós, Mari Carmen; Peris, Carlos; Cauli, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre® (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV), Numansdorp, The Netherlands) to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin). Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks’ duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre® or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9–10 a.m.) dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis). The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre® administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). No significant effects were observed in functional and cognitive behavior or sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota–muscle–brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome. PMID:27314331

  3. [Comparative double-blind study of bromazepam versus prazepam in non-psychotic anxiety].

    PubMed

    Guelfi, J D; Lancrenon, S; Millet, V

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of bromazepam and prazepam for the different components of anxiety: inhibition, asthenia and somatisation is evaluated in a multi-centric, comparative and randomised study, conducted as double blind and in parallel groups in 159 adult patients showing a manifest anxiety according to the F.D.A. criteria. After a 7 day wash-out period, the patients receive either bromazepam in a 12 mg/d dose or prazepam in a 40 mg/d dose, over 4 weeks (D0-D28), then in a decreasing dose from D28 to D43; follow-up is carried out using the anxious inhibition scale W.P.2, auto-questionnaire A.D.A., the Hamilton anxiety scale and the Tyrer questionnaire (benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms questionnaire). Patients are evaluated seven times during the study: at day 7 for inclusion, day 0 for randomisation, then day 7 and day 14 for following visits, at day 28 for efficacy and tolerance evaluation, and at day 50 for utilisation and withdrawal evaluation. The major efficacy criteria are the evolution of inhibition, asthenia and somatisation as compounds of anxiety respectively evaluated by W.P.2 scale, asthenic partial score of autoquestionnaire A.D.A. and somatic partial score of Hamilton anxiety scale. The analysis of results don't show any significant difference between the two groups on the evolution of the components asthenia and inhibition. However the evolution of the somatic component clearly makes a significant difference in favour of bromazepam. There is also a significant difference in terms of global anxiolytic action efficacy, in favour of bromazepam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Dexamethasone for Parapneumonic Pleural Effusion: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tagarro, Alfredo; Otheo, Enrique; Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Navarro, María-Luisa; Velasco, Rosa; Ruiz, Marta; Penín, María; Moreno, David; Rojo, Pablo; Madero, Rosario

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether dexamethasone (DXM) decreases the time to recovery in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 children, ranging in age from 1 month to 14 years, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pleural effusion. Patients received either intravenous DXM (0.25?mg/kg/dose) or placebo every 6 hours over a period of 48 hours, along with antibiotics. The primary endpoint was the time to recovery in hours, defined objectively. We also evaluated complications and adverse events. Among the 60 randomized patients (mean age, 4.7 years; 58% female), 57 (95%) completed the study. Compared with placebo recipients, the patients receiving DXM had a shorter time to recovery, after adjustment by severity group and stratification by center (hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.10-3.45; P?=?.021). The median time to recovery for patients receiving DXM was 68 hours (2.8 days) shorter than patients receiving placebo (109 hours vs 177 hours; P?=?.037). In exploratory subgroup analysis, the median time to recovery for patients with simple effusion receiving DXM was 76 hours (3.1 days) shorter than for patients with simple effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.017). The median time to recovery for patients with complicated effusion receiving DXM was 14 hours (0.5 days) shorter than for patients with complicated effusion receiving placebo (P?=?.66). The difference in the effect of DXM in the 2 severity groups was not statistically significant (P?=?.138 for interaction). There were no significant differences in complications or adverse events attributable to the study drugs, except for hyperglycemia. In this trial, DXM seemed to be a safe and effective adjunctive therapy for parapneumonic pleural effusion. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01261546. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by metoclopramide combined with dexamethasone: randomised double blind multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallenborn, Jan; Gelbrich, Götz; Bulst, Detlef; Behrends, Katrin; Wallenborn, Hasso; Rohrbach, Andrea; Krause, Uwe; Kühnast, Thomas; Wiegel, Martin; Olthoff, Derk

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether 10 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg metoclopramide combined with 8 mg dexamethasone, given intraoperatively, is more effective in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting than 8 mg dexamethasone alone, and to assess benefit in relation to adverse drug reactions. Design Four-armed, parallel group, double blind, randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting Four clinics of a university hospital and four district hospitals in Germany. Participants 3140 patients who received balanced or regional anaesthesia during surgery. Main outcome measures Postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours of surgery (primary end point); occurrence of adverse reactions. Results Cumulative incidences (95% confidence intervals) of postoperative nausea and vomiting were 23.1% (20.2% to 26.0%), 20.6% (17.8% to 23.4%), 17.2% (14.6% to 19.8%), and 14.5% (12.0% to 17.0%) for 0 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg metoclopramide. In the secondary analysis, 25 mg and 50 mg metoclopramide were equally effective at preventing early nausea (0-12 hours), but only 50 mg reduced late nausea and vomiting (> 12 hours). The most frequent adverse drug reactions were hypotension and tachycardia, with cumulative incidences of 8.8% (6.8% to 10.8%), 11.2% (9.0% to 13.4%), 12.9% (10.5% to 15.3%), and 17.9% (15.2% to 20.6%) for 0 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg metoclopramide. Conclusion The addition of 50 mg metoclopramide to 8 mg dexamethasone (given intraoperatively) is an effective, safe, and cheap way to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. A reduced dose of 25 mg metoclopramide intraoperatively, with additional postoperative prophylaxis in high risk patients, may be equally effective and cause fewer adverse drug reactions. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31625370. PMID:16861255

  6. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Cerebrolysin and Recovery After Stroke (CARS): A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Hoemberg, Volker; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Cristian Dinu; Vester, Johannes C; Rahlfs, Volker W; Doppler, Edith; Meier, Dieter; Moessler, Herbert; Guekht, Alla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate whether stroke patients who receive Cerebrolysin show improved motor function in the upper extremities at day 90 compared with patients who receive a placebo. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study. Patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (30 mL/d) or a placebo (saline) once daily for 21 days, beginning at 24 to 72 hours after stroke onset. The patients also participated in a standardized rehabilitation program for 21 days that was initiated within 72 hours after stroke onset. The primary end point was the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90. The nonparametric effect size on the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90 indicated a large superiority of Cerebrolysin compared with the placebo (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.79; P<0.0001). The multivariate effect size on global status, as assessed using 12 different outcome scales, indicated a small-to-medium superiority of Cerebrolysin (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.65; P<0.0001). The rate of premature discontinuation was <5% (3.8%). Cerebrolysin was safe and well tolerated. Cerebrolysin had a beneficial effect on function and global outcome in early rehabilitation patients after stroke. Its safety was comparable with that of the placebo, suggesting a favorable benefit/risk ratio. Because this study was exploratory and had a relatively small sample size, the results should be confirmed in a large-scale, randomized clinical trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Unique identifier: 2007-000870-21. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Esomeprazole for the treatment of erosive esophagitis in children: an international, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind (for dose) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acid suppression with a proton pump inhibitor is standard treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease and erosive esophagitis in adults and increasingly is becoming first-line therapy for children aged 1-17 years. We evaluated endoscopic healing of erosive esophagitis with esomeprazole in young children with gastroesophageal reflux disease and described esophageal histology. Methods Children aged 1-11 years with endoscopically or histologically confirmed gastroesophageal reflux disease were randomized to esomeprazole 5 or 10 mg daily (< 20 kg) or 10 or 20 mg daily (≥ 20 kg) for 8 weeks. Patients with erosive esophagitis underwent an endoscopy after 8 weeks to assess healing of erosions. Results Of 109 patients, 49% had erosive esophagitis and 51% had histologic evidence of reflux esophagitis without erosive esophagitis. Of the 45 patients who had erosive esophagitis and underwent follow-up endoscopy, 89% experienced erosion resolution. Dilation of intercellular space was reported in 24% of patients with histologic examination. Conclusions Esomeprazole (0.2-1.0 mg/kg) effectively heals macroscopic and microscopic erosive esophagitis in this pediatric population with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dilation of intercellular space may be an important histologic marker of erosive esophagitis in children. Trial Registration D9614C00097; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00228527. PMID:20540767

  9. A Multiple-Dose, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group QT/QTc Study to Evaluate the Electrophysiologic Effects of THC/CBD Spray.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M; Schoedel, Kerri; Bartlett, Cindy; Romach, Myroslava; Russo, Ethan B; Stott, Colin G; Wright, Stephen; White, Linda; Duncombe, Paul; Chen, Chien-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray has proved efficacious in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis and chronic pain. A thorough QT/QTc study was performed to investigate the effects of THC/CBD spray on electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters in compliance with regulatory requirements, evaluating the effect of a recommended daily dose (8 sprays/day) and supratherapeutic doses (24 or 36 sprays/day) of THC/CBD spray on the QT/QTc interval in 258 healthy volunteers. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of THC/CBD spray were also evaluated. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of THC/CBD spray had no effect on cardiac repolarization with primary and secondary endpoints of QTcI and QTcF/QTcB, respectively, showing similar results. There was no indication of any effect on heart rate, atrioventricular conduction, or cardiac depolarization and no new clinically relevant morphological changes were observed. Overall, 19 subjects (25.0%) in the supratherapeutic (24/36 daily sprays of THC/CBD spray) dose group and one (1.6%) in the moxifloxacin group withdrew early due to intolerable AEs. Four psychiatric serious adverse events (AEs) in the highest dose group resulted in a reduction in the surpatherapeutic dose to 24 sprays/day. In conclusion, THC/CBD spray does not significantly affect ECG parameters. Additionally, THC/CBD spray is well tolerated at therapeutic doses with an AE profile similar to previous clinical studies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Efficacy and safety of ofloxacin and its combination with dexamethasone in chronic suppurative otitis media. A randomised, double blind, parallel group, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Panchasara, A; Singh, A; Mandavia, D; Jha, S; Tripathi, C

    2015-02-01

    The role of corticosteroid in patients of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is unknown. In the present study, the efficacy and safety of ofloxacin alone (OA) and the ofloxacin + dexamethasone combination (ODC) is compared by studying clinical cure rates and adverse drug reactions in patients with CSOM. After prior permission from the Institutional Review Board and written informed consent from patients, pre-treatment clinical assessment and bacteriology of the middle ear discharge were done. The middle ear was categorised into active, mucoid or inactive according to the type of discharge. Grades of otorrhoea and size of tympanic membrane perforation were noted. CSOM with organisms sensitive to ofloxacin were treated either with OA or ODC eardrops for a period of 15 days. Post-treatment clinical cure (when grade of otorrhoea become 0) was recorded on the 5(th), 10(th) and 15(th) days and bacteriological assessment was recorded at the last visit. All parameters were analysed using Fisher's exact test. A total 110 patients were randomised. The most common microorganism associated with CSOM was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (45.45 %). Clinical improvement was seen in 84.61% and 86.79% of cases, but bacteriological improvement in only 82.69% and 77.35% of cases treated with OA and ODC, respectively. Shift of middle ear discharge from active to inactive was noted in 71.15% and 64.15% patients by the 10th day in the OA and ODC groups, respectively. As there was no difference in clinical or bacteriological improvement, it may be unnecessary to combine steroids with topical antibiotic preparations for management of CSOM.

  11. Treatment of Bipolar Depression with Deep TMS: Results from a Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group, Sham-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Diego F; Myczkowski, Martin L; Alberto, Rodrigo L; Valiengo, Leandro; Rios, Rosa M; Gordon, Pedro; de Sampaio-Junior, Bernardo; Klein, Izio; Mansur, Carlos G; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Lafer, Beny; Moreno, Ricardo A; Gattaz, Wagner; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Brunoni, André R

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar depression (BD) is a highly prevalent condition with limited therapeutic options. Deep (H1-coil) transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a novel TMS modality with established efficacy for unipolar depression. We conducted a randomized sham-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dTMS in treatment-resistant BD patients. Patients received 20 sessions of active or sham dTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (H1-coil, 55 18 Hz 2 s 120% MT trains). The primary outcome was changes in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) from baseline to endpoint (week 4). Secondary outcomes were changes from baseline to the end of the follow-up phase (week 8), and response and remission rates. Safety was assessed using a dTMS adverse effects questionnaire and the Young Mania Rating Scale to assess treatment-emergent mania switch (TEMS). Out of 50 patients, 43 finished the trial. There were 2 and 5 dropouts in the sham and active groups, respectively. Active dTMS was superior to sham at end point (difference favoring dTMS=4.88; 95% CI 0.43 to 9.32, p=0.03) but not at follow-up. There was also a trend for greater response rates in the active (48%) vs sham (24%) groups (OR=2.92; 95% CI=0.87 to 9.78, p=0.08). Remission rates were not statistically different. No TEMS episodes were observed. Deep TMS is a potentially effective and well-tolerated add-on therapy in resistant bipolar depressed patients receiving adequate pharmacotherapy.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 31 May 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.26.

  12. Linagliptin and pioglitazone combination therapy versus monotherapy with linagliptin or pioglitazone: A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multinational clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nauck, Michael Albrecht; di Domenico, Maximiliano; Patel, Sanjay; Kobe, Maureen; Toorawa, Robert; Woerle, Hans-Juergen

    2016-07-01

    Linagliptin plus pioglitazone single-pill combinations were evaluated. Patients (n = 936) with insufficient glycaemic control, despite lifestyle interventions, were randomised for 30 weeks to either monotherapy with linagliptin 5 mg; pioglitazone 15, 30 or 45 mg; or single-pill combination with linagliptin 5 mg plus pioglitazone 15, 30 or 45 mg. An extension (⩽54 weeks) planned to evaluate linagliptin plus pioglitazone 30 or 45 mg single-pill combinations was not completed due to a protocol amendment. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) differences in HbA1c change from baseline at week 30 for linagliptin plus pioglitazone 15, 30 and 45 mg were -0.17% (-0.41, 0.07), -0.37% (-0.60, -0.14) and -0.41% (-0.64, -0.18) versus pioglitazone monotherapies, respectively, and -0.44% (-0.67, -0.20), -0.68% (-0.91, -0.44) and -0.89% (-1.12, -0.66) versus linagliptin monotherapy, respectively. Single-pill combinations were generally well tolerated. Hypoglycaemia frequency was ⩽1.5% per group. Linagliptin plus pioglitazone combinations were efficacious, with safety profiles comparable to the individual monotherapies.

  13. Efficacy of Diosmectite (Smecta)® in the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhoea in Adults: A Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Khediri, Faouzi; Mrad, Abdennebi Ilhem; Azzouz, Moussadek; Doughi, Hedi; Najjar, Taoufik; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hélène; Garnier, Philippe; Cortot, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although diosmectite has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in children, its efficacy in adults still needs to be assessed. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the efficacy of diosmectite on the time to recovery in adults with acute diarrhoea. Methods. A total of 346 adults with at least three watery stools per day over a period of less than 48 hours were prospectively randomized to diosmectite (6 g tid) or placebo during four days. The primary endpoint was time to diarrhoea recovery. Results. In the intention-to-treat population, median time to recovery was 53.8 hours (range [3.7–167.3]) with diosmectite (n = 166) versus 69.0 hours [2.2–165.2] with placebo, (n = 163; P = .029), which corresponds to a difference of 15.2 hours. Diosmectite was well tolerated. Conclusion. Diosmectite at 6 g tid was well tolerated and reduced the time to recovery of acute watery diarrhoea episode in a clinically relevant manner. PMID:21760777

  14. A double-blind, controlled evaluation of zimeldine, imipramine and placebo in patients with primary affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Merideth, C H; Feighner, J P

    1983-01-01

    Zimeldine, imipramine and placebo were studied in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparison of 119 patients with primary affective disorders. These out-patients were between 18 and 65 years of age and all received placebo single-blind during an initial 3-7-day washout period. During the subsequent 6-week double-blind period, patients were titrated from 50 mg b.d. to 150 mg b.d. with zimeldine, a potent and selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, with imipramine, an inhibitor of noradrenaline and 5-HT reuptake, or with a corresponding number of placebo capsules. The zimeldine treatment group had significantly lower mean HAM-D scale total scores than the placebo and imipramine groups at week 4 and last available assessment. There was a significantly greater proportion of patients showing an improvement of 50% or more in HAM-D score, among the zimeldine group than in the placebo group at week 4, and among the imipramine group at weeks 4, 6 and last available assessment. The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales and the 56-item Hopkins Symptom Check-list (HSCL-56) self-rating inventory both showed significantly more improvement in the zimeldine patients than in the placebo or the imipramine patients. Fewer zimeldine patients reported adverse experiences than imipramine patients. Dry mouth was the most frequently reported adverse experience, occurring significantly more often in the imipramine group than the zimeldine or the placebo groups; significantly more zimeldine than placebo patients reported dry mouth. Headache was the only other adverse experience which occurred more often in the zimeldine than in the placebo group. The imipramine group had consistently higher mean pulse rates than the other two groups, and postural hypotension was also more common in the imipramine group.

  15. [Trimetazidine versus betahistine in vestibular vertigo. A double blind study].

    PubMed

    Kluyskens, P; Lambert, P; D'Hooge, D

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of trimetazidine (60 mg/day) in vertigo was compared with that of betahistine (24 mg/day) in a three-month double-blind study. Included in the study were only patients with peripheral vertigo associated or not with tinnitus or hearing loss, and excluded were those presenting with symptoms related to retrocochlear or central disease. Out of the 40 patients enrolled, 20 suffered from Meniere's disease; 4 patients either dropped out of the study or were non-compliant to therapy and could not be taken into account in the final analysis, which bore on 36 patients (18 treated by trimetazidine and 18 with betahistine). There were no dropouts in the Meniere's disease subgroup (10 receiving trimetazidine and 10 receiving betahistine). Results revealed a better response to therapy with trimetazidine in patients suffering from vertigo, and this was particularly true of the Meniere's disease subgroup (p less than 0.025). Moreover, in the latter subgroup, all patients treated with trimetazidine fully recovered from vertigo spells, while these disappeared completely only in 4 of the patients administered betahistine (p less than 0.005). There was no noticeable difference between the two treatment groups as regards the evolution of the accompanying symptoms and the audiometric or vestibular test results. Clinical acceptability was equally excellent in both treatment groups. Overall, this study allowed to confirm the therapeutical efficacy of trimetazidine in the management of vertigo, as well as establishing the clinical advantage of trimetazidine over betahistine in patients suffering from Meniere's disease.

  16. Ozone treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a double blinded study.

    PubMed

    Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Alhijawi, Mohannad; AlZarea, Bader K; Abul Hassan, Ra'ed S; Lynch, Edward

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of ozone to treat recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Consecutive sixty-nine participants with RAS were recruited into this non-randomized double blind, controlled cohort observational study (test group). A control group of 69 RAS patients who matched test group with age and gender was recruited. RAS lesions in test group were exposed to ozone in air for 60 seconds while controls received only air. Ulcer size and pain were recorded for each participant at baseline and daily for 15 days. Ulcer duration was determined by recording the time taken for ulcers to disappear. The main outcome measures were pain due to the ulcer, ulcer size and ulcer duration. 138 RAS participants (69 participants and 69 controls) were analyzed. Ulcer size was reduced starting from the second day in test group and from the fourth day in controls (p ≤ 0.004). Pain levels were reduced starting from the first day in the test group and from the third day in controls (p ≤ 0.001). Ulcer duration, ulcer size after day 2 and pain levels were more reduced in the test group. In conclusion, application of ozone on RAS lesions for 60 seconds reduced pain levels and enhanced ulcers' healing by reducing ulcers' size and duration.

  17. Ozone treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a double blinded study

    PubMed Central

    AL-Omiri, Mahmoud K.; Alhijawi, Mohannad; AlZarea, Bader K.; Abul Hassan, Ra’ed S.; Lynch, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of ozone to treat recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Consecutive sixty-nine participants with RAS were recruited into this non-randomized double blind, controlled cohort observational study (test group). A control group of 69 RAS patients who matched test group with age and gender was recruited. RAS lesions in test group were exposed to ozone in air for 60 seconds while controls received only air. Ulcer size and pain were recorded for each participant at baseline and daily for 15 days. Ulcer duration was determined by recording the time taken for ulcers to disappear. The main outcome measures were pain due to the ulcer, ulcer size and ulcer duration. 138 RAS participants (69 participants and 69 controls) were analyzed. Ulcer size was reduced starting from the second day in test group and from the fourth day in controls (p ≤ 0.004). Pain levels were reduced starting from the first day in the test group and from the third day in controls (p ≤ 0.001). Ulcer duration, ulcer size after day 2 and pain levels were more reduced in the test group. In conclusion, application of ozone on RAS lesions for 60 seconds reduced pain levels and enhanced ulcers’ healing by reducing ulcers’ size and duration. PMID:27301301

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Paliperidone Palmitate 3-Month Formulation for Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Noninferiority Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Ravenstijn, Paulien; Janik, Adam; Schotte, Alain; Hough, David; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase-3 study was designed to test the noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation (PP3M) to the currently marketed 1-month formulation (PP1M) in patients (age 18–70 years) with schizophrenia, previously stabilized on PP1M. Methods: After screening (≤3 weeks) and a 17-week, flexible-dosed, open-label phase (PP1M: day 1 [150mg eq. deltoid], day 8 [100mg eq. deltoid.], weeks 5, 9, and 13 [50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq., deltoid/gluteal]), clinically stable patients were randomized (1:1) to PP3M (fixed-dose, 175, 263, 350, or 525mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) or PP1M (fixed-dose, 50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) for a 48-week double-blind phase. Results: Overall, 1016/1429 open-label patients entered the double-blind phase (PP3M: n=504; PP1M: n=512) and 842 completed it (including patients with relapse). PP3M was noninferior to PP1M: relapse rates were similar in both groups (PP3M: n=37, 8%; PP1M: n=45, 9%; difference in relapse-free rate: 1.2% [95% CI:-2.7%; 5.1%]) based on Kaplan-Meier estimates (primary efficacy). Secondary endpoint results (changes from double-blind baseline in positive and negative symptom score total and subscale scores, Clinical Global Impression-Severity, and Personal and Social Performance scores) were consistent with primary endpoint results. No clinically relevant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic exposures between PP3M and PP1M. Both groups had similar tolerability profiles; increased weight was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (double-blind phase; 21% each). No new safety signals were detected. Conclusion: Taken together, PP3M with its 3-month dosing interval is a unique option for relapse prevention in schizophrenia. PMID:26902950

  19. Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early Stage HIV infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    FRONT COVER FUNDING NO. 87PP7875 S L. TITLE: Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early Stage HIV Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early State HIV Infection 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Shannon M. Harrison 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b...COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP HIV , Zidovudine, Early, Infection 06

  20. Central venous catheterization: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Mer, Mervyn; Duse, Adriano Gianmaria; Galpin, Jacqueline Suzanne; Richards, Guy Antony

    2009-02-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are extensively used worldwide. Mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications are well described with their use and may be associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased medical costs and mortality. CVCs account for an estimated 90% of all catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and a host of risk factors for CVC-related infections have been documented. The duration of use of CVCs remains controversial and the length of time such devices can safely be left in place has not been fully and objectively addressed in the critically ill patient. Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters have been introduced in an attempt to limit catheter-related infection (CRI) and increase the time that CVCs can safely be left in situ. Recent meta-analyses concluded that antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs appear to be effective in reducing CRI. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study at Johannesburg Hospital over a 4-year period. The study entailed a comparison of standard triple-lumen versus antimicrobial impregnated CVCs on the rate of CRI. Our aim was to determine whether we could safely increase the duration of catheter insertion time from our standard practice of seven days to 14 days, to assess the influence of the antimicrobial impregnated catheter on the incidence of CRI, and to elucidate the epidemiology and risks of CRI. One hundred and eighteen critically ill patients were included in the study which spanned 34 951.5 catheter hours (3.99 catheter years). It was found that antimicrobial catheters did not provide any significant benefit over standard catheters, which the authors feel can safely be left in place for up to 14 days with appropriate infection control measures. The most common source of CRI was the skin. The administration of parenteral nutrition and the site of catheter insertion (internal jugular vein vs subclavian vein) were not noted to be risk factors for CRI. There was no clinical evidence

  1. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S; Courts, Fraser L; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W; Atkin, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that acute ingestion of

  2. Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S.; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Courts, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Results Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Conclusion Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies

  3. TCH346 as a neuroprotective drug in Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olanow, C Warren; Schapira, Anthony H V; LeWitt, Peter A; Kieburtz, Karl; Sauer, Dirk; Olivieri, Gianfranco; Pohlmann, Harald; Hubble, Jean

    2006-12-01

    There is an important unmet medical need in Parkinson's disease for a neuroprotective treatment that slows or stops disease progression. TCH346 is a potent anti-apoptotic drug that protects against loss of dopaminergic neurons in laboratory models. Our aim was to assess TCH346 as a neuroprotective drug in patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients presenting at 45 international movement disorder clinics with early untreated Parkinson's disease were assessed as part of this parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. 301 eligible patients were randomly assigned 12-18 months' treatment with TCH346 at a daily dose of 0.5 mg (n=78), 2.5 mg (n=79), or 10 mg (n=73), or placebo (n=71), followed by a 4 week washout period. The primary outcome measure was time to development of a disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the annual rate of change in the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the PDQ-39, a measure of quality of life. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. This study is pending registration with . 255 patients completed the study. TCH346 did not differ from placebo for any of the study outcomes. Treatment was needed in 26 (34%) patients in the TCH346 0.5 mg group, 30 (38%) in the TCH346 2.5 mg group, 24 (33%) in the TCH346 10 mg group, and 23 (32%) in the placebo group. There were no significant differences between groups. There were no differences between groups in the annual change in the UPDRS or PDQ-39 either. Few patients withdrew because of adverse events and none was judged to be related to the study intervention. TCH346 did not show evidence of a neuroprotective effect. The discrepancy between the preclinical promise of TCH346 and the clinical outcome could have arisen because of the use of laboratory models that do not accurately reflect the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, the doses of study drug used, insensitive clinical endpoints, and the patient population selected for study.

  4. Davunetide for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.; Lang, Anthony E.; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Schneider, Lon S.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Williams, David R.; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R.; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V.; Heuer, Hilary W.; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J.; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an eightamino acid peptide that promotes microtubule stability and decreases tau phosphorylation in pre-clinical studies. Since PSP is tightly linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be an effective treatment for PSP.The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of davunetide in PSP. Methods A phase 2/3 double-blind, parallel group, clinical trial of davunetide 30 mg or placebo (randomized 1:1) administered intranasally twice daily for 52 weeks was conducted at 48centers. Participants met modifiedNNIPPS criteria for possible or probable PSP. Co-primary endpointswere the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England ADL(SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. Data from all individuals who received at least one dose of medication and had a post-baseline efficacy assessment were compared using a rank-based method.Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and the change in regional brain volumeon MRI. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110720. Findings 360 participants were screened, 313 were randomized and 243 (77.6%) completed the study. There were no group differences in PSPRS (mean difference: 0.49 [95% CI: −1.5, 2.5], p = 0.72) or SEADL (1% [−2, 4%], p = 0.76) change from baseline (CFB) and mean 52 week CFB PSPRS scores were similar between the davunetide (11.3 [9.8,12.8]) and placebo groups (10.9 [9.1, 13.0]). There wereno differences in any of the secondary or exploratory endpoints. There were 11deaths in the davunetide group and tenin the placebo group. There were more nasal adverse events in the davunetide group. Interpretation Davunetide is well tolerated but is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease modifying therapy are feasible in PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed therapies. Funding Allon Therapeutics PMID:24873720

  5. Patient Satisfaction With Propofol for Outpatient Colonoscopy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Anantha; Frangopoulos, Christoforos; Shaffer, Lynn E T

    2017-10-01

    Previous literature has shown that propofol has ideal anesthetic properties for patients undergoing colonoscopy, a common procedure at outpatient surgery centers. However, there is a paucity of information regarding patient satisfaction with propofol. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with propofol compared with nonpropofol (fentanyl/midazolam) anesthesia for outpatient colonoscopies. Safety and complications were secondary end points. This study was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group controlled clinical trial (NCT 02937506). This study was conducted at a single ambulatory surgery center at an urban teaching community health system. Patients were scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy. Those with high-risk cardiac or pulmonary disease were excluded. Anesthesia personnel administered either fentanyl/midazolam (n = 300) or propofol (n = 300) for sedation during outpatient colonoscopy. A single, highly experienced endoscopist performed all colonoscopies. The primary outcomes measured were patient satisfaction (5-point Likert scale) and procedure complications. Data were collected on the day of endoscopy by the nursing staff of the postanesthesia care unit. A subinvestigator blinded to the randomization called patients 24 to 72 hours after discharge to obtain data on postprocedure problems and status of resumption of normal activities. Analysis was intention-to-treat. Fewer patients who received propofol remembered being awake during the procedure (2% vs 17% for fentanyl, p < 0.0001) and were more likely to rate the amount of anesthesia received as being "just right" (98.7% vs 91.3% for fentanyl, p = 0.0002) and state that they were "very satisfied" with their anesthesia (86.3% vs 74% for fentanyl, p = 0.0005). Twenty-six percent of fentanyl procedures were rated "difficult" compared with 4.3% for propofol (p < 0.0001), and complications were fewer in the propofol group (2.7% vs 11.7%, p < 0.0001). The endoscopist could not be completely

  6. A double-blind controlled study of intramuscular zuclopenthixol acetate and liquid oral haloperidol in the treatment of schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, G; Safadi, G; Beauclair, L

    1994-12-01

    We carried out a 9-day double-blind clinical trial comparing intramuscular zuclopenthixol acetate with liquid oral haloperidol in the treatment of 40 newly admitted schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation. A parallel-group design was used with stratification by sex. Zuclopenthixol acetate (50 to 150 mg) was given intramuscularly every 3 days, whereas liquid haloperidol (10 to 30 mg daily) was given orally three times a day, with supplementary doses of each medication given under double-blind conditions when needed for agitation. No other sedative drugs, including benzodiazepines, were administered. The mean daily dose was 18.9 mg for haloperidol as compared with a mean dose per 3 days of 117.6 mg for zuclopenthixol. The two treatments were found to be equally efficacious on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression Scale. Both drugs induced similar extrapyramidal side effects. However, more tremors were associated with zuclopenthixol as was a tendency for tardive dyskinesia to be unmasked at the end of the injection interval. Sedation was higher with zuclopenthixol acetate than with haloperidol. Serum creatinine phosphokinase levels were not significantly increased after zuclopenthixol injections. The results of this trial suggest that zuclopenthixol acetate given intramuscularly every second to third day offers an alternative to conventional liquid oral haloperidol in the management of acute schizophrenia.

  7. Azelaic acid foam 15% in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Elewski, Boni; Staedtler, Gerald; Havlickova, Blanka

    2013-12-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that primarily affects facial skin. Its etiology is unknown, and currently there is no cure. Rosacea can be associated with severe symptoms, including transient erythema (flushing), nontransient erythema, papules, pustules, and telangiectases, leading to substantial discomfort and an unattractive appearance. This randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study conducted over 12 weeks with a 4-week follow-up period evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new formulation of azelaic acid (AzA) foam in a 15% concentration compared to vehicle alone in patients with papulopustular rosacea (PPR). Primary efficacy variables assessed were investigator global assessment (IGA) dichotomized into success and failure, and nominal change in inflammatory lesion count from baseline to end of treatment. Results indicated that the new foam formulation of AzA is effective and well-tolerated in a population of patients with PPR. Although no single formulation is appropriate for all patients, the development of a new foam formulation in addition to other available vehicles provides patients with options and allows health care providers to match the needs as well as preferences of individual patients and skin types with appropriate delivery modalities.

  8. [Efficacy and tolerability 80 mg granulated ketoprofen lysine salt in posttraumatic orodental pain: double blind vs placebo study].

    PubMed

    Balzanelli, B; de Lorenzi, C

    1996-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind parallel group, placebo-controlled study was carried out in order to evaluate the analgesic and antiin-flammatory activity of ketoprofen lysine salt as granular formulation. Sixty patients undergoing extraction of an impacted third molar were treated orally with 80 mg ketoprofen lysine salt sachet or placebo t.i.d. for 3 days. The inflammation related local signs (pain, flare, local heat and wheal) were evaluated by scores at 1th and 3th day of observation; to study the time-course of analgesic activity, pain intensity was evalauted by Visual Analogic-Scale (VAS) by Scott-Huskisson before and 0.30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 hours after the first administration. Ketoprofen lysine salt was significantly superior to placebo in reducing all inflmamtory signs and symptoms starting from the first day of treatment; the analgesic effect was evident already 30 minutes after administration. Investigator's and patient's global evaluations of efficacy resulted favourable for ketoprofen lysine salt in 96.6% and for placebo in 26.7%. The three adverse events reported were limited to gastric pyrosis (ketoprofen lysine salt, two patients; placebo one patient) and posed no problem to patient management. These data demonstrate the pronouced and rapid analgesic and antinflammatory activity of 80 mg ketoprofen lysine salt granular formulation in post-operative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery.

  9. A double-blind study on the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on plasma protein exudation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Nocker, R E; Weller, F R; Out, T A; de Riemer, M J; Jansen, H M; van der Zee, J S

    1999-05-01

    Plasma protein exudation into the airways is an important pathophysiological event in asthma. The effect of 12 wk of treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP; 250 microgram twice a day) or salbutamol (Sb; 400 microgram twice a day) on plasma protein leakage was compared in a double-blind, randomized parallel-group study of 30 patients with asthma. Primary outcomes were plasma protein leakage and size selectivity of the blood-airway lumen barrier, cell differentials in BAL fluid, and bronchial responsiveness to histamine (PC20histamine). Two independent procedures to account for the effect of variable dilution of BAL on the levels of albumin (Alb) and alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) in BAL fluid consisted of correction based on urea levels and on the application of the relative coefficient of excretion [RCE = ([A2M] in BAL fluid/[A2M] in serum)/([Alb] in BAL fluid/[Alb] in serum)]. In the FP group a significant decrease was found in the A2M level and the RCE, and in the percentage of eosinophils in BAL fluid. The PC20histamine increased significantly (mean increase, 2.4 doubling doses), whereas PC20histamine decreased in the Sb group. Differences between groups were significant except for the decrease in eosinophils. We conclude that 12 wk of FP (250 microgram twice a day) decreased the permeability of the blood-airway lumen barrier, in particular for high molecular weight proteins.

  10. Rhodiola rosea therapy for major depressive disorder: a study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun J; Li, Qing S.; Soeller, Irene; Xie, Sharon X; Amsterdam, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), a botanical of both western and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used as a folk remedy for improving stamina and reducing stress. However, few controlled clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of R. rosea for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study seeks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of R. rosea in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study design. Methods / Design Subjects with MDD not receiving antidepressant therapy will be randomized to either R. rosea extract 340–1,360 mg daily; sertraline 50–200 mg daily, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be change over time in the mean 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating score. Secondary outcome measures will include safety and quality of life ratings. Statistical procedures will include mixed-effects models to assess efficacy for primary and secondary outcomes. Discussion This study will provide valuable preliminary information on the safety and efficacy data of R. rosea versus conventional antidepressant therapy of MDD. It will also inform additional hypotheses and study design of future, fully powered, phase III clinical trials with R. rosea to determine its safety and efficacy in MDD. PMID:25610752

  11. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested.

  12. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. PMID:27980437

  13. Once-daily rupatadine improves the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dubertret, Louis; Zalupca, Lavinia; Cristodoulo, Tania; Benea, Vasile; Medina, Iris; Fantin, Sara; Lahfa, Morad; Pérez, Iñaki; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Arnaiz, Eva

    2007-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, international, dose-ranging study investigated the effect of treatment with rupatadine 5, 10 and 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks on symptoms and interference with daily activities and sleep in 12-65 years-old patients with moderate-to-severe chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Rupatadine 10 and 20 mg significantly reduced pruritus severity by 62.05% and 71.87% respectively, from baseline, over a period of 4 weeks compared to reduction with placebo by 46.59% (p < 0.05). Linear trends were noted for reductions in mean number of wheals and interference with daily activities and sleep with rupatadine 10 and 20 mg over the 4-week treatment period. The two most frequently reported AEs were somnolence (2.90% for placebo, 4.29% for 5 mg-, 5.41% for 10 mg- and 21.43% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group) and headache (4.35% for placebo, 2.86% for 5 mg-, 4.05% for 10 mg- and 4.29% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group). These findings suggest that rupatadine 10 and 20 mg is a fast-acting, efficacious and safe treatment for the management of patients with moderate-to-severe CIU. Rupatadine decreased pruritus severity, in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  14. A six-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of duloxetine for the treatment of fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Amy S; Bradley, Laurence A; Wiltse, Curtis; Detke, Michael J; D’Souza, Deborah N; Spaeth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess the efficacy of duloxetine 60/120 mg (N = 162) once daily compared with placebo (N = 168) in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia, during six months of treatment. Methods: This was a phase-III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study assessing the efficacy and safety of duloxetine. Results: There were no significant differences between treatment groups on the co-primary efficacy outcome measures, change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain severity from baseline to endpoint (P = 0.053) and the Patient’s Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I) at endpoint (P = 0.073). Duloxetine-treated patients improved significantly more than placebo-treated patients on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire pain score, BPI least pain score and average interference score, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity scale, area under the curve of pain relief, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory mental fatigue dimension, Beck Depression Inventory-II total score, and 36-item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary and mental health score. Nausea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event in the duloxetine group. Overall discontinuation rates were similar between groups. Conclusions: Although duloxetine 60/120 mg/day failed to demonstrate significant improvement over placebo on the co-primary outcome measures, in this supportive study, duloxetine demonstrated significant improvement compared with placebo on numerous secondary measures. PMID:20428412

  15. Pilot Study of the Effects of Lisdexamfetamine on Cocaine Use: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Marc E.; Herin, David V.; Specker, Sheila; Babb, David; Levin, Frances R.; Grabowski, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphetamine analogues have been demonstrated to have some efficacy in reducing use in cocaine dependent individuals. However, these agents also have potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX), a lysine+dextroamphetamine formulation, has been approved for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and as a prodrug, has less abuse potential. Objective This pilot study sought to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of LDX as a candidate treatment for cocaine dependence. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study served to evaluate LDX in 43 cocaine-dependent individuals: (1) Placebo (PBO; 0 mg, n = 21), (2) LDX (70 mg, n = 22). Participants received medication for 14 weeks. Cocaine use was determined based on urine analysis for benzoylecgonine (BE; a cocaine metabolite). Results Retention rates were higher though not significantly different in the PBO (71.4%) than the LDX condition (57.1%). Compared to those in the PBO condition, those receiving LDX were more likely to report experiencing (ps < .05) diarrhea (45.5% vs. 14.3%), headaches (45.5% vs. 9.5%), and anxiety (31.8% vs. 4.8%). No differences in medication conditions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate, or body weight. In the randomized sample, no differences in cocaine use were seen. Those receiving LDX reported significantly less craving for cocaine than participants receiving PBO. Conclusions LDX did not significantly reduce cocaine use compared to PBO in the randomized sample. PMID:26116930

  16. Baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN32121581

    PubMed Central

    Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Ahmadi-Abhari, Seyed Ali

    2003-01-01

    Background Results of preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may be useful in treatment of opioid dependence. This study was aimed at assessing the possible efficacy of baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Methods A total of 40 opioid-dependent patients were detoxified and randomly assigned to receive baclofen (60 mg/day) or placebo in a 12-week, double blind, parallel-group trial. Primary outcome measure was retention in treatment. Secondary outcome measures included opioids and alcohol use according to urinalysis and self-report ratings, intensity of opioid craving assessed with a visual analogue scale, opioid withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale and depression scores on the Hamilton inventory. Results Treatment retention was significantly higher in the baclofen group. Baclofen also showed a significant superiority over placebo in terms of opiate withdrawal syndrome and depressive symptoms. Non-significant, but generally favorable responses were seen in the baclofen group with other outcome measures including intensity of opioid craving and self-reported opioid and alcohol use. However, no significant difference was seen in the rates of opioid-positive urine tests. Additionally, the drug side effects of the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion The results support further study of baclofen in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:14624703

  17. Double-blind controlled randomised study of lactulose and lignin hydrolysed combination in complex therapy of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Perlamutrov, Yuri N.; Olhovskaya, Kira B.; Zakirova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an immune mediated disease with complex pathogenesis characterised by persistency, frequent exacerbations, and inefficacy of existing therapies. Damaged or weakened intestinal microbiocenosis is considered as an important aetiological factor of AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical preparation Lactofiltrum (lactulose and sorbent (lignin hydrolysed)) in comparison with placebo in complex with standard therapy of AD. Methods Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised comparative study of effectiveness and safety of 400 mg lactulose and 120 mg lignin hydrolysed combination as a part of standard combined AD treatment, conducted in parallel groups of patients aged 18–60. Results Comparison of clinical efficacy of Lactofiltrum in combination with the standard treatment has been demonstrated by measuring the following parameters: administration of Lactofiltrum results in 1) distinct clinical improvement in 56.75% of patients, 2) decrease of the mean values of scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index in 71.94% of patients, 3) elimination of itching in 50% of patients, and 4) life quality improvement for 76.41%. In the placebo group, 1) distinct clinical improvement was observed in 20% of patients, 2) decrease in SCORAD index values observed by 56.98%, 3) itching relief in 15.56%, and 4) life quality improvement by 36.38%. Conclusions Clinical improvement and persistent termination of clinical symptoms provide evidence of effectiveness in use of Lactofiltrum combined with the standard treatment of AD. PMID:27341938

  18. A double-blind, controlled study of sertindole versus risperidone in the treatment of moderate-to-severe schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Strub, Nathalie; Loft, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Sertindole is a non-sedating atypical antipsychotic effective in the management of schizophrenia and is associated with placebo-level incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, flexible-dose, multi-centre study, the efficacy and tolerability of sertindole was directly compared with another atypical antipsychotic in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 187 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with sertindole (12-24 mg/day, n=98) or risperidone (4-10 mg/day, n=89) for 12 weeks. Although early termination reduced the power of the study, some significant between-group differences were evident. Sertindole reduced the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores to a greater extent than risperidone, and the difference reached statistical significance at endpoint for the Observed Cases (OC) dataset. Moreover, sertindole was superior for the treatment of negative symptoms compared to risperidone (P<0.05, Last Observation Carried Forward and OC). Both treatment groups were similarly effective in improving Clinical Global Impression (Severity and Improvement), the Drug Attitude Inventory and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. Sertindole and risperidone were both well tolerated. Numerically, fewer patients in the sertindole group (19%) reported EPS-related adverse events than in the risperidone group (28%), although significantly more sertindole-treated patients reported QT prolongation and abnormal ejaculation volume (P<0.05). In conclusion, sertindole was well tolerated and demonstrated clinically relevant efficacy advantages over risperidone.

  19. Myorelaxant Effect of Bee Venom Topical Skin Application in Patients with RDC/TMD Ia and RDC/TMD Ib: A Randomized, Double Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of myorelaxant action of bee venom (BV) ointment compared to placebo. Parallel group, randomized double blinded trial was performed. Experimental group patients were applying BV for 14 days, locally over masseter muscles, during 3-minute massage. Placebo group patients used vaseline for massage. Muscle tension was measured twice (TON1 and TON2) in rest muscle tonus (RMT) and maximal muscle contraction (MMC) on both sides, right and left, with Easy Train Myo EMG (Schwa-medico, Version 3.1). Reduction of muscle tonus was statistically relevant in BV group and irrelevant in placebo group. VAS scale reduction was statistically relevant in both groups: BV and placebo. Physiotherapy is an effective method for myofascial pain treatment, but 0,0005% BV ointment gets better relief in muscle tension reduction and analgesic effect. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02101632. PMID:25050337

  20. A randomized, double-blind controlled comparison of nefazodone and paroxetine in the treatment of depression: safety, tolerability and efficacy in continuation phase treatment.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, D S; Hawley, C J; Mellors, K

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of nefazodone and paroxetine in the continuation phase of treatment of depression. The study comprised a double-blind, parallel-group comparison over 4 months, of patients who had previously improved following random allocation to nefazodone or paroxetine during an 8-week acute treatment study. Assessments included Clinical Global Impression Scales, Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Patient Global Assessment Scale, in addition to a review of reported adverse events, vital sign measurements, electrocardiograms and clinical laboratory tests. One hundred and eight patients participated in the continuation study (53 received paroxetine, 55 nefazodone) and 73 completed treatment. No clinically relevant differences in antidepressant efficacy were seen. Headache and somnolence were the most common reported adverse events in both treatment groups. Both nefazodone and paroxetine maintain their efficacy in continuation treatment, and both are generally well tolerated.

  1. Myorelaxant effect of bee venom topical skin application in patients with RDC/TMD Ia and RDC/TMD Ib: a randomized, double blinded study.

    PubMed

    Nitecka-Buchta, Aleksandra; Buchta, Piotr; Tabeńska-Bosakowska, Elżbieta; Walczyńska-Dragoń, Karolina; Baron, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of myorelaxant action of bee venom (BV) ointment compared to placebo. Parallel group, randomized double blinded trial was performed. Experimental group patients were applying BV for 14 days, locally over masseter muscles, during 3-minute massage. Placebo group patients used vaseline for massage. Muscle tension was measured twice (TON1 and TON2) in rest muscle tonus (RMT) and maximal muscle contraction (MMC) on both sides, right and left, with Easy Train Myo EMG (Schwa-medico, Version 3.1). Reduction of muscle tonus was statistically relevant in BV group and irrelevant in placebo group. VAS scale reduction was statistically relevant in both groups: BV and placebo. Physiotherapy is an effective method for myofascial pain treatment, but 0,0005% BV ointment gets better relief in muscle tension reduction and analgesic effect. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02101632.

  2. Fentanyl Sublingual Tablets Versus Subcutaneous Morphine for the Management of Severe Cancer Pain Episodes in Patients Receiving Opioid Treatment: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Noninferiority Trial.

    PubMed

    Zecca, Ernesto; Brunelli, Cinzia; Centurioni, Fabio; Manzoni, Andrea; Pigni, Alessandra; Caraceni, Augusto

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Fentanyl sublingual tablets (FST) are a potentially useful alternative to parenteral opioids such as subcutaneous morphine (SCM) to treat severe cancer pain episodes. No direct comparison between FST and SCM is available. The aim of this study was to test noninferiority of FST versus SCM during the first 30 min postadministration. Methods Patients receiving stable opioid therapy and experiencing a severe pain episode were randomly assigned to either 100 µg FST or 5 mg SCM in a double-blind, double-dummy trial. Average pain intensity (PI) assessed on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale at 10, 20, and 30 min postadministration was the main end point. Analysis of covariance, adjusted by baseline PI, was the main analysis. The noninferiority margin (NIm) for the between-group difference was set at -0.6, that is, equal to one third of the minimum clinically important PI difference of two points. Results A total of 114 patients were randomly assigned to either FST (n = 58) or SCM (n = 56). One patient (in the FST group) withdrew consent before drug administration and was excluded from analysis. Baseline mean PIs were 7.5 in both groups; mean average PIs assessed at 10, 20, and 30 min postadministration were 5.0 and 4.5 for FST and SCM, respectively, with the 95% CI of the between-group difference including the NIm (-0.49; 95% CI, -1.10 to 0.09). Patients taking FST received a second drug dose after 30 min more frequently than did patients taking SCM (51% v 37%, respectively; risk difference, -13%; 95% CI, -30% to 3%). Both treatments were well tolerated, with average follow-up adverse event scores below the response of "A Little." Ninety-three percent of patients preferred the sublingual administration. Conclusion This trial did not show noninferiority of FST versus SCM within the chosen NIm. Both treatments were safe, and patients preferred the sublingual route of administration. FST provides analgesia with modest to moderate increased risk of lower efficacy

  3. Long-term cariprazine treatment for the prevention of relapse in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Durgam, Suresh; Earley, Willie; Li, Rui; Li, Dayong; Lu, Kaifeng; Laszlovszky, István; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Nasrallah, Henry A

    2016-10-01

    Cariprazine, a dopamine D3/D2 receptor partial agonist with preference for D3 receptors, has demonstrated efficacy in randomized controlled trials in schizophrenia. This multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cariprazine for relapse prevention in adults with schizophrenia; total study duration was up to 97weeks. Schizophrenia symptoms were treated/stabilized with cariprazine 3-9mg/d during 20-week open-label treatment consisting of an 8-week, flexible-dose run-in phase and a 12-week fixed-dose stabilization phase. Stable patients who completed open-label treatment could be randomized to continued cariprazine (3, 6, or 9mg/d) or placebo for double-blind treatment (up to 72weeks). The primary efficacy parameter was time to relapse (worsening of symptom scores, psychiatric hospitalization, aggressive/violent behavior, or suicidal risk); clinical measures were implemented to ensure safety in case of impending relapse. A total of 264/765 patients completed open-label treatment; 200 eligible patients were randomized to double-blind placebo (n=99) or cariprazine (n=101). Time to relapse was significantly longer in cariprazine- versus placebo-treated patients (P=.0010, log-rank test). Relapse occurred in 24.8% of cariprazine- and 47.5% of placebo-treated patients (hazard ratio [95% CI]=0.45 [0.28, 0.73]). Akathisia (19.2%), insomnia (14.4%), and headache (12.0%) were reported in ≥10% of patients during open-label treatment; there were no cariprazine adverse events ≥10% during double-blind treatment. Long-term cariprazine treatment was significantly more effective than placebo for relapse prevention in patients with schizophrenia. The long-term safety profile in this study was consistent with the safety profile observed in previous cariprazine clinical trials. ClincalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01412060. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. A phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study of levomilnacipran extended-release in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sambunaris, Angelo; Bose, Anjana; Gommoll, Carl P; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M; Sheehan, David V

    2014-02-01

    Levomilnacipran (1S, 2R-milnacipran) is a potent and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; an extended-release (ER) formulation allows for once-daily dosing. This phase III study (NCT01034462) evaluated the efficacy, the safety, and the tolerability of 40 to 120 mg/d of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in the treatment of patients (18-80 y) with major depressive disorder. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, flexible-dose study comprised a 1-week single-blind, placebo run-in period; an 8-week double-blind treatment; and a 2-week double-blind down-taper period. The primary efficacy parameter was total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); the secondary efficacy was the Sheehan Disability Scale. Analysis was performed using the mixed-effects model for repeated measures on a modified intent-to-treat population. A total of 434 patients received at least 1 dose of double-blind treatment (safety population); 429 patients also had 1 or more postbaseline MADRS assessments (modified intent-to-treat population). The least squares mean differences and 95% confidence interval were statistically significant in favor of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo for the MADRS total score (-3.095 [-5.256, -0.935]; P = 0.0051) and the SDS total score (-2.632 [-4.193, -1.070]; P = 0.0010) change from baseline to week 8. Adverse events were reported in 61.8% of the placebo patients and in 81.6% of the levomilnacipran ER patients. Frequently reported adverse events (≥ 5% in levomilnacipran ER and twice the rate of placebo) were nausea, dizziness, constipation, tachycardia, urinary hesitation, hyperhidrosis, insomnia, vomiting, hypertension, and ejaculation disorder. In conclusion, there was a statistically significant difference in the score change from baseline to week 8 between levomilnacipran ER and placebo on several depression rating scales, reflecting symptomatic

  5. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Heather A; Koran, Lorrin M; Jenike, Michael A; Shapira, Nathan A; Chaplin, William; Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric

    2011-05-01

    From 40% to 60% of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients fail to tolerate or respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Preclinical and neuroimaging studies have shown abnormally high glutamatergic concentrations in OCD patients and an association between decreased caudate glutamatergic concentrations and reduced OCD symptom severity after SSRI treatment. Topiramate inhibits glutamatergic conduction. Thirty-six adult patients with DSM-IV-defined OCD were randomly assigned to topiramate (n = 18) and placebo (n = 18) groups in this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups trial. Subjects were taking the maximum SSRI dose they could tolerate for at least 12 weeks and their current dose for at least 6 weeks, which was maintained throughout the study. Primary outcome measures were changes in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score and compulsions and obsessions subscores. Patients were recruited and followed up between April 1, 2003, and April 13, 2006. Using mixed regression models (time [weeks] × treatment), we found a significant treatment effect on the YBOCS compulsions (P = .014) subscale, but not the obsessions (P = .99) subscale or the total score (P = .11). Over the 12-week trial, the topiramate group (mean endpoint dose = 177.8 ± 134.2 mg/d; range, 50-400 mg/d) showed an average linear decrease of 5.38 points on the compulsions subscale compared to 0.6 points in the placebo group. Thirteen topiramate and 14 placebo subjects completed the study. Topiramate was not well tolerated in this trial: 28% (5/18) of the subjects discontinued the drug for adverse effects, and 39% (7/18) had a dose reduction for this reason. The results of this first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate augmentation for treatment-resistant OCD suggest that topiramate may be beneficial for compulsions, but not obsessions. Modifications in glutamatergic function may be responsible, at least in part, for the

  6. Influence of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or Influenza Vaccination on HLA-DR, Infection and Delirium Days in Immunosuppressed Surgical Patients: Double Blind, Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Gunnar; Renius, Markus; von Haefen, Clarissa; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Bahra, Marcus; Schiemann, Alexander; Paupers, Marco; Meisel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgical patients are at high risk for developing infectious complications and postoperative delirium. Prolonged infections and delirium result in worse outcome. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and influenza vaccination are known to increase HLA-DR on monocytes and improve immune reactivity. This study aimed to investigate whether GM-CSF or vaccination reverses monocyte deactivation. Secondary aims were whether it decreases infection and delirium days after esophageal or pancreatic resection over time. Methods In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double dummy trial setting on an interdisciplinary ICU of a university hospital 61 patients with immunosuppression (monocytic HLA-DR [mHLA-DR] <10,000 monoclonal antibodies [mAb] per cell) on the first day after esophageal or pancreatic resection were treated with either GM-CSF (250 μg/m2/d), influenza vaccination (Mutagrip 0.5 ml/d) or placebo for a maximum of 3 consecutive days if mHLA-DR remained below 10,000 mAb per cell. HLA-DR on monocytes was measured daily until day 5 after surgery. Infections and delirium were followed up for 9 days after surgery. Primary outcome was HLA-DR on monocytes, and secondary outcomes were duration of infection and delirium. Results mHLA-DR was significantly increased compared to placebo (p < 0.001) and influenza vaccination (p < 0.001) on the second postoperative day. Compared with placebo, GM-CSF-treated patients revealed shorter duration of infection (p < 0.001); the duration of delirium was increased after vaccination (p = 0.003). Conclusion Treatment with GM-CSF in patients with postoperative immune suppression was safe and effective in restoring monocytic immune competence. Furthermore, therapy with GM-CSF reduced duration of infection in immune compromised patients. However, influenza vaccination increased duration of delirium after major surgery. Trial Registration www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN27114642 PMID

  7. Psychomotor and subjective effects of bilastine, hydroxyzine, and cetirizine, in combination with alcohol: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and positive-controlled and placebo-controlled Phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    García-Gea, Consuelo; Martínez, Joan; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Gich, Ignasi; Valiente, Román; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of concomitant administration of alcohol and bilastine versus alcohol alone on the central nervous system. Twenty-four healthy young volunteers of both sexes participated in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, crossover, and positive-controlled and placebo-controlled clinical trials. At 1-week intervals, subjects received six different treatments: (i) placebo; (ii) alcohol 0.8 g/kg alone (ALC); (iii) ALC in combination with: bilastine 20 mg (B20 + A); (iv) bilastine 80 mg (B80 + A); (v) cetirizine 10 mg (CET + A); and (vi) hydroxyzine 25 mg (HYD + A). Psychomotor performance tests (fine motor, finger tapping, nystagmus, critical flicker-fusion frequency, temporal estimation, 'd2' cancellation, and simple reaction time) and subjective self-reports (drunkenness, drowsiness, mental slowness, clumsiness, anger, attentiveness, competence, happiness, hostility, interest, and extroversion) were carried out at baseline and multiple points thereafter. All active treatments induced a significant psychomotor impairment. The greatest and most lasting impairment was observed with HYD + A followed by B80 + A and CET + A. In contrast, objective measures showed less impairment with B20 + A and ALC, both with a similar magnitude. Self-reports showed a subjective perception of performance impairment in all active treatments. Concomitant administration of bilastine (at therapeutic dose) and alcohol does not produce greater central nervous system depressant effects than ACL alone. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Superiority of L-propionylcarnitine vs L-carnitine in improving walking capacity in patients with peripheral vascular disease: an acute, intravenous, double-blind, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Brevetti, G; Perna, S; Sabbà, C; Rossini, A; Scotto di Uccio, V; Berardi, E; Godi, L

    1992-02-01

    The effects of L-propionylcarnitine on walking capacity were assessed in a group of patients with peripheral vascular disease. In 12 patients, 300 mg of L-propionylcarnitine, given intravenously as a single bolus did not affect walking capacity, while 600 mg increased both initial claudication distance from the placebo value of 179 +/- 114 to 245 +/- 129 m (P less than 0.05), and maximal walking distance from 245 +/- 124 to 349 +/- 155 m (P less than 0.05). Once the efficacious dose of L-propionylcarnitine was assessed, its effect was compared to that of an equimolar dose of L-carnitine (500 mg i.v.) according to a double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over design. In 14 patients, both treatments improved walking capacity; however, the analysis of variance showed that the increase in maximal walking distance with L-propionylcarnitine was greater than that with L-carnitine (P less than 0.05). Finally, in seven additional patients, the effects of L-propionylcarnitine and L-carnitine on the haemodynamics of the affected limb were assessed by an ultrasonic duplex system. Results indicated that both drugs did not affect the blood velocity and the blood flow rate in the ischaemic leg, thus suggesting that the beneficial effect on walking capacity was dependent on a metabolic effect. In conclusion, L-propionylcarnitine improves walking capacity in patients with peripheral vascular disease, probably acting through a metabolic mechanism. On a molar basis, this beneficial effect is greater than that observed with L-carnitine and, thus, the findings of the present study may have clinical relevance in terms of treatment cost and patient compliance.

  9. Influence of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or Influenza Vaccination on HLA-DR, Infection and Delirium Days in Immunosuppressed Surgical Patients: Double Blind, Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Spies, Claudia; Luetz, Alawi; Lachmann, Gunnar; Renius, Markus; von Haefen, Clarissa; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Bahra, Marcus; Schiemann, Alexander; Paupers, Marco; Meisel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Surgical patients are at high risk for developing infectious complications and postoperative delirium. Prolonged infections and delirium result in worse outcome. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and influenza vaccination are known to increase HLA-DR on monocytes and improve immune reactivity. This study aimed to investigate whether GM-CSF or vaccination reverses monocyte deactivation. Secondary aims were whether it decreases infection and delirium days after esophageal or pancreatic resection over time. In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double dummy trial setting on an interdisciplinary ICU of a university hospital 61 patients with immunosuppression (monocytic HLA-DR [mHLA-DR] <10,000 monoclonal antibodies [mAb] per cell) on the first day after esophageal or pancreatic resection were treated with either GM-CSF (250 μg/m2/d), influenza vaccination (Mutagrip 0.5 ml/d) or placebo for a maximum of 3 consecutive days if mHLA-DR remained below 10,000 mAb per cell. HLA-DR on monocytes was measured daily until day 5 after surgery. Infections and delirium were followed up for 9 days after surgery. Primary outcome was HLA-DR on monocytes, and secondary outcomes were duration of infection and delirium. mHLA-DR was significantly increased compared to placebo (p < 0.001) and influenza vaccination (p < 0.001) on the second postoperative day. Compared with placebo, GM-CSF-treated patients revealed shorter duration of infection (p < 0.001); the duration of delirium was increased after vaccination (p = 0.003). Treatment with GM-CSF in patients with postoperative immune suppression was safe and effective in restoring monocytic immune competence. Furthermore, therapy with GM-CSF reduced duration of infection in immune compromised patients. However, influenza vaccination increased duration of delirium after major surgery. www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN27114642.

  10. A randomized, double-blind, comparative study to assess the safety and efficacy of topical retapamulin ointment 1% versus oral linezolid in the treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions and impetigo due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tanus, Tonny; Scangarella-Oman, Nicole E; Dalessandro, Marybeth; Li, Gang; Breton, John J; Tomayko, John F

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of topical retapamulin ointment 1% versus oral linezolid in the treatment of patients with secondarily infected traumatic lesions (SITLs; excluding abscesses) or impetigo due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, comparative study (NCT00852540). Patients recruited from 36 study centers in the United States. Patients 2 months or older with SITL (including secondarily infected lacerations or sutured wounds) or impetigo (bullous and nonbullous) suitable for treatment with a topical antibiotic, with a total Skin Infection Rating Scale score of 8 or greater, including a pus/exudate score of 3 or greater. Patients received retapamulin ointment 1% (plus oral placebo), twice daily for 5 days or oral linezolid (plus placebo ointment) 2 or 3 times daily for 10 days. Primary end point: clinical response (success/failure) at follow-up in patients with MRSA at baseline (per-protocol population). Secondary efficacy end points: clinical and microbiologic response and outcome at follow-up and end of therapy; therapeutic response at follow-up. The majority of patients had SITL (70.4% [188/267] and 66.4% [91/137] in the retapamulin and linezolid groups, respectively; intent-to-treat clinical population). Clinical success rate at follow-up was significantly lower in the retapamulin versus the linezolid group (63.9% [39/61] vs 90.6% [29/32], respectively; difference in success rate -26.7%; 95% CI, -45.7 to -7.7). Clinical success rate at follow-up in the per-protocol MRSA population was significantly lower in the retapamulin versus the linezolid group. It could not be determined whether this was related to study design, bacterial virulence, or retapamulin activity.

  11. Concomitant or sequential administration of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine and yellow fever 17D vaccine: randomized double-blind phase II evaluation of safety and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Nasveld, Peter E; Marjason, Joanne; Bennett, Sonya; Aaskov, John; Elliott, Suzanne; McCarthy, Karen; Kanesa-Thasan, Niranjan; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Reid, Mark

    2010-11-01

    A randomized, double-blind, study was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) co-administered with live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D strain; Stamaril®, Sanofi Pasteur) or administered successively. Participants (n = 108) were randomized to receive: YF followed by JE-CV 30 days later, JE followed by YF 30 days later, or the co-administration of JE and YF followed or preceded by placebo 30 days later or earlier. Placebo was used in a double-dummy fashion to ensure masking. Neutralizing antibody titers against JE-CV, YF-17D and selected wild-type JE strains was determined using a 50% serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization test. Seroconversion was defined as the appearance of a neutralizing antibody titer above the assay cut-off post-immunization when not present pre-injection at day 0, or a least a four-fold rise in neutralizing antibody titer measured before the pre-injection day 0 and later post vaccination samples. There were no serious adverse events. Most adverse events (AEs) after JE vaccination were mild to moderate in intensity, and similar to those reported following YF vaccination. Seroconversion to JE-CV was 100% and 91% in the JE/YF and YF/JE sequential vaccination groups, respectively, compared with 96% in the co-administration group. All participants seroconverted to YF vaccine and retained neutralizing titers above the assay cut-off at month six. Neutralizing antibodies against JE vaccine were detected in 82-100% of participants at month six. These results suggest that both vaccines may be successfully co-administered simultaneously or 30 days apart.

  12. Suppression of Puerperal Lactation with an Ergot Alkaloid: A Double-blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Varga, L.; Lutterbeck, P. M.; Pryor, J. S.; Wenner, R.; Erb, H.

    1972-01-01

    A double-blind trial was performed in 60 women to establish the effectiveness of an ergot alkaloid, 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine (ergocryptine; CB 154), in suppressing puerperal lactation and to compare it with stilboestrol and a placebo. At the doses selected ergocryptine and stilboestrol were equally effective. PMID:4556543

  13. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  14. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  15. Double-blind trial of thiothixene and chlorpromazine in acute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rickels, K; Byrdy, H; Valentine, J; Postel, W; Norstad, N; Downing, R

    1978-01-01

    In a double-blind trial of chlorpromazine and thiothixene conducted with 79 acutely ill, newly hospitalized schizophrenic patients, chlorpromazine and thiothixene were shown to be equally effective in producing meaningful symptomatic improvment over an average period of approximately 3 weeks, as measured by Global Assessments (CGI), BPRS, and NOSIE.

  16. [Effect of chamomile on wound healing--a clinical double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Glowania, H J; Raulin, C; Swoboda, M

    1987-09-01

    In a double-blind trial, the therapeutic efficacy of chamomile extract was tested on 14 patients. As objective parameters served the epithelial and drying effect on weeping wound area after dermabrasion of tattoos. The period of the healing and drying process was judged by the doctor. The decrease of the weeping wound area as well as the drying tendency was statistically significant.

  17. A double blind controlled trial of prednisolone-21-phosphate suppositories in the treatment of idiopathic proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Lennard-Jones, J. E.; Baron, J. H.; Connell, A. M.; Jones, F. Avery

    1962-01-01

    A double blind trial of prednisolone suppositories in out-patients with idiopathic proctitis is reported. Significant improvement was noted. When prednisolone suppositories were given after the patient had already used suppositories of base alone for three weeks the active treatment was no longer so effective. PMID:13929632

  18. Synoviorthesis with erbium-169: a double-blind controlled comparison of erbium-169 with corticosteroid.

    PubMed Central

    Gumpel, J M; Matthews, S A; Fisher, M

    1979-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of erbium--169 citrate and methylprednisolone acetate in hand joints were compared in a randomly selected double-blind trial. The patients included 21 with rheumatoid arthritis and 3 with psoriatic arthritis, and the design was an intrapatient comparison. No difference between joints treated with the radioisotope or steroid was observed in the year following injection. PMID:386961

  19. A Placebo Double-Blind Pilot Study of Dextromethorphan for Problematic Behaviors in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Cooper; Groden, June; Goodwin, Matthew; Bodfish, James

    2007-01-01

    We used a mixed group/single-case, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ABAB design to examine the safety and efficacy of the glutamate antagonist dextromethorphan for the treatment of problematic behaviors and core symptoms in eight children diagnosed with autism. All participants had increased levels of irritability at baseline as measured by the…

  20. Nebulized sodium cromoglycate in young asthmatic children. Double-blind trial.

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, E J; Milner, A D; Lenney, W

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen asthmatic children under 5 years of age took part in a double-blind controlled trial of nebulized sodium cromoglycate solution. Daily symptom scores kept by the parents showed improvement in 11 children during active treatment, and a significant improvement in scores for cough by day and night was obtained for the group as a whole. PMID:413493

  1. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…

  2. Human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing: A randomized double-blinded study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial assessed the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on genogroup I.1 human norovirus (HuNoV) inactivation in virus-seeded oysters when ingested by subjects. The safety and efficacy of HPP treatments were assessed in three study phases wi...

  3. Double blind study of the effect of caffeine on the mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, F; Takahashi, F; Goto, T; Harada, K; Kusaba, A; Morimoto, S

    2000-04-01

    The double blind study of the effect of caffeine on the mental calculation has been carried out in the practical exercise course for the undergraduate students of clinical pharmacology, in the Medical School, Kyushu University. The results obtained from 1997 to 1999 were summarized and evaluated.

  4. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  5. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…

  6. A Placebo Double-Blind Pilot Study of Dextromethorphan for Problematic Behaviors in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Cooper; Groden, June; Goodwin, Matthew; Bodfish, James

    2007-01-01

    We used a mixed group/single-case, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ABAB design to examine the safety and efficacy of the glutamate antagonist dextromethorphan for the treatment of problematic behaviors and core symptoms in eight children diagnosed with autism. All participants had increased levels of irritability at baseline as measured by the…

  7. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist in posttraumatic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Kalliomäki, Jarkko; Attal, Nadine; Jonzon, Bror; Bach, Flemming W; Huizar, Karin; Ratcliffe, Stuart; Eriksson, Britta; Janecki, Marcin; Danilov, Andrei; Bouhassira, Didier

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of a novel chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist, AZD2423, in posttraumatic neuralgia. This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, multicentre study. One hundred thirty-three patients with posttraumatic neuralgia were equally randomized to 28days' oral administration of 20mg AZD2423, 150mg AZD2423 or placebo. The primary efficacy variable was the change of average pain score from 5days at baseline to the last 5days of treatment, measured by a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0-10). The secondary efficacy measures included NRS worst pain score, patient global impression of change, pain interference on sleep and activity, and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). The change of the NRS average pain score was not significantly different between treatment groups (AZD2423 20mg -1.54; AZD2423 150mg -1.53; placebo -1.44). There were trends towards larger reduction of NPSI total score and NPSI subscores for paroxysmal pain and paresthesia/dysesthesia by AZD2423 150mg compared to placebo. No other secondary efficacy variables differed between treatment groups. The frequency and type of adverse events for AZD2423 were similar to placebo. Increased plasma levels of chemokine ligand 2 and reduced mean levels of monocytes (-30% by AZD2423 150mg) suggested that the administrated doses of AZD2423 had interacted with the CCR2 target. The CCR2 antagonist AZD2423 demonstrated no efficacy on NRS average pain scores and most of the secondary pain variables. The NPSI data suggested possible effects on certain sensory components of pain. There were no major safety or tolerability concerns.

  9. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  10. Treatment of diffuse systemic sclerosis with hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO): a phase II double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. Methods This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. Results There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). Conclusions These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation. PMID:24067785

  11. Treatment of diffuse systemic sclerosis with hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO): a phase II double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation.

  12. Management of Neuropathic Chronic Pain with Methadone Combined with Ketamine: A Randomized, Double Blind, Active-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Flavia Karine; Trevisan, Gabriela; Godoy, Maria C; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Silva, Mariane A; Menezes, Mirian S; Caumo, Wolnei; Ferreira, Juliano

    2017-03-01

    Methadone and ketamine are used in neuropathic pain management. However, the benefits of both drugs association are uncertain in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Our primary objective was test the hypothesis that oral methadone combined with oral ketamine is more effective than oral methadone or ketamine alone in reducing neuropathic pain. We conducted a randomized, double blind, active-controlled parallel-group clinical trial. Forty-two patients with neuropathic pain refractory to conventional therapy were randomly assigned to receive oral methadone (n = 14), ketamine (n = 14), or methadone plus ketamine (n = 14) over a 3-month period. During these 90 days, we observed pain scores using a visual analogical scale (VAS), allodynia, burning/shooting pain, and some side effects. All treatments were effective in reducing pain scores by at least 40%. However, a significant improvement in pain was observed only in the ketamine alone group compared with both the methadone or methadone/ketamine groups. No significant differences were observed among the treatment groups for the reduction of burning or shooting pain, while ketamine alone was more effective than methadone or methadone/ketamine for the reduction of allodynia. Formal assessment for awareness of the allocation was not performed, some co-intervention bias may have occurred, our results could be only relevant to the patient population investigated and the use of VAS as the primary outcome detect changes in pain intensity but not to assess neuropathic pain symptoms. This study indicates that ketamine was better than methadone or methadone/ketamine for treating neuropathic pain.Key words: Multimodal analgesia, refractory pain, NMDA receptor, opioid.

  13. The effects of tea on psychophysiological stress responsivity and post-stress recovery: a randomised double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Gibson, E Leigh; Vuononvirta, Raisa; Williams, Emily D; Hamer, Mark; Rycroft, Jane A; Erusalimsky, Jorge D; Wardle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Tea has anecdotally been associated with stress relief, but this has seldom been tested scientifically. To investigate the effects of 6 weeks of black tea consumption, compared with matched placebo, on subjective, cardiovascular, cortisol and platelet responses to acute stress, in a parallel group double-blind randomised design. Seventy-five healthy nonsmoking men were withdrawn from tea, coffee and caffeinated beverages for a 4-week wash-out phase during which they drank four cups per day of a caffeinated placebo. A pretreatment laboratory test session was carried out, followed by either placebo (n = 38) or active tea treatment (n = 37) for 6 weeks, then, a final test session. Cardiovascular measures were obtained before, during and after two challenging behavioural tasks, while cortisol, platelet and subjective measures were assessed before and after tasks. The tasks induced substantial increases in blood pressure, heart rate and subjective stress ratings, but responses did not differ between tea and placebo treatments. Platelet activation (assessed using flow cytometry) was lower following tea than placebo treatment in both baseline and post-stress samples (P < 0.005). The active tea group also showed lower post-task cortisol levels compared with placebo (P = 0.032), and a relative increase in subjective relaxation during the post-task recovery period (P = 0.036). Compared with placebo, 6 weeks of tea consumption leads to lower post-stress cortisol and greater subjective relaxation, together with reduced platelet activation. Black tea may have health benefits in part by aiding stress recovery.

  14. Effect of rosuvastatin on diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ojeda, Jaime; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Rodríguez-Carrízalez, Adolfo Daniel; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Alatorre-Carranza, María del Pilar; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy affects 50%–66% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress generates nerve dysfunction by causing segmental demyelinization and axonal degeneration. Antioxidants are considered to be the only etiologic management for diabetic polyneuropathy, and statins such as rosuvastatin increase nitric oxide bioavailability and reduce lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of rosuvastatin in diabetic polyneuropathy. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) stage ≥1b. We allocated subjects to two parallel groups (1:1) that received rosuvastatin 20 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were neuropathic symptom score, disability score, and nerve conduction studies, and secondary outcomes were glycemic control, lipid and hepatic profile, lipid peroxidation, and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) levels. Results Both groups were of similar age and duration since diagnosis of diabetes and DPN. We observed improvement of DPN in the rosuvastatin group from stage 2a (88.2%) to stage 1b (41.2%), improvement of neuropathic symptom score from 4.5±2 to 2.4±1.8, and significant (P=0.001) reductions of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (from 40.8±2.2 to 42.1±1.6 seconds) and lipid peroxidation (from 25.4±2 to 12.2±4.0 nmol/mL), with no significant change in glycemic control or β-NGF. Conclusion The severity, symptoms, and nerve conduction parameters of DPN improved after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin. These beneficial effects appear to be attributable to reductions in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:25214797

  15. Efficacy of sodium butyrate adjunct therapy in shigellosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of shigellosis in rabbits with butyrate reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether butyrate can be used as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of shigellosis in patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group designed clinical trial was conducted. Eighty adult patients with shigellosis were randomized to either the Intervention group (butyrate, n = 40) or the Placebo group (normal saline, n = 40). The Intervention group was given an enema containing sodium butyrate (80 mM), twice daily for 3 days, while the Placebo group received the same dose of normal saline. The primary endpoint of the trial was to assess the efficacy of butyrate in improving clinical, endoscopic and histological features of shigellosis. The secondary endpoint was to study the effect of butyrate on the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the rectum. Clinical outcomes were assessed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, human beta defensin1 [HBD-1] and human beta defensin 3 [HBD-3]) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) were measured in the stool. Sigmoidoscopic and histopathological analyses, and immunostaining of LL-37 in the rectal mucosa were performed in a subgroup of patients. Results Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. Butyrate treatment induced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia. Stool concentration of LL-37 remained significantly higher in the Intervention group on days 4 and 7. Conclusion Adjunct therapy with butyrate during shigellosis led to early reduction of inflammation and enhanced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia with prolonged release of LL-37 in the stool. Trial Registration Clinical

  16. Acupuncture for acute non-specific low back pain: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, placebo trial.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tatiana Molinas; Baptista, Andréia Salvador; de Souza, Marcelo Cardoso; Yoshizumi, Alexandre Massao; Natour, Jamil

    2014-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of Yamamoto's acupuncture method on pain, drug intake, functional capacity and quality of life for the treatment of acute non-specific low back pain (ANLBP). A prospective, randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 80 men and women with ANLBP who were randomly assigned to five acupuncture sessions (intervention group (IG), n=40) and to five non-penetrating acupuncture sessions (sham group (SG), n=40). Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The measurements used were: visual analogue scale (VAS) for cumulative pain (before intervention, VAS1) and immediate pain (after intervention, VAS2); function (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RM)); quality of life (SF-36); improvement rating; and number of anti-inflammatory tablets taken. The primary endpoint was a decrease of at least 2 cm in VAS1. Pain VAS improved significantly in the IG from day 14 onwards compared with the SG, but the difference did not reach the prespecified clinically relevant value of 2 cm. The IG was significantly superior to the SG in the following outcomes: cumulative pain, function, pain (SF-36) and vitality (SF-36) at days 14, 21 and 28 (p<0.05); limitation in physical aspects (SF-36) at all times (p=0.007 and p=0.02); and functional capacity (SF-36) at days 21 and 28 (p<0.05). The IG also took significantly fewer anti-inflammatory tablets than the SG (p=0.004) at all evaluation times and the improvement rating was better than the SG (p<0.001). Yamamoto's new scalp acupuncture was more effective than sham treatment with regard to decrease in pain and anti-inflammatory intake as well as improving functional status and quality of life for patients with ANLBP. NCT 01124955.

  17. Sildenafil citrate for the prevention of high altitude hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew G D; Thompson, A A Roger; Baillie, J Kenneth; Sutherland, Andrew I; Irving, John B; Hirani, Nikhil; Webb, David J

    2011-01-01

    Exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a key factor in the development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Due to its effectiveness as a pulmonary vasodilator, sildenafil has been proposed as a prophylactic agent against HAPE. By conducting a parallel-group double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of chronic sildenafil administration on pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during acclimatization to high altitude. Sixty-two healthy lowland volunteers (36 male; median age 21 years, range 18 to 31) on the Apex 2 research expedition were flown to La Paz, Bolivia (3650 m), and after 4-5 days acclimatization ascended over 90 min to 5200 m. The treatment group (n=20) received 50 mg sildenafil citrate three times daily. PASP was recorded by echocardiography at sea level and within 6 h, 3 days, and 1 week at 5200 m. AMS was assessed daily using the Lake Louise Consensus symptom score. On intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in PASP at 5200 m between sildenafil and placebo groups. Median AMS score on Day 2 at 5200 m was significantly higher in the sildenafil group (placebo 4.0, sildenafil 6.5; p=0.004) but there was no difference in prevalence of AMS between groups. Sildenafil administration did not affect PASP in healthy lowland subjects at 5200 m but AMS was significantly more severe on Day 2 at 5200 m with sildenafil. Our data do not support routine prophylactic use of sildenafil to reduce PASP at high altitude in healthy subjects with no history of HAPE. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00627965.

  18. Extended-release methylphenidate for treatment of amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miles, S Wayne; Sheridan, Janie; Russell, Bruce; Kydd, Rob; Wheeler, Amanda; Walters, Carina; Gamble, Greg; Hardley, Peta; Jensen, Maree; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Tuomola, Pekka; Föhr, Jaana; Kuikanmäki, Outi; Vorma, Helena; Salokangas, Raimo; Mikkonen, Antti; Kallio, Mika; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Tiihonen, Jari

    2013-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of methylphenidate as a substitution therapy for amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence in Finland and New Zealand. Parallel-group, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Out-patient care. Amphetamine-/methamphetamine-dependent, aged 16-65 years. The primary outcome measure was presence/absence of amphetamine/methamphetamine in urine samples collected twice weekly. Secondary measures included treatment adherence, alterations in craving scores and self-reported use. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat (ITT). The study drug, methylphenidate (as Concerta(®) ), was up-titrated over 2 weeks to a maximum dose of 54 mg daily and continued for a further 20 weeks. Doses were given under daily supervision at the clinics. Seventy-nine participants were randomized (40 methylphenidate; 39 placebo); 76 received allocated treatment and 27 completed the trial. ITT analysis (n = 78) showed no statistically significant difference in the percentage of positive urines between the methylphenidate and placebo arms (odds ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.08). However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the active and placebo arms in retention, the placebo arm displaying a significantly lower retention from 6 weeks that persisted until the end of the trial. The trial failed to replicate earlier findings suggesting that methylphenidate was superior to placebo. The low retention rate confounded the ability to draw firm conclusions about efficacy. The higher retention rate was observed in the methylphenidate arm. Any replication of this work would need to consider alternatives to the rigid clinic attendance criteria, and consider an increased dose. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Extended analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-week study with otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glende, Manfred; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Evangelista, Stefano

    2002-12-01

    In order to follow the most recent developments and recommendations in trial methodology for drug evaluation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, we performed an extended analysis of a large clinical trial from a previously published study of otilonium bromide, using an assessment that integrates the key symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. A large-scale clinical trial with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study design was conducted in 378 patients, treated for 15 weeks with the recommended standard dose of 40 mg otilonium bromide or placebo three times daily. The study was based on the collection of 12 single efficacy endpoints. The new efficacy assessment was based on the data reported by the patients. Rather than demonstrating score differences between the treatment groups of the study, we carried out an assessment that integrates the most frequent symptoms reported (pain frequency and intensity, presence of meteorism and distension) by the patient. The rate of response to treatment within 2-4 months (the primary efficacy outcome measure) was significantly higher in the otilonium bromide group (36.9%) than in the placebo group (22.5%; P = 0.007). In each month of treatment, the rate of monthly response was higher in the otilonium bromide group as compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). The total monthly and weekly responses to the single endpoints (intensity and frequency of pain and discomfort, meteorism/abdominal distension, severity of diarrhoea or constipation and mucus in the stool) were significantly more frequent in the group treated with otilonium bromide than in the placebo-treated group, with differences ranging from 10% to 20%. The subgroup analysis of the intestinal habits endpoint indicates that patients with diarrhoea have an additional benefit. The present re-evaluation of a previously published study confirms that otilonium bromide is more effective than placebo for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, being very

  20. Divalproex extended-release in adolescent migraine prophylaxis: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Apostol, George; Cady, Roger K; Laforet, Genevieve A; Robieson, Weining Z; Olson, Evelyn; Abi-Saab, Walid M; Saltarelli, Mario

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of 3 different doses of divalproex sodium extended-release vs placebo in the prophylaxis of migraine headaches in adolescents. Divalproex sodium has been approved for migraine prophylaxis in adults, and previous uncontrolled data suggest divalproex sodium may be effective in preventing migraine in children and adolescents with acceptable tolerability. This was a 12-week, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study in approximately 300 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with migraine headaches. At the end of the baseline phase, subjects still meeting study criteria were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive divalproex sodium extended-release 250 mg, 500 mg, or 1000 mg once daily, or placebo. The primary efficacy variable was reduction from baseline in 4-week migraine headache rate for each active treatment group vs placebo. Standard safety assessments were conducted and testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were collected for postmenarchal females. There was no statistically significant treatment difference between any divalproex sodium extended-release dose group and placebo for the primary efficacy variable, reduction from baseline in 4-week migraine headache rate. There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events between any active treatment group and placebo. A notable dose-related decrease in platelets was observed, and individuals in all 4 treatment groups had increases in ammonia levels; treatment differences in other laboratory variables were generally small. Among postmenarchal female subjects who were not taking hormonal contraceptives or other steroids, there was no statistically significant change in testosterone levels, but a statistically significant dose-related increase in sex hormone-binding globulin was observed. In the current study, divalproex sodium extended-release did not differentiate from placebo in the

  1. Theobromine for the treatment of persistent cough: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Morice, Alyn H; McGarvey, Lorcan; Pavord, Ian D; Higgins, Bernard; Chung, Kian Fan; Birring, Surinder S

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of BC1036 on health-related quality of life (QOL) in subjects with persistent cough. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of BC1036 on subjective cough severity. This was a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 289 subjects with persistent cough. Subjects received BC1036 or placebo twice daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint comprised cough-related QOL assessed using the validated Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) at Day 14. Secondary endpoints comprised the LCQ scores at Day 7 and Day 28, cough severity VAS scores at each visit and pulmonary function tests. At baseline, mean total LCQ score in the BC1036 group was lower (i.e., worse QOL) than placebo (P<0.001), indicating significant between-group heterogeneity. Mean baseline-adjusted change in LCQ score at Day 14 was greater for BC1036 [mean (SD) 2.4±3.5] compared to placebo [mean (SD) score 2.2±3.0], but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.60). Mean cough severity VAS score decreased to a greater extent in the BC1036 group compared to placebo, but again the results were not statistically significant (-12.2±23.28 in BC1036 group and -11.0±21.34 in placebo group at Day 14, P=0.688). There was no significant change in pulmonary function measurements. The adverse event (AE) profile was similar in both groups. This study showed that BC1036 was well tolerated and, although the primary endpoint did not achieve statistical significance, the magnitude of improvement was greater with BC1036 compared to placebo with respect to improving QOL and reducing cough severity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01656668.

  2. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  3. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing the effects of continuous and pulsed ultrasound in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Fathali, Mojtaba; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasson, Scott; Jalaie, Shohreh; Rastak, Mohammad Saeed

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous ultrasound (CUS) with pulsed ultrasound (PUS) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, 40 patients (10 losses) with CRS participated. Patients received either continuous or pulsed (1:9) 1 MHz ultrasound (US) using a US head of 1 cm2 at 1 W/cm2 and 0.5 W/cm2 for the maxillary and frontal sinuses, respectively. Treatment was performed in 10 sessions, 3 days per week, with US given every other day. The primary outcome measure was percent improvement in the Sinusitis Symptom Score. Measurements were taken before and after 10 treatment sessions. The patients were followed up monthly for 2 months. After treatment, both groups improved significantly on the Sinusitis Symptoms Score. Patients who received PUS had significantly decreased total symptom scores compared with patients receiving CUS (mean change 9.8 vs. 5.6, p = 0.049). The percent improvement in the Sinusitis Symptom Score between the PUS group (65.2 SD 23.1) and the CUS group (43.9 SD 40.7) was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). The effect size for each treatment was large; PUS: d = 3.92 and CUS: d = 1.93. Symptom improvement in both groups was similar at the 2-month follow-up. These results support the use of therapeutic US for CRS. This pilot study gives only marginal evidence to favor PUS over CUS.

  4. Puncture technique and postural postdural puncture headache. A randomised, double-blind study comparing transverse and parallel puncture.

    PubMed

    Flaatten, H; Thorsen, T; Askeland, B; Finne, M; Rosland, J; Hansen, T; Rønhovde, K; Wisborg, T

    1998-11-01

    This clinical study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of two different orientations of the bevel during dural puncture on development of postural postdural puncture headache (PPDPH). Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 18 to 50 years scheduled for minor non-obstetric surgery using spinal anaesthesia (SA) were included in this randomised, double-blind study. Dural puncture was performed using a 0.42 mm O.D. (27-g) Quincke spinal needle with the orientation of the bevel parallel or transverse relative to the longitudinal axis of the dural cylinder. All patients were blinded with regard to the puncture technique, and so was the anaesthesiologist performing a telephone interview 5 to 7 days postoperatively. The occurrence and duration of headache, backache and other complaints were recorded. Headache was classified as PPDPH or non-PPDPH, and intensity of the headache was registered using a numerical rating scale (NRS) from 0 to 10. Two hundred and twelve patients with a mean age of 35.3 years completed the study, 106 in each group. The two groups were comparable with regard to mean age, sex, local anaesthetics used and surgical procedure performed. Headache occurred in 44 patients postoperatively. PPDPH was diagnosed in 4/106 patients (3.8%) in the parallel group and 24/106 (22.6%) in the transverse group (P < 0.0002). Postoperative backache occurred in 31 and 20 patients (parallel compared to transverse) (NS). Dural puncture with the bevel of the needle transverse to the longitudinal axis of the dural cylinder gave significantly more cases of PPDPH than puncture with the bevel parallel to this axis even when using a 27-g Quincke needle. When using Quincke bevelled needles care must be taken to assure that the orientation of the bevel is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the dural sac.

  5. Efficacy and safety of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Japan: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Nakata, Shuji; Ukae, Susumu; Koizumi, Yoshitugu; Morita, Yasuyuki; Kuroki, Haruo; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Shizuya, Toshiyuki; Schödel, Florian; Brown, Michelle L; Lawrence, Jody

    2013-08-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under 5 y of age. Estimates of disease burden in Japan suggest that between 26,500 and 78,000 children in this age group need hospitalization each year, resulting in a direct medical cost of 10 to 24 billion Yen. Since being introduced in routine infant immunization schedules in the United States in 2006, the oral live pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RV5 (RotaTeq™) has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and in health care resource utilization. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 3-dose regimen of RV5 in healthy infants, age 6 to 12 weeks, at 32 sites across Japan. The results indicate that RV5 was significantly efficacious in preventing any severity [74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.9%, 90.6%; p<0.001)], moderate-to-severe [80.2% (95% CI: 47.4%, 94.1%)], and severe [100% (95% CI: 55.4%, 100%)] RVGE caused by viruses with serotypes contained in the vaccine. The observed cases of RVGE included rotavirus types G1 (n=19), G3 (n=9), G9 (n=5) and one unspecified G serotype with P1A[8]. No G2 or G4 RVGE cases were observed, and this study was not powered to evaluate efficacy against individual serotypes. RV5 was generally safe and well tolerated in Japanese infants. These results are comparable to those observed in clinical studies conducted in other developed countries. Introduction of the vaccine in Japan may reduce disease burden and associated health care costs.

  6. Emotional changes in men treated with sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Ignacio; Martínez-Jabaloyas, José M; Rodriguez-Vela, Luis; Gutiérrez, Pedro R; Giuliano, Francois; Koskimaki, Juha; Farmer, Ian S; Renedo, Virginia Pascual; Schnetzler, Gabriel

    2009-12-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been associated with several comorbidities and can cause significant loss of quality of life and self-esteem. In men with ED, to use the validated Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire to evaluate changes in self-esteem associated with sildenafil treatment of ED and to assess changes dependent on concomitant comorbid conditions. This was a 14-week, international, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, flexible-dose (25, 50, or 100 mg), placebo-controlled study of sildenafil in men aged >or=18 years with a clinical diagnosis of ED (score

  7. [A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of tolperisone in spasticity following cerebral stroke].

    PubMed

    Stamenova, P; Koytchev, R; Kuhn, K; Hanasen, C; Horvath, F; Ramm, S; Pongratz, D

    2006-01-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of tolperisone--a centrally acting muscle relaxant with membrane stabilizing activity--in the treatment of stroke-related spasticity. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study with parallel groups. Treatment lasted 12 weeks and was started with a titration period of variable length (dose range 300-900 mg tolperisone daily). The degree of spasticity determined on the Ashworth Scale in the most severely affected joint area was denned as primary target parameter. Hundred and twenty patients (43 females, 77 males) in a mean age of 63,3 +/- 10,6 years were recruited and received treatment. In the majority of patients both limbs of each side were affected by the spasticity which on average had been present for 3,3 +/- 4,4 years. A 62% of the patients were treated with a daily dose >600 mg tolperisone. Tolperisone reduced the mean Ashworth Score by a mean of 1,03 +/- 0,71 compared with a mean reduction of 0,47 +/- 0,54 in the placebo group (p<0,0001). A 78,3% of the patients on tolperisone versus 45% of the placebo patients experienced a reduction by at least 1 point on the Ashworth Scale (p<0,0001). Functional and overall assessments of efficacy confirmed superior efficacy of tolperisone. Adverse events occurred less often on active treatment (n=19) than on placebo (n=26) and were mostly of mild-to-moderate intensity. No withdrawals caused by adverse events were reported in the tolperisone group. The findings of the present study demonstrate the efficacy and excellent tolerance of tolperisone in the treatment of spastic hypertonia following cerebral stroke. Study data further suggest that an individual dose titration which may exceed the recommended maximum dose of 450 mg daily results in optimized therapeutic benefit.

  8. Naproxen, paracetamol and pamabrom versus paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom in primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario I; Murguía-Cánovas, Gabriela; Vargas-López, Laura C; Silva, Rodolfo; González-de la Parra, Mario

    2016-10-24

    Dysmenorrhea is caused by the discharge of prostaglandins into the uterine tissue; therefore, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the established initial therapy for dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea therapy may include the administration of drug monotherapy or combination therapy. However, clinical scientific evidence on the efficacy of medications with two or three drugs combined is scarce or nonexistent. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of two oral fixed-dose combinations for the relief of the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea among Mexican women. One of the combinations is widely used in Mexico (paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom) and the selected comparison was a medication with naproxen sodium, paracetamol and pamabrom based on the pathophysiology of primary dysmenorrhea. This was a single-centre, double blind, experimental, parallel group, randomized trial. Female patients with primary dysmenorrhea, older than 17 years and with pain intensity greater than 45 mm on a visual analogue scale, were included. The patients were then randomized to receive tablets with naproxen sodium, paracetamol and pamabrom or tablets with paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom for one menstrual cycle. Patient evaluations of symptomatology and pain intensity were recorded throughout one menstrual period. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were utilized. An intention-to-treat population of 91 women, with a mean age of 21.3 ± 3.2 years, received paracetamol, pyrilamine and pamabrom tablets, and 98 participants, with a mean age of 21.0 ± 3.2 years, received naproxen sodium, paracetamol and pamabrom tablets. The participants’ assessments of pain on the Visual Analogue Scale during the menstrual cycle demonstrated a significant reduction in both treatment groups (p<0.05). There is no significant difference in efficacy between both groups (p>0.05). The results showed that both drug combinations were not different in reducing dysmenorrheic pain

  9. The Nightly Use of Sodium Oxybate Is Associated with a Reduction in Nocturnal Sleep Disruption: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Patients with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jed; Pardi, Daniel; Hornfeldt, Carl S.; Inhaber, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To further explore the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) administration on nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted with 228 adult patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Method: Patients were withdrawn from antidepressants and sedative/hypnotics, and then randomized to receive 4.5, 6, or 9 g SXB or placebo nightly for 8 weeks. Patients receiving 6 and 9 g/night doses were titrated to their final dose in weekly 1.5 g increments, while patients receiving placebo were randomized to undergo a similar mock dose titration. The use of stimulant therapy continued unchanged. Changes in sleep architecture were measured using centrally scored nocturnal polysomnograms. Daily diaries were used to record changes in narcolepsy symptoms and adverse events. Results: Following 8 weeks of SXB treatment, study patients demonstrated significant dose-related increases in the duration of stage 3 and 4 sleep, reaching a median increase of 52.5 minutes in patients receiving 9 g nightly. Compared to placebo-treated patients, delta power was significantly increased in all dose groups. Stage 1 sleep and the frequency of nocturnal awakenings were each significantly decreased at the 6 and 9 g/night doses. The changes in nocturnal sleep coincided with significant decreases in the severity and frequency of narcolepsy symptoms. Conclusions: The nightly administration of SXB to narcolepsy patients significantly impacts measures of slow wave sleep, wake after sleep onset, awakenings, total sleep time, and stage 1 sleep in a dose-related manner. The frequency and severity of narcolepsy symptoms decreased with treatment. Citation: Black J; Pardi D; Hornfeldt CS; Inhaber N. The nightly use of sodium oxybate is associated with a reduction in nocturnal sleep disruption: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):596-602. PMID:21206549

  10. Topical 5% lidocaine (lignocaine) medicated plaster treatment for post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational efficacy and safety trial.

    PubMed

    Binder, Andreas; Bruxelle, Jean; Rogers, Peter; Hans, Guy; Bösl, Irmgard; Baron, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a distressing neuropathic pain condition mainly affecting elderly patients. Neuropathic pain symptoms can be of a burning, shooting and stabbing nature, and may continue for prolonged periods and are often poorly controlled by polymedication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of topical analgesic treatment (5% lidocaine [lignocaine] medicated plaster) compared with placebo plaster in patients with PHN. This was a double-blind, placebo plaster-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre study employing enriched enrolment with randomized withdrawal methodology. After an initial 8-week open-label, active run-in phase, responders entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase. The study was conducted at 33 outpatient investigational centres in 12 European countries. Patients with PHN were selected who were aged >/=50 years, had experienced neuropathic pain persisting for >/=3 months after rash healing, and had a mean pain intensity of >/=4 on an 11-point numerical rating scale. A total of 265 patients entered the open-label phase and subsequently a pre-defined number of 71 patients entered the randomized phase. Patients applied up to three 5% lidocaine medicated plasters for up to 12 hours per day. The primary endpoint of the study was time-to-exit due to a >/=2-point reduction in pain relief on two consecutive days of plaster application using a 6-point verbal rating scale. Of the 265 patients entering the run-in phase, 51.7% achieved at least moderate pain relief. In the double-blind phase (full analysis set, n = 71), median times-to-exit were 13.5 (range 2-14) and 9.0 (range 1-14) days for lidocaine and placebo plaster groups, respectively (p = 0.151). For per-protocol patients (n = 34), median time-to-exit was 14.0 (range 3-14) and 6.0 (range 1-14) days for lidocaine and placebo plaster groups, respectively (p = 0.0398). Drug-related adverse events occurred in 13.6% of patients

  11. Label-Free, Single Molecule Resonant Cavity Detection: A Double-Blind Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakova, Maria V.; Shi, Ce; Armani, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a “known” analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms. PMID:25785307

  12. Random allocation software for parallel group randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Saghaei, Mahmood

    2004-11-09

    Typically, randomization software should allow users to exert control over the different aspects of randomization including block design, provision of unique identifiers and control over the format and type of program output. While some of these characteristics have been addressed by available software, none of them have all of these capabilities integrated into one package. The main objective of the Random Allocation Software project was to enhance the user's control over different aspects of randomization in parallel group trials, including output type and format, structure and ordering of generated unique identifiers and enabling users to specify group names for more than two groups. The program has different settings for: simple and blocked randomizations; length, format and ordering of generated unique identifiers; type and format of program output; and saving sessions for future use. A formatted random list generated by this program can be used directly (without further formatting) by the coordinator of the research team to prepare and encode different drugs or instruments necessary for the parallel group trial. Random Allocation Software enables users to control different attributes of the random allocation sequence and produce qualified lists for parallel group trials.

  13. Random allocation software for parallel group randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Saghaei, Mahmood

    2004-01-01

    Background Typically, randomization software should allow users to exert control over the different aspects of randomization including block design, provision of unique identifiers and control over the format and type of program output. While some of these characteristics have been addressed by available software, none of them have all of these capabilities integrated into one package. The main objective of the Random Allocation Software project was to enhance the user's control over different aspects of randomization in parallel group trials, including output type and format, structure and ordering of generated unique identifiers and enabling users to specify group names for more than two groups. Results The program has different settings for: simple and blocked randomizations; length, format and ordering of generated unique identifiers; type and format of program output; and saving sessions for future use. A formatted random list generated by this program can be used directly (without further formatting) by the coordinator of the research team to prepare and encode different drugs or instruments necessary for the parallel group trial. Conclusions Random Allocation Software enables users to control different attributes of the random allocation sequence and produce qualified lists for parallel group trials. PMID:15535880

  14. [Laser treatment of sinusitis in general practice assessed by a double-blind controlled study].

    PubMed

    Moustsen, P A; Vinter, N; Aas-Andersen, L; Kragstrup, J

    1991-08-05

    The effect of Low Level Laser therapy (Galium-Aluminium-Arsenide laser, 30 mW/830 nm, Unilaser 2000 3B) on sinuitis was evaluated in a double-blind randomised clinical study comprising 60 patients from general practice. All patients received three treatments (90 seconds radiation on each sinus) with one to three days interval. No statistically significant differences in pain relief, well-being or duration of illness were observed between patients treated with laser and a placebo.

  15. Double-Blind Comparison of Phlebitis Produced by Cefazolin Versus Cephalothin

    PubMed Central

    Shemonsky, Natalie K.; Carrizosa, Jaime; Kaye, Donald; Levison, Matthew E.

    1975-01-01

    In a double-blind study with each patient as his own control, 1 g of cefazolin and 2 g of cephalothin were administered intravenously every 6 h to 20 patients in opposite arms for a period of 48 h each. The degree of phlebitis was significantly more severe with cephalothin than with cefazolin (P < 0.05); however, neither the incidence of phlebitis nor the time of onset of phlebitis was significantly different between the two drugs. PMID:1147583

  16. Assessment of calcium dobesilate in diabetic retinopathy. A double-blind clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Salama Benarroch, I; Nano, H; Pérez, H; Elizalde, F; Bisceglia, H; Salama, A

    1977-01-01

    In this double-blind, randomized trial, which lasted for 2 years, the authors investigated the efficacy of calcium dobesilate on diabetic retinopathy. 68 patients (51 on the active substance, 17 on placebo) participated in the study. The statistical analysis of the results indicate that calcium dobesilate acts as a potent angioprotector, capable of preventing both intra and extraretinal hemorrhages. The drug also lowers the incidence of exudate formation and improves visual acuity.

  17. A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Quetiapine and Divalproex for Adolescent Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbello, Melissa P.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Adler, Caleb M.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Barzman, Drew H.; Nelson, Erik; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of quetiapine and divalproex for the treatment of adolescent mania. Method: Fifty adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, were randomized to quetiapine (400-600 mg/day) or divalproex (serum level 80-120 [micro]g/mL) for 28 days for this double-blind study,…

  18. New validated recipes for double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenges.

    PubMed

    Winberg, Anna; Nordström, Lisbeth; Strinnholm, Åsa; Nylander, Annica; Jonsäll, Anette; Rönmark, Eva; West, Christina E

    2013-05-01

    Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are considered the most reliable method to diagnose or rule out food allergy. Despite this, there are few validated challenge recipes available. The present study aimed to validate new recipes for low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in school children, by investigating whether there were any sensory differences between the active materials containing cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat or cod, and the placebo materials. The challenge materials contained the same hypoallergenic amino acid-based product, with or without added food allergens. The test panels consisted of 275 school children, aged 8-10 and 14-15 yr, respectively, from five Swedish schools. Each participant tested at least one recipe. Standardized blinded triangle tests were performed to investigate whether any sensory differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials. In our final recipes, no significant differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials for any challenge food (p > 0.05). These results remained after stratification for age and gender. The taste of challenge materials was acceptable, and no unfavourable side effects related to test materials were observed. In summary, these new validated recipes for low-dose double-blinded food challenges contain common allergenic foods in childhood; cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat and cod. All test materials contain the same liquid vehicle, which facilitates preparation and dosing. Our validated recipes increase the range of available recipes, and as they are easily prepared and dosed, they may facilitate the use of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in daily clinical practice.

  19. Double blind cross-over study of a new appetite suppressant AN 448.

    PubMed

    Haugen, H N

    1975-01-01

    The effects of a new appetite suppressant, AN 448, and a placebo have been compared in 30 obese individuals using a fully randomized double-blind cross-over design. 1 mg of AN 448 t.i.d. produced a significant degree of appetite suppression and a mean weight loss of more than 4 kg per individual over a 6 week period. Side effects were few and no haematological, renal or hepatic damage was observed.

  20. Double-Blind Comparison of Iodamide and Diatrizoate for Excretory Urography 1

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfield, Arthur T.; Putman, Charles E.; Ulreich, Sidney; Koss, Neal

    1977-01-01

    A double-blind comparison of meglumine iodamide and Renografin 60 (52% meglumine diatrizoate and 8% sodium diatrizoate) for bolus excretory urography was performed. Doses of 0.8 cc/kg. to a maximum of 55 cc were administered to fifty patients, twenty-five receiving each drug. There is a suggestion that iodamide may be superior to diatrizoate in pyelocalyceal opacification while being equal to diatrizoate in parenchymal opacification and in types and severity of side-effects. PMID:345632

  1. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy.

  2. A randomised, double-blinded study comparing giving etoricoxib vs. placebo to female patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Mahagna, H; Amital, D; Amital, H

    2016-02-01

    Current therapeutic approaches to fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) do not provide satisfactory pain control to a high percentage of patients. This unmet need constantly fuels the pursuit for new modalities for pain relief. This randomised, double-blind, controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of adding etoricoxib vs. placebo to the current therapeutic regimen of female patients with FMS. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, female patients were randomised to receive either 90 mg etoricoxib once daily or placebo for 6 weeks. Several physical and mental parameters were assessed throughout the study. The primary end-point was the response to treatment, defined as ≥ 30% reduction in the average Brief Pain Inventory score. Secondary outcomes were changes in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36 Quality of Life assessment questionnaire and Hamilton rating scales for anxiety and depression. Overall, 73 patients were recruited. Although many outcome measures improved throughout the study, no difference was recorded between the etoricoxib- and placebo-treated groups. The Brief Pain Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, The Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scores did not differ between the two groups. This is the first randomised, double-blind study assessing the effect of adding etoricoxib to pre-existing medications for female patients with FMS. Although being mildly underpowered this study clearly has shown that etoricoxib did not improve pain scores and did not lead to any beneficial mental or physical effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp.) bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g) at the screening visit (V1-Day 0) and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2). They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31), as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51) and 42 days (V5-Day 72) after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific) were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific) were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F) at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002) and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041). These same subtypes (18C and 23F) also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001) and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003). Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There was no

  4. A Double Blind Trial of Divalproex Sodium for Affective Liability and Alcohol Use Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    TITLE: A Double Blind Trial of Divalproex Sodium for Affective L ability and Alcohol Use Following Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL...Final 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2013 to 14 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Double Blind Trial of Divalproex Sodium for Affective 5a. CONTRACT...subjects treated with divalproex sodium , a mood stabilizing medication, as compared to placebo. To test the primary hypothesis, we propose an 8 week

  5. Double-Blinding and Bias in Medication and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Trials for Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    While double-blinding is a crucial aspect of study design in an interventional clinical trial of medication for a disorder with subjective endpoints such as major depressive disorder, psychotherapy clinical trials, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy trials, cannot be double-blinded. This paper highlights the evidence-based medicine problem of double-blinding in the outcome research of a psychotherapy and opines that psychotherapy clinical trials should be called, "partially-controlled clinical data" because they are not double-blinded. The implications for practice are, 1. For practitioners to be clear with patients the level of rigor to which interventions have been studied, 2. For authors of psychotherapy outcome studies to be clear that the problem in the inability to blind a psychotherapy trial severely restricts the validity of any conclusions that can be drawn, and 3. To petition National Health Insurance plans to use caution in approving interventions studied without double-blinded confirmatory trials as they may lead patients to avoid other treatments shown to be effective in double-blinded trials.

  6. Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda: A Double-Blind Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Atukunda, Esther C.; Siedner, Mark J.; Obua, Celestino; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R.; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Agaba, Amon G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of oxytocin for prevention of PPH, misoprostol use is increasingly common owing to advantages in shelf life and potential for sublingual administration. There is a lack of data about the comparative efficacy of oxytocin and sublingual misoprostol, particularly at the recommended dose of 600 µg, for prevention of PPH during active management of labor. Methods and Findings We performed a double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled non-inferiority trial between 23 September 2012 and 9 September 2013 at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. We randomized 1,140 women to receive 600 µg of misoprostol sublingually or 10 IU of oxytocin intramuscularly, along with matching placebos for the treatment they did not receive. Our primary outcome of interest was PPH, defined as measured blood loss ≥500 ml within 24 h of delivery. Secondary outcomes included measured blood loss ≥1,000 ml; mean measured blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 h after delivery; death; requirement for blood transfusion; hemoglobin changes; and use of additional uterotonics. At 24 h postpartum, primary PPH occurred in 163 (28.6%) participants in the misoprostol group and 99 (17.4%) participants in the oxytocin group (relative risk [RR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.05, p<0.001; absolute risk difference 11.2%, 95% CI 6.44 to 16.1). Severe PPH occurred in 20 (3.6%) and 15 (2.7%) participants in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.58, p = 0.391; absolute risk difference 0.9%, 95% CI −1.12 to 2.88). Mean measured blood loss was 341.5 ml (standard deviation [SD] 206.2) and 304.2 ml (SD 190.8, p = 0.002) at 2 h and 484.7 ml (SD 213.3) and 432.8 ml (SD 203.5, p<0.001) at 24 h in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any other

  7. The efficacy and tolerability of glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Nicola; Fioravanti, Antonella; Papakostas, Panagiotis; Montella, Antonio; Giorgi, Giorgio; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2009-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is often associated with disability and impaired quality of life. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of glucosamine sulfate (GS) in the treatment of knee OA. Methods: Consecutive outpatients affected by primary monolateral or bilateral knee OA were enrolled in this double-blind, double-dummy, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. One group received GS 1500 mg QD for 12 weeks, and the other group received placebo QD for 12 weeks. The treatment period was followed by a 12-week treatment-free observation phase. Each patient was examined at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. The primary efficacy criteria were pain at rest and during movement, assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) of 0 to 100 mm. The secondary criteria included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index for total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). VAS, W-TPS, W-TSS, and W-TPFS were evaluated at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. Analgesic drug consumption (ie, acetaminophen or NSAIDs) was also assessed. Results: Patient demographics were similar in the GS and placebo groups. Of 60 randomized patients (30 per group), 56 completed the study (28 treated with GS and 28 who received placebo). Statistically significant improvements in symptomatic knee OA were observed, as measured by differences in resting pain at weeks 8, 12, and 16 (all, P < 0.05 vs placebo) and in pain during movement at weeks 12 and 16 (both, P < 0.05). W-TPS was lower with GS than placebo at weeks 8, 12, and 16 (all, P < 0.01), and at week 20 (P < 0.05). W-TSS was also lower with GS than placebo at weeks 8, 12, 16, and 20 (all, P < 0.05). W-TPFS was lower with GS than placebo at weeks 8 (P < 0.05), 12 (P < 0.01), 16 (P < 0.05), and 20 (P < 0.05). Drug consumption was lower in the GS group than the placebo

  8. Echocardiographic evidence for valvular toxicity of benfluorex: a double-blind randomised trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Derumeaux, Geneviève; Ernande, Laura; Serusclat, André; Servan, Evelyne; Bruckert, Eric; Rousset, Hugues; Senn, Stephen; Van Gaal, Luc; Picandet, Brigitte; Gavini, François; Moulin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    REGULATE trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of benfluorex versus pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Double-blind, parallel-group, international, randomised, non-inferiority trial. More than half of the 196 participating centres were primary care centres. Patients eligible had type 2 DM uncontrolled on sulfonylurea. 846 were randomised. They received study treatment for 1 year. 423 patients were allocated to benfluorex (150 to 450 mg/day) and 423 were allocated to pioglitazone (30 to 45 mg/day). Primary efficacy criterion was HbA(1c). Safety assessment included blinded echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac and valvular status. At baseline, patients were 59.1 ± 10.5 years old with HbA1c 8.3 ± 0.8%, and DM duration 7.1 ± 6.0 years. During the study, mean HbA1c significantly decreased in both groups (benfluorex: from 8.30 ± 0.80 to 7.77 ± 1.31 versus pioglitazone: from 8.30 ± 0.80 to 7.45 ± 1.30%). The last HbA1c value was significantly lower with pioglitazone than with benfluorex (p<0.001) and non-inferiority of benfluorex was not confirmed (p = 0.19). Among the 615 patients with assessable paired echocardiography (310 benfluorex, 305 pioglitazone), 314 (51%) had at least one morphological valvular abnormality and 515 (84%) at least one functional valvular abnormality at baseline. Emergent morphological abnormalities occurred in 8 patients with benfluorex versus 4 with pioglitazone (OR 1.99), 95% CI (0.59 to 6.69). Emergent regurgitation (new or increased by one grade or more) occurred more frequently with benfluorex (82 patients, 27%) than with pioglitazone (33 patients, 11%) (OR 2.97), 95% CI (1.91 to 4.63) and were mainly rated grade 1; grade 2 (mild) was detected in 2 patients with benfluorex and 3 with pioglitazone. There was no moderate or severe regurgitation. After 1 year of exposure, our results show a 2.97 fold increase in the incidence of valvular regurgitation with benfluorex and provide evidence for the

  9. Botulinum toxin type A in post-stroke lower limb spasticity: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Ryuji; Osako, Yuka; Suyama, Kazuaki; Maeda, Toshio; Uechi, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Masaru

    2010-08-01

    Lower limb spasticity in post-stroke patients can impair ambulation and reduces activities of daily living (ADL) performance of patients. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) has been shown effective for upper limb spasticity. This study assesses the treatment of lower limb spasticity in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of one-time injections of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) in Japanese patients with post-stroke lower limb spasticity. One hundred twenty patients with lower limb spasticity were randomized to a single treatment with BoNTA 300 U or placebo. The tone of the ankle flexor was assessed at baseline and through 12 weeks using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Gait pattern and speed of gait were also assessed. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) of the change from baseline in the MAS ankle score. Significant improvement in spasticity with BoNTA 300 U was demonstrated by a mean difference in the AUC of the change from baseline in the MAS ankle score between the BoNTA and placebo groups (-3.428; 95% CIs, -5.841 to -1.016; p = 0.006; t test). A significantly greater decrease from baseline in the MAS ankle score was noted at weeks 4, 6 and 8 in the BoNTA group compared to the placebo group (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in the Clinicians Global Impression was noted by the investigator at weeks 4, 6 and 8 (p = 0.016-0.048, Wilcoxon test), but not by the patient or physical/occupational therapist. Assessments of gait pattern using the Physician's Rating Scale and speed of gait revealed no significant treatment differences but showed a tendency towards improvement with BoNTA. No marked difference was noted in the frequency of treatment-related adverse events between BoNTA and placebo groups. This was the first large-scale trial to indicate that BoNTA significantly reduced spasticity in lower limb muscles.

  10. Botulinum toxin type A in post-stroke lower limb spasticity: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Osako, Yuka; Suyama, Kazuaki; Maeda, Toshio; Uechi, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Lower limb spasticity in post-stroke patients can impair ambulation and reduces activities of daily living (ADL) performance of patients. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) has been shown effective for upper limb spasticity. This study assesses the treatment of lower limb spasticity in a large placebo-controlled clinical trial. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of one-time injections of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) in Japanese patients with post-stroke lower limb spasticity. One hundred twenty patients with lower limb spasticity were randomized to a single treatment with BoNTA 300 U or placebo. The tone of the ankle flexor was assessed at baseline and through 12 weeks using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Gait pattern and speed of gait were also assessed. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) of the change from baseline in the MAS ankle score. Significant improvement in spasticity with BoNTA 300 U was demonstrated by a mean difference in the AUC of the change from baseline in the MAS ankle score between the BoNTA and placebo groups (−3.428; 95% CIs, −5.841 to −1.016; p = 0.006; t test). A significantly greater decrease from baseline in the MAS ankle score was noted at weeks 4, 6 and 8 in the BoNTA group compared to the placebo group (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in the Clinicians Global Impression was noted by the investigator at weeks 4, 6 and 8 (p = 0.016–0.048, Wilcoxon test), but not by the patient or physical/occupational therapist. Assessments of gait pattern using the Physician’s Rating Scale and speed of gait revealed no significant treatment differences but showed a tendency towards improvement with BoNTA. No marked difference was noted in the frequency of treatment-related adverse events between BoNTA and placebo groups. This was the first large-scale trial to indicate that BoNTA significantly reduced spasticity in lower limb

  11. Sertraline or mirtazapine for depression in dementia (HTA-SADD): a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sube; Hellier, Jennifer; Dewey, Michael; Romeo, Renee; Ballard, Clive; Baldwin, Robert; Bentham, Peter; Fox, Chris; Holmes, Clive; Katona, Cornelius; Knapp, Martin; Lawton, Claire; Lindesay, James; Livingston, Gill; McCrae, Niall; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Murray, Joanna; Nurock, Shirley; Orrell, Martin; O'Brien, John; Poppe, Michaela; Thomas, Alan; Walwyn, Rebecca; Wilson, Kenneth; Burns, Alistair

    2011-07-30

    Depression is common in dementia but the evidence base for appropriate drug treatment is sparse and equivocal. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of two of the most commonly prescribed drugs, sertraline and mirtazapine, compared with placebo. We undertook the parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Health Technology Assessment Study of the Use of Antidepressants for Depression in Dementia (HTA-SADD) trial in participants from old-age psychiatry services in nine centres in England. Participants were eligible if they had probable or possible Alzheimer's disease, depression (lasting ≥4 weeks), and a Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) score of 8 or more. Participants were ineligible if they were clinically critical (eg, suicide risk), contraindicated to study drugs, on antidepressants, in another trial, or had no carer. The clinical trials unit at King's College London (UK) randomly allocated participants with a computer-generated block randomisation sequence, stratified by centre, with varying block sizes, in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive sertraline (target dose 150 mg per day), mirtazapine (45 mg), or placebo (control group), all with standard care. The primary outcome was reduction in depression (CSDD score) at 13 weeks (outcomes to 39 weeks were also assessed), assessed with a mixed linear-regression model adjusted for baseline CSDD, time, and treatment centre. This study is registered, number ISRCTN88882979 and EudraCT 2006-000105-38. Decreases in depression scores at 13 weeks did not differ between 111 controls and 107 participants allocated to receive sertraline (mean difference 1·17, 95% CI -0·23 to 2·58; p=0·10) or mirtazapine (0·01, -1·37 to 1·38; p=0·99), or between participants in the mirtazapine and sertraline groups (1·16, -0·25 to 2·57; p=0·11); these findings persisted to 39 weeks. Fewer controls had adverse reactions (29 of 111 [26%]) than did participants in the sertraline group (46 of 107, 43%; p=0·010) or

  12. Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ishii, Yuri; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Tomi, Hironori; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yoshino, Gen; Shimasaki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Background (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is an active ingredient extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit Garcinia cambogia. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity. Objective The primary end point of this study was the effects of 12 weeks of G cambogia extract administration on visceral fat accumulation. The secondary end points were body indices (including height, body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist and hip circumference, and waist–hip ratio) and laboratory values (including total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid). Methods This study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Subjects aged 20 to 65 years with a visceral fat area >90 cm2 were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment for 12 weeks with G cambogia (containing 1000 mg of HCA per day) or placebo. At the end of the treatment period, both groups were administered placebo for 4 weeks to assess any rebound effect. Each subject underwent a computed tomography scan at the umbilical level at −2, 0, 12, and 16 weeks. Results Forty-four subjects were randomized at baseline, and 39 completed the study (G cambogia group, n = 18; placebo group, n = 21). At 16 weeks, the G cambogia group had significantly reduced visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat areas compared with the placebo group (all indices P<0.001). No severe adverse effect was observed at any time in the test period. There were no significant differences in BMI or body weight at week 12, but there were slight numeric decreases in body weight and BMI in men. There were no signs of a rebound effect from week 12 to week 16. Conclusion G cambogia reduced abdominal fat accumulation in subjects, regardless of sex, who had the visceral fat accumulation type of obesity. No rebound effect was observed. It is therefore expected that G cambogia may be useful for the prevention and reduction of

  13. Pegylated interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (ADVANCE): a randomised, phase 3, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Peter A; Kieseier, Bernd C; Arnold, Douglas L; Balcer, Laura J; Boyko, Alexey; Pelletier, Jean; Liu, Shifang; Zhu, Ying; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Hung, Serena; Deykin, Aaron

    2014-07-01

    Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (peginterferon) beta-1a is being developed for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, with less frequent dosing than currently available first-line injectable treatments. We assessed the safety and efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a after 48 weeks of treatment in the placebo-controlled phase of the ADVANCE trial, a study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We did this 2-year, double-blind, parallel group, phase 3 study, with a placebo-controlled design for the first 48 weeks, at 183 sites in 26 countries. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (age 18-65 years, with Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤5) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive voice response or web system, and stratified by site, to placebo or subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a 125 μg once every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate at 48 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00906399. We screened 1936 patients and enrolled 1516, of whom 1512 were randomly assigned (500 to placebo, 512 to peginterferon every 2 weeks, 500 to peginterferon every 4 weeks); 1332 (88%) patients completed 48 weeks of treatment. Adjusted annualised relapse rates were 0·397 (95% CI 0·328-0·481) in the placebo group versus 0·256 (0·206-0·318) in the every 2 weeks group and 0·288 (0·234-0·355) in the every 4 weeks group (rate ratio for every 2 weeks group 0·644, 95% CI 0·500-0·831, p=0·0007; rate ratio for the every 4 weeks group 0·725, 95% CI 0·565-0·930, p=0·0114). 417 (83%) patients taking placebo, 481 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 2 weeks, and 472 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 4 weeks reported adverse events including relapses. The most common adverse events associated with peginterferon beta-1a were injection site reactions, influenza-like symptoms, pyrexia, and headache. 76 (15%) patients taking placebo, 55 (11%) patients

  14. Otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: A dose-ranging randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska-Wilkoń, Danuta; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Egan, Colin Gerard

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy and safety of otilonium bromide (OB) in treatment-sensitive functional irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical parameters. METHODS: Ninety-three patients (44.8 ± 12.6 years, 69% female) with IBS symptoms complying with Rome II criteria participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, dose-ranging phase I/II study. Patients were administered OB 20 mg (n = 24), 40mg (n = 23) and 80 mg (n = 23) tid or placebo (n = 23) in 4 parallel groups for 4 wk. Primary efficacy variables included abdominal discomfort, intestinal habits, number of daily evacuations and stool consistency. Secondary efficacy measures included return to regular intestinal habits and global discomfort. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar among the 4 groups. Although individual parameters such as intensity and frequency of abdominal discomfort, bloating or pain were reduced by OB over the 4 wk, no significant differences were observed between groups. Similarly, no difference was observed between OB treatment or placebo for mucus in stool and incomplete or difficulty of evacuation. However, evacuation frequency was significantly reduced after 4 wk by 80 mg OB compared to placebo (-8.36% for placebo vs -41.9% for 80 mg OB, P < 0.01). While 21.7% of patients in the placebo group experienced regular intestinal habits after 4 wk, this improvement was greater for patients treated with 40 mg OB (P < 0.01 vs placebo). Furthermore, a dose-dependent reduction in frequency of diarrhoea (χ2-test for trend = 11.5, P < 0.001) and an increase in normal stool frequency was observed. Combining individual variables into a global discomfort index revealed significant improvement among increasing OB doses, favouring 40 mg (P = 0.013) and 80mg OB (P = 0.001) over placebo. No difference was observed between frequency of adverse events for placebo vs OB. CONCLUSION: This dose-ranging study demonstrates that OB at 40 and 80 mg can

  15. Otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: a dose-ranging randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska-Wilkoń, Danuta; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Egan, Colin Gerard

    2014-09-14

    To examine the efficacy and safety of otilonium bromide (OB) in treatment-sensitive functional irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical parameters. Ninety-three patients (44.8 ± 12.6 years, 69% female) with IBS symptoms complying with Rome II criteria participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, dose-ranging phase I/II study. Patients were administered OB 20 mg (n = 24), 40 mg (n = 23) and 80 mg (n = 23) tid or placebo (n = 23) in 4 parallel groups for 4 wk. Primary efficacy variables included abdominal discomfort, intestinal habits, number of daily evacuations and stool consistency. Secondary efficacy measures included return to regular intestinal habits and global discomfort. Safety was also assessed. Baseline clinical characteristics were similar among the 4 groups. Although individual parameters such as intensity and frequency of abdominal discomfort, bloating or pain were reduced by OB over the 4 wk, no significant differences were observed between groups. Similarly, no difference was observed between OB treatment or placebo for mucus in stool and incomplete or difficulty of evacuation. However, evacuation frequency was significantly reduced after 4 wk by 80 mg OB compared to placebo (-8.36% for placebo vs -41.9% for 80 mg OB, P < 0.01). While 21.7% of patients in the placebo group experienced regular intestinal habits after 4 wk, this improvement was greater for patients treated with 40 mg OB (P < 0.01 vs placebo). Furthermore, a dose-dependent reduction in frequency of diarrhoea (χ(2)-test for trend = 11.5, P < 0.001) and an increase in normal stool frequency was observed. Combining individual variables into a global discomfort index revealed significant improvement among increasing OB doses, favouring 40 mg (P = 0.013) and 80 mg OB (P = 0.001) over placebo. No difference was observed between frequency of adverse events for placebo vs OB. This dose-ranging study demonstrates that OB at 40 and 80 mg can improve individual and global

  16. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of duloxetine in Japanese fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masato; Osada, Kenichi; Mizuno, Hiromichi; Ochiai, Toshimitsu; Alev, Levent; Nishioka, Kusuki

    2015-08-22

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain and is often accompanied by accessory symptoms. There are limited treatment options for this condition in Japan. Therefore, we conducted a phase III study to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted in Japan. Outpatients who met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for fibromyalgia and whose Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain score was ≥4 were randomized to duloxetine 60 mg or placebo once daily for 14 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the change in the BPI average pain score from baseline. Secondary efficacy, quality of life (QoL), and safety outcomes were also evaluated. Mixed-effects model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis and last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis of covariance were used to evaluate the primary efficacy measure. Overall, 393 patients were randomized to receive either duloxetine (n = 196) or placebo (n = 197). The MMRM analysis revealed no significant difference between duloxetine and placebo regarding the change in BPI average pain scores at week 14. Based on LOCF analysis, a statistically significant improvement in the change in BPI average pain scores at week 14 was observed for patients treated with duloxetine compared with placebo. Duloxetine treatment was associated with improved outcomes in nearly all secondary and post hoc analyses. The treatment was generally well tolerated. Somnolence, nausea, and constipation were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events in the duloxetine group. The discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events were similar in both groups. Although the MMRM analysis did not demonstrate superiority of duloxetine over placebo, duloxetine treatment was associated with improved outcomes in secondary and post hoc analyses of the mean change in the BPI average pain score and

  17. Monotherapy versus dual therapy for the initial treatment of hypertension (PATHWAY-1): a randomised double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Williams, Bryan; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Mackenzie, Isla S; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian; Brown, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that more intensive initial therapy for hypertension results in better long-term blood pressure (BP) control. We test this hypothesis comparing initial monotherapy with dual therapy in the management of essential hypertension. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled trial in patients with essential hypertension. Around 50% of patients studied will be newly diagnosed and the others will be known hypertensives who previously received only monotherapy. The trial is divided into three phases as follows: Phase 1 (Week 0–Week 16): Randomised, parallel-group, masked assignation to either combination or monotherapy. Phase 2 (Week 17–Week 32): Open-label combination therapy. Phase 3 (Week 33–Week 52): Open-label combination therapy plus open-label add-on (if BP is above 140/90 mm Hg). Hierarchical primary end points are: a comparison of home BP (home systolic blood pressure (HSBP)) averaged over the duration of phase 1 and 2 in the combination versus monotherapy arms. If combination is superior in this analysis, then the averaged mean HSBP between initial monotherapy and initial combination therapy at the end of phase 2 will be compared. Secondary end points include: BP control at 1 year; the role of age, baseline renin, sodium status, plasma volume, haemodynamic compensation and peripheral resistance on BP control; validation of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence/British Hypertension Society joint guideline algorithm; safety and tolerability of combination therapy; and the impact of combination versus monotherapy on left ventricular mass and aortic pulse wave velocity. A sample size of 536 (268 in each group) will have 90% power to detect a difference in means of 4 mm Hg. Ethics and dissemination PATHWAY 1 was approved by UK ethics (REC Reference 09/H0308/132). Trial results will be published and all participating subjects will be informed of the

  18. Topical Minocycline Foam for the Treatment of Impetigo in Children: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Chamny, Shlomo; Miron, Dan; Lumelsky, Nadia; Shalev, Hana; Gazal, Elana; Keynan, Rita; Shemer, Avner; Tamarkin, Dov

    2016-10-01

    Currently available treatment options for impetigo are limited by either systemic side effects (for oral therapy) or lack of ease of use (for topical ointment). A novel foam formulation of minocycline for topical use may improve convenience and treatment utilization for pediatric patients with impetigo. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topically applied minocycline foam (FMX-102 1% and 4%) in the treatment of impetigo and to determine the optimal therapeutic active ingredient concentration. In this randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, comparative clinical trial, 32 subjects aged ≥2 years with a clinical diagnosis of pure impetigo, impetigo contagiosa, or uncomplicated blistering impetigo were randomized to treatment with FMX-102 1% or 4%, twice daily for 7 days. Subjects were followed for up to 7 days post-treatment. Clinical cure, defined as ≥80% cured lesions (fully recovered lesions, visually determined by investigators), was achieved by 57.1% and 50.0% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, at the end of treatment (visit 3). Clinical success, defined as the absence of lesions, or the drying or improvement of treated lesions (decrease in size of affected area, lesion number, or both), was demonstrated in 81.3% and 78.6% of FMX-102 1% and 4% subjects, respectively, following 3 days of treatment (visit 2), in 92.3% and 100% of the respective subjects at the end of treatment, and in 100% in both groups at follow-up (visit 4). Bacteriologic success rates at the end of treatment, defined as complete pathogen eradication, were 85% and 74% in the FMX-102 1% and 4% groups, respectively. The bacteriologic success rate for MRSA infections was 100% (11/11), with no recurrences. Both FMX-102 1% and 4% were considered well tolerated and safe. Topical minocycline foam may be a safe and effective new treatment option for impetigo in children, including those with MRSA.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1238-1243.

  19. Evaluation of a multi-herb supplement for erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence is lacking for multi-ingredient herbal supplements claiming therapeutic effect in sexual dysfunction in men. We examined the safety and efficacy of VigRX Plus (VXP) – a proprietary polyherbal preparation for improving male sexual function, in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multi-centre study. Methods 78 men aged 25–50 years of age; suffering from mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED), participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to receive VXP or placebo at a dose of two capsules twice daily for 12 weeks. The international index of erectile function (IIEF) was the primary outcome measure of efficacy. Other efficacy measures were: Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), Serum testosterone, Semen analysis, Investigator’s Global assessment and Subjects’ opinion. Results In subjects receiving VXP, the IIEF-Erectile Function (EF) scores improved significantly as compared to placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean (sd) IIEF-EF score at baseline increased from 16.08 (2.87) to 25.08 (4.56) in the VXP group versus 15.86 (3.24) to 16.47 (4.25) in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Similar results were observed in each of the remaining four domains of the IIEF (orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction).There was a significant difference for VXP versus placebo comparison of mean (sd) EDITS scores of patients: 82.31(20.23) vs 36.78(22.53) and partners :(82.75(9.8) vs 18.50(9.44);P < 0.001. Thirty-five out of 39 (90%) subjects from the VXP group and one (3%) from the placebo group wished to continue with the treatment they received. Investigator’s global assessment rated VXP therapy as very good to excellent in more than 50% patients and placebo therapy as fair to good in about 25% of patients. Incidence of side effects and subject’s rating for tolerability of treatment was similar in both groups. Conclusions Vig

  20. Echocardiographic Evidence for Valvular Toxicity of Benfluorex: A Double-Blind Randomised Trial in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Derumeaux, Geneviève; Ernande, Laura; Serusclat, André; Servan, Evelyne; Bruckert, Eric; Rousset, Hugues; Senn, Stephen; Van Gaal, Luc; Picandet, Brigitte; Gavini, François; Moulin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives REGULATE trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of benfluorex versus pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Methods Double-blind, parallel-group, international, randomised, non-inferiority trial. More than half of the 196 participating centres were primary care centres. Patients eligible had type 2 DM uncontrolled on sulfonylurea. 846 were randomised. They received study treatment for 1 year. 423 patients were allocated to benfluorex (150 to 450 mg/day) and 423 were allocated to pioglitazone (30 to 45 mg/day). Primary efficacy criterion was HbA1c. Safety assessment included blinded echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac and valvular status. Results At baseline, patients were 59.1±10.5 years old with HbA1c 8.3±0.8%, and DM duration 7.1±6.0 years. During the study, mean HbA1c significantly decreased in both groups (benfluorex: from 8.30±0.80 to 7.77±1.31 versus pioglitazone: from 8.30±0.80 to 7.45±1.30%). The last HbA1c value was significantly lower with pioglitazone than with benfluorex (p<0.001) and non-inferiority of benfluorex was not confirmed (p = 0.19). Among the 615 patients with assessable paired echocardiography (310 benfluorex, 305 pioglitazone), 314 (51%) had at least one morphological valvular abnormality and 515 (84%) at least one functional valvular abnormality at baseline. Emergent morphological abnormalities occurred in 8 patients with benfluorex versus 4 with pioglitazone (OR 1.99), 95% CI (0.59 to 6.69). Emergent regurgitation (new or increased by one grade or more) occurred more frequently with benfluorex (82 patients, 27%) than with pioglitazone (33 patients, 11%) (OR 2.97), 95% CI (1.91 to 4.63) and were mainly rated grade 1; grade 2 (mild) was detected in 2 patients with benfluorex and 3 with pioglitazone. There was no moderate or severe regurgitation. Conclusion After 1 year of exposure, our results show a 2.97 fold increase in the incidence of valvular regurgitation with benfluorex and

  1. Anterior pallidal deep brain stimulation for Tourette's syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Welter, Marie-Laure; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Thobois, Stéphane; Bataille, Benoit; Guenot, Marc; Worbe, Yulia; Hartmann, Andreas; Czernecki, Virginie; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jerome; du Montcel, Sophie Tezenas; Agid, Yves; Vidailhet, Marie; Cornu, Philippe; Tanguy, Audrey; Ansquer, Solène; Jaafari, Nematollah; Poulet, Emmanuel; Serra, Giulia; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel; Aouizerate, Bruno; Pollak, Pierre; Chabardes, Stephan; Polosan, Mircea; Borg, Michel; Fontaine, Denys; Giordana, Bruno; Raoul, Sylvie; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Sauvaget, Anne; Jalenques, Isabelle; Karachi, Carine; Mallet, Luc

    2017-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France. Enrolled patients received surgery to implant bilateral electrodes for aGPi DBS; 3 months later they were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio with a block size of eight; computer-generated pairwise randomisation according to order of enrolment) to receive either active or sham stimulation for the subsequent 3 months in a double-blind fashion. All patients then received open-label active stimulation for the subsequent 6 months. Patients and clinicians assessing outcomes were masked to treatment allocation; an unmasked clinician was responsible for stimulation parameter programming, with intensity set below the side-effect threshold. The primary endpoint was difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score between the beginning and end of the 3 month double-blind period, as assessed with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test in all randomly allocated patients who received active or sham stimulation during the double-blind period. We assessed safety in all patients who were enrolled and received surgery for aGPi DBS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00478842. Between Dec 6, 2007, and Dec 13, 2012, we enrolled 19 patients. We randomly assigned 17 (89%) patients, with 16 completing blinded assessments (seven [44%] in the active stimulation group and nine [56%] in the sham stimulation group). We noted no significant difference in YGTSS score change between the beginning and the end of the 3 month double-blind period

  2. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients.

    PubMed

    Wade, Derick T; Makela, Petra; Robson, Philip; House, Heather; Bateman, Cynthia

    2004-08-01

    The objective was to determine whether a cannabis-based medicinal extract (CBME) benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis (MS). A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting 160 outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: spasticity, spasms, bladder problems, tremor or pain. The interventions were oromucosal sprays of matched placebo, or whole plant CBME containing equal amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) at a dose of 2.5-120 mg of each daily, in divided doses. The primary outcome measure was a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for each patient's most troublesome symptom. Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue. Following CBME the primary symptom score reduced from mean (SE) 74.36 (11.1) to 48.89 (22.0) following CBME and from 74.31 (12.5) to 54.79 (26.3) following placebo [ns]. Spasticity VAS scores were significantly reduced by CBME (Sativex) in comparison with placebo (P =0.001). There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild.

  3. The TRACTISS Protocol: a randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical TRial of Anti-B-Cell Therapy In patients with primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (PSS) mainly affects women (9:1 female:male ratio) and is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases with a prevalence of 0.1 – 0.6% of adult women. For patients with PSS there is currently no effective therapy that can alter the progression of the disease. The aim of the TRACTISS study is to establish whether in patients with PSS, treatment with rituximab improves clinical outcomes. Methods/design TRACTISS is a UK multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial of 110 patients with PSS. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to receive two courses of either rituximab or placebo infusion in addition to standard therapy, and will be followed up for up to 48 weeks. The primary objective is to assess the extent to which rituximab improves symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness. Secondary outcomes include ocular dryness, salivary flow rates, lacrimal flow, patient quality of life, measures of disease damage and disease activity, serological and peripheral blood biomarkers, and glandular histology and composition. Discussion The TRACTISS trial will provide direct evidence as to whether rituximab in patients with PSS leads to an improvement in patient symptoms and a reduction in disease damage and activity. Trial registration UKCRN Portfolio ID: 9809 ISRCTN65360827. PMID:24438039

  4. Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Turpeinen, Anu; Mustonen, Sari; Merilahti, Juho; Peuhkuri, Katri

    2014-06-01

    Chronic stress has a negative influence on health. The aim was to determine stress reducing effects of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components as compared to normal yoghurt. High-trait anxiety individuals (n = 67) aged 18-63 years participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention with parallel groups. They received either yoghurt enriched with alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides and B vitamins (active) or isoenergetic standard yoghurt (control). To detect changes in psychological and physiological stress, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, salivary cortisol, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and actigraphy were monitored. We observed higher ratings of vigor (p = 0.047) and reduced feeling of inefficiency (p = 0.048) in the active group. HRV (baseline adjusted mean 49.1 ± 2.3 ms) and recovery index (106.6 ± 33.4) were higher in the active group than in controls (42.5 ± 2.2 ms and 80.0 ± 29.3) (p = 0.046 and p = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components may aid in stress coping.

  5. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results from a phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, clinical trial with histology.

    PubMed

    Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne P; Gupta, Girish; Ortonne, Jean Paul; Serresi, Stefano; Bichel, Jens; Lee, James H; Fox, Terry L; Alomar, Agustín

    2004-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests imiquimod may be a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). The diagnosis and assessment of most AK lesions is made clinically, without histologic confirmation. A phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream compared with vehicle in the treatment of AK lesions on the face and balding scalp including pretreatment and posttreatment biopsy specimens. A total of 286 patients at 18 centers in 6 European countries with histologically confirmed AK were randomized to either imiquimod 5% cream or vehicle cream. Study cream was applied once per day, 3 days per week, for 16 weeks. Clearance of AK lesions was clinically and histologically assessed at an 8-week posttreatment visit. The complete clearance rate for the imiquimod group was 57.1% versus 2.2% for the vehicle group (P <.001). The partial clearance rate (> or =75% reduction in baseline lesions) for the imiquimod group was 72.1% versus 4.3% for the vehicle group (P <.001). The most common side effects were erythema, scabbing/crusting, and erosions/ulceration. For the imiquimod group the incidence of severe erythema, scabbing/crusting, or erosions/ulceration was 30.6%, 29.9%, and 10.2%, respectively. Imiquimod 5% cream used 3 times per week for 16 weeks is an effective treatment for AK. Clinical clearance was established by both clinical observation and histologic analysis.

  6. Effect of twelve-months therapy with oral ambroxol in preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD. Double-blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled study (the AMETHIST Trial).

    PubMed

    Malerba, Mario; Ponticiello, Antonio; Radaeli, Alessandro; Bensi, Giuliano; Grassi, Vittorio

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter parallel-group study was to evaluate the effect of long-term ambroxol treatment in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two hundred and forty-two outpatients with COPD defined by ATS criteria with value of FEV1 between > or =60 and 80% of predicted and history of one or more exacerbations in the previous year were recruited by 26 Respiratory Medicine Centers in Italy and treated for 1 year with one ambroxol retard capsule of 75 mg twice daily or placebo. The percentage of patients free from exacerbation at 6 months was 63% with ambroxol and 60% with placebo (p=0.366) and at 12 months 56% with ambroxol and 53% with placebo (p=0.363). In a subset of 45 patients with more severe baseline symptoms, ambroxol therapy was associated with a significant higher percentage of patients free from exacerbation compared to placebo: 63 vs. 38% (p=0.038). In conclusion, we did not find a significant difference between long-term ambroxol therapy and placebo, in preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD. In patients with more severe respiratory symptoms at baseline, however, we observed a significant difference in the cumulative exacerbation-free persistence between ambroxol and placebo, suggesting that long-term muco-regulatory therapy with ambroxol could be useful in highly symptomatic patients with COPD.

  7. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: The Efficacy of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Alleviating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Manfrini, Enrico; Ferri, Emanuele; La Ferla, Barbara; Schiano, Irene; Michelotti, Angela; Nobile, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The efficacy of supplementation treatment with two multispecies probiotic formulates on subjects diagnosed with IBS-C and the assessment of their gut microbiota were investigated. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, three-arm parallel group trial was carried out on 150 IBS-C subjects divided into three groups (F_1, F_2, and F_3). Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 60 days) F_1 or F_2 or placebo F_3, respectively. Fecal microbiological analyses were performed by species-specific qPCR to assess the different amount of probiotics. Results. The percentage of responders for each symptom was higher in the probiotic groups when compared to placebo group during the treatment period (t60) and was maintained quite similar during the follow-up period (t90). Fecal analysis demonstrated that probiotics of the formulations increased during the times of treatment only in fecal DNA from subjects treated with F_1 and F_2 and not with F_3, and the same level was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions. Multispecies probiotic supplementations are effective in IBS-C subjects and induce a different assessment in the composition of intestinal microbiota. This clinical study is registered with the clinical study registration number ISRCTN15032219. PMID:27595104

  8. Frovatriptan 2.5 mg plus dexketoprofen (25 mg or 37.5 mg) in menstrually related migraine. Subanalysis from a double-blind, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Allais, G; Bussone, G; Tullo, V; Cortelli, P; Valguarnera, F; Barbanti, P; Sette, G; D'Onofrio, F; Curone, M; Benedetto, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex25 or FroDex37.5, respectively) compared to that of frovatriptan 2.5 mg (Frova) in menstrually related migraine (MRM). The aim of this article is to analyze a subgroup of 76 women who treated an MRM attack in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. The primary end-point was the proportion of patients who were pain free (PF) at two hours. Secondary end-points included pain-relief (PR) at two hours and 48 hours sustained pain free (SPF). PF rates at two hours were 29% under Frova, 48% under FroDex25 and 64% under FroDex37.5 (p < 0.05). PR at two hours was Frova 52%, FroDex25 81% and FroDex37.5 88%, while 48 hours SPF was 18% under Frova, 30% under FroDex25 and 44% under FroDex37.5. Combining frovatriptan+dexketoprofen produced higher PF rates at two hours compared to Frova while maintaining efficacy at 48 hours. Tolerability profiles were comparable. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pholcodine and dextromethorphan in the management of patients with acute, non-productive cough : a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Equinozzi, Roberto; Robuschi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of pholcodine with that of dextromethorphan, one of the most used cough sedative products, in patients with acute, non-productive cough. 129 adults with a diagnosis of acute, frequent, non-productive cough participated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter trial. Medications were in a syrup formulation and were taken orally three times daily for 3 days. The efficacy endpoints were the change from baseline in the daytime and night-time cough frequency on 5-point scales at day 3, and cough intensity. A reduction of 1.4 and 1.3 points in the mean daytime cough frequency at day 3 was seen in the pholcodine and dextromethorphan groups, respectively, in the per-protocol population. The reduction in mean night-time cough was 1.3 for both groups. Cough intensity reduction was 0.7 for pholcodine and 0.8 for dextromethorphan. These findings indicate that the efficacy of a 3-day course of pholcodine is similar to that of dextromethorphan in the treatment of adult patients with acute, non-productive cough. Both medications were well tolerated.

  10. Rationale and design of a randomized double-blind clinical trial in breast cancer: dextromethorphan in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elodie; Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Delage, Noémie; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle

    2015-03-01

    Anti-cancer chemotherapy often induces peripheral neuropathy and consequent cognitive and quality of life impairment. Guidelines recommend antiepileptics or antidepressants but their efficacy is limited.Dextromethorphan, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, has shown its efficacy in painful diabetic neuropathy and in post-operative pain but has not been studied in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. This clinical trial evaluates the effect of dextromethorphan on pain, cognition and quality of life in patients who suffer from neuropathic pain induced by chemotherapy for breast cancer. It also assesses the impact of dextromethorphan genetic polymorphism on analgesia. This trial is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study in two parallel groups (NCT02271893). It includes 40 breast cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. They are randomly allocated to dextromethorphan (maximal dose 90 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint is pain intensity measured after 4 weeks of treatment on a (0-10) Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Secondary outcomes include assessment of neuropathic pain, cognitive function, anxiety/depression, sleep and quality of life. Data analysis is performed using mixed models and the tests are two-sided, with a type I error set at α=0.05. Considering the poor efficacy of available drugs in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain, dextromethorphan may be a valuable therapeutic option. Pharmacogenetics may provide predictive factors of dextromethorphan response in patients suffering from breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation with bidirectional modulated sine waves in patients with chronic back pain: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, Koki; Takahashi, Norio; Nishio, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Mika; Aida, Sumihisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives.  Newly developed bidirectional modulated sine waves (BMW) might provide some derived benefit to patients with low back pain. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) with BMWs was tested. Materials and Methods.  Analgesic effects of BMWs and conventional bidirectional pulsed waves on chronic back pain in 28 patients were compared, and effects of repeated TENS using BMWs on chronic back pain were investigated in 21 patients by means of a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group method. Pain intensity was assessed using numerical rating scale (NRS). Results.  There was significant immediate reduction in NRS in patients receiving BMWs, and 60 min after treatment compared to sham TENS. Weekly repeated treatments using massage and TENS with BMWs for 5 weeks resulted in a decrease of NRS, but there were no significant differences between the TENS plus massage and sham TENS plus massage groups. Conclusions.  This study shows that TENS with BMWs significantly inhibits chronic back pain, and treatment effects are attained within a day. The results also suggest that there were no statistically significant long-term effects of TENS with BMW in the repeated treatment.

  12. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to estimate the efficacy and tolerability of a nonsteroidal cream for the treatment of cradle cap (seborrheic dermatitis).

    PubMed

    David, Elmer; Tanuos, Hanan; Sullivan, Timothy; Yan, Albert; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-04-01

    This study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group pilot study of efficacy and tolerability of a nonsteroidal cream (Promiseb® Topical Cream; Promius Pharma, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ) for treatment of cradle cap when applied topically twice daily for up to 14 days in 42 pediatric subjects. Both treatments were similarly effective in reducing disease severity, as measured by success with Investigator's Global Assessment scores at day 7 or end of treatment, with 96% of subjects achieving success in the nonsteroidal cream group and 92% of subjects achieving success in the placebo cream group. Both treatments resulted in significant reductions from baseline in terms of erythema, crusting, scaling, and oiliness (P<.05), with no significant difference between treatments. There was a significant difference (P=.03) between treatment groups for percent reduction in scaling at the end of treatment, with a 90% reduction in the nonsteroidal cream group compared with a 58% reduction in the placebo cream group. All subjects in both groups had an overall safety score of excellent, and there were no adverse events related to treatment for either group.

  13. Dietary nitrate modulates cerebral blood flow parameters and cognitive performance in humans: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation.

    PubMed

    Wightman, Emma L; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Thompson, Kevin G; Blackwell, Jamie R; Winyard, Paul G; Forster, Joanne; Jones, Andrew M; Kennedy, David O

    2015-10-01

    Nitrate derived from vegetables is consumed as part of a normal diet and is reduced endogenously via nitrite to nitric oxide. It has been shown to improve endothelial function, reduce blood pressure and the oxygen cost of sub-maximal exercise, and increase regional perfusion in the brain. The current study assessed the effects of dietary nitrate on cognitive performance and prefrontal cortex cerebral blood-flow (CBF) parameters in healthy adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups study, 40 healthy adults received either placebo or 450 ml beetroot juice (~5.5 mmol nitrate). Following a 90 minute drink/absorption period, participants performed a selection of cognitive tasks that activate the frontal cortex for 54 min. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor CBF and hemodynamics, as indexed by concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated-haemoglobin, in the frontal cortex throughout. The bioconversion of nitrate to nitrite was confirmed in plasma by ozone-based chemi-luminescence. Dietary nitrate modulated the hemodynamic response to task performance, with an initial increase in CBF at the start of the task period, followed by consistent reductions during the least demanding of the three tasks utilised. Cognitive performance was improved on the serial 3s subtraction task. These results show that single doses of dietary nitrate can modulate the CBF response to task performance and potentially improve cognitive performance, and suggest one possible mechanism by which vegetable consumption may have beneficial effects on brain function.

  14. Efficacy of an herbal dietary supplement (Smooth Move) in the management of constipation in nursing home residents: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bub, Sam; Brinckmann, Josef; Cicconetti, Greg; Valentine, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of an herbal tea, Smooth Move, in nursing home residents with chronic constipation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-armed, parallel-group clinical trial. A 483-bed nursing home in Allentown, Pennsylvania, operated by Lehigh County Government. A total of 86 nursing home residents with chronic constipation. Participants (n = 86) were randomly assigned to receive Smooth Move (n = 42) or a placebo (n = 44), once daily, in addition to standard treatment for chronic constipation. The study period was 28 days. The primary efficacy parameter was the difference in total number of bowel movements. Secondary parameters included the difference in average number of standard treatment doses dispensed, and the difference in total medication costs. Compared to placebo, in the intention to treat (ITT analysis) there was a statistically significant increase in the number of bowel movements in the Smooth Move group. The Smooth Move group (n = 42) compared with the placebo group (n = 44) experienced an average of 4.14 more bowel movements during the 28-day study period versus the 28-day pre-study period (P = .017). Smooth Move herbal tea, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased the average number of bowel movements compared to the addition of a placebo tea.

  15. Efficacy of Levofloxacin and Rifaximin based Quadruple Therapy in Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastroduodenal Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kang Hyun; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kim, Eun Jung; Kang, Bong Koo; Oak, Ju Hyun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin and rifaximin based quadruple regimen as first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. A prospectively randomized, double-blinded, parallel group, comparative study was performed. Three hundred consecutive H. pylori positive patients were randomized to receive: omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin (OAC); omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin (OAL); and omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, rifaximin (OAL-R). The eradication rates in the intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses were: OAC, 77.8% and 85.6%; OAL, 65.3% and 73.6%; and OAL-R, 74.5% and 80.2%. The eradication rate achieved with OAC was higher than with OAL on the ITT (P = 0.05) and PP analysis (P = 0.04). OAL-R regimen was not inferior to OAC. The frequency of moderate to severe adverse effects was significantly higher in OAC treatment group. Especially, diarrhea was most common complaint, and there was a significantly low rate of moderate to severe diarrhea with the rifaximin containing regimen. In conclusion, the levofloxacin and rifaximin based regimen comes up to the standard triple therapy, but has a limited efficacy in a Korean cohort. The rifaximin containing regimen has a very high safety profile for H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:21655065

  16. Lymecycline and minocycline in inflammatory acne: a randomized, double-blind intent-to-treat study on clinical and in vivo antibacterial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Goffin, Véronique; Arrese, Jorge E; Martalo, Oriane; Braham, Catherine; Slachmuylders, Patricia; Piérard, Gérald E

    2002-01-01

    Some antibiotics represent a mainstay in acne treatment. However, studies comparing their efficacies are rare. To evaluate the clinical and in vivo antibacterial effect of lymecycline and minocycline at different dosages. Eighty-six patients with moderate to severe acne were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, intent-to-treat study comparing in three parallel groups the effect of (1) lymecycline 300 mg daily for 12 weeks, (2) minocycline 50 mg daily for 12 weeks and (3) minocycline 100 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by 50 mg daily for 8 weeks. Evaluations were made at the screening visit and at five on-treatment visits. They consisted of clinical counts of acne lesions and evaluations of bacterial viability using dual flow cytometry performed on microorganisms collected from sebaceous infundibula by cyanoacrylate strippings. Patients receiving minocycline 100/50 mg had the best clinical outcome, particularly in the reduction of the number of papules. By the end of the trial, the microbial response to minocycline 100/ 50 mg was also superior to either of the other two treatments. There were less live and more dead bacteria. In this trial, minocycline 100/50 mg was superior for the treatment of inflammatory acne when compared to lymecycline 300 mg and minocycline 50 mg. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Lack of efficacy of moclobemide or imipramine in the treatment of recurrent brief depression: results from an exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment study.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; Green, Mary; Montgomery, Stuart A

    2014-11-01

    'Recurrent brief depression' (RBD) is a common, distressing and impairing depressive disorder for which there is no current proven pharmacological or psychological treatment. This multicentre, randomized, fixed-dose, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of the reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase moclobemide (450 mg/day) and the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (150 mg/day) evaluated the potential efficacy of active medication, when compared with placebo, in patients with recurrent brief depression, recruited in the mid-1990s. After a 2-4-week single-blind placebo run-in period, a total of 35 patients were randomized to receive double-blind medication for 4 months, but only 16 completed the active treatment period. An intention-to-treat analysis of the 34 evaluable patients found no evidence for the efficacy of moclobemide or imipramine, when compared with placebo, in significantly reducing the severity, duration or frequency of depressive episodes. A total of 28 patients experienced at least one adverse event, and four patients engaged in nonfatal self-harm. Limitations of the study include the small sample size and the high rate of participant withdrawal. The lack of efficacy of these antidepressant drugs and the previous finding of the lack of efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine together indicate that medications other than antidepressant drugs should be investigated as potential treatments for what remains a common, distressing and potentially hazardous condition.

  18. A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on topical chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oil for severe carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Lari, Zeinab Nasiri; Ghoreishi, Parissa Sadat; Daneshfard, Babak; Ghasemi, Mohammad Sadegh; Homayouni, Kaynoosh; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of standardized topical Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oil in patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome, as a complementary treatment. A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Twenty six patients with documented severe carpal tunnel syndrome were treated in two parallel groups with a night splint plus topical chamomile oil or placebo. They were instructed to use their prescribed oil for 4 weeks, twice daily. Symptomatic and functional status of the patients and their electrodiagnostic parameters were evaluated when enrolled and after the trial period, as our outcome measures. A significant improvement of symptomatic and functional status of patients in the chamomile oil group was observed (p = 0.019 and 0.016, respectively) compared with those in the placebo group. However, electrodiagnostic parameters showed no significant changes between the two groups. Chamomile oil improved symptomatic and functional status of patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD.

  20. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, Johanna P M; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Dubois, Anthony E J; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wichers, Harry J; de Jong, Nicolette W

    2016-01-01

    Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction. A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2-17 years) with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5%) of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63) manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15) developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137) of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137) of the children were treated with epinephrine. This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed NTR3572.

  1. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut

    PubMed Central

    van der Valk, Johanna P. M.; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; de Jong, Nicolette W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction. Methods and Findings A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2–17 years) with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5%) of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63) manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15) developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137) of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137) of the children were treated with epinephrine. Conclusion This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens

  2. Trimipramine in primary insomnia: results of a polysomnographic double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Riemann, D; Voderholzer, U; Cohrs, S; Rodenbeck, A; Hajak, G; Rüther, E; Wiegand, M H; Laakmann, G; Baghai, T; Fischer, W; Hoffmann, M; Hohagen, F; Mayer, G; Berger, M

    2002-09-01

    In recent years, sedating antidepressants have been increasingly used to treat primary insomnia. Up to now, only one open pilot study with trimipramine and one double-blind placebo-controlled study with doxepin have provided scientific support for this approach in treating primary insomnia. In order to test the hypothesis that sedating antidepressants are useful in the treatment of primary insomnia, the effect of trimipramine on objectively and subjectively measured parameters of sleep was investigated in a double-blind placebo- and lormetazepam-controlled study in a sample of 55 patients with primary insomnia attending outpatient sleep-disorder clinics. Trimipramine was selected since it has shown positive effects on sleep continuity with a lack of REM sleep suppression in studies on depressed patients and in one pilot study on patients with primary insomnia. Trimipramine at an average dose of 100 mg over a period of 4 weeks significantly enhanced sleep efficiency, but not total sleep time (which had been the primary target variable) compared to placebo as measured by polysomnography. Changes in objective sleep parameters were paralleled by changes in subjective sleep parameters. Trimipramine did not suppress REM sleep. Lormetazepam decreased wake time and sleep stage 3 and increased REM sleep compared to placebo. After switching trimipramine to placebo, sleep parameters returned to baseline. There was no evidence of any rebound effect from trimipramine. Side effects from trimipramine were only marginal. This first double-blind placebo-controlled study with trimipramine suggests its efficacy in the treatment of primary insomnia. However, due to the large intra- and interindividual variance in the parameters of interest before and during treatment a larger sample size would have been necessary to strengthen the validity of our findings.

  3. Doxycycline in early CJD: a double-blinded randomised phase II and observational study

    PubMed Central

    Varges, Daniela; Manthey, Henrike; Heinemann, Uta; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Krasnianski, Anna; Breithaupt, Maren; Fincke, Fabian; Kramer, Katharina; Friede, Tim; Zerr, Inga

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study is to study the therapeutic efficiency of doxycycline in a double-blinded randomised phase II study in a cohort of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Methods From the National Reference Center of TSE Surveillance in Germany, patients with probable or definite sCJD were recruited for a double-blinded randomised study with oral doxycycline (EudraCT 2006-003934-14). In addition, we analysed the data from patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline in a separate group. Potential factors which influence survival such as age at onset, gender, codon 129 polymorphism and cognitive functions were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was survival. Results Group 1: in the double-blinded randomised phase II study, 7 patients in the treatment group were compared with 5 controls. Group 2: 55 patients with sCJD treated with oral doxycycline were analysed and compared with 33 controls by a stratified propensity score applied to a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The results of both studies were combined by means of a random-effects meta-analysis. A slight increase in survival time in the doxycycline treatment group was observed (p=0.049, HR=0.63 (95% CI 0.402 to 0.999)). Conclusions On the basis of our studies, a larger trial of doxycycline should be performed in persons in the earliest stages of CJD. Trial registration number EudraCT 2006-003934-14; Results. PMID:27807198

  4. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P < 0.05). In this study, vapor of perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  5. Double-blind evaluation of the DKL LifeGuard Model 2

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.W.; Spencer, F.W.; Spencer, D.D.

    1998-05-01

    On March 20, 1998, Sandia National Laboratories performed a double-blind test of the DKL LifeGuard human presence detector and tracker. The test was designed to allow the device to search for individuals well within the product`s published operational parameters. The Test Operator of the DKL LifeGuard was provided by the manufacturer and was a high-ranking member of DKL management. The test was developed and implemented to verify the performance of the device as specified by the manufacturer. The device failed to meet its published specifications and it performed no better than random chance.

  6. Treatment of Zoster with Idoxuridine in Dimethyl Sulphoxide. Results of Two Double-blind Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Juel-Jensen, B. E.; MacCallum, F. O.; Mackenzie, A. M. R.; Pike, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    The antiviral effect of 5% idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide intermittently applied and of 40% idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide continuously applied for four days to the lesions in patients with zoster of recent onset was studied in two double-blind controlled trials. Most, but not all, of the patients receiving intermittent active treatment had pain for a short period only. The effect of continuous treatment was striking: pain had disappeared within nine days in all the patients and healing was accelerated. The results were statistically significant. PMID:4925077

  7. A double-blind trial comparing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), and ketotifen in extrinsic asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Schuhl, J F; Holgado de Cuesta, D

    1981-07-01

    A double-blind non crossover trial comparing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), with ketotifen, was carried out in twenty-seven extrinsic asthmatic children over 12 weeks. Assessment was made using symptom score and drug score charts. Both drugs showed a similar protective effect in the group studied. None of the subjects had to withdraw from the trial and no side-effects were noted in weight-curve, arterial pressure and pulse rate. PEFR values remained unchanged for both drugs throughout the trial. A non-significant tendency for additional corticosteroid support in the Ketotifen group was noted.

  8. A double blind multicentre study of OM-8980 and auranofin in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Vischer, T L

    1988-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of the immunomodulator OM-8980 in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with that of auranofin, an oral gold salt, in a double blind, randomised multicentre study lasting six months. Seventy patients were treated with auranofin and 75 with OM-8980. The patients of both groups improved significantly at three and six months for all the clinical parameters observed: Ritchie index, number of swollen joints, morning stiffness, pain, grip strength, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No serious side effects were observed in either group. The patients receiving auranofin had more adverse reactions, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal system. PMID:3041924

  9. Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints.

    PubMed Central

    Menkes, C J; Gô, A L; Verrier, P; Aignan, M; Delbarre, F

    1977-01-01

    A double-blind study of erbium 169 injection into rheumatoid digital joints was carried out with saline as control. 201 joints in 36 patients were studied (137 metacarpophalalangeal, 64 proximal interphalangeal). Erbium 169 was injected into 121 joints and saline water into 80 joints. Local injection of corticosteroids was given to both groups. A definite improvement was observed in 55% to 58% of cases with erbium 169 (+prednisolone acetate) and in 26% to 28% of cases with saline (+prednisolone acetate). The difference was highly significant. PMID:327948

  10. Neurogenic claudication and root claudication treated with calcitonin. A double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Porter, R W; Miller, C G

    1988-09-01

    Forty-two patients with either neurogenic claudication or unilateral root claudication were analyzed in a double-blind comparison of salmon calcitonin (SCT) and placebo, receiving either 100 IU SCT or 1 ml saline four times a week for 8 weeks. Five of 20 SCT and one of 22 placebo patients were classified as responders. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in the proportion of responders. Seven of eighteen of the placebo group who later received salmon calcitonin improved their walking distance. The authors have not established that this is an organic response.

  11. A double blind trial with cartilage and bone marrow extract in degenerative gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Adler, E; Wolf, E; Taustein, I

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind trial with cartilage and bone-marrow extract (Rumalon A) and placebo (Rumalon B) was carried out on 106 patients with degenerative bilateral gonarthrosis. Favorable results were obtained in 64% of the patients treated with Rumalon A and in only 29% of the placebo group. This difference is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The slight influence of placebo can be related to the psychosomatic effect of injections and/or coincident spontaneous improvement of the gonarthrosis. Cartilage and bone marrow extract increases the therapeutic possibilities in degenerative joint disease. It is easy to administer and practically without side effects.

  12. The effects of metoclopramide on postoperative ileus. A randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, E D; Hersh, T; Brinner, R A; Barnett, S M; Boyle, L P

    1979-01-01

    Metoclopramide or placebo was administered postoperatively in a randomized, double-blind fashion to 115 patients undergoing laparotomy. The effect of metoclopramide on postoperative adynamic ileus (PAI) was evaluated. The patients were stratified into two groups: Group A--those with laparotomy without a gastrointestinal anastomosis or ostomy procedure, and group B--those with laparotomy undergoing an anastomosis or ostomy procedure. Metoclopramide reduced nausea and emesis postoperatively. However, the only significant effect on postoperative adynamic ileus was an earlier return to tolerance of solid foods in the patients in Group A. PMID:582360

  13. Double Blind Test For Bio-Stimulation Effects On Pain Relief By Diode Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, Norio; Sembokuya, Iwajiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Fujimasa, Iwao; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yuusuke; Atsumi, Kazuhiko

    1989-09-01

    The bio-stimulation effect of semiconductor laser on therapeutic pain relief was investigated by conducting a double blind test performed on more than one hundred patient subjects suffering from various neualgia. A compact laser therapeutic equipment with two laser probes each having 60 mW power was developed and utilized for the experiment. Each probe was driven by either the active or the dummy source selected randomly, and its results were stored in the memory for statistical processing. The therapeutic treatments including active and dummy treatments were performed on 102 subjects. The pain relief effects were confirmed for 85.5% of the subjects.

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of hyaluronic acid, tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane in a new gel medical device for treatment of haemorrhoids in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Joksimovic, N; Spasovski, G; Joksimovic, V; Andreevski, V; Zuccari, C; Omini, C F

    2012-09-01

    Topical formulations are widely used in anti-haemorrhoidal treatment, but often lacking controlled clinical trials. Here, we report the results from a controlled clinical trial performed with a new gel medical device (Proctoial) containing hyaluronic acid with tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane as major components. The total number of 36 haemorrhoidal patients (grade 1-3) was enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and divided into 2 equal parallel groups. The anal pain, pain during defecation, visible bleeding, pruritus and irritation/inflammation were recorded before and after 14-day treatment using a visual analogue scale both by the investigators and by the patients. Safety and tolerability of the treatments were also recorded. The new gel medical device statistically significantly reduced all the symptoms after the treatment compared to placebo. The results indicated also a very good tolerability and safety of the treatments.

  15. Ceftolozane-tazobactam compared with levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary-tract infections, including pyelonephritis: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ASPECT-cUTI).

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M; Umeh, Obiamiwe; Steenbergen, Judith; Yuan, Guojun; Darouiche, Rabih O

    2015-05-16

    Treatment of complicated urinary-tract infections is challenging due to rising antimicrobial resistance. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ceftolozane-tazobactam, a novel antibacterial with Gram-negative activity, in the treatment of patients with complicated lower-urinary-tract infections or pyelonephritis. ASPECT-cUTI was a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority trial done in 209 centres in 25 countries. Between July, 2011, and September, 2013, hospital inpatients aged 18 years or older who had pyuria and a diagnosis of a complicated lower-urinary-tract infection or pyelonephritis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous 1·5 g ceftolozane-tazobactam every 8 h or intravenous high-dose (750 mg) levofloxacin once daily for 7 days. The randomisation schedule was computer generated in blocks of four and stratified by study site. The next allocation was obtained by the study site pharmacist via an interactive voice-response system. The primary endpoint was a composite of microbiological eradication and clinical cure 5-9 days after treatment in the microbiological modified intention-to-treat (MITT) population, with a non-inferiority margin of 10%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01345929 and NCT01345955. Of 1083 patients enrolled, 800 (73·9%), of whom 656 (82·0%) had pyelonephritis, were included in the microbiological MITT population. Ceftolozane-tazobactam was non-inferior to levofloxacin for composite cure (306 [76·9%] of 398 vs 275 [68·4%] of 402, 95% CI 2·3-14·6) and, as the lower bound of the two-sided 95% CI around the treatment difference was positive and greater than zero, superiority was indicated. Adverse event profiles were similar in the two treatment groups and were mainly non-serious. Treatment with ceftolozane-tazobactam led to better responses than high-dose levofloxacin in patients with complicated lower-urinary-tract infections or pyelonephritis. Cubist Pharmaceuticals

  16. Comparison of bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of a single dose of formoterol delivered by hydrofluoroalkane and chlorofluorocarbon aerosols and dry powder in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, C M; Langley, S J; Singh, S D; Holden, J; Monici Preti, A P; Acerbi, D; Poli, G; Woodcock, A

    2004-01-01

    Background In response to the phasing out of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) inhalers, a metered dose hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) formulation, Modulite (Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A, Parma, Italy), to be delivered with a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), has been developed. Modulite is a HFA formulation technology that has been designed to provide stable and uniform dose delivery of HFA-based formulations to enable an easy transition from CFC to HFA inhalers. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the bronchoprotective and bronchodilator effects of a single dose of 12 µg of formoterol from the HFA Modulite inhaler with the Foradil Aerolizer (dry powder inhaler, DPI) and the Foradil CFC inhalers (Novartis Health Consumer, Basel, Switzerland). Methods This was a double blind, double dummy, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted in 38 subjects with mild to moderate asthma (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] 87.5% predicted). The primary endpoint was methacholine challenge provocative dose required for 20% fall in the FEV1 (PD20) 90 min post dose. Bronchodilation was assessed with spirometry (FEV1, FVC, FEF25–75) and impulse oscillometry (resistance at 5 and 20 Hz, reactance at 5 Hz and resonant frequency) over the 90 min post dose. In a subset of 12 subjects formoterol plasma levels, serum potassium and glucose were determined up to 480 min post dose. Results The three formoterol formulations demonstrated significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvements in bronchoprotection compared to placebo and non-inferiority of the HFA preparation compared to the CFC and DPI preparations was demonstrated. Geometric mean PD20 values were 0.51 mg with HFA, 0.62 mg with DPI, 0.62 mg with CFC and 0.2 mg with placebo. The log transformed mean differences in PD20 doubling dose between HFA and (a) DPI was −0.28 (95% CI −0.84–0.29, P = 0.57) (b) CFC was −0.28 (95% CI −0.84–0.28, P = 0.57) and (c) placebo was 1.38 (95% CI 0.82–1.94, P < 0.001). Serum

  17. Carbohydrate craving: A double-blind, placebo controlled test of the self-medication hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Corsica, Joyce A.; Spring, Bonnie J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate craving, the overwhelming desire to consume carbohydrate-rich foods in an attempt to improve mood, remains a scientifically controversial construct. We tested whether carbohydrate preference and mood enhancement could be demonstrated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled self-administration trial. Overweight females who met strict operational criteria for carbohydrate craving participated in two three-day discrete choice trials over a two-week period. Participants reported their mood before and at several time points after undergoing a dysphoric mood induction and ingesting, under double-blind conditions, either a carbohydrate beverage or a taste-matched protein-rich nutrient balanced beverage. Every third testing day, participants were asked to self-administer the beverage preferred based on its previous mood effect. Results showed that, when rendered mildly dysphoric, carbohydrate cravers chose the carbohydrate beverage significantly more often than protein-rich beverage and reported that carbohydrate produced greater mood improvement. The carbohydrate beverage was perceived as being more palatable by the carbohydrate cravers, although not by independent taste testers who performed the pre-trial taste matching. Results support the existence of a carbohydrate craving syndrome in which carbohydrate ingestion medicates mildly dysphoric mood. PMID:18928908

  18. New treatment for faecal incontinence using zinc-aluminium ointment: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, G; Zarate, A J; Inostroza, G; Meneses, X; Falloux, E; Molina, O; Molina, M E; Bellolio, F; Zúñiga, A

    2012-05-01

    In a randomized double-blind study the therapeutic effect of a novel zinc-aluminium ointment was compared with placebo in patients with faecal incontinence. A randomized double-blind trial was performed. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive the ointment or a placebo. All were evaluated prior to and 3 weeks after ointment application, using the Wexner incontinence score and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) score. Fifty patients were randomized and six were lost to follow-up, leaving 24 in the treatment and 20 in the placebo group. The average ages were 61.3 and 60.7 years. The respective Wexner scores prior to intervention were 16.6 and 16.7. They decreased significantly after treatment to 8.5 and 13.1 (P<0.001 and P=0.002 respectively). There was a significant difference in the final scores, favouring the treatment group (P=0.001). The FIQL scores for the treatment group were also significantly better in all parameters compared with those of the placebo group. The study shows that the zinc-aluminium based ointment decreases faecal incontinence significantly compared with placebo. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Zonisamide for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Adjunctive Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dauphinais, Deborah; Knable, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua; Polanski, Mark; Rosenthal, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Objective This is the first multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide for the treatment of bipolar depression. Experimental design One hundred two patients with bipolar disorder, type I or II in the depressed phase of illness were randomized to either adjunctive zonisamide or placebo. The study consisted of three phases, a 7 to 30 day screening and stabilization phase, 6 weeks of blinded treatment and a 1 to 3 week discontinuation phase. MADRS score was the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures included the YMRS, CGI-S, CGI-I, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and an a priori analysis of response and remission. Metabolic parameters including weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also evaluated. Side effects were measured using the SAFTEE. Principal observations There were no statistically significant differences in response between subjects treated with adjunctive zonisamide vs. placebo controls for the primary or secondary outcome measures. There were also no differences between the groups with regard to response rate or remission rate. Conclusions In contrast to preliminary open label studies that suggested a role for zonisamide in bipolar depression, we could not confirm these results in a large double blind controlled study. PMID:27738356

  20. Tetrodotoxin alleviates acute heroin withdrawal syndrome: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Li, Jing; Lu, Chang-Li; Kang, Lin; Xie, Liang; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Bo; Zhong, Sheng

    2011-08-01

    1. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a powerful sodium channel blocker extracted from the puffer fish. The efficacy and safety of TTX as monotherapy for the treatment of acute heroin withdrawal syndrome were evaluated in the present study. This 7-day, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out between December 2008 and October 2009. In total, 216 patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnosis of heroin addiction were recruited. After providing written informed consent, subjects were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment in one of the following groups: 5 μg TTX group (group 1), 10 μg TTX group (group 2) or the placebo group (group 3). 2. Evidence suggests that both 5 and 10 μg TTX significantly reduced withdrawal symptoms by day 3 compared with placebo, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events in the three groups. 3. In conclusion, this clinical trial shows that TTX (5 and 10 μg given t.i.d.) is effective in alleviating opiate withdrawal symptoms with few side-effects.

  1. Hydroxyurea: a radiation potentiator in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A randomized double-blind study

    SciTech Connect

    Piver, M.S.; Barlow, J.J.; Vongtama, V.; Blumenson, L.

    1983-12-01

    From June, 1972, to December, 1976, 40 patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics) Stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix were entered into a prospective, double-blind, randomized study to evaluate the possible radiation-potentiating properties (i.e., improved survival) of the S-phase cell cycle-specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, hydroxyurea. All patients were documented to be without aortic lymph node metastasis by pretherapy staging para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All 40 patients were followed up for longer than 5 years (5.2 to 9.2 years) or until death. The double-blind code was not broken until all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 to 5 years. Leukopenia (white blood cell count less than 2,500 mm3) was significantly increased in the patients given hydroxyurea as compared to those given placebo (P less than 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference relative to anemia, thrombocytopenia, radiation-induced skin reaction, and radiation-induced intestinal reaction between the patients given placebo or those given hydroxyurea. Life-table survival for the patients given hydroxyurea was 94% as compared to 53% for the patients given placebo (P . 0.006). Only one (5%) patient given hydroxyurea died of cervical cancer. Of the other patients who died in the group given hydroxyurea, all were confirmed by postmortem examination to have been without recurrent cervical cancer. In contrast, 45% (nine) of the patients given placebo died of cervical cancer.

  2. It is possible to perform a double-blind hyperbaric session: a double-blinded randomized trial performed on healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jansen, T; Mortensen, C R; Tvede, M F

    2009-01-01

    In hyperbaric medicine, blinded trials are remarkably few, making results susceptible to criticism. The scopes of the present study are to present a method for a double-blinded randomized clinical study and evaluate the validity of the method in a hyperbaric setting. Twenty-two healthy volunteers with no diving experience were included. The volunteers were randomized either to a "therapeutic pressure" group (15 msw, 253 kPa) or to a "placebo" group (2 msw, 120 kPa). The two profiles were made equal regarding noise, temperature and ventilation. The volunteers were asked whether they had been exposed to placebo or therapeutic pressure. They were asked to present their certainness of the answer on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Fisher's exact test calculates a probability of P = 0,328, which indicates that the volunteers have no valid opinion as to whether they were exposed to 15 msw or to 2 msw. It is found that it is possible to perform a blinded treatment on healthy volunteers with no prior diving experience.

  3. Topiramate reduces headache days in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Diener, H-C; Bussone, G; Van Oene, J C; Lahaye, M; Schwalen, S; Goadsby, P J

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate for the prevention of chronic migraine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Chronic migraine is a common form of disabling headache presenting in headache subspecialty practice. Preventive treatments are essential for chronic migraine management, although there are few or no controlled empirical trial data on their use in this patient population. Topiramate is approved for the prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults. Patients (18-65 years) who experienced chronic migraine (defined as > or =15 monthly migraine days) for > or =3 months prior to trial entry and had > or =12 migraine days during the 4-week (28-day) baseline phase were randomized to topiramate or placebo for a 16-week, double-blind trial. Topiramate was titrated (25 mg weekly) to a target dose of 100 mg/day, allowing dosing flexibility from 50 to 200 mg/day, according to patient need. Existing migraine preventive treatments, except for antiepileptic drugs, were continued throughout the trial. The primary efficacy measure was the change in number of migraine days from the 28-day baseline phase to the last 28 days of the double-blind phase in the intent-to-treat population, which consisted of all patients who received at least one dose of study medication and had one outcome assessment during the double-blind phase. Health-related quality of life was evaluated with the Migraine Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ, Version 2.1), the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaires, and tolerability was assessed by adverse event (AE) reports and early trial discontinuations. Eighty-two patients were screened. Thirty-two patients in the intent-to-treat population (mean age 46 years; 75% female) received topiramate (mean modal dose +/- SD = 100 +/- 17 mg/day) and 27 patients received placebo. Mean (+/-SD) baseline number of migraine days per 4 weeks was 15

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of rizatriptan in pediatric migraineurs: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using a novel adaptive enrichment design.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tony W; Pearlman, Eric; Lewis, Donald; Hämäläinen, Mirja; Connor, Kathryn; Michelson, David; Zhang, Ying; Assaid, Christopher; Mozley, Lyn Harper; Strickler, Nancy; Bachman, Robert; Mahoney, Erin; Lines, Christopher; Hewitt, David J

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options for children and adolescents with migraine are limited. This study evaluated rizatriptan for the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in migraineurs 6-17 years old with unsatisfactory response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen/paracetamol. The trial included a double-blind run-in with weight-based rizatriptan dosing (5 mg for < 40 kg, 10 mg for ≥ 40 kg). In the Stage 1 run-in, patients were randomized in a ratio of 20:1 placebo:rizatriptan and were instructed to treat within 30 minutes of a moderate/severe migraine. Patients with mild/no pain after 15 minutes of treatment (responders) took no further study medication, whereas patients with moderate/severe pain (non-responders) proceeded to take study medication in Stage 2. Non-responders who received placebo in Stage 1 were randomized 1:1 to rizatriptan:placebo, whereas non-responders who received rizatriptan in Stage 1 were allocated to placebo in Stage 2. The primary efficacy endpoint was pain freedom at 2 hours after Stage 2 dose in 12-17-year-olds. A higher proportion of 12-17-year-olds on rizatriptan had pain freedom at 2 hours compared with those on placebo: 87/284 (30.6%) versus 63/286 (22.0%), odds ratio = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.06 to 2.26], p = 0.025. Adverse events within 14 days of dose in 12-17-year-olds were similar for rizatriptan and placebo. The pattern of findings was similar in 6-17-year-olds. Rizatriptan demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over placebo in eliminating pain and was generally well tolerated in migraineurs aged 12-17 and 6-17 years. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01001234.

  5. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Eszopiclone for the Treatment of Insomnia in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goforth, Harold W.; Preud'homme, Xavier A.; Krystal, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia, which is very common in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP), has long been viewed as a pain symptom that did not merit specific treatment. Recent data suggest that adding insomnia therapy to pain-targeted treatment should improve outcome; however, this has not been empirically tested in LBP or in any pain condition treated with a standardized pain medication regimen. We sought to test the hypothesis that adding insomnia therapy to pain-targeted treatment might improve sleep and pain in LBP. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 1-mo trial. Setting: Duke University Medical Center Outpatient Sleep Clinic. Patients: Fifty-two adult volunteers with LBP of at least 3 mo duration who met diagnostic criteria for insomnia (mean age: 42.5 y; 63% females). Interventions: Subjects were randomized to eszopiclone (ESZ) 3 mg plus naproxen 500 mg BID or matching placebo plus naproxen 500 mg twice a day. Measurements and Results: ESZ significantly improved total sleep time (mean increase: ESZ, 95 min; placebo, 9 min) (primary outcome) and nearly all sleep measures as well as visual analog scale pain (mean decrease: ESZ, 17 mm; placebo, 2 mm) (primary pain outcome), and depression (mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale improvement ESZ, 3.8; placebo, 0.4) compared with placebo. Changes in pain ratings were significantly correlated with changes in sleep. Conclusions: The addition of insomnia-specific therapy to a standardized naproxen pain regimen significantly improves sleep, pain, and depression in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). The findings indicate the importance of administering both sleep and pain-directed therapies to patients with LBP in clinical practice and provide strong evidence that improving sleep disturbance may improve pain. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00365976 Citation: Goforth HW, Preud'homme XA, Krystal AD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of eszopiclone

  6. Efficacy and safety of low- and high-dose cariprazine in acute and mixed mania associated with bipolar I disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Joseph R; Keck, Paul E; Starace, Anju; Lu, Kaifeng; Ruth, Adam; Laszlovszky, István; Németh, György; Durgam, Suresh

    2015-03-01

    This phase 3 trial evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low- and high-dose cariprazine in patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, fixed/flexible-dose study was conducted from February 2010 to December 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to placebo, cariprazine 3-6 mg/d, or cariprazine 6-12 mg/d for 3 weeks of double-blind treatment. Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were change from baseline to week 3 in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score, respectively. Post hoc analysis examined change from baseline to week 3 in YMRS single items. A total of 497 patients were randomized; 74% completed the study. The least squares mean difference (LSMD) for change from baseline to week 3 in YMRS total score was statistically significant in favor of both cariprazine groups versus placebo (LSMD [95% CI]: 3-6 mg/d, -6.1 [-8.4 to -3.8]; 6-12 mg/d, -5.9 [-8.2, -3.6]; P < .001 [both]). Both cariprazine treatment groups showed statistically significant superiority to placebo on all 11 YMRS single items (all comparisons, P < .05). Change from baseline in CGI-S scores was statistically significantly greater in both cariprazine groups compared with placebo (LSMD [95% CI]: 3-6 mg/d, -0.6 [-0.9 to -0.4]; 6-12 mg/d, -0.6 [-0.9 to -0.3]; P < .001 [both]). The most common (≥ 5% and twice the rate of placebo) treatment-related adverse events for cariprazine were akathisia (both groups) and nausea, constipation, and tremor (6-12 mg/d only). Results of this study demonstrated that both low- and high-dose cariprazine were more effective than placebo in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Cariprazine was generally well tolerated, although the incidence of akathisia was greater with cariprazine than with placebo

  7. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  8. A double-blind controlled trial of etretinate (Tigason) and ibuprofen in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, R; Bird, H A; Jones, H; Hill, J; Surrall, K E; Astbury, C; Miller, A; Wright, V

    1985-01-01

    Etretinate (Tigason) and ibuprofen have been compared in a double-blind controlled trial in psoriatic arthritis to see if we could confirm a specific action for this vitamin A derivative suggested from earlier uncontrolled studies. Eleven out of 20 patients completed 24 weeks of therapy with etretinate (up to 0.5 mg/kg/day) whereas only 1/20 patients completed 24 weeks of therapy with ibuprofen alone. Etretinate improved skin lesions, and this may have encouraged patients to persist with it. Improvement of statistical significance was seen for articular index in both groups. In addition significant improvement in ESR, haemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and histidine occurred in the etretinate group. The main side effects of etretinate (which may preclude its use at a higher dose in this condition) included cracked and dried lips and sore mouth. PMID:3883917

  9. The use of DMSO in tennis elbow and rotator cuff tendonitis: a double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Percy, E C; Carson, J D

    1981-01-01

    Over a 1-yr period, 102 patients with a clinical diagnosis of either medial or lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) or rotator cuff tendonitis were treated with topical applications of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A double-blind controlled study was carried out on these patients in the private practice of an orthopaedic surgeon to determine the efficacy of this material in the treatment of these two common clinical conditions. Beneficial effects were assessed with respect to improvement in pain, tenderness or swelling, and increase in the range of motion. Forty patients were treated for each of the two ailments; patients treated with the 70% DMSO aqueous solution did not receive any more beneficial effect from the drug than patients who received 5% DMSO aqueous placebo solution.

  10. Extracorporeal shock-wave treatment for tennis elbow. A randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Melikyan, E Y; Shahin, E; Miles, J; Bainbridge, L C

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for tennis elbow was investigated using a single fractionated dosage in a randomised, double-blind study. Outcomes were assessed using the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, measurements of grip strength, levels of pain, analgesic usage and the rate of progression to surgery. Informed consent was obtained before patients were randomised to either the treatment or placebo group. In the final assessment, 74 patients (31 men and 43 women) with a mean age of 43.4 years (35 to 71), were included. None of the outcome measures showed a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups (p > 0.05). All patients improved significantly over time, regardless of treatment. Our study showed no evidence that extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for tennis elbow is better than placebo.

  11. The effects of mesterolone, a male sex hormone in depressed patients (a double blind controlled study).

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Michael, S T; Shapiro, D M; Itil, K Z

    1984-06-01

    Based on computer EEG (CEEG) profiles, in high doses, antidepressant properties of mesterolone, a synthetic androgen, were predicted. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, the clinical effects of 300-450 mg daily mesterolone were investigated in 52 relatively young (age range 26-53 years, mean 42.7 years) male depressed outpatients. During 6 weeks of mesterolone treatment, there was a significant improvement of depressive symptomatology. However, since an improvement was also established during the placebo treatment, no statistically appreciable difference in the therapeutic effects of mesterolone was established compared to placebo. Mesterolone treatment significantly decreased both plasma testosterone and protein bound testosterone levels. Patients with high testosterone levels prior to treatment seem to have had more benefit from mesterolone treatment than patients with low testosterone levels. The degree of improvement weakly correlated to the decrease of testosterone levels during mesterolone treatment.

  12. Results of Double-blind, Multicentre Study with Ritodrine in Premature Labour

    PubMed Central

    Casparis, A. Wesselius-De; Thiery, M.; Le Sian, A. Yo; Baumgarten, K.; Brosens, I.; Gamisans, O.; Stolk, J. G.; Vivier, W.

    1971-01-01

    A double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study with ritodrine, a β-mimetic uterine relaxant, has been performed in 91 patients in premature labour. All patients were treated according to a fixed dosage scheme consisting of an intravenous infusion followed by oral tablets for a total of seven days. Ritodrine arrested premature labour in 80%, the placebo in 48% of the patients (P=0·02). This short treatment, however, was usually not sufficient to prolong gestation till term. Apart from a slight to moderate rise in maternal heart rate and a slight rise in systolic blood pressure, ritodrine did not give rise to any maternal or fetal side effects. The problems of patient selection and of evaluation of the results are discussed. Imagesp147-a PMID:4397654

  13. [Enzyme therapy in treatment of mastopathy. A randomized double-blind clinical study].

    PubMed

    Rammer, E; Friedrich, F

    1996-01-01

    In this randomized double-blind clinical study the efficacy of an enzyme preparation (Wobenzym) was compared with hormone therapy (Lynestrenol) in 29 women with mastopathy. There was a significantly greater decrease in number of hardenings of the mammary gland after 2 months of enzyme therapy than Lynestrenol therapy: improvement in the former group was 100%, in the latter group 78.6%. No significant difference was observed regarding the numbers of lumps, or number and size of cysts, sensitivity to touch, feeling of tension, spontaneous pain, and pain on pressure. The efficacy of both medicines is valued as good. Wobenzym therapy was tolerated very well. No side effects appeared at all. Enzyme therapy is an alternative, low-risk therapy for the management of mastopathy, which does not interfere with the already upset hormonal balance of the patients.

  14. [Treatment of Meniere disease with betahistine dimesilate (Aequamen)--double-blind study versus placebo (crossover)].

    PubMed

    Meyer, E D

    1985-05-01

    The efficacy of treatment of Menière's disease was investigated in 2 double blind study versus placebo. Forty patients were given 36 mg betahistine dimesilate daily for at least six weeks. The course of disease and findings one year before and one year after the treatment were noted and compared for assessing the therapeutic success. The findings on threshold audiograms, spontaneous and provoked nystagmus and caloric tests did not show any significant changes. A slight improvement was noted in the low frequency range of threshold audiograms. Dizziness, tinnitus and disturbances of walking were significantly improved. The incidence of vertigo attacks was reduced to 64%. In 89% of the patients no further vertigo attacks were seen after the treatment. The best results of betahistine dimesilate treatment were observed in the early stages of Menière's disease.

  15. Double-blind study of benzydamine hydrochloride, a new treatment for sore throat.

    PubMed

    Wethington, J F

    1985-01-01

    Forty-four patients with sore throat participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of benzydamine hydrochloride administered as a gargle. After medical evaluation and throat culture, 21 patients were treated with a solution containing benzydamine and 23 patients with a placebo solution. Statistical analysis of scores from patients' diaries showed that benzydamine solution afforded significantly greater (P less than 0.001) relief of pain and dysphagia at 24 hours than did the placebo solution. Physician evaluations at 24 hours showed that the benzydamine solution had significantly greater effect than did placebo on hyperemia (P less than 0.004) and edema (P less than 0.005). Side effects were minimal and of no clinical significance. The findings indicate that benzydamine hydrochloride is safe and effective therapy for the signs and symptoms of sore throat.

  16. Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Autism: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Keeratitanont, Keattichai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in individuals with autism. Twenty patients with autism received 5 consecutive days of both sham and active tDCS stimulation (1 mA) in a randomized double-blind crossover trial over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F3) for 20 minutes in different orders. Measures of CARS, ATEC, and CGAS were administered before treatment and at 7 days posttreatment. The result showed statistical decrease in CARS score (P < 0.001). ATEC total was decreased from 67.25 to 58 (P < 0.001). CGAS was increased at 7 days posttreatment (P = 0.042). Our study suggests that anodal tDCS over the F3 may be a useful clinical tool in autism. PMID:25530675

  17. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Severe Acute Pancreatitis: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Atwal, Tegpal; Bi, Yan; Chari, Suresh T; Clemens, Magdalen A; Enders, Felicity T

    2015-08-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP) tumor necrosis factor-α mediates multi-organ failure; in animal models its blockade with pentoxifylline ameliorates AP. The efficacy of pentoxifylline in predicted severe AP (pSAP) was tested in a double-blinded, randomized, control trial. Twenty-eight patients with pSAP were randomized within 72 hours of diagnosis to pentoxifylline or placebo. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The pentoxifylline group had fewer intensive care unit admissions and shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays of longer than 4 days (all P < .05). Patients receiving pentoxifylline had no adverse effects. Pentoxifylline within 72 hours of pSAP is safe; a larger study of pentoxifylline in AP is needed to confirm efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01292005. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  19. Homoeopathy for delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, A J; Fisher, P; Smith, C; Wyllie, S E; Lewith, G T

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To pilot a model for determining whether a homoeopathic medicine is superior to placebo for delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Physiotherapy department of a homoeopathic hospital. SUBJECTS: Sixty eight healthy volunteers (average age 30; 41% men) undertook a 10 minute period of bench stepping carrying a small weight and were randomised to a homoeopathic medicine or placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean muscle soreness in the five day period after the exercise test, symptom free days, maximum soreness score, days to no soreness, days on medication. RESULTS: The difference between group means was 0.17 in favour of placebo with 95% confidence intervals +/- 0.50. Similar results were found for other outcome measures. CONCLUSION: The study did not find benefit of the homoeopathic remedy in DOMS. Bench stepping may not be an appropriate model to evaluate the effects of a treatment on DOMS because of wide variation between subject soreness scores. PMID:9429007

  20. Effect of Neem containing Toothpaste on Plaque and Gingivitis--A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Abhishek, K N; Supreetha, S; Sam, George; Khan, S Nubesh; Chaithanya, K H; Abdul, Nishad

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of toothpaste containing neem on plaque and gingivitis. Randomized, double blind clinical trial was designed. Thirty first year dental students volunteered to participate in the study. Neem containing tooth paste was used as an intervention. Clinical examination was carried out using Silness and Loe plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index (GI). Independent t-test and paired t-test was used for the intergroup and the intragroup comparison. Out of 30 participants, 22 (73.3%) were females and eight (26.7%) were males. A statistically significant difference was found between the test and control group after intervention with respect to the PI and GI. Neem containing toothpaste can be used as an adjunct for maintenance of oral hygiene. Regular brushing with neem toothpaste might act as an adjunct to maintenance of good oral hygiene, and thus improve oral health.

  1. Anxiety and methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-drug trial.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Keren; Karni, Avi; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between attention and anxiety and the response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a total of 57 boys, between the ages of 7-12 years, were assessed for their attention and level of anxiety. Methylphenidate was administered for a week in a randomized double-blind drug/placebo-drug cross-over design. The levels of anxiety were evenly distributed between the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive types. Anxiety was significantly correlated with the attention as reported by both teachers and parents. The response to methylphenidate was inversely correlated with the reported anxiety level only in boys with the hyperactive/impulsive and combined types. The higher the level of anxiety, the lower level of response to methylphenidate was observed. In the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD, the level of anxiety should be evaluated and taken into account while planning and monitoring treatment regiment.

  2. Double-blind evaluation of two commercial hypoallergenic diets in cats with adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Leistra, M; Willemse, T

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two commercially available selected-protein-source diets as maintenance diets in cats with dermatological manifestations of adverse food reactions. Twenty cats with a confirmed adverse food reaction were tested in a double-blind manner. An adverse food reaction was diagnosed when, after recovery with a home-cooked elimination diet, the signs relapsed after a challenge with their previous dietary components, and re-disappeared on a second elimination diet period. Hereafter the cats were blind and randomly challenged with two commercial hypoallergenic diets. Relapse of the clinical signs was seen in eight cats (40%) on a lamb and rice diet and in 13 cats (65%) on a chicken and rice diet (P>0.05). Neither one of the commercial diets was as effective in controlling the skin problems as the home-cooked elimination diet. The study confirms that commercial hypoallergenic diets are adequate for maintenance.

  3. Does Granisetron Eliminate the Gag Reflex? A Crossover, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander Barenboim, Silvina; Dvoyris, Vladislav; Kaufman, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    Although gagging is a frequent problem that, when severe, can jeopardize the dental procedure, no single protocol is used to alleviate this phenomenon. Selective 5-HT3 antagonists, such as granisetron, may attenuate gagging. In this study, granisetron and placebo were administered intravenously, in a crossover, double-blind manner, to 25 healthy volunteers in 2 different sessions. Gagging levels were recorded before and after administration, as were BP, pulse, and O2 saturation. Recorded results were analyzed with the use of tests for nonparametric values (P = .05). A significant increase in the depth of swab insertion was noted after administration of both placebo and drug. The increase in drug effectiveness correlated with decreased body weight. The true efficacy of granisetron in gagger patients with this treatment protocol has yet to be fully established, although it has been theorized that an increased dosage of granisetron may have a better effect. PMID:19562886

  4. Multicenter double-blind comparison of nomifensine and imipramine for efficacy and safety in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Bremner, J D; Abrahams, L M; Crupie, J E; McCawley, A; Proctor, R C; Sathananthan, G L

    1984-04-01

    Nomifensine, a tetrahydroisoquinoline antidepressant, was compared with imipramine in a 4-week multicenter double-blind study of depressed outpatients (100 on nomifensine, 56 on imipramine). Nomifensine was at least as effective as imipramine in reducing depressive symptoms at average doses of 150 mg/day. When significant differences did occur on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, they favored nomifensine for improvement in cognitive symptoms and interest in work and activities. Early in treatment, nomifensine patients also showed a better relationship between clinical response and side effects. The proportions of patients experiencing at least one side effect or dropping out due to side effects were almost twice as high in the imipramine group. Dry mouth and sedating effects were 2-3 times more frequent among imipramine patients. Thus, nomifensine demonstrated clinical efficacy at least comparable with imipramine but with indications of a more favorable side effects profile.

  5. A double-blind evaluation of evening primrose oil as an antiobesity agent.

    PubMed

    Haslett, C; Douglas, J G; Chalmers, S R; Weighhill, A; Munro, J F

    1983-01-01

    Evening Primrose Oil (EPO) is a naturally occurring rich source of essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid. It has been suggested that it has antiobesity properties. This double-blind 12-week study was undertaken in 100 women with substantial obesity: 40 with refractory obesity, and 60 at time of initial referral to a hospital clinic. Seventy-four subjects completed the study. Those treated with EPO were comparable in age and degree of obesity with the placebo-treated group. There was no significant difference in the weight loss achieved by those taking EPO compared with placebo, either in the subjects with refractory obesity or in those treated at time of initial referral. It would appear that any antiobesity property possessed by EPO is clinically insignificant.

  6. A double-blind trial of transfer factor vs placebo in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R C; Espinoza, L R; Plank, C R; Ebers, G C; Rosenberg, R A; Zabriskie, J B

    1978-01-01

    A double-blind trial of the effect of transfer factor on multiple sclerosis patients was carried out. In a series of fifty-six multiple sclerosis patients treated with monthly injections of either transfer factor or placebo for 1 year, no beneficial effect of transfer factor was noted. In addition, none of the immunological and serological parameters studied (measles migration inhibition, measles HI titre or CSF immunoglobulin) changed as a result of transfer factor therapy. Histocompatibility typing and CSF IgG/TP ratios were correlated with the disease activity. Of interest was the finding that the presence of the DW2 antigen, when unassociated with HLA-B7 antigen, appeared to correlate with the mildest form of disease activity. PMID:361313

  7. A multicenter double-blind study of sulglycotide versus sucralfate in nonulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Psilogenis, M; Nazzari, M; Ferrari, P A

    1990-09-01

    Nonulcer dyspepsia remains to this date a clinical disease entity that is diagnosed and treated empirically by considering such patients potential ulcer carriers and treating them accordingly with H2 antagonists. The purpose of this study was to assess the therapeutic effectiveness of sulglycotide in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia in a random double-blind trial vs sucralfate. One hundred and eighty-seven consecutive patients with nonulcer dyspepsia were treated with sulglycotide (oral, 200 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks, n = 93) or with sucralfate (oral, 1 g t.i.d. for the same length of time, n = 94). Drug effectiveness was evaluated in terms of apparent clinical symptom modifications, fiberoptic endoscopy findings and histological aspects of biopsy specimens. Both treatments resulted in prompt abatement of the clinical complaints of nonulcer dyspepsia and the improvement of macroscopic gastritis at endoscopy. These results confirm the usefulness of cytoprotective drugs in nonulcer dyspepsia characterized by gastroduodenal inflammation.

  8. [Periprostatic anaesthesic infiltration for prostatic biopsy: a prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled study].

    PubMed

    Valero, Gonzalo; González, E U Roxana

    2005-06-01

    A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of periprostatic infiltration with lidocaine to reduce pain of prostatic biopsy. In a thirteen months period of time, 115 patients were randomized to receive 10 ml of lidocaine 1% (n=60) or saline (n=55). Evaluating the pain with visual analogue scale (0-10), the first group referred average pain of 3.83 and the second group of 6.87, being this difference clearly significant (p<0.005). There were not complications from anesthesic puncture. The periprostatic infiltration is easy to perform without complications and it is effective in reducing the pain of this procedure. It should be used as a routine procedure in prostatic biopsy.

  9. Dissolution of gall stones with an ursodeoxycholic acid menthol preparation: a controlled prospective double blind trial.

    PubMed Central

    Leuschner, M; Leuschner, U; Lazarovici, D; Kurtz, W; Hellstern, A

    1988-01-01

    In a controlled prospective double blind trial patients with cholesterol gall bladder stones are treated with ursodeoxy-cholic acid (group A: UDCA 11.1 mg/kg per day; n = 16) and Ursomenth respectively (group B: a mixture of UDCA/menthol: 4.75 mg/kg per day each; n = 17). With same stone number and size (10-12 mm) there is a complete dissolution rate in group A of 38%, and of 53% in group B within 15-16.9 months. The response rate (complete + partial dissolution) amounted to 75% and 76% respectively. In group A there is one case of stone calcification, in group B none. Both preparations are free of unwanted effects. This suggests that the cyclic monoterpene menthol enhances the effect of UDCA and is of comparable effect to a mixture of six different terpenes used in former times. PMID:3286383

  10. A double-blind cross-over trial of fenoprofen and phenylbutazone in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Wordsworth, B P; Ebringer, R W; Coggins, E; Smith, S

    1980-11-01

    Fenoprofen, 600 mg, three times daily, was compared with phenylbutazone, 100 mg, three times daily, in 30 patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis in a double-blind cross-over study. Assessments were made after an initial washout period and after each month-long treatment period. Phenylbutazone significantly improved morning stiffness, finger-to-floor distance, chest expansion, overall joint pain, spinal pain, the physician's assessment of disease activity and ESR. Only chest expansion was significantly improved by fenoprofen, and phenylbutazone was significantly better than fenoprofen in its effects on finger-to-floor distance, morning stiffness, overall joint pain, spinal pain and the physician's assessment of disease activity. Side-effects were of a minor nature apart from one patient who developed rectal bleeding on phenylbutazone which recurred on rechallenging.

  11. Effects of Atorvastatin on Negative Sign in Chronic Schizophrenia: a Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Boostani, Hatam; Ashrafpoori, Mitra; Pakseresht, Siroos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Atorvastatin on negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The study was a prospective, double-blind, 6-week trial. Forty patients participated in the study; 19 patients were assigned to the Atorvastatin group as well as 21 patients to the placebo group. For assessing negative signs, we used Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) in weeks 1st, 3nd, 4th, and 6th. Moreover, patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups with Risperidone (6 mg/day) plus 20 mg Atorvastatin or with Risperidone (6 mg/day) plus placebo. Mean scores of Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) decreased during the treatment but there was no significant difference between the mean scores of two groups. The result of this trial suggested that Atorvastatin can be effective in reducing negative sign in schizophrenia although further studies seem to be needed. PMID:26664396

  12. Anabolic steroids in athelics: crossover double-blind trial on weightlifters.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, D L; Banks, A J; Longson, D; Burley, D M

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen experienced male weightlifters taking high-protein diets and regular exercise took part in a double-blind crossover trial of methandienone 10 or 25 mg/day to seeif the drug improved athletic performance. Their improvemments were significantly greater on methandienone than on placebo; their body weights rose (though this seemed to be associated with water retention); and systolic blood pressure rose significantly. Methandienone caused many side effects, and three men had to withdraw because of them. All side effects disappeared after the drug was stopped. Anabolic steroids are effective only when given combination with exercise and high-protein diet.We deprecate their use in athletics but can suggest no way of stopping it. PMID:125133

  13. Atacicept in multiple sclerosis (ATAMS): a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Kappos, Ludwig; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Freedman, Mark S; Boyko, Alexey; Radü, Ernst Wilhelm; Mikol, Daniel D; Lamarine, Marc; Hyvert, Yann; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Plitz, Thomas; van Beek, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Depletion of B lymphocytes is associated with suppression of inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of atacicept, a recombinant fusion protein that suppresses B-cell function and antibody production. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, 36-week, phase 2 trial (ATAMS) in Australia, Canada, Europe, and the USA, patients aged 18-60 years with relapsing multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned via an interactive voice response system in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, stratified by geographical region, to receive weekly subcutaneous injections with atacicept (25, 75, or 150 mg) or placebo. Both patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted MRI per patient per scan between weeks 12 and 36. Efficacy endpoints were analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who completed week 36 were eligible to participate in a long-term extension study (ATAMS EXT), consisting