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Sample records for paralogous genes radical-induced

  1. Genes and processed paralogs co-exist in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Argelia; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Jahren, Anne Hoppe

    2012-04-01

    RNA-mediated gene duplication has been proposed to create processed paralogs in the plant mitochondrial genome. A processed paralog may retain signatures left by the maturation process of its RNA precursor, such as intron removal and no need of RNA editing. Whereas it is well documented that an RNA intermediary is involved in the transfer of mitochondrial genes to the nucleus, no direct evidence exists for insertion of processed paralogs in the mitochondria (i.e., processed and un-processed genes have never been found simultaneously in the mitochondrial genome). In this study, we sequenced a region of the mitochondrial gene nad1, and identified a number of taxa were two different copies of the region co-occur in the mitochondria. The two nad1 paralogs differed in their (a) presence or absence of a group II intron, and (b) number of edited sites. Thus, this work provides the first evidence of co-existence of processed paralogs and their precursors within the plant mitochondrial genome. In addition, mapping the presence/absence of the paralogs provides indirect evidence of RNA-mediated gene duplication as an essential process shaping the mitochondrial genome in plants.

  2. pATsi: Paralogs and Singleton Genes from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosino, Luca; Bostan, Hamed; di Salle, Pasquale; Sangiovanni, Mara; Vigilante, Alessandra; Chiusano, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is widely accepted as a model species in plant biology. Its genome, due to its small size and diploidy, was the first to be sequenced among plants, making this species also a reference for plant comparative genomics. Nevertheless, the evolutionary mechanisms that shaped the Arabidopsis genome are still controversial. Indeed, duplications, translocations, inversions, and gene loss events that contributed to the current organization are difficult to be traced. A reliable identification of paralogs and single-copy genes is essential to understand these mechanisms. Therefore, we implemented a dedicated pipeline to identify paralog genes and classify single-copy genes into opportune categories. PATsi, a web-accessible database, was organized to allow the straightforward access to the paralogs organized into networks and to the classification of single-copy genes. This permits to efficiently explore the gene collection of Arabidopsis for evolutionary investigations and comparative genomics. PMID:26792975

  3. pATsi: Paralogs and Singleton Genes from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Luca; Bostan, Hamed; di Salle, Pasquale; Sangiovanni, Mara; Vigilante, Alessandra; Chiusano, Maria L

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is widely accepted as a model species in plant biology. Its genome, due to its small size and diploidy, was the first to be sequenced among plants, making this species also a reference for plant comparative genomics. Nevertheless, the evolutionary mechanisms that shaped the Arabidopsis genome are still controversial. Indeed, duplications, translocations, inversions, and gene loss events that contributed to the current organization are difficult to be traced. A reliable identification of paralogs and single-copy genes is essential to understand these mechanisms. Therefore, we implemented a dedicated pipeline to identify paralog genes and classify single-copy genes into opportune categories. PATsi, a web-accessible database, was organized to allow the straightforward access to the paralogs organized into networks and to the classification of single-copy genes. This permits to efficiently explore the gene collection of Arabidopsis for evolutionary investigations and comparative genomics.

  4. Vertebrate Paralogous MEF2 Genes: Origin, Conservation, and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenwu; de Folter, Stefan; Shen, Xia; Zhang, Wenqian; Tao, Shiheng

    2011-01-01

    Background The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) gene family is broadly expressed during the development and maintenance of muscle cells. Although a great deal has been elucidated concerning MEF2 transcription factors' regulation of specific gene expression in diverse programs and adaptive responses, little is known about the origin and evolution of the four members of the MEF2 gene family in vertebrates. Methodology/Principal Findings By phylogenetic analyses, we investigated the origin, conservation, and evolution of the four MEF2 genes. First, among the four MEF2 paralogous branches, MEF2B is clearly distant from the other three branches in vertebrates, mainly because it lacks the HJURP_C (Holliday junction recognition protein C-terminal) region. Second, three duplication events might have occurred to produce the four MEF2 paralogous genes and the latest duplication event occurred near the origin of vertebrates producing MEF2A and MEF2C. Third, the ratio (Ka/Ks) of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates showed that MEF2B evolves faster than the other three MEF2 proteins despite purifying selection on all of the four MEF2 branches. Moreover, a pair model of M0 versus M3 showed that variable selection exists among MEF2 proteins, and branch-site analysis presented that sites 53 and 64 along the MEF2B branch are under positive selection. Finally, and interestingly, substitution rates showed that type II MADS genes (i.e., MEF2-like genes) evolve as slowly as type I MADS genes (i.e., SRF-like genes) in animals, which is inconsistent with the fact that type II MADS genes evolve much slower than type I MADS genes in plants. Conclusion Our findings shed light on the relationship of MEF2A, B, C, and D with functional conservation and evolution in vertebrates. This study provides a rationale for future experimental design to investigate distinct but overlapping regulatory roles of the four MEF2 genes in various tissues. PMID:21394201

  5. Gain of function mutations for paralogous Hox genes: implications for the evolution of Hox gene function.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R A; Sreenath, T; Ngo, L; Bieberich, C J

    1995-05-01

    To investigate the functions of paralogous Hox genes, we compared the phenotypic consequences of altering the embryonic patterns of expression of Hoxb-8 and Hoxc-8 in transgenic mice. A comparison of the phenotypic consequences of altered expression of the two paralogs in the axial skeletons of newborns revealed an array of common transformations as well as morphological changes unique to each gene. Divergence of function of the two paralogs was clearly evident in costal derivatives, where increased expression of the two genes affected opposite ends of the ribs. Many of the morphological consequences of expanding the mesodermal domain and magnitude of expression of either gene were atavistic, inducing the transformation of axial skeletal structures from a modern to an earlier evolutionary form. We propose that regional specialization of the vertebral column has been driven by regionalization of Hox gene function and that a major aspect of this evolutionary progression may have been restriction of Hox gene expression.

  6. Paralogous genes involved in juvenile hormone action in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Aaron; Barry, Joshua; Wang, Shaoli; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Wilson, Thomas G

    2010-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is critical for multiple aspects of insect development and physiology. Although roles for the hormone have received considerable study, an understanding of the molecules necessary for JH action in insects has been frustratingly slow to evolve. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in Drosophila melanogaster fulfills many of the requirements for a hormone receptor gene. A paralogous gene, germ-cell expressed (gce), possesses homology and is a candidate as a Met partner in JH action. Expression of gce was found to occur at multiple times and in multiple tissues during development, similar to that previously found for Met. To probe roles of this gene in JH action, we carried out in vivo gce over- and underexpression studies. We show by overexpression studies that gce can substitute in vivo for Met, alleviating preadult but not adult phenotypic characters. We also demonstrate that RNA interference-driven knockdown of gce expression in transgenic flies results in preadult lethality in the absence of MET. These results show that (1) unlike Met, gce is a vital gene and shows functional flexibility and (2) both gene products appear to promote JH action in preadult but not adult development.

  7. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-12-22

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45 Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows.

  8. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows

    PubMed Central

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L.; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45 Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows. PMID:26689951

  9. Palaeophylogenomics of the vertebrate ancestor--impact of hidden paralogy on hagfish and lamprey gene phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2010-07-01

    In dissecting the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates at the molecular level, whole-genome duplications are recognized as a key event. This gave rise to more copies of genes in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), such as the four Hox clusters in the human, compared to the single ancestral cluster in invertebrates. To date, as the most early-branching lineages in vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lampreys) have been used for comparative analyses of gene regulations and functions. However, assignment of orthology/paralogy for cyclostomes' genes is not unambiguously demonstrated. Thus, there is a high degree of incongruence in tree topologies between gene families, although whole genome duplications postulate uniform patterns in gene phylogeny. In this review, we demonstrate how expansion of an ancient genome before the cyclostome-gnathostome split, followed by reciprocal gene loss, can cause this incongruence. This is sometimes referred to as 'hidden paralogy'. PMID:21558193

  10. Paralogous origin of the rhodopsinlike opsin genes in lizards.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, S; Yokoyama, S

    1995-06-01

    Rhodopsinlike opsins constitute a distinct phylogenetic group (Yokoyama 1994, Mol. Biol. Evol. 11:32-39). This RH2 group includes the green-sensitive opsins in chicken and goldfish and the blue-sensitive opsin in a nocturnal lizard gecko. In the present study, we isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA clones for the RH2 opsin gene, rh2Ac, of the diurnal lizard Anolis carolinensis. This single-copy gene spans 18.3 kb from start to stop codons, making it the longest opsin gene known in vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that rh2Ac is more closely related to the chicken green opsin gene than to the gecko blue opsin gene. This gene tree differs from the organismal tree, where the two lizard species should be most closely related, implying that rh2Ac and the gecko blue-sensitive opsin genes have been derived from duplicate ancestral genes.

  11. Conserved transcriptional responses to cyanobacterial stressors are mediated by alternate regulation of paralogous genes in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Pfrender, Michael E; Lopez, Jacqueline A; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Janssen, Colin R; Shaw, Joseph R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-04-01

    Despite a significant increase in genomic data, our knowledge of gene functions and their transcriptional responses to environmental stimuli remains limited. Here, we use the model keystone species Daphnia pulex to study environmental responses of genes in the context of their gene family history to better understand the relationship between genome structure and gene function in response to environmental stimuli. Daphnia were exposed to five different treatments, each consisting of a diet supplemented with one of five cyanobacterial species, and a control treatment consisting of a diet of only green algae. Differential gene expression profiles of Daphnia exposed to each of these five cyanobacterial species showed that genes with known functions are more likely to be shared by different expression profiles, whereas genes specific to the lineage of Daphnia are more likely to be unique to a given expression profile. Furthermore, while only a small number of nonlineage-specific genes were conserved across treatment type, there was a high degree of overlap in expression profiles at the functional level. The conservation of functional responses across the different cyanobacterial treatments can be attributed to the treatment-specific expression of different paralogous genes within the same gene family. Comparison with available gene expression data in the literature suggests differences in nutritional composition in diets with cyanobacterial species compared to diets of green algae as a primary driver for cyanobacterial effects on Daphnia. We conclude that conserved functional responses in Daphnia across different cyanobacterial treatments are mediated through alternate regulation of paralogous gene families.

  12. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. PMID:25909656

  13. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  14. Expression of Hox paralog group 13 genes in adult and developing Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Jakovlić, Ivan; Wang, Wei-Min

    2016-07-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that play a key role in specifying the body plan in most metazoans. HoxPG13 genes most probably played an important role in body length variation during the evolution of animals. This is the first report of the mRNA expression patterns of the entire Hox paralog group 13 (HoxA13a, HoxA13b, HoxB13a, HoxC13a, HoxC13b, HoxD13a) in fish. Expression was studied by qPCR in five tissues of adult Megalobrama amblycephala specimens (spleen, liver, kidney, intestine and gills) and during development (17 stages: fertilised egg to 90 days-old juveniles). Expression in tissues (for all six genes) was generally very low in gills (0.0006-0.05), spleen (0.006-0.09) and kidney (0.02-0.39); the highest in intestine (from 2.28 for HoxC13b to 244.29 for HoxC13a). During the development, a peak in expression around the hatching was observed for all six genes. Results suggest a high maternal expression of HoxA13a, and low for HoxA13ab. HoxD13a paralog exhibited the lowest expression: 0.0006-2.63 in tissues and 0.0005-1.7 during development, suggesting the possibility of a gradual loss of functionality. Expression of HoxC13 paralogs corroborates the findings in zebrafish: HoxC13b is maternally expressed and more important during the development. In adults, it was the opposite: expression was low for HoxC13b and very variable for HoxC13a (0.06-244.29). Differences in expression levels between both pairs of paralogs (Aa/Ab and Ca/Cb) indicate the possibility of the existence of some redundancy afforded by maintaining both paralogs. PMID:27476414

  15. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-01-01

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4–8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. PMID:26872772

  16. Evolutionary history and epigenetic regulation of the three paralogous pax7 genes in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Seiliez, Iban; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Marandel, Lucie; Gabillard, Jean-Charles; Biga, Peggy R.

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary muscle growth potential of teleost fish, particular those of the Salmoninae clade, elicits questions about how the relatively highly conserved transcription factors of the myogenic program are regulated. In addition, the pseudotetraploid nature of the salmonid genome adds another layer of regulatory complexity, and this must be reconciled with epigenetic data to better understand how these fish achieve lifelong muscle growth. To this end, we identified three paralogous pax7 genes (pax7a1, pax7a2, and pax7b) in the rainbow trout genome. During in vitro myogenesis, pax7a1 transcripts remain stable, while pax7a2 and pax7b mRNAs increase in abundance, similarly to myogenin mRNAs and in contrast to the expression pattern of the mammalian ortholog. In addition, we profiled the distribution of repressive H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 and permissive H3K4me3 marks during in vitro myogenesis across these loci, finding that pax7a2 expression was associated with decreased H3K27 trimethylation, while pax7b expression was correlated with decreased H3K9me3 and −K27me3. Altogether, these data link the highly unique differential expression of pax7 paralogs with epigenetic histone modifications in a vertebrate species displaying growth divergent from that of mammals and highlight an important divergence in the regulatory mechanisms of pax7 expression among vertebrates. The system described here provides a more comprehensive picture of the combinatorial control mechanisms orchestrating skeletal muscle growth in a salmonid, leading to a better understanding of myogenesis in this species and across Vertebrata more generally. PMID:25487404

  17. Recombineering-based dissection of flanking and paralogous Hox gene functions in mouse reproductive tracts.

    PubMed

    Raines, Anna M; Adam, Mike; Magella, Bliss; Meyer, Sara E; Grimes, H Leighton; Dey, Sudhansu K; Potter, S Steven

    2013-07-01

    Hox genes are key regulators of development. In mammals, the study of these genes is greatly confounded by their large number, overlapping functions and interspersed shared enhancers. Here, we describe the use of a novel recombineering strategy to introduce simultaneous frameshift mutations into the flanking Hoxa9, Hoxa10 and Hoxa11 genes, as well as their paralogs on the HoxD cluster. The resulting Hoxa9,10,11 mutant mice displayed dramatic synergistic homeotic transformations of the reproductive tracts, with the uterus anteriorized towards oviduct and the vas deferens anteriorized towards epididymis. The Hoxa9,10,11 mutant mice also provided a genetic setting that allowed the discovery of Hoxd9,10,11 redundant reproductive tract patterning function. Both shared and distinct Hox functions were defined. Hoxd9,10,11 play a crucial role in the regulation of uterine immune function. Non-coding non-polyadenylated RNAs were among the key Hox targets, with dramatic downregulation in mutants. We observed Hox cross-regulation of transcription and splicing. In addition, we observed a surprising anti-dogmatic apparent posteriorization of the uterine epithelium. In caudal regions of the uterus, the normal simple columnar epithelium flanking the lumen was replaced by a pseudostratified transitional epithelium, normally found near the more posterior cervix. These results identify novel molecular functions of Hox genes in the development of the male and female reproductive tracts.

  18. Differential deployment of paralogous Wnt genes in the mouse and chick embryo during development

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Audrey; Maher, Stephanie; Summerhurst, Kristen; Davidson, Duncan; Murphy, Paula

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Genes encoding Wnt ligands are crucial in body patterning and are highly conserved among metazoans. Given their conservation at the protein-coding level, it is likely that changes in where and when these genes are active are important in generating evolutionary variations. However, we lack detailed knowledge about how their deployment has diverged. Here, we focus on four Wnt subfamilies (Wnt2, Wnt5, Wnt7, and Wnt8) in mammalian and avian species, consisting of a paralogous gene pair in each, believed to have duplicated in the last common ancestor of vertebrates. We use three-dimensional imaging to capture expression patterns in detail and carry out systematic comparisons. We find evidence of greater divergence between these subgroup paralogues than the respective orthologues, consistent with some level of subfunctionalization/neofunctionalization in the common vertebrate ancestor that has been conserved. However, there were exceptions; in the case of chick Wnt2b, individual sites were shared with both mouse Wnt2 and Wnt2b. We also find greater divergence, between paralogues and orthologues, in some subfamilies (Wnt2 and Wnt8) compared to others (Wnt5 and Wnt7) with the more highly similar expression patterns showing more extensive expression in more structures in the embryo. Wnt8 genes were most restricted and most divergent. Major sites of expression for all subfamilies include CNS, limbs, and facial region, and in general there were more similarities in gene deployment in these territories with divergent patterns featuring more in organs such as heart and gut. A detailed comparison of gene expression patterns in the limb showed similarities in overall combined domains across species with notable differences that may relate to lineage-specific morphogenesis. PMID:23017026

  19. Exploiting a Reference Genome in Terms of Duplications: The Network of Paralogs and Single Copy Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sangiovanni, Mara; Vigilante, Alessandra; Chiusano, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana became the model organism for plant studies because of its small diploid genome, rapid lifecycle and short adult size. Its genome was the first among plants to be sequenced, becoming the reference in plant genomics. However, the Arabidopsis genome is characterized by an inherently complex organization, since it has undergone ancient whole genome duplications, followed by gene reduction, diploidization events and extended rearrangements, which relocated and split up the retained portions. These events, together with probable chromosome reductions, dramatically increased the genome complexity, limiting its role as a reference. The identification of paralogs and single copy genes within a highly duplicated genome is a prerequisite to understand its organization and evolution and to improve its exploitation in comparative genomics. This is still controversial, even in the widely studied Arabidopsis genome. This is also due to the lack of a reference bioinformatics pipeline that could exhaustively identify paralogs and singleton genes. We describe here a complete computational strategy to detect both duplicated and single copy genes in a genome, discussing all the methodological issues that may strongly affect the results, their quality and their reliability. This approach was used to analyze the organization of Arabidopsis nuclear protein coding genes, and besides classifying computationally defined paralogs into networks and single copy genes into different classes, it unraveled further intriguing aspects concerning the genome annotation and the gene relationships in this reference plant species. Since our results may be useful for comparative genomics and genome functional analyses, we organized a dedicated web interface to make them accessible to the scientific community.

  20. Orthologs and paralogs of regA, a master cell-type regulatory gene in Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Leonard; Nishii, Ichiro; Howard, Alicia; Kirk, David; Miller, Stephen M

    2006-07-01

    The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri forma nagariensis has only two cell types: terminally differentiated somatic cells and reproductive cells. The regA gene maintains the terminally differentiated state of the somatic cells, apparently by repressing transcription of genes required for chloroplast biogenesis and thereby preventing cell growth. Because the RegA protein sequence bore no obvious motifs, we are attempting to identify regions of functional importance by searching for strongly conserved domains in RegA orthologs. Here we report the cloning and characterization of regA from the most closely related known taxon, V. carteri f. kawasakiensis. Given the closeness of the relationship between these two formas, their regA genes are surprisingly different: they differ in the number of introns and by several lengthy indels, and they encode proteins that are only 80% identical. We also serendipitously discovered a paralogous gene immediately upstream of each regA locus. The two regA genes, both upstream paralogs and several genes in Chlamydomonas (the closest unicellular relative of Volvox) encode a conserved region (the VARL domain) that contains what appears to be a DNA-binding SAND domain. This discovery has opened up a new avenue for exploring how regA and the terminally differentiated state that it controls evolved. PMID:16622701

  1. Phylogenomics with paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Marc; Wieseke, Nicolas; Lechner, Marcus; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Middendorf, Martin; Stadler, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenomics heavily relies on well-curated sequence data sets that comprise, for each gene, exclusively 1:1 orthologos. Paralogs are treated as a dangerous nuisance that has to be detected and removed. We show here that this severe restriction of the data sets is not necessary. Building upon recent advances in mathematical phylogenetics, we demonstrate that gene duplications convey meaningful phylogenetic information and allow the inference of plausible phylogenetic trees, provided orthologs and paralogs can be distinguished with a degree of certainty. Starting from tree-free estimates of orthology, cograph editing can sufficiently reduce the noise to find correct event-annotated gene trees. The information of gene trees can then directly be translated into constraints on the species trees. Although the resolution is very poor for individual gene families, we show that genome-wide data sets are sufficient to generate fully resolved phylogenetic trees, even in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25646426

  2. All-or-(N)One - an epistemological characterization of the human tumorigenic neuronal paralogous FAM72 gene loci.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Arne; Pramanik, Subrata; Kim, Pok-Son; Heese, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    FAM72 is a novel neuronal progenitor cell (NPC) self-renewal supporting protein expressed under physiological conditions at low levels in other tissues. Accumulating data indicate the potential pivotal tumourigenic effects of FAM72. Our in silico human genome-wide analysis (GWA) revealed that the FAM72 gene family consists of four human-specific paralogous members, all of which are located on chromosome (chr) 1. Unique asymmetric FAM72 segmental gene duplications are most likely to have occurred in conjunction with the paired genomic neighbour SRGAP2 (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein), as both genes have four paralogues in humans but only one vertebra-emerging orthologue in all other species. No species with two or three FAM72/SRGAP2 gene pairs could be identified, and the four exclusively human-defining ohnologues, with different mutation patterns in Homo neanderthalensis and Denisova hominin, may remain under epigenetic control through long non-coding (lnc) RNAs. PMID:26206078

  3. The Paralogous Pairs of Genes Involved in Clavulanic Acid and Clavam Metabolite Biosynthesis Are Differently Regulated in Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Tahlan, Kapil; Anders, Cecilia; Jensen, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Carboxyethylarginine synthase, encoded by the paralogous ceaS1 and ceaS2 genes, catalyzes the first reaction in the shared biosynthetic pathway leading to clavulanic acid and the other clavam metabolites in Streptomyces clavuligerus. The nutritional regulation of ceaS1 and ceaS2 expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR and by the use of the enhanced green fluorescent protein-encoding gene (egfp) as a reporter. ceaS1 was transcribed in complex soy medium only, whereas ceaS2 was transcribed in both soy and defined starch-asparagine (SA) media. The transcriptional start points of the two genes were also mapped to a C residue 98 bp upstream of ceaS1 and a G residue 51 bp upstream of the ceaS2 start codon by S1 nuclease protection and primer extension analyses. Furthermore, transcriptional mapping of the genes encoding the beta-lactam synthetase (bls1) and proclavaminate amidinohydrolase (pah1) isoenzymes from the paralogue gene cluster indicated that a single polycistronic transcript of ∼4.9 kb includes ceaS1, bls1, and pah1. The expression of ceaS1 and ceaS2 in a mutant strain defective in the regulatory protein CcaR was also examined. ceaS1 transcription was not affected in the ccaR mutant, whereas that of ceaS2 was greatly reduced compared to the wild-type strain. Overall, our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in regulating the expression of ceaS1 and ceaS2, and presumably also of other paralogous genes that encode proteins involved in the early stages of clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:15342599

  4. Did Androgen-Binding Protein Paralogs Undergo Neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp Gene Region Expanded in the Mouse Genome?

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Robert C.; Chung, Amanda G.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1) no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2) substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3) that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution. PMID:25531410

  5. Divergent evolutionary and expression patterns between lineage specific new duplicate genes and their parental paralogs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2013-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the origination of functional novelties in organisms. We performed a comparative genome analysis to systematically estimate recent lineage specific gene duplication events in Arabidopsis thaliana and further investigate whether and how these new duplicate genes (NDGs) play a functional role in the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana. We accomplished this using syntenic relationship among four closely related species, A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella and Brassica rapa. We identified 100 NDGs, showing clear origination patterns, whose parental genes are located in syntenic regions and/or have clear orthologs in at least one of three outgroup species. All 100 NDGs were transcribed and under functional constraints, while 24% of the NDGs have differential expression patterns compared to their parental genes. We explored the underlying evolutionary forces of these paralogous pairs through conducting neutrality tests with sequence divergence and polymorphism data. Evolution of about 15% of NDGs appeared to be driven by natural selection. Moreover, we found that 3 NDGs not only altered their expression patterns when compared with parental genes, but also evolved under positive selection. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving the differential expression of NDGs and their parents, and found a number of NDGs had different cis-elements and methylation patterns from their parental genes. Overall, we demonstrated that NDGs acquired divergent cis-elements and methylation patterns and may experience sub-functionalization or neo-functionalization influencing the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana.

  6. Paralogs of Atlantic salmon myoblast determination factor genes are distinctly regulated in proliferating and differentiating myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Bower, Neil I; Johnston, Ian A

    2010-06-01

    The mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD1 (myoblast determination factor) gene paralogs, and their regulation by amino acids and insulin-like growth factors were investigated in primary cell cultures isolated from fast myotomal muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The cell cycle and S phase were determined as 28.1 and 13.3 h, respectively, at 18 degrees C. Expression of myoD1b and myoD1c peaked at 8 days of culture in the initial proliferation phase and then declined more than sixfold as cells differentiated and was correlated with PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression (R = 0.88, P < 0.0001; R = 0.70, P < 0.0001). In contrast, myoD1a transcripts increased from 2 to 8 days and remained at elevated levels as myotubes were formed. mRNA levels of myoD1c were, on average, 3.1- and 5.7-fold higher than myoD1a and myoD1b, respectively. Depriving cells of amino acids and serum led to a rapid increase in pax7 and a decrease in myoD1c and PCNA expression, indicating a transition to a quiescent state. In contrast, amino acid replacement in starved cells produced significant increases in myoD1c (at 6 h), PCNA (at 12 h), and myoD1b (at 24 h) and decreases in pax7 expression as cells entered the cell cycle. Our results are consistent with temporally distinct patterns of myoD1c and myoD1b expression at the G(1) and S/G(2) phases of the cell cycle. Treatment of starved cells with insulin-like growth factor I or II did not alter expression of the myoD paralogs. It was concluded that, in vitro, amino acids alone are sufficient to stimulate expression of genes regulating myogenesis in myoblasts involving autocrine/paracrine pathways. The differential responses of myoD paralogs during myotube maturation and amino acid treatments suggest that myoD1b and myoD1c are primarily expressed in proliferating cells and myoD1a in differentiating cells, providing evidence for their subfunctionalization following whole genome and local duplications in

  7. Enzymes Catalyzing the Early Steps of Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis Are Encoded by Two Sets of Paralogous Genes in Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Susan E.; Elder, Kenneth J.; Aidoo, Kwamena A.; Paradkar, Ashish S.

    2000-01-01

    Genes encoding the proteins required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis and for cephamycin biosynthesis are grouped into a “supercluster” in Streptomyces clavuligerus. Nine open reading frames (ORFs) associated with clavulanic acid biosynthesis were located in a 15-kb segment of the supercluster, including six ORFs encoding known biosynthetic enzymes or regulatory proteins, two ORFs that have been reported previously but whose involvement in clavulanic acid biosynthesis is unclear, and one ORF not previously reported. Evidence for the involvement of these ORFs in clavulanic acid production was obtained by generating mutants and showing that all were defective for clavulanic acid production when grown on starch asparagine medium. However, when five of the nine mutants, including mutants defective in known clavulanic acid biosynthetic enzymes, were grown in a soy-based medium, clavulanic acid-producing ability was restored. This ability to produce clavulanic acid when seemingly essential biosynthetic enzymes have been mutated suggests that paralogous genes encoding functionally equivalent proteins exist for each of the five genes but that these paralogues are expressed only in the soy-based medium. The five genes that have paralogues encode proteins involved in the early steps of the pathway common to the biosynthesis of both clavulanic acid and the other clavam metabolites produced by this organism. No evidence was seen for paralogues of the four remaining genes involved in late, clavulanic acid-specific steps in the pathway. PMID:10681345

  8. Evolution of plant RNA polymerase IV/V genes: evidence of subneofunctionalization of duplicated NRPD2/NRPE2-like paralogs in Viola (Violaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IV and V (Pol IV and V) are multi-subunit enzymes occurring in plants. The origin of Pol V, specific to angiosperms, from Pol IV, which is present in all land plants, is linked to the duplication of the gene encoding the largest subunit and the subsequent subneofunctionalization of the two paralogs (NRPD1 and NRPE1). Additional duplication of the second-largest subunit, NRPD2/NRPE2, has happened independently in at least some eudicot lineages, but its paralogs are often subject to concerted evolution and gene death and little is known about their evolution nor their affinity with Pol IV and Pol V. Results We sequenced a ~1500 bp NRPD2/E2-like fragment from 18 Viola species, mostly paleopolyploids, and 6 non-Viola Violaceae species. Incongruence between the NRPD2/E2-like gene phylogeny and species phylogeny indicates a first duplication of NRPD2 relatively basally in Violaceae, with subsequent sorting of paralogs in the descendants, followed by a second duplication in the common ancestor of Viola and Allexis. In Viola, the mutation pattern suggested (sub-) neofunctionalization of the two NRPD2/E2-like paralogs, NRPD2/E2-a and NRPD2/E2-b. The dN/dS ratios indicated that a 54 bp region exerted strong positive selection for both paralogs immediately following duplication. This 54 bp region encodes a domain that is involved in the binding of the Nrpd2 subunit with other Pol IV/V subunits, and may be important for correct recognition of subunits specific to Pol IV and Pol V. Across all Viola taxa 73 NRPD2/E2-like sequences were obtained, of which 23 (32%) were putative pseudogenes - all occurring in polyploids. The NRPD2 duplication was conserved in all lineages except the diploid MELVIO clade, in which NRPD2/E2-b was lost, and its allopolyploid derivates from hybridization with the CHAM clade, section Viola and section Melanium, in which NRPD2/E2-a occurred in multiple copies while NRPD2/E2-b paralogs were either absent or

  9. An Intronless β-amyrin Synthase Gene is More Efficient in Oleanolic Acid Accumulation than its Paralog in Gentiana straminea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Zhongjuan; Xue, Zheyong; Wang, Long; Cai, Yunfei; Wang, Peng; Wei, Tiandi; Gong, Jing; Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Juan; Li, Shuo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Paralogous members of the oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) family encode a diversity of enzymes that are important in triterpenoid biosynthesis. This report describes the isolation of the Gentiana straminea gene GsAS2 that encodes a β-amyrin synthase (βAS) enzyme. Unlike its previously isolated paralog GsAS1, GsAS2 lacks introns. Its predicted protein product was is a 759 residue polypeptide that shares high homology with other known β-amyrin synthases (βASs). Heterologously expressed GsAS2 generates more β-amyrin in yeast than does GsAS1. Constitutive over-expression of GsAS2 resulted in a 5.7 fold increase in oleanolic acid accumulation, while over-expression of GsAS1 led to a 3 fold increase. Additionally, RNAi-directed suppression of GsAS2 and GsAS1 in G. straminea decreased oleonolic acid levels by 65.9% and 21% respectively, indicating that GsAS2 plays a more important role than GsAS1 in oleanolic acid biosynthesis in G. straminea. We uses a docking model to explore the catalytic mechanism of GsAS1/2 and predicted that GsAS2, with its Y560, have higher efficiency than GsAS1 and mutated versions of GsAS2 in β-amyrin produce. When the key residue in GsAS2 was mutagenized, it produced about 41.29% and 71.15% less β-amyrin than native, while the key residue in GsAS1 was mutagenized to that in GsAS2, the mutant produced 38.02% more β-amyrin than native GsAS1. PMID:27624821

  10. An Intronless β-amyrin Synthase Gene is More Efficient in Oleanolic Acid Accumulation than its Paralog in Gentiana straminea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Zhongjuan; Xue, Zheyong; Wang, Long; Cai, Yunfei; Wang, Peng; Wei, Tiandi; Gong, Jing; Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Juan; Li, Shuo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Paralogous members of the oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) family encode a diversity of enzymes that are important in triterpenoid biosynthesis. This report describes the isolation of the Gentiana straminea gene GsAS2 that encodes a β-amyrin synthase (βAS) enzyme. Unlike its previously isolated paralog GsAS1, GsAS2 lacks introns. Its predicted protein product was is a 759 residue polypeptide that shares high homology with other known β-amyrin synthases (βASs). Heterologously expressed GsAS2 generates more β-amyrin in yeast than does GsAS1. Constitutive over-expression of GsAS2 resulted in a 5.7 fold increase in oleanolic acid accumulation, while over-expression of GsAS1 led to a 3 fold increase. Additionally, RNAi-directed suppression of GsAS2 and GsAS1 in G. straminea decreased oleonolic acid levels by 65.9% and 21% respectively, indicating that GsAS2 plays a more important role than GsAS1 in oleanolic acid biosynthesis in G. straminea. We uses a docking model to explore the catalytic mechanism of GsAS1/2 and predicted that GsAS2, with its Y560, have higher efficiency than GsAS1 and mutated versions of GsAS2 in β-amyrin produce. When the key residue in GsAS2 was mutagenized, it produced about 41.29% and 71.15% less β-amyrin than native, while the key residue in GsAS1 was mutagenized to that in GsAS2, the mutant produced 38.02% more β-amyrin than native GsAS1. PMID:27624821

  11. Difference in larval type explains patterns of nonsynonymous substitutions in two ancient paralogs of the histone H3 gene in sea stars.

    PubMed

    Foltz, David W; Mah, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    Paralogous genes frequently show differences in patterns and rates of substitution that are typically attributed to different selection regimes, mutation rates, or local recombination rates. Here, two anciently diverged paralogous copies of the histone H3 gene in sea stars, the tandem-repetitive early-stage gene and a newly isolated gene with lower copy number that was termed the "putative late-stage histone H3 gene" were analyzed in 69 species with varying mode of larval development. The two genes showed differences in relative copy number, overall substitution rates, nucleotide composition, and codon usage, but similar patterns of relative nonsynonymous substitution rates, when analyzed by the d(N)/d(S) ratio. Sea stars with a nonpelagic and nonfeeding larval type (i.e., brooding lineages) were observed to have d(N)/d(S) ratios that were larger than for nonbrooders but equal between the two paralogs. This finding suggested that demographic differences between brooding and nonbrooding lineages were responsible for the elevated d(N)/d(S) ratios observed for brooders and refuted a suggestion from a previous analysis of the early-stage gene that the excess nonsynonymous substitutions were due to either (1) gene expression differences at the larval stage between brooders and nonbrooders or (2) the highly repetitive structure of the early-stage histone H3 gene.

  12. Functional Studies of Heading Date-Related Gene TaPRR73, a Paralog of Ppd1 in Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenping; Zhao, Guangyao; Gao, Lifeng; Kong, Xiuying; Guo, Zhiai; Wu, Bihua; Jia, Jizeng

    2016-01-01

    Photoperiod response-related genes play a crucial role in duration of the plant growth. In this study, we focused on TaPRR73, a paralog of "Green Revolution" gene Ppd1 (TaPRR37). We found that overexpression of the truncated TaPRR73 form lacking part of the N-terminal PR domain in transgenic rice promoted heading under long day conditions. Association analysis in common wheat verified that TaPRR73 was an important agronomic photoperiod response gene that significantly affected heading date and plant height; expression analysis proved that specific alleles of TaPRR73-A1 had highly expressed levels in earlier heading lines; the distribution of haplotypes indicated that one of these alleles had been selected in breeding programs. Our results demonstrated that TaPRR73 contributed to regulation of heading date in wheat and could be useful in wheat breeding and in broadening adaptation of the crop to new regions. PMID:27313595

  13. Functional Studies of Heading Date-Related Gene TaPRR73, a Paralog of Ppd1 in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenping; Zhao, Guangyao; Gao, Lifeng; Kong, Xiuying; Guo, Zhiai; Wu, Bihua; Jia, Jizeng

    2016-01-01

    Photoperiod response-related genes play a crucial role in duration of the plant growth. In this study, we focused on TaPRR73, a paralog of “Green Revolution” gene Ppd1 (TaPRR37). We found that overexpression of the truncated TaPRR73 form lacking part of the N-terminal PR domain in transgenic rice promoted heading under long day conditions. Association analysis in common wheat verified that TaPRR73 was an important agronomic photoperiod response gene that significantly affected heading date and plant height; expression analysis proved that specific alleles of TaPRR73-A1 had highly expressed levels in earlier heading lines; the distribution of haplotypes indicated that one of these alleles had been selected in breeding programs. Our results demonstrated that TaPRR73 contributed to regulation of heading date in wheat and could be useful in wheat breeding and in broadening adaptation of the crop to new regions. PMID:27313595

  14. Gene conversion and DNA sequence polymorphism in the sex-determination gene fog-2 and its paralog ftr-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Rane, Hallie S; Smith, Jessica M; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Katju, Vaishali

    2010-07-01

    Gene conversion, a form of concerted evolution, bears enormous potential to shape the trajectory of sequence and functional divergence of gene paralogs subsequent to duplication events. fog-2, a sex-determination gene unique to Caenorhabditis elegans and implicated in the origin of hermaphroditism in this species, resulted from the duplication of ftr-1, an upstream gene of unknown function. Synonymous sequence divergence in regions of fog-2 and ftr-1 (excluding recent gene conversion tracts) suggests that the duplication occurred 46 million generations ago. Gene conversion between fog-2 and ftr-1 was previously discovered in experimental fog-2 knockout lines of C. elegans, whereby hermaphroditism was restored in mutant obligately outcrossing male-female populations. We analyzed DNA-sequence variation in fog-2 and ftr-1 within 40 isolates of C. elegans from diverse geographic locations in order to evaluate the contribution of gene conversion to genetic variation in the two gene paralogs. The analysis shows that gene conversion contributes significantly to DNA-sequence diversity in fog-2 and ftr-1 (22% and 34%, respectively) and may have the potential to alter sexual phenotypes in natural populations. A radical amino acid change in a conserved region of the F-box domain of fog-2 was found in natural isolates of C. elegans with significantly lower fecundity. We hypothesize that the lowered fecundity is due to reduced masculinization and less sperm production and that amino acid replacement substitutions and gene conversion in fog-2 may contribute significantly to variation in the degree of inbreeding and outcrossing in natural populations.

  15. Cytochrome P450 and actin genes expressed in Helicoverpa zea and Helicoverpa armigera: paralogy/orthology identification, gene conversion and evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Berenbaum, May R; Schuler, Mary A

    2002-03-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted using conserved cytoplasmic actin and diversified cytochrome P450 (P450) sequences isolated from Helicoverpa zea and Helicoverpa armigera, two species thought to be closely related based on allozyme analyses. These sequences were compared in turn with published sequences from other insects to gain insight into how different gene families evolve. In Bombyx mori and these Helicoverpa species, cytoplasmic actin genes are present as a pair of tandemly duplicated paralogs with coding sequence identities as high as 95.5% (B. mori), 98.9% (H. zea) and 98.5% (H. armigera) due to recent 5'-polar gene conversions. Phylogeny and interspecies comparisons assign the six actin genes into two orthologous groups: HaA3a/HzA3a/BmA3 and HaA3b/HzA3b/BmA4, which exhibit more similarities between H. zea and H. armigera than between Helicoverpa species and B. mori. Like the actin genes in H. zea, four CYP6B genes exist as two pairs of duplicated paralogs with recent 5'-polar gene conversions. Interspecific comparisons and phylogeny analysis identified three groups of orthologous CYP6B genes: H. zea CYP6B8 or CYP6B28/H. armigera CYP6B7, H. zea CYP6B27/H. armigera CYP6B6, and H. zea CYP6B9/H. armigera CYP6B2/Heliothis virescens CYP6B10. The low degree of divergence in the first two of these groups is comparable to allelic variation within a single species. These orthologous relationships and the high degrees of similarity in both actin and P450 genes strongly indicate that these Helicoverpa species are extremely closely related.

  16. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)1

    PubMed Central

    Stenger, Brianna L.S.; Clark, Mark E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W.; Dyer, Neil W.; Schultz, Jessie L.; McEvoy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89–95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73–5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50–4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships. PMID:25772204

  17. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus).

    PubMed

    Stenger, Brianna L S; Clark, Mark E; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W; Dyer, Neil W; Schultz, Jessie L; McEvoy, John M

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89-95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73-5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50-4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships.

  18. Paralogous origin of the red- and green-sensitive visual pigment genes in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S; Starmer, W T; Yokoyama, R

    1993-05-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the red-sensitive visual pigment gene, R007Af, in the fish Astyanax fasciatus, from the initiation codon to the stop codon of this gene, including introns, is 1,592 bp, making it the shortest visual pigment gene known in vertebrates. Analysis of this and other homologous sequence data suggests that vertebrates initially had two duplicate genes and that each ancestor of Astyanax, human, and chicken independently duplicated the gene in the process of developing their red-green color vision. Furthermore, many extant red-green colorblind organisms may be explained simply by the failure of achieving very specific nucleotide substitutions at the three codon positions 180, 277, and 285, rather than by the lack of duplicate loci. PMID:8336542

  19. Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Targeted Silencing of Two Paralogous ACC Oxidase Genes in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Kuan, Chi; Chiu, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Among 18 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase homologous genes existing in the banana genome there are two genes, Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, that participate in banana fruit ripening. To better understand the physiological functions of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, two hairpin-type siRNA expression vectors targeting both the Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 were constructed and incorporated into the banana genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The generation of Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. To gain insights into the functional diversity and complexity between Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2, transcriptome sequencing of banana fruits using the Illumina next-generation sequencer was performed. A total of 32,093,976 reads, assembled into 88,031 unigenes for 123,617 transcripts were obtained. Significantly enriched Gene Oncology (GO) terms and the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with GO annotation were ‘catalytic activity’ (1327, 56.4%), ‘heme binding’ (65, 2.76%), ‘tetrapyrrole binding’ (66, 2.81%), and ‘oxidoreductase activity’ (287, 12.21%). Real-time RT-PCR was further performed with mRNAs from both peel and pulp of banana fruits in Mh-ACO1 and Mh-ACO2 RNAi transgenic plants. The results showed that expression levels of genes related to ethylene signaling in ripening banana fruits were strongly influenced by the expression of genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27681726

  20. Cloning and characterization of the promoter regions from the parent and paralogous creatine transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Ndika, Joseph D T; Lusink, Vera; Beaubrun, Claudine; Kanhai, Warsha; Martinez-Munoz, Cristina; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2014-01-10

    Interconversion between phosphocreatine and creatine, catalyzed by creatine kinase is crucial in the supply of ATP to tissues with high energy demand. Creatine's importance has been established by its use as an ergogenic aid in sport, as well as the development of intellectual disability in patients with congenital creatine deficiency. Creatine biosynthesis is complemented by dietary creatine uptake. Intracellular transport of creatine is carried out by a creatine transporter protein (CT1/CRT/CRTR) encoded by the SLC6A8 gene. Most tissues express this gene, with highest levels detected in skeletal muscle and kidney. There are lower levels of the gene detected in colon, brain, heart, testis and prostate. The mechanism(s) by which this regulation occurs is still poorly understood. A duplicated unprocessed pseudogene of SLC6A8-SLC6A10P has been mapped to chromosome 16p11.2 (contains the entire SLC6A8 gene, plus 2293 bp of 5'flanking sequence and its entire 3'UTR). Expression of SLC6A10P has so far only been shown in human testis and brain. It is still unclear as to what is the function of SLC6A10P. In a patient with autism, a chromosomal breakpoint that intersects the 5'flanking region of SLC6A10P was identified; suggesting that SLC6A10P is a non-coding RNA involved in autism. Our aim was to investigate the presence of cis-acting factor(s) that regulate expression of the creatine transporter, as well as to determine if these factors are functionally conserved upstream of the creatine transporter pseudogene. Via gene-specific PCR, cloning and functional luciferase assays we identified a 1104 bp sequence proximal to the mRNA start site of the SLC6A8 gene with promoter activity in five cell types. The corresponding 5'flanking sequence (1050 bp) on the pseudogene also had promoter activity in all 5 cell lines. Surprisingly the pseudogene promoter was stronger than that of its parent gene in 4 of the cell lines tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first

  1. Expression profile of IGF paralog genes in liver and muscle of a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between IGFs produced in the liver and skeletal muscle with muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a line of GH-transgenic zebrafish. In this sense, we evaluated the expression of genes related to the IGF system in liver and muscle of transgenics, as well as the main intracellular signaling pathways used by GH/IGF axis. Our results showed an increase in expression of igf1a, igf2a, and igf2b genes in the liver. Moreover, there was a decrease in the expression of igf1ra and an increase in muscle igf2r of transgenics, indicating a negative response of muscle tissue with respect to excess circulating IGFs. Muscle IGFs expression analyses revealed a significant increase only for igf2b, accompanied by a parallel induction of igfbp5a gene. The presence of IGFBP5a may potentiate the IGF2 action in muscle cells differentiation. Regarding JAK/STAT-related genes, we observed an alteration in the expression profile of both stat3 and stat5a in transgenic fish liver. No changes were observed in the muscle, suggesting that both tissues respond differently to GH-transgenesis. Western blotting analyses indicated an imbalance between the phosphorylation levels of the proliferative (MEK/ERK) and hypertrophic (PI3K/Akt) pathways, in favor of the latter. In summary, the results of this study suggest that the hypertrophy caused by GH-transgenesis in zebrafish may be due to circulating IGFs produced by the liver, with an important participation of muscle IGF2b. This group of IGFs appears to be favoring the hypertrophic intracellular pathway in muscle tissue of transgenic zebrafish.

  2. Expression profile of IGF paralog genes in liver and muscle of a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between IGFs produced in the liver and skeletal muscle with muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a line of GH-transgenic zebrafish. In this sense, we evaluated the expression of genes related to the IGF system in liver and muscle of transgenics, as well as the main intracellular signaling pathways used by GH/IGF axis. Our results showed an increase in expression of igf1a, igf2a, and igf2b genes in the liver. Moreover, there was a decrease in the expression of igf1ra and an increase in muscle igf2r of transgenics, indicating a negative response of muscle tissue with respect to excess circulating IGFs. Muscle IGFs expression analyses revealed a significant increase only for igf2b, accompanied by a parallel induction of igfbp5a gene. The presence of IGFBP5a may potentiate the IGF2 action in muscle cells differentiation. Regarding JAK/STAT-related genes, we observed an alteration in the expression profile of both stat3 and stat5a in transgenic fish liver. No changes were observed in the muscle, suggesting that both tissues respond differently to GH-transgenesis. Western blotting analyses indicated an imbalance between the phosphorylation levels of the proliferative (MEK/ERK) and hypertrophic (PI3K/Akt) pathways, in favor of the latter. In summary, the results of this study suggest that the hypertrophy caused by GH-transgenesis in zebrafish may be due to circulating IGFs produced by the liver, with an important participation of muscle IGF2b. This group of IGFs appears to be favoring the hypertrophic intracellular pathway in muscle tissue of transgenic zebrafish. PMID:26718079

  3. Identification of target genes for a prolactin family paralog in mouse decidua.

    PubMed

    Alam, S M Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Soares, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Prolactin family 8, subfamily a, member 2 (PRL8A2; also called decidual prolactin-related protein; dPRP) is a member of the expanded prolactin family. PRL8A2 is expressed in the uterine decidua and contributes to pregnancy-dependent adaptations to hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to identify gene targets for PRL8A2 action within the uteroplacental compartment. Affymetrix DNA microarray analysis was performed for RNA samples from WT and Prl8a2 null tissues. Validation of the DNA microarray was performed using quantitative RT-PCR. Nine genes were confirmed with decreased expression in Prl8a2 null tissues (e.g., Klk7, Rimklb, Arhgef6, Calm4, Sprr2h, Prl4a1, Ccl27, Lipg, and Htra3). These include potential decidual, endothelial and trophoblast cell targets positively regulated by PRL8A2. A significant upregulation of Derl3, Herpud1, Creld2, Hsp90b1, Ddit3 and Hspa5 was identified in Prl8a2 null tissues, reflecting an increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress genes were prominently expressed in the uterine decidua. We propose that PRL8A2 is a mediator of progesterone-dependent modulation of intrauterine responses to physiological stressors.

  4. Temporal expression analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi paralogous gene family 54 genes BBA64, BBA65, and BBA66 during persistent infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Robert D; Howison, Rebekah R; Schmit, Virginia L; Nowalk, Andrew J; Clifton, Dawn R; Nolder, Christi; Hughes, Jessica L; Carroll, James A

    2007-06-01

    Members of the Borrelia burgdorferi paralogous gene family 54 (pgf 54) are regulated by conditions simulating mammalian infection and are thought to be instrumental in borrelial host survival and pathogenesis. To explore the activities of these genes in vivo, a comprehensive analysis of pgf 54 genes BBA64, BBA65, and BBA66 was performed to assess the genetic stability, host antibody responses, and kinetics of gene expression in the murine model of persistent infection. DNA sequencing of pgf 54 genes obtained from re-isolates at 1 year postinfection demonstrated that all genes of this family are stable and do not undergo recombination to generate variant antigens during persistent infection. Antibodies against BBA64 and BBA66 appeared soon after infection and were detectable throughout the infection, suggesting that there was gene expression during infection. However, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that BBA64 gene expression was considerably decreased in Borrelia residing in the mouse ear tissue compared to the expression in cultured spirochetes by 20 days postinfection and that the levels of expression remained low throughout the infection. Conversely, transcription of the BBA65 and BBA66 genes was increased, and both of these genes were continuously expressed until 100 days postinfection; this was followed by periods of differential expression late in infection. The expression profile of the BBA64 gene suggests that this gene has an important role during tick-to-host transmission and early infection, whereas the expression profile of the BBA65 and BBA66 genes suggests that these genes have a role in persistent infection. The differential regulation of pgf 54 genes observed during infection may help confer a survival advantage during persistent infection, influencing mechanisms for B. burgdorferi dissemination, tissue tropism, or evasion of the adaptive immune response. PMID:17371862

  5. Characterization of two paralogous StAR genes in a teleost, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiangguo; Wu, Limin; Xie, Lang; Yang, Shijie; Charkraborty, Tapas; Shi, Hongjuan; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

    2014-07-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports cholesterol, the substrate for steroid synthesis, to the inner membranes of mitochondria. It is well known that estrogen is essential for female sex determination/differentiation in fish. However, no reports showed that the conventional StAR, which was supposed to be essential for estrogen production, was expressed in female gonads during the critical timing of sex determination/differentiation. In this study, two different StAR isoforms, named as StAR1 and StAR2, were characterized from the gonads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Phylogenetic and synteny analysis revealed that two StAR genes existed in teleosts, Xenopus and chicken indicating that the duplication event occurred before the divergence of teleosts and tetrapods. Real-time PCR revealed that StAR1 was dominantly expressed in the testis, head kidney and kidney; while StAR2 was expressed exclusively in the gonads. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that StAR1 was expressed in the interrenal cells of the head kidney and Leydig cells of the testis; while StAR2 was expressed in the Leydig cells of the testis and the interstitial cells of the ovary. Ontogenic analysis demonstrated that StAR2 was expressed abundantly from 5 days after hatching (dah) in the somatic cells in XX gonads, whereas in XY gonads, both StARs could be detected from 30 dah until adulthood. Intraperitoneal injection of human chorionic gonadotropin experiments showed that expression of StAR1 and 2 was significantly elevated at 8h and persisted until 24h after injection in the testis. Taken together, our data suggested that StAR1 is likely to be required for cortisol production in the head kidney, and StAR2 is probably involved in estrogen production during early sex differentiation in XX gonads. In contrast, both StARs might be required for androgen production in testes. For the first time, our data demonstrated that two fish StARs might be involved

  6. Functional Diversification after Gene Duplication: Paralog Specific Regions of Structural Disorder and Phosphorylation in p53, p63, and p73

    PubMed Central

    Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Conformational and functional flexibility promote protein evolvability. High evolvability allows related proteins to functionally diverge and perhaps to neostructuralize. p53 is a multifunctional protein frequently referred to as the Guardian of the Genome–a hub for e.g. incoming and outgoing signals in apoptosis and DNA repair. p53 has been found to be structurally disordered, an extreme form of conformational flexibility. Here, p53, and its paralogs p63 and p73, were studied for further insights into the evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder, secondary structure, and phosphorylation. This study is focused on the post gene duplication phase for the p53 family in vertebrates, but also visits the origin of the protein family and the early domain loss and gain events. Functional divergence, measured by rapid evolutionary dynamics of protein domains, structural properties, and phosphorylation propensity, is inferred across vertebrate p53 proteins, in p63 and p73 from fish, and between the three paralogs. In particular, structurally disordered regions are redistributed among paralogs, but within clades redistribution of structural disorder also appears to be an ongoing process. Despite its deemed importance as the Guardian of the Genome, p53 is indeed a protein with high evolvability as seen not only in rearranged structural disorder, but also in fluctuating domain sequence signatures among lineages. PMID:27003913

  7. Are solar UV-B- and UV-A-dependent gene expression and metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis mediated by the stress response regulator RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1?

    PubMed

    Morales, Luis O; Brosché, Mikael; Vainonen, Julia P; Sipari, Nina; Lindfors, Anders V; Strid, Åke; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2015-05-01

    Wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the solar spectrum, UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm), are key environmental signals modifying several aspects of plant physiology. Despite significant advances in the understanding of plant responses to UV-B and the identification of signalling components involved, there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms that control UV-B signalling in plants under natural sunlight. Here, we aimed to corroborate the previous suggested role for RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) in UV-B signalling under full spectrum sunlight. Wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the rcd1-1 mutant were used in an experimental design outdoors where UV-B and UV-A irradiances were manipulated using plastic films, and gene expression, PYRIDOXINE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PDX1) accumulation and metabolite profiles were analysed in the leaves. At the level of transcription, RCD1 was not directly involved in the solar UV-B regulation of genes with functions in UV acclimation, hormone signalling and stress-related markers. Furthermore, RCD1 had no role on PDX1 accumulation but modulated the UV-B induction of flavonoid accumulation in leaves of Arabidopsis exposed to solar UV. We conclude that RCD1 does not play an active role in UV-B signalling but rather modulates UV-B responses under full spectrum sunlight.

  8. Positive selection and functional divergence of R2R3-MYB paralogous genes expressed in inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Pang, Erli; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cao, Huifen; Ruan, Yu; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2015-03-13

    Anthocyanin is the main pigment forming floral diversity. Several transcription factors that regulate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes belong to the R2R3-MYB family. Here we examined the transcriptomes of inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (skullcaps), identified the expression R2R3-MYBs, and detected the genetic signatures of positive selection for adaptive divergence across the rapidly evolving skullcaps. In the inflorescence buds, seven R2R3-MYBs were identified. MYB11 and MYB16 were detected to be positively selected. The signature of positive selection on MYB genes indicated that species diversification could be affected by transcriptional regulation, rather than at the translational level. When comparing among the background lineages of Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, and Amborella, heterogeneous evolutionary rates were detected among MYB paralogs, especially between MYB13 and MYB19. Significantly different evolutionary rates were also evidenced by type-I functional divergence between MYB13 and MYB19, and the accelerated evolutionary rates in MYB19, implied the acquisition of novel functions. Another paralogous pair, MYB2/7 and MYB11, revealed significant radical amino acid changes, indicating divergence in the regulation of different anthocyanin-biosynthetic enzymes. Our findings not only showed that Scutellaria R2R3-MYBs are functionally divergent and positively selected, but also indicated the adaptive relevance of regulatory genes in floral diversification.

  9. Zinc Finger Domain of the PRDM9 Gene on Chromosome 1 Exhibits High Diversity in Ruminants but Its Paralog PRDM7 Contains Multiple Disruptive Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Priyanka; Sharma, Rekha; Arora, Reena; De, Sachinandan

    2016-01-01

    PRDM9 is the sole hybrid sterility gene identified so far in vertebrates. PRDM9 gene encodes a protein with an immensely variable zinc-finger (ZF) domain that determines the site of meiotic recombination hotspots genome-wide. In this study, the terminal ZF domain of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 1 and its paralog on chromosome 22 were characterized in 225 samples from five ruminant species (cattle, yak, mithun, sheep and goat). We found extraordinary variation in the number of PRDM9 zinc fingers (6 to 12). We sequenced PRDM9 ZF encoding region from 15 individuals (carrying the same ZF number in both copies) and found 43 different ZF domain sequences. Ruminant zinc fingers of PRDM9 were found to be diversifying under positive selection and concerted evolution, specifically at positions involved in defining their DNA-binding specificity, consistent with the reports from other vertebrates such as mice, humans, equids and chimpanzees. ZF-encoding regions of the PRDM7, a paralog of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 22 and on unknown chromosomes in other studied species were found to contain 84 base repeat units as in PRDM9, but there were multiple disruptive mutations after the first repeat unit. The diversity of the ZFs suggests that PRDM9 may activate recombination hotspots that are largely unique to each ruminant species. PMID:27203728

  10. Zinc Finger Domain of the PRDM9 Gene on Chromosome 1 Exhibits High Diversity in Ruminants but Its Paralog PRDM7 Contains Multiple Disruptive Mutations.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Priyanka; Sharma, Rekha; Arora, Reena; De, Sachinandan

    2016-01-01

    PRDM9 is the sole hybrid sterility gene identified so far in vertebrates. PRDM9 gene encodes a protein with an immensely variable zinc-finger (ZF) domain that determines the site of meiotic recombination hotspots genome-wide. In this study, the terminal ZF domain of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 1 and its paralog on chromosome 22 were characterized in 225 samples from five ruminant species (cattle, yak, mithun, sheep and goat). We found extraordinary variation in the number of PRDM9 zinc fingers (6 to 12). We sequenced PRDM9 ZF encoding region from 15 individuals (carrying the same ZF number in both copies) and found 43 different ZF domain sequences. Ruminant zinc fingers of PRDM9 were found to be diversifying under positive selection and concerted evolution, specifically at positions involved in defining their DNA-binding specificity, consistent with the reports from other vertebrates such as mice, humans, equids and chimpanzees. ZF-encoding regions of the PRDM7, a paralog of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 22 and on unknown chromosomes in other studied species were found to contain 84 base repeat units as in PRDM9, but there were multiple disruptive mutations after the first repeat unit. The diversity of the ZFs suggests that PRDM9 may activate recombination hotspots that are largely unique to each ruminant species. PMID:27203728

  11. Evolution of the actin gene family in testate lobose amoebae (Arcellinida) is characterized by two distinct clades of paralogs and recent independent expansions.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Nguyen, Truc B; Barbero, Erika; Katz, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of actin gene families is characterized by independent expansions and contractions across the eukaryotic tree of life. Here, we assess diversity of actin gene sequences within three lineages of the genus Arcella, a free-living testate (shelled) amoeba in the Arcellinida. We established four clonal lines of two morphospecies, Arcella hemisphaerica and A. vulgaris, and assessed their phylogenetic relationship within the "Amoebozoa" using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA) genealogy. We determined that the two lines of A. hemisphaerica are identical in SSU-rDNA, while the two A. vulgaris are independent genetic lineages. Furthermore, we characterized multiple actin gene copies from all lineages. Analyses of the resulting sequences reveal numerous diverse actin genes, which differ mostly by synonymous substitutions. We estimate that the actin gene family contains 40-50 paralogous members in each lineage. None of the three independent lineages share the same paralog with another, and divergence between actins reaches 29% in contrast to just 2% in SSU-rDNA. Analyses of effective number of codons (ENC), compositional bias, recombination signatures, and genetic diversity in the context of a gene tree indicate that there are two groups of actins evolving with distinct patterns of molecular evolution. Within these groups, there have been multiple independent expansions of actin genes within each lineage. Together, these data suggest that the two groups are located in different regions of the Arcella genome. Furthermore, we compare the Arcella actin gene family with the relatively well-described gene family in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and other members of the Amoebozoa clade. Overall patterns of molecular evolution are similar in Arcella and Dictyostelium. However, the separation of genes in two distinct groups coupled with recent expansion is characteristic of Arcella and might reflect an unusual pattern of gene family evolution in the lobose

  12. Evolution of the Actin Gene Family in Testate Lobose Amoebae (Arcellinida) is Characterized by Two Distinct Clades of Paralogs and Recent Independent Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Nguyen, Truc B.; Barbero, Erika; Katz, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of actin gene families is characterized by independent expansions and contractions across the eukaryotic tree of life. Here, we assess diversity of actin gene sequences within three lineages of the genus Arcella, a free-living testate (shelled) amoeba in the Arcellinida. We established four clonal lines of two morphospecies, Arcella hemisphaerica and A. vulgaris, and assessed their phylogenetic relationship within the “Amoebozoa” using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA) genealogy. We determined that the two lines of A. hemisphaerica are identical in SSU-rDNA, while the two A. vulgaris are independent genetic lineages. Furthermore, we characterized multiple actin gene copies from all lineages. Analyses of the resulting sequences reveal numerous diverse actin genes, which differ mostly by synonymous substitutions. We estimate that the actin gene family contains 40–50 paralogous members in each lineage. None of the three independent lineages share the same paralog with another, and divergence between actins reaches 29% in contrast to just 2% in SSU-rDNA. Analyses of effective number of codons (ENC), compositional bias, recombination signatures, and genetic diversity in the context of a gene tree indicate that there are two groups of actins evolving with distinct patterns of molecular evolution. Within these groups, there have been multiple independent expansions of actin genes within each lineage. Together, these data suggest that the two groups are located in different regions of the Arcella genome. Furthermore, we compare the Arcella actin gene family with the relatively well-described gene family in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and other members of the Amoebozoa clade. Overall patterns of molecular evolution are similar in Arcella and Dictyostelium. However, the separation of genes in two distinct groups coupled with recent expansion is characteristic of Arcella and might reflect an unusual pattern of gene family evolution in the

  13. Comparison of orthologous and paralogous DNA flanking the wheat high molecular weight glutenin genes: sequence conservation and divergence, transposon distribution, and matrix-attachment regions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O D; Larka, L; Christoffers, M J; McCue, K F; Gustafson, J P

    2002-04-01

    Extended flanking DNA sequences were characterized for five members of the wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin gene family to understand more of the structure, control, and evolution of these genes. Analysis revealed more sequence conservation among orthologous regions than between paralogous regions, with differences mainly owing to transposition events involving putative retrotransposons and several miniature inverted transposable elements (MITEs). Both gyspy-like long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposon sequences are represented in the flanking DNAs. One of the MITEs is a novel class, but another MITE is related to the maize Stowaway family and is widely represented in Triticeae express sequence tags (ESTs). Flanking DNA of the longest sequence, a 20 425-bp fragment including and surrounding the HMW-glutenin Bx7 gene, showed additional cereal gene-like sequences both immediately 5' and 3' to the HMW-glutenin coding region. The transcriptional activities of sequences related to these flanking putative genes and the retrotransposon-related regions were indicated by matches to wheat and other Triticeae ESTs. Predictive analysis of matrix-attachment regions (MARs) of the HMW glutenin and several alpha-, gamma-, and omega-gliadin flanking DNAs indicate potential MARs immediately flanking each of the genes. Matrix binding activity in the predicted regions was confirmed for two of the HMW-glutenin genes.

  14. Clusters of ancestrally related genes that show paralogy in whole or in part are a major feature of the genomes of humans and other species.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael B; King, Benjamin L; Paigen, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Arrangements of genes along chromosomes are a product of evolutionary processes, and we can expect that preferable arrangements will prevail over the span of evolutionary time, often being reflected in the non-random clustering of structurally and/or functionally related genes. Such non-random arrangements can arise by two distinct evolutionary processes: duplications of DNA sequences that give rise to clusters of genes sharing both sequence similarity and common sequence features and the migration together of genes related by function, but not by common descent. To provide a background for distinguishing between the two, which is important for future efforts to unravel the evolutionary processes involved, we here provide a description of the extent to which ancestrally related genes are found in proximity.Towards this purpose, we combined information from five genomic datasets, InterPro, SCOP, PANTHER, Ensembl protein families, and Ensembl gene paralogs. The results are provided in publicly available datasets (http://cgd.jax.org/datasets/clustering/paraclustering.shtml) describing the extent to which ancestrally related genes are in proximity beyond what is expected by chance (i.e. form paraclusters) in the human and nine other vertebrate genomes, as well as the D. melanogaster, C. elegans, A. thaliana, and S. cerevisiae genomes. With the exception of Saccharomyces, paraclusters are a common feature of the genomes we examined. In the human genome they are estimated to include at least 22% of all protein coding genes. Paraclusters are far more prevalent among some gene families than others, are highly species or clade specific and can evolve rapidly, sometimes in response to environmental cues. Altogether, they account for a large portion of the functional clustering previously reported in several genomes.

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) Genes in Plants Reveals the Eudicot-Wide PDAT Gene Expansion and Altered Selective Pressures Acting on the Core Eudicot PDAT Paralogs1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Peng, Fred Y.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a fatty acyl moiety from the sn-2 position of a phospholipid to the sn-3-position of sn-1,2-diacylglyerol, thus forming triacylglycerol and a lysophospholipid. Although the importance of PDAT in triacylglycerol biosynthesis has been illustrated in some previous studies, the evolutionary relationship of plant PDATs has not been studied in detail. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary relationship of the PDAT gene family across the green plants using a comparative phylogenetic framework. We found that the PDAT candidate genes are present in all examined green plants, including algae, lowland plants (a moss and a lycophyte), monocots, and eudicots. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the evolutionary division of the PDAT gene family into seven major clades. The separation is supported by the conservation and variation in the gene structure, protein properties, motif patterns, and/or selection constraints. We further demonstrated that there is a eudicot-wide PDAT gene expansion, which appears to have been mainly caused by the eudicot-shared ancient gene duplication and subsequent species-specific segmental duplications. In addition, selection pressure analyses showed that different selection constraints have acted on three core eudicot clades, which might enable paleoduplicated PDAT paralogs to either become nonfunctionalized or develop divergent expression patterns during evolution. Overall, our study provides important insights into the evolution of the plant PDAT gene family and explores the evolutionary mechanism underlying the functional diversification among the core eudicot PDAT paralogs. PMID:25585619

  16. Multiple Genome Comparison within a Bacterial Species Reveals a Unit of Evolution Spanning Two Adjacent Genes in a Tandem Paralog Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Tsuru, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    It has been assumed that an open reading frame (ORF) represents a unit of gene evolution as well as a unit of gene expression and function. In the present work, we report a case in which a unit comprising the 3′ region of an ORF linked to a downstream intergenic region that is in turn linked to the 5′ region of a downstream ORF has been conserved, and has served as the unit of gene evolution. The genes are tandem paralogous genes from the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, for which more than ten entire genomes have been sequenced. We compared these multiple genome sequences at a locus for the lpl (lipoprotein-like) cluster (encoding lipoprotein homologs presumably related to their host interaction) in the genomic island termed νSaα. A highly conserved nucleotide sequence found within every lpl ORF is likely to provide a site for homologous recombination. Comparison of phylogenies of the 5′-variable region and the 3′-variable region within the same ORF revealed significant incongruence. In contrast, pairs of the 3′-variable region of an ORF and the 5′-variable region of the next downstream ORF gave more congruent phylogenies, with distinct groups of conserved pairs. The intergenic region seemed to have coevolved with the flanking variable regions. Multiple recombination events at the central conserved region appear to have caused various types of rearrangements among strains, shuffling the two variable regions in one ORF, but maintaining a conserved unit comprising the 3′-variable region, the intergenic region, and the 5′-variable region spanning adjacent ORFs. This result has strong impact on our understanding of gene evolution because most gene lineages underwent tandem duplication and then diversified. This work also illustrates the use of multiple genome sequences for high-resolution evolutionary analysis within the same species. PMID:18765438

  17. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers.

    PubMed

    Acri-Nunes-Miranda, Roberta; Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS- and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The "orchid code" model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG-, and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. "Athens." The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no evidence for

  18. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers

    PubMed Central

    Acri-Nunes-Miranda, Roberta; Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS- and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The “orchid code” model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG-, and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. “Athens.” The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no

  19. CHD5, a brain-specific paralog of Mi2 chromatin remodeling enzymes, regulates expression of neuronal genes.

    PubMed

    Potts, Rebecca Casaday; Zhang, Peisu; Wurster, Andrea L; Precht, Patricia; Mughal, Mohamed R; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P; Pazin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    CHD5 is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma and is a tumor suppressor gene. However, little is known about the role of CHD5 other than it is homologous to chromatin remodeling ATPases. We found CHD5 mRNA was restricted to the brain; by contrast, most remodeling ATPases were broadly expressed. CHD5 protein isolated from mouse brain was associated with HDAC2, p66ß, MTA3 and RbAp46 in a megadalton complex. CHD5 protein was detected in several rat brain regions and appeared to be enriched in neurons. CHD5 protein was predominantly nuclear in primary rat neurons and brain sections. Microarray analysis revealed genes that were upregulated and downregulated when CHD5 was depleted from primary neurons. CHD5 depletion altered expression of neuronal genes, transcription factors, and brain-specific subunits of the SWI/SNF remodeling enzyme. Expression of gene sets linked to aging and Alzheimer's disease were strongly altered by CHD5 depletion from primary neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed CHD5 bound to these genes, suggesting the regulation was direct. Together, these results indicate that CHD5 protein is found in a NuRD-like multi-protein complex. CHD5 expression is restricted to the brain, unlike the closely related family members CHD3 and CHD4. CHD5 regulates expression of neuronal genes, cell cycle genes and remodeling genes. CHD5 is linked to regulation of genes implicated in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. CHD5, a Brain-Specific Paralog of Mi2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes, Regulates Expression of Neuronal Genes

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Rebecca Casaday; Zhang, Peisu; Wurster, Andrea L.; Precht, Patricia; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Pazin, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    CHD5 is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma and is a tumor suppressor gene. However, little is known about the role of CHD5 other than it is homologous to chromatin remodeling ATPases. We found CHD5 mRNA was restricted to the brain; by contrast, most remodeling ATPases were broadly expressed. CHD5 protein isolated from mouse brain was associated with HDAC2, p66ß, MTA3 and RbAp46 in a megadalton complex. CHD5 protein was detected in several rat brain regions and appeared to be enriched in neurons. CHD5 protein was predominantly nuclear in primary rat neurons and brain sections. Microarray analysis revealed genes that were upregulated and downregulated when CHD5 was depleted from primary neurons. CHD5 depletion altered expression of neuronal genes, transcription factors, and brain-specific subunits of the SWI/SNF remodeling enzyme. Expression of gene sets linked to aging and Alzheimer's disease were strongly altered by CHD5 depletion from primary neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed CHD5 bound to these genes, suggesting the regulation was direct. Together, these results indicate that CHD5 protein is found in a NuRD-like multi-protein complex. CHD5 expression is restricted to the brain, unlike the closely related family members CHD3 and CHD4. CHD5 regulates expression of neuronal genes, cell cycle genes and remodeling genes. CHD5 is linked to regulation of genes implicated in aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21931736

  1. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sellem, Carole H.; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H.; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8–15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before. PMID:27442014

  2. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Sellem, Carole H; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-07-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8-15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before.

  3. Fast protein evolution and germ line expression of a Drosophila parental gene and its young retroposed paralog.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Esther; Bai, Yongsheng; Motiwale, Mansi

    2006-11-01

    This is the first detailed study of the evolution, phylogenetic distribution, and transcription of one young retroposed gene, CG13732, and its parental gene CG15645, whose functions are unknown. CG13732 is a recognizable retroposed copy of CG15645 retaining the signals of this process. We name the parental gene Cervantes and the retrogene Quijote. To determine when this duplication occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of Quijote, we employed polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and the available information on sequenced Drosophila genomes. Interestingly, these analyses revealed that Quijote is present only in 4 species of Drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana) and that retroposed copies of Cervantes have also originated in the lineages leading to Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila erecta independently in the 3 instances. We name the new retrogene in the D. yakuba lineage Rocinante and the new retrogene in the D. erecta lineage Sancho. In this work, we present data on Quijote and its parental gene Cervantes. Polymorphism analysis of the derived gene and divergence data for both parental and derived genes were used to determine that both genes likely produce functional proteins and that they are changing at a fast rate (KA/KS approximately 0.38). The negative value of H of Fay and Wu in the non-African sample reveals an excess of derived variants at high frequency. This could be explained either by positive selection in the region or by demographic effects. The comparative expression pattern shows that both genes express in the same adult tissues (male and female germ line) in D. melanogaster. Quijote is also expressed in male and female in D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. We argue that the fast rate of evolution of these genes could be related to their putative germ line function and are further studying the independent recruitment of Cervantes-derived retrogenes in

  4. Origin and evolution of paralogous rRNA gene clusters within the flatworm family Dugesiidae (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Carranza, S; Baguñà, J; Riutort, M

    1999-08-01

    Analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences of five species of the family Dugesiidae (phylum Platyhelminthes, suborder Tricladida, infraorder Paludicola) and eight species belonging to families Dendrocoelidae and Planaridae and to the infraorder Maricola showed that members of the family Dugesiidae have two types of 18S rDNA genes, while the rest of the species have only one. The duplication event also affected the ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 region and probably the 28S gene. The mean divergence value between the type I and the type II sequences is 9% and type II 18S rDNA genes are evolving 2.3 times more rapidly than type I. The evolutionary rates of type I and type II genes were calibrated from biogeographical data, and an approximate date for the duplication event of 80-120 million years ago was calculated. The type II gene was shown, by RT-PCR, to be transcribed in adult individuals of Schmidtea polychroa, though at very low levels. This result, together with the fact that most of the functionally important positions for small-subunit rRNA in prokaryotes have been conserved, indicates that the type II gene is probably functional.

  5. Similar but not the same: insights into the evolutionary history of paralogous sex-determining genes of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea.

    PubMed

    Biewer, M; Lechner, S; Hasselmann, M

    2016-01-01

    Studying the fate of duplicated genes provides informative insight into the evolutionary plasticity of biological pathways to which they belong. In the paralogous sex-determining genes complementary sex determiner (csd) and feminizer (fem) of honey bee species (genus Apis), only heterozygous csd initiates female development. Here, the full-length coding sequences of the genes csd and fem of the phylogenetically basal dwarf honey bee Apis florea are characterized. Compared with other Apis species, remarkable evolutionary changes in the formation and localization of a protein-interacting (coiled-coil) motif and in the amino acids coding for the csd characteristic hypervariable region (HVR) are observed. Furthermore, functionally different csd alleles were isolated as genomic fragments from a random population sample. In the predicted potential specifying domain (PSD), a high ratio of πN/πS=1.6 indicated positive selection, whereas signs of balancing selection, commonly found in other Apis species, are missing. Low nucleotide diversity on synonymous and genome-wide, non-coding sites as well as site frequency analyses indicated a strong impact of genetic drift in A. florea, likely linked to its biology. Along the evolutionary trajectory of ~30 million years of csd evolution, episodic diversifying selection seems to have acted differently among distinct Apis branches. Consistently low amino-acid differences within the PSD among pairs of functional heterozygous csd alleles indicate that the HVR is the most important region for determining allele specificity. We propose that in the early history of the lineage-specific fem duplication giving rise to csd in Apis, A. florea csd stands as a remarkable example for the plasticity of initial sex-determining signals. PMID:26153222

  6. EPGD: a comprehensive web resource for integrating and displaying eukaryotic paralog/paralogon information.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guohui; Sun, Yan; Li, Hong; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Haiwei; Wang, Chuan; Yang, Dan; Li, Yixue

    2008-01-01

    Gene duplication is common in all three domains of life, especially in eukaryotic genomes. The duplicates provide new material for the action of evolutionary forces such as selection or genetic drift. Here we describe a sophisticated procedure to extract duplicated genes (paralogs) from 26 available eukaryotic genomes, to pre-calculate several evolutionary indexes (evolutionary rate, synonymous distance/clock, transition redundant exchange clock, etc.) based on the paralog family, and to identify block or segmental duplications (paralogons). We also constructed an internet-accessible Eukaryotic Paralog Group Database (EPGD; http://epgd.biosino.org/EPGD/). The database is gene-centered and organized by paralog family. It focuses on paralogs and evolutionary duplication events. The paralog families and paralogons can be searched by text or sequence, and are downloadable from the website as plain text files. The database will be very useful for both experimentalists and bioinformaticians interested in the study of duplication events or paralog families.

  7. Distinct expression, localization and function of two Rab7 proteins encoded by paralogous genes in a free-living model eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Osińska, Magdalena; Wiejak, Jolanta; Wypych, Emilia; Bilski, Henryk; Bartosiewicz, Rafał; Wyroba, Elżbieta

    2011-01-01

    Rab7 GTPases are involved in membrane trafficking in the late endosomal/lysosomal pathway. In Paramecium octaurelia Rab7a and Rab7b are encoded by paralogous genes. Antipeptide antibodies generated against divergent C-termini recognize Rab7a of 22.5 kDa and Rab7b of 25 kDa, respectively. In 2D gel electrophoresis two immunoreactive spots were identified for Rab7b at pI about 6.34 and about 6.18 and only one spot for Rab7a of pI about 6.34 suggesting post-translational modification of Rab7b. Mass spectrometry revealed eight identical phosphorylated residues in the both proteins. ProQ Emerald staining and ConA overlay of immunoprecipitated Rab7b indicated its putative glycosylation that was further supported by a faster electrophoretic mobility of this protein upon deglycosylation. Such a post-translational modification and substitution of Ala(140) in Rab7a for Ser(140) in Rab7b may result in distinct targeting to the oral apparatus where Rab7b associates with the microtubular structures as revealed by STED confocal and electron microscopy. Rab7a was mapped to phagosomal compartment. Absolute qReal-Time PCR analysis revealed that expression of Rab7a was 2.6-fold higher than that of Rab7b. Upon latex internalization it was further 2-fold increased for Rab7a and only slightly for Rab7b. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of rab7a suppressed phagosome formation by 70 % and impaired their acidification. Ultrastructural analysis with double immunogold labeling revealed that this effect was due to the lack of V-ATPase recruitment to phagolysosomes. No significant phenotype changes were noticed in cells upon rab7b silencing. In conclusion, Rab7b acquired a new function, whereas Rab7a can be assigned to the phagolysosomal pathway.

  8. Detection of aneuploidies by paralogous sequence quantification

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, S; Choudhury, U; Merla, G; Howald, C; Sylvan, A; Antonarakis, S

    2004-01-01

    Background: Chromosomal aneuploidies are a common cause of congenital disorders associated with cognitive impairment and multiple dysmorphic features. Pre-natal diagnosis of aneuploidies is most commonly performed by the karyotyping of fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, but this method is labour intensive and requires about 14 days to complete. Methods: We have developed a PCR based method for the detection of targeted chromosome number abnormalities termed paralogous sequence quantification (PSQ), based on the use of paralogous genes. Paralogous sequences have a high degree of sequence identity, but accumulate nucleotide substitutions in a locus specific manner. These sequence differences, which we term paralogous sequence mismatches (PSMs), can be quantified using pyrosequencing technology, to estimate the relative dosage between different chromosomes. We designed 10 assays for the detection of trisomies of chromosomes 13, 18, and 21 and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Results: We evaluated the performance of this method on 175 DNAs, highly enriched for abnormal samples. A correct and unambiguous diagnosis was given for 119 out of 120 aneuploid samples as well as for all the controls. One sample which gave an intermediate value for the chromosome 13 assays could not be diagnosed. Conclusions: Our data suggests that PSQ is a robust, easy to interpret, and easy to set up method for the diagnosis of common aneuploidies, and can be performed in less than 48 h, representing a competitive alternative for widespread use in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:15591276

  9. The Antagonistic Gene Paralogs Upf3a and Upf3b Govern Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay.

    PubMed

    Shum, Eleen Y; Jones, Samantha H; Shao, Ada; Dumdie, Jennifer; Krause, Matthew D; Chan, Wai-Kin; Lou, Chih-Hong; Espinoza, Josh L; Song, Hye-Won; Phan, Mimi H; Ramaiah, Madhuvanthi; Huang, Lulu; McCarrey, John R; Peterson, Kevin J; De Rooij, Dirk G; Cook-Andersen, Heidi; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2016-04-01

    Gene duplication is a major evolutionary force driving adaptation and speciation, as it allows for the acquisition of new functions and can augment or diversify existing functions. Here, we report a gene duplication event that yielded another outcome--the generation of antagonistic functions. One product of this duplication event--UPF3B--is critical for the nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway, while its autosomal counterpart--UPF3A--encodes an enigmatic protein previously shown to have trace NMD activity. Using loss-of-function approaches in vitro and in vivo, we discovered that UPF3A acts primarily as a potent NMD inhibitor that stabilizes hundreds of transcripts. Evidence suggests that UPF3A acquired repressor activity through simple impairment of a critical domain, a rapid mechanism that may have been widely used in evolution. Mice conditionally lacking UPF3A exhibit "hyper" NMD and display defects in embryogenesis and gametogenesis. Our results support a model in which UPF3A serves as a molecular rheostat that directs developmental events.

  10. Expression of the mouse MHC class Ib H2-T11 gene product, a paralog of H2-T23 (Qa-1) with shared peptide-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Reyes-Vargas, Eduardo; Dai, Hu; Escobar, Hernando; Rudd, Brant; Fairbanks, Jared; Ho, Alexander; Cusick, Mathew F; Kumánovics, Attila; Delgado, Julio; He, Xiao; Jensen, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    The mouse MHC class Ib gene H2-T11 is 95% identical at the DNA level to H2-T23, which encodes Qa-1, one of the most studied MHC class Ib molecules. H2-T11 mRNA was observed to be expressed widely in tissues of C57BL/6 mice, with the highest levels in thymus. To circumvent the availability of a specific mAb, cells were transduced with cDNA encoding T11 with a substituted α3 domain. Hybrid T11D3 protein was expressed at high levels similar to control T23D3 molecules on the surface of both TAP(+) and TAP(-) cells. Soluble T11D3 was generated by folding in vitro with Qa-1 determinant modifier, the dominant peptide presented by Qa-1. The circular dichroism spectrum of this protein was similar to that of other MHC class I molecules, and it was observed to bind labeled Qa-1 determinant modifier peptide with rapid kinetics. By contrast to the Qa-1 control, T11 tetramers did not react with cells expressing CD94/NKG2A, supporting the conclusion that T11 cannot replace Qa-1 as a ligand for NK cell inhibitory receptors. T11 also failed to substitute for Qa-1 in the presentation of insulin to a Qa-1-restricted T cell hybridoma. Despite divergent function, T11 was observed to share peptide-loading specificity with Qa-1. Direct analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of peptides eluted from T11D3 and T23D3 isolated from Hela cells demonstrated a diversity of peptides with a clear motif that was shared between the two molecules. Thus, T11 is a paralog of T23 encoding an MHC class Ib molecule that shares peptide-binding specificity with Qa-1 but differs in function. PMID:24958902

  11. Isoform-Level Gene Expression Profiles of Human Y Chromosome Azoospermia Factor Genes and Their X Chromosome Paralogs in the Testicular Tissue of Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Rastegar, Diba; Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Alikhani, Mehdi; Parsamatin, Pouria; Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Mohammad Ahadi, Ali; Mohseni Meybodi, Anahita; Piryaei, Abbas; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    The human Y chromosome has an inevitable role in male fertility because it contains many genes critical for spermatogenesis and the development of the male gonads. Any genetic variation or epigenetic modification affecting the expression pattern of Y chromosome genes may thus lead to male infertility. In this study, we performed isoform-level gene expression profiling of Y chromosome genes within the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions, their X chromosome counterparts, and few autosomal paralogues in testicular biopsies of 12 men with preserved spermatogenesis and 68 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) (40 Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS) and 28 premiotic maturation arrest (MA)). This was undertaken using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at the transcript level and Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) at the protein level. We profiled the expression of 41 alternative transcripts encoded by 14 AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc region genes (USP9Y, DDX3Y, XKRY, HSFY1, CYORF15A, CYORF15B, KDM5D, EIF1AY, RPS4Y2, RBMY1A1, PRY, BPY2, DAZ1, and CDY1) as well as their X chromosome homologue transcripts and a few autosomal homologues. Of the 41 transcripts, 18 were significantly down-regulated in men with NOA when compared with those of men with complete spermatogenesis. In contrast, the expression of five transcripts increased significantly in NOA patients. Furthermore, to confirm the qPCR results at the protein level, we performed immunoblotting and IHC experiments (based on 24 commercial and homemade antibodies) that detected 10 AZF-encoded proteins. In addition, their localization in testis cell types and organelles was determined. Interestingly, the two missing proteins, XKRY and CYORF15A, were detected for the first time. Finally, we focused on the expression patterns of the significantly altered genes in 12 MA patients with successful sperm retrieval compared to those of 12 MA patients with failed sperm retrieval to predict the success of sperm retrieval in

  12. Gains and Losses of Cis-regulatory Elements Led to Divergence of the Arabidopsis APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER Duplicate Genes in the Time, Space, and Level of Expression and Regulation of One Paralog by the Other.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingling; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Wengen; Shan, Hongyan; Kong, Hongzhi

    2016-06-01

    How genes change their expression patterns over time is still poorly understood. Here, by conducting expression, functional, bioinformatic, and evolutionary analyses, we demonstrate that the differences between the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL) duplicate genes in the time, space, and level of expression were determined by the presence or absence of functionally important transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs) in regulatory regions. In particular, a CArG box, which is the autoregulatory site of AP1 that can also be bound by the CAL protein, is a key determinant of the expression differences. Because of the CArG box, AP1 is both autoregulated and cross-regulated (by AP1 and CAL, respectively), and its relatively high-level expression is maintained till to the late stages of sepal and petal development. The observation that the CArG box was gained recently further suggests that the autoregulation and cross-regulation of AP1, as well as its function in sepal and petal development, are derived features. By comparing the evolutionary histories of this and other TFBSs, we further indicate that the divergence of AP1 and CAL in regulatory regions has been markedly asymmetric and can be divided into several stages. Specifically, shortly after duplication, when AP1 happened to be the paralog that maintained the function of the ancestral gene, CAL experienced certain degrees of degenerate evolution, in which several functionally important TFBSs were lost. Later, when functional divergence allowed the survival of both paralogs, CAL remained largely unchanged in expression, whereas the functions of AP1 were gradually reinforced by gains of the CArG box and other TFBSs.

  13. Mutation analysis of the HOX paralogous 4-13 genes in children with acute lymphoid malignancies: identification of a novel germline mutation of HOXD4 leading to a partial loss-of-function.

    PubMed

    van Scherpenzeel Thim, Virginie; Remacle, Sophie; Picard, Jacques; Cornu, Guy; Gofflot, Françoise; Rezsohazy, René; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

    2005-04-01

    The molecular basis of susceptibility to childhood malignant hemopathy remains largely unknown. An excess of skeletal congenital anomalies has been reported among children with hematological malignancy and points towards involvement of developmental genes, like those belonging to the HOX gene family. In addition to their role in embryogenesis, HOX transcription factors are known to be regulators of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. We aimed to explore the possibility that germline alterations of HOX genes might be involved in childhood acute lymphoid malignancies. A cohort of 86 children diagnosed with acute lymphoid malignancy was studied, 20 of them concurrently presenting a congenital anomaly of the skeleton. First, we screened for nucleotide changes throughout the HOX genes of paralogous groups 4 to 13 in the 20 patients with skeletal defects, following a skeletal phenotype-based strategy. Subsequently, we extended the HOX mutation screening to the other 66 children having a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, but without skeletal defects. In total, 16 germline mutations were identified. While 13 changes were also observed in healthy controls, three variants were exclusively found in acute lymphoid malignancy cases. These comprised the germline c.242A>T (p.Glu81Val) missense mutation of HOXD4, detected in two children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Furthermore, this mutation was found in association with other specific HOX variants of cluster D (2q31-q37), defining a unique haplotype. Functional analysis of the murine Hoxd4 homolog revealed that mutant Hoxd4 protein had lower transcriptional activity than wild-type protein in vitro. The p.Glu81Val mutation of HOXD4 thus results in a partial loss-of-function, which might be involved in childhood ALL.

  14. Two Sets of Paralogous Genes Encode the Enzymes Involved in the Early Stages of Clavulanic Acid and Clavam Metabolite Biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Tahlan, Kapil; Park, Hyeon Ung; Wong, Annie; Beatty, Perrin H.; Jensen, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a second copy of a gene encoding proclavaminate amidinohydrolase (pah1), an enzyme involved in the early stages of clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus, was identified and isolated. Using Southern analysis, we have now isolated second copies of the genes encoding the carboxyethylarginine synthase (ceaS) and β-lactam synthetase (bls) enzymes. These new paralogues are given the gene designations ceaS1 and bls1 and are located immediately upstream of pah1 on the chromosome. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the region downstream of pah1 revealed a second copy of a gene encoding ornithine acetyltransferase (oat1), thus indicating the presence of a cluster of paralogue genes. ceaS1, bls1, and oat1 display 73, 60, and 63% identities, respectively, at the nucleotide level to the original ceaS2, bls2, and oat2 genes from the clavulanic acid gene cluster. Single mutants defective in ceaS1, bls1, or oat1 were prepared and characterized and were found to be affected to variable degrees in their ability to produce clavulanic acid and clavam metabolites. Double mutants defective in both copies of the genes were also prepared and tested. The ceaS1/ceaS2 and the bls1/bls2 mutant strains were completely blocked in clavulanic acid and clavam metabolite biosynthesis. On the other hand, oat1/oat2 double mutants still produced some clavulanic acid and clavam metabolites. This may be attributed to the presence of the argJ gene in S. clavuligerus, which encodes yet another ornithine acetyltransferase enzyme that may be able to compensate for the lack of OAT1 and -2 in the double mutants. PMID:14982786

  15. Monilophyte mitochondrial rps1 genes carry a unique group II intron that likely originated from an ancient paralog in rpl2.

    PubMed

    Knie, Nils; Grewe, Felix; Knoop, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Intron patterns in plant mitochondrial genomes differ significantly between the major land plant clades. We here report on a new, clade-specific group II intron in the rps1 gene of monilophytes (ferns). This intron, rps1i25g2, is strikingly similar to rpl2i846g2 previously identified in the mitochondrial rpl2 gene of seed plants, ferns, and the lycophyte Phlegmariurus squarrosus Although mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes are frequently subject to endosymbiotic gene transfer among plants, we could retrieve the mitochondrial rps1 gene in a taxonomically wide sampling of 44 monilophyte taxa including basal lineages such as the Ophioglossales, Psilotales, and Marattiales with the only exception being the Equisetales (horsetails). Introns rps1i25g2 and rpl2i846g2 were likewise consistently present with only two exceptions: Intron rps1i25g2 is lost in the genus Ophioglossum and intron rpl2i846g2 is lost in Equisetum bogotense Both intron sequences are moderately affected by RNA editing. The unprecedented primary and secondary structure similarity of rps1i25g2 and rpl2i846g2 suggests an ancient retrotransposition event copying rpl2i846g2 into rps1, for which we suggest a model. Our phylogenetic analysis adding the new rps1 locus to a previous data set is fully congruent with recent insights on monilophyte phylogeny and further supports a sister relationship of Gleicheniales and Hymenophyllales. PMID:27354706

  16. The five glucose-6-phosphatase paralogous genes are differentially regulated by insulin alone or combined with high level of amino acids and/or glucose in trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lucie, Marandel; Weiwei, Dai; Stéphane, Panserat; Sandrine, Skiba-Cassy

    2016-04-01

    A recent analysis of the newly sequenced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome suggested that duplicated gluconeogenic g6pc paralogues, fixed in this genome after the salmonid-specific 4th whole genome duplication, may have a role in the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in this carnivorous species. This should be due to the sub- or neo-functionalization of their regulation. In the present short communication we thus addressed the question of the regulation of these genes by insulin, hormone involved in the glucose homeostasis, and its interaction with glucose and amino acids in vitro. The stimulation of trout hepatocytes with insulin revealed an atypical up-regulation of g6pcb2 ohnologues and confirmed the sub- or neo-functionalization of the five g6pc genes at least at the regulatory level. Intriguingly, when hepatocytes were cultured with high levels of glucose and/or AAs in presence of insulin, most of the g6pc paralogues were up-regulated. It strongly suggested a cross-talk between insulin and nutrients for the regulation of these genes. Moreover these results strengthened the idea that g6pc duplicated genes may significantly contribute to the setting up of the glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout via their atypical regulation by insulin alone or in interaction with nutrients. These findings open new perspectives to better understand in vivo glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet.

  17. Differential domain evolution and complex RNA processing in a family of paralogous EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes facilitates expression of diverse tissue-specific isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry; Chan, Nadine; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Dubchak, Inna; Narla, Mohandas; Gascard, Philippe D.; Conboy, John G.

    2004-07-15

    The EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes epitomize the resourcefulness of the mammalian genome to encode a complex proteome from a small number of genes. By utilizing alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3, and EPB41L1 encode a diverse array of structural adapter proteins. Comparative genomic and transcript analysis of these 140kb-240kb genes indicates several unusual features: differential evolution of highly conserved exons encoding known functional domains, interspersed with unique exons whose size and sequence variations contribute substantially to intergenic diversity: alternative first exons, most of which map far upstream of the coding regions; and complex tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing that facilitates synthesis of functionally different complements of 4.1 proteins in various cells. Understanding the splicing regulatory networks that control protein 4.1 expression will be critical to a full appreciation of the many roles of 4.1 proteins in normal cell biology and their proposed roles in human cancer.

  18. Sequence variation of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) paralogs in cactophilic Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Matzkin, Luciano M; Eanes, Walter F

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the population genetics of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in cactophilic Drosophila. Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae utilize cactus hosts, and each host contains a characteristic mixture of alcohol compounds. In these Drosophila species there are two functional Adh loci, an adult form (Adh-2) and a larval and ovarian form (Adh-1). Overall, the greater level of variation segregating in D. arizonae than in D. mojavensis suggests a larger population size for D. arizonae. There are markedly different patterns of variation between the paralogs across both species. A 16-bp intron haplotype segregates in both species at Adh-2, apparently the product of an ancient gene conversion event between the paralogs, which suggests that there is selection for the maintenance of the intron structure possibly for the maintenance of pre-mRNA structure. We observe a pattern of variation consistent with adaptive protein evolution in the D. mojavensis lineage at Adh-1, suggesting that the cactus host shift that occurred in the divergence of D. mojavensis from D. arizonae had an effect on the evolution of the larval expressed paralog. Contrary to previous work we estimate a recent time for both the divergence of D. mojavensis and D. arizonae (2.4 +/- 0.7 MY) and the age of the gene duplication (3.95 +/- 0.45 MY). PMID:12586706

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of six peroxiredoxin paralogous genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): insights from fish exposed to dietary, pathogen and confinement stressors.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to underline the physiological role of the antioxidant peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.), a perciform fish extensively cultured in the Mediterranean area. First, extensive BLAST searches were done on the gilthead sea bream cDNA database of the AQUAMAX European Project (www.sigenae.org/iats), and six contigs were unequivocally identified as PRDX1-6 after sequence completion by RT-PCR. The phylogenetic analysis evidenced three major clades corresponding to PRDX1-4 (true 2-Cyst PRDX subclass), PRDX5 (atypical 2-Cys PRDX subclass) and PRDX6 (1-Cys PRDX subclass) that reflected the present hierarchy of vertebrates. However, the PRDX2 branch of modern fish including gilthead sea bream was related to the monophyletic PRDX1 node rather than to PRDX2 cluster of mammals and primitive fish, which probably denotes the acquisition of novel functions through vertebrate evolution. Transcriptional studies by means of quantitative real-time PCR evidenced a ubiquitous PRDX gene expression that was tissue specific for each PRDX isoform. In a second set of transcriptional studies, liver and head kidney were chosen as target tissues in fish challenged with i) the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei, ii) a plant oil (VO) diet with deficiencies in essential fatty acids and iii) prolonged exposure to high-rearing densities. These studies showed that PRDX genes were highly and mostly constitutively expressed in the liver and were not affected by dietary intervention or high density. In contrast, head kidney was highly sensitive to the different experimental challenges: significantly lower values were found for PRDX5 in the three trials, for PRDX6 in parasitized and high density fish and for PRDX1 in parasitized and VO fish. PRDX2, 3 and 5 were decreased only in VO, high density and parasitized animals, respectively. These findings would highlight the role of PRDXs as integrative and highly predictive biomarkers of health and

  20. Rapidly evolving Rab GTPase paralogs and reproductive isolation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Alterations at the X-linked Hmr gene of Drosophila melanogaster can fully restore viability and partially restore fertility in hybrid flies from crosses between D. melanogaster and any of its three most closely related species. Although more than one gene is expected to be involved in these barriers to reproduction, a single DNA-binding protein was recently identified as HMR. The Hmr gene was shown to evolve unusually fast, a feature that supports its role in causing genetic incompatibility in a hybrid genotype. The current treatment of hybrid genetics focuses not only on Hmr but also on the Rab9D gene, which lies only 1kb from Hmr. Rab9D is proposed also to influence hybrid viability. This gene has remained tightly linked to Hmr for about 10 million years, but it has diverged even more than Hmr with regard to D. melanogaster and its most closely related species. Furthermore, the 197-amino acid RAB9D protein contains four amino acid substitutions in the D. melanogaster-rescuing mutant Hmr1. Rab9D is shown to have evolved under very strong positive selection and to be the most recent member of a cluster of six paralogs that encode small RAB GTPases. Four of the six paralogs are unique to D. melanogaster in which they have diverged considerably, their encoded proteins sharing less than 50% amino acid identities with proteins from their orthologs in the closest species. Only two Rab orthologs are present in these sibling species and none is present in the genomes of more distantly related Drosophila species. Rapidly evolving Rab paralogs near the Hmr locus probably developed functional specialization of redundant proteins involved in trafficking macromolecules between cytoplasm and nucleus. Positive selection acting on duplicates of these Rab genes appears to participate in reproductive isolation.

  1. Reverse genetic characterization of two paralogous acetoacetyl CoA thiolase genes in Arabidopsis reveals their importance in plant growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Huanan; Song, Zhihong; Nikolau, Basil J.

    2012-03-31

    Acetoacetyl CoA thiolase (AACT, EC 2.3.1.9) catalyzes the condensation of two acetyl CoA molecules to form acetoacetyl CoA. Two AACT‐encoding genes, At5g47720 (AACT1) and At5g48230 (AACT2), were functionally identified in the Arabidopsis genome by direct enzymological assays and functional expression in yeast. Promoter::GUS fusion experiments indicated that AACT1 is primarily expressed in the vascular system and AACT2 is highly expressed in root tips, young leaves, top stems and anthers. Characterization of T‐DNA insertion mutant alleles at each AACT locus established that AACT2 function is required for embryogenesis and for normal male gamete transmission. In contrast, plants lacking AACT1 function are completely viable and show no apparent growth phenotypes, indicating that AACT1 is functionally redundant with respect to AACT2 function. RNAi lines that express reduced levels of AACT2 show pleiotropic phenotypes, including reduced apical dominance, elongated life span and flowering duration, sterility, dwarfing, reduced seed yield and shorter root length. Microscopic analysis reveals that the reduced stature is caused by a reduction in cell size and fewer cells, and male sterility is caused by loss of the pollen coat and premature degeneration of the tapetal cells. Biochemical analyses established that the roots of AACT2 RNAi plants show quantitative and qualitative alterations in phytosterol profiles. These phenotypes and biochemical alterations are reversed when AACT2 RNAi plants are grown in the presence of mevalonate, which is consistent with the role of AACT2 in generating the bulk of the acetoacetyl CoA precursor required for the cytosol‐localized, mevalonate‐derived isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.

  2. Phloroglucinol Attenuates Free Radical-induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    So, Mi Jung; Cho, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of phloroglucinol against oxidative stress and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was investigated in vitro and in cell culture. Phloroglucinol had strong and concentration-dependent radical scavenging effects against nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions (O2−), and hydroxyl radicals. In this study, free radical generators were used to induce oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. Treatment with phloroglucinol attenuated the oxidative stress induced by peroxyl radicals, NO, O2−, and peroxynitrite. Phloroglucinol also increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. WI-38 human diploid fibroblast cells were used to investigate the protective effect of phloroglucinol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced SIPS. Phloroglucinol treatment attenuated H2O2-induced SIPS by increasing cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation, suggesting that treatment with phloroglucinol should delay the aging process. The present study supports the promising role of phloroglucinol as an antioxidative agent against free radical-induced oxidative stress and SIPS. PMID:25320709

  3. Arabidopsis radical-induced cell death1 is involved in UV-B signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yan; Björn, Lars Olof; Li, Shaoshan

    2009-06-01

    The Arabidopsis radical-induced cell death1 (rcd1) mutant is sensitive to ozone fumigation and apoplastic superoxide, but tolerant to methyl viologen. In the present article, we report that the rcd1 mutant is also tolerant to supplementary UV-B radiation. The rcd1-1 mutant exhibits less accumulation of TT dimers, increased hypocotyl growth inhibition and higher accumulation of flavonoids under supplemental UV-B radiation. Moreover, the expression of HY5 (elongated hypocotyl5) is increased in the mutant after UV-B treatment. Gene expression downstream of UV-B signaling reveals that COP1 (constitutively photomorphogenic1)-regulated genes have an elevated expression in rcd1-1 mutant under UV-B radiation, while expression of UVR8 (UV resistance locus 8)-regulated and HY5-independent genes are not changed. Interestingly, the expression of RCD1 genes is not significantly changed by UV-B radiation. Previous study has shown that STO protein is interacting with RCD1 in vitro. Here, we found the mRNA level of STO (salt tolerance) is greatly increased in rcd1-1 mutant after UV-B radiation. However, UV-B-induced HY5 and CHS expression is partially inhibited in sto mutant. Based on the above results, it is deduced that the RCD1, working together with STO, is involved in Arabidopsis UV-B signaling.

  4. Functional prediction: identification of protein orthologs and paralogs.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R.; Jeong, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    Orthologs typically retain the same function in the course of evolution. Using beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase family as a model, we demonstrate that orthologs can be confidently identified. The strategy is based on our recent findings that substitutions of only a few amino acid residues in these enzymes are sufficient to exchange substrate and coenzyme specificities. Hence, the few major specificity determinants can serve as reliable markers for determining orthologous or paralogous relationships. The power of this approach has been demonstrated by correcting similarity-based functional misassignment and discovering new genes and related pathways, and should be broadly applicable to other enzyme families. PMID:11206056

  5. The Impact of Paralogy on Phylogenomic Studies – A Case Study on Annelid Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Torsten H.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenomic studies based on hundreds of genes derived from expressed sequence tags libraries are increasingly used to reveal the phylogeny of taxa. A prerequisite for these studies is the assignment of genes into clusters of orthologous sequences. Sophisticated methods of orthology prediction are used in such analyses, but it is rarely assessed whether paralogous sequences have been erroneously grouped together as orthologous sequences after the prediction, and whether this had an impact on the phylogenetic reconstruction using a super-matrix approach. Herein, I tested the impact of paralogous sequences on the reconstruction of annelid relationships based on phylogenomic datasets. Using single-partition analyses, screening for bootstrap support, blast searches and pruning of sequences in the supermatrix, wrongly assigned paralogous sequences were found in eight partitions and the placement of five taxa (the annelids Owenia, Scoloplos, Sthenelais and Eurythoe and the nemertean Cerebratulus) including the robust bootstrap support could be attributed to the presence of paralogous sequences in two partitions. Excluding these sequences resulted in a different, weaker supported placement for these taxa. Moreover, the analyses revealed that paralogous sequences impacted the reconstruction when only a single taxon represented a previously supported higher taxon such as a polychaete family. One possibility of a priori detection of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences could combine 1) a screening of single-partition analyses based on criteria such as nodal support or internal branch length with 2) blast searches of suspicious cases as presented herein. Also possible are a posteriori approaches in which support for specific clades is investigated by comparing alternative hypotheses based on differences in per-site likelihoods. Increasing the sizes of EST libraries will also decrease the likelihood of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences, and in the case of orthology

  6. Orthologs, paralogs and genome comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogarten, J. P.; Olendzenski, L.

    1999-01-01

    During the past decade, ancient gene duplications were recognized as one of the main forces in the generation of diverse gene families and the creation of new functional capabilities. New tools developed to search data banks for homologous sequences, and an increased availability of reliable three-dimensional structural information led to the recognition that proteins with diverse functions can belong to the same superfamily. Analyses of the evolution of these superfamilies promises to provide insights into early evolution but are complicated by several important evolutionary processes. Horizontal transfer of genes can lead to a vertical spread of innovations among organisms, therefore finding a certain property in some descendants of an ancestor does not guarantee that it was present in that ancestor. Complete or partial gene conversion between duplicated genes can yield phylogenetic trees with several, apparently independent gene duplications, suggesting an often surprising parallelism in the evolution of independent lineages. Additionally, the breakup of domains within a protein and the fusion of domains into multifunctional proteins makes the delineation of superfamilies a task that remains difficult to automate.

  7. Distal substitutions drive divergent DNA specificity among paralogous transcription factors through subdivision of conformational space.

    PubMed

    Hudson, William H; Kossmann, Bradley R; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Chuo, Shih-Wei; Weikum, Emily R; Eick, Geeta N; Thornton, Joseph W; Ivanov, Ivaylo N; Kojetin, Douglas J; Ortlund, Eric A

    2016-01-12

    Many genomes contain families of paralogs--proteins with divergent function that evolved from a common ancestral gene after a duplication event. To understand how paralogous transcription factors evolve divergent DNA specificities, we examined how the glucocorticoid receptor and its paralogs evolved to bind activating response elements [(+)GREs] and negative glucocorticoid response elements (nGREs). We show that binding to nGREs is a property of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA-binding domain (DBD) not shared by other members of the steroid receptor family. Using phylogenetic, structural, biochemical, and molecular dynamics techniques, we show that the ancestral DBD from which GR and its paralogs evolved was capable of binding both nGRE and (+)GRE sequences because of the ancestral DBD's ability to assume multiple DNA-bound conformations. Subsequent amino acid substitutions in duplicated daughter genes selectively restricted protein conformational space, causing this dual DNA-binding specificity to be selectively enhanced in the GR lineage and lost in all others. Key substitutions that determined the receptors' response element-binding specificity were far from the proteins' DNA-binding interface and interacted epistatically to change the DBD's function through DNA-induced allosteric mechanisms. These amino acid substitutions subdivided both the conformational and functional space of the ancestral DBD among the present-day receptors, allowing a paralogous family of transcription factors to control disparate transcriptional programs despite high sequence identity.

  8. Adaptation of topoisomerase I paralogs to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ilaria Dalla; Goffart, Steffi; Wurm, Melanie; Wiek, Constanze; Essmann, Frank; Sobek, Stefan; Schroeder, Peter; Zhang, Hongliang; Krutmann, Jean; Hanenberg, Helmut; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Mielke, Christian; Pommier, Yves; Boege, Fritz; Christensen, Morten O.

    2009-01-01

    Topoisomerase I is essential for DNA metabolism in nuclei and mitochondria. In yeast, a single topoisomerase I gene provides for both organelles. In vertebrates, topoisomerase I is divided into nuclear and mitochondrial paralogs (Top1 and Top1mt). To assess the meaning of this gene duplication, we targeted Top1 to mitochondria or Top1mt to nuclei. Overexpression in the fitting organelle served as control. Targeting of Top1 to mitochondria blocked transcription and depleted mitochondrial DNA. This was also seen with catalytically inactive Top1 mutants, but not with Top1mt overexpressed in mitochondria. Targeting of Top1mt to the nucleus revealed that it was much less able to interact with mitotic chromosomes than Top1 overexpressed in the nucleus. Similar experiments with Top1/Top1mt hybrids assigned these functional differences to structural divergences in the DNA-binding core domains. We propose that adaptation of this domain to different chromatin environments in nuclei and mitochondria has driven evolutional development and conservation of organelle-restricted topoisomerase I paralogs in vertebrates. PMID:19720733

  9. Characterization and Expression of the Zebrafish qki Paralogs.

    PubMed

    Radomska, Katarzyna J; Sager, Jonathan; Farnsworth, Bryn; Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Tuveri, Giulia; Peuckert, Christiane; Kettunen, Petronella; Jazin, Elena; Emilsson, Lina S

    2016-01-01

    Quaking (QKI) is an RNA-binding protein involved in post-transcriptional mRNA processing. This gene is found to be associated with several human neurological disorders. Early expression of QKI proteins in the developing mouse neuroepithelium, together with neural tube defects in Qk mouse mutants, suggest the functional requirement of Qk for the establishment of the nervous system. As a knockout of Qk is embryonic lethal in mice, other model systems like the zebrafish could serve as a tool to study the developmental functions of qki. In the present study we sought to characterize the evolutionary relationship and spatiotemporal expression of qkia, qki2, and qkib; zebrafish homologs of human QKI. We found that qkia is an ancestral paralog of the single tetrapod Qk gene that was likely lost during the fin-to-limb transition. Conversely, qkib and qki2 are orthologs, emerging at the root of the vertebrate and teleost lineage, respectively. Both qki2 and qkib, but not qkia, were expressed in the progenitor domains of the central nervous system, similar to expression of the single gene in mice. Despite having partially overlapping expression domains, each gene has a unique expression pattern, suggesting that these genes have undergone subfunctionalization following duplication. Therefore, we suggest the zebrafish could be used to study the separate functions of qki genes during embryonic development.

  10. Characterization and Expression of the Zebrafish qki Paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Radomska, Katarzyna J.; Sager, Jonathan; Farnsworth, Bryn; Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Tuveri, Giulia; Peuckert, Christiane; Kettunen, Petronella; Jazin, Elena; Emilsson, Lina S.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking (QKI) is an RNA-binding protein involved in post-transcriptional mRNA processing. This gene is found to be associated with several human neurological disorders. Early expression of QKI proteins in the developing mouse neuroepithelium, together with neural tube defects in Qk mouse mutants, suggest the functional requirement of Qk for the establishment of the nervous system. As a knockout of Qk is embryonic lethal in mice, other model systems like the zebrafish could serve as a tool to study the developmental functions of qki. In the present study we sought to characterize the evolutionary relationship and spatiotemporal expression of qkia, qki2, and qkib; zebrafish homologs of human QKI. We found that qkia is an ancestral paralog of the single tetrapod Qk gene that was likely lost during the fin-to-limb transition. Conversely, qkib and qki2 are orthologs, emerging at the root of the vertebrate and teleost lineage, respectively. Both qki2 and qkib, but not qkia, were expressed in the progenitor domains of the central nervous system, similar to expression of the single gene in mice. Despite having partially overlapping expression domains, each gene has a unique expression pattern, suggesting that these genes have undergone subfunctionalization following duplication. Therefore, we suggest the zebrafish could be used to study the separate functions of qki genes during embryonic development. PMID:26727370

  11. Participation of cationic intermediates in radical-induced homopolymerization of maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, N.G.; Koo, J.Y.

    1981-03-01

    Since the failure to promote MAH polymerization in the presence of amine-containing redox catalyst systems suggested the presence of cationic intermediates, the radical-induced polymerization of MAH was carried out in the absence and in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA).

  12. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA (“Orthologous MAtrix”) Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  13. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA ("Orthologous MAtrix") Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  14. Hypothesis: Paralog Formation from Progenitor Proteins and Paralog Mutagenesis Spur the Rapid Evolution of Telomere Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Through elegant studies in fungal cells and complex organisms, we propose a unifying paradigm for the rapid evolution of telomere binding proteins (TBPs) that associate with either (or both) telomeric DNA and telomeric proteins. TBPs protect and regulate telomere structure and function. Four critical factors are involved. First, TBPs that commonly bind to telomeric DNA include the c-Myb binding proteins, OB-fold single-stranded binding proteins, and G-G base paired Hoogsteen structure (G4) binding proteins. Each contributes independently or, in some cases, cooperatively, to provide a minimum level of telomere function. As a result of these minimal requirements and the great abundance of homologs of these motifs in the proteome, DNA telomere-binding activity may be generated more easily than expected. Second, telomere dysfunction gives rise to genome instability, through the elevation of recombination rates, genome ploidy, and the frequency of gene mutations. The formation of paralogs that diverge from their progenitor proteins ultimately can form a high frequency of altered TBPs with altered functions. Third, TBPs that assemble into complexes (e.g., mammalian shelterin) derive benefits from the novel emergent functions. Fourth, a limiting factor in the evolution of TBP complexes is the formation of mutually compatible interaction surfaces amongst the TBPs. These factors may have different degrees of importance in the evolution of different phyla, illustrated by the apparently simpler telomeres in complex plants. Selective pressures that can utilize the mechanisms of paralog formation and mutagenesis to drive TBP evolution along routes dependent on the requisite physiologic changes.

  15. Hypothesis: Paralog Formation from Progenitor Proteins and Paralog Mutagenesis Spur the Rapid Evolution of Telomere Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Through elegant studies in fungal cells and complex organisms, we propose a unifying paradigm for the rapid evolution of telomere binding proteins (TBPs) that associate with either (or both) telomeric DNA and telomeric proteins. TBPs protect and regulate telomere structure and function. Four critical factors are involved. First, TBPs that commonly bind to telomeric DNA include the c-Myb binding proteins, OB-fold single-stranded binding proteins, and G-G base paired Hoogsteen structure (G4) binding proteins. Each contributes independently or, in some cases, cooperatively, to provide a minimum level of telomere function. As a result of these minimal requirements and the great abundance of homologs of these motifs in the proteome, DNA telomere-binding activity may be generated more easily than expected. Second, telomere dysfunction gives rise to genome instability, through the elevation of recombination rates, genome ploidy, and the frequency of gene mutations. The formation of paralogs that diverge from their progenitor proteins ultimately can form a high frequency of altered TBPs with altered functions. Third, TBPs that assemble into complexes (e.g., mammalian shelterin) derive benefits from the novel emergent functions. Fourth, a limiting factor in the evolution of TBP complexes is the formation of mutually compatible interaction surfaces amongst the TBPs. These factors may have different degrees of importance in the evolution of different phyla, illustrated by the apparently simpler telomeres in complex plants. Selective pressures that can utilize the mechanisms of paralog formation and mutagenesis to drive TBP evolution along routes dependent on the requisite physiologic changes. PMID:26904098

  16. Parameters of the proteome evolution from the distribution of sequence identities of paralogous proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Axelsen, Jacob; Maslov, Sergei

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of the full repertoire of proteins encoded in a given genome is driven by gene duplications, deletions and modifications of amino-acid sequences of already existing proteins. The information about relative rates and other intrinsic parameters of these three basic processes is contained in the distribution of sequence identities of pairs of paralogous proteins. We introduced a simple mathematical framework that allows one to extract some of this hidden information. It was then applied to the proteome-wide set of paralogous proteins in H. pylori, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster and H. sapiens. We estimated the stationary per-gene deletion and duplication rates, the distribution of amino-acid substitution rate of these organisms. The validity of our mathematical framework was further confirmed by numerical simulations of a simple evolutionary model of a fixed-size proteome.

  17. Roles of Rad51 paralogs for promoting homologous recombination in Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Plourde, Marie; Éthier, Chantal; Roy, Gaétan; Poirier, Guy G.; Ouellette, Marc; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    To achieve drug resistance Leishmania parasite alters gene copy number by using its repeated sequences widely distributed through the genome. Even though homologous recombination (HR) is ascribed to maintain genome stability, this eukaryote exploits this potent mechanism driven by the Rad51 recombinase to form beneficial extrachromosomal circular amplicons. Here, we provide insights on the formation of these circular amplicons by analyzing the functions of the Rad51 paralogs. We purified three Leishmania infantum Rad51 paralogs homologs (LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6) all of which directly interact with LiRad51. LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6 show differences in DNA binding and annealing capacities. Moreover, it is also noteworthy that LiRad51-3 and LiRad51-4 are able to stimulate Rad51-mediated D-loop formation. In addition, we succeed to inactivate the LiRad51-4 gene and report a decrease of circular amplicons in this mutant. The LiRad51-3 gene was found to be essential for cell viability. Thus, we propose that the LiRad51 paralogs play crucial functions in extrachromosomal circular DNA amplification to circumvent drug actions and preserve survival. PMID:25712090

  18. Roles of Rad51 paralogs for promoting homologous recombination in Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Plourde, Marie; Éthier, Chantal; Roy, Gaétan; Poirier, Guy G; Ouellette, Marc; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2015-03-11

    To achieve drug resistance Leishmania parasite alters gene copy number by using its repeated sequences widely distributed through the genome. Even though homologous recombination (HR) is ascribed to maintain genome stability, this eukaryote exploits this potent mechanism driven by the Rad51 recombinase to form beneficial extrachromosomal circular amplicons. Here, we provide insights on the formation of these circular amplicons by analyzing the functions of the Rad51 paralogs. We purified three Leishmania infantum Rad51 paralogs homologs (LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6) all of which directly interact with LiRad51. LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6 show differences in DNA binding and annealing capacities. Moreover, it is also noteworthy that LiRad51-3 and LiRad51-4 are able to stimulate Rad51-mediated D-loop formation. In addition, we succeed to inactivate the LiRad51-4 gene and report a decrease of circular amplicons in this mutant. The LiRad51-3 gene was found to be essential for cell viability. Thus, we propose that the LiRad51 paralogs play crucial functions in extrachromosomal circular DNA amplification to circumvent drug actions and preserve survival.

  19. Nearly Identical Paralogs: Implications for Maize (Zea mays L.) Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Emrich, Scott J.; Li, Li; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Fu, Yan; Guo, Ling; Chou, Hui-Hsien; Aluru, Srinivas; Ashlock, Daniel A.; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2007-01-01

    As an ancient segmental tetraploid, the maize (Zea mays L.) genome contains large numbers of paralogs that are expected to have diverged by a minimum of 10% over time. Nearly identical paralogs (NIPs) are defined as paralogous genes that exhibit ≥98% identity. Sequence analyses of the “gene space” of the maize inbred line B73 genome, coupled with wet lab validation, have revealed that, conservatively, at least ∼1% of maize genes have a NIP, a rate substantially higher than that in Arabidopsis. In most instances, both members of maize NIP pairs are expressed and are therefore at least potentially functional. Of evolutionary significance, members of many NIP families also exhibit differential expression. The finding that some families of maize NIPs are closely linked genetically while others are genetically unlinked is consistent with multiple modes of origin. NIPs provide a mechanism for the maize genome to circumvent the inherent limitation that diploid genomes can carry at most two “alleles” per “locus.” As such, NIPs may have played important roles during the evolution and domestication of maize and may contribute to the success of long-term selection experiments in this important crop species. PMID:17110490

  20. Characterization of Zebrafish Cardiac and Slow Skeletal Troponin C Paralogs by MD Simulation and ITC.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Charles M; Rayani, Kaveh; Genge, Christine E; Singh, Gurpreet; Liang, Bo; Roller, Janine M; Li, Cindy; Li, Alison Yueh; Tieleman, D Peter; van Petegem, Filip; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-07-12

    Zebrafish, as a model for teleost fish, have two paralogous troponin C (TnC) genes that are expressed in the heart differentially in response to temperature acclimation. Upon Ca(2+) binding, TnC changes conformation and exposes a hydrophobic patch that interacts with troponin I and initiates cardiac muscle contraction. Teleost-specific TnC paralogs have not yet been functionally characterized. In this study we have modeled the structures of the paralogs using molecular dynamics simulations at 18°C and 28°C and calculated the different Ca(2+)-binding properties between the teleost cardiac (cTnC or TnC1a) and slow-skeletal (ssTnC or TnC1b) paralogs through potential-of-mean-force calculations. These values are compared with thermodynamic binding properties obtained through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The modeled structures of each of the paralogs are similar at each temperature, with the exception of helix C, which flanks the Ca(2+) binding site; this region is also home to paralog-specific sequence substitutions that we predict have an influence on protein function. The short timescale of the potential-of-mean-force calculation precludes the inclusion of the conformational change on the ΔG of Ca(2+) interaction, whereas the ITC analysis includes the Ca(2+) binding and conformational change of the TnC molecule. ITC analysis has revealed that ssTnC has higher Ca(2+) affinity than cTnC for Ca(2+) overall, whereas each of the paralogs has increased affinity at 28°C compared to 18°C. Microsecond-timescale simulations have calculated that the cTnC paralog transitions from the closed to the open state more readily than the ssTnC paralog, an unfavorable transition that would decrease the ITC-derived Ca(2+) affinity while simultaneously increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilament. We propose that the preferential expression of cTnC at lower temperatures increases myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity by this mechanism, despite the lower Ca(2+) affinity

  1. Arabidopsis Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier Paralogs Have Distinct Functions in Development and Defense[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    van den Burg, Harrold A.; Kini, Ramachandra K.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Takken, Frank L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications allow dynamic and reversible changes to protein function. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a small gene family encodes paralogs of the small ubiquitin-like posttranslational modifier. We studied the function of these paralogs. Single mutants of the SUM1 and SUM2 paralogs do not exhibit a clear phenotype. However, the corresponding double knockdown mutant revealed that SUM1 and SUM2 are essential for plant development, floral transition, and suppression of salicylic acid (SA)–dependent defense responses. The SUM1 and SUM2 genes are constitutively expressed, but their spatial expression patterns do not overlap. Tight transcriptional regulation of these two SUM genes appears to be important, as overexpression of either wild-type or conjugation-deficient mutants resulted in activation of SA-dependent defense responses, as did the sum1 sum2 knockdown mutant. Interestingly, expression of the paralog SUM3 is strongly and widely induced by SA and by the defense elicitor Flg22, whereas its expression is otherwise low and restricted to a few specific cell types. Loss of SUM3 does not result in an aberrant developmental phenotype except for late flowering, while SUM3 overexpression causes early flowering and activates plant defense. Apparently, SUM3 promotes plant defense downstream of SA, while SUM1 and SUM2 together prevent SA accumulation in noninfected plants. PMID:20525853

  2. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  3. Transcriptomics and functional genomics of ROS-induced cell death regulation by RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1.

    PubMed

    Brosché, Mikael; Blomster, Tiina; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Cui, Fuqiang; Sipari, Nina; Leppälä, Johanna; Lamminmäki, Airi; Tomai, Gloria; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Reddy, Ramesha A; Keinänen, Markku; Overmyer, Kirk; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2014-02-01

    Plant responses to changes in environmental conditions are mediated by a network of signaling events leading to downstream responses, including changes in gene expression and activation of cell death programs. Arabidopsis thaliana RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) has been proposed to regulate plant stress responses by protein-protein interactions with transcription factors. Furthermore, the rcd1 mutant has defective control of cell death in response to apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Combining transcriptomic and functional genomics approaches we first used microarray analysis in a time series to study changes in gene expression after apoplastic ROS treatment in rcd1. To identify a core set of cell death regulated genes, RCD1-regulated genes were clustered together with other array experiments from plants undergoing cell death or treated with various pathogens, plant hormones or other chemicals. Subsequently, selected rcd1 double mutants were constructed to further define the genetic requirements for the execution of apoplastic ROS induced cell death. Through the genetic analysis we identified WRKY70 and SGT1b as cell death regulators functioning downstream of RCD1 and show that quantitative rather than qualitative differences in gene expression related to cell death appeared to better explain the outcome. Allocation of plant energy to defenses diverts resources from growth. Recently, a plant response termed stress-induced morphogenic response (SIMR) was proposed to regulate the balance between defense and growth. Using a rcd1 double mutant collection we show that SIMR is mostly independent of the classical plant defense signaling pathways and that the redox balance is involved in development of SIMR. PMID:24550736

  4. Transcriptomics and Functional Genomics of ROS-Induced Cell Death Regulation by RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1

    PubMed Central

    Salojärvi, Jarkko; Cui, Fuqiang; Sipari, Nina; Leppälä, Johanna; Lamminmäki, Airi; Tomai, Gloria; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Reddy, Ramesha A.; Keinänen, Markku; Overmyer, Kirk; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Plant responses to changes in environmental conditions are mediated by a network of signaling events leading to downstream responses, including changes in gene expression and activation of cell death programs. Arabidopsis thaliana RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) has been proposed to regulate plant stress responses by protein-protein interactions with transcription factors. Furthermore, the rcd1 mutant has defective control of cell death in response to apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Combining transcriptomic and functional genomics approaches we first used microarray analysis in a time series to study changes in gene expression after apoplastic ROS treatment in rcd1. To identify a core set of cell death regulated genes, RCD1-regulated genes were clustered together with other array experiments from plants undergoing cell death or treated with various pathogens, plant hormones or other chemicals. Subsequently, selected rcd1 double mutants were constructed to further define the genetic requirements for the execution of apoplastic ROS induced cell death. Through the genetic analysis we identified WRKY70 and SGT1b as cell death regulators functioning downstream of RCD1 and show that quantitative rather than qualitative differences in gene expression related to cell death appeared to better explain the outcome. Allocation of plant energy to defenses diverts resources from growth. Recently, a plant response termed stress-induced morphogenic response (SIMR) was proposed to regulate the balance between defense and growth. Using a rcd1 double mutant collection we show that SIMR is mostly independent of the classical plant defense signaling pathways and that the redox balance is involved in development of SIMR. PMID:24550736

  5. Functional specialization of chordate CDK1 paralogs during oogenic meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Øvrebø, Jan Inge; Campsteijn, Coen; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Hausen, Harald; Raasholm, Martina; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In contrast to interphase CDKs, the mitotic phase CDK1 is the only CDK capable of driving the entire cell cycle and it can do so from yeast to mammals. Interestingly, plants and the marine chordate, Oikopleura dioica, possess paralogs of the highly conserved CDK1 regulator. However, whereas in plants the 2 CDK1 paralogs replace interphase CDK functions, O. dioica has a full complement of interphase CDKs in addition to its 5 odCDK1 paralogs. Here we show specific sub-functionalization of odCDK1 paralogs during oogenesis. Differential spatiotemporal dynamics of the odCDK1a, d and e paralogs and the meiotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and aurora kinase determine the subset of meiotic nuclei in prophase I arrest that will seed growing oocytes and complete meiosis. Whereas we find odCDK1e to be non-essential, knockdown of the odCDK1a paralog resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes of reduced size. Knockdown of odCDK1d also resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes. In this case, the oocytes were of normal size, but were unable to extrude polar bodies upon exposure to sperm, because they were unable to resume meiosis from prophase I arrest, a classical function of the sole CDK1 during meiosis in other organisms. Thus, we reveal specific sub-functionalization of CDK1 paralogs, during the meiotic oogenic program. PMID:25714331

  6. Functional specialization of chordate CDK1 paralogs during oogenic meiosis.

    PubMed

    Øvrebø, Jan Inge; Campsteijn, Coen; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Hausen, Harald; Raasholm, Martina; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In contrast to interphase CDKs, the mitotic phase CDK1 is the only CDK capable of driving the entire cell cycle and it can do so from yeast to mammals. Interestingly, plants and the marine chordate, Oikopleura dioica, possess paralogs of the highly conserved CDK1 regulator. However, whereas in plants the 2 CDK1 paralogs replace interphase CDK functions, O. dioica has a full complement of interphase CDKs in addition to its 5 odCDK1 paralogs. Here we show specific sub-functionalization of odCDK1 paralogs during oogenesis. Differential spatiotemporal dynamics of the odCDK1a, d and e paralogs and the meiotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and aurora kinase determine the subset of meiotic nuclei in prophase I arrest that will seed growing oocytes and complete meiosis. Whereas we find odCDK1e to be non-essential, knockdown of the odCDK1a paralog resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes of reduced size. Knockdown of odCDK1d also resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes. In this case, the oocytes were of normal size, but were unable to extrude polar bodies upon exposure to sperm, because they were unable to resume meiosis from prophase I arrest, a classical function of the sole CDK1 during meiosis in other organisms. Thus, we reveal specific sub-functionalization of CDK1 paralogs, during the meiotic oogenic program. PMID:25714331

  7. Influence of Cocoa Flavanols and Procyanidins on Free Radical-induced Human Erythrocyte Hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Schramm, Derek D.; Gross, Heidrun B.; Holt, Roberta R.; Kim, Sun H.; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L.; Keen, Carl L.

    2005-01-01

    Cocoa can be a rich source of antioxidants including the flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin, and their oligomers (procyanidins). While these flavonoids have been reported to reduce the rate of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in experimental animal models, little is known about their effect on human erythrocyte hemolysis. The major objective of this work was to study the effect of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage on the resistance of human erythrocytes to oxidative stress. A second objective was to assess the effects of select purified cocoa flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, the procyanidin Dimer B2 and one of its major metabolites, 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin, on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after consuming a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage that provided 0.25 g/kg body weight (BW), 0.375 or 0.50 g/kg BW of cocoa. Plasma flavanol and dimer concentrations were determined for each subject. Erythrocyte hemolysis was evaluated using a controlled peroxidation reaction. Epicatechin, catechin, 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4β > 8)epicatechin (Dimer B2) were detected in the plasma within 1 h after the consumption of the beverage. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolysis was reduced significantly following the consumption of the beverages. The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 μM. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05). PMID:15712596

  8. Properties of Sequence Conservation in Upstream Regulatory and Protein Coding Sequences among Paralogs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Dale N.; Wiehe, Thomas

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) has catalyzed the formation of new species, genes with novel functions, altered expression patterns, complexified signaling pathways and has provided organisms a level of genetic robustness. We studied the long-term evolution and interrelationships of 5’ upstream regulatory sequences (URSs), protein coding sequences (CDSs) and expression correlations (EC) of duplicated gene pairs in Arabidopsis. Three distinct methods revealed significant evolutionary conservation between paralogous URSs and were highly correlated with microarray-based expression correlation of the respective gene pairs. Positional information on exact matches between sequences unveiled the contribution of micro-chromosomal rearrangements on expression divergence. A three-way rank analysis of URS similarity, CDS divergence and EC uncovered specific gene functional biases. Transcription factor activity was associated with gene pairs exhibiting conserved URSs and divergent CDSs, whereas a broad array of metabolic enzymes was found to be associated with gene pairs showing diverged URSs but conserved CDSs.

  9. Different Functions of the Paralogs to the N-Terminal Domain of the Orange Carotenoid Protein in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    López-Igual, Rocío; Wilson, Adjélé; Leverenz, Ryan L; Melnicki, Matthew R; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Sutter, Markus; Turmo, Aiko; Perreau, François; Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2016-07-01

    The photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) is involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) is responsible for interaction with the antenna and induction of excitation energy quenching, while the C-terminal domain is the regulatory domain that senses light and induces photoactivation. In most nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial strains, there are one to four paralogous genes coding for homologs to the NTD of the OCP. The functions of these proteins are unknown. Here, we study the expression, localization, and function of these genes in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that the four genes present in the genome are expressed in both vegetative cells and heterocysts but do not seem to have an essential role in heterocyst formation. This study establishes that all four Anabaena NTD-like proteins can bind a carotenoid and the different paralogs have distinct functions. Surprisingly, only one paralog (All4941) was able to interact with the antenna and to induce permanent thermal energy dissipation. Two of the other Anabaena paralogs (All3221 and Alr4783) were shown to be very good singlet oxygen quenchers. The fourth paralog (All1123) does not seem to be involved in photoprotection. Structural homology modeling allowed us to propose specific features responsible for the different functions of these soluble carotenoid-binding proteins. PMID:27208286

  10. Different Functions of the Paralogs to the N-Terminal Domain of the Orange Carotenoid Protein in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 71201[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    López-Igual, Rocío; Wilson, Adjélé; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Sutter, Markus; Turmo, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    The photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) is involved in cyanobacterial photoprotection. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) is responsible for interaction with the antenna and induction of excitation energy quenching, while the C-terminal domain is the regulatory domain that senses light and induces photoactivation. In most nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial strains, there are one to four paralogous genes coding for homologs to the NTD of the OCP. The functions of these proteins are unknown. Here, we study the expression, localization, and function of these genes in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that the four genes present in the genome are expressed in both vegetative cells and heterocysts but do not seem to have an essential role in heterocyst formation. This study establishes that all four Anabaena NTD-like proteins can bind a carotenoid and the different paralogs have distinct functions. Surprisingly, only one paralog (All4941) was able to interact with the antenna and to induce permanent thermal energy dissipation. Two of the other Anabaena paralogs (All3221 and Alr4783) were shown to be very good singlet oxygen quenchers. The fourth paralog (All1123) does not seem to be involved in photoprotection. Structural homology modeling allowed us to propose specific features responsible for the different functions of these soluble carotenoid-binding proteins. PMID:27208286

  11. Protective effect of saponins from Argania spinosa against free radical-induced oxidative haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Amzal, H; Alaoui, K; Tok, S; Errachidi, A; Charof, R; Cherrah, Y; Benjouad, A

    2008-07-01

    Saponins from Argania spinosa at a non-haemolytic concentration diminish by 53.2% erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals. 2 mM aspirin and acetaminophen diminish by 75% and 68% , respectively, erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals, while 0.3 microM vitamin E shows no significant antioxidant activity. Interestingly, a combination of 1 mg/l of A. spinosa saponins and vitamin E at 0.3 microM resulted in a 68% level of protection against free radical-induced erythrocyte haemolysis, which may suggest that A. spinosa saponins enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. In contrast, no synergic effect was observed for acetaminophen (2 mM) when in combination with vitamin E (0.3 microM). These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of saponins from A. spinosa and their ability to potentate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. PMID:18514434

  12. Evolution of the vertebrate genome as reflected in paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, L.G. )

    1993-04-01

    Gene constellations on several human chromosomes are interpreted as indications of large regional duplications that took place during evolution of the vertebrate genome. Four groups of paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse are suggested and are believed to be conserved remnants of the two or three rounds of tetraploidization that are likely to have occurred during evolution of the vertebrates. The phenomenon of differential silencing of genes is described. The importance of conservation of linkage of particular genes is discussed in relation to genetic regulation and cell differentiation. 120 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Adhesive Properties of YapV and Paralogous Autotransporter Proteins of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manoj K. M.; De Masi, Leon; Yue, Min; Galván, Estela M.; Chen, Huaiqing; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. This bacterium evolved from an ancestral enteroinvasive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain by gene loss and acquisition of new genes, allowing it to use fleas as transmission vectors. Infection frequently leads to a rapidly lethal outcome in humans, a variety of rodents, and cats. This study focuses on the Y. pestis KIM yapV gene and its product, recognized as an autotransporter protein by its typical sequence, outer membrane localization, and amino-terminal surface exposure. Comparison of Yersinia genomes revealed that DNA encoding YapV or each of three individual paralogous proteins (YapK, YapJ, and YapX) was present as a gene or pseudogene in a strain-specific manner and only in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. YapV acted as an adhesin for alveolar epithelial cells and specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as shown with recombinant Escherichia coli, Y. pestis, or purified passenger domains. Like YapV, YapK and YapJ demonstrated adhesive properties, suggesting that their previously related in vivo activity is due to their capacity to modulate binding properties of Y. pestis in its hosts, in conjunction with other adhesins. A differential host-specific type of binding to ECM proteins by YapV, YapK, and YapJ suggested that these proteins participate in broadening the host range of Y. pestis. A phylogenic tree including 36 Y. pestis strains highlighted an association between the gene profile for the four paralogous proteins and the geographic location of the corresponding isolated strains, suggesting an evolutionary adaption of Y. pestis to specific local animal hosts or reservoirs. PMID:25690102

  14. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor SM1 is involved in colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, Frankie K; Moran-Diez, Maria E; Ding, Shengli; Liu, Jinggao; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2015-06-01

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs within the T. virens genome. The paralog sm2 is highly expressed in the presence of plant roots. Gene deletion mutants of sm2 were generated and the mutants were found to overproduce SM1. The ability to elicit ISR in maize against Colletotrichum graminicola was not compromised for the mutants compared to that of wild type isolate. However, the deletion strains had a significantly lowered ability to colonize maize roots. This appears to be the first report on the involvement of an effector-like protein in colonization of roots by Trichoderma.

  15. Trypanosoma brucei harbors a divergent XPB helicase paralog that is specialized in nucleotide excision repair and conserved among kinetoplastid organisms

    PubMed Central

    Badjatia, Nitika; Nguyen, Tu N; Lee, Ju Huck; Günzl, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Summary Conserved from yeast to humans, TFIIH is essential for RNA polymerase II transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). TFIIH consists of a core that includes the DNA helicase Xeroderma pigmentosum B (XPB) and a kinase subcomplex. Trypanosoma brucei TFIIH harbors all core complex components and is indispensable for RNA polymerase II transcription of spliced leader RNA genes (SLRNAs). Kinetoplastid organisms, however, possess two highly divergent XPB paralogs with only the larger being identified as a TFIIH subunit in T. brucei. Here we show that a knockout of the gene for the smaller paralog, termed XPB-R (R for repair) resulted in viable cultured trypanosomes that grew slower than normal. XPB-R depletion did not affect transcription in vivo or in vitro and XPB-R was not found to occupy the SLRNA promoter which assembles a RNA polymerase II transcription pre-initiation complex including TFIIH. However, XPB-R−/− cells were much less tolerant than wild-type cells to UV light- and cisplatin-induced DNAdamage, which require NER. Since XPB-R−/− cells were not impaired in DNA base excision repair, XPB-R appears to function specifically in NER. Interestingly, several other protists possess highly divergent XPB paralogs suggesting that XPBs specialized in transcription or NER exist beyond the Kinetoplastida. PMID:24134817

  16. IDN2 and Its Paralogs Form a Complex Required for RNA–Directed DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Jun; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Su-Wei; Chen, Qing; Shao, Chang-Rong; Guo, Yan-Wu; Zhou, Jin-Xing; Li, Lin; Chen, She; He, Xin-Jian

    2012-01-01

    IDN2/RDM12 has been previously identified as a component of the RNA–directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana, but how it functions in RdDM remains unknown. By affinity purification of IDN2, we co-purified two IDN2 paralogs IDP1 and IDP2 (IDN2 PARALOG 1 and 2). The coiled-coil domain between the XS and XH domains of IDN2 is essential for IDN2 homodimerization, whereas the IDN2 C-terminal XH domain but not the coiled-coil domain is required for IDN2 interaction with IDP1 and IDP2. By introducing the wild-type IDN2 sequence and its mutated derivatives into the idn2 mutant for complementation testing, we demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized IDN2 XH domain is required for the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex formation as well as for IDN2 function. IDP1 is required for de novo DNA methylation, siRNA accumulation, and transcriptional gene silencing, whereas IDP2 has partially overlapping roles with IDP1. Unlike IDN2, IDP1 and IDP2 are incapable of binding double-stranded RNA, suggesting that the roles of IDP1 and IDP2 are different from those of IDN2 in the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex and that IDP1 and IDP2 are essential for the functioning of the complex in RdDM. PMID:22570638

  17. An HcpR paralog of Desulfovibrio gigas provides protection against nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Sofia M.; Amaral, Catarina; Neves, Susana S.; Santos, Cátia; Pimentel, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2015-01-01

    Desulfovibrio gigas belongs to the group of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). These ubiquitous and metabolically versatile microorganisms are often exposed to reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Nonetheless, the mechanisms and regulatory elements involved in nitrosative stress protection are still poorly understood. The transcription factor HcpR has emerged as a putative regulator of nitrosative stress response among anaerobic bacteria. HcpR is known to orchestrate the expression of the hybrid cluster protein gene, hcp, proposed to be involved in cellular defense against RNS. According to phylogenetic analyses, the occurrence of hcpR paralog genes is a common feature among several Desulfovibrio species. Within the D. gigas genome we have identified two HcpR-related sequences. One of these sequences, hcpR1, was found in the close vicinity of the hcp gene and this finding prompted us to proceed with its functional characterization. We observed that the growth of a D. gigas strain lacking hcpR1 is severely impaired under nitrosative stress. An in silico search revealed several putative targets of HcpR1 that were experimentally validated. The fact that HcpR1 regulates several genes encoding proteins involved in nitrite and nitrate metabolism, together with the sensitive growth phenotype to NO displayed by an hcpR1 mutant strain, strongly supports a relevant role of this factor under nitrosative stress. Moreover, the finding that several Desulfovibrio species possess HcpR paralogs, which have been transmitted vertically in the evolution and diversification of the genus, suggests that these sequences may confer adaptive or survival advantage to these organisms, possibly by increasing their tolerance to nitrosative stress. PMID:26273559

  18. Antioxidative effects of Kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boh Kyung; Choi, Ji Myung; Kang, Soon Ah; Park, Kun Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable containing several ingredients. We investigated the protective activity of methanol extract of kimchi under different fermentation stages against oxidative damage. MATERIALS/METHODS Fresh kimchi (Fresh), optimally ripened kimchi (OptR), and over ripened kimchi (OvR) were fermented until the pH reached pH 5.6, pH 4.3, and pH 3.8, respectively. The radical scavenging activity and protective activity from oxidative stress of kimchi during fermentation were investigated under in vitro and cellular systems using LLC-PK1 cells. RESULTS Kimchi exhibited strong radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the free radical generators led to loss of cell viability and elevated lipid peroxidation, while treatment with kimchi resulted in significantly increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the protective effect against oxidative stress was related to regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB p65, and IκB expression. In particular, OvR showed the strongest protective effect from cellular oxidative stress among other kimchi. CONCLUSION The current study indicated that kimchi, particularly OptR and OvR, played a protective role against free radical-induced oxidative stress. These findings suggest that kimchi is a promising functional food with an antioxidative effect and fermentation of kimchi led to elevation of antioxidative activity. PMID:25489403

  19. Radical-induced chemistry from VUV photolysis of interstellar ice analogues containing formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butscher, Teddy; Duvernay, Fabrice; Danger, Grégoire; Chiavassa, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Surface processes and radical chemistry within interstellar ices are increasingly suspected to play an important role in the formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) observed in several astrophysical regions and cometary environments. We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of complex organic molecules - glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol, and polyoxymethylene - through radical-induced reactivity from VUV photolysis of formaldehyde in water-free and water-dominated ices. Radical reactivity and endogenous formation of COMs were monitored in situ via infrared spectroscopy in the solid state and post photolysis with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) using a quadripole mass spectrometer. We show the ability of free radicals to be stored when formed at low temperature in water-dominated ices, and to react with other radicals or on double bonds of unsaturated molecules when the temperature increases. It experimentally confirms the role of thermal diffusion in radical reactivity. We propose a new pathway for formaldehyde polymerisation induced by HCO radicals that might explain some observations made by the Ptolemy instrument on board the Rosetta lander Philae. In addition, our results seem to indicate that H-atom additions on H2CO proceed preferentially through CH2OH intermediate radicals rather than the CH3O radical.

  20. Parameters of proteome evolution from histograms of amino-acid sequence identities of paralogous proteins

    PubMed Central

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Yan, Koon-Kiu; Maslov, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    Background The evolution of the full repertoire of proteins encoded in a given genome is mostly driven by gene duplications, deletions, and sequence modifications of existing proteins. Indirect information about relative rates and other intrinsic parameters of these three basic processes is contained in the proteome-wide distribution of sequence identities of pairs of paralogous proteins. Results We introduce a simple mathematical framework based on a stochastic birth-and-death model that allows one to extract some of this information and apply it to the set of all pairs of paralogous proteins in H. pylori, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and H. sapiens. It was found that the histogram of sequence identities p generated by an all-to-all alignment of all protein sequences encoded in a genome is well fitted with a power-law form ~ p-γ with the value of the exponent γ around 4 for the majority of organisms used in this study. This implies that the intra-protein variability of substitution rates is best described by the Gamma-distribution with the exponent α ≈ 0.33. Different features of the shape of such histograms allow us to quantify the ratio between the genome-wide average deletion/duplication rates and the amino-acid substitution rate. Conclusion We separately measure the short-term ("raw") duplication and deletion rates rdup∗, rdel∗ which include gene copies that will be removed soon after the duplication event and their dramatically reduced long-term counterparts rdup, rdel. High deletion rate among recently duplicated proteins is consistent with a scenario in which they didn't have enough time to significantly change their functional roles and thus are to a large degree disposable. Systematic trends of each of the four duplication/deletion rates with the total number of genes in the genome were analyzed. All but the deletion rate of recent duplicates rdel∗ were shown to systematically increase with Ngenes. Abnormally flat shapes

  1. Divergence of Gene Body DNA Methylation and Evolution of Plant Duplicate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to elucidate the potential role of gene body DNA methylation in the fate of duplicate genes. We identified paralogous gene pairs from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) genomes and reprocessed their single-base resolution methylome data. We show that methylation in paralogous genes nonlinearly correlates with several gene properties including exon number/gene length, expression level and mutation rate. Further, we demonstrated that divergence of methylation level and pattern in paralogs indeed positively correlate with their sequence and expression divergences. This result held even after controlling for other confounding factors known to influence the divergence of paralogs. We observed that methylation level divergence might be more relevant to the expression divergence of paralogs than methylation pattern divergence. Finally, we explored the mechanisms that might give rise to the divergence of gene body methylation in paralogs. We found that exonic methylation divergence more closely correlates with expression divergence than intronic methylation divergence. We show that genomic environments (e.g., flanked by transposable elements and repetitive sequences) of paralogs generated by various duplication mechanisms are associated with the methylation divergence of paralogs. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in gene body DNA methylation could provide another avenue for duplicate genes to develop differential expression patterns and undergo different evolutionary fates in plant genomes. PMID:25310342

  2. Analytical approaches to the OH radical induced degradation of sulfonamide antibiotics in dilute aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sági, Gyuri; Csay, Tamás; Szabó, László; Pátzay, György; Csonka, Emil; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2015-03-15

    By combining a large variety of analytical techniques this study aimed at elaborating methods to follow up the degradation of sulfonamides in an advanced oxidation process (AOP): irradiation with ionizing radiation in dilute aqueous solution. In this process, besides other radicals, hydroxyl radicals are produced. As pulse radiolysis experiments show the basic initial reaction is hydroxyl radical addition to the benzene ring, forming cyclohexadienyl radical intermediates. In aerated solutions these radicals transform to peroxy radicals. Among the first formed products aromatic molecules hydroxylated in the benzene rings or in some cases in the heterocyclic rings were observed by LC-MS/MS. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements indicate that at the early reaction period of degradation one hydroxyl radical induces incorporation of 1.5 O atoms into the products. Comparison of the COD and TOC (total organic carbon content) results shows gradual oxidation. Simultaneously with hydroxylation ring opening also takes place. The kinetics of inorganic SO4(2-) and NH4(+) formation, analyzed by ion chromatography, is similar to the kinetics of ring degradation (UV spectroscopy), however, there is a delayed formation of NO3(-). The latter ions may be produced in oxidative degradation of smaller N containing fragments. The S atoms of the sulfonamides remain in the solution (ICP-MS measurements) after degradation, whereas some part of the N atoms leaves the solution probably in the form of N2 (total nitrogen content (TN) measurements). Degradation is accompanied by a high pH drop due to formation of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and smaller organic acids. The degradation goes through many simultaneous and consecutive reactions, and with the applied methods the different stages of degradation can be characterized.

  3. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  4. SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

    2013-10-15

    At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

  5. Three-Dimensional Phylogeny Explorer: Distinguishing paralogs, lateral transfer, and violation of "molecular clock" assumption with 3D visualization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namshin; Lee, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background Construction and interpretation of phylogenetic trees has been a major research topic for understanding the evolution of genes. Increases in sequence data and complexity are creating a need for more powerful and insightful tree visualization tools. Results We have developed 3D Phylogeny Explorer (3DPE), a novel phylogeny tree viewer that maps trees onto three spatial axes (species on the X-axis; paralogs on Z; evolutionary distance on Y), enabling one to distinguish at a glance evolutionary features such as speciation; gene duplication and paralog evolution; lateral gene transfer; and violation of the "molecular clock" assumption. Users can input any tree on the online 3DPE, then rotate, scroll, rescale, and explore it interactively as "live" 3D views. All objects in 3DPE are clickable to display subtrees, connectivity path highlighting, sequence alignments, and gene summary views, and etc. To illustrate the value of this visualization approach for microbial genomes, we also generated 3D phylogeny analyses for all clusters from the public COG database. We constructed tree views using well-established methods and graph algorithms. We used Scientific Python to generate VRML2 3D views viewable in any web browser. Conclusion 3DPE provides a novel phylogenetic tree projection method into 3D space and its web-based implementation with live 3D features for reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of COG database. PMID:17584922

  6. Tocotrienol offers better protection than tocopherol from free radical-induced damage of rat bone.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N S; Khalid, B A K; Luke, D A; Ima Nirwana, S

    2005-09-01

    1. Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or alpha-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. 2. The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and alpha-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure alpha-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. 3. Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or alpha-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of alpha-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). 4. Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of alpha-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were

  7. Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time.

  8. Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

  9. Fitness Assays Reveal Incomplete Functional Redundancy of the HoxA1 and HoxB1 Paralogs of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, James S.; Saffarini, Raed B.; Ramoz, Leda L.; Morrison, Linda C.; Baker, Shambralyn; Laverty, Sean M.; Tvrdik, Petr; Potts, Wayne K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting techniques have led to the phenotypic characterization of numerous genes; however, many genes show minimal to no phenotypic consequences when disrupted, despite many having highly conserved sequences. The standard explanation for these findings is functional redundancy. A competing hypothesis is that these genes have important ecological functions in natural environments that are not needed under laboratory settings. Here we discriminate between these hypotheses by competing mice (Mus musculus) whose Hoxb1 gene has been replaced by Hoxa1, its highly conserved paralog, against matched wild-type controls in seminatural enclosures. This Hoxb1A1 swap was reported as a genetic manipulation resulting in no discernible embryonic or physiological phenotype under standard laboratory tests. We observed a transient decline in first litter size for Hoxb1A1 homozygous mice in breeding cages, but their fitness was consistently and more dramatically reduced when competing against controls within seminatural populations. Specifically, males homozygous for the Hoxb1A1 swap acquired 10.6% fewer territories and the frequency of the Hoxb1A1 allele decreased from 0.500 in population founders to 0.419 in their offspring. The decrease in Hoxb1A1 frequency corresponded with a deficiency of both Hoxb1A1 homozygous and heterozygous offspring. These data suggest that Hoxb1 and Hoxa1 are more phenotypically divergent than previously reported and support that sub- and/or neofunctionalization has occurred in these paralogous genes leading to a divergence of gene function and incomplete redundancy. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of obtaining fitness measures of mutants in ecologically relevant conditions to better understand gene function and evolution. PMID:26447130

  10. Knockout of the abundant Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomal membrane protein TvHMP23 increases hydrogenosome size but induces no compensatory up-regulation of paralogous copies.

    PubMed

    Brás, Xavier Pereira; Zimorski, Verena; Bolte, Kathrin; Maier, Uwe-G; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2013-05-01

    The Trichomonas vaginalis genome encodes up to 60000 genes, many of which stem from genome duplication events. Paralogous copies thus accompany most T. vaginalis genes, a phenomenon that limits genetic manipulation. We characterized one of the parasite's most abundant hydrogenosomal membrane proteins, TvHMP23, which is phylogenetically distinct from canonical metabolite carriers, and which localizes to the inner hydrogenosomal membrane as shown through sub-organellar fractionation and protease protection assays. Knockout of Tvhmp23 through insertion of the selectable neomycin marker led to a size increase of hydrogenosomes, the first knockout-induced phenotypes reported for Trichomonas, but no growth impairment. The transcriptional response of its four paralogous copies then analyzed revealed that they are not up-regulated, and hence do not compensate for the Tvhmp23 knockout. PMID:23499435

  11. Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. Results We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence ≈ 20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. Conclusions The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave

  12. Gene duplications in prokaryotes can be associated with environmental adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene duplication is a normal evolutionary process. If there is no selective advantage in keeping the duplicated gene, it is usually reduced to a pseudogene and disappears from the genome. However, some paralogs are retained. These gene products are likely to be beneficial to the organism, e.g. in adaptation to new environmental conditions. The aim of our analysis is to investigate the properties of paralog-forming genes in prokaryotes, and to analyse the role of these retained paralogs by relating gene properties to life style of the corresponding prokaryotes. Results Paralogs were identified in a number of prokaryotes, and these paralogs were compared to singletons of persistent orthologs based on functional classification. This showed that the paralogs were associated with for example energy production, cell motility, ion transport, and defence mechanisms. A statistical overrepresentation analysis of gene and protein annotations was based on paralogs of the 200 prokaryotes with the highest fraction of paralog-forming genes. Biclustering of overrepresented gene ontology terms versus species was used to identify clusters of properties associated with clusters of species. The clusters were classified using similarity scores on properties and species to identify interesting clusters, and a subset of clusters were analysed by comparison to literature data. This analysis showed that paralogs often are associated with properties that are important for survival and proliferation of the specific organisms. This includes processes like ion transport, locomotion, chemotaxis and photosynthesis. However, the analysis also showed that the gene ontology terms sometimes were too general, imprecise or even misleading for automatic analysis. Conclusions Properties described by gene ontology terms identified in the overrepresentation analysis are often consistent with individual prokaryote lifestyles and are likely to give a competitive advantage to the organism

  13. Targeted Identification of SUMOylation Sites in Human Proteins Using Affinity Enrichment and Paralog-specific Reporter Ions*

    PubMed Central

    Lamoliatte, Frederic; Bonneil, Eric; Durette, Chantal; Caron-Lizotte, Olivier; Wildemann, Dirk; Zerweck, Johannes; Wenshuk, Holger; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Protein modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modulates the activities of numerous proteins involved in different cellular functions such as gene transcription, cell cycle, and DNA repair. Comprehensive identification of SUMOylated sites is a prerequisite to determine how SUMOylation regulates protein function. However, mapping SUMOylated Lys residues by mass spectrometry (MS) is challenging because of the dynamic nature of this modification, the existence of three functionally distinct human SUMO paralogs, and the large SUMO chain remnant that remains attached to tryptic peptides. To overcome these problems, we created HEK293 cell lines that stably express functional SUMO paralogs with an N-terminal His6-tag and an Arg residue near the C terminus that leave a short five amino acid SUMO remnant upon tryptic digestion. We determined the fragmentation patterns of our short SUMO remnant peptides by collisional activation and electron transfer dissociation using synthetic peptide libraries. Activation using higher energy collisional dissociation on the LTQ-Orbitrap Elite identified SUMO paralog-specific fragment ions and neutral losses of the SUMO remnant with high mass accuracy (< 5 ppm). We exploited these features to detect SUMO modified tryptic peptides in complex cell extracts by correlating mass measurements of precursor and fragment ions using a data independent acquisition method. We also generated bioinformatics tools to retrieve MS/MS spectra containing characteristic fragment ions to the identification of SUMOylated peptide by conventional Mascot database searches. In HEK293 cell extracts, this MS approach uncovered low abundance SUMOylated peptides and 37 SUMO3-modified Lys residues in target proteins, most of which were previously unknown. Interestingly, we identified mixed SUMO-ubiquitin chains with ubiquitylated SUMO proteins (K20 and K32) and SUMOylated ubiquitin (K63), suggesting a complex crosstalk between these two modifications. PMID

  14. The discovery of Foxl2 paralogs in chondrichthyan, coelacanth and tetrapod genomes reveals an ancient duplication in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, M T; Valente, G T; Braz, A S K; Martins, C

    2013-07-01

    The Foxl2 (forkhead box L2) gene is an important member of the forkhead domain family, primarily responsible for the development of ovaries during female sex differentiation. The evolutionary studies conducted previously considered the presence of paralog Foxl2 copies only in teleosts. However, to search for possible paralog copies in other groups of vertebrates and ensure that all predicted copies were homolog to the Foxl2 gene, a broad evolutionary analysis was performed, based on the forkhead domain family. A total of 2464 sequences for the forkhead domain were recovered, and subsequently, 64 representative sequences for Foxl2 were used in the evolutionary analysis of this gene. The most important contribution of this study was the discovery of a new subgroup of Foxl2 copies (ortholog to Foxl2B) present in the chondrichthyan Callorhinchus milii, in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, in the avian Taeniopygia guttata and in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. This new scenario indicates a gene duplication event in an ancestor of gnathostomes. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the syntenic regions of both Foxl2 copies, the duplication event was not exclusive to Foxl2. Moreover, the duplicated copy distribution was shown to be complex across vertebrates, especially in tetrapods, and the results strongly support a loss of this copy in eutherian species. Finally, the scenario observed in this study suggests an update for Foxl2 gene nomenclature, extending the actual suggested teleost naming of Foxl2A and Foxl2B to all vertebrate sequences and contributing to the establishment of a new evolutionary context for the Foxl2 gene.

  15. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis.

  16. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. PMID:26043798

  17. Mammalian RAD51 paralogs protect nascent DNA at stalled forks and mediate replication restart.

    PubMed

    Somyajit, Kumar; Saxena, Sneha; Babu, Sharath; Mishra, Anup; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2015-11-16

    Mammalian RAD51 paralogs are implicated in the repair of collapsed replication forks by homologous recombination. However, their physiological roles in replication fork maintenance prior to fork collapse remain obscure. Here, we report on the role of RAD51 paralogs in short-term replicative stress devoid of DSBs. We show that RAD51 paralogs localize to nascent DNA and common fragile sites upon replication fork stalling. Strikingly, RAD51 paralogs deficient cells exhibit elevated levels of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and increased DSB formation, the latter being attributed to extensive degradation of nascent DNA at stalled forks. RAD51C and XRCC3 promote the restart of stalled replication in an ATP hydrolysis dependent manner by disengaging RAD51 and other RAD51 paralogs from the halted forks. Notably, we find that Fanconi anemia (FA)-like disorder and breast and ovarian cancer patient derived mutations of RAD51C fails to protect replication fork, exhibit under-replicated genomic regions and elevated micro-nucleation. Taken together, RAD51 paralogs prevent degradation of stalled forks and promote the restart of halted replication to avoid replication fork collapse, thereby maintaining genomic integrity and suppressing tumorigenesis.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of kindlins suggests subfunctionalization of an ancestral unduplicated kindlin into three paralogs in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ammad Aslam; Janke, Axel; Shimokawa, Takashi; Zhang, Hongquan

    2011-01-01

    Kindlin proteins represent a newly discovered family of evolutionarily conserved FERM domain-containing proteins. This family includes three highly conserved proteins: Kindlin-1, Kindlin-2 and Kindlin-3. All three Kindlin proteins are associated with focal adhesions and are involved in integrin activation. The FERM domain of each Kindlin is bipartite and plays a key role in integrin activation. We herein explore for the first time the evolutionary history of these proteins. The phylogeny of the Kindlins suggests a single ancestral Kindlin protein present in even the earliest metazoan ie, hydra. This protein then underwent duplication events in insects and also experienced genome duplication in vertebrates, leading to the Kindlin family. A comparative study of the Kindlin paralogs showed that Kindlin-2 is the slowest evolving protein among the three family members. The analysis of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions in orthologous Kindlin sequences in different species showed that all three Kindlins have been evolving under the influence of purifying selection. The expression pattern of Kindlins along with phylogenetic studies supports the subfunctionalization model of gene duplication.

  19. Paralog re-emergence: a novel, historically contingent mechanism in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nichola J; Cools, Hans J; Sierotzki, Helge; Shaw, Michael W; Knogge, Wolfgang; Kelly, Steven L; Kelly, Diane E; Fraaije, Bart A

    2014-07-01

    Evolution of resistance to drugs and pesticides poses a serious threat to human health and agricultural production. CYP51 encodes the target site of azole fungicides, widely used clinically and in agriculture. Azole resistance can evolve due to point mutations or overexpression of CYP51, and previous studies have shown that fungicide-resistant alleles have arisen by de novo mutation. Paralogs CYP51A and CYP51B are found in filamentous ascomycetes, but CYP51A has been lost from multiple lineages. Here, we show that in the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune, re-emergence of CYP51A constitutes a novel mechanism for the evolution of resistance to azoles. Pyrosequencing analysis of historical barley leaf samples from a unique long-term experiment from 1892 to 2008 indicates that the majority of the R. commune population lacked CYP51A until 1985, after which the frequency of CYP51A rapidly increased. Functional analysis demonstrates that CYP51A retains the same substrate as CYP51B, but with different transcriptional regulation. Phylogenetic analyses show that the origin of CYP51A far predates azole use, and newly sequenced Rhynchosporium genomes show CYP51A persisting in the R. commune lineage rather than being regained by horizontal gene transfer; therefore, CYP51A re-emergence provides an example of adaptation to novel compounds by selection from standing genetic variation.

  20. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G.; Prosser, Haydn M.; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P.; Tabin, Clifford J.; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-01-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3′ UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae. PMID:26283362

  1. Independent regulation of vertebral number and vertebral identity by microRNA-196 paralogs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Siew Fen Lisa; Agarwal, Vikram; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Denans, Nicolas; Schwartz, Matthew G; Prosser, Haydn M; Pourquié, Olivier; Bartel, David P; Tabin, Clifford J; McGlinn, Edwina

    2015-09-01

    The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae. All three miR-196 paralogs, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b, act redundantly to pattern the midthoracic region, whereas 196a2 and 196b have an additive role in controlling the number of rib-bearing vertebra and positioning of the sacrum. Independent of this, 196a1, 196a2, and 196b act redundantly to constrain total vertebral number. Loss of miR-196 leads to a collective up-regulation of numerous trunk Hox target genes with a concomitant delay in activation of caudal Hox genes, which are proposed to signal the end of axis extension. Additionally, we identified altered molecular signatures associated with the Wnt, Fgf, and Notch/segmentation pathways and demonstrate that miR-196 has the potential to regulate Wnt activity by multiple mechanisms. By feeding into, and thereby integrating, multiple genetic networks controlling vertebral number and identity, miR-196 is a critical player defining axial formulae.

  2. Molecular and functional characterization of seven Na+/K+-ATPase β subunit paralogs in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858).

    PubMed

    Armesto, Paula; Infante, Carlos; Cousin, Xavier; Ponce, Marian; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, seven genes encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) β-subunits in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of the predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation with those of other vertebrate species and maintenance of important motifs involved in structure and function. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the seven genes into four main clades: β1 (atp1b1a and atp1b1b), β2 (atp1b2a and atp1b2b), β3 (atp1b3a and atp1b3b) and β4 (atp1b4). In juveniles, all paralogous transcripts were detected in the nine tissues examined albeit with different expression patterns. The most ubiquitous expressed gene was atp1b1a whereas atp1b1b was mainly detected in osmoregulatory organs (gill, kidney and intestine), and atp1b2a, atp1b2b, atp1b3a, atp1b3b and atp1b4 in brain. An expression analysis in three brain regions and pituitary revealed that β1-type transcripts were more abundant in pituitary than the other β paralogs with slight differences between brain regions. Quantification of mRNA abundance in gills after a salinity challenge showed an activation of atp1b1a and atp1b1b at high salinity water (60 ppt) and atp1b3a and atp1b3b in response to low salinity (5 ppt). Transcriptional analysis during larval development showed specific expression patterns for each paralog. Moreover, no differences in the expression profiles between larvae cultivated at 10 and 35 ppt were observed except for atp1b4 with higher mRNA levels at 10 than 35 ppt at 18 days post hatch. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that atp1b1b was mainly localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, and chordacentrum of newly hatched larvae. All these data suggest distinct roles of NKA β subunits in tissues, during development and osmoregulation with β1 subunits involved in the adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions and β3 subunits to hypoosmotic environments.

  3. Control of copper resistance and inorganic sulfur metabolism by paralogous regulators in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Nicholas; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Ma, Zhen; Adams, Keith W; Cowart, Darin M; Scott, Robert A; Skaar, Eric P; Giedroc, David P

    2011-04-15

    All strains of Staphylococcus aureus encode a putative copper-sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) and one other CsoR-like protein of unknown function. We show here that NWMN_1991 encodes a bona fide Cu(I)-inducible CsoR of a genetically unlinked copA-copZ copper resistance operon in S. aureus strain Newman. In contrast, an unannotated open reading frame found between NWMN_0027 and NWMN_0026 (denoted NWMN_0026.5) encodes a CsoR-like regulator that represses expression of adjacent genes by binding specifically to a pair of canonical operator sites positioned in the NWMN_0027-0026.5 intergenic region. Inspection of these regulated genes suggests a role in assimilation of inorganic sulfur from thiosulfate and vectorial sulfur transfer, and we designate NWMN_0026.5 as CstR (CsoR-like sulfur transferase repressor). Expression analysis demonstrates that CsoR and CstR control their respective regulons in response to distinct stimuli with no overlap in vivo. Unlike CsoR, CstR does not form a stable complex with Cu(I); operator binding is instead inhibited by oxidation of the intersubunit cysteine pair to a mixture of disulfide and trisulfide linkages by a likely metabolite of thiosulfate assimilation, sulfite. CsoR is unreactive toward sulfite under the same conditions. We conclude that CsoR and CstR are paralogs in S. aureus that function in the same cytoplasm to control distinct physiological processes. PMID:21339296

  4. csrR, a Paralog and Direct Target of CsrA, Promotes Legionella pneumophila Resilience in Water

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Zachary D.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Critical to microbial versatility is the capacity to express the cohort of genes that increase fitness in different environments. Legionella pneumophila occupies extensive ecological space that includes diverse protists, pond water, engineered water systems, and mammalian lung macrophages. One mechanism that equips this opportunistic pathogen to adapt to fluctuating conditions is a switch between replicative and transmissive cell types that is controlled by the broadly conserved regulatory protein CsrA. A striking feature of the legionellae surveyed is that each of 14 strains encodes 4 to 7 csrA-like genes, candidate regulators of distinct fitness traits. Here we focus on the one csrA paralog (lpg1593) that, like the canonical csrA, is conserved in all 14 strains surveyed. Phenotypic analysis revealed that long-term survival in tap water is promoted by the lpg1593 locus, which we name csrR (for “CsrA-similar protein for resilience”). As predicted by its GGA motif, csrR mRNA was bound directly by the canonical CsrA protein, as judged by electromobility shift and RNA-footprinting assays. Furthermore, CsrA repressed translation of csrR mRNA in vivo, as determined by analysis of csrR-gfp reporters, csrR mRNA stability in the presence and absence of csrA expression, and mutation of the CsrA binding site identified on the csrR mRNA. Thus, CsrA not only governs the transition from replication to transmission but also represses translation of its paralog csrR when nutrients are available. We propose that, during prolonged starvation, relief of CsrA repression permits CsrR protein to coordinate L. pneumophila’s switch to a cell type that is resilient in water supplies. PMID:26060275

  5. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of 5-methylcytosine in isolated and cellular DNA

    PubMed Central

    Madugundu, Guru S.; Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J. Richard

    2014-01-01

    The methylation and oxidative demethylation of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides plays a critical role in the regulation of genes during cell differentiation, embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Despite its low abundance, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a hotspot for mutations in mammalian cells. Here, we measured five oxidation products of 5mC together with the analogous products of cytosine and thymine in DNA exposed to ionizing radiation in oxygenated aqueous solution. The products can be divided into those that arise from hydroxyl radical (•OH) addition at the 5,6-double bond of 5mC (glycol, hydantoin and imidazolidine products) and those that arise from H-atom abstraction from the methyl group of 5mC including 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-formylcytosine (5fC). Based on the analysis of these products, we show that the total damage at 5mC is about 2-fold greater than that at C in identical sequences. The formation of hydantoin products of 5mC is favored, compared to analogous reactions of thymine and cytosine, which favor the formation of glycol products. The distribution of oxidation products is sequence dependent in specific ODN duplexes. In the case of 5mC, the formation of 5hmC and 5fC represents about half of the total of •OH-induced oxidation products of 5mC. Several products of thymine, cytosine, 5mC, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG), were also estimated in irradiated cells. PMID:24852253

  6. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of 5-methylcytosine in isolated and cellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Madugundu, Guru S; Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard

    2014-06-01

    The methylation and oxidative demethylation of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides plays a critical role in the regulation of genes during cell differentiation, embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Despite its low abundance, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a hotspot for mutations in mammalian cells. Here, we measured five oxidation products of 5mC together with the analogous products of cytosine and thymine in DNA exposed to ionizing radiation in oxygenated aqueous solution. The products can be divided into those that arise from hydroxyl radical (•OH) addition at the 5,6-double bond of 5mC (glycol, hydantoin and imidazolidine products) and those that arise from H-atom abstraction from the methyl group of 5mC including 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-formylcytosine (5fC). Based on the analysis of these products, we show that the total damage at 5mC is about 2-fold greater than that at C in identical sequences. The formation of hydantoin products of 5mC is favored, compared to analogous reactions of thymine and cytosine, which favor the formation of glycol products. The distribution of oxidation products is sequence dependent in specific ODN duplexes. In the case of 5mC, the formation of 5hmC and 5fC represents about half of the total of •OH-induced oxidation products of 5mC. Several products of thymine, cytosine, 5mC, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG), were also estimated in irradiated cells.

  7. Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Phrueksanan, Wathuwan; Yibchok-anun, Sirinthorn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2014-10-01

    The present study assessed the antioxidant activity and protective ability of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract (CTE) against in vitro 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage of canine erythrocytes. From the phytochemical analysis, CTE contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. In addition, CTE showed antioxidant activity as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. CTE (400 µg/ml) remarkably protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis at 4 h of incubation. Moreover, CTE (400 µg/ml) reduced membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group formation and prevented the reduction of glutathione concentration in AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes. The AAPH-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes from a smooth discoid to an echinocytic form was effectively protected by CTE. The present results contribute important insights that CTE may have the potential to act as a natural antioxidant to prevent free radical-induced hemolysis, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes. PMID:25241390

  8. Hydroxyl-radical-induced degradative oxidation of beta-lactam antibiotics in water: absolute rate constant measurements.

    PubMed

    Dail, Michelle K; Mezyk, Stephen P

    2010-08-19

    The beta-lactam antibiotics are some of the most prevalent pharmaceutical contaminants currently being detected in aquatic environments. Because the presence of any trace level of antibiotic in water may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and contribute to the production of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, active removal by additional water treatments, such as using advanced oxidation and reduction processes (AO/RPs), may be required. However, to ensure that any AOP treatment process occurs efficiently and quantitatively, a full understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of all of the chemical reactions involved under the conditions of use is necessary. In this study, we report on our kinetic measurements for the hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of 11 beta-lactam antibiotics obtained using electron pulse radiolysis techniques. For the 5-member ring species, an average reaction rate constant of (7.9 +/- 0.8) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) was obtained, slightly faster than for the analogous 6-member ring containing antibiotics, (6.6 +/- 1.2) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The consistency of these rate constants for each group infers a common reaction mechanism, consisting of the partitioning of the hydroxyl radical between addition to peripheral aromatic rings and reaction with the central double-ring core of these antibiotics.

  9. Membrane permeability of redox active metal chelators: an important element in reducing hydroxyl radical induced NAD+ depletion in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, T; Grant, R S; Keerthisinghe, N; Solaja, I; Smythe, G A

    2007-03-01

    There is substantial evidence implicating increased production of the hydroxyl radical and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Significant amounts of hydroxyl radicals will be produced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and redox active iron via Fenton chemistry. Increased iron levels within the cytoplasm of vulnerable neurons suggest that this may also be an important site of oxidative activity. We investigated the likelihood that intracellular, rather than extracellular chelation of ferrous or ferric iron may be more effective in reducing hydroxyl radical induced cell damage and preserving NAD(+) levels and cell viability. Using intracellular NAD(H) measurements as an indicator of cell viability we found that membrane permeable ferrous chelators were most efficient in preserving cellular NAD(+) levels. Hydrophilic, ferrous or ferric chelators and lipophilic ferric chelators were essentially ineffective in preventing cellular NAD(+) depletion when added at physiological concentrations. We propose that lipophilic ferrous chelators, due to their actions inside the cell, are effective agents for moderating neuronal damage in conditions such as AD where intracellular oxidative stress plays a significant role in disease pathology. PMID:17210195

  10. Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Phrueksanan, Wathuwan; Yibchok-anun, Sirinthorn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2014-10-01

    The present study assessed the antioxidant activity and protective ability of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract (CTE) against in vitro 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage of canine erythrocytes. From the phytochemical analysis, CTE contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. In addition, CTE showed antioxidant activity as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. CTE (400 µg/ml) remarkably protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis at 4 h of incubation. Moreover, CTE (400 µg/ml) reduced membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group formation and prevented the reduction of glutathione concentration in AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes. The AAPH-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes from a smooth discoid to an echinocytic form was effectively protected by CTE. The present results contribute important insights that CTE may have the potential to act as a natural antioxidant to prevent free radical-induced hemolysis, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes.

  11. Zebrafish Wnt9a,9b paralog comparisons suggest ancestral roles for Wnt9 in neural, oral-pharyngeal ectoderm and mesendoderm.

    PubMed

    Cox, A A; Jezewski, P A; Fang, P-K; Payne-Ferreira, T L

    2010-09-01

    The Wnts are a highly conserved family of secreted glycoproteins involved in cell-cell signaling and pattern formation during early embryonic development. Teasing out the role of individual Wnt molecules through development is challenging. Gene duplications are one of the most important mechanisms for generating evolutionary variations. The current consensus suggests that most anatomical variation is generated by divergence of regulatory control regions rather than by coding sequence divergence. Thus phylogenetic comparisons of divergent gene expression patterns are essential to understanding ancestral morphogenetic patterns from which subsequent anatomy diversified in modern lineages. We previously demonstrated strongest expression of zebrafish wnt9b within its heart tube, limb bud and ventral/anterior ectoderm during oral and pharyngeal arch patterning. Our goal is to compare and contrast zwnt9b to its closest paralog, zwnt9a. Sequenced, fulllength zebrafish wnt9a and wnt9b cDNA clones were used for phylogenetic analysis, which suggests their derivation from a common pre-vertebrate archeolog by gene duplication and divergence. Here we demonstrate that zwnt9a expression is found within unique (CNS, pronephric ducts, sensory organs) and overlapping (pectoral fin buds) expression domains relative to zwnt9b. Apparently, Wnt9 paralogs differentially parsed common ancestral expression domains during their subsequent rounds of gene duplication, divergence and loss in different vertebrate lineages. This expression data suggests ancestral roles for Wnt9s in early patterning of neural/oral-pharyngeal ectoderm and mesendoderm derivatives.

  12. Functional Divergence in Teleost Cardiac Troponin Paralogs Guides Variation in the Interaction of TnI Switch Region with TnC

    PubMed Central

    Genge, Christine E.; Stevens, Charles M.; Davidson, William S.; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter Tieleman, D.; Tibbits, Glen F.

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication results in extra copies of genes that must coevolve with their interacting partners in multimeric protein complexes. The cardiac troponin (Tn) complex, containing TnC, TnI, and TnT, forms a distinct functional unit critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. In teleost fish, the function of the Tn complex is modified by the consequences of differential expression of paralogs in response to environmental thermal challenges. In this article, we focus on the interaction between TnI and TnC, coded for by genes that have independent evolutionary origins, but the co-operation of their protein products has necessitated coevolution. In this study, we characterize functional divergence of TnC and TnI paralogs, specifically the interrelated roles of regulatory subfunctionalization and structural subfunctionalization. We determined that differential paralog transcript expression in response to temperature acclimation results in three combinations of TnC and TnI in the zebrafish heart: TnC1a/TnI1.1, TnC1b/TnI1.1, and TnC1a/TnI1.5. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly conserved proteins identified functionally divergent residues in TnI and TnC. The structural and functional effect of these Tn combinations was modeled with molecular dynamics simulation to link divergent sites to changes in interaction strength. Functional divergence in TnI and TnC were not limited to the residues involved with TnC/TnI switch interaction, which emphasizes the complex nature of Tn function. Patterns in domain-specific divergent selection and interaction energies suggest that substitutions in the TnI switch region are crucial to modifying TnI/TnC function to maintain cardiac contraction with temperature changes. This integrative approach introduces Tn as a model of functional divergence that guides the coevolution of interacting proteins. PMID:26979795

  13. Functional Divergence in Teleost Cardiac Troponin Paralogs Guides Variation in the Interaction of TnI Switch Region with TnC.

    PubMed

    Genge, Christine E; Stevens, Charles M; Davidson, William S; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter Tieleman, D; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication results in extra copies of genes that must coevolve with their interacting partners in multimeric protein complexes. The cardiac troponin (Tn) complex, containing TnC, TnI, and TnT, forms a distinct functional unit critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. In teleost fish, the function of the Tn complex is modified by the consequences of differential expression of paralogs in response to environmental thermal challenges. In this article, we focus on the interaction between TnI and TnC, coded for by genes that have independent evolutionary origins, but the co-operation of their protein products has necessitated coevolution. In this study, we characterize functional divergence of TnC and TnI paralogs, specifically the interrelated roles of regulatory subfunctionalization and structural subfunctionalization. We determined that differential paralog transcript expression in response to temperature acclimation results in three combinations of TnC and TnI in the zebrafish heart: TnC1a/TnI1.1, TnC1b/TnI1.1, and TnC1a/TnI1.5. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly conserved proteins identified functionally divergent residues in TnI and TnC. The structural and functional effect of these Tn combinations was modeled with molecular dynamics simulation to link divergent sites to changes in interaction strength. Functional divergence in TnI and TnC were not limited to the residues involved with TnC/TnI switch interaction, which emphasizes the complex nature of Tn function. Patterns in domain-specific divergent selection and interaction energies suggest that substitutions in the TnI switch region are crucial to modifying TnI/TnC function to maintain cardiac contraction with temperature changes. This integrative approach introduces Tn as a model of functional divergence that guides the coevolution of interacting proteins. PMID:26979795

  14. A Fluorescent In Vitro Assay to Investigate Paralog-Specific SUMO Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Nathalie; Chaugule, Viduth K; Pichler, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Protein modification with the small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO is a potent regulatory mechanism implicated in a variety of biological pathways. In vitro sumoylation reactions have emerged as a versatile tool to identify and characterize novel SUMO enzymes as well as their substrates. Here, we present detailed protocols for the purification and fluorescent labeling of mammalian SUMO paralogs for their application in sumoylation assays. These assays provide a fast readout for in vitro SUMO chain formation activity of E3 ligases in a paralog-specific manner. Finally, we critically analyze the application of fluorescent SUMO proteins to study substrate modification in vitro revealing also the drawbacks of the system. PMID:27631798

  15. Regulation of gill claudin paralogs by salinity, cortisol and prolactin in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Breves, Jason P; Rabeneck, D Brett; Trubitt, Rebecca T; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    In euryhaline teleosts, reorganization of gill tight junctions during salinity acclimation involves dynamic expression of specific claudin (Cldn) paralogs. We identified four transcripts encoding Cldn tight junction proteins in the tilapia gill transcriptome: cldn10c, cldn10e, cldn28a and cldn30. A tissue distribution experiment found cldn10c and cldn10e expression levels in the gill to be 100-fold higher than any other tissues examined. cldn28a and cldn30 levels in the gill were 10-fold greater than levels in other tissues. Expression of these genes in Mozambique tilapia was examined during acclimation to fresh water (FW), seawater (SW), and in response to hormone treatments. Transfer of tilapia from FW to SW elevated cldn10c and cldn10e, while cldn28a and cldn30 were stimulated following transfer from SW to FW. In hypophysectomized tilapia transferred to FW, pituitary extirpation induced reduced expression of cldn10c, cldn10e and cldn28a; these effects were mitigated equally by either prolactin or cortisol replacement. In vitro experiments with gill filaments showed that cortisol stimulated expression of all four cldns examined, suggesting a direct action of cortisol in situ. Our data indicate that elevated cldn10c and cldn10e expression is important during acclimation of tilapia to SW possibly by conferring ion specific paracellular permeability. On the other hand, expression of cldn28a and cldn30 appears to contribute to reorganization of branchial epithelium during FW acclimation. Hormone treatment experiments showed that particular FW- and SW-induced cldns are controlled by cortisol and prolactin. PMID:27210417

  16. The cytohesin paralog Sec7 of Dictyostelium discoideum is required for phagocytosis and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium harbors several paralogous Sec7 genes that encode members of three subfamilies of the Sec7 superfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. One of them is the cytohesin family represented by three members in D. discoideum, SecG, Sec7 and a further protein distinguished by several transmembrane domains. Cytohesins are characterized by a Sec7-PH tandem domain and have roles in cell adhesion and migration. Results We study here Sec7. In vitro its PH domain bound preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). When following the distribution of GFP-Sec7 in vivo we observed the protein in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane. Strikingly, when cells formed pseudopods, macropinosomes or phagosomes, GFP-Sec7 was conspicuously absent from areas of the plasma membrane which were involved in these processes. Mutant cells lacking Sec7 exhibited an impaired phagocytosis and showed significantly reduced speed and less persistence during migration. Cellular properties associated with mammalian cytohesins like cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion were not altered. Proteins with roles in membrane trafficking and signal transduction have been identified as putative interaction partners consistent with the data obtained from mutant analysis. Conclusions Sec7 is a cytosolic component and is associated with the plasma membrane in a pattern distinctly different from the accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3. Mutant analysis reveals that loss of the protein affects cellular processes that involve membrane flow and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23915312

  17. Functional modeling identifies paralogous solanesyl-diphosphate synthases that assemble the side chain of plastoquinone-9 in plastids.

    PubMed

    Block, Anna; Fristedt, Rikard; Rogers, Sara; Kumar, Jyothi; Barnes, Brian; Barnes, Joshua; Elowsky, Christian G; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A; Redding, Kevin; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Basset, Gilles J

    2013-09-20

    It is a little known fact that plastoquinone-9, a vital redox cofactor of photosynthesis, doubles as a precursor for the biosynthesis of a vitamin E analog called plastochromanol-8, the physiological significance of which has remained elusive. Gene network reconstruction, GFP fusion experiments, and targeted metabolite profiling of insertion mutants indicated that Arabidopsis possesses two paralogous solanesyl-diphosphate synthases, AtSPS1 (At1g78510) and AtSPS2 (At1g17050), that assemble the side chain of plastoquinone-9 in plastids. Similar paralogous pairs were detected throughout terrestrial plant lineages but were not distinguished in the literature and genomic databases from mitochondrial homologs involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. The leaves of the atsps2 knock-out were devoid of plastochromanol-8 and displayed severe losses of both non-photoactive and photoactive plastoquinone-9, resulting in near complete photoinhibition at high light intensity. Such a photoinhibition was paralleled by significant damage to photosystem II but not to photosystem I. In contrast, in the atsps1 knock-out, a small loss of plastoquinone-9, restricted to the non-photoactive pool, was sufficient to eliminate half of the plastochromanol-8 content of the leaves. Taken together, these results demonstrate that plastochromanol-8 originates from a subfraction of the non-photoactive pool of plastoquinone-9. In contrast to other plastochromanol-8 biosynthetic mutants, neither the single atsps knock-outs nor the atsps1 atsps2 double knock-out displayed any defects in tocopherols accumulation or germination.

  18. NLR-Associating Transcription Factor bHLH84 and Its Paralogs Function Redundantly in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Kapos, Paul; Cheng, Yu Ti; Li, Meng; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In plants and animals, nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain containing (NLR) immune receptors are utilized to detect the presence or activities of pathogen-derived molecules. However, the mechanisms by which NLR proteins induce defense responses remain unclear. Here, we report the characterization of one basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) type transcription factor (TF), bHLH84, identified from a reverse genetic screen. It functions as a transcriptional activator that enhances the autoimmunity of NLR mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) and confers enhanced immunity in wild-type backgrounds when overexpressed. Simultaneously knocking out three closely related bHLH paralogs attenuates RPS4-mediated immunity and partially suppresses the autoimmune phenotypes of snc1, while overexpression of the other two close paralogs also renders strong autoimmunity, suggesting functional redundancy in the gene family. Intriguingly, the autoimmunity conferred by bHLH84 overexpression can be largely suppressed by the loss-of-function snc1-r1 mutation, suggesting that SNC1 is required for its proper function. In planta co-immunoprecipitation revealed interactions between not only bHLH84 and SNC1, but also bHLH84 and RPS4, indicating that bHLH84 associates with these NLRs. Together with previous finding that SNC1 associates with repressor TPR1 to repress negative regulators, we hypothesize that nuclear NLR proteins may interact with both transcriptional repressors and activators during immune responses, enabling potentially faster and more robust transcriptional reprogramming upon pathogen recognition. PMID:25144198

  19. Duplicate gene enrichment and expression pattern diversification in multicellularity

    PubMed Central

    Padawer, Timothy; Leighty, Ralph E.; Wang, Degeng

    2012-01-01

    The enrichment of duplicate genes, and therefore paralogs (proteins coded by duplicate genes), in multicellular versus unicellular organisms enhances genomic functional innovation. This study quantitatively examined relationships among paralog enrichment, expression pattern diversification and multicellularity, aiming to better understand genomic basis of multicellularity. Paralog abundance in specific cells was compared with those in unicellular proteomes and the whole proteomes of multicellular organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the gene sets expressed in specific cells are available, were used as uni and multicellular models, respectively. Paralog count (K) distributions [P(k)] follow a power-law relationship [P(k) ∝ k−α] in the whole proteomes of both species and in specific C. elegans cells. The value of the constant α can be used as a gauge of paralog abundance; the higher the value, the lower the paralog abundance. The α-value is indeed lower in the whole proteome of C. elegans (1.74) than in S. cerevisiae (2.34), quantifying the enrichment of paralogs in multicellular species. We also found that the power-law relationship applies to the proteomes of specific C. elegans cells. Strikingly, values of α in specific cells are higher and comparable to that in S. cerevisiae. Thus, paralog abundance in specific cells is lower and comparable to that in unicellular species. Furthermore, how much the expression level of a gene fluctuates across different C. elegans cells correlates positively with its paralog count, which is further confirmed by human gene-expression patterns across different tissues. Taken together, these results quantitatively and mechanistically establish enrichment of paralogs with diversifying expression patterns as genomic and evolutionary basis of multicellularity. PMID:22645319

  20. Removal of precursors for disinfection by-products (Dbps)--differences between ozone- and OH-radical-induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kleiser, G; Frimmel, F H

    2000-06-22

    Pre-oxidation is often applied to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). The aim of pre-oxidation is to remove the centers of natural organic matter (NOM) which are responsible for the formation of DBPs. In this paper, the differences between ozone- and OH-radical-induced oxidation to remove DBP-precursors are compared. The experiments were done with water of the River Ruhr (Germany) with a concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 2 mg/l. Ozonation was able to remove DBP precursors selectively. After application of an absorbed ozone mass of 1.5 mg/mg DOC, a reduction in the formation potential for (THM-FP) and in the formation potential for organic halogen adsorbable on activated carbon (AOX-FP) down to 68 and 73% of the initial concentration was achieved, respectively. A removal of NOM was not achieved using absorbed ozone masses between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/mg DOC. In the hydrogen peroxide/UV process, in which OH-radicals are the reactive species, an increase in the THM concentration was measured after application of this process with short irradiation times. The maximum value of the THM-FP was 20% higher than the initial THM-FP. After an irradiation time of 1,050 min and a hydrogen peroxide consumption of 5.6 mg/l, the THM-FP and AOX-FP decreased to 75 and 71% of the initial formation potential, respectively. There was no selective removal of DBP precursors because the DOC concentration decreased also to 75% of the initial DOC-concentration after 1,050 min of irradiation.

  1. Key factors which concur to the correct therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in free radical-induced diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    For many years now the world’s scientific literature has been perfused with articles on the therapeutic potential of natural products, the vast majority of which have herbal origins, as in the case of free radical-induced diseases. What is often overlooked is the effort of researchers who take into consideration the preclinical and clinical evaluation of these herbal products, in order to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy and safety. The first critical issue to be addressed in the early stages of the preclinical studies is related to pharmacokinetics, which is sometimes not very favorable, of some of these products, which limits the bioavailability after oral intake. In this regard, it is worthy underlining how it is often unethical to propose the therapeutic efficacy of a compound on the basis of preclinical results obtained with far higher concentrations to those which, hopefully, could be achieved in organs and tissues of subjects taking these products by mouth. The most widely used approach to overcome the problem related to the low bioavailability involves the complexation of the active ingredients of herbal products with non-toxic carriers that facilitate the absorption and distribution. Even the induction or inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes by herbal products, and the consequent variations of plasma concentrations of co-administered drugs, are phenomena to be carefully evaluated as they can give rise to side-effects. This risk is even greater when considering that people lack the perception of the risk arising from an over use of herbal products that, by their very nature, are considered risk-free. PMID:25954201

  2. Functional Annotations of Paralogs: A Blessing and a Curse

    PubMed Central

    Zallot, Rémi; Harrison, Katherine J.; Kolaczkowski, Bryan; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication followed by mutation is a classic mechanism of neofunctionalization, producing gene families with functional diversity. In some cases, a single point mutation is sufficient to change the substrate specificity and/or the chemistry performed by an enzyme, making it difficult to accurately separate enzymes with identical functions from homologs with different functions. Because sequence similarity is often used as a basis for assigning functional annotations to genes, non-isofunctional gene families pose a great challenge for genome annotation pipelines. Here we describe how integrating evolutionary and functional information such as genome context, phylogeny, metabolic reconstruction and signature motifs may be required to correctly annotate multifunctional families. These integrative analyses can also lead to the discovery of novel gene functions, as hints from specific subgroups can guide the functional characterization of other members of the family. We demonstrate how careful manual curation processes using comparative genomics can disambiguate subgroups within large multifunctional families and discover their functions. We present the COG0720 protein family as a case study. We also discuss strategies to automate this process to improve the accuracy of genome functional annotation pipelines. PMID:27618105

  3. Functional Annotations of Paralogs: A Blessing and a Curse.

    PubMed

    Zallot, Rémi; Harrison, Katherine J; Kolaczkowski, Bryan; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication followed by mutation is a classic mechanism of neofunctionalization, producing gene families with functional diversity. In some cases, a single point mutation is sufficient to change the substrate specificity and/or the chemistry performed by an enzyme, making it difficult to accurately separate enzymes with identical functions from homologs with different functions. Because sequence similarity is often used as a basis for assigning functional annotations to genes, non-isofunctional gene families pose a great challenge for genome annotation pipelines. Here we describe how integrating evolutionary and functional information such as genome context, phylogeny, metabolic reconstruction and signature motifs may be required to correctly annotate multifunctional families. These integrative analyses can also lead to the discovery of novel gene functions, as hints from specific subgroups can guide the functional characterization of other members of the family. We demonstrate how careful manual curation processes using comparative genomics can disambiguate subgroups within large multifunctional families and discover their functions. We present the COG0720 protein family as a case study. We also discuss strategies to automate this process to improve the accuracy of genome functional annotation pipelines. PMID:27618105

  4. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor sm1 affects colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs wi...

  5. A Theory of Utility Conditionals: Paralogical Reasoning from Decision-Theoretic Leakage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2009-01-01

    Many "if p, then q" conditionals have decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions. The theory of utility conditionals offers a unified account of the various forms…

  6. Conservation of σ28-Dependent Non-Coding RNA Paralogs and Predicted σ54-Dependent Targets in Thermophilic Campylobacter Species.

    PubMed

    Le, My Thanh; van Veldhuizen, Mart; Porcelli, Ida; Bongaerts, Roy J; Gaskin, Duncan J H; Pearson, Bruce M; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of flagella requires strict hierarchical and temporal control via flagellar sigma and anti-sigma factors, regulatory proteins and the assembly complex itself, but to date non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have not been described to regulate genes directly involved in flagellar assembly. In this study we have investigated the possible role of two ncRNA paralogs (CjNC1, CjNC4) in flagellar assembly and gene regulation of the diarrhoeal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. CjNC1 and CjNC4 are 37/44 nt identical and predicted to target the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of genes transcribed from the flagellar sigma factor σ54. Orthologs of the σ54-dependent 5' UTRs and ncRNAs are present in the genomes of other thermophilic Campylobacter species, and transcription of CjNC1 and CNC4 is dependent on the flagellar sigma factor σ28. Surprisingly, inactivation and overexpression of CjNC1 and CjNC4 did not affect growth, motility or flagella-associated phenotypes such as autoagglutination. However, CjNC1 and CjNC4 were able to mediate sequence-dependent, but Hfq-independent, partial repression of fluorescence of predicted target 5' UTRs in an Escherichia coli-based GFP reporter gene system. This hints towards a subtle role for the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation in thermophilic Campylobacter species, and suggests that the currently used phenotypic methodologies are insufficiently sensitive to detect such subtle phenotypes. The lack of a role of Hfq in the E. coli GFP-based system indicates that the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs may mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation in ways that do not conform to the paradigms obtained from the Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:26512728

  7. Two proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) paralogs from the tropical sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus): Molecular characterization and inducible expression with immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Xiao; Sun, Hongyan; Qian, Jing; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yanhong

    2016-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a multifunctional protein that widely exists in eukaryotic species. In this study, two PCSK9 paralogs, named StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2, were identified from the tropical sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus). The cDNAs of StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2 are 1330 kb and 1508 kb in size, respectively. The open reading frames (ORF) for StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2 cDNAs are 1128 and 1167 bp in length, encoding the proteins of 375 and 388 amino acids with the deduced molecular weights of 38.76 and 41.07 kDa, respectively. In accord with other members in PCSK9 family, the two StmPCSK9 paralogs possessed the inhibitor_I9 and peptidase_S8 functional domains, seven active sites, a catalytic triad and two calcium binding sites. For the gene structure, the splicing of the two StmPCSK9 paralogs was relatively conserved. In addition, the mRNA expression of StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2 was only detected in the sea cucumber intestine and coelomocytes, and the expression levels of both the two StmPCSK9 paralogs were higher in intestine. Moreover, StmPCSK9-2 was found to be a cytoplasm protein without signal peptide, and show no response to the immune challenge. On the contrary, StmPCSK9-1 was a secreted protein and the transcriptional expression of StmPCSK9-1 was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treatment and slightly down-regulated by polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)] challenge in in vitro experiments performed in the cultural primary coelomocytes, suggesting that the StmPCSK9-1 may play critical roles in the innate immune defense of sea cucumber, S. monotuberculatus, against bacterial and/or viral infections. PMID:27426522

  8. Two proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) paralogs from the tropical sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus): Molecular characterization and inducible expression with immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Xiao; Sun, Hongyan; Qian, Jing; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yanhong

    2016-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a multifunctional protein that widely exists in eukaryotic species. In this study, two PCSK9 paralogs, named StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2, were identified from the tropical sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus). The cDNAs of StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2 are 1330 kb and 1508 kb in size, respectively. The open reading frames (ORF) for StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2 cDNAs are 1128 and 1167 bp in length, encoding the proteins of 375 and 388 amino acids with the deduced molecular weights of 38.76 and 41.07 kDa, respectively. In accord with other members in PCSK9 family, the two StmPCSK9 paralogs possessed the inhibitor_I9 and peptidase_S8 functional domains, seven active sites, a catalytic triad and two calcium binding sites. For the gene structure, the splicing of the two StmPCSK9 paralogs was relatively conserved. In addition, the mRNA expression of StmPCSK9-1 and StmPCSK9-2 was only detected in the sea cucumber intestine and coelomocytes, and the expression levels of both the two StmPCSK9 paralogs were higher in intestine. Moreover, StmPCSK9-2 was found to be a cytoplasm protein without signal peptide, and show no response to the immune challenge. On the contrary, StmPCSK9-1 was a secreted protein and the transcriptional expression of StmPCSK9-1 was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treatment and slightly down-regulated by polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)] challenge in in vitro experiments performed in the cultural primary coelomocytes, suggesting that the StmPCSK9-1 may play critical roles in the innate immune defense of sea cucumber, S. monotuberculatus, against bacterial and/or viral infections.

  9. Interactions involving the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C and XRCC3 in human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Claudia; Collins, David W.; Albala, Joanna S.; Thompson, Larry H.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks and crosslinks in human cells is likely to require Rad51 and the five Rad51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2 and Rad51D/Rad51L3), as has been shown in chicken and rodent cells. Previously, we reported on the interactions among these proteins using baculovirus and two- and three-hybrid yeast systems. To test for interactions involving XRCC3 and Rad51C, stable human cell lines have been isolated that express (His)6-tagged versions of XRCC3 or Rad51C. Ni2+-binding experiments demonstrate that XRCC3 and Rad51C interact in human cells. In addition, we find that Rad51C, but not XRCC3, interacts directly or indirectly with Rad51B, Rad51D and XRCC2. These results argue that there are at least two complexes of Rad51 paralogs in human cells (Rad51C-XRCC3 and Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2), both containing Rad51C. Moreover, Rad51 is not found in these complexes. X-ray treatment did not alter either the level of any Rad51 paralog or the observed interactions between paralogs. However, the endogenous level of Rad51C is moderately elevated in the XRCC3-overexpressing cell line, suggesting that dimerization between these proteins might help stabilize Rad51C.

  10. Role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51 paralogs in sister chromatid recombination.

    PubMed

    Mozlin, Amy M; Fung, Cindy W; Symington, Lorraine S

    2008-01-01

    Rad51 requires a number of other proteins, including the Rad51 paralogs, for efficient recombination in vivo. Current evidence suggests that the yeast Rad51 paralogs, Rad55 and Rad57, are important in formation or stabilization of the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament. To gain further insights into the function of the Rad51 paralogs, reporters were designed to measure spontaneous or double-strand break (DSB)-induced sister or nonsister recombination. Spontaneous sister chromatid recombination (SCR) was reduced 6000-fold in the rad57 mutant, significantly more than in the rad51 mutant. Although the DSB-induced recombination defect of rad57 was suppressed by overexpression of Rad51, elevated temperature, or expression of both mating-type alleles, the rad57 defect in spontaneous SCR was not strongly suppressed by these same factors. In addition, the UV sensitivity of the rad57 mutant was not strongly suppressed by MAT heterozygosity, even though Rad51 foci were restored under these conditions. This lack of suppression suggests that Rad55 and Rad57 have different roles in the recombinational repair of stalled replication forks compared with DSB repair. Furthermore, these data suggest that most spontaneous SCR initiates from single-stranded gaps formed at stalled replication forks rather than DSBs.

  11. Structure-function analysis of npr1 alleles in Arabidopsis reveals a role for its paralogs in the perception of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Canet, Juan Vicente; Dobón, Albor; Roig, Alejandra; Tornero, Pablo

    2010-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for plant defence against some pathogens, whereas NPR1 is necessary for SA perception. Plant defence can be induced to an extreme by several applications of benzothiadiazole (BTH), an analogue of SA. Thus, plants that do not perceive BTH grow unaffected, whereas wild-type plants grow stunted. This feature allows us to screen for mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana that show insensitivity to BTH in a high-throughput fashion. Most of the mutants are npr1 alleles, with similar phenotypes in plant weight and pathogen growth. The mutations are clustered in the carboxyl-terminal part of the protein, and no obvious null alleles were recovered. These facts have prompted a search for knockouts in the NPR1 gene. Two of these KO alleles identified are null and have an intermediate phenotype. All the evidence presented lead us to propose a redundancy in SA perception, with the paralogs of NPR1 taking part in this signalling. We show that the mutations recovered in the screening genetically interact with the paralogs preventing their function in SA signalling.

  12. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level.

  13. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level. PMID:26449412

  14. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level. PMID:26449412

  15. The Natural History of Class I Primate Alcohol Dehydrogenases Includes Gene Duplication, Gene Loss, and Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Matthew A.; Uryasev, Oleg; Davis, Ross P.; Zhai, LanMin; Hurley, Thomas D.; Benner, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s), where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs) and hominoids. Methodology/Principal Findings To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines). Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM) and marmoset (a NWM). These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding) sequences and intronic sequences. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels). The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs) and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids) having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in

  16. Promotion of Homologous Recombination by SWS-1 in Complex with RAD-51 Paralogs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    McClendon, T Brooke; Sullivan, Meghan R; Bernstein, Kara A; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2016-05-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with high fidelity. Deficiencies in HR result in genome instability. A key early step in HR is the search for and invasion of a homologous DNA template by a single-stranded RAD-51 nucleoprotein filament. The Shu complex, composed of a SWIM domain-containing protein and its interacting RAD51 paralogs, promotes HR by regulating RAD51 filament dynamics. Despite Shu complex orthologs throughout eukaryotes, our understanding of its function has been most extensively characterized in budding yeast. Evolutionary analysis of the SWIM domain identified Caenorhabditis elegans sws-1 as a putative homolog of the yeast Shu complex member Shu2. Using a CRISPR-induced nonsense allele of sws-1, we show that sws-1 promotes HR in mitotic and meiotic nuclei. sws-1 mutants exhibit sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and fail to form mitotic RAD-51 foci following treatment with camptothecin. Phenotypic similarities between sws-1 and the two RAD-51 paralogs rfs-1 and rip-1 suggest that they function together. Indeed, we detect direct interaction between SWS-1 and RIP-1 by yeast two-hybrid assay that is mediated by the SWIM domain in SWS-1 and the Walker B motif in RIP-1 Furthermore, RIP-1 bridges an interaction between SWS-1 and RFS-1, suggesting that RIP-1 facilitates complex formation with SWS-1 and RFS-1 We propose that SWS-1, RIP-1, and RFS-1 compose a C. elegans Shu complex. Our work provides a new model for studying Shu complex disruption in the context of a multicellular organism that has important implications as to why mutations in the human RAD51 paralogs are associated with genome instability.

  17. Promotion of Homologous Recombination by SWS-1 in Complex with RAD-51 Paralogs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    McClendon, T Brooke; Sullivan, Meghan R; Bernstein, Kara A; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2016-05-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with high fidelity. Deficiencies in HR result in genome instability. A key early step in HR is the search for and invasion of a homologous DNA template by a single-stranded RAD-51 nucleoprotein filament. The Shu complex, composed of a SWIM domain-containing protein and its interacting RAD51 paralogs, promotes HR by regulating RAD51 filament dynamics. Despite Shu complex orthologs throughout eukaryotes, our understanding of its function has been most extensively characterized in budding yeast. Evolutionary analysis of the SWIM domain identified Caenorhabditis elegans sws-1 as a putative homolog of the yeast Shu complex member Shu2. Using a CRISPR-induced nonsense allele of sws-1, we show that sws-1 promotes HR in mitotic and meiotic nuclei. sws-1 mutants exhibit sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and fail to form mitotic RAD-51 foci following treatment with camptothecin. Phenotypic similarities between sws-1 and the two RAD-51 paralogs rfs-1 and rip-1 suggest that they function together. Indeed, we detect direct interaction between SWS-1 and RIP-1 by yeast two-hybrid assay that is mediated by the SWIM domain in SWS-1 and the Walker B motif in RIP-1 Furthermore, RIP-1 bridges an interaction between SWS-1 and RFS-1, suggesting that RIP-1 facilitates complex formation with SWS-1 and RFS-1 We propose that SWS-1, RIP-1, and RFS-1 compose a C. elegans Shu complex. Our work provides a new model for studying Shu complex disruption in the context of a multicellular organism that has important implications as to why mutations in the human RAD51 paralogs are associated with genome instability. PMID:26936927

  18. Four VirB6 paralogs and VirB9 are expressed and interact in Ehrlichia chaffeensis-containing vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Bao, Weichao; Kumagai, Yumi; Niu, Hua; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Miura, Koshiro; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    The type IV secretion system is an important virulence factor in several host cell-associated pathogens, as it delivers various bacterial macromolecules to target eukaryotic cells. Genes homologous to several virB genes and virD4 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are found in an intravacuolar pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the tick-borne causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. In particular, despite its small genome size, E. chaffeensis has four tandem virB6 paralogs (virB6-1, -2, -3, and -4) that are 3- to 10-fold larger than A. tumefaciens virB6. The present study for the first time illustrates the relevance of the larger quadruple VirB6 paralogs by demonstrating the protein expression and interaction in E. chaffeensis. All four virB6 paralogs were cotranscribed in THP-1 human leukemia and ISE6 tick cell cultures. The four VirB6 proteins and VirB9 were expressed by E. chaffeensis in THP-1 cells, and amounts of these five proteins were similar in isolated E. chaffeensis-containing vacuoles and vacuole-free E. chaffeensis. In addition, an 80-kDa fragment of VirB6-2 was detected, which was strikingly more prevalent in E. chaffeensis-containing vacuoles than in vacuole-free E. chaffeensis. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis revealed VirB9 interaction with VirB6-1 and VirB6-2; VirB6-4 interaction with VirB6-1, VirB6-2, and VirB6-3; and VirB6-2 80-kDa fragment interaction with VirB6-3 and VirB6-4. The interaction of VirB9 and VirB6-2 was confirmed by far-Western blotting. The results suggest that E. chaffeensis VirB9, the quadruple VirB6 proteins, and the VirB6-2 80-kDa fragment form a unique molecular subassembly to cooperate in type IV secretion. PMID:18952796

  19. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-03-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery.

  20. A theory of utility conditionals: Paralogical reasoning from decision-theoretic leakage.

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    Many "if p, then q" conditionals have decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions. The theory of utility conditionals offers a unified account of the various forms that this phenomenon can take. The theory is built on 2 main components: (1) a representational tool (the utility grid), which summarizes in compact form the decision-theoretic features of a conditional, and (2) a set of folk axioms of decision, which reflect reasoners' beliefs about the way most agents make their decisions. Applying the folk axioms to the utility grid of a conditional allows for the systematic prediction of the paralogical conclusions invited by the utility grid's decision-theoretic features. The theory of utility conditionals significantly extends the scope of current theories of conditional inference and moves reasoning research toward a greater integration with decision-making research. PMID:19839689

  1. Mapping proteins in the presence of paralogs using units of coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We study the problem of mapping proteins between two protein families in the presence of paralogs. This problem occurs as a difficult subproblem in coevolution-based computational approaches for protein-protein interaction prediction. Results Similar to prior approaches, our method is based on the idea that coevolution implies equal rates of sequence evolution among the interacting proteins, and we provide a first attempt to quantify this notion in a formal statistical manner. We call the units that are central to this quantification scheme the units of coevolution. A unit consists of two mapped protein pairs and its score quantifies the coevolution of the pairs. This quantification allows us to provide a maximum likelihood formulation of the paralog mapping problem and to cast it into a binary quadratic programming formulation. Conclusion CUPID, our software tool based on a Lagrangian relaxation of this formulation, makes it, for the first time, possible to compute state-of-the-art quality pairings in a few minutes of runtime. In summary, we suggest a novel alternative to the earlier available approaches, which is statistically sound and computationally feasible. PMID:24564758

  2. Functional characterization of two paralogs that are novel RNA binding proteins influencing mitochondrial transcripts of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Kafková, Lucie; Ammerman, Michelle L; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Fisk, John C; Zimmer, Sara L; Sobotka, Roman; Read, Laurie K; Lukes, Julius; Hashimi, Hassan

    2012-10-01

    A majority of Trypanosoma brucei proteins have unknown functions, a consequence of its independent evolutionary history within the order Kinetoplastida that allowed for the emergence of several unique biological properties. Among these is RNA editing, needed for expression of mitochondrial-encoded genes. The recently discovered mitochondrial RNA binding complex 1 (MRB1) is composed of proteins with several functions in processing organellar RNA. We characterize two MRB1 subunits, referred to herein as MRB8170 and MRB4160, which are paralogs arisen from a large chromosome duplication occurring only in T. brucei. As with many other MRB1 proteins, both have no recognizable domains, motifs, or orthologs outside the order. We show that they are both novel RNA binding proteins, possibly representing a new class of these proteins. They associate with a similar subset of MRB1 subunits but not directly with each other. We generated cell lines that either individually or simultaneously target the mRNAs encoding both proteins using RNAi. Their dual silencing results in a differential effect on moderately and pan-edited RNAs, suggesting a possible functional separation of the two proteins. Cell growth persists upon RNAi silencing of each protein individually in contrast to the dual knockdown. Yet, their apparent redundancy in terms of cell viability is at odds with the finding that only one of these knockdowns results in the general degradation of pan-edited RNAs. While MRB8170 and MRB4160 share a considerable degree of conservation, our results suggest that their recent sequence divergence has led to them influencing mitochondrial mRNAs to differing degrees.

  3. An Independent Genome Duplication Inferred from Hox Paralogs in the American Paddlefish—A Representative Basal Ray-Finned Fish and Important Comparative Reference

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Karen D.; Smith, Christopher D.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Wagner, Günter P.; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrates have experienced two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the stem lineages of deep nodes within the group and a subsequent duplication event in the stem lineage of the teleosts—a highly diverse group of ray-finned fishes. Here, we present the first full Hox gene sequences for any member of the Acipenseriformes, the American paddlefish, and confirm that an independent WGD occurred in the paddlefish lineage, approximately 42 Ma based on sequences spanning the entire HoxA cluster and eight genes on the HoxD gene cluster. These clusters comprise different HOX loci and maintain conserved synteny relative to bichir, zebrafish, stickleback, and pufferfish, as well as human, mouse, and chick. We also provide a gene genealogy for the duplicated fzd8 gene in paddlefish and present evidence for the first Hox14 gene in any ray-finned fish. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the American paddlefish has an independently duplicated genome. Substitution patterns of the “alpha” paralogs on both the HoxA and HoxD gene clusters suggest transcriptional inactivation consistent with functional diploidization. Further, there are similarities in the pattern of sequence divergence among duplicated Hox genes in paddlefish and teleost lineages, even though they occurred independently approximately 200 Myr apart. We highlight implications on comparative analyses in the study of the “fin-limb transition” as well as gene and genome duplication in bony fishes, which includes all ray-finned fishes as well as the lobe-finned fishes and tetrapod vertebrates. PMID:22851613

  4. An independent genome duplication inferred from Hox paralogs in the American paddlefish--a representative basal ray-finned fish and important comparative reference.

    PubMed

    Crow, Karen D; Smith, Christopher D; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Wagner, Günter P; Amemiya, Chris T

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrates have experienced two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the stem lineages of deep nodes within the group and a subsequent duplication event in the stem lineage of the teleosts-a highly diverse group of ray-finned fishes. Here, we present the first full Hox gene sequences for any member of the Acipenseriformes, the American paddlefish, and confirm that an independent WGD occurred in the paddlefish lineage, approximately 42 Ma based on sequences spanning the entire HoxA cluster and eight genes on the HoxD gene cluster. These clusters comprise different HOX loci and maintain conserved synteny relative to bichir, zebrafish, stickleback, and pufferfish, as well as human, mouse, and chick. We also provide a gene genealogy for the duplicated fzd8 gene in paddlefish and present evidence for the first Hox14 gene in any ray-finned fish. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the American paddlefish has an independently duplicated genome. Substitution patterns of the "alpha" paralogs on both the HoxA and HoxD gene clusters suggest transcriptional inactivation consistent with functional diploidization. Further, there are similarities in the pattern of sequence divergence among duplicated Hox genes in paddlefish and teleost lineages, even though they occurred independently approximately 200 Myr apart. We highlight implications on comparative analyses in the study of the "fin-limb transition" as well as gene and genome duplication in bony fishes, which includes all ray-finned fishes as well as the lobe-finned fishes and tetrapod vertebrates.

  5. A single allele of Hdac2 but not Hdac1 is sufficient for normal mouse brain development in the absence of its paralog

    PubMed Central

    Krahmer, Julia; Leopoldi, Alexandra; Artaker, Matthias; Pusch, Oliver; Zezula, Jürgen; Weissmann, Simon; Xie, Yunli; Schöfer, Christian; Schlederer, Michaela; Brosch, Gerald; Matthias, Patrick; Selfridge, Jim; Lassmann, Hans; Knoblich, Jürgen A.; Seiser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 are crucial regulators of chromatin structure and gene expression, thereby controlling important developmental processes. In the mouse brain, HDAC1 and HDAC2 exhibit different developmental stage- and lineage-specific expression patterns. To examine the individual contribution of these deacetylases during brain development, we deleted different combinations of Hdac1 and Hdac2 alleles in neural cells. Ablation of Hdac1 or Hdac2 by Nestin-Cre had no obvious consequences on brain development and architecture owing to compensation by the paralog. By contrast, combined deletion of Hdac1 and Hdac2 resulted in impaired chromatin structure, DNA damage, apoptosis and embryonic lethality. To dissect the individual roles of HDAC1 and HDAC2, we expressed single alleles of either Hdac1 or Hdac2 in the absence of the respective paralog in neural cells. The DNA-damage phenotype observed in double knockout brains was prevented by expression of a single allele of either Hdac1 or Hdac2. Strikingly, Hdac1−/−Hdac2+/− brains showed normal development and no obvious phenotype, whereas Hdac1+/−Hdac2−/− mice displayed impaired brain development and perinatal lethality. Hdac1+/−Hdac2−/− neural precursor cells showed reduced proliferation and premature differentiation mediated by overexpression of protein kinase C, delta, which is a direct target of HDAC2. Importantly, chemical inhibition or knockdown of protein kinase C delta was sufficient to rescue the phenotype of neural progenitor cells in vitro. Our data indicate that HDAC1 and HDAC2 have a common function in maintaining proper chromatin structures and show that HDAC2 has a unique role by controlling the fate of neural progenitors during normal brain development. PMID:24449838

  6. Methylotrophic Bacillus methanolicus Encodes Two Chromosomal and One Plasmid Born NAD+ Dependent Methanol Dehydrogenase Paralogs with Different Catalytic and Biochemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas E. N.; Kupper, Christiane E.; Schneider, Olha; Vorholt, Julia A.; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Brautaset, Trygve

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus methanolicus can utilize methanol as the sole carbon source for growth and it encodes an NAD+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh), catalyzing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Recently, the genomes of the B. methanolicus strains MGA3 (ATCC53907) and PB1 (NCIMB13113) were sequenced and found to harbor three different putative Mdh encoding genes, each belonging to the type III Fe-NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. In each strain, two of these genes are encoded on the chromosome and one on a plasmid; only one chromosomal act gene encoding the previously described activator protein ACT was found. The six Mdhs and the ACT proteins were produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. All Mdhs required NAD+ as cosubstrate, were catalytically stimulated by ACT, exhibited a broad and different substrate specificity range and displayed both dehydrogenase and reductase activities. All Mdhs catalyzed the oxidation of methanol; however the catalytic activity for methanol was considerably lower than for most other alcohols tested, suggesting that these enzymes represent a novel class of alcohol dehydrogenases. The kinetic constants for the Mdhs were comparable when acting as pure enzymes, but together with ACT the differences were more pronounced. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed major differences with respect to transcriptional regulation of the paralogous genes. Taken together our data indicate that the repertoire of methanol oxidizing enzymes in thermotolerant bacilli is larger than expected with complex mechanisms involved in their regulation. PMID:23527128

  7. Orthologous and Paralogous AmpD Peptidoglycan Amidases from Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Ivanna; Molina, Rafael; Lee, Mijoon; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    Cell wall recycling and β-lactam antibiotic resistance are linked in Enterobacteriaceae and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This process involves a large number of murolytic enzymes, among them a cytoplasmic peptidoglycan amidase AmpD, which plays an essential role by cleaving the peptide stem from key intermediates en route to the β-lactamase production (a resistance mechanism) and cell wall recycling. Uniquely, P. aeruginosa has two additional paralogues of AmpD, designated AmpDh2 and AmpDh3, which are periplasmic enzymes. Despite the fact that AmpDh2 and AmpDh3 share a common motif for their respective catalytic domains, they are each comprised of multidomain architectures and exhibit distinct oligomerization properties. We review herein the structural and biochemical properties of orthologous and paralogous AmpD proteins and discuss their implication in cell wall recycling and antibiotic resistance processes. PMID:27326855

  8. Physiology, pharmacology, and therapeutic relevance of urocortins in mammals: ancient CRF paralogs.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Eva M; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2007-04-01

    Urocortins, three paralogs of the stress-related peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) found in bony fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, have unique phylogenies, pharmacologies, and tissue distributions. As a result and despite a structural family resemblance, the natural functions of urocortins and CRF in mammalian homeostatic responses differ substantially. Endogenous urocortins are neither simply counterpoints nor mimics of endogenous CRF action. In their own right, urocortins may be clinically relevant molecules in the pathogenesis or management of many conditions, including congestive heart failure, hypertension, gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, active gastritis, gastroparesis, and rheumatoid arthritis), atopic/allergic disorders (dermatitis, urticaria, and asthma), pregnancy and parturition (preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, onset, and maintenance of effective labor), major depression and obesity. Safety trials for intravenous urocortin treatment have already begun for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Further understanding the unique functions of urocortin 1, urocortin 2, and urocortin 3 action may uncover other therapeutic opportunities.

  9. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) paralog dose governs T cell effector and regulatory functions

    PubMed Central

    Villarino, Alejandro; Laurence, Arian; Robinson, Gertraud W; Bonelli, Michael; Dema, Barbara; Afzali, Behdad; Shih, Han-Yu; Sun, Hong-Wei; Brooks, Stephen R; Hennighausen, Lothar; Kanno, Yuka; O'Shea, John J

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT5 is fundamental to the mammalian immune system. However, the relationship between its two paralogs, STAT5A and STAT5B, and the extent to which they are functionally distinct, remain uncertain. Using mouse models of paralog deficiency, we demonstrate that they are not equivalent for CD4+ 'helper' T cells, the principal orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Instead, we find that STAT5B is dominant for both effector and regulatory (Treg) responses and, therefore, uniquely necessary for immunological tolerance. Comparative analysis of genomic distribution and transcriptomic output confirm that STAT5B has fargreater impact but, surprisingly, the data point towards asymmetric expression (i.e. paralog dose), rather than distinct functional properties, as the key distinguishing feature. Thus, we propose a quantitative model of STAT5 paralog activity whereby relative abundance imposes functional specificity (or dominance) in the face of widespread structural homology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08384.001 PMID:26999798

  10. Effects of MreB paralogs on poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis and cell morphology in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weixia; Zhang, Zhongxiong; Feng, Jun; Dang, Yulei; Quan, Yufen; Gu, Yanyan; Wang, Shufang; Song, Cunjiang

    2016-09-01

    Actin-like MreB paralogs play important roles in cell shape maintenance, cell wall synthesis and the regulation of the D,L-endopeptidases, CwlO and LytE. The gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, is a poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) producing strain that contains three MreB paralogs: MreB, Mbl and MreBH. In B. amyloliquefaciens, CwlO and LytE can degrade γ-PGA. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that modulating transcript levels of MreB paralogs would alter the synthesis and degradation of γ-PGA. The results showed that overexpression or inhibition of MreB, Mbl or MreBH had distinct effects on cell morphology and the molecular weight of the γ-PGA products. In fermentation medium, cells of mreB inhibition mutant were 50.2% longer than LL3, and the γ-PGA titer increased by 55.7%. However, changing the expression level of mbl showed only slight effects on the morphology, γ-PGA molecular weight and titer. In the mreBH inhibition mutant, γ-PGA production and its molecular weight increased by 56.7% and 19.4%, respectively. These results confirmed our hypothesis that suppressing the expression of MreB paralogs might reduce γ-PGA degradation, and that improving the cell size could strengthen γ-PGA synthesis. This is the first report of enhanced γ-PGA production via suppression of actin-like MreB paralogs. PMID:27481703

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant-Activity Evaluation of Gallic-Acid-Grafted Chitosan Conjugate Synthesized by Free-Radical-Induced Grafting Method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaobin; Wang, Taoran; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-07-27

    The major objective of this work was to develop a green and facile process to prepare gallic acid-chitosan conjugate and comprehensively evaluate the physicochemical properties and biological activities of an as-prepared water-soluble chitosan derivative. A free-radical-induced grafting approach using an ascorbic acid-hydrogen peroxide redox pair was adopted. The obtained conjugate was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction, and pKa analysis. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6)-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, and oxygen-radical antioxidant-capacity assays. The results showed that the mass ratio of gallic acid to chitosan played a vital role in determining the grafting degree and ζ potential of the conjugates, with the ratio of 0.5:1 being the optimal ratio that resulted in the highest grafting degree. The antioxidant assays demonstrated that conjugation significantly improved the antioxidant activities, being dramatically higher than that of free chitosan. It was notable that the DPPH- and ABTS-scavenging activities of conjugate at 0.4 mg/mL reached the same level as the free gallic acid at the equivalent concentration. Our study demonstrated a green and facile synthesis approach to preparing a novel water-soluble chitosan derivative that may have promising potentials in the food industry.

  12. Efficacy of Bio-Catalyzer alpha.rho no.11 (Bio-Normalizer) supplementation against peroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage in rat organ homogenates.

    PubMed

    Marcocci, L; D'Anna, R; Yan, L J; Haramaki, N; Packer, L

    1996-03-01

    To better delineate the antioxidant potential of Bio-Catalyzer alpha.rho No.11 (Bio-Normalizer), a natural food supplement recently proposed as an antioxidant agent, we investigated the efficacy of Bio-Normalizer supplementation to protect rat organ homogenates against oxidative damage induced in vitro by peroxyl radicals generated in the hydrophobic or in the hydrophilic phase. Bio-Normalizer supplementation efficiently protected rat kidney homogenates against the accumulation of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives and the depletion of alpha-tocopherol induced by peroxyl radicals generated from the hydrophobic azo-initiator 2,2'-azobis (2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN). It also protected the heart but not the liver or the brain homogenates. Bio-Normalizer supplementation did not have effect in any organ homogenates when peroxyl radicals were generated from the hydrophilic azo-initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride) (AAPH). In vitro direct addition of aqueous solutions of Bio-Normalizer to the organ homogenates was ineffective against AMVN or AAPH-induced oxidative damage. Our findings expand previous reports on the antioxidant activity of Bio-Normalizer. They confirm that supplemented Bio-Normalizer protects against peroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage and suggest that its antioxidant action depends on in vivo bioactivation, it is organ specific and it is limited to damage induced by peroxyl radicals generated in the hydrophobic phase.

  13. CO sub 2 ter dot minus radical induced cleavage of disulfide bonds in proteins. A gamma-ray and pulse radiolysis mechanistic investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Favaudon, V.; Tourbez, H.; Lhoste, J-M. ); Houee-Levin, C. )

    1990-12-01

    Disulfide bond reduction by the CO{sub 2}{sup {center dot}{minus}} radical was investigated in aponeocarzinostatin, aporiboflavin-binding protein, and bovine immunoglobulin. Protein-bound cysteine free thiols were formed under {gamma}-ray irradiation in the course of a pH-dependent and protein concentration dependent chain reaction. The chain efficiency increased upon acidification of the medium, with an apparent pK{sub a} around 5, and decreased abruptly below pH 3.6. It decreased also at neutral pH as cysteine accumulated. From pulse radiolysis analysis, CO{sub 2}{sup {center dot}{minus}} proved able to induce rapid one-electron oxidation of thiols and of tyrosine phenolic groups in addition to one-electron donation to exposed disulfide bonds. The bulk rate constant of CO{sub 2}{sup {center dot}{minus}} uptake by the native proteins was 5{minus} to 10-fold faster at pH 3 than at pH 8, and the protonated form of the disulfide radical anion, appeared to be the major protein radical species formed under acidic conditions. Formation of the disulfide radical cation, phenoxyl radical Tyr-O{sup {center dot}} disproportionation, and phenoxyl radical induced oxidation of preformed thiol groups should also be taken into consideration to explain the fate of the oxygen-centered phenoxyl radical.

  14. Different Poses for Ligand and Chaperone in Inhibitor Bound Hsp90 and GRP94: Implications for Paralog-specific Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Immormino, Robert M.; Metzger, Louis E.; Reardon, Patrick N.; Dollins, D. Eric; Blagg, Brian S.J.; Gewirth, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Hsp90 chaperones contain an N-terminal ATP binding site that has been effectively targeted by competitive inhibitors. Despite the myriad of inhibitors, none to date have been designed to bind specifically to just one of the four mammalian hsp90 paralogs, which are cytoplasmic Hsp90α and β, ER GRP94, and mitochondrial Trap-1. Given that each of the hsp90 paralogs is responsible for chaperoning a distinct set of client proteins, specific targeting of one hsp90 paralog may result in higher efficacy and therapeutic control. Specific inhibitors may also help elucidate the biochemical roles of each hsp90 paralog. Here we present side by side comparisons of the structures of yeast Hsp90 and mammalian GRP94, bound to the pan-hsp90 inhibitors Geldanamycin and Radamide. These structures reveal paralog specific differences in the Hsp90 and GRP94 conformations in response to Geldanamycin binding. We also report significant variation in the pose and disparate binding affinities for the Geldanamycin-Radicicol chimera Radamide when bound to the two paralogs, which may be exploited in the design of paralog-specific inhibitors. PMID:19361515

  15. Paralogous radiations of PIN proteins with multiple origins of noncanonical PIN structure.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Brockington, Samuel F; Rothfels, Carl; Graham, Sean W; Stevenson, Dennis; Kutchan, Toni; Rolf, Megan; Thomas, Philip; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leyser, Ottoline; Glover, Beverley J; Harrison, C Jill

    2014-08-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development which has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN-FORMED1 (PIN) auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations, but the origin and evolutionary significance of this variation is unresolved. To characterize PIN family evolution, we have undertaken phylogenetic and structural analyses with a massive increase in taxon sampling over previous studies. Our phylogeny shows that following the divergence of the bryophyte and lycophyte lineages, two deep duplication events gave rise to three distinct lineages of PIN proteins in euphyllophytes. Subsequent independent radiations within each of these lineages were taxonomically asymmetric, giving rise to at least 21 clades of PIN proteins, of which 15 are revealed here for the first time. Although most PIN protein clades share a conserved canonical structure with a modular central loop domain, a small number of noncanonical clades dispersed across the phylogeny have highly divergent protein structure. We propose that PIN proteins underwent sub- and neofunctionalization with substantial modification to protein structure throughout plant evolution. Our results have important implications for plant evolution as they suggest that structurally divergent PIN proteins that arose in paralogous radiations contributed to the convergent evolution of organ systems in different land plant lineages.

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis Repair of Iron Centres Proteins: The Different Role of Two Paralogs.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Lígia S; Meloni, Dionigia; Teixeira, Miguel; Viscogliosi, Eric; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative parasite of one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases is, so far, the only protozoan encoding two putative Repair of Iron Centres (RIC) proteins. Homologs of these proteins have been shown to protect bacteria from the chemical stress imposed by mammalian immunity. In this work, the biochemical and functional characterisation of the T. vaginalis RICs revealed that the two proteins have different properties. Expression of ric1 is induced by nitrosative stress but not by hydrogen peroxide, while ric2 transcription remained unaltered under similar conditions. T. vaginalis RIC1 contains a di-iron centre, but RIC2 apparently does not. Only RIC1 resembles bacterial RICs on spectroscopic profiling and repairing ability of oxidatively-damaged iron-sulfur clusters. Unexpectedly, RIC2 was found to bind DNA plasmid and T. vaginalis genomic DNA, a function proposed to be related with its leucine zipper domain. The two proteins also differ in their cellular localization: RIC1 is expressed in the cytoplasm only, and RIC2 occurs both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Therefore, we concluded that the two RIC paralogs have different roles in T. vaginalis, with RIC2 showing an unprecedented DNA binding ability when compared with all other until now studied RICs. PMID:27124376

  17. Sost and its paralog Sostdc1 coordinate digit number in a Gli3-dependent manner☆

    PubMed Central

    Collette, Nicole M.; Yee, Cristal S.; Murugesh, Deepa; Sebastian, Aimy; Taher, Leila; Gale, Nicholas W.; Economides, Aris N.; Harland, Richard M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2013-01-01

    WNT signaling is critical in most aspects of skeletal development and homeostasis, and antagonists of WNT signaling are emerging as key regulatory proteins with great promise as therapeutic agents for bone disorders. Here we show that Sost and its paralog Sostdc1 emerged through ancestral genome duplication and their expression patterns have diverged to delineate non-overlapping domains in most organ systems including musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, reproductive and respiratory. In the developing limb, Sost and Sostdc1 display dynamic expression patterns with Sost being restricted to the distal ectoderm and Sostdc1 to the proximal ectoderm and the mesenchyme. While Sostdc1–/– mice lack any obvious limb or skeletal defects, Sost–/– mice recapitulate the hand defects described for Sclerosteosis patients. However, elevated WNT signaling in Sost–/–; Sostdc1–/– mice causes misregulation of SHH signaling, ectopic activation of Sox9 in the digit 1 field and preaxial polydactyly in a Gli1- and Gli3-dependent manner. In addition, we show that the syndactyly documented in Sclerosteosis is present in both Sost–/– and Sost–/–; Sostdc1–/– mice, and is driven by misregulation of Fgf8 in the AER, a region lacking Sost and Sostdc1 expression. This study highlights the complexity of WNT signaling in skeletal biology and disease and emphasizes how redundant mechanism and non-cell autonomous effects can synergize to unveil new intricate phenotypes caused by elevated WNT signaling. PMID:23994639

  18. Sost and its paralog Sostdc1 coordinate digit number in a Gli3-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Collette, Nicole M; Yee, Cristal S; Murugesh, Deepa; Sebastian, Aimy; Taher, Leila; Gale, Nicholas W; Economides, Aris N; Harland, Richard M; Loots, Gabriela G

    2013-11-01

    WNT signaling is critical in most aspects of skeletal development and homeostasis, and antagonists of WNT signaling are emerging as key regulatory proteins with great promise as therapeutic agents for bone disorders. Here we show that Sost and its paralog Sostdc1 emerged through ancestral genome duplication and their expression patterns have diverged to delineate non-overlapping domains in most organ systems including musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, reproductive and respiratory. In the developing limb, Sost and Sostdc1 display dynamic expression patterns with Sost being restricted to the distal ectoderm and Sostdc1 to the proximal ectoderm and the mesenchyme. While Sostdc1(-/-) mice lack any obvious limb or skeletal defects, Sost(-/-) mice recapitulate the hand defects described for Sclerosteosis patients. However, elevated WNT signaling in Sost(-/-); Sostdc1(-/-) mice causes misregulation of SHH signaling, ectopic activation of Sox9 in the digit 1 field and preaxial polydactyly in a Gli1- and Gli3-dependent manner. In addition, we show that the syndactyly documented in Sclerosteosis is present in both Sost(-/-) and Sost(-/-); Sostdc1(-/-) mice, and is driven by misregulation of Fgf8 in the AER, a region lacking Sost and Sostdc1 expression. This study highlights the complexity of WNT signaling in skeletal biology and disease and emphasizes how redundant mechanism and non-cell autonomous effects can synergize to unveil new intricate phenotypes caused by elevated WNT signaling.

  19. Paralogous Radiations of PIN Proteins with Multiple Origins of Noncanonical PIN Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tom; Brockington, Samuel F.; Rothfels, Carl; Graham, Sean W.; Stevenson, Dennis; Kutchan, Toni; Rolf, Megan; Thomas, Philip; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leyser, Ottoline; Glover, Beverley J.; Harrison, C. Jill

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development which has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN-FORMED1 (PIN) auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations, but the origin and evolutionary significance of this variation is unresolved. To characterize PIN family evolution, we have undertaken phylogenetic and structural analyses with a massive increase in taxon sampling over previous studies. Our phylogeny shows that following the divergence of the bryophyte and lycophyte lineages, two deep duplication events gave rise to three distinct lineages of PIN proteins in euphyllophytes. Subsequent independent radiations within each of these lineages were taxonomically asymmetric, giving rise to at least 21 clades of PIN proteins, of which 15 are revealed here for the first time. Although most PIN protein clades share a conserved canonical structure with a modular central loop domain, a small number of noncanonical clades dispersed across the phylogeny have highly divergent protein structure. We propose that PIN proteins underwent sub- and neofunctionalization with substantial modification to protein structure throughout plant evolution. Our results have important implications for plant evolution as they suggest that structurally divergent PIN proteins that arose in paralogous radiations contributed to the convergent evolution of organ systems in different land plant lineages. PMID:24758777

  20. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E; Scrivens, James H; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates-for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome-the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  1. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates–for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome–the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  2. Nuclear Ribosomal ITS Functional Paralogs Resolve the Phylogenetic Relationships of a Late-Miocene Radiation Cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  3. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  4. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals.

  5. Why the DNA self-depurination mechanism operates in HB-β but not in β-globin paralogs HB-δ, HB-ɛ1, HB-γ1 and HB-γ2.

    PubMed

    Amosova, Olga; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Fresco, Jacques R

    2015-08-01

    The human β-globin, δ-globin and ɛ-globin genes contain almost identical coding strand sequences centered about codon 6 having potential to form a stem-loop with a 5'GAGG loop. Provided with a sufficiently stable stem, such a structure can self-catalyze depurination of the loop 5'G residue, leading to a potential mutation hotspot. Previously, we showed that such a hotspot exists about codon 6 of β-globin, with by far the highest incidence of mutations across the gene, including those responsible for 6 anemias (notably Sickle Cell Anemia) and β-thalassemias. In contrast, we show here that despite identical loop sequences, there is no mutational hotspot in the δ- or ɛ1-globin potential self-depurination sites, which differ by only one or two base pairs in the stem region from that of the β-globin gene. These differences result in either one or two additional mismatches in the potential 7-base pair-forming stem region, thereby weakening its stability, so that either DNA cruciform extrusion from the duplex is rendered ineffective or the lifetime of the stem-loop becomes too short to permit self-catalysis to occur. Having that same loop sequence, paralogs HB-γ1 and HB-γ2 totally lack stem-forming potential. Hence the absence in δ- and ɛ1-globin genes of a mutational hotspot in what must now be viewed as non-functional homologs of the self-depurination site in β-globin. Such stem-destabilizing variants appeared early among vertebrates and remained conserved among mammals and primates. Thus, this study has revealed conserved sequence determinants of self-catalytic DNA depurination associated with variability of mutation incidence among human β-globin paralogs.

  6. Why the DNA self-depurination mechanism operates in HB-β but not in β-globin paralogs HB-δ, HB-ɛ1, HB-γ1 and HB-γ2.

    PubMed

    Amosova, Olga; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Fresco, Jacques R

    2015-08-01

    The human β-globin, δ-globin and ɛ-globin genes contain almost identical coding strand sequences centered about codon 6 having potential to form a stem-loop with a 5'GAGG loop. Provided with a sufficiently stable stem, such a structure can self-catalyze depurination of the loop 5'G residue, leading to a potential mutation hotspot. Previously, we showed that such a hotspot exists about codon 6 of β-globin, with by far the highest incidence of mutations across the gene, including those responsible for 6 anemias (notably Sickle Cell Anemia) and β-thalassemias. In contrast, we show here that despite identical loop sequences, there is no mutational hotspot in the δ- or ɛ1-globin potential self-depurination sites, which differ by only one or two base pairs in the stem region from that of the β-globin gene. These differences result in either one or two additional mismatches in the potential 7-base pair-forming stem region, thereby weakening its stability, so that either DNA cruciform extrusion from the duplex is rendered ineffective or the lifetime of the stem-loop becomes too short to permit self-catalysis to occur. Having that same loop sequence, paralogs HB-γ1 and HB-γ2 totally lack stem-forming potential. Hence the absence in δ- and ɛ1-globin genes of a mutational hotspot in what must now be viewed as non-functional homologs of the self-depurination site in β-globin. Such stem-destabilizing variants appeared early among vertebrates and remained conserved among mammals and primates. Thus, this study has revealed conserved sequence determinants of self-catalytic DNA depurination associated with variability of mutation incidence among human β-globin paralogs. PMID:26042536

  7. Evidence of duplicated Hox genes in the most recent common ancestor of extant scorpions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant P; Santiago, Marc A; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Monod, Lionel; Wheeler, Ward C

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions (order Scorpiones) are unusual among arthropods, both for the extreme heteronomy of their bauplan and for the high gene family turnover exhibited in their genomes. These phenomena appear to be correlated, as two scorpion species have been shown to possess nearly twice the number of Hox genes present in most arthropods. Segmentally offset anterior expression boundaries of a subset of Hox paralogs have been shown to correspond to transitions in segmental identities in the scorpion posterior tagmata, suggesting that posterior heteronomy in scorpions may have been achieved by neofunctionalization of Hox paralogs. However, both the first scorpion genome sequenced and the developmental genetic data are based on exemplars of Buthidae, one of 19 families of scorpions. It is therefore not known whether Hox paralogy is limited to Buthidae or widespread among scorpions. We surveyed 24 high throughput transcriptomes and the single whole genome available for scorpions, in order to test the prediction that Hox gene duplications are common to the order. We used gene tree parsimony to infer whether the paralogy was consistent with a duplication event in the scorpion common ancestor. Here we show that duplicated Hox genes in non-buthid scorpions occur in six of the ten Hox classes. Gene tree topologies and parsimony-based reconciliation of the gene trees are consistent with a duplication event in the most recent common ancestor of scorpions. These results suggest that a Hox paralogy, and by extension the model of posterior patterning established in a buthid, can be extended to non-Buthidae scorpions.

  8. AtGEN1 and AtSEND1, Two Paralogs in Arabidopsis, Possess Holliday Junction Resolvase Activity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bauknecht, Markus; Kobbe, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are physical links between homologous DNA molecules that arise as central intermediary structures during homologous recombination and repair in meiotic and somatic cells. It is necessary for these structures to be resolved to ensure correct chromosome segregation and other functions. In eukaryotes, including plants, homologs of a gene called XPG-like endonuclease1 (GEN1) have been identified that process HJs in a manner analogous to the HJ resolvases of phages, archaea, and bacteria. Here, we report that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a eukaryotic organism, has two functional GEN1 homologs instead of one. Like all known eukaryotic resolvases, AtGEN1 and Arabidopsis single-strand DNA endonuclease1 both belong to class IV of the Rad2/XPG family of nucleases. Their resolvase activity shares the characteristics of the Escherichia coli radiation and UV sensitive C paradigm for resolvases, which involves resolving HJs by symmetrically oriented incisions in two opposing strands. This leads to ligatable products without the need for further processing. The observation that the sequence context influences the cleavage by the enzymes can be interpreted as a hint for the existence of sequence specificity. The two Arabidopsis paralogs differ in their preferred sequences. The precise cleavage positions observed for the resolution of mobile nicked HJs suggest that these cleavage positions are determined by both the substrate structure and the sequence context at the junction point. PMID:25037209

  9. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.

    PubMed

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb) identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3'UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization

  10. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.

    PubMed

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb) identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3'UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization

  11. On the role of AtDMC1, AtRAD51 and its paralogs during Arabidopsis meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Pradillo, Mónica; Varas, Javier; Oliver, Cecilia; Santos, Juan L.

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination plays a critical role in achieving accurate chromosome segregation and increasing genetic diversity. Many studies, mostly in yeast, have provided important insights into the coordination and interplay between the proteins involved in the homologous recombination pathway, especially the recombinase RAD51 and the meiosis-specific DMC1. Here we summarize the current progresses on the function of both recombinases and the CX3 complex encoded by AtRAD51 paralogs, in the plant model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Similarities and differences respect to the function of these proteins in other organisms are also indicated. PMID:24596572

  12. Identifying Cognate Binding Pairs among a Large Set of Paralogs: The Case of PE/PPE Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  13. A Minimal Set of Glycolytic Genes Reveals Strong Redundancies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Central Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Solis-Escalante, Daniel; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Barrajon-Simancas, Nuria; van den Broek, Marcel; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2015-08-01

    As a result of ancestral whole-genome and small-scale duplication events, the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many eukaryotes still contain a substantial fraction of duplicated genes. In all investigated organisms, metabolic pathways, and more particularly glycolysis, are specifically enriched for functionally redundant paralogs. In ancestors of the Saccharomyces lineage, the duplication of glycolytic genes is purported to have played an important role leading to S. cerevisiae's current lifestyle favoring fermentative metabolism even in the presence of oxygen and characterized by a high glycolytic capacity. In modern S. cerevisiae strains, the 12 glycolytic reactions leading to the biochemical conversion from glucose to ethanol are encoded by 27 paralogs. In order to experimentally explore the physiological role of this genetic redundancy, a yeast strain with a minimal set of 14 paralogs was constructed (the "minimal glycolysis" [MG] strain). Remarkably, a combination of a quantitative systems approach and semiquantitative analysis in a wide array of growth environments revealed the absence of a phenotypic response to the cumulative deletion of 13 glycolytic paralogs. This observation indicates that duplication of glycolytic genes is not a prerequisite for achieving the high glycolytic fluxes and fermentative capacities that are characteristic of S. cerevisiae and essential for many of its industrial applications and argues against gene dosage effects as a means of fixing minor glycolytic paralogs in the yeast genome. The MG strain was carefully designed and constructed to provide a robust prototrophic platform for quantitative studies and has been made available to the scientific community.

  14. Multimodular Penicillin-Binding Proteins: An Enigmatic Family of Orthologs and Paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Colette; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie

    1998-01-01

    protein-protein interaction. The full-size class B PBPs are an assortment of orthologs and paralogs, which prescribe traits as complex as wall expansion and septum formation. PBPs of subclass B1 are unique to gram-positive bacteria. They are not essential, but they represent an important mechanism of resistance to penicillin among the enterococci and staphylococci. Natural evolution and PBP- and β-lactamase-mediated resistance show that the ability of the catalytic centers to adapt their properties to new situations is limitless. Studies of the reaction pathways by using the methods of quantum chemistry suggest that resistance to penicillin is a road of no return. PMID:9841666

  15. Gene-Family Extension Measures and Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Carmi, Gon; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The existence of multiple copies of genes is a well-known phenomenon. A gene family is a set of sufficiently similar genes, formed by gene duplication. In earlier works conducted on a limited number of completely sequenced and annotated genomes it was found that size of gene family and size of genome are positively correlated. Additionally, it was found that several atypical microbes deviated from the observed general trend. In this study, we reexamined these associations on a larger dataset consisting of 1484 prokaryotic genomes and using several ranking approaches. We applied ranking methods in such a way that genomes with lower numbers of gene copies would have lower rank. Until now only simple ranking methods were used; we applied the Kemeny optimal aggregation approach as well. Regression and correlation analysis were utilized in order to accurately quantify and characterize the relationships between measures of paralog indices and genome size. In addition, boxplot analysis was employed as a method for outlier detection. We found that, in general, all paralog indexes positively correlate with an increase of genome size. As expected, different groups of atypical prokaryotic genomes were found for different types of paralog quantities. Mycoplasmataceae and Halobacteria appeared to be among the most interesting candidates for further research of evolution through gene duplication. PMID:27527218

  16. Evolution of a new function in an esterase: simple amino acid substitutions enable the activity present in the larger paralog, BioH.

    PubMed

    Flores, Humberto; Lin, Steven; Contreras-Ferrat, Gabriel; Cronan, John E; Morett, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    Gene duplication and divergence are essential processes for the evolution of new activities. Divergence may be gradual, involving simple amino acid residue substitutions, or drastic, such that larger structural elements are inserted, deleted or rearranged. Vast protein sequence comparisons, supported by some experimental evidence, argue that large structural modifications have been necessary for certain catalytic activities to evolve. However, it is not clear whether these activities could not have been attained by gradual changes. Interestingly, catalytic promiscuity could play a fundamental evolutionary role: a preexistent secondary activity could be increased by simple amino acid residue substitutions that do not affect the enzyme's primary activity. The promiscuous profile of the enzyme may be modified gradually by genetic drift, making a pool of potentially useful activities that can be selected before duplication. In this work, we used random mutagenesis and in vivo selection to evolve the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 carboxylesterase PA3859, a small protein, to attain the function of BioH, a much larger paralog involved in biotin biosynthesis. BioH was chosen as a target activity because it provides a highly sensitive selection for evolved enzymatic activities by auxotrophy complementation. After only two cycles of directed evolution, mutants with the ability to efficiently complement biotin auxotrophy were selected. The in vivo and in vitro characterization showed that the activity of one of our mutant proteins was similar to that of the wild-type BioH enzyme. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to evolve enzymatic activities present in larger proteins by discrete amino acid substitutions.

  17. Gene structure, regulatory control, and evolution of black widow venom latrotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Bhere, Kanaka Varun; Haney, Robert A.; Ayoub, Nadia A.; Garb, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Black widow venom contains α-latrotoxin, infamous for causing intense pain. Combining 33 kb of Latrodectus hesperus genomic DNA with RNA-Seq, we characterized the α-latrotoxin gene and discovered a paralog, 4.5 kb downstream. Both paralogs exhibit venom gland specific transcription, and may be regulated post-transcriptionally via musashi-like proteins. A 4 kb intron interrupts the α-latrotoxin coding sequence, while a 10 kb intron in the 3′ UTR of the paralog may cause nonsense-mediated decay. Phylogenetic analysis confirms these divergent latrotoxins diversified through recent tandem gene duplications. Thus, latrotoxin genes have more complex structures, regulatory controls, and sequence diversity than previously proposed. PMID:25217831

  18. Gene order in rosid phylogeny, inferred from pairwise syntenies among extant genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ancestral gene order reconstruction for flowering plants has lagged behind developments in yeasts, insects and higher animals, because of the recency of widespread plant genome sequencing, sequencers' embargoes on public data use, paralogies due to whole genome duplication (WGD) and fractionation of undeleted duplicates, extensive paralogy from other sources, and the computational cost of existing methods. Results We address these problems, using the gene order of four core eudicot genomes (cacao, castor bean, papaya and grapevine) that have escaped any recent WGD events, and two others (poplar and cucumber) that descend from independent WGDs, in inferring the ancestral gene order of the rosid clade and those of its main subgroups, the fabids and malvids. We improve and adapt techniques including the OMG method for extracting large, paralogy-free, multiple orthologies from conflated pairwise synteny data among the six genomes and the PATHGROUPS approach for ancestral gene order reconstruction in a given phylogeny, where some genomes may be descendants of WGD events. We use the gene order evidence to evaluate the hypothesis that the order Malpighiales belongs to the malvids rather than as traditionally assigned to the fabids. Conclusions Gene orders of ancestral eudicot species, involving 10,000 or more genes can be reconstructed in an efficient, parsimonious and consistent way, despite paralogies due to WGD and other processes. Pairwise genomic syntenies provide appropriate input to a parameter-free procedure of multiple ortholog identification followed by gene-order reconstruction in solving instances of the "small phylogeny" problem. PMID:22759433

  19. Genes encoding vitamin-K epoxide reductase are present in Drosophila and trypanosomatid protists.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Hugh M

    2004-10-01

    Vitamin-K epoxide reductase is encoded by the VKORC1 gene in mammals and other vertebrates, which also have a paralog, VKORC1L1. Single homologs are present in basal deuterostome and insect genomes, including Drosophila, and three trypanosomatid protists. VKOR is therefore an ancient gene/protein that can be studied in the Drosophila model system.

  20. A naturally chimeric type IIA topoisomerase in Aquifex aeolicus highlights an evolutionary path for the emergence of functional paralogs.

    PubMed

    Tretter, Elsa M; Lerman, Jeffrey C; Berger, James M

    2010-12-21

    Bacteria frequently possess two type IIA DNA topoisomerases, gyrase and topo IV, which maintain chromosome topology by variously supercoiling, relaxing, and disentangling DNA. DNA recognition and functional output is thought to be controlled by the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the topoisomerase DNA binding subunit (GyrA/ParC). The deeply rooted organism Aquifex aeolicus encodes one type IIA topoisomerase conflictingly categorized as either DNA gyrase or topo IV. To resolve this enzyme's catalytic properties and heritage, we conducted a series of structural and biochemical studies on the isolated GyrA/ParC CTD and the holoenzyme. Whereas the CTD displays a global structure similar to that seen in bone fide GyrA and ParC paralogs, it lacks a key functional motif (the "GyrA-box") and fails to wrap DNA. Biochemical assays show that the A. aeolicus topoisomerase cannot supercoil DNA, but robustly removes supercoils and decatenates DNA, two hallmark activities of topo IV. Despite these properties, phylogenetic analyses place all functional domains except the CTD squarely within a gyrase lineage, and the A. aeolicus GyrB subunit is capable of supporting supercoiling with Escherichia coli GyrA, but not DNA relaxation with E. coli ParC. Moreover, swapping the A. aeolicus GyrA/ParC CTD with the GyrA CTD from Thermotoga maritima creates an enzyme that negatively supercoils DNA. These findings identify A. aeolicus as the first bacterial species yet found to exist without a functional gyrase, and suggest an evolutionary path for generation of bacterial type IIA paralogs.

  1. The evolution of paralogous enzymes MAT and MATX within the Euglenida and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is a ubiquitous essential enzyme that, in eukaryotes, occurs in two relatively divergent paralogues: MAT and MATX. MATX has a punctate distribution across the tree of eukaryotes and, except for a few cases, is mutually exclusive with MAT. This phylogenetic pattern could have arisen by either differential loss of old paralogues or the spread of one of these paralogues by horizontal gene transfer. Our aim was to map the distribution of MAT/MATX genes within the Euglenida in order to more comprehensively characterize the evolutionary history of MATX. Results We generated 26 new sequences from 23 different lineages of euglenids and one prasinophyte alga Pyramimonas parkeae. MATX was present only in photoautotrophic euglenids. The mixotroph Rapaza viridis and the prasinophyte alga Pyramimonas parkeae, which harbors chloroplasts that are most closely related to the chloroplasts in photoautotrophic euglenids, both possessed only the MAT paralogue. We found both the MAT and MATX paralogues in two photoautotrophic species (Phacus orbicularis and Monomorphina pyrum). The significant conflict between eukaryotic phylogenies inferred from MATX and SSU rDNA data represents strong evidence that MATX paralogues have undergone horizontal gene transfer across the tree of eukaryotes. Conclusions Our results suggest that MATX entered the euglenid lineage in a single horizontal gene transfer event that took place after the secondary endosymbiotic origin of the euglenid chloroplast. The origin of the MATX paralogue is unclear, and it cannot be excluded that it arose by a gene duplication event before the most recent common ancestor of eukaryotes. PMID:24517416

  2. Structure–Activity Relationship in a Purine-Scaffold Compound Series with Selectivity for the Endoplasmic Reticulum Hsp90 Paralog Grp94

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hardik J.; Patel, Pallav D.; Ochiana, Stefan O.; Yan, Pengrong; Sun, Weilin; Patel, Maulik R.; Shah, Smit K.; Tramentozzi, Elisa; Brooks, James; Bolaender, Alexander; Shrestha, Liza; Stephani, Ralph; Finotti, Paola; Leifer, Cynthia; Li, Zihai; Gewirth, Daniel T.; Taldone, Tony; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Grp94 is involved in the regulation of a restricted number of proteins and represents a potential target in a host of diseases, including cancer, septic shock, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory conditions, diabetes, coronary thrombosis, and stroke. We have recently identified a novel allosteric pocket located in the Grp94 N-terminal binding site that can be used to design ligands with a 2-log selectivity over the other Hsp90 paralogs. Here we perform extensive SAR investigations in this ligand series and rationalize the affinity and paralog selectivity of choice derivatives by molecular modeling. We then use this to design 18c, a derivative with good potency for Grp94 (IC50 = 0.22 μM) and selectivity over other paralogs (>100- and 33-fold for Hsp90α/β and Trap-1, respectively). The paralog selectivity and target-mediated activity of 18c was confirmed in cells through several functional readouts. Compound 18c was also inert when tested against a large panel of kinases. We show that 18c has biological activity in several cellular models of inflammation and cancer and also present here for the first time the in vivo profile of a Grp94 inhibitor. PMID:25901531

  3. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Contains Two iaaL Paralogs, One of Which Exhibits a Variable Number of a Trinucleotide (TAC) Tandem Repeat▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Isabel M.; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Quesada, José M.; Rodríguez-Herva, José J.; Penyalver, Ramón; Ramos, Cayo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi isolates were demonstrated to contain two iaaL paralogs, which are both chromosomally located in most strains. Comparative analysis of iaaL nucleotide sequences amplified from these two paralogs revealed that one paralog, iaaLPsn, is 100% identical to iaaL from P. savastanoi pv. nerii, while the other paralog, iaaLPsv, exhibited 93% identity to iaaL from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (iaaLPto). A 3-nucleotide motif (TAC) comprised of 3 to 15 repeats, which remained stable after propagation of the strains in olive plants, was found in iaaLPsv. Based on the observed nucleotide sequence variations, a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed that allowed differentiation among iaaLPsn, iaaLPsv, and iaaLPto. In addition, reverse transcriptase PCR on total RNA from P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains demonstrated that both iaaLPsv and iaaLPsn containing 14 or fewer TAC repeats are transcribed. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments containing the TAC repeats from iaaLPsv allowed the differentiation of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi isolates. PMID:19098222

  4. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Riley, M

    1998-01-01

    GenProtEC is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins, representing groups of paralogous genes, with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. GenProtEC can be accessed at the URL http://www.mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html PMID:9399799

  5. Gene duplication, population genomics, and species-level differentiation within a tropical mountain shrub.

    PubMed

    Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Zamudio, Sergio; Jorgensen, Tove H; Arrigo, Nils; Alvarez, Nadir; Piñero, Daniel; Emerson, Brent C

    2014-10-01

    Gene duplication leads to paralogy, which complicates the de novo assembly of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. The issue of paralogous genes is exacerbated in plants, because they are particularly prone to gene duplication events. Paralogs are normally filtered from GBS data before undertaking population genomics or phylogenetic analyses. However, gene duplication plays an important role in the functional diversification of genes and it can also lead to the formation of postzygotic barriers. Using populations and closely related species of a tropical mountain shrub, we examine 1) the genomic differentiation produced by putative orthologs, and 2) the distribution of recent gene duplication among lineages and geography. We find high differentiation among populations from isolated mountain peaks and species-level differentiation within what is morphologically described as a single species. The inferred distribution of paralogs among populations is congruent with taxonomy and shows that GBS could be used to examine recent gene duplication as a source of genomic differentiation of nonmodel species. PMID:25223767

  6. Gene Duplication, Population Genomics, and Species-Level Differentiation within a Tropical Mountain Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Zamudio, Sergio; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Arrigo, Nils; Alvarez, Nadir; Piñero, Daniel; Emerson, Brent C.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication leads to paralogy, which complicates the de novo assembly of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. The issue of paralogous genes is exacerbated in plants, because they are particularly prone to gene duplication events. Paralogs are normally filtered from GBS data before undertaking population genomics or phylogenetic analyses. However, gene duplication plays an important role in the functional diversification of genes and it can also lead to the formation of postzygotic barriers. Using populations and closely related species of a tropical mountain shrub, we examine 1) the genomic differentiation produced by putative orthologs, and 2) the distribution of recent gene duplication among lineages and geography. We find high differentiation among populations from isolated mountain peaks and species-level differentiation within what is morphologically described as a single species. The inferred distribution of paralogs among populations is congruent with taxonomy and shows that GBS could be used to examine recent gene duplication as a source of genomic differentiation of nonmodel species. PMID:25223767

  7. Occurrence and Evolution of the Paralogous Zinc Metalloproteases IgA1 Protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Commensal Species

    PubMed Central

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution, genome location, and evolution of the four paralogous zinc metalloproteases, IgA1 protease, ZmpB, ZmpC, and ZmpD, in Streptococcus pneumoniae and related commensal species were studied by in silico analysis of whole genomes and by activity screening of 154 representatives of 20 species. ZmpB was ubiquitous in the Mitis and Salivarius groups of the genus Streptococcus and in the genera Gemella and Granulicatella, with the exception of a fragmented gene in Streptococcus thermophilus, the only species with a nonhuman habitat. IgA1 protease activity was observed in all members of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis, S. sanguinis, and Gemella haemolysans, was variably present in S. mitis and S. infantis, and absent in S. gordonii, S. parasanguinis, S. cristatus, S. oligofermentans, S. australis, S. peroris, and S. suis. Phylogenetic analysis of 297 zmp sequences and representative housekeeping genes provided evidence for an unprecedented selection for genetic diversification of the iga, zmpB, and zmpD genes in S. pneumoniae and evidence of very frequent intraspecies transfer of entire genes and combination of genes. Presumably due to their adaptation to a commensal lifestyle, largely unaffected by adaptive mucosal immune factors, the corresponding genes in commensal streptococci have remained conserved. The widespread distribution and significant sequence diversity indicate an ancient origin of the zinc metalloproteases predating the emergence of the humanoid species. zmpB, which appears to be the ancestral gene, subsequently duplicated and successfully diversified into distinct functions, is likely to serve an important but yet unknown housekeeping function associated with the human host. PMID:23033471

  8. Family expansion and gene rearrangements contributed to the functional specialization of PRDM genes in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Fumasoni, Irene; Meani, Natalia; Rambaldi, Davide; Scafetta, Gaia; Alcalay, Myriam; Ciccarelli, Francesca D

    2007-01-01

    Background Progressive diversification of paralogs after gene expansion is essential to increase their functional specialization. However, mode and tempo of this divergence remain mostly unclear. Here we report the comparative analysis of PRDM genes, a family of putative transcriptional regulators involved in human tumorigenesis. Results Our analysis assessed that the PRDM genes originated in metazoans, expanded in vertebrates and further duplicated in primates. We experimentally showed that fast-evolving paralogs are poorly expressed, and that the most recent duplicates, such as primate-specific PRDM7, acquire tissue-specificity. PRDM7 underwent major structural rearrangements that decreased the number of encoded Zn-Fingers and modified gene splicing. Through internal duplication and activation of a non-canonical splice site (GC-AG), PRDM7 can acquire a novel intron. We also detected an alternative isoform that can retain the intron in the mature transcript and that is predominantly expressed in human melanocytes. Conclusion Our findings show that (a) molecular evolution of paralogs correlates with their expression pattern; (b) gene diversification is obtained through massive genomic rearrangements; and (c) splicing modification contributes to the functional specialization of novel genes. PMID:17916234

  9. Establishing the precise evolutionary history of a gene improves prediction of disease-causing missense mutations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adebali, Ogun; Reznik, Alexander O.; Ory, Daniel S.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2016-02-18

    Here, predicting the phenotypic effects of mutations has become an important application in clinical genetic diagnostics. Computational tools evaluate the behavior of the variant over evolutionary time and assume that variations seen during the course of evolution are probably benign in humans. However, current tools do not take into account orthologous/paralogous relationships. Paralogs have dramatically different roles in Mendelian diseases. For example, whereas inactivating mutations in the NPC1 gene cause the neurodegenerative disorder Niemann-Pick C, inactivating mutations in its paralog NPC1L1 are not disease-causing and, moreover, are implicated in protection from coronary heart disease. Methods: We identified major events inmore » NPC1 evolution and revealed and compared orthologs and paralogs of the human NPC1 gene through phylogenetic and protein sequence analyses. We predicted whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function by reducing the organism s fitness. As a result, removing the paralogs and distant homologs improved the overall performance of categorizing disease-causing and benign amino acid substitutions. In conclusion, the results show that a thorough evolutionary analysis followed by identification of orthologs improves the accuracy in predicting disease-causing missense mutations. We anticipate that this approach will be used as a reference in the interpretation of variants in other genetic diseases as well.« less

  10. Establishing Precise Evolutionary History of a Gene Improves Predicting Disease Causing Missense Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Adebali, Ogun; Reznik, Alexander O.; Ory, Daniel S.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Predicting the phenotypic effects of mutations has become an important application in clinical genetic diagnostics. Computational tools evaluate the behavior of the variant over evolutionary time and assume that variations seen during the course of evolution are likely benign in humans. However, current tools do not take into account orthologous/paralogous relationships. Paralogs have dramatically different roles in Mendelian diseases. For example, while inactivating mutations in the NPC1 gene cause the neurodegenerative disorder Niemann-Pick C, inactivating mutations in its paralog NPC1L1 are not disease-causing and moreover are implicated in protection from coronary heart disease. Methods We identified major events in NPC1 evolution and revealed and compared orthologs and paralogs of the human NPC1 gene through phylogenetic and protein sequence analyses. We predicted whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function by reducing the organism’s fitness. Results Removing the paralogs and distant homologs improved the overall performance of categorizing disease-causing and benign amino acid substitutions. Conclusion The results show that a thorough evolutionary analysis followed by identification of orthologs improves the accuracy in predicting disease-causing missense mutations. We anticipate that this approach will be used as a reference in the interpretation of variants in other genetic diseases as well. PMID:26890452

  11. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa

    PubMed Central

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb) identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3′UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization

  12. Aberrant Expression of Posterior HOX Genes in Well Differentiated Histotypes of Thyroid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cantile, Monica; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; La Sala, Lucia; La Mantia, Elvira; Scaramuzza, Veronica; Valentino, Elena; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Simona; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Fulciniti, Franco; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in neoplastic transformation of several human tissues. In particular, the genes belonging to HOX paralogous group 13 seem to hold a relevant role in both tumor development and progression. We have identified a significant prognostic role of HOX D13 in pancreatic cancer and we have recently showed the strong and progressive over-expression of HOX C13 in melanoma metastases and deregulation of HOX B13 expression in bladder cancers. In this study we have investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX paralogous group 13 genes/proteins expression in thyroid cancer evolution and progression, also evaluating its ability to discriminate between main histotypes. Our results showed an aberrant expression, both at gene and protein level, of all members belonging to paralogous group 13 (HOX A13, HOX B13, HOX C13 and HOX D13) in adenoma, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers samples. The data suggest a potential role of HOX paralogous group 13 genes in pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of thyroid cancers. PMID:24189220

  13. The alpha-tubulin gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and differential gene expression during cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Ridha Farajalla, Mohammed; Gulick, Patrick J

    2007-05-01

    The alpha-tubulins and beta-tubulins are the major constituents of microtubules, which have been recognized as important structural elements in cell growth and morphogenesis, and, recently, for their role in regulation and signal transduction. We have identified 15 full-length cDNAs for the members of the alpha-tubulin gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The genes were clustered into 5 homeologous groups of 3 genes. Representatives of the 5 homeologous groups were mapped to different chromosome arms, and the genome of origin was determined for each gene. Changes in mRNA levels were observed for the paralogous members of the gene family during cold acclimation. Three members of the family had initial decreases in mRNA levels in response to cold treatment, which were followed by increases, each with a different pattern of reinduction. One gene-family member showed increased mRNA for up to 14 d during cold acclimation and had decreased levels after 36 d of cold treatment; a fifth paralogous member of the gene family had slowly declining mRNA levels up to 36 d. Subtle differences in the level of gene expression among homeologs and large differences among paralogs were detected by comparing the relative abundance of wheat alpha-tubulin expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases. PMID:17612619

  14. The Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 Paralog Is a Novel Erythrocyte-Binding Ligand of P. vivax

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yang; Wang, Yue; Ito, Daisuke; Kong, Deok-Hoon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Lu, Feng; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon

    2013-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP1), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP), is a malaria vaccine candidate for P. vivax. The paralog of PvMSP1, named P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 paralog (PvMSP1P; PlasmoDB PVX_099975), was recently identified and predicted as a GPI-AP. The similarities in genetic structural characteristics between PvMSP1 and PvMSP1P (e.g., size of open reading frames, two epidermal growth factor-like domains, and GPI anchor motif in the C terminus) led us to study this protein. In the present study, different regions of the PvMSP1P protein, demarcated based on the processed forms of PvMSP1, were expressed successfully as recombinant proteins [i.e., 83 (A, B, and C), 30, 38, 42, 33, and 19 fragments]. We studied the naturally acquired immune response against each fragment of recombinant PvMSP1P and the potential ability of each fragment to bind erythrocytes. The N-terminal fragment (83A) and two C-terminal fragments (33 and 19) reacted strongly with sera from P. vivax-infected patients, with 50 to 68% sensitivity and 95 to 96% specificity, respectively. Due to colocalization of PvMSP1P with PvMSP1, we supposed that PvMSP1P plays a similar role as PvMSP1 during erythrocyte invasion. An in vitro cytoadherence assay showed that PvMSP1P, especially the 19-kDa C-terminal region, could bind to erythrocytes. We also found that human sera from populations naturally exposed to vivax malaria and antisera obtained by immunization using the recombinant molecule PvMSP1P-19 inhibited in vitro binding of human erythrocytes to PvMSP1P-19. These results provide further evidence that the PvMSP1P might be an essential parasite adhesion molecule in the P. vivax merozoite and is a potential vaccine candidate against P. vivax. PMID:23460511

  15. Experimental examination of EFL and MATX eukaryotic horizontal gene transfers: coexistence of mutually exclusive transcripts predates functional rescue.

    PubMed

    Szabová, Jana; Ruzicka, Petr; Verner, Zdenek; Hampl, Vladimír; Lukes, Julius

    2011-08-01

    Many eukaryotic genes do not follow simple vertical inheritance. Elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) are enzymes with complicated evolutionary histories and, interestingly, the two cases have several features in common. These essential enzymes occur as two relatively divergent paralogs (EF-1α/EFL, MAT/MATX) that have patchy distributions in eukaryotic lineages that are nearly mutually exclusive. To explain such distributions, we must invoke either multiple eukaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) followed by functional replacement or presence of both paralogs in the common ancestor followed by long-term coexistence and differential losses in various eukaryotic lineages. To understand the evolution of these paralogs, we have performed in vivo experiments in Trypanosoma brucei addressing the consequences of long-term coexpression and functional replacement. In the first experiment of its kind, we have demonstrated that EF-1α and MAT can be simultaneously expressed with EFL and MATX, respectively, without affecting the growth of the flagellates. After the endogenous MAT or EF-1α was downregulated by RNA interference, MATX immediately substituted for its paralog, whereas EFL was not able to substitute for EF-1α, leading to mortality. We conclude that MATX is naturally capable of evolving patchy paralog distribution via HGTs and/or long- term coexpression and differential losses. The capability of EFL to spread by HGT is lower and so the patchy distribution of EF-1α/EFL paralogs was probably shaped mainly by deep paralogy followed by long-term coexistence and differential losses.

  16. Homology-dependent Gene Silencing in Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Françoise; Vayssié, Laurence; Klotz, Catherine; Sperling, Linda; Madeddu, Luisa

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection at high copy number of plasmids containing only the coding region of a gene into the Paramecium somatic macronucleus led to a marked reduction in the expression of the corresponding endogenous gene(s). The silencing effect, which is stably maintained throughout vegetative growth, has been observed for all Paramecium genes examined so far: a single-copy gene (ND7), as well as members of multigene families (centrin genes and trichocyst matrix protein genes) in which all closely related paralogous genes appeared to be affected. This phenomenon may be related to posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic plants and quelling in Neurospora and allows the efficient creation of specific mutant phenotypes thus providing a potentially powerful tool to study gene function in Paramecium. For the two multigene families that encode proteins that coassemble to build up complex subcellular structures the analysis presented herein provides the first experimental evidence that the members of these gene families are not functionally redundant. PMID:9529389

  17. OrthoDisease: tracking disease gene orthologs across 100 species.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Kristoffer; Schreiber, Fabian; Thanintorn, Nattaphon; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2011-09-01

    Orthology is one of the most important tools available to modern biology, as it allows making inferences from easily studied model systems to much less tractable systems of interest, such as ourselves. This becomes important not least in the study of genetic diseases. We here review work on the orthology of disease-associated genes and also present an updated version of the InParanoid-based disease orthology database and web site OrthoDisease, with 14-fold increased species coverage since the previous version. Using this resource, we survey the taxonomic distribution of orthologs of human genes involved in different disease categories. The hypothesis that paralogs can mask the effect of deleterious mutations predicts that known heritable disease genes should have fewer close paralogs. We found large-scale support for this hypothesis as significantly fewer duplications were observed for disease genes in the OrthoDisease ortholog groups.

  18. Binding specificities of the GYF domains from two Saccharomyces cerevisiae paralogs.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Alexander; Sjöström, Michael; Wieslander, Ake

    2007-09-01

    We have used multivariate statistics and z-scales to represent peptide sequences in a PLS-QSAR model of previously studied binding affinities [Kofler,M., Motzny,K. and Freund,C. (2005b) Mol. Cell. Proteomics, 4, 1797-1811.] of two GYF domains to an array of immobilized synthetic peptides. As a result, we established structural determinants of the binding specificities of the two proteins. Our model was used to define new sets of yeast proteins potentially interacting with Syh1 (YPL105C) and Smy2 (YBR172C). These sets were subsequently examined for co-occurrence of Gene Ontology terms, leading to suggest a group of likely interacting proteins with a common function in mRNA catabolism. Finally, subcellular localization of a GFP-fused Syh1 and Smy2 reinforced the possibility that these proteins reside in cytoplasmic sites of mRNA degradation, thereby providing experimental confirmation to the predictions from the model.

  19. Genome-wide identification of glucosinolate synthesis genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-Xiang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Jin A; Lim, Myung-Ho; Jin, Mina; Lee, Sang Choon; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Lee, Soo-In; Hong, Joon Ki; Park, Tae-Ho; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Seol, Young-Joo; Hong, Seung-Beom; Park, Beom-Seok

    2009-07-01

    Glucosinolates play important roles in plant defense against herbivores and microbes, as well as in human nutrition. Some glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanate and nitrile compounds have been clinically proven for their anticarcinogenic activity. To better understand glucosinolate biosynthesis in Brassica rapa, we conducted a comparative genomics study with Arabidopsis thaliana and identified total 56 putative biosynthetic and regulator genes. This established a high colinearity in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway between Arabidopsis and B. rapa. Glucosinolate genes in B. rapa share 72-94% nucleotide sequence identity with the Arabidopsis orthologs and exist in different copy numbers. The exon/intron split pattern of B. rapa is almost identical to that of Arabidopsis, although inversion, insertion, deletion and intron size variations commonly occur. Four genes appear to be nonfunctional as a result of the presence of a frame shift mutation and retrotransposon insertion. At least 12 paralogs of desulfoglucosinolate sulfotransferase were found in B. rapa, whereas only three were found in Arabidopsis. The expression of those paralogs was not tissue-specific but varied greatly depending on B. rapa tissue types. Expression was also developmentally regulated in some paralogs but not in other paralogs. Most of the regulator genes are present as triple copies. Accordingly, glucosinolate synthesis and regulation in B. rapa appears to be more complex than that of Arabidopsis. With the isolation and further characterization of the endogenous genes, health-beneficial vegetables or desirable animal feed crops could be developed by metabolically engineering the glucosinolate pathway.

  20. Differential selection after duplication in mammalian developmental genes.

    PubMed

    Dermitzakis, E T; Clark, A G

    2001-04-01

    Gene duplication provides the opportunity for subsequent refinement of distinct functions of the duplicated copies. Either through changes in coding sequence or changes in regulatory regions, duplicate copies appear to obtain new or tissue-specific functions. If this divergence were driven by natural selection, we would expect duplicated copies to have differentiated patterns of substitutions. We tested this hypothesis using genes that duplicated before the human/mouse split and whose orthologous relations were clear. The null hypothesis is that the number of amino acid changes between humans and mice was distributed similarly across different paralogs. We used a method modified from Tang and Lewontin to detect heterogeneity in the amino acid substitution pattern between those different paralogs. Our results show that many of the paralogous gene pairs appear to be under differential selection in the human/mouse comparison. The properties that led to diversification appear to have arisen before the split of the human and mouse lineages. Further study of the diverged genes revealed insights regarding the patterns of amino acid substitution that resulted in differences in function and/or expression of these genes. This approach has utility in the study of newly identified members of gene families in genomewide data mining and for contrasting the merits of alternative hypotheses for the evolutionary divergence of function of duplicated genes. PMID:11264407

  1. A chimeric Plasmodium falciparum Pfnbp2b/Pfnbp2a gene originated during asexual growth.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Alfred

    2005-02-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum line 3D7-A has an unusual invasion phenotype, such that it can invade enzyme-treated and mutant red blood cells that are resistant to invasion by other parasite lines. 3D7-A has a chimeric Pfnbp2b gene that contains part of the repeat region of the paralogous gene Pfnbp2a. This chimeric gene originated by spontaneous gene conversion during normal maintenance in culture, indicating that ectopic recombination and gene conversion during asexual growth are potentially important mechanisms participating in the evolution of paralogous genes in Plasmodium. However, the presence of the chimeric Pfnbp2b gene in 3D7-A was not associated with its peculiar invasion phenotype.

  2. A phylogenomic gene cluster resource: The phylogeneticallyinferred groups (PhlGs) database

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-08-25

    We present here the PhIGs database, a phylogenomic resource for sequenced genomes. Although many methods exist for clustering gene families, very few attempt to create truly orthologous clusters sharing descent from a single ancestral gene across a range of evolutionary depths. Although these non-phylogenetic gene family clusters have been used broadly for gene annotation, errors are known to be introduced by the artifactual association of slowly evolving paralogs and lack of annotation for those more rapidly evolving. A full phylogenetic framework is necessary for accurate inference of function and for many studies that address pattern and mechanism of the evolution of the genome. The automated generation of evolutionary gene clusters, creation of gene trees, determination of orthology and paralogy relationships, and the correlation of this information with gene annotations, expression information, and genomic context is an important resource to the scientific community.

  3. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Parplys, Ann C.; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G.; Leung, Stanley G.; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; Østvold, Anne Carine; Schild, David; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression. PMID:26323318

  4. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability

    SciTech Connect

    Parplys, Ann C.; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G.; Leung, Stanley G.; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; Østvold, Anne Carine; Schild, David; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia

    2015-08-31

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Finally, our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression.

  5. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Parplys, Ann C; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G; Leung, Stanley G; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; Østvold, Anne Carine; Schild, David; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia

    2015-11-16

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression. PMID:26323318

  6. Case study on the evolution of hetero-oligomer interfaces based on the differences in paralogous proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aoto, Saki; Yura, Kei

    2015-01-01

    We addressed the evolutionary trace of hetero-oligomer interfaces by comparing the structures of paralogous proteins; one of them is a monomer or homo-oligomer and the other is a hetero-oligomer. We found different trends in amino acid conservation pattern and hydrophobicity between homo-oligomer and hetero-oligomer. The degree of amino acid conservation in the interface of homo-oligomer has no obvious difference from that in the surface, whereas the degree of conservation is much higher in the interface of hetero-oligomer. The interface of homo-oligomer has a few very conserved residue positions, whereas the residue conservation in the interface of hetero-oligomer tends to be higher. In addition, the interface of hetero-oligomer has a tendency of being more hydrophobic compared with the one in homo-oligomer. We conjecture that these differences are related to the inherent symmetry in homo-oligomers that cannot exist in hetero-oligomers. Paucity of the structural data precludes statistical tests of these tendencies, yet the trend can be applied to the prediction of the interface of hetero-oligomer. We obtained putative interfaces of the subunits in CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor), one of the human pre-mRNA 3′-processing complexes. The locations of predicted interface residues were consistent with the known experimental data. PMID:27493859

  7. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Parplys, Ann C.; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G.; Leung, Stanley G.; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; et al

    2015-08-31

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintainingmore » wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Finally, our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression.« less

  8. Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Shamroop K.; Almeida, Reinaldo; Ejsing, Christer S.; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced through the redundant alkaline ceramidases Ypc1 and Ydc1, working backwards. Even with all four of these genes deleted, cells are surviving and continue to contain small amounts of complex sphingolipids. Here we show that these residual sphingolipids are not synthesized by YPR114w or YJR116w, proteins of unknown function showing a high degree of homology to Lag1 and Lac1. Indeed, the hextuple lag1∆ lac1∆ ypc1∆ ydc1∆ ypr114w∆ yjr116w∆ mutant still contains ceramides and complex sphingolipids. Yjr116w∆ exhibit an oxygen-dependent hypersensitivity to Cu2+ due to an increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a mitochondrially orchestrated programmed cell death in presence of copper, but also a general copper hypersensitivity that cannot be counteracted by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Myriocin efficiently represses the synthesis of sphingoid bases of ypr114w∆, but not its growth. Both yjr116w∆ and ypr114w∆ have fragmented vacuoles and produce less ROS than wild type, before and after diauxic shift. Ypr114w∆/ypr114w∆ have an increased chronological life span. Thus, Yjr116w and Ypr114w are related, but not functionally redundant. PMID:26752183

  9. Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Shamroop K; Almeida, Reinaldo; Ejsing, Christer S; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced through the redundant alkaline ceramidases Ypc1 and Ydc1, working backwards. Even with all four of these genes deleted, cells are surviving and continue to contain small amounts of complex sphingolipids. Here we show that these residual sphingolipids are not synthesized by YPR114w or YJR116w, proteins of unknown function showing a high degree of homology to Lag1 and Lac1. Indeed, the hextuple lag1∆ lac1∆ ypc1∆ ydc1∆ ypr114w∆ yjr116w∆ mutant still contains ceramides and complex sphingolipids. Yjr116w∆ exhibit an oxygen-dependent hypersensitivity to Cu2+ due to an increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a mitochondrially orchestrated programmed cell death in presence of copper, but also a general copper hypersensitivity that cannot be counteracted by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Myriocin efficiently represses the synthesis of sphingoid bases of ypr114w∆, but not its growth. Both yjr116w∆ and ypr114w∆ have fragmented vacuoles and produce less ROS than wild type, before and after diauxic shift. Ypr114w∆/ypr114w∆ have an increased chronological life span. Thus, Yjr116w and Ypr114w are related, but not functionally redundant. PMID:26752183

  10. Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Shamroop K; Almeida, Reinaldo; Ejsing, Christer S; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced through the redundant alkaline ceramidases Ypc1 and Ydc1, working backwards. Even with all four of these genes deleted, cells are surviving and continue to contain small amounts of complex sphingolipids. Here we show that these residual sphingolipids are not synthesized by YPR114w or YJR116w, proteins of unknown function showing a high degree of homology to Lag1 and Lac1. Indeed, the hextuple lag1∆ lac1∆ ypc1∆ ydc1∆ ypr114w∆ yjr116w∆ mutant still contains ceramides and complex sphingolipids. Yjr116w∆ exhibit an oxygen-dependent hypersensitivity to Cu2+ due to an increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a mitochondrially orchestrated programmed cell death in presence of copper, but also a general copper hypersensitivity that cannot be counteracted by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Myriocin efficiently represses the synthesis of sphingoid bases of ypr114w∆, but not its growth. Both yjr116w∆ and ypr114w∆ have fragmented vacuoles and produce less ROS than wild type, before and after diauxic shift. Ypr114w∆/ypr114w∆ have an increased chronological life span. Thus, Yjr116w and Ypr114w are related, but not functionally redundant.

  11. A Network of Paralogous Stress Response Transcription Factors in the Human Pathogen Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Merhej, Jawad; Thiebaut, Antonin; Blugeon, Corinne; Pouch, Juliette; Ali Chaouche, Mohammed El Amine; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Devaux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Candida glabrata has become the second cause of systemic candidemia in humans. However, relatively few genome-wide studies have been conducted in this organism and our knowledge of its transcriptional regulatory network is quite limited. In the present work, we combined genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), transcriptome analyses, and DNA binding motif predictions to describe the regulatory interactions of the seven Yap (Yeast AP1) transcription factors of C. glabrata. We described a transcriptional network containing 255 regulatory interactions and 309 potential target genes. We predicted with high confidence the preferred DNA binding sites for 5 of the 7 CgYaps and showed a strong conservation of the Yap DNA binding properties between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata. We provided reliable functional annotation for 3 of the 7 Yaps and identified for Yap1 and Yap5 a core regulon which is conserved in S. cerevisiae, C. glabrata, and C. albicans. We uncovered new roles for CgYap7 in the regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, for CgYap1 in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and for CgYap5 in the repression of GRX4 in response to iron starvation. These transcription factors define an interconnected transcriptional network at the cross-roads between redox homeostasis, oxygen consumption, and iron metabolism. PMID:27242683

  12. Expanding Duplication of Free Fatty Acid Receptor-2 (GPR43) Genes in the Chicken Genome.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Camille; Desert, Colette; Callebaut, Isabelle; Djari, Anis; Klopp, Christophe; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Martin, Pascal; Froment, Pascal; Guilbert, Edith; Gondret, Florence; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Monget, Philippe

    2015-04-24

    Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) belong to a family of five G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, so that their loss of function increases the risk of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the expansion of genes encoding paralogs of FFAR2 in the chicken, considered as a model organism for developmental biology and biomedical research. By estimating the gene copy number using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genomic DNA resequencing, and RNA sequencing data, we showed the existence of 23 ± 1.5 genes encoding FFAR2 paralogs in the chicken genome. The FFAR2 paralogs shared an identity from 87.2% up to 99%. Extensive gene conversion was responsible for this high degree of sequence similarities between these genes, and this concerned especially the four amino acids known to be critical for ligand binding. Moreover, elevated nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios on some amino acids within or in close-vicinity of the ligand-binding groove suggest that positive selection may have reduced the effective rate of gene conversion in this region, thus contributing to diversify the function of some FFAR2 paralogs. All the FFAR2 paralogs were located on a microchromosome in a same linkage group. FFAR2 genes were expressed in different tissues and cells such as spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal adipose tissue, intestine, and lung, with the highest rate of expression in testis. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these chicken-specific events along evolution are the consequence of domestication and may play a role in regulating lipid metabolism in this species.

  13. Evidence of duplicated Hox genes in the most recent common ancestor of extant scorpions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant P; Santiago, Marc A; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Monod, Lionel; Wheeler, Ward C

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions (order Scorpiones) are unusual among arthropods, both for the extreme heteronomy of their bauplan and for the high gene family turnover exhibited in their genomes. These phenomena appear to be correlated, as two scorpion species have been shown to possess nearly twice the number of Hox genes present in most arthropods. Segmentally offset anterior expression boundaries of a subset of Hox paralogs have been shown to correspond to transitions in segmental identities in the scorpion posterior tagmata, suggesting that posterior heteronomy in scorpions may have been achieved by neofunctionalization of Hox paralogs. However, both the first scorpion genome sequenced and the developmental genetic data are based on exemplars of Buthidae, one of 19 families of scorpions. It is therefore not known whether Hox paralogy is limited to Buthidae or widespread among scorpions. We surveyed 24 high throughput transcriptomes and the single whole genome available for scorpions, in order to test the prediction that Hox gene duplications are common to the order. We used gene tree parsimony to infer whether the paralogy was consistent with a duplication event in the scorpion common ancestor. Here we show that duplicated Hox genes in non-buthid scorpions occur in six of the ten Hox classes. Gene tree topologies and parsimony-based reconciliation of the gene trees are consistent with a duplication event in the most recent common ancestor of scorpions. These results suggest that a Hox paralogy, and by extension the model of posterior patterning established in a buthid, can be extended to non-Buthidae scorpions. PMID:26492826

  14. Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome

    DOE Data Explorer

    Metazome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst metazoans. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides access to twenty-four sequenced and annotated metazoan genomes, clustered at nine evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, Ensembl, and JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. The included organisms (by common name) are: Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Opossum, Chicken, Frog, Stickleback, Medaka, Fugu pufferfish; Zebrafish, Seasquirt - savignyi, Seasquirt - intestinalis, Amphioxus, Sea Urchin, Fruitfly, Mosquite, Yellow Fever Mosquito, Silkworm, Red Flour Beetle, Worm, Briggsae Worm, Owl limpet (snail), and Sea anemone. [Copied from Metazome Overview at http://www.metazome.net/Metazome_info.php

  15. Ancestry Influences the Fate of Duplicated Genes Millions of Years After Polyploidization of Clawed Frogs (Xenopus)

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ben J.

    2007-01-01

    Allopolyploid species form through the fusion of two differentiated genomes and, in the earliest stages of their evolution, essentially all genes in the nucleus are duplicated. Because unique mutations occur in each ancestor prior to allopolyploidization, duplicate genes in these species potentially are not interchangeable, and this could influence their genetic fates. This study explores evolution and expression of a simple duplicated complex—a heterodimer between RAG1 and RAG2 proteins in clawed frogs (Xenopus). Results demonstrate that copies of RAG1 degenerated in different polyploid species in a phylogenetically biased fashion, predominately in only one lineage of closely related paralogs. Surprisingly, as a result of an early deletion of one RAG2 paralog, it appears that in many species RAG1/RAG2 heterodimers are composed of proteins that were encoded by unlinked paralogs. If the tetraploid ancestor of extant species of Xenopus arose through allopolyploidization and if recombination between paralogs was rare, then the genes that encode functional RAG1 and RAG2 proteins in many polyploid species were each ultimately inherited from different diploid progenitors. These observations are consistent with the notion that ancestry can influence the fate of duplicate genes millions of years after duplication, and they uncover a dimension of natural selection in allopolyploid genomes that is distinct from other genetic phenomena associated with polyploidization or segmental duplication. PMID:17435227

  16. The predominant polyphenol in the leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius, 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid, protects membranes against desiccation and free radical-induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Moore, John P; Westall, Kim L; Ravenscroft, Neil; Farrant, Jill M; Lindsey, George G; Brandt, Wolf F

    2005-01-01

    The predominant (>90%) low-molecular-mass polyphenol was isolated from the leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius and identified to be 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid using 1H and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The structure was confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis. This compound was present at high concentrations, 44% (by weight) in hydrated leaves and 74% (by weight) in dehydrated leaves. Electron microscopy of leaf material fixed with glutaraldehyde and caffeine demonstrated that the polyphenols were localized in large vacuoles in both hydrated and dehydrated leaves. 3,4,5 Tri-O-galloylquinic acid was shown to stabilize an artificial membrane system, liposomes, against desiccation if the polyphenol concentration was between 1 and 2 microg/mug phospholipid. The phase transition of these liposomes observed at 46 degrees C was markedly diminished by the presence of 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid, suggesting that the presence of the polyphenol maintained the membranes in the liquid crystalline phase at physiological temperatures. 3,4,5 Tri-O-galloylquinic acid was also shown to protect linoleic acid against free radical-induced oxidation.

  17. The predominant polyphenol in the leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius, 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid, protects membranes against desiccation and free radical-induced oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The predominant (>90%) low-molecular-mass polyphenol was isolated from the leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolius and identified to be 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid using 1H and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The structure was confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis. This compound was present at high concentrations, 44% (by weight) in hydrated leaves and 74% (by weight) in dehydrated leaves. Electron microscopy of leaf material fixed with glutaraldehyde and caffeine demonstrated that the polyphenols were localized in large vacuoles in both hydrated and dehydrated leaves. 3,4,5 Tri-O-galloylquinic acid was shown to stabilize an artificial membrane system, liposomes, against desiccation if the polyphenol concentration was between 1 and 2 μg/μg phospholipid. The phase transition of these liposomes observed at 46 °C was markedly diminished by the presence of 3,4,5 tri-O-galloylquinic acid, suggesting that the presence of the polyphenol maintained the membranes in the liquid crystalline phase at physiological temperatures. 3,4,5 Tri-O-galloylquinic acid was also shown to protect linoleic acid against free radical-induced oxidation. PMID:15355309

  18. beta 1-Integrin-mediated glioma cell adhesion and free radical-induced apoptosis are regulated by binding to a C-terminal domain of PG-M/versican.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaojiong; Chen, Liwen; Zheng, Peng-Sheng; Yang, Burton B

    2002-04-01

    Integrins are cell-surface glycoproteins that mediate cell activities, including tissue morphogenesis, development, immune response, and cancer, through interaction with extracellular proteins. Here we report a novel means by which integrin signaling and functions are regulated. In pull-down assays and immunoprecipitation, beta(1)-integrin bound to the C-terminal domain of PG-M/versican, an extracellular chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. This was confirmed by cell-surface binding assays. Binding was calcium- and manganese-dependent. Upon native gel electrophoresis, beta(1)-integrin comigrated with the C-terminal domain of PG-M/versican. The interaction of beta(1)-integrin with the C-terminal domain of PG-M/versican activated focal adhesion kinase, enhanced integrin expression, and promoted cell adhesion. As a result, cells expressing the C-terminal domain of PG-M/versican were resistant to free radical-induced apoptosis. As the PG-M/versican peptide used in this study does not contain the RGD consensus-binding motif for integrins, the mechanism of the observed binding represents an entirely new function. PMID:11805102

  19. Sensitivities of Two Zebrafish TRPA1 Paralogs to Chemical and Thermal Stimuli Analyzed in Heterologous Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Oda, Mai; Kurogi, Mako; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is the only member of the mouse, chick, and frog TRPA family, whereas 2 paralogs (zTRPA1a and zTRPA1b) are present in zebrafish. We herein investigated functional differences in the 2 zebrafish TRPA1s. HEK293T cells were used as heterologous expression systems, and the sensitivities of these cells to 4 chemical irritants (allyl isothiocyanate [AITC], caffeine, auto-oxidized epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG], and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]) were compared with Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Sensitivities to the activators for AITC, oxidized EGCG, and H2O2 were higher in cells expressing zTRPA1a than in those expressing zTRPA1b, whereas caffeine appeared to activate both cells equally. We also characterized the thermal sensitivity of Xenopus oocytes expressing each TRPA1 electrophysiologically using a 2-electrode voltage clamp. Although endogenous currents induced by a cold stimulation were observed in control oocytes in some batches, oocytes expressing zTRPA1b showed significantly stronger cold- and heat-induced responses. However, significant thermal activation was not observed in oocytes expressing zTRPA1a. The results obtained using in vitro expression systems suggest that zTRPA1a is specialized for chemical sensing, whereas zTRPA1b responds to thermal stimuli. Furthermore, characterization of the chimeric molecule of TRPA1a and 1b revealed the importance of the N-terminal region in chemical and thermal sensing by zTRPA1s.

  20. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-03-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes.

  1. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-03-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes. PMID:25644246

  2. Analysis of the reptile CD1 genes: evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Tao; Bai, Jianhui; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xuhan; Ma, Qingwei; Wu, Xiaobing; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Yaofeng; Ren, Liming

    2015-06-01

    CD1, as the third family of antigen-presenting molecules, is previously only found in mammals and chickens, which suggests that the chicken and mammalian CD1 shared a common ancestral gene emerging at least 310 million years ago. Here, we describe CD1 genes in the green anole lizard and Crocodylia, demonstrating that CD1 is ubiquitous in mammals, birds, and reptiles. Although the reptilian CD1 protein structures are predicted to be similar to human CD1d and chicken CD1.1, CD1 isotypes are not found to be orthologous between mammals, birds, and reptiles according to phylogenetic analyses, suggesting an independent diversification of CD1 isotypes during the speciation of mammals, birds, and reptiles. In the green anole lizard, although the single CD1 locus and MHC I gene are located on the same chromosome, there is an approximately 10-Mb-long sequence in between, and interestingly, several genes flanking the CD1 locus belong to the MHC paralogous region on human chromosome 19. The CD1 genes in Crocodylia are located in two loci, respectively linked to the MHC region and MHC paralogous region (corresponding to the MHC paralogous region on chromosome 19). These results provide new insights for studying the origin and evolution of CD1.

  3. Altitudinal Variation at Duplicated β-Globin Genes in Deer Mice: Effects of Selection, Recombination, and Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Cheviron, Zachary A.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Kelly, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially varying selection on a given polymorphism is expected to produce a localized peak in the between-population component of nucleotide diversity, and theory suggests that the chromosomal extent of elevated differentiation may be enhanced in cases where tandemly linked genes contribute to fitness variation. An intriguing example is provided by the tandemly duplicated β-globin genes of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), which contribute to adaptive differentiation in blood–oxygen affinity between high- and low-altitude populations. Remarkably, the two β-globin genes segregate the same pair of functionally distinct alleles due to a history of interparalog gene conversion and alleles of the same functional type are in perfect coupling-phase linkage disequilibrium (LD). Here we report a multilocus analysis of nucleotide polymorphism and LD in highland and lowland mice with different genetic backgrounds at the β-globin genes. The analysis of haplotype structure revealed a paradoxical pattern whereby perfect LD between the two β-globin paralogs (which are separated by 16.2 kb) is maintained in spite of the fact that LD within both paralogs decays to background levels over physical distances of less than 1 kb. The survey of nucleotide polymorphism revealed that elevated levels of altitudinal differentiation at each of the β-globin genes drop away quite rapidly in the external flanking regions (upstream of the 5′ paralog and downstream of the 3′ paralog), but the level of differentiation remains unexpectedly high across the intergenic region. Observed patterns of diversity and haplotype structure are difficult to reconcile with expectations of a two-locus selection model with multiplicative fitness. PMID:22042573

  4. Remodelling of a homeobox gene cluster by multiple independent gene reunions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carolus; Jayasekera, Suvini; Kao, Bryant; Páramo, Moisés; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Ranz, José M

    2015-01-01

    Genome clustering of homeobox genes is often thought to reflect arrangements of tandem gene duplicates maintained by advantageous coordinated gene regulation. Here we analyse the chromosomal organization of the NK homeobox genes, presumed to be part of a single cluster in the Bilaterian ancestor, across 20 arthropods. We find that the ProtoNK cluster was extensively fragmented in some lineages, showing that NK clustering in Drosophila species does not reflect selectively maintained gene arrangements. More importantly, the arrangement of NK and neighbouring genes across the phylogeny supports that, in two instances within the Drosophila genus, some cluster remnants became reunited via large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. Simulated scenarios of chromosome evolution indicate that these reunion events are unlikely unless the genome neighbourhoods harbouring the participating genes tend to colocalize in the nucleus. Our results underscore how mechanisms other than tandem gene duplication can result in paralogous gene clustering during genome evolution. PMID:25739651

  5. AAN82231 protein from uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 is a close paralog of DsbB enzymes and does not belong to the DsbI family.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Marcin; Lasica, Anna M; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta K; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2009-01-01

    Dsb proteins control the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds during the folding of membrane and exported proteins. DsbA is an oxidant that catalyzes formation of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized, and yet unfolded proteins. In order to act catalytically again, it has to be reoxidized by a transmembrane protein DsbB characterized by two pairs of disulfides. DsbB is related to another protein family DsbI, characterized by the presence of only one disulfide, and an additional C-terminal beta-propeller domain. The protein AAN82231 from E. coli strain CFT073 has been recently described as a new member of the DsbI family (Grimshaw et al., 2008). It was found that AAN82231 forms a functional redox pair with DsbL--a newly described DsbA-like protein. Here, we report that AAN82231 shares no characteristic features with the DsbI proteins. Instead, according to phylogenetic analyses AAN82231 clearly belongs to another, previously described subfamily of DsbB paralogs. To facilitate classification of DsbB and DsbI homologs, we propose a new nomenclature system and present an updated phylogenetic analysis of the DsbB superfamily, which comprises the following families: "orthodox" DsbB, its paralogs now named DsbB2 (including AAN82231), DsbI and two groups of so far uncharacterized DsbB paralogs termed DsbB3 and DsbB4. We have also developed a web server dedicated to phylogenetic assignment of DsbB/DsbI candidate proteins that will be identified in the future.

  6. Hemocyanin gene family evolution in spiders (Araneae), with implications for phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the infraorder Mygalomorphae.

    PubMed

    Starrett, James; Hedin, Marshal; Ayoub, Nadia; Hayashi, Cheryl Y

    2013-07-25

    Hemocyanins are multimeric copper-containing hemolymph proteins involved in oxygen binding and transport in all major arthropod lineages. Most arachnids have seven primary subunits (encoded by paralogous genes a-g), which combine to form a 24-mer (4×6) quaternary structure. Within some spider lineages, however, hemocyanin evolution has been a dynamic process with extensive paralog duplication and loss. We have obtained hemocyanin gene sequences from numerous representatives of the spider infraorders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae in order to infer the evolution of the hemocyanin gene family and estimate spider relationships using these conserved loci. Our hemocyanin gene tree is largely consistent with the previous hypotheses of paralog relationships based on immunological studies, but reveals some discrepancies in which paralog types have been lost or duplicated in specific spider lineages. Analyses of concatenated hemocyanin sequences resolved deep nodes in the spider phylogeny and recovered a number of clades that are supported by other molecular studies, particularly for mygalomorph taxa. The concatenated data set is also used to estimate dates of higher-level spider divergences and suggests that the diversification of extant mygalomorphs preceded that of extant araneomorphs. Spiders are diverse in behavior and respiratory morphology, and our results are beneficial for comparative analyses of spider respiration. Lastly, the conserved hemocyanin sequences allow for the inference of spider relationships and ancient divergence dates.

  7. Rooting Gene Trees without Outgroups: EP Rooting

    PubMed Central

    Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Lake, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167–181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301–316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60–76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489–493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763–766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255–260). PMID:22593551

  8. Evolution by gene duplication of Medicago truncatula PISTILLATA-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Edelín; Fares, Mario A.; Yenush, Lynne; Rochina, Mari Cruz; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Gómez-Mena, Concepción; Beltrán, José Pío; Cañas, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    PISTILLATA (PI) is a member of the B-function MADS-box gene family, which controls the identity of both petals and stamens in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Medicago truncatula (Mt), there are two PI-like paralogs, known as MtPI and MtNGL9. These genes differ in their expression patterns, but it is not known whether their functions have also diverged. Describing the evolution of certain duplicated genes, such as transcription factors, remains a challenge owing to the complex expression patterns and functional divergence between the gene copies. Here, we report a number of functional studies, including analyses of gene expression, protein–protein interactions, and reverse genetic approaches designed to demonstrate the respective contributions of each M. truncatula PI-like paralog to the B-function in this species. Also, we have integrated molecular evolution approaches to determine the mode of evolution of Mt PI-like genes after duplication. Our results demonstrate that MtPI functions as a master regulator of B-function in M. truncatula, maintaining the overall ancestral function, while MtNGL9 does not seem to have a role in this regard, suggesting that the pseudogenization could be the functional evolutionary fate for this gene. However, we provide evidence that purifying selection is the primary evolutionary force acting on this paralog, pinpointing the conservation of its biochemical function and, alternatively, the acquisition of a new role for this gene. PMID:26773809

  9. Evolution by gene duplication of Medicago truncatula PISTILLATA-like transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Roque, Edelín; Fares, Mario A; Yenush, Lynne; Rochina, Mari Cruz; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Gómez-Mena, Concepción; Beltrán, José Pío; Cañas, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    PISTILLATA (PI) is a member of the B-function MADS-box gene family, which controls the identity of both petals and stamens in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Medicago truncatula (Mt), there are two PI-like paralogs, known as MtPI and MtNGL9. These genes differ in their expression patterns, but it is not known whether their functions have also diverged. Describing the evolution of certain duplicated genes, such as transcription factors, remains a challenge owing to the complex expression patterns and functional divergence between the gene copies. Here, we report a number of functional studies, including analyses of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and reverse genetic approaches designed to demonstrate the respective contributions of each M. truncatula PI-like paralog to the B-function in this species. Also, we have integrated molecular evolution approaches to determine the mode of evolution of Mt PI-like genes after duplication. Our results demonstrate that MtPI functions as a master regulator of B-function in M. truncatula, maintaining the overall ancestral function, while MtNGL9 does not seem to have a role in this regard, suggesting that the pseudogenization could be the functional evolutionary fate for this gene. However, we provide evidence that purifying selection is the primary evolutionary force acting on this paralog, pinpointing the conservation of its biochemical function and, alternatively, the acquisition of a new role for this gene.

  10. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Soybean MADS Genes Showing Potential Function in the Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Jian-Xin; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD) events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKCC subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKCC subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKCC genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKCC genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS. PMID:23638026

  11. Natural history and evolutionary principles of gene duplication in fungi.

    PubMed

    Wapinski, Ilan; Pfeffer, Avi; Friedman, Nir; Regev, Aviv

    2007-09-01

    Gene duplication and loss is a powerful source of functional innovation. However, the general principles that govern this process are still largely unknown. With the growing number of sequenced genomes, it is now possible to examine these events in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. Here, we develop a procedure that resolves the evolutionary history of all genes in a large group of species. We apply our procedure to seventeen fungal genomes to create a genome-wide catalogue of gene trees that determine precise orthology and paralogy relations across these species. We show that gene duplication and loss is highly constrained by the functional properties and interacting partners of genes. In particular, stress-related genes exhibit many duplications and losses, whereas growth-related genes show selection against such changes. Whole-genome duplication circumvents this constraint and relaxes the dichotomy, resulting in an expanded functional scope of gene duplication. By characterizing the functional fate of duplicate genes we show that duplicated genes rarely diverge with respect to biochemical function, but typically diverge with respect to regulatory control. Surprisingly, paralogous modules of genes rarely arise, even after whole-genome duplication. Rather, gene duplication may drive the modularization of functional networks through specialization, thereby disentangling cellular systems.

  12. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Illés, Erzsébet; Takács, Erzsébet; Dombi, András; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László

    2013-03-01

    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1mmoldm(-3). For end product characterization (60)Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV-vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose.

  13. Tandem oleosin genes in a cluster acquired in Brassicaceae created tapetosomes and conferred additive benefit of pollen vigor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien Yu; Chen, Pei-Ying; Huang, Ming-Der; Tsou, Chih-Hua; Jane, Wann-Neng; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    2013-01-01

    During evolution, genomes expanded via whole-genome, segmental, tandem, and individual-gene duplications, and the emerged redundant paralogs would be eliminated or retained owing to selective neutrality or adaptive benefit and further functional divergence. Here we show that tandem paralogs can contribute adaptive quantitative benefit and thus have been retained in a lineage-specific manner. In Brassicaceae, a tandem oleosin gene cluster of five to nine paralogs encodes ample tapetum-specific oleosins located in abundant organelles called tapetosomes in flower anthers. Tapetosomes coordinate the storage of lipids and flavonoids and their transport to the adjacent maturing pollen as the coat to serve various functions. Transfer-DNA and siRNA mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with knockout and knockdown of different tandem oleosin paralogs had quantitative and correlated loss of organized structures of the tapetosomes, pollen-coat materials, and pollen tolerance to dehydration. Complementation with the knockout paralog restored the losses. Cleomaceae is the family closest to Brassicaceae. Cleome species did not contain the tandem oleosin gene cluster, tapetum oleosin transcripts, tapetosomes, or pollen tolerant to dehydration. Cleome hassleriana transformed with an Arabidopsis oleosin gene for tapetum expression possessed primitive tapetosomes and pollen tolerant to dehydration. We propose that during early evolution of Brassicaceae, a duplicate oleosin gene mutated from expression in seed to the tapetum. The tapetum oleosin generated primitive tapetosomes that organized stored lipids and flavonoids for their effective transfer to the pollen surface for greater pollen vitality. The resulting adaptive benefit led to retention of tandem-duplicated oleosin genes for production of more oleosin and modern tapetosomes. PMID:23940319

  14. Gene Family Expansions in Aphids Maintained by Endosymbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Rebecca P.; Feng, Honglin; Nguyen, Douglas M.; Wilson, Alex C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Facilitating the evolution of new gene functions, gene duplication is a major mechanism driving evolutionary innovation. Gene family expansions relevant to host/symbiont interactions are increasingly being discovered in eukaryotes that host endosymbiotic microbes. Such discoveries entice speculation that gene duplication facilitates the evolution of novel, endosymbiotic relationships. Here, using a comparative transcriptomic approach combined with differential gene expression analysis, we investigate the importance of endosymbiosis in retention of amino acid transporter paralogs in aphid genomes. To pinpoint the timing of amino acid transporter duplications we inferred gene phylogenies for five aphid species and three outgroups. We found that while some duplications arose in the aphid common ancestor concurrent with endosymbiont acquisition, others predate aphid divergence from related insects without intracellular symbionts, and still others appeared during aphid diversification. Interestingly, several aphid-specific paralogs have conserved enriched expression in bacteriocytes, the insect cells that host primary symbionts. Conserved bacteriocyte enrichment suggests that the transporters were recruited to the aphid/endosymbiont interface in the aphid common ancestor, consistent with a role for gene duplication in facilitating the evolution of endosymbiosis in aphids. In contrast, the temporal variability of amino acid transporter duplication indicates that endosymbiosis is not the only trait driving selection for retention of amino acid transporter paralogs in sap-feeding insects. This study cautions against simplistic interpretations of the role of gene family expansion in the evolution of novel host/symbiont interactions by further highlighting that multiple complex factors maintain gene family paralogs in the genomes of eukaryotes that host endosymbiotic microbes. PMID:26878871

  15. Gene Family Expansions in Aphids Maintained by Endosymbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Traits.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Rebecca P; Feng, Honglin; Nguyen, Douglas M; Wilson, Alex C C

    2016-02-15

    Facilitating the evolution of new gene functions, gene duplication is a major mechanism driving evolutionary innovation. Gene family expansions relevant to host/symbiont interactions are increasingly being discovered in eukaryotes that host endosymbiotic microbes. Such discoveries entice speculation that gene duplication facilitates the evolution of novel, endosymbiotic relationships. Here, using a comparative transcriptomic approach combined with differential gene expression analysis, we investigate the importance of endosymbiosis in retention of amino acid transporter paralogs in aphid genomes. To pinpoint the timing of amino acid transporter duplications we inferred gene phylogenies for five aphid species and three outgroups. We found that while some duplications arose in the aphid common ancestor concurrent with endosymbiont acquisition, others predate aphid divergence from related insects without intracellular symbionts, and still others appeared during aphid diversification. Interestingly, several aphid-specific paralogs have conserved enriched expression in bacteriocytes, the insect cells that host primary symbionts. Conserved bacteriocyte enrichment suggests that the transporters were recruited to the aphid/endosymbiont interface in the aphid common ancestor, consistent with a role for gene duplication in facilitating the evolution of endosymbiosis in aphids. In contrast, the temporal variability of amino acid transporter duplication indicates that endosymbiosis is not the only trait driving selection for retention of amino acid transporter paralogs in sap-feeding insects. This study cautions against simplistic interpretations of the role of gene family expansion in the evolution of novel host/symbiont interactions by further highlighting that multiple complex factors maintain gene family paralogs in the genomes of eukaryotes that host endosymbiotic microbes.

  16. Evolutionary relationships and diversification of barhl genes within retinal cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Basic helix-loop-helix and homeodomain transcription factors have been shown to specify all different neuronal cell subtypes composing the vertebrate retina. The appearance of gene paralogs of such retina-specific transcription factors in lower vertebrates, with differently evolved function and/or conserved non-coding elements, might provide an important source for the generation of neuronal diversity within the vertebrate retinal architecture. In line with this hypothesis, we investigated the evolution of the homeobox Barhl family of transcription factors, barhl1 and barhl2, in the teleost and tetrapod lineages. In tetrapod barhl2, but not barhl1, is expressed in the retina and is important for amacrine cell specification. Zebrafish has three barhl paralogs: barhl1.1, barhl1.2 and barhl2, but their precise spatio-temporal retinal expression, as well as their function is yet unknown. Results Here we performed a meticulous expression pattern comparison of all known barhl fish paralogs and described a novel barhl paralog in medaka. Our detailed analysis of zebrafish barhl gene expression in wild type and mutant retinas revealed that only barhl1.2 and barhl2 are present in the retina. We also showed that these two paralogs are expressed in distinct neuronal lineages and are differently regulated by Atoh7, a key retinal-specific transcription factor. Finally, we found that the two retained medaka fish barhl paralogs, barhl1 and barhl2, are both expressed in the retina, in a pattern reminiscent of zebrafish barhl1.2 and barhl2 respectively. By performing phylogenetic and synteny analysis, we provide evidence that barhl retinal expression domain is an ancestral feature, probably lost in tetrapods due to functional redundancy. Conclusions Functional differences among retained paralogs of key retina-specific transcription factors between teleosts and tetrapods might provide important clues for understanding their potential impact on the generation of retinal

  17. Dating and functional characterization of duplicated genes in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by analyzing EST data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene duplication is central to genome evolution. In plants, genes can be duplicated through small-scale events and large-scale duplications often involving polyploidy. The apple belongs to the subtribe Pyrinae (Rosaceae), a diverse lineage that originated via allopolyploidization. Both small-scale duplications and polyploidy may have been important mechanisms shaping the genome of this species. Results This study evaluates the gene duplication and polyploidy history of the apple by characterizing duplicated genes in this species using EST data. Overall, 68% of the apple genes were clustered into families with a mean copy-number of 4.6. Analysis of the age distribution of gene duplications supported a continuous mode of small-scale duplications, plus two episodes of large-scale duplicates of vastly different ages. The youngest was consistent with the polyploid origin of the Pyrinae 37-48 MYBP, whereas the older may be related to γ-triplication; an ancient hexapolyploidization previously characterized in the four sequenced eurosid genomes and basal to the eurosid-asterid divergence. Duplicated genes were studied for functional diversification with an emphasis on young paralogs; those originated during or after the formation of the Pyrinae lineage. Unequal assignment of single-copy genes and gene families to Gene Ontology categories suggested functional bias in the pattern of gene retention of paralogs. Young paralogs related to signal transduction, metabolism, and energy pathways have been preferentially retained. Non-random retention of duplicated genes seems to have mediated the expansion of gene families, some of which may have substantially increased their members after the origin of the Pyrinae. The joint analysis of over-duplicated functional categories and phylogenies, allowed evaluation of the role of both polyploidy and small-scale duplications during this process. Finally, gene expression analysis indicated that 82% of duplicated genes

  18. Gene duplication in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Minyoung J; Cutter, Asher D; Rowe, Locke

    2012-05-01

    Males and females share most of the same genes, so selection in one sex will typically produce a correlated response in the other sex. Yet, the sexes have evolved to differ in a multitude of behavioral, morphological, and physiological traits. How did this sexual dimorphism evolve despite the presence of a common underlying genome? We investigated the potential role of gene duplication in the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Because duplication events provide extra genetic material, the sexes each might use this redundancy to facilitate sex-specific gene expression, permitting the evolution of dimorphism. We investigated this hypothesis at the genome-wide level in Drosophila melanogaster, using the presence of sex-biased expression as a proxy for the sex-specific specialization of gene function. We expected that if sexually antagonistic selection is a potent force acting upon individual genes, duplication will result in paralog families whose members differ in sex-biased expression. Gene members of the same duplicate family can have different expression patterns in males versus females. In particular, duplicate pairs containing a male-biased gene are found more frequently than expected, in agreement with previous studies. Furthermore, when the singleton ortholog is unbiased, duplication appears to allow one of the paralog copies to acquire male-biased expression. Conversely, female-biased expression is not common among duplicates; fewer duplicate genes are expressed in the female-soma and ovaries than in the male-soma and testes. Expression divergence exists more in older than in younger duplicates pairs, but expression divergence does not correlate with protein sequence divergence. Finally, genomic proximity may have an effect on whether paralogs differ in sex-biased expression. We conclude that the data are consistent with a role of gene duplication in fostering male-biased, but not female-biased, gene expression, thereby aiding the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  19. Sporadic Gene Loss After Duplication Is Associated with Functional Divergence of Sirtuin Deacetylases Among Candida Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Rupert, Christopher B.; Heltzel, Justin M. H.; Taylor, Derek J.; Rusche, Laura N.

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication promotes the diversification of protein functions in several ways. Ancestral functions can be partitioned between the paralogs, or a new function can arise in one paralog. These processes are generally viewed as unidirectional. However, paralogous proteins often retain related functions and can substitute for one another. Moreover, in the event of gene loss, the remaining paralog might regain ancestral functions that had been shed. To explore this possibility, we focused on the sirtuin deacetylase SIR2 and its homolog HST1 in the CTG clade of yeasts. HST1 has been consistently retained throughout the clade, whereas SIR2 is only present in a subset of species. These NAD+-dependent deacetylases generate condensed chromatin that represses transcription and stabilizes tandemly repeated sequences. By analyzing phylogenetic trees and gene order, we found that a single duplication of the SIR2/HST1 gene occurred, likely prior to the emergence of the CTG clade. This ancient duplication was followed by at least two independent losses of SIR2. Functional characterization of Sir2 and Hst1 in three species revealed that these proteins have not maintained consistent functions since the duplication. In particular, the rDNA locus is deacetylated by Sir2 in Candida albicans, by Hst1 in C. lusitaniae, and by neither paralog in C. parapsilosis. In addition, the subtelomeres in C. albicans are deacetylated by Sir2 rather than by Hst1, which is orthologous to the sirtuin associated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae subtelomeres. These differences in function support the model that sirtuin deacetylases can regain ancestral functions to compensate for gene loss. PMID:27543294

  20. Nuclear rDNA pseudogenes in Chagas disease vectors: evolutionary implications of a new 5.8S+ITS-2 paralogous sequence marker in triatomines of North, Central and northern South America.

    PubMed

    Bargues, M Dolores; Zuriaga, M Angeles; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    A pseudogene, paralogous to rDNA 5.8S and ITS-2, is described in Meccus dimidiata dimidiata, M. d. capitata, M. d. maculippenis, M. d. hegneri, M. sp. aff. dimidiata, M. p. phyllosoma, M. p. longipennis, M. p. pallidipennis, M. p. picturata, M. p. mazzottii, Triatoma mexicana, Triatoma nitida and Triatoma sanguisuga, covering North America, Central America and northern South America. Such a nuclear rDNA pseudogene is very rare. In the 5.8S gene, criteria for pseudogene identification included length variability, lower GC content, mutations regarding the functional uniform sequence, and relatively high base substitutions in evolutionary conserved sites. At ITS-2 level, criteria were the shorter sequence and large proportion of insertions and deletions (indels). Pseudogenic 5.8S and ITS-2 secondary structures were different from the functional foldings, different one another, showing less negative values for minimum free energy (mfe) and centroid predictions, and lower fit between mfe, partition function, and centroid structures. A complete characterization indicated a processed pseudogenic unit of the ghost type, escaping from rDNA concerted evolution and with functionality subject to constraints instead of evolving free by neutral drift. Despite a high indel number, low mutation number and an evolutionary rate similar to the functional ITS-2, that pseudogene distinguishes different taxa and furnishes coherent phylogenetic topologies with resolution similar to the functional ITS-2. The discovery of a pseudogene in many phylogenetically related species is unique in animals and allowed for an estimation of its palaeobiogeographical origin based on molecular clock data, inheritance pathways, evolutionary rate and pattern, and geographical spread. Additional to the technical risk to be considered henceforth, this relict pseudogene, designated as "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)", proves to be a valuable marker for specimen classification, phylogenetic analyses, and systematic

  1. Wanda: a database of duplicated fish genes

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Yves; Taylor, John S.; Joseph, Jayabalan; Meyer, Axel

    2002-01-01

    Comparative genomics has shown that ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) contain more copies of many genes than other vertebrates. A large number of these additional genes appear to have been produced during a genome duplication event that occurred early during the evolution of Actinopterygii (i.e. before the teleost radiation). In addition to this ancient genome duplication event, many lineages within Actinopterygii have experienced more recent genome duplications. Here we introduce a curated database named Wanda that lists groups of orthologous genes with one copy from man, mouse and chicken, one or two from tetraploid Xenopus and two or more ancient copies (i.e. paralogs) from ray-finned fish. The database also contains the sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees that were necessary for determining the correct orthologous and paralogous relationships among genes. Where available, map positions and functional data are also reported. The Wanda database should be of particular use to evolutionary and developmental biologists who are interested in the evolutionary and functional divergence of genes after duplication. Wanda is available at http://www.evolutionsbiologie.uni-konstanz.de/Wanda/. PMID:11752268

  2. Evolution of trappin genes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trappin is a multifunctional host-defense peptide that has antiproteolytic, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The numbers and compositions of trappin paralogs vary among mammalian species: human and sheep have a single trappin-2 gene; mouse and rat have no trappin gene; pig and cow have multiple trappin genes; and guinea pig has a trappin gene and two other derivativegenes. Independent duplications of trappin genes in pig and cow were observed recently after the species were separated. To determine whether these trappin gene duplications are restricted only to certain mammalian lineages, we analyzed recently-developed genome databases for the presence of duplicate trappin genes. Results The database analyses revealed that: 1) duplicated trappin multigenes were found recently in the nine-banded armadillo; 2) duplicated two trappin genes had been found in the Afrotherian species (elephant, tenrec, and hyrax) since ancient days; 3) a single trappin-2 gene was found in various eutherians species; and 4) no typical trappin gene has been found in chicken, zebra finch, and opossum. Bayesian analysis estimated the date of the duplication of trappin genes in the Afrotheria, guinea pig, armadillo, cow, and pig to be 244, 35, 11, 13, and 3 million-years ago, respectively. The coding regions of trappin multigenes of almadillo, bovine, and pig evolved much faster than the noncoding exons, introns, and the flanking regions, showing that these genes have undergone accelerated evolution, and positive Darwinian selection was observed in pig-specific trappin paralogs. Conclusion These results suggest that trappin is an eutherian-specific molecule and eutherian genomes have the potential to form trappin multigenes. PMID:20113469

  3. Overexpression of MicroRNAs from the miR-17-92 Paralog Clusters in AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Dharma R.; Li, Xinmin; Jamieson, Beth D.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals infected by HIV are at an increased risk for developing non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (AIDS-NHL). In the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, there has been a significant decline in the incidence of AIDS-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). However, only a modest decrease in incidence has been reported for other AIDS-NHL subtypes. Thus, AIDS-NHLs remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Recently, much attention has been directed toward the role of miRNAs in cancer, including NHL. Several miRNAs, including those encoded by the miR-17-92 polycistron, have been shown to play significant roles in B cell tumorigenesis. However, the role of miRNAs in NHL in the setting of HIV infection has not been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We used quantitative realtime PCR to assess the expression of miRNAs from three different paralog clusters, miR-17-92, miR-106a-363, and miR-106b-25 in 24 cases of AIDS-NHLs representing four tumor types, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL, n = 6), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n = 8), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, n = 5), and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, n = 5). We also used microarray analysis to identify a differentiation specific miRNA signature of naïve, germinal center, and memory B cell subsets from tonsils (n = 4). miRNAs from the miR-17-92 paralog clusters were upregulated by B cells, specifically during the GC differentiation stage. We also found overexpression of these miRNA clusters in all four AIDS-NHL subtypes. Finally, we also show that select miRNAs from these clusters (miR-17, miR-106a, and miR-106b) inhibited p21 in AIDS-BL and DLBCL cases, thus providing a mechanistic role for these miRNAs in AIDS-NHL pathogenesis. Conclusion Dysregulation of miR-17-92 paralog clusters is a common feature of AIDS-associated NHLs. PMID:21698185

  4. Diversity of 5S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Anna; Li, Hongru; Oberdorf, William E; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Parsons, Tamasha; Yang, Liying; Gerz, Erika A; Lee, Peng; Xiang, Charlie; Nossa, Carlos W; Pei, Zhiheng

    2012-10-01

    We examined intragenomic variation of paralogous 5S rRNA genes to evaluate the concept of ribosomal constraints. In a dataset containing 1161 genomes from 779 unique species, 96 species exhibited > 3% diversity. Twenty-seven species with > 10% diversity contained a total of 421 mismatches between all pairs of the most dissimilar copies of 5S rRNA genes. The large majority (401 of 421) of the diversified positions were conserved at the secondary structure level. The high diversity was associated with partial rRNA operon, split operon, or spacer length-related divergence. In total, these findings indicated that there are tight ribosomal constraints on paralogous 5S rRNA genes in a genome despite of the high degree of diversity at the primary structure level.

  5. Ongoing resolution of duplicate gene functions shapes the diversification of a metabolic network

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Meihua Christina; Hutchins, Paul D; Russell, Jason D; Coon, Joshua J; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms leading to duplicate gene retention are well understood, but the long-term impacts of paralog differentiation on the regulation of metabolism remain underappreciated. Here we experimentally dissect the functions of two pairs of ancient paralogs of the GALactose sugar utilization network in two yeast species. We show that the Saccharomyces uvarum network is more active, even as over-induction is prevented by a second co-repressor that the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks. Surprisingly, removal of this repression system leads to a strong growth arrest, likely due to overly rapid galactose catabolism and metabolic overload. Alternative sugars, such as fructose, circumvent metabolic control systems and exacerbate this phenotype. We further show that S. cerevisiae experiences homologous metabolic constraints that are subtler due to how the paralogs have diversified. These results show how the functional differentiation of paralogs continues to shape regulatory network architectures and metabolic strategies long after initial preservation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19027.001 PMID:27690225

  6. Comparative genomics of duplicate γ-glutamyl transferase genes in teleosts: medaka (Oryzias latipes), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis), fugu (Takifugu rubripes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    LAW, Sheran Hiu Wan; REDELINGS, Benjamin David; KULLMAN, Seth William

    2011-01-01

    The availability of multiple teleost (bony fish) genomes is providing unprecedented opportunities to understand the diversity and function of gene duplication events using comparative genomics. Here we examine multiple paralogous genes of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in several distantly related teleost species including medaka, stickleback, green spotted pufferfish, fugu and zebrafish. Through mining genome databases, we have identified multiple GGT orthologs. Duplicate (paralogous) GGT sequences for GGT1 (GGT1 a and b), GGTL1 (GGTL1 a and b) and GGTL3 (GGTL3 a and b) were identified for each species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that GGTs are ancient proteins conserved across most metazoan phyla and those paralogous GGTs in teleosts likely arose from the serial 3R genome duplication events. A third GGTL1 gene (GGTL1c) was found in green spotted pufferfish; however this gene is not present in medaka, stickleback or fugu. Similarly, one or both paralogs of GGTL3 appear to have been lost in green spotted pufferfish, fugu and zebrafish. Syntenic relationships were highly maintained between duplicated teleost chromosomes, among teleosts and across ray-finned (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned (Sarcopterygii) species. To assess subfunction partitioning, six medaka GGT genes were cloned and assessed for developmental and tissue specific expression. Based upon these data, we propose a modification of the “duplication-degeneration-complementation” (DDC) model of subfunction partitioning where quantitative differences rather than absolute differences in gene expression are observed between gene paralogs. Our results demonstrate that multiple GGT genes have been retained within teleost genomes. Questions remain however regarding the functional roles of multiple GGTs in these species. PMID:21898790

  7. Elucidating the evolutionary history and expression patterns of nucleoside phosphorylase paralogs (vegetative storage proteins) in Populus and the plant kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nucleoside phosphorylases (NPs) have been extensively investigated in human and bacterial systems for their role in metabolic nucleotide salvaging and links to oncogenesis. In plants, NP-like proteins have not been comprehensively studied, likely because there is no evidence of a metabolic function in nucleoside salvage. However, in the forest trees genus Populus a family of NP-like proteins function as an important ecophysiological adaptation for inter- and intra-seasonal nitrogen storage and cycling. Results We conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the distribution and evolution of NP-like proteins in plants. These analyses revealed two major clusters of NP-like proteins in plants. Group I proteins were encoded by genes across a wide range of plant taxa while proteins encoded by Group II genes were dominated by species belonging to the order Malpighiales and included the Populus Bark Storage Protein (BSP) and WIN4-like proteins. Additionally, we evaluated the NP-like genes in Populus by examining the transcript abundance of the 13 NP-like genes found in the Populus genome in various tissues of plants exposed to long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) photoperiods. We found that all 13 of the Populus NP-like genes belonging to either Group I or II are expressed in various tissues in both LD and SD conditions. Tests of natural selection and expression evolution analysis of the Populus genes suggests that divergence in gene expression may have occurred recently during the evolution of Populus, which supports the adaptive maintenance models. Lastly, in silico analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of the 13 NP-like genes in Populus revealed common regulatory elements known to be involved in light regulation, stress/pathogenesis and phytohormone responses. Conclusion In Populus, the evolution of the NP-like protein and gene family has been shaped by duplication events and natural selection. Expression data suggest that previously

  8. The F8H Glycosyltransferase is a Functional Paralog of FRA8 Involved in Glucuronoxylan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FRAGILE FIBER8 gene was previously shown to be required for the biosynthesis of the reducing end tetrasaccharide sequence of glucuronoxylan (GX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate that F8H, a close homolog of FRA8, is a functional ortholog of FRA8 involved in GX bi...

  9. Biological consequences of ancient gene acquisition and duplication in the large genome soil bacterium, ""solibacter usitatus"" strain Ellin6076

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Jean F; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Xie, Gary; Kuske, Cheryl R; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial genome sizes range from ca. 0.5 to 10Mb and are influenced by gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, gene loss and other evolutionary processes. Sequenced genomes of strains in the phylum Acidobacteria revealed that 'Solibacter usistatus' strain Ellin6076 harbors a 9.9 Mb genome. This large genome appears to have arisen by horizontal gene transfer via ancient bacteriophage and plasmid-mediated transduction, as well as widespread small-scale gene duplications. This has resulted in an increased number of paralogs that are potentially ecologically important (ecoparalogs). Low amino acid sequence identities among functional group members and lack of conserved gene order and orientation in the regions containing similar groups of paralogs suggest that most of the paralogs were not the result of recent duplication events. The genome sizes of cultured subdivision 1 and 3 strains in the phylum Acidobacteria were estimated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the prevalence of the large genome trait within the phylum. Members of subdivision 1 were estimated to have smaller genome sizes ranging from ca. 2.0 to 4.8 Mb, whereas members of subdivision 3 had slightly larger genomes, from ca. 5.8 to 9.9 Mb. It is hypothesized that the large genome of strain Ellin6076 encodes traits that provide a selective metabolic, defensive and regulatory advantage in the variable soil environment.

  10. Biological Consequences of Ancient Gene Acquisition and Duplication in the Large Genome of Candidatus Solibacter usitatus Ellin6076

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Jean F; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Xie, Gary; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2011-01-01

    Members of the bacterial phylum Acidobacteria are widespread in soils and sediments worldwide, and are abundant in many soils. Acidobacteria are challenging to culture in vitro, and many basic features of their biology and functional roles in the soil have not been determined. Candidatus Solibacter usitatus strain Ellin6076 has a 9.9 Mb genome that is approximately 2 5 times as large as the other sequenced Acidobacteria genomes. Bacterial genome sizes typically range from 0.5 to 10 Mb and are influenced by gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, gene loss and other evolutionary processes. Our comparative genome analyses indicate that the Ellin6076 large genome has arisen by horizontal gene transfer via ancient bacteriophage and/or plasmid-mediated transduction, and widespread small-scale gene duplications, resulting in an increased number of paralogs. Low amino acid sequence identities among functional group members, and lack of conserved gene order and orientation in regions containing similar groups of paralogs, suggest that most of the paralogs are not the result of recent duplication events. The genome sizes of additional cultured Acidobacteria strains were estimated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the prevalence of the large genome trait within the phylum. Members of subdivision 3 had larger genomes than those of subdivision 1, but none were as large as the Ellin6076 genome. The large genome of Ellin6076 may not be typical of the phylum, and encodes traits that could provide a selective metabolic, defensive and regulatory advantage in the soil environment.

  11. Transcriptomic Identification of Iron-Regulated and Iron-Independent Gene Copies within the Heavily Duplicated Trichomonas vaginalis Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Petrus; Tachezy, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important evolutionary mechanism and no eukaryote has more duplicated gene families than the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron is an essential nutrient for Trichomonas and plays a pivotal role in the establishment of infection, proliferation, and virulence. To gain insight into the role of iron in T. vaginalis gene expression and genome evolution, we screened iron-regulated genes using an oligonucleotide microarray for T. vaginalis and by comparative EST (expressed sequence tag) sequencing of cDNA libraries derived from trichomonads cultivated under iron-rich (+Fe) and iron-restricted (−Fe) conditions. Among 19,000 ESTs from both libraries, we identified 336 iron-regulated genes, of which 165 were upregulated under +Fe conditions and 171 under −Fe conditions. The microarray analysis revealed that 195 of 4,950 unique genes were differentially expressed. Of these, 117 genes were upregulated under +Fe conditions and 78 were upregulated under −Fe conditions. The results of both methods were congruent concerning the regulatory trends and the representation of gene categories. Under +Fe conditions, the expression of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, particularly in the energy metabolism of hydrogenosomes, and in methionine catabolism was increased. The iron–sulfur cluster assembly machinery and certain cysteine proteases are of particular importance among the proteins upregulated under −Fe conditions. A unique feature of the T. vaginalis genome is the retention during evolution of multiple paralogous copies for a majority of all genes. Although the origins and reasons for this gene expansion remain unclear, the retention of multiple gene copies could provide an opportunity to evolve differential expression during growth in variable environmental conditions. For genes whose expression was affected by iron, we found that iron influenced the expression of only some of the paralogous copies, whereas the expression of

  12. Circadian expression of clock and putative clock-controlled genes in skeletal muscle of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    To identify circadian patterns of gene expression in skeletal muscle, adult male zebrafish were acclimated for 2 wk to a 12:12-h light-dark photoperiod and then exposed to continuous darkness for 86 h with ad libitum feeding. The increase in gut food content associated with the subjective light period was much diminished by the third cycle, enabling feeding and circadian rhythms to be distinguished. Expression of zebrafish paralogs of mammalian transcriptional activators of the circadian mechanism (bmal1, clock1, and rora) followed a rhythmic pattern with a ∼24-h periodicity. Peak expression of rora paralogs occurred at the beginning of the subjective light period [Zeitgeber time (ZT)07 and ZT02 for roraa and rorab], whereas the highest expression of bmal1 and clock paralogs occurred 12 h later (ZT13-15 and ZT16 for bmal and clock paralogs). Expression of the transcriptional repressors cry1a, per1a/1b, per2, per3, nr1d2a/2b, and nr1d1 also followed a circadian pattern with peak expression at ZT0-02. Expression of the two paralogs of cry2 occurred in phase with clock1a/1b. Duplicated genes had a high correlation of expression except for paralogs of clock1, nr1d2, and per1, with cry1b showing no circadian pattern. The highest expression difference was 9.2-fold for the activator bmal1b and 51.7-fold for the repressor per1a. Out of 32 candidate clock-controlled genes, only myf6, igfbp3, igfbp5b, and hsf2 showed circadian expression patterns. Igfbp3, igfbp5b, and myf6 were expressed in phase with clock1a/1b and had an average of twofold change in expression from peak to trough, whereas hsf2 transcripts were expressed in phase with cry1a and had a 7.2-fold-change in expression. The changes in expression of clock and clock-controlled genes observed during continuous darkness were also observed at similar ZTs in fish exposed to a normal photoperiod in a separate control experiment. The role of circadian clocks in regulating muscle maintenance and growth are discussed

  13. Evolutionary history of the reprimo tumor suppressor gene family in vertebrates with a description of a new reprimo gene lineage.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Ignacio A; Zavala, Kattina; Hoffmann, Federico G; Vandewege, Michael W; Corvalán, Alejandro H; Amigo, Julio D; Owen, Gareth I; Opazo, Juan C

    2016-10-10

    Genes related to human diseases should be natural targets for evolutionary studies, since they could provide clues regarding the genetic bases of pathologies and potential treatments. Here we studied the evolution of the reprimo gene family, a group of tumor-suppressor genes that are implicated in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest. These genes, especially the reprimo duplicate located on human chromosome 2, have been associated with epigenetic modifications correlated with transcriptional silencing and cancer progression. We demonstrate the presence of a third reprimo lineage that, together with the reprimo and reprimo-like genes, appears to have been differentially retained during the evolutionary history of vertebrates. We present evidence that these reprimo lineages originated early in vertebrate evolution and expanded as a result of the two rounds of whole genome duplications that occurred in the last common ancestor of vertebrates. The reprimo gene has been lost in birds, and the third reprimo gene lineage has been retained in only a few distantly related species, such as coelacanth and gar. Expression analyses revealed that the reprimo paralogs are mainly expressed in the nervous system. Different vertebrate lineages have retained different reprimo paralogs, and even in species that have retained multiple copies, only one of them is heavily expressed.

  14. The Evolutionary Fate of Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons after Gene Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Abascal, Federico; Tress, Michael L.; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are the two main processes responsible for expanding protein functional diversity. Although gene duplication can generate new genes and alternative splicing can introduce variation through alternative gene products, the interplay between the two processes is complex and poorly understood. Here, we have carried out a study of the evolution of alternatively spliced exons after gene duplication to better understand the interaction between the two processes. We created a manually curated set of 97 human genes with mutually exclusively spliced homologous exons and analyzed the evolution of these exons across five distantly related vertebrates (lamprey, spotted gar, zebrafish, fugu, and coelacanth). Most of these exons had an ancient origin (more than 400 Ma). We found examples supporting two extreme evolutionary models for the behaviour of homologous axons after gene duplication. We observed 11 events in which gene duplication was accompanied by splice isoform separation, that is, each paralog specifically conserved just one distinct ancestral homologous exon. At other extreme, we identified genes in which the homologous exons were always conserved within paralogs, suggesting that the alternative splicing event cannot easily be separated from the function in these genes. That many homologous exons fall in between these two extremes highlights the diversity of biological systems and suggests that the subtle balance between alternative splicing and gene duplication is adjusted to the specific cellular context of each gene. PMID:25931610

  15. Lineage-specific duplications of Muroidea Faim and Spag6 genes and atypical accelerated evolution of the parental Spag6 gene.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huan; Gołas, Aniela; Grzmil, Paweł; Wojnowski, Leszek

    2013-09-01

    Gene duplications restricted to single lineage combined with an asymmetric evolution of the resulting genes may play particularly important roles in this lineage's biology. We searched and identified asymmetrical evolution in nine gene families that duplicated exclusively in rodents and are present as single-copies in human, dog, cow, elephant, opossum, chicken, lizard, and Western clawed frog. Among those nine gene families are Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (Faim), implicated in apoptosis, and Sperm antigen 6 (Spag6), implicated in sperm mobility. Both genes were duplicated in or before the Muroidea ancestor. Due to the highly asymmetric evolution of the resulting paralogs, the existence of these duplications had been previously overlooked. Interestingly, Spag6, previously regarded and characterized as a single-copy ortholog of human Spag6, turns out to be a Muroidea-specific paralog. Conversely, the newly identified, highly divergent Spag6-BC061194 is in fact the parental gene. In consequence, this gene represents a rare exception from the general rule of rapid evolution of derived rather than parental genes following gene duplication. Unusual genes such as murine Spag6 may help to understand which mechanisms are responsible for this rule.

  16. Multiplicity of glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD) in vertebrates: molecular phylogeny and evidence for a new GAD paralog.

    PubMed

    Bosma, P T; Blázquez, M; Collins, M A; Bishop, J D; Drouin, G; Priede, I G; Docherty, K; Trudeau, V L

    1999-03-01

    The evolution of chordate glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15), a key enzyme in the central nervous system synthesizing the neurotransmitter gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) from glutamate, was studied. Prior to this study, molecular data of GAD had been restricted to mammals, which express two distinct forms, GAD65 and GAD67. These are the products of separate genes and probably are derived from a common ancestral GAD following gene duplication at some point during vertebrate evolution. To enable a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis, molecular information of GAD forms in other vertebrate classes was essential. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), partial nucleotide sequences of GAD were cloned from brains of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), turtle (Trachemys scripta), goldfish (Carassius auratus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), and armoured grenadier (Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus, a deep-sea fish), and from the cerebral ganglion plus neural gland of Ciona intestinalis, a protochordate. Whereas GAD65 and GAD67 homologs were expressed in birds, reptiles, and fish, only a single GAD cDNA with equal similarities to both vertebrate GAD forms was found in the protochordate. This indicates that the duplication of the vertebrate GAD gene occurred between 400 and 560 million years ago. For both GAD65 and GAD67, the generated phylogenetic tree followed the general tree topology for the major vertebrate classes. In turtle, an alternative spliced form of GAD65, putatively encoding a truncated, nonactive GAD, was found. Furthermore, a third GAD form, which is equally divergent from both GAD65 and GAD67, is expressed in C. (N.) armatus. This third form might have originated from an ancient genome duplication specific to modern ray-finned fishes.

  17. Melatonin regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mayo, J C; Sainz, R M; Antoli, I; Herrera, F; Martin, V; Rodriguez, C

    2002-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) are part of the primary cellular defense against free radicals induced by toxins and/or spontaneously formed in cells. Melatonin (MLT) has received much attention in recent years due to its direct free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. In the present work we report that MLT, at physiological serum concentrations (1 nM), increases the mRNA of both superoxide dismutases (SODs) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in two neuronal cell lines. The MLT effect on both SODs and GPx mRNA was mediated by a de novo synthesized protein. MLT alters mRNA stability for Cu-Zn SOD and GPx. Experiments with a short time treatment (pulse action) of MLT suggest that the regulation of AOE gene expression is likely to be receptor mediated, because 1-h treatment with MLT results in the same response as a 24-h treatment.

  18. Human miR-1271 is a miR-96 paralog with distinct non-conserved brain expression pattern

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kevin P.; Covault, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Recent deep-sequencing efforts have identified many novel non-conserved small RNAs that are expressed at low levels in certain mammalian cells. Whether these small RNAs are important for mammalian physiology is debatable, therefore we explored the function of one such RNA, human miR-1271. This small RNA is similar in sequence to miR-96, a highly conserved microRNA that when mutated causes hearing loss in humans and mice. Although the miR-1271 and miR-96 sequences differ slightly, our in vitro assays indicate that they have an identical regulatory activity. We have identified brain-expressed mRNAs from genes including, GPHN, RGS2, HOMER1 and KCC2, which share the same miR-96 and miR-1271 regulatory elements. Interestingly, human miR-1271 is expressed abundantly in brain tissue, where miR-96 is not highly expressed. The rodent miR-1271 precursor contains several sequence differences in the precursor stem, which appear to reduce the efficiency of microRNA processing. Our data indicate that although miR-1271 and miR-96 function identically in vitro, they function to some extent uniquely in vivo. Given the expression patterns and nature of the target genes, miR-1271 may have a significant, although non-conserved, role in regulating aspects of neural development or function in humans. PMID:20864449

  19. Divergence of Substrate Specificity and Function in the Escherichia coli Hotdog-fold Thioesterase Paralogs YdiI and YbdB

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The work described in this paper, and its companion paper (Wu, R., Latham, J. A., Chen, D., Farelli, J., Zhao, H., Matthews, K. Allen, K. N., and Dunaway-Mariano, D. (2014) Structure and Catalysis in the Escherichia coli Hotdog-fold Thioesterase Paralogs YdiI and YbdB. Biochemistry, DOI: 10.1021/bi500334v), focuses on the evolution of a pair of paralogous hotdog-fold superfamily thioesterases of E. coli, YbdB and YdiI, which share a high level of sequence identity but perform different biological functions (viz., proofreader of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-holoEntB in the enterobactin biosynthetic pathway and catalyst of the 1,4-dihydoxynapthoyl-CoA hydrolysis step in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway, respectively). In vitro substrate activity screening of a library of thioester metabolites showed that YbdB displays high activity with benzoyl-holoEntB and benzoyl-CoA substrates, marginal activity with acyl-CoA thioesters, and no activity with 1,4-dihydoxynapthoyl-CoA. YdiI, on the other hand, showed a high level of activity with its physiological substrate, significant activity toward a wide range of acyl-CoA thioesters, and minimal activity toward benzoyl-holoEntB. These results were interpreted as evidence for substrate promiscuity that facilitates YbdB and YdiI evolvability, and divergence in substrate preference, which correlates with their assumed biological function. YdiI support of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by demonstrating reduced anaerobic growth of the E. coliydiI-knockout mutant (vs wild-type E. coli) on glucose in the presence of the electron acceptor fumarate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a small biological range exists for YbdB orthologs (i.e., limited to Enterobacteriales) relative to that of YdiI orthologs. The divergence in YbdB and YdiI substrate specificity detailed in this paper set the stage for their structural analyses reported in the companion paper. PMID:24992697

  20. Host Mitochondrial Association Evolved in the Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii via Neofunctionalization of a Gene Duplicate.

    PubMed

    Adomako-Ankomah, Yaw; English, Elizabeth D; Danielson, Jeffrey J; Pernas, Lena F; Parker, Michelle L; Boulanger, Martin J; Dubey, Jitender P; Boyle, Jon P

    2016-05-01

    In Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of humans and other animals, host mitochondrial association (HMA) is driven by a gene family that encodes multiple mitochondrial association factor 1 (MAF1) proteins. However, the importance of MAF1 gene duplication in the evolution of HMA is not understood, nor is the impact of HMA on parasite biology. Here we used within- and between-species comparative analysis to determine that the MAF1 locus is duplicated in T. gondii and its nearest extant relative Hammondia hammondi, but not another close relative, Neospora caninum Using cross-species complementation, we determined that the MAF1 locus harbors multiple distinct paralogs that differ in their ability to mediate HMA, and that only T. gondii and H. hammondi harbor HMA(+) paralogs. Additionally, we found that exogenous expression of an HMA(+) paralog in T. gondii strains that do not normally exhibit HMA provides a competitive advantage over their wild-type counterparts during a mouse infection. These data indicate that HMA likely evolved by neofunctionalization of a duplicate MAF1 copy in the common ancestor of T. gondii and H. hammondi, and that the neofunctionalized gene duplicate is selectively advantageous. PMID:26920761

  1. Evolution history of duplicated smad3 genes in teleost: insights from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xinxin; Liu, Yuezhong; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2016-01-01

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) during deuterosome evolution, a third genome duplication occurred in the ray-fined fish lineage and is considered to be responsible for the teleost-specific lineage diversification and regulation mechanisms. As a receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD), the function of SMAD3 was widely studied in mammals. However, limited information of its role or putative paralogs is available in ray-finned fishes. In this study, two SMAD3 paralogs were first identified in the transcriptome and genome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We also explored SMAD3 duplication in other selected species. Following identification, genomic structure, phylogenetic reconstruction, and synteny analyses performed by MrBayes and online bioinformatic tools confirmed that smad3a/3b most likely originated from the teleost-specific WGD. Additionally, selection pressure analysis and expression pattern of the two genes performed by PAML and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the two SMAD3 paralogs in teleost. Our results indicate that two SMAD3 genes originate from teleost-specific WGD, remain transcriptionally active, and may have likely undergone subfunctionalization. This study provides novel insights to the evolution fates of smad3a/3b and draws attentions to future function analysis of SMAD3 gene family. PMID:27703851

  2. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Expansion, and Expression Profile of Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Gene Family in Poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruibo; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Chai, Guohua; Kong, Yingzhen; He, Guo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Dachuan; Zhang, Dongyuan; Zhou, Gongke

    2012-01-01

    Background Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play crucial roles in plant development. Although sequence phylogeny analysis of Populus HD-ZIPs was carried out in a previous study, no systematic analysis incorporating genome organization, gene structure, and expression compendium has been conducted in model tree species Populus thus far. Principal Findings In this study, a comprehensive analysis of Populus HD-ZIP gene family was performed. Sixty-three full-length HD-ZIP genes were found in Populus genome. These Populus HD-ZIP genes were phylogenetically clustered into four distinct subfamilies (HD-ZIP I–IV) and predominately distributed across 17 linkage groups (LG). Fifty genes from 25 Populus paralogous pairs were located in the duplicated blocks of Populus genome and then preferentially retained during the sequential evolutionary courses. Genomic organization analyses indicated that purifying selection has played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of Populus HD-ZIP gene family. Microarray analysis has shown that 21 Populus paralogous pairs have been differentially expressed across different tissues and under various stresses, with five paralogous pairs showing nearly identical expression patterns, 13 paralogous pairs being partially redundant and three paralogous pairs diversifying significantly. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis performed on 16 selected Populus HD-ZIP genes in different tissues and under both drought and salinity stresses confirms their tissue-specific and stress-inducible expression patterns. Conclusions Genomic organizations indicated that segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of Populus HD-ZIP gene family. Exon/intron organization and conserved motif composition of Populus HD-ZIPs are highly conservative in the same subfamily, suggesting the members in the same subfamilies may also have conservative functionalities

  3. The Zebrafish Annexin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Steven A.; De Rose, Robert A.; Olson, Eric S.; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2003-01-01

    The Annexins (ANXs) are a family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins that have been implicated in many cellular processes, including channel formation, membrane fusion, vesicle transport, and regulation of phospholipase A2 activity. As a first step toward understanding in vivo function, we have cloned 11 zebrafish anx genes. Four genes (anx1a, anx2a, anx5,and anx11a) were identified by screening a zebrafish cDNA library with a Xenopus anx2 fragment. For these genes, full-length cDNA sequences were used to cluster 212 EST sequences generated by the Zebrafish Genome Resources Project. The EST analysis revealed seven additional anx genes that were subsequently cloned. The genetic map positions of all 11 genes were determined by using a zebrafish radiation hybrid panel. Sequence and syntenic relationships between zebrafish and human genes indicate that the 11 genes represent orthologs of human anx1,2,4,5,6,11,13,and suggest that several zebrafish anx genes resulted from duplications that arose after divergence of the zebrafish and mammalian genomes. Zebrafish anx genes are expressed in a wide range of tissues during embryonic and larval stages. Analysis of the expression patterns of duplicated genes revealed both redundancy and divergence, with the most similar genes having almost identical tissue-specific patterns of expression and with less similar duplicates showing no overlap. The differences in gene expression of recently duplicated anx genes could explain why highly related paralogs were maintained in the genome and did not rapidly become pseudogenes. PMID:12799347

  4. Gene duplication and the evolution of moonlighting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Cantú, Adriana; Ascencio, Diana; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; DeLuna, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication is a recurring phenomenon in genome evolution and a major driving force in the gain of biological functions. Here, we examine the role of gene duplication in the origin and maintenance of moonlighting proteins, with special focus on functional redundancy and innovation, molecular tradeoffs, and genetic robustness. An overview of specific examples-mainly from yeast-suggests a widespread conservation of moonlighting behavior in duplicate genes after long evolutionary times. Dosage amplification and incomplete subfunctionalization appear to be prevalent in the maintenance of multifunctionality. We discuss the role of gene-expression divergence and paralog responsiveness in moonlighting proteins with overlapping biochemical properties. Future studies analyzing multifunctional genes in a more systematic and comprehensive manner will not only enable a better understanding of how this emerging class of protein behavior originates and is maintained, but also provide new insights on the mechanisms of evolution by gene duplication. PMID:26217376

  5. Interactome Analyses Identify Ties of PrPC and Its Mammalian Paralogs to Oligomannosidic N-Glycans and Endoplasmic Reticulum-Derived Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Won, Amy Hye; Shi, Tujin; Daude, Nathalie; Lau, Agnes; Young, Rebecca; Xu, Lei; Carlson, George A.; Williams, David; Westaway, David; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2009-01-01

    The physiological environment which hosts the conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to disease-associated isoforms has remained enigmatic. A quantitative investigation of the PrPC interactome was conducted in a cell culture model permissive to prion replication. To facilitate recognition of relevant interactors, the study was extended to Doppel (Prnd) and Shadoo (Sprn), two mammalian PrPC paralogs. Interestingly, this work not only established a similar physiological environment for the three prion protein family members in neuroblastoma cells, but also suggested direct interactions amongst them. Furthermore, multiple interactions between PrPC and the neural cell adhesion molecule, the laminin receptor precursor, Na/K ATPases and protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) were confirmed, thereby reconciling previously separate findings. Subsequent validation experiments established that interactions of PrPC with PDIs may extend beyond the endoplasmic reticulum and may play a hitherto unrecognized role in the accumulation of PrPSc. A simple hypothesis is presented which accounts for the majority of interactions observed in uninfected cells and suggests that PrPC organizes its molecular environment on account of its ability to bind to adhesion molecules harboring immunoglobulin-like domains, which in turn recognize oligomannose-bearing membrane proteins. PMID:19798432

  6. Differential expression of hoxa2a and hoxa2b genes during striped bass embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Scemama, Jean-Luc; Vernon, Jamie L; Stellwag, Edmund J

    2006-10-01

    Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of two previously uncharacterized paralogs group 2 Hox genes, striped bass hoxa2a and hoxa2b, and the developmental regulatory gene egr2. We demonstrate that both Hox genes are expressed in the rhombomeres of the developing hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches albeit with different spatio-temporal distributions relative to one another. While both hoxa2a and hoxa2b share the r1/r2 anterior boundary of expression characteristic of the hoxa2 paralog genes of other species, hoxa2a gene expression extends throughout the hindbrain, whereas hoxa2b gene expression is restricted to the r2-r5 region. Egr2, which is used in this study as an early developmental marker of rhombomeres 3 and 5, is expressed in two distinct bands with a location and spacing typical for these two rhombomeres in other species. Within the pharyngeal arches, hoxa2a is expressed at higher levels in the second pharyngeal arch, while hoxa2b is more strongly expressed in the posterior arches. Further, hoxa2b expression within the arches becomes undetectable at 60hpf, while hoxa2a expression is maintained at least up until the beginning of chondrogenesis. Comparison of the striped bass HoxA cluster paralog group 2 (PG2) genes to their orthologs and trans-orthologs shows that the striped bass hoxa2a gene expression pattern is similar to the overall expression pattern described for the hoxa2 genes in the lobe-finned fish lineage and for the hoxa2b gene from zebrafish. It is notable that the pharyngeal arch expression pattern of the striped bass hoxa2a gene is more divergent from its sister paralog, hoxa2b, than from the zebrafish hoxa2b gene. Overall, our results suggest that differences in the Hox PG2 gene complement of striped bass and zebrafish affects both their rhombomeric and pharyngeal arch expression patterns and may account for the similarities in pharyngeal arch expression between striped bass hoxa2a and zebrafish hoxa2b.

  7. Patterns of gene duplication and functional evolution during the diversification of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS box genes in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Elena M; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Di Stilio, Verónica S

    2004-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS (AG) subfamily of MIKC-type MADS-box genes appear to control the development of reproductive organs in both gymnosperms and angiosperms. To understand the evolution of this subfamily in the flowering plants, we have identified 26 new AG-like genes from 15 diverse angiosperm species. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes within a large data set of AG-like sequences show that ancient gene duplications were critical in shaping the evolution of the subfamily. Before the radiation of extant angiosperms, one event produced the ovule-specific D lineage and the well-characterized C lineage, whose members typically promote stamen and carpel identity as well as floral meristem determinacy. Subsequent duplications in the C lineage resulted in independent instances of paralog subfunctionalization and maintained functional redundancy. Most notably, the functional homologs AG from Arabidopsis and PLENA (PLE) from Antirrhinum are shown to be representatives of separate paralogous lineages rather than simple genetic orthologs. The multiple subfunctionalization events that have occurred in this subfamily highlight the potential for gene duplication to lead to dissociation among genetic modules, thereby allowing an increase in morphological diversity. PMID:15020484

  8. Gene duplication and speciation in Drosophila: evidence from the Odysseus locus.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chau-Ti; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Sun, Sha; Browne, William E; Chen, Yung-Chia; Patel, Nipam H; Wu, Chung-I

    2004-08-17

    The importance of gene duplication in evolution has long been recognized. Because duplicated genes are prone to diverge in function, gene duplication could plausibly play a role in species differentiation. However, experimental evidence linking gene duplication with speciation is scarce. Here, we show that a hybrid-male sterility gene, Odysseus (OdsH), arose by gene duplication in the Drosophila genome. OdsH has evolved at a very high rate, whereas its most immediate paralog, unc-4, is nearly identical among species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. The disparity in their sequence evolution is echoed by the divergence in their expression patterns in both soma and reproductive tissues. We suggest that duplicated genes that have yet to evolve a stable function at the time of speciation may be candidates for "speciation genes," which is broadly defined as genes that contribute to differential adaptation between species.

  9. Patterns of Gene Conversion in Duplicated Yeast Histones Suggest Strong Selection on a Coadapted Macromolecular Complex

    PubMed Central

    Scienski, Kathy; Fay, Justin C.; Conant, Gavin C.

    2015-01-01

    We find evidence for interlocus gene conversion in five duplicated histone genes from six yeast species. The sequences of these duplicated genes, surviving from the ancient genome duplication, show phylogenetic patterns inconsistent with the well-resolved orthology relationships inferred from a likelihood model of gene loss after the genome duplication. Instead, these paralogous genes are more closely related to each other than any is to its nearest ortholog. In addition to simulations supporting gene conversion, we also present evidence for elevated rates of radical amino acid substitutions along the branches implicated in the conversion events. As these patterns are similar to those seen in ribosomal proteins that have undergone gene conversion, we speculate that in cases where duplicated genes code for proteins that are a part of tightly interacting complexes, selection may favor the fixation of gene conversion events in order to maintain high protein identities between duplicated copies. PMID:26560339

  10. Molecular evolution of the insect Halloween family of cytochrome P450s: phylogeny, gene organization and functional conservation.

    PubMed

    Rewitz, Kim F; O'Connor, Michael B; Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2007-08-01

    The insect molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is a major modulator of the developmental processes resulting in molting and metamorphosis. During evolution selective forces have preserved the Halloween genes encoding cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes that mediate the biosynthesis of 20E. In the present study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of these P450 genes in holometabolous insects belonging to the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. The analyzed insect genomes each contains single orthologs of Phantom (CYP306A1), Disembodied (CYP302A1), Shadow (CYP315A1) and Shade (CYP314A1), the terminal hydroxylases. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Halloween gene spook (Cyp307a1) is required for the biosynthesis of 20E, although a function has not yet been identified. Unlike the other Halloween genes, the ancestor of this gene evolved into three paralogs, all in the CYP307 family, through gene duplication. The genomic stability of these paralogs varies among species. Intron-exon structures indicate that D. melanogaster Cyp307a1 is a mRNA-derived paralog of spookier (Cyp307a2), which is the ancestral gene and the closest ortholog of the coleopteran, lepidopteran and mosquito CYP307A subfamily genes. Evolutionary links between the insect Halloween genes and vertebrate steroidogenic P450s suggest that they originated from common ancestors, perhaps destined for steroidogenesis, before the deuterostome-arthropod split. Conservation of putative substrate recognition sites of orthologous Halloween genes indicates selective constraint on these residues to prevent functional divergence. The results suggest that duplications of ancestral P450 genes that acquired novel functions may have been an important mechanism for evolving the ecdysteroidogenic pathway. PMID:17628274

  11. Molecular evolution of the insect Halloween family of cytochrome P450s: phylogeny, gene organization and functional conservation.

    PubMed

    Rewitz, Kim F; O'Connor, Michael B; Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2007-08-01

    The insect molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is a major modulator of the developmental processes resulting in molting and metamorphosis. During evolution selective forces have preserved the Halloween genes encoding cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes that mediate the biosynthesis of 20E. In the present study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of these P450 genes in holometabolous insects belonging to the orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. The analyzed insect genomes each contains single orthologs of Phantom (CYP306A1), Disembodied (CYP302A1), Shadow (CYP315A1) and Shade (CYP314A1), the terminal hydroxylases. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Halloween gene spook (Cyp307a1) is required for the biosynthesis of 20E, although a function has not yet been identified. Unlike the other Halloween genes, the ancestor of this gene evolved into three paralogs, all in the CYP307 family, through gene duplication. The genomic stability of these paralogs varies among species. Intron-exon structures indicate that D. melanogaster Cyp307a1 is a mRNA-derived paralog of spookier (Cyp307a2), which is the ancestral gene and the closest ortholog of the coleopteran, lepidopteran and mosquito CYP307A subfamily genes. Evolutionary links between the insect Halloween genes and vertebrate steroidogenic P450s suggest that they originated from common ancestors, perhaps destined for steroidogenesis, before the deuterostome-arthropod split. Conservation of putative substrate recognition sites of orthologous Halloween genes indicates selective constraint on these residues to prevent functional divergence. The results suggest that duplications of ancestral P450 genes that acquired novel functions may have been an important mechanism for evolving the ecdysteroidogenic pathway.

  12. Duplication is more common among laterally transferred genes than among indigenous genes

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Sean D; Berg, Otto G

    2003-01-01

    Background Recent developments in the understanding of paralogous evolution have prompted a focus not only on obviously advantageous genes, but also on genes that can be considered to have a weak or sporadic impact on the survival of the organism. Here we examine the duplicative behavior of a category of genes that can be considered to be mostly transient in the genome, namely laterally transferred genes. Using both a compositional method and a gene-tree approach, we identify a number of proposed laterally transferred genes and study their nucleotide composition and frequency of duplication. Results It is found that duplications are significantly overrepresented among potential laterally transferred genes compared to the indigenous ones. Furthermore, the GC3 distribution of potential laterally transferred genes was found to be largely uniform in some genomes, suggesting an import from a broad range of donors. Conclusions The results are discussed not in a context of strongly optimized established genes, but rather of genes with weak or ancillary functions. The importance of duplication may therefore depend on the variability and availability of weak genes for which novel functions may be discovered. Therefore, lateral transfer may accelerate the evolutionary process of duplication by bringing foreign genes that have mainly weak or no function into the genome. PMID:12914657

  13. Structure of TatA paralog, TatE, suggests a structurally homogeneous form of Tat protein translocase that transports folded proteins of differing diameter.

    PubMed

    Baglieri, Jacopo; Beck, Daniel; Vasisht, Nishi; Smith, Corinne J; Robinson, Colin

    2012-03-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins across bacterial and plant thylakoid membranes. Most current models for the translocation mechanism propose the coalescence of a substrate-binding TatABC complex with a separate TatA complex. In Escherichia coli, TatA complexes are widely believed to form the translocation pore, and the size variation of TatA has been linked to the transport of differently sized substrates. Here, we show that the TatA paralog TatE can substitute for TatA and support translocation of Tat substrates including AmiA, AmiC, and TorA. However, TatE is found as much smaller, discrete complexes. Gel filtration and blue native electrophoresis suggest sizes between ∼50 and 110 kDa, and single-particle processing of electron micrographs gives size estimates of 70-90 kDa. Three-dimensional models of the two principal TatE complexes show estimated diameters of 6-8 nm and potential clefts or channels of up to 2.5 nm diameter. The ability of TatE to support translocation of the 90-kDa TorA protein suggests alternative translocation models in which single TatA/E complexes do not contribute the bulk of the translocation channel. The homogeneity of both the TatABC and the TatE complexes further suggests that a discrete Tat translocase can translocate a variety of substrates, presumably through the use of a flexible channel. The presence and possible significance of double- or triple-ring TatE forms is discussed.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of transcriptionalregulation in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2007-12-20

    Background: Most bacterial genes were acquired by horizontalgene transfer from other bacteria instead of being inherited bycontinuous vertical descent from an ancient ancestor}. To understand howthe regulation of these {acquired} genes evolved, we examined theevolutionary histories of transcription factors and of regulatoryinteractions from the model bacterium Escherichia coli K12. Results:Although most transcription factors have paralogs, these usually arose byhorizontal gene transfer rather than by duplication within the E. colilineage, as previously believed. In general, most neighbor regulators --regulators that are adjacent to genes that they regulate -- were acquiredby horizontal gene transfer, while most global regulators evolvedvertically within the gamma-Proteobacteria. Neighbor regulators wereoften acquired together with the adjacent operon that they regulate, sothe proximity might be maintained by repeated transfers (like "selfishoperons"). Many of the as-yet-uncharacterized (putative) regulators havealso been acquired together with adjacent genes, so we predict that theseare neighbor regulators as well. When we analyzed the histories ofregulatory interactions, we found that the evolution of regulation byduplication was rare, and surprisingly, many of the regulatoryinteractions that are shared between paralogs result from convergentevolution. Another surprise was that horizontally transferred genes aremore likely than other genes to be regulated by multiple regulators, andmost of this complex regulation probably evolved after the transfer.Conclusions: Our results highlight the rapid evolution of niche-specificgene regulation in bacteria.

  15. Multispecies Analysis of Expression Pattern Diversification in the Recently Expanded Insect Ly6 Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kohtaro; Hazbun, Alexis; Hijazi, Assia; Vreede, Barbara; Sucena, Élio

    2015-01-01

    Gene families often consist of members with diverse expression domains reflecting their functions in a wide variety of tissues. However, how the expression of individual members, and thus their tissue-specific functions, diversified during the course of gene family expansion is not well understood. In this study, we approached this question through the analysis of the duplication history and transcriptional evolution of a rapidly expanding subfamily of insect Ly6 genes. We analyzed different insect genomes and identified seven Ly6 genes that have originated from a single ancestor through sequential duplication within the higher Diptera. We then determined how the original embryonic expression pattern of the founding gene diversified by characterizing its tissue-specific expression in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, and the mosquito Anopheles stephensi and those of its duplicates in three higher dipteran species, representing various stages of the duplication history (Megaselia abdita, Ceratitis capitata, and Drosophila melanogaster). Our results revealed that frequent neofunctionalization episodes contributed to the increased expression breadth of this subfamily and that these events occurred after duplication and speciation events at comparable frequencies. In addition, at each duplication node, we consistently found asymmetric expression divergence. One paralog inherited most of the tissue-specificities of the founder gene, whereas the other paralog evolved drastically reduced expression domains. Our approach attests to the power of combining a well-established duplication history with a comprehensive coverage of representative species in acquiring unequivocal information about the dynamics of gene expression evolution in gene families. PMID:25743545

  16. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Goto, S; Sato, K; Fujibuchi, W; Bono, H; Kanehisa, M

    1999-01-01

    Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway information is also represented by the ortholog group tables summarizing orthologous and paralogous gene groups among different organisms. KEGG maintains the GENES database for the gene catalogs of all organisms with complete genomes and selected organisms with partial genomes, which are continuously re-annotated, as well as the LIGAND database for chemical compounds and enzymes. Each gene catalog is associated with the graphical genome map for chromosomal locations that is represented by Java applet. In addition to the data collection efforts, KEGG develops and provides various computational tools, such as for reconstructing biochemical pathways from the complete genome sequence and for predicting gene regulatory networks from the gene expression profiles. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  17. Identification and evolution of an NFAT gene involving Branchiostoma belcheri innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojun; Hu, Jing; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2013-10-01

    The Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, but no NFAT genes have yet been identified in amphioxus species. Here we identified and characterized an NFAT-like gene from Branchiostoma belcheri, and also studied extensively the evolutionary history of NFAT family genes. We found that the amphioxus genome contains an AmphiNFAT gene encoding an NFAT homolog. The AmphiNFAT gene was found to be involved in the innate immune response to LPS stimulation in B. belcheri and was ubiquitously and differentially expressed in all investigated tissues. The NFAT family genes were present in a common ancestor with cnidaria, and NFAT1-4 paralogs were lost early in Branchiostoma and Strongylocentrotus genomes. We discovered that NFAT family genes underwent strong purifying selection. Taken together, our findings provide an insight into the innate immune response of amphioxus and the evolution of the NFAT gene family.

  18. The Antennapedia-type homeobox genes have evolved from three precursors separated early in metazoan evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, F R; Nieselt-Struwe, K; Gruss, P

    1993-01-01

    The developmental control genes containing an Antennapedia-type homeobox are clustered in insects and vertebrates. The evolution of these genes was studied by the construction of evolutionary trees and by statistical geometry in sequence space. The comparative analysis of the homeobox sequences reveals the subdivision of the Antennapedia-type homeobox genes into three classes early in metazoan evolution. This observation suggests an important function of these genes even in the most primitive metazoans. Subsequent duplication events generated a cluster of at least five homeobox genes in the last common ancestor of insects and vertebrates. These genes later independently gave rise to the 13 groups of paralogous genes in vertebrates and to the 11 Antennapedia-type genes in the Drosophila complexes. Images PMID:8093557

  19. Identification and evolution of an NFAT gene involving Branchiostoma belcheri innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojun; Hu, Jing; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2013-10-01

    The Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, but no NFAT genes have yet been identified in amphioxus species. Here we identified and characterized an NFAT-like gene from Branchiostoma belcheri, and also studied extensively the evolutionary history of NFAT family genes. We found that the amphioxus genome contains an AmphiNFAT gene encoding an NFAT homolog. The AmphiNFAT gene was found to be involved in the innate immune response to LPS stimulation in B. belcheri and was ubiquitously and differentially expressed in all investigated tissues. The NFAT family genes were present in a common ancestor with cnidaria, and NFAT1-4 paralogs were lost early in Branchiostoma and Strongylocentrotus genomes. We discovered that NFAT family genes underwent strong purifying selection. Taken together, our findings provide an insight into the innate immune response of amphioxus and the evolution of the NFAT gene family. PMID:23657135

  20. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The FT/TFL1 gene family controls important aspects of plant development: MFT-like genes affect germination, TFL1-like genes act as floral inhibitors, and FT-like genes are floral activators. Gene duplications produced paralogs with modified functions required by the specific lifestyles of various angiosperm species. We constructed the transcriptome of the weedy annual plant Chenopodium rubrum and used it for the comprehensive search for the FT/TFL1 genes. We analyzed their phylogenetic relationships across Amaranthaceae and all angiosperms. We discovered a very ancient phylogenetic clade of FT genes represented by the CrFTL3 gene of C. rubrum. Another paralog CrFTL2 showed an unusual structural rearrangement which might have contributed to the functional shift. We examined the transcription patterns of the FT/TFL1 genes during the vegetative growth and floral transition in C. rubrum to get clues about their possible functions. All the genes except for the constitutively expressed CrFTL2 gene, and the CrFTL3 gene, which was transcribed only in seeds, exhibited organ-specific expression influenced by the specific light regime. The CrFTL1 gene was confirmed as a single floral activator from the FT/TFL1 family in C. rubrum. Its floral promoting activity may be counteracted by CrTFL1. C. rubrum emerges as an easily manipulated model for the study of floral induction in weedy fast-cycling plants lacking a juvenile phase. PMID:27473314

  1. Parallel Evolution of Tetrodotoxin Resistance in Three Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Genes in the Garter Snake Thamnophis sirtalis

    PubMed Central

    McGlothlin, Joel W.; Chuckalovcak, John P.; Janes, Daniel E.; Edwards, Scott V.; Feldman, Chris R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2014-01-01

    Members of a gene family expressed in a single species often experience common selection pressures. Consequently, the molecular basis of complex adaptations may be expected to involve parallel evolutionary changes in multiple paralogs. Here, we use bacterial artificial chromosome library scans to investigate the evolution of the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) family in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis, a predator of highly toxic Taricha newts. Newts possess tetrodotoxin (TTX), which blocks Nav’s, arresting action potentials in nerves and muscle. Some Thamnophis populations have evolved resistance to extremely high levels of TTX. Previous work has identified amino acid sites in the skeletal muscle sodium channel Nav1.4 that confer resistance to TTX and vary across populations. We identify parallel evolution of TTX resistance in two additional Nav paralogs, Nav1.6 and 1.7, which are known to be expressed in the peripheral nervous system and should thus be exposed to ingested TTX. Each paralog contains at least one TTX-resistant substitution identical to a substitution previously identified in Nav1.4. These sites are fixed across populations, suggesting that the resistant peripheral nerves antedate resistant muscle. In contrast, three sodium channels expressed solely in the central nervous system (Nav1.1–1.3) showed no evidence of TTX resistance, consistent with protection from toxins by the blood–brain barrier. We also report the exon–intron structure of six Nav paralogs, the first such analysis for snake genes. Our results demonstrate that the molecular basis of adaptation may be both repeatable across members of a gene family and predictable based on functional considerations. PMID:25135948

  2. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Juan C; Lee, Alison P; Hoffmann, Federico G; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F

    2015-07-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  3. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  4. Evolutionary Genomics and Adaptive Evolution of the Hedgehog Gene Family (Shh, Ihh and Dhh) in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joana; Johnson, Warren E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Zhang, Guojie; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) gene family codes for a class of secreted proteins composed of two active domains that act as signalling molecules during embryo development, namely for the development of the nervous and skeletal systems and the formation of the testis cord. While only one Hh gene is found typically in invertebrate genomes, most vertebrates species have three (Sonic hedgehog – Shh; Indian hedgehog – Ihh; and Desert hedgehog – Dhh), each with different expression patterns and functions, which likely helped promote the increasing complexity of vertebrates and their successful diversification. In this study, we used comparative genomic and adaptive evolutionary analyses to characterize the evolution of the Hh genes in vertebrates following the two major whole genome duplication (WGD) events. To overcome the lack of Hh-coding sequences on avian publicly available databases, we used an extensive dataset of 45 avian and three non-avian reptilian genomes to show that birds have all three Hh paralogs. We find suggestions that following the WGD events, vertebrate Hh paralogous genes evolved independently within similar linkage groups and under different evolutionary rates, especially within the catalytic domain. The structural regions around the ion-binding site were identified to be under positive selection in the signaling domain. These findings contrast with those observed in invertebrates, where different lineages that experienced gene duplication retained similar selective constraints in the Hh orthologs. Our results provide new insights on the evolutionary history of the Hh gene family, the functional roles of these paralogs in vertebrate species, and on the location of mutational hotspots. PMID:25549322

  5. Evolutionary genomics and adaptive evolution of the Hedgehog gene family (Shh, Ihh and Dhh) in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joana; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jarvis, Erich D; Zhang, Guojie; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) gene family codes for a class of secreted proteins composed of two active domains that act as signalling molecules during embryo development, namely for the development of the nervous and skeletal systems and the formation of the testis cord. While only one Hh gene is found typically in invertebrate genomes, most vertebrates species have three (Sonic hedgehog--Shh; Indian hedgehog--Ihh; and Desert hedgehog--Dhh), each with different expression patterns and functions, which likely helped promote the increasing complexity of vertebrates and their successful diversification. In this study, we used comparative genomic and adaptive evolutionary analyses to characterize the evolution of the Hh genes in vertebrates following the two major whole genome duplication (WGD) events. To overcome the lack of Hh-coding sequences on avian publicly available databases, we used an extensive dataset of 45 avian and three non-avian reptilian genomes to show that birds have all three Hh paralogs. We find suggestions that following the WGD events, vertebrate Hh paralogous genes evolved independently within similar linkage groups and under different evolutionary rates, especially within the catalytic domain. The structural regions around the ion-binding site were identified to be under positive selection in the signaling domain. These findings contrast with those observed in invertebrates, where different lineages that experienced gene duplication retained similar selective constraints in the Hh orthologs. Our results provide new insights on the evolutionary history of the Hh gene family, the functional roles of these paralogs in vertebrate species, and on the location of mutational hotspots. PMID:25549322

  6. Generating single-copy nuclear gene data for a recent adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Whittall, Justen B; Medina-Marino, Andrew; Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Hodges, Scott A

    2006-04-01

    Recent adaptive radiations provide an exceptional opportunity to understand the processes of speciation and adaptation. However, reconstructing the phylogenetic history of recent and rapidly evolving clades often requires the use of multiple, independent gene genealogies. Nuclear introns are an obvious source of the necessary data but their use is often limited because degenerate primers can amplify paralogous loci. To identify PCR primers for a large number of loci in an especially rapid adaptive radiation, that of the flowering plant genus Aquilegia (Ranunculaceae), we developed an efficient method for amplifying multiple single-copy nuclear loci by sequencing a modest number of clones from a cDNA library and designing PCR primers; with one primer anchored in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) and one primer in the coding region of each gene. Variation between paralogous loci evolves more quickly in 3'-UTR regions compared to adjacent exons, and therefore we achieved high specificity for isolating orthologous loci. Furthermore, we were able to identify genes containing large introns by amplifying genes from genomic DNA and comparing the PCR product size to that predicted from their cDNA sequence. In Aquilegia eight out of eleven loci were isolated with this method and six of these loci had introns. Among four genes sequenced for samples spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the genus, we found sequence variation at levels similar to that observed in ITS, further supporting the recent and rapid radiation in Aquilegia. We assessed the orthology of amplification products by phylogenetic congruence among loci, the presence of two well established phylogenetic relationships, and similarity among loci for levels of sequence variation. Higher levels of variation among samples for one locus suggest possible paralogy. Overall, this method provides an efficient means of isolating predominantly single-copy loci from both low and high-copy gene families, providing ample

  7. Exploring structural variants in environmentally sensitive gene families.

    PubMed

    Young, Nevin Dale; Zhou, Peng; Silverstein, Kevin At

    2016-04-01

    Environmentally sensitive plant gene families like NBS-LRRs, receptor kinases, defensins and others, are known to be highly variable. However, most existing strategies for discovering and describing structural variation in complex gene families provide incomplete and imperfect results. The move to de novo genome assemblies for multiple accessions or individuals within a species is enabling more comprehensive and accurate insights about gene family variation. Earlier array-based genome hybridization and sequence-based read mapping methods were limited by their reliance on a reference genome and by misplacement of paralogous sequences. Variant discovery based on de novo genome assemblies overcome the problems arising from a reference genome and reduce sequence misplacement. As de novo genome sequencing moves to the use of longer reads, artifacts will be minimized, intact tandem gene clusters will be constructed accurately, and insights into rapid evolution will become feasible. PMID:26855303

  8. Divergence of recently duplicated M{gamma}-type MADS-box genes in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Gordon, Jonathan; Weterings, Koen; Angenent, Gerco C

    2010-02-01

    The MADS-box transcription factor family has expanded considerably in plants via gene and genome duplications and can be subdivided into type I and MIKC-type genes. The two gene classes show a different evolutionary history. Whereas the MIKC-type genes originated during ancient genome duplications, as well as during more recent events, the type I loci appear to experience high turnover with many recent duplications. This different mode of origin also suggests a different fate for the type I duplicates, which are thought to have a higher chance to become silenced or lost from the genome. To get more insight into the evolution of the type I MADS-box genes, we isolated nine type I genes from Petunia, which belong to the Mgamma subclass, and investigated the divergence of their coding and regulatory regions. The isolated genes could be subdivided into two categories: two genes were highly similar to Arabidopsis Mgamma-type genes, whereas the other seven genes showed less similarity to Arabidopsis genes and originated more recently. Two of the recently duplicated genes were found to contain deleterious mutations in their coding regions, and expression analysis revealed that a third paralog was silenced by mutations in its regulatory region. However, in addition to the three genes that were subjected to nonfunctionalization, we also found evidence for neofunctionalization of one of the Petunia Mgamma-type genes. Our study shows a rapid divergence of recently duplicated Mgamma-type MADS-box genes and suggests that redundancy among type I paralogs may be less common than expected.

  9. Divergence of recently duplicated M{gamma}-type MADS-box genes in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Gordon, Jonathan; Weterings, Koen; Angenent, Gerco C

    2010-02-01

    The MADS-box transcription factor family has expanded considerably in plants via gene and genome duplications and can be subdivided into type I and MIKC-type genes. The two gene classes show a different evolutionary history. Whereas the MIKC-type genes originated during ancient genome duplications, as well as during more recent events, the type I loci appear to experience high turnover with many recent duplications. This different mode of origin also suggests a different fate for the type I duplicates, which are thought to have a higher chance to become silenced or lost from the genome. To get more insight into the evolution of the type I MADS-box genes, we isolated nine type I genes from Petunia, which belong to the Mgamma subclass, and investigated the divergence of their coding and regulatory regions. The isolated genes could be subdivided into two categories: two genes were highly similar to Arabidopsis Mgamma-type genes, whereas the other seven genes showed less similarity to Arabidopsis genes and originated more recently. Two of the recently duplicated genes were found to contain deleterious mutations in their coding regions, and expression analysis revealed that a third paralog was silenced by mutations in its regulatory region. However, in addition to the three genes that were subjected to nonfunctionalization, we also found evidence for neofunctionalization of one of the Petunia Mgamma-type genes. Our study shows a rapid divergence of recently duplicated Mgamma-type MADS-box genes and suggests that redundancy among type I paralogs may be less common than expected. PMID:19933156

  10. Interplay of the Serine/Threonine-Kinase StkP and the Paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in Pneumococcal Cell Elongation and Division

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Nathalie; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Freton, Céline; Combet, Christophe; Guiral, Sébastien; Soufi, Boumediene; Macek, Boris; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Claverys, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Anne; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ΔgpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ΔgpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ΔgpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal) synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape. PMID:24722178

  11. Evolutionary fate of duplicate genes encoding aspartic proteinases. Nothepsin case study.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Lucia; De Stasio, Roberta; Filosa, Silvana; Parisi, Elio; Riggio, Marilisa; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca

    2006-03-01

    Gene duplication is considered an important evolutionary mechanism leading to new gene functions. According to the classical model, one gene copy arising from gene duplication retains the ancestral function, whilst the other becomes subject to directional selection for some novel functions. Hence, according to this model, long-term persistence of two paralogous genes is possible only with the acquisition of functional innovation. In the absence of neofunctionalization, one of the duplicate genes may be lost following accumulation of deleterious mutations, ultimately leading to the loss of function. Recently, new mechanisms have been proposed according to which both paralogs are maintained without apparent neofunctionalization. In this paper we describe the molecular evolution of the aspartic proteinase gene family, with particular regard for the nothepsin gene, a sex- and tissue-specific form of aspartic proteinase active in fish. The finding of nothepsin in a reptile is indicative of the presence of this gene in organisms other than fish. However, the failure to find any nothepsin-like gene in avian, murine and human genome suggests that the gene has been lost in certain lineages during evolution. At variance with piscine nothepsin expressed exclusively in female liver under the estrogens action, the reptilian counterpart lacks both tissue and sex specificity, as it is constitutively expressed in different tissues of male and female specimens. The expression of the nothepsin gene in fish and lizard is accompanied by the expression of a paralogous gene encoding for cathepsin D. Functional divergence analysis indicates that cathepsin D accumulated amino acid substitutions, whereas nothepsin retained most of the ancestral functions. Phylogenetic analysis shows a preponderance of replacement substitutions compared to silent substitutions in the branch leading to the cathepsin D clade, whilst nothepsin evolves under negative selection. To explain the loss of the

  12. A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the database of plastid protein families from red algae, secondary and tertiary rhodophyte-derived plastids, and Apicomplexa constructed with the novel method to infer orthology. The families contain proteins with maximal sequence similarity and minimal paralogous content. The database contains 6509 protein entries, 513 families and 278 nonsingletons (from which 230 are paralog-free, and among the remaining 48, 46 contain at maximum two proteins per species, and 2 contain at maximum three proteins per species). The method is compared with other approaches. Expression regulation of the moeB gene is studied using this database and the model of RNA polymerase competition. An analogous database obtained for green algae and their symbiotic descendants, and applications based on it are published earlier. PMID:26114108

  13. A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene.

    PubMed

    Zverkov, Oleg A; Seliverstov, Alexandr V; Lyubetsky, Vassily A

    2015-01-01

    We report the database of plastid protein families from red algae, secondary and tertiary rhodophyte-derived plastids, and Apicomplexa constructed with the novel method to infer orthology. The families contain proteins with maximal sequence similarity and minimal paralogous content. The database contains 6509 protein entries, 513 families and 278 nonsingletons (from which 230 are paralog-free, and among the remaining 48, 46 contain at maximum two proteins per species, and 2 contain at maximum three proteins per species). The method is compared with other approaches. Expression regulation of the moeB gene is studied using this database and the model of RNA polymerase competition. An analogous database obtained for green algae and their symbiotic descendants, and applications based on it are published earlier.

  14. Cloning of novel rice blast resistance genes from two rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families in rice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changjiang; Sun, Xiaoguang; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Sihai; Li, Jing; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Most rice blast resistance genes (R-genes) encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Our previous study has shown that more rice blast R-genes can be cloned in rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families. In the present study, two rapidly evolving R-gene families in rice were selected for cloning a subset of genes from their paralogs in three resistant rice lines. A total of eight functional blast R-genes were identified among nine NBS-LRR genes, and some of these showed resistance to three or more blast strains. Evolutionary analysis indicated that high nucleotide diversity of coding regions served as important parameters in the determination of gene resistance. We also observed that amino-acid variants (nonsynonymous mutations, insertions, or deletions) in essential motifs of the NBS domain contribute to the blast resistance capacity of NBS-LRR genes. These results suggested that the NBS regions might also play an important role in resistance specificity determination. On the other hand, different splicing patterns of introns were commonly observed in R-genes. The results of the present study contribute to improving the effectiveness of R-gene identification by using evolutionary analysis method and acquisition of novel blast resistance genes.

  15. Alternative Transposition Generates New Chimeric Genes and Segmental Duplications at the Maize p1 Locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Yu, Chuanhe; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Weber, David F; Peterson, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The maize Ac/Ds transposon family was the first transposable element system identified and characterized by Barbara McClintock. Ac/Ds transposons belong to the hAT family of class II DNA transposons. We and others have shown that Ac/Ds elements can undergo a process of alternative transposition in which the Ac/Ds transposase acts on the termini of two separate, nearby transposons. Because these termini are present in different elements, alternative transposition can generate a variety of genome alterations such as inversions, duplications, deletions, and translocations. Moreover, Ac/Ds elements transpose preferentially into genic regions, suggesting that structural changes arising from alternative transposition may potentially generate chimeric genes at the rearrangement breakpoints. Here we identified and characterized 11 independent cases of gene fusion induced by Ac alternative transposition. In each case, a functional chimeric gene was created by fusion of two linked, paralogous genes; moreover, each event was associated with duplication of the ∼70-kb segment located between the two paralogs. An extant gene in the maize B73 genome that contains an internal duplication apparently generated by an alternative transposition event was also identified. Our study demonstrates that alternative transposition-induced duplications may be a source for spontaneous creation of diverse genome structures and novel genes in maize. PMID:26434719

  16. Alternative Transposition Generates New Chimeric Genes and Segmental Duplications at the Maize p1 Locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Yu, Chuanhe; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Weber, David F; Peterson, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The maize Ac/Ds transposon family was the first transposable element system identified and characterized by Barbara McClintock. Ac/Ds transposons belong to the hAT family of class II DNA transposons. We and others have shown that Ac/Ds elements can undergo a process of alternative transposition in which the Ac/Ds transposase acts on the termini of two separate, nearby transposons. Because these termini are present in different elements, alternative transposition can generate a variety of genome alterations such as inversions, duplications, deletions, and translocations. Moreover, Ac/Ds elements transpose preferentially into genic regions, suggesting that structural changes arising from alternative transposition may potentially generate chimeric genes at the rearrangement breakpoints. Here we identified and characterized 11 independent cases of gene fusion induced by Ac alternative transposition. In each case, a functional chimeric gene was created by fusion of two linked, paralogous genes; moreover, each event was associated with duplication of the ∼70-kb segment located between the two paralogs. An extant gene in the maize B73 genome that contains an internal duplication apparently generated by an alternative transposition event was also identified. Our study demonstrates that alternative transposition-induced duplications may be a source for spontaneous creation of diverse genome structures and novel genes in maize.

  17. Neofunctionalization of Chromoplast Specific Lycopene Beta Cyclase Gene (CYC-B) in Tomato Clade

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Pandey, Arun; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of tomato underwent whole genome triplication ca. 71 Myr ago followed by widespread gene loss. However, few of the triplicated genes are retained in modern day tomato including lycopene beta cyclase that mediates conversion of lycopene to β-carotene. The fruit specific β-carotene formation is mediated by a chromoplast-specific paralog of lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-B) gene. Presently limited information is available about how the variations in CYC-B gene contributed to its neofunctionalization. CYC-B gene in tomato clade contained several SNPs and In-Dels in the coding sequence (33 haplotypes) and promoter region (44 haplotypes). The CYC-B gene coding sequence in tomato appeared to undergo purifying selection. The transit peptide sequence of CYC-B protein was predicted to have a stronger plastid targeting signal than its chloroplast specific paralog indicating a possible neofunctionalization. In promoter of two Bog (Beta old gold) mutants, a NUPT (nuclear plastid) DNA fragment of 256 bp, likely derived from a S. chilense accession, was present. In transient expression assay, this promoter was more efficient than the “Beta type” promoter. CARGATCONSENSUS box sequences are required for the binding of the MADS-box regulatory protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). The loss of CARGATCONSENSUS box sequence from CYC-B promoter in tomato may be related to attenuation of its efficiency to promote higher accumulation of β-carotene than lycopene during fruit ripening. PMID:27070417

  18. Neofunctionalization of Chromoplast Specific Lycopene Beta Cyclase Gene (CYC-B) in Tomato Clade.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Pandey, Arun; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of tomato underwent whole genome triplication ca. 71 Myr ago followed by widespread gene loss. However, few of the triplicated genes are retained in modern day tomato including lycopene beta cyclase that mediates conversion of lycopene to β-carotene. The fruit specific β-carotene formation is mediated by a chromoplast-specific paralog of lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-B) gene. Presently limited information is available about how the variations in CYC-B gene contributed to its neofunctionalization. CYC-B gene in tomato clade contained several SNPs and In-Dels in the coding sequence (33 haplotypes) and promoter region (44 haplotypes). The CYC-B gene coding sequence in tomato appeared to undergo purifying selection. The transit peptide sequence of CYC-B protein was predicted to have a stronger plastid targeting signal than its chloroplast specific paralog indicating a possible neofunctionalization. In promoter of two Bog (Beta old gold) mutants, a NUPT (nuclear plastid) DNA fragment of 256 bp, likely derived from a S. chilense accession, was present. In transient expression assay, this promoter was more efficient than the "Beta type" promoter. CARGATCONSENSUS box sequences are required for the binding of the MADS-box regulatory protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). The loss of CARGATCONSENSUS box sequence from CYC-B promoter in tomato may be related to attenuation of its efficiency to promote higher accumulation of β-carotene than lycopene during fruit ripening.

  19. Neofunctionalization of Chromoplast Specific Lycopene Beta Cyclase Gene (CYC-B) in Tomato Clade.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Pandey, Arun; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of tomato underwent whole genome triplication ca. 71 Myr ago followed by widespread gene loss. However, few of the triplicated genes are retained in modern day tomato including lycopene beta cyclase that mediates conversion of lycopene to β-carotene. The fruit specific β-carotene formation is mediated by a chromoplast-specific paralog of lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-B) gene. Presently limited information is available about how the variations in CYC-B gene contributed to its neofunctionalization. CYC-B gene in tomato clade contained several SNPs and In-Dels in the coding sequence (33 haplotypes) and promoter region (44 haplotypes). The CYC-B gene coding sequence in tomato appeared to undergo purifying selection. The transit peptide sequence of CYC-B protein was predicted to have a stronger plastid targeting signal than its chloroplast specific paralog indicating a possible neofunctionalization. In promoter of two Bog (Beta old gold) mutants, a NUPT (nuclear plastid) DNA fragment of 256 bp, likely derived from a S. chilense accession, was present. In transient expression assay, this promoter was more efficient than the "Beta type" promoter. CARGATCONSENSUS box sequences are required for the binding of the MADS-box regulatory protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). The loss of CARGATCONSENSUS box sequence from CYC-B promoter in tomato may be related to attenuation of its efficiency to promote higher accumulation of β-carotene than lycopene during fruit ripening. PMID:27070417

  20. Alternative Transposition Generates New Chimeric Genes and Segmental Duplications at the Maize p1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dafang; Yu, Chuanhe; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Weber, David F.; Peterson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The maize Ac/Ds transposon family was the first transposable element system identified and characterized by Barbara McClintock. Ac/Ds transposons belong to the hAT family of class II DNA transposons. We and others have shown that Ac/Ds elements can undergo a process of alternative transposition in which the Ac/Ds transposase acts on the termini of two separate, nearby transposons. Because these termini are present in different elements, alternative transposition can generate a variety of genome alterations such as inversions, duplications, deletions, and translocations. Moreover, Ac/Ds elements transpose preferentially into genic regions, suggesting that structural changes arising from alternative transposition may potentially generate chimeric genes at the rearrangement breakpoints. Here we identified and characterized 11 independent cases of gene fusion induced by Ac alternative transposition. In each case, a functional chimeric gene was created by fusion of two linked, paralogous genes; moreover, each event was associated with duplication of the ∼70-kb segment located between the two paralogs. An extant gene in the maize B73 genome that contains an internal duplication apparently generated by an alternative transposition event was also identified. Our study demonstrates that alternative transposition-induced duplications may be a source for spontaneous creation of diverse genome structures and novel genes in maize. PMID:26434719

  1. Diversity of Archaea in Icelandic hot springs based on 16S rRNA and chaperonin genes.

    PubMed

    Mirete, Salvador; de Figueras, Carolina G; González-Pastor, Jose E

    2011-07-01

    The diversity of archaeal communities growing in four hot springs (65-90 °C, pH 6.5) was assessed with 16S rRNA gene primers specific for the domain Archaea. Overall, mainly uncultured members of the Desulfurococcales, the Thermoproteales and the Korarchaeota, were identified. Based on this diversity, a set of chaperonin heat-shock protein (Hsp60) gene sequences from different archaeal species were aligned to design two degenerate primer sets for the amplification of the chaperonin gene: Ths and Kor (which can also detect the korarchaeotal chaperonin gene from one of the samples). A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the chaperonin sequences retrieved and other sequences from cultured representatives. The Alpha and Beta paralogs of the chaperonin gene were observed within the main clades and orthologs among them. Cultivated representatives from these clades were assigned to either paralog in the chaperonin tree. Uncultured representatives observed in the 16S rRNA gene analysis were found to be related to the Desulfurococcales. The topologies of the 16S rRNA gene and chaperonin phylogenetic trees were compared, and similar phylogenetic relationships were observed. Our results suggest that the chaperonin Hsp60 gene may be used as a phylogenetic marker for the clades found in this extreme environment.

  2. Rapid Sequence and Expression Divergence Suggest Selection for Novel Function in Primate-Specific KRAB-ZNF Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nowick, Katja; Hamilton, Aaron T.; Zhang, Huimin; Stubbs, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Recent segmental duplications (SDs), arising from duplication events that occurred within the past 35–40 My, have provided a major resource for the evolution of proteins with primate-specific functions. KRAB zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) transcription factor genes are overrepresented among genes contained within these recent human SDs. Here, we examine the structural and functional diversity of the 70 human KRAB-ZNF genes involved in the most recent primate SD events including genes that arose in the hominid lineage. Despite their recent advent, many parent–daughter KRAB-ZNF gene pairs display significant differences in zinc finger structure and sequence, expression, and splicing patterns, each of which could significantly alter the regulatory functions of the paralogous genes. Paralogs that emerged on the lineage to humans and chimpanzees have undergone more evolutionary changes per unit of time than genes already present in the common ancestor of rhesus macaques and great apes. Taken together, these data indicate that a substantial fraction of the recently evolved primate-specific KRAB-ZNF gene duplicates have acquired novel functions that may possibly define novel regulatory pathways and suggest an active ongoing selection for regulatory diversity in primates. PMID:20573777

  3. Evolution of an Expanded Mannose Receptor Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Young, John R.; Butter, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens. PMID:25390371

  4. The human gene damage index as a gene-level approach to prioritizing exome variants

    PubMed Central

    Itan, Yuval; Shang, Lei; Boisson, Bertrand; Patin, Etienne; Bolze, Alexandre; Moncada-Vélez, Marcela; Scott, Eric; Ciancanelli, Michael J.; Lafaille, Fabien G.; Markle, Janet G.; Martinez-Barricarte, Ruben; de Jong, Sarah Jill; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Nitschke, Patrick; Belkadi, Aziz; Bustamante, Jacinta; Puel, Anne; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Stenson, Peter D.; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Cooper, David N.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The protein-coding exome of a patient with a monogenic disease contains about 20,000 variants, only one or two of which are disease causing. We found that 58% of rare variants in the protein-coding exome of the general population are located in only 2% of the genes. Prompted by this observation, we aimed to develop a gene-level approach for predicting whether a given human protein-coding gene is likely to harbor disease-causing mutations. To this end, we derived the gene damage index (GDI): a genome-wide, gene-level metric of the mutational damage that has accumulated in the general population. We found that the GDI was correlated with selective evolutionary pressure, protein complexity, coding sequence length, and the number of paralogs. We compared GDI with the leading gene-level approaches, genic intolerance, and de novo excess, and demonstrated that GDI performed best for the detection of false positives (i.e., removing exome variants in genes irrelevant to disease), whereas genic intolerance and de novo excess performed better for the detection of true positives (i.e., assessing de novo mutations in genes likely to be disease causing). The GDI server, data, and software are freely available to noncommercial users from lab.rockefeller.edu/casanova/GDI. PMID:26483451

  5. The human gene damage index as a gene-level approach to prioritizing exome variants.

    PubMed

    Itan, Yuval; Shang, Lei; Boisson, Bertrand; Patin, Etienne; Bolze, Alexandre; Moncada-Vélez, Marcela; Scott, Eric; Ciancanelli, Michael J; Lafaille, Fabien G; Markle, Janet G; Martinez-Barricarte, Ruben; de Jong, Sarah Jill; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Nitschke, Patrick; Belkadi, Aziz; Bustamante, Jacinta; Puel, Anne; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Stenson, Peter D; Gleeson, Joseph G; Cooper, David N; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-11-01

    The protein-coding exome of a patient with a monogenic disease contains about 20,000 variants, only one or two of which are disease causing. We found that 58% of rare variants in the protein-coding exome of the general population are located in only 2% of the genes. Prompted by this observation, we aimed to develop a gene-level approach for predicting whether a given human protein-coding gene is likely to harbor disease-causing mutations. To this end, we derived the gene damage index (GDI): a genome-wide, gene-level metric of the mutational damage that has accumulated in the general population. We found that the GDI was correlated with selective evolutionary pressure, protein complexity, coding sequence length, and the number of paralogs. We compared GDI with the leading gene-level approaches, genic intolerance, and de novo excess, and demonstrated that GDI performed best for the detection of false positives (i.e., removing exome variants in genes irrelevant to disease), whereas genic intolerance and de novo excess performed better for the detection of true positives (i.e., assessing de novo mutations in genes likely to be disease causing). The GDI server, data, and software are freely available to noncommercial users from lab.rockefeller.edu/casanova/GDI. PMID:26483451

  6. Mammalian homeobox-containing genes: genome organization, structure, expression and evolution.

    PubMed

    Schughart, K; Kappen, C; Ruddle, F H

    1988-12-01

    Mammalian homeo box-containing genes have been isolated by their sequence similarity to Drosophila homeotic selector genes. About 20 murine homeo box genes have been identified to date and their expression and structural organization has been described in detail. Most homeo box gene loci are organized in at least three major gene clusters in the mouse and human genome. The structure of homeo box genes within these clusters is very similar and in this paper the murine Hox-2.2 gene will be discussed as an example. Homeo box genes are expressed in region-specific patterns during different stages of vertebrate development and almost all mammalian homeo box genes are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of the developing embryo. Within the developing CNS of mouse embryos the anterior boundaries of expression are specific for each gene. Comparisons of nucleotide and amino acid sequences as well as the analysis of the structural organization of murine and human homeo box genes reveal strong paralogous relationships between genes in different clusters. These findings suggest that the homeo box gene clusters evolved in two steps. First, an ancestral gene cluster was created by duplications of individual genes along one linkage group and in a subsequent step duplications of the ancestral gene complex gave rise to the three (or possibly four) gene clusters observed in mouse and human to date. The possibility of the homeo box genes representing a functional array of genetic switches will be discussed.

  7. Insight from the lamprey genome: glimpsing early vertebrate development via neuroendocrine-associated genes and shared synteny of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

    PubMed

    Decatur, Wayne A; Hall, Jeffrey A; Smith, Jeramiah J; Li, Weiming; Sower, Stacia A

    2013-10-01

    Study of the ancient lineage of jawless vertebrates is key to understanding the origins of vertebrate biology. The establishment of the neuroendocrine system with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis at its crux is of particular interest. Key neuroendocrine hormones in this system include the pivotal gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) responsible for controlling reproduction via the pituitary. Previous data incorporating several lines of evidence showed all known vertebrate GnRHs were grouped into four paralogous lineages: GnRH1, 2, 3 and 4; with proposed evolutionary paths. Using the currently available lamprey genome assembly, we searched genes of the neuroendocrine system and summarize here the details representing the state of the current lamprey genome assembly. Additionally, we have analyzed in greater detail the evolutionary history of the GnRHs based on the information of the genomic neighborhood of the paralogs in lamprey as compared to other gnathostomes. Significantly, the current evidence suggests that two genome duplication events (both 1R and 2R) that generated the different fish and tetrapod paralogs took place before the divergence of the ancestral agnathans and gnathostome lineages. Syntenic analysis supports this evidence in that the previously-classified type IV GnRHs in lamprey (lGnRH-I and -III) share a common ancestry with GnRH2 and 3, and thus are no longer considered type IV GnRHs. Given the single amino acid difference between lGnRH-II and GnRH2 we propose that a GnRH2-like gene existed before the lamprey/gnathostome split giving rise to lGnRH-II and GnRH2. Furthermore, paralogous type 3 genes (lGnRH-I/III and GnRH3) evolved divergent structure/function in lamprey and gnathostome lineages.

  8. Molecular characterization and evolution of a gene family encoding male-specific reproductive proteins in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During copulation, the major Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. transfers male accessory gland (MAG) proteins to females as a solid mass (i.e. the "mating plug"). These proteins are postulated to function as important modulators of female post-mating responses. To understand the role of selective forces underlying the evolution of these proteins in the A. gambiae complex, we carried out an evolutionary analysis of gene sequence and expression divergence on a pair of paralog genes called AgAcp34A-1 and AgAcp34A-2. These encode MAG-specific proteins which, based on homology with Drosophila, have been hypothesized to play a role in sperm viability and function. Results Genetic analysis of 6 species of the A. gambiae complex revealed the existence of a third paralog (68-78% of identity), that we named AgAcp34A-3. FISH assays showed that this gene maps in the same division (34A) of chromosome-3R as the other two paralogs. In particular, immuno-fluorescence assays targeting the C-terminals of AgAcp34A-2 and AgAcp34A-3 revealed that these two proteins are localized in the posterior part of the MAG and concentrated at the apical portion of the mating plug. When transferred to females, this part of the plug lies in proximity to the duct connecting the spermatheca to the uterus, suggesting a potential role for these proteins in regulating sperm motility. AgAcp34A-3 is more polymorphic than the other two paralogs, possibly because of relaxation of purifying selection. Since both unequal crossing-over and gene conversion likely homogenized the members of this gene family, the interpretation of the evolutionary patterns is not straightforward. Although several haplotypes of the three paralogs are shared by most A. gambiae s.l. species, some fixed species-specific replacements (mainly placed in the N- and C-terminal portions of the secreted peptides) were also observed, suggesting some lineage-specific adaptation. Conclusions Progress in understanding

  9. csrT Represents a New Class of csrA-Like Regulatory Genes Associated with Integrative Conjugative Elements of Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Zachary D.; Flynn, Kaitlin J.; Byrne, Brenda G.; Mukherjee, Sampriti; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial evolution is accelerated by mobile genetic elements. To spread horizontally and to benefit the recipient bacteria, genes encoded on these elements must be properly regulated. Among the legionellae are multiple integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) that each encode a paralog of the broadly conserved regulator csrA. Using bioinformatic analyses, we deduced that specific csrA paralogs are coinherited with particular lineages of the type IV secretion system that mediates horizontal spread of its ICE, suggesting a conserved regulatory interaction. As a first step to investigate the contribution of csrA regulators to this class of mobile genetic elements, we analyzed here the activity of the csrA paralog encoded on Legionella pneumophila ICE-βox. Deletion of this gene, which we name csrT, had no observed effect under laboratory conditions. However, ectopic expression of csrT abrogated the protection to hydrogen peroxide and macrophage degradation that ICE-βox confers to L. pneumophila. When ectopically expressed, csrT also repressed L. pneumophila flagellin production and motility, a function similar to the core genome's canonical csrA. Moreover, csrT restored the repression of motility to csrA mutants of Bacillus subtilis, a finding consistent with the predicted function of CsrT as an mRNA binding protein. Since all known ICEs of legionellae encode coinherited csrA-type IV secretion system pairs, we postulate that CsrA superfamily proteins regulate ICE activity to increase their horizontal spread, thereby expanding L. pneumophila versatility. IMPORTANCE ICEs are mobile DNA elements whose type IV secretion machineries mediate spread among bacterial populations. All surveyed ICEs within the Legionella genus also carry paralogs of the essential life cycle regulator csrA. It is striking that the csrA loci could be classified into distinct families based on either their sequence or the subtype of the adjacent type IV secretion system locus. To

  10. Molecular evolution of hisB genes.

    PubMed

    Brilli, Matteo; Fani, Renato

    2004-02-01

    The sixth and eighth steps of histidine biosynthesis are catalyzed by an imidazole glycerol-phosphate (IGP) dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.19) and by a histidinol-phosphate (HOL-P) phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.15), respectively. In the enterobacteria, in Campylobacter jejuni and in Xylella/Xanthomonas the two activities are associated with a single bifunctional polypeptide encoded by hisB. On the other hand, in Archaea, Eucarya, and most Bacteria the two activities are encoded by two separate genes. In this work we report a comparative analysis of the amino acid sequence of all the available HisB proteins, which allowed us to depict a likely evolutionary pathway leading to the present-day bifunctional hisB gene. According to the model that we propose, the bifunctional hisB gene is the result of a fusion event between two independent cistrons joined by domain-shuffling. The fusion event occurred recently in evolution, very likely in the proteobacterial lineage after the separation of the gamma- and the beta-subdivisions. Data obtained in this work established that a paralogous duplication event of an ancestral DDDD phosphatase encoding gene originated both the HOL-P phosphatase moiety of the E. coli hisB gene and the gmhB gene coding for a DDDD phosphatase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of a precursor of the inner core of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

  11. Similarly Strong Purifying Selection Acts on Human Disease Genes of All Evolutionary Ages

    PubMed Central

    Cai, James J.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Chen, Rong

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have showed that recently created genes differ from the genes created in deep evolutionary past in many aspects. Here, we determined the age of emergence and propensity for gene loss (PGL) of all human protein–coding genes and compared disease genes with non-disease genes in terms of their evolutionary rate, strength of purifying selection, mRNA expression, and genetic redundancy. The older and the less prone to loss, non-disease genes have been evolving 1.5- to 3-fold slower between humans and chimps than young non-disease genes, whereas Mendelian disease genes have been evolving very slowly regardless of their ages and PGL. Complex disease genes showed an intermediate pattern. Disease genes also have higher mRNA expression heterogeneity across multiple tissues than non-disease genes regardless of age and PGL. Young and middle-aged disease genes have fewer similar paralogs as non-disease genes of the same age. We reasoned that genes were more likely to be involved in human disease if they were under a strong functional constraint, expressed heterogeneously across tissues, and lacked genetic redundancy. Young human genes that have been evolving under strong constraint between humans and chimps might also be enriched for genes that encode important primate or even human-specific functions. PMID:20333184

  12. Genome-wide Analyses of the Structural Gene Families Involved in the Legume-specific 5-Deoxyisoflavonoid Biosynthesis of Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Norimoto; Sato, Shusei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ayabe, Shin-ichi; Aoki, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A model legume Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen is one of the subjects of genome sequencing and functional genomics programs. In the course of targeted approaches to the legume genomics, we analyzed the genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the legume-specific 5-deoxyisoflavonoid of L. japonicus, which produces isoflavan phytoalexins on elicitor treatment. The paralogous biosynthetic genes were assigned as comprehensively as possible by biochemical experiments, similarity searches, comparison of the gene structures, and phylogenetic analyses. Among the 10 biosynthetic genes investigated, six comprise multigene families, and in many cases they form gene clusters in the chromosomes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase–PCR analyses showed coordinate up-regulation of most of the genes during phytoalexin induction and complex accumulation patterns of the transcripts in different organs. Some paralogous genes exhibited similar expression specificities, suggesting their genetic redundancy. The molecular evolution of the biosynthetic genes is discussed. The results presented here provide reliable annotations of the genes and genetic markers for comparative and functional genomics of leguminous plants. PMID:17452423

  13. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  14. Identification of two rodent genes encoding homologues to seminal vesicle autoantigen: a gene family including the gene for prolactin-inducible protein.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Kurachi, H; Osawa, M

    2001-02-16

    We cloned two new paralogous genes that encode proteins homologous to seminal vesicle autoantigen (SVA) in rodents. The open reading frame of one mouse gene encodes a polypeptide consisting of 151 amino acid residues which has 43% identity to SVA. RT-PCR analysis showed selective expression in the colon, and thus the protein was tentatively named "SVA-like protein in the colon (SLP-C)". The other mouse gene has an open reading frame encoding 144 amino acid residues with 46 and 65% identity to SVA and SLP-C, respectively. Expression of this gene was detected in the mammary, submaxillary, parotid, and lacrimal glands, and this protein was named "SLP in the mammary gland (SLP-M)". Orthologs of both genes were also found in rats. The three homologous genes coding for SVA, SLP-C, and SLP-M may have been generated by gene duplication with divergence of tissue expression in the course of evolution. They comprise a unique structurally-related gene family. Moreover, these genes share significant sequence homology with that of another secretory glycoprotein, prolactin-inducible protein.

  15. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome.

  16. Identification of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes from legumes and their responses in wild type and cultivated peanut upon Aspergillus flavus infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Changsheng; Han, Suoyi; Lopez-Baltazar, Javier; Zhang, Xinyou; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) genes are widely distributed in plants and play crucial roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Although they have been characterized in various plants, little is known about the evolution of legume LOX genes. In this study, we identified 122 full-length LOX genes in Arachis duranensis, Arachis ipaënsis, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In total, 64 orthologous and 36 paralogous genes were identified. The full-length, polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) and lipoxygenase domain sequences from orthologous and paralogous genes exhibited a signature of purifying selection. However, purifying selection influenced orthologues more than paralogues, indicating greater functional conservation of orthologues than paralogues. Neutrality and effective number of codons plot results showed that natural selection primarily shapes codon usage, except for C. arietinum, L. japonicas and M. truncatula LOX genes. GCG, ACG, UCG, CGG and CCG codons exhibited low relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, while CCA, GGA, GCU, CUU and GUU had high RSCU values, indicating that the latter codons are strongly preferred. LOX expression patterns differed significantly between wild-type peanut and cultivated peanut infected with Aspergillus flavus, which could explain the divergent disease resistance of wild progenitor and cultivars. PMID:27731413

  17. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome. PMID:12032571

  18. Methuselah/Methuselah-like G protein-coupled receptors constitute an ancient metazoan gene family

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Alexandre; Jones, Jeffery W.; Friedrich, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the phylogenetic age of the Methuselah/Methuselah-like (Mth/Mthl) gene family of G protein-coupled receptors, the founding member of which regulates development and lifespan in Drosophila. Here we report the results from a targeted homolog search of 39 holozoan genomes and phylogenetic analysis of the conserved seven transmembrane domain. Our findings reveal that the Mth/Mthl gene family is ancient, has experienced numerous extinction and expansion events during metazoan evolution, and acquired the current definition of the Methuselah ectodomain during its exceptional expansion in arthropods. In addition, our findings identify Mthl1, Mthl5, Mthl14, and Mthl15 as the oldest Mth/Mthl gene family paralogs in Drosophila. Future studies of these genes have the potential to define ancestral functions of the Mth/Mthl gene family. PMID:26915348

  19. Spider Transcriptomes Identify Ancient Large-Scale Gene Duplication Event Potentially Important in Silk Gland Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Thomas H.; Garb, Jessica E.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.; Arensburger, Peter; Ayoub, Nadia A.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (order Scorpionida) and spiders (order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared with other transcripts. Thus, an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland-specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae). PMID:26058392

  20. Spider Transcriptomes Identify Ancient Large-Scale Gene Duplication Event Potentially Important in Silk Gland Evolution.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Thomas H; Garb, Jessica E; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Arensburger, Peter; Ayoub, Nadia A

    2015-06-08

    The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (order Scorpionida) and spiders (order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared with other transcripts. Thus, an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland-specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae).

  1. Transcriptome Analysis Indicates Considerable Divergence in Alternative Splicing Between Duplicated Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tack, David C.; Pitchers, William R.; Adams, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    Gene and genome duplication events have created a large number of new genes in plants that can diverge by evolving new expression profiles and functions (neofunctionalization) or dividing extant ones (subfunctionalization). Alternative splicing (AS) generates multiple types of mRNA from a single type of pre-mRNA by differential intron splicing. It can result in new protein isoforms or downregulation of gene expression by transcript decay. Using RNA-seq, we investigated the degree to which alternative splicing patterns are conserved between duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results revealed that 30% of AS events in α-whole-genome duplicates and 33% of AS events in tandem duplicates are qualitatively conserved within leaf tissue. Loss of ancestral splice forms, as well as asymmetric gain of new splice forms, may account for this divergence. Conserved events had different frequencies, as only 31% of shared AS events in α-whole-genome duplicates and 41% of shared AS events in tandem duplicates had similar frequencies in both paralogs, indicating considerable quantitative divergence. Analysis of published RNA-seq data from nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) mutants indicated that 85% of α-whole-genome duplicates and 89% of tandem duplicates have diverged in their AS-induced NMD. Our results indicate that alternative splicing shows a high degree of divergence between paralogs such that qualitatively conserved alternative splicing events tend to have quantitative divergence. Divergence in AS patterns between duplicates may be a mechanism of regulating expression level divergence. PMID:25326238

  2. The role of gene duplication and unconstrained selective pressures in the melanopsin gene family evolution and vertebrate circadian rhythm regulation.

    PubMed

    Borges, Rui; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    Melanopsin is a photosensitive cell protein involved in regulating circadian rhythms and other non-visual responses to light. The melanopsin gene family is represented by two paralogs, OPN4x and OPN4m, which originated through gene duplication early in the emergence of vertebrates. Here we studied the melanopsin gene family using an integrated gene/protein evolutionary approach, which revealed that the rhabdomeric urbilaterian ancestor had the same amino acid patterns (DRY motif and the Y and E conterions) as extant vertebrate species, suggesting that the mechanism for light detection and regulation is similar to rhabdomeric rhodopsins. Both OPN4m and OPN4x paralogs are found in vertebrate genomic paralogons, suggesting that they diverged following this duplication event about 600 million years ago, when the complex eye emerged in the vertebrate ancestor. Melanopsins generally evolved under negative selection (ω = 0.171) with some minor episodes of positive selection (proportion of sites = 25%) and functional divergence (θ(I) = 0.349 and θ(II) = 0.126). The OPN4m and OPN4x melanopsin paralogs show evidence of spectral divergence at sites likely involved in melanopsin light absorbance (200F, 273S and 276A). Also, following the teleost lineage-specific whole genome duplication (3R) that prompted the teleost fish radiation, type I divergence (θ(I) = 0.181) and positive selection (affecting 11% of sites) contributed to amino acid variability that we related with the photo-activation stability of melanopsin. The melanopsin intracellular regions had unexpectedly high variability in their coupling specificity of G-proteins and we propose that Gq/11 and Gi/o are the two G-proteins most-likely to mediate the melanopsin phototransduction pathway. The selection signatures were mainly observed on retinal-related sites and the third and second intracellular loops, demonstrating the physiological plasticity of the melanopsin protein group. Our results provide new insights on

  3. The Role of Gene Duplication and Unconstrained Selective Pressures in the Melanopsin Gene Family Evolution and Vertebrate Circadian Rhythm Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Rui; Johnson, Warren E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2012-01-01

    Melanopsin is a photosensitive cell protein involved in regulating circadian rhythms and other non-visual responses to light. The melanopsin gene family is represented by two paralogs, OPN4x and OPN4m, which originated through gene duplication early in the emergence of vertebrates. Here we studied the melanopsin gene family using an integrated gene/protein evolutionary approach, which revealed that the rhabdomeric urbilaterian ancestor had the same amino acid patterns (DRY motif and the Y and E conterions) as extant vertebrate species, suggesting that the mechanism for light detection and regulation is similar to rhabdomeric rhodopsins. Both OPN4m and OPN4x paralogs are found in vertebrate genomic paralogons, suggesting that they diverged following this duplication event about 600 million years ago, when the complex eye emerged in the vertebrate ancestor. Melanopsins generally evolved under negative selection (ω = 0.171) with some minor episodes of positive selection (proportion of sites = 25%) and functional divergence (θI = 0.349 and θII = 0.126). The OPN4m and OPN4x melanopsin paralogs show evidence of spectral divergence at sites likely involved in melanopsin light absorbance (200F, 273S and 276A). Also, following the teleost lineage-specific whole genome duplication (3R) that prompted the teleost fish radiation, type I divergence (θI = 0.181) and positive selection (affecting 11% of sites) contributed to amino acid variability that we related with the photo-activation stability of melanopsin. The melanopsin intracellular regions had unexpectedly high variability in their coupling specificity of G-proteins and we propose that Gq/11 and Gi/o are the two G-proteins most-likely to mediate the melanopsin phototransduction pathway. The selection signatures were mainly observed on retinal-related sites and the third and second intracellular loops, demonstrating the physiological plasticity of the melanopsin protein group. Our results provide

  4. Protection factors against free radical-induced ceroidogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aloj Totaro, E.; Lucadamo, L.; Pisanti, F.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The most important products of the combustion process are SO2, NOx, CO2 and the heavy metals. When these substances come into contact with the biotic components of the ecosystems they produce an oxidative damage by means of a free radical mechanism. One of the significant natural sources of these oxides and metals are the volcanic emissions that contribute, either locally or more diffusely, to enrich the atmosphere with these substances. The area of Campi Flegrei (Naples, Italy) is an experimental model fit for studying the contemporary effect of the aforesaid oxidative agents, because it is characterized by a continuous fumarolic activity, particularly in the area of the widest crater (Solfatara). We have made so two experiments utilizing rats and earthworms (Octolasium complanatum) to evaluate the following aspects in phylogenetically very different organisms: 1. the combined effect of the atmospheric pollutants, 2. the effect of the heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Mn), 3. the protection action played by reduced glutathione in rats. The reduced glutathione being either a substrate of the glutathione proxidase or an oxyradicals scavenger, is one of the main protection agents against the above stress. Because many papers suggest that the mentioned atmospheric pollutants damage both animal and vegetable organisms by their oxidative properties, the reduced glutathione seems to be able to counteract efficaciously the damaging activity studied in terms of age pigments production.

  5. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of salicylates in aerated aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid, its hydrolysis product salicylic acid and a salicylic acid derivative 5-sulpho-salicylic acid, was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by UV-vis spectrophotometry, HPLC separation and diode-array or MS/MS detection, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and by Vibrio fischeri toxicity measurements. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to degrade these molecules readily, and first degradation products were hydroxylated derivatives in all cases. Due to the by-products, among them hydrogen peroxide, the toxicity first increased and then decreased with the absorbed dose. With prolonged irradiation complete mineralization was achieved.

  6. Evolutionary Characteristics of Missing Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Human Chromosomes Related to Missing-Protein-Encoding Genes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aishi; Li, Guang; Yang, Dong; Wu, Songfeng; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Xu, Ping; He, Fuchu

    2015-12-01

    Although the "missing protein" is a temporary concept in C-HPP, the biological information for their "missing" could be an important clue in evolutionary studies. Here we classified missing-protein-encoding genes into two groups, the genes encoding PE2 proteins (with transcript evidence) and the genes encoding PE3/4 proteins (with no transcript evidence). These missing-protein-encoding genes distribute unevenly among different chromosomes, chromosomal regions, or gene clusters. In the view of evolutionary features, PE3/4 genes tend to be young, spreading at the nonhomology chromosomal regions and evolving at higher rates. Interestingly, there is a higher proportion of singletons in PE3/4 genes than the proportion of singletons in all genes (background) and OTCSGs (organ, tissue, cell type-specific genes). More importantly, most of the paralogous PE3/4 genes belong to the newly duplicated members of the paralogous gene groups, which mainly contribute to special biological functions, such as "smell perception". These functions are heavily restricted into specific type of cells, tissues, or specific developmental stages, acting as the new functional requirements that facilitated the emergence of the missing-protein-encoding genes during evolution. In addition, the criteria for the extremely special physical-chemical proteins were first set up based on the properties of PE2 proteins, and the evolutionary characteristics of those proteins were explored. Overall, the evolutionary analyses of missing-protein-encoding genes are expected to be highly instructive for proteomics and functional studies in the future.

  7. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  8. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  9. Targeted mutagenesis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a and 2b genes in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    PubMed Central

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Karchner, Sibel I.; Franks, Diana G.; Nacci, Diane; Champlin, Denise; Hahn, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms of toxicity is facilitated by experimental manipulations, such as disruption of function by gene targeting, that are especially challenging in non-standard model species with limited genomic resources. While loss-of-function approaches have included gene knock-down using morpholino-modified oligonucleotides and random mutagenesis using mutagens or retroviruses, more recent approaches include targeted mutagenesis using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 technology. These latter methods provide more accessible opportunities to explore gene function in non-traditional model species. To facilitate evaluations of toxic mechanisms for important categories of aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, whose actions are known to be receptor mediated, we used ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generate aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a (AHR2a) and AHR2b gene mutations in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) embryos. This killifish is a particularly valuble non-traditional model for this study, with multiple paralogs of AHR whose functions are not well characterized. In addition, some populations of this species have evolved resistance to toxicants such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. AHR-null killifish will be valuable for characterizing the role of the individual AHR paralogs in evolved resistance, as well as in normal development. We first used five-finger ZFNs targeting exons 1 and 3 of AHR2a. Subsequently, CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs were designed to target regions in exon 2 and 3 of AHR2a and AHR2b. We successfully induced frameshift mutations in AHR2a exon 3 with ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs, with mutation frequencies of 10% and 16%, respectively. In AHR2b, mutations were induced using CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs targeting sites in both exon 2 (17%) and exon 3 (63%). We screened AHR2b exon 2 CRISPR-Cas9-injected embryos for

  10. A two-component system, an anti-sigma factor and two paralogous ECF sigma factors are involved in the control of general stress response in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Rogério F; Kohler, Christian; Gomes, Suely L

    2011-06-01

    The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σ(T) is the master regulator of general stress response in Caulobacter crescentus and controls the expression of its paralogue σ(U). In this work we showed that PhyR and NepR act, respectively, as positive and negative regulators of σ(T) expression and function. Biochemical data also demonstrated that NepR directly binds σ(T) and the phosphorylated form of PhyR. We also described the essential role of the histidine kinase gene CC3474, here denominated phyK, for expression of σ(T)-dependent genes and for resistance to stress conditions. Additionally, in vivo evidence of PhyK-dependent phosphorylation of PhyR is presented. This study also identified a conserved cysteine residue (C95) located in the periplasmic portion of PhyK that is crucial for the function of the protein. Furthermore, we showed that PhyK, PhyR and σ(T) regulate the same set of genes and that σ(T) apparently directly controls most of its regulon. In contrast, σ(U) seems to have a very modest contribution to the expression of a subset of σ(T)-dependent genes. In conclusion, this report describes the molecular mechanism involved in the control of general stress response in C. crescentus.

  11. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  12. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species. PMID:26858743

  13. Conservation and Expression Patterns Divergence of Ascorbic Acid d-mannose/l-galactose Pathway Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Weike; Ren, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Tongkun; Song, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhongwen; Huang, Zhinan; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-Mannose/L-Galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome), B. oleracea (C genome) and B. napus (AC genome). However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. (i) VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. (ii) Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. (iii) Under NaCl, Cu2+, MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments. PMID:27313597

  14. Conservation and Expression Patterns Divergence of Ascorbic Acid d-mannose/l-galactose Pathway Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Ren, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Tongkun; Song, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhongwen; Huang, Zhinan; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-Mannose/L-Galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome), B. oleracea (C genome) and B. napus (AC genome). However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. (i) VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. (ii) Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. (iii) Under NaCl, Cu(2+), MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments.

  15. Conservation and Expression Patterns Divergence of Ascorbic Acid d-mannose/l-galactose Pathway Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Ren, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Tongkun; Song, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhongwen; Huang, Zhinan; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) participates in diverse biological processes, is regulated by multiple factors and is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant. The D-Mannose/L-Galactose pathway is a major plant AsA biosynthetic pathway that is highly connected within biosynthetic networks, and generally conserved across plants. Previous work has shown that, although most genes of this pathway are expressed under standard growth conditions in Brassica rapa, some paralogs of these genes are not. We hypothesize that regulatory evolution in duplicate AsA pathway genes has occurred as an adaptation to environmental stressors, and that gene retention has been influenced by polyploidation events in Brassicas. To test these hypotheses, we explored the conservation of these genes in Brassicas and their expression patterns divergence in B. rapa. Similar retention and a high degree of gene sequence similarity were identified in B. rapa (A genome), B. oleracea (C genome) and B. napus (AC genome). However, the number of genes that encode the same type of enzymes varied among the three plant species. With the exception of GMP, which has nine genes, there were one to four genes that encoded the other enzymes. Moreover, we found that expression patterns divergence widely exists among these genes. (i) VTC2 and VTC5 are paralogous genes, but only VTC5 is influenced by FLC. (ii) Under light treatment, PMI1 co-regulates the AsA pool size with other D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes, whereas PMI2 is regulated only by darkness. (iii) Under NaCl, Cu(2+), MeJA and wounding stresses, most of the paralogs exhibit different expression patterns. Additionally, GME and GPP are the key regulatory enzymes that limit AsA biosynthesis in response to these treatments. In conclusion, our data support that the conservative and divergent expression patterns of D-Man/L-Gal pathway genes not only avoid AsA biosynthesis network instability but also allow B. rapa to better adapt to complex environments. PMID:27313597

  16. Identification and characterization of essential genes in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tim; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Hughes, Nicholas W.; Krupczak, Kevin M.; Post, Yorick; Wei, Jenny J.; Lander, Eric S.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genetic analysis of lethal phenotypes has elucidated the molecular underpinnings of many biological processes. Using the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, we constructed a genome-wide single-guide RNA (sgRNA) library to screen for genes required for proliferation and survival in a human cancer cell line. Our screen revealed the set of cell-essential genes, which was validated by an orthogonal gene-trap-based screen and comparison with yeast gene knockouts. This set is enriched for genes that encode components of fundamental pathways, are expressed at high levels, and contain few inactivating polymorphisms in the human population. We also uncovered a large group of uncharacterized genes involved in RNA processing, a number of whose products localize to the nucleolus. Lastly, screens in additional cell lines showed a high degree of overlap in gene essentiality, but also revealed differences specific to each cell line and cancer type that reflect the developmental origin, oncogenic drivers, paralogous gene expression pattern, and chromosomal structure of each line. These results demonstrate the power of CRISPR-based screens and suggest a general strategy for identifying liabilities in cancer cells. PMID:26472758

  17. Paleo-evolutionary plasticity of plant disease resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent access to a large set of genome sequences, combined with a robust evolutionary scenario of modern monocot (i.e. grasses) and eudicot (i.e. rosids) species from their founder ancestors, offered the opportunity to gain insights into disease resistance genes (R-genes) evolutionary plasticity. Results We unravel in the current article (i) a R-genes repertoire consisting in 7883 for monocots and 15758 for eudicots, (ii) a contrasted R-genes conservation with 23.8% for monocots and 6.6% for dicots, (iii) a minimal ancestral founder pool of 384 R-genes for the monocots and 150 R-genes for the eudicots, (iv) a general pattern of organization in clusters accounting for more than 60% of mapped R-genes, (v) a biased deletion of ancestral duplicated R-genes between paralogous blocks possibly compensated by clusterization, (vi) a bias in R-genes clusterization where Leucine-Rich Repeats act as a ‘glue’ for domain association, (vii) a R-genes/miRNAs interome enriched toward duplicated R-genes. Conclusions Together, our data may suggest that R-genes family plasticity operated during plant evolution (i) at the structural level through massive duplicates loss counterbalanced by massive clusterization following polyploidization; as well as at (ii) the regulation level through microRNA/R-gene interactions acting as a possible source of functional diploidization of structurally retained R-genes duplicates. Such evolutionary shuffling events leaded to CNVs (i.e. Copy Number Variation) and PAVs (i.e. Presence Absence Variation) between related species operating in the decay of R-genes colinearity between plant species. PMID:24617999

  18. Repeated evolution of testis-specific new genes: the case of telomere-capping genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Marais, Gabriel A B; Loppin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis has allowed the identification of various mechanisms involved in gene birth. However, understanding the evolutionary forces driving new gene origination still represents a major challenge. In particular, an intriguing and not yet fully understood trend has emerged from the study of new genes: many of them show a testis-specific expression pattern, which has remained poorly understood. Here we review the case of such a new gene, which involves a telomere-capping gene family in Drosophila. hiphop and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively. Two independent functional studies recently proposed that these genes evolved under a reproductive-subfunctionalization regime. The 2011 release of new Drosophila genome sequences from the melanogaster group of species allowed us to deepen our phylogenetic analysis of the hiphop/K81 family. This work reveals an unsuspected dynamic of gene birth and death within the group, with recurrent duplication events through retroposition mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the plausibility of different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the diversification of this gene family. PMID:22844639

  19. Repeated Evolution of Testis-Specific New Genes: The Case of Telomere-Capping Genes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Marais, Gabriel A. B.; Loppin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis has allowed the identification of various mechanisms involved in gene birth. However, understanding the evolutionary forces driving new gene origination still represents a major challenge. In particular, an intriguing and not yet fully understood trend has emerged from the study of new genes: many of them show a testis-specific expression pattern, which has remained poorly understood. Here we review the case of such a new gene, which involves a telomere-capping gene family in Drosophila. hiphop and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively. Two independent functional studies recently proposed that these genes evolved under a reproductive-subfunctionalization regime. The 2011 release of new Drosophila genome sequences from the melanogaster group of species allowed us to deepen our phylogenetic analysis of the hiphop/K81 family. This work reveals an unsuspected dynamic of gene birth and death within the group, with recurrent duplication events through retroposition mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the plausibility of different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the diversification of this gene family. PMID:22844639

  20. Repeated evolution of testis-specific new genes: the case of telomere-capping genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Marais, Gabriel A B; Loppin, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis has allowed the identification of various mechanisms involved in gene birth. However, understanding the evolutionary forces driving new gene origination still represents a major challenge. In particular, an intriguing and not yet fully understood trend has emerged from the study of new genes: many of them show a testis-specific expression pattern, which has remained poorly understood. Here we review the case of such a new gene, which involves a telomere-capping gene family in Drosophila. hiphop and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively. Two independent functional studies recently proposed that these genes evolved under a reproductive-subfunctionalization regime. The 2011 release of new Drosophila genome sequences from the melanogaster group of species allowed us to deepen our phylogenetic analysis of the hiphop/K81 family. This work reveals an unsuspected dynamic of gene birth and death within the group, with recurrent duplication events through retroposition mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the plausibility of different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the diversification of this gene family.

  1. Adaptive Evolution of Genes Duplicated from the Drosophila pseudoobscura neo-X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Richard P.; Hilldorfer, Benedict B.; Koch, Jessica L.; Lockton, Steven; Schaeffer, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila X chromosomes are disproportionate sources of duplicated genes, and these duplications are usually the result of retrotransposition of X-linked genes to the autosomes. The excess duplication is thought to be driven by natural selection for two reasons: X chromosomes are inactivated during spermatogenesis, and the derived copies of retroposed duplications tend to be testis expressed. Therefore, autosomal derived copies of retroposed genes provide a mechanism for their X-linked paralogs to “escape” X inactivation. Once these duplications have fixed, they may then be selected for male-specific functions. Throughout the evolution of the Drosophila genus, autosomes have fused with X chromosomes along multiple lineages giving rise to neo-X chromosomes. There has also been excess duplication from the two independent neo-X chromosomes that have been examined—one that occurred prior to the common ancestor of the willistoni species group and another that occurred along the lineage leading to Drosophila pseudoobscura. To determine what role natural selection plays in the evolution of genes duplicated from the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome, we analyzed DNA sequence divergence between paralogs, polymorphism within each copy, and the expression profiles of these duplicated genes. We found that the derived copies of all duplicated genes have elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism, suggesting that they are under relaxed selective constraints. The derived copies also tend to have testis- or male-biased expression profiles regardless of their chromosome of origin. Genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome appear to be under less constraints than those duplicated from other chromosome arms. We also find more evidence for historical adaptive evolution in genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome, suggesting that they are under a unique selection regime in which elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism provides a large reservoir of functional variants, some of which are

  2. Isolation and characterization of the human homeobox gene HOX D1.

    PubMed

    Appukuttan, B; Sood, R; Ott, S; Makalowska, I; Patel, R J; Wang, X; Robbins, C M; Brownstein, M J; Stout, J T

    2000-01-01

    Homeobox genes, first identified in Drosophila, encode transcription factors that regulate embryonic development along the anteroposterior axis of an organism. Vertebrate homeobox genes are described on the basis of their homology to the genes found within the Drosophila Antennapedia and Bithorax homeotic gene complexes. Mammals possess four paralogous homeobox (HOX) gene clusters, HOX A, HOX B, HOX C and HOX D, each located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. We report the characterization of the human HOX D1 gene. This gene consists of two exons, encoding a 328 amino acid protein, separated by an intron of 354 bp. The human HOX D1 protein is one amino acid longer (328 amino acids) than the mouse protein (327 amino acids) and is 82% identical to the mouse HOX D1 homolog. The DNA binding homeodomain region of the human protein exhibits a 97% and 80% identity between mouse Hoxd1 and Drosophila labial homeodomains, respectively. The exon/intron and intron/exon splice junctions are conserved in position between human and mouse genes. Determination of the human HOX D1 gene structure permits the use of PCR based analysis of this gene for the assessment of mutations, for diseases that link to the HOXD cluster (such as Duanes Retraction Syndrome (DRS)), or polymorphisms associated with human variation. Molecular characterization of the HOXD1 gene may also permit analysis of the functional role of this gene in human neurogenisis.

  3. Functional analyses of AGAMOUS family members in Nicotiana benthamiana clarify the evolution of early and late roles of C-function genes in eudicots.

    PubMed

    Fourquin, Chloé; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2012-09-01

    The C-function, according to the ABC model of floral organ identity, is required for stamen and carpel development and to provide floral meristem determinacy. Members of the AG lineage of the large MADS box gene family specify the C-function in a broadly conserved manner in angiosperms. In core eudicots, two sub-lineages co-exist, euAG and PLE, which have been extensively characterized in Antirrhinum majus and Arabidopsis thaliana, where strong sub-functionalization has led to highly divergent contributions of the respective paralogs to the C-function. Various scenarios have been proposed to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the euAG and PLE lineages in eudicots, but detailed functional analyses of the roles of these genes in additional representative species to validate evolutionary hypotheses are scarce. Here, we report functional characterization of euAG- and PLE-like genes in Nicotiana benthamiana through expression analyses and phenotypic characterization of the defects caused by their specific down-regulation. We show that both paralogs redundantly contribute to the C-function in this species, providing insights on the likely evolution of these gene lineages following divergence of the major groups within the eudicots (rosids and asterids). Moreover, we have demonstrated a conserved role for the PLE-like genes in controlling fruit dehiscence, which strongly supports the ancestral role of PLE-like genes in late fruit development and suggests a common evolutionary origin of late developmental processes in dry (dehiscent) and fleshy (ripening) fruits.

  4. Lineage-specific expansion of vomeronasal type 2 receptor-like (OlfC) genes in cichlids may contribute to diversification of amino acid detection systems.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Hagino-Yamagishi, Kimiko; Kocher, Thomas D; Carleton, Karen; Okada, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Fish use olfaction to sense a variety of nonvolatile chemical signals in water. However, the evolutionary importance of olfaction in species-rich cichlids is controversial. Here, we determined an almost complete sequence of the vomeronasal type 2 receptor-like (OlfC: putative amino acids receptor in teleosts) gene cluster using the bacterial artificial chromosome library of the Lake Victoria cichlid, Haplochromis chilotes. In the cluster region, we found 61 intact OlfC genes, which is the largest number of OlfC genes identified among the seven teleost fish investigated to date. Data mining of the Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) draft genome sequence, and genomic Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the ancestor of all modern cichlids had already developed almost the same OlfC gene repertoire, which was accomplished by lineage-specific gene expansions. Furthermore, comparison of receptor sequences showed that recently duplicated paralogs are more variable than orthologs of different species at particular sites that were predicted to be involved in amino acid selectivity. Thus, the increase of paralogs through gene expansion may lead to functional diversification in detection of amino acids. This study implies that cichlids have developed a potent capacity to detect a variety of amino acids (and their derivatives) through OlfCs, which may have contributed to the extraordinary diversity of their feeding habitats. PMID:23501830

  5. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of the DOF Transcription Factor Gene Family in Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    PubMed

    Song, Aiping; Gao, Tianwei; Li, Peiling; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jingjing; Fan, Qingqing; Zhao, Kunkun; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain) of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5' RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15, and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses. PMID:26941763

  6. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of the DOF Transcription Factor Gene Family in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    PubMed Central

    Song, Aiping; Gao, Tianwei; Li, Peiling; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jingjing; Fan, Qingqing; Zhao, Kunkun; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain) of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5' RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15, and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses. PMID:26941763

  7. Phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) based on duplicated copies of the sucrose synthase gene and plastid markers.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, Vincent; Bruneau, Anne

    2012-10-01

    The Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) forms a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of mostly tropical tree species with a complex evolutionary history. This grade comprises several distinct lineages, but the exact delimitation of the group relative to subfamily Mimosoideae and other members of subfamily Caesalpinioideae, as well as phylogenetic relationships among the lineages are uncertain. With the aim of better resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Caesalpinieae grade, we investigated the utility of several nuclear markers developed from genomic studies in the Papilionoideae. We cloned and sequenced the low copy nuclear gene sucrose synthase (SUSY) and combined the data with plastid trnL and matK sequences. SUSY has two paralogs in the Caesalpinieae grade and in the Mimosoideae, but occurs as a single copy in all other legumes tested. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses suggest the two nuclear markers are congruent with plastid DNA data. The Caesalpinieae grade is divided into four well-supported clades (Cassia, Caesalpinia, Tachigali and Peltophorum clades), a poorly supported clade of Dimorphandra Group genera, and two paraphyletic groups, one with other Dimorphandra Group genera and the other comprising genera previously recognized as the Umtiza clade. A selection analysis of the paralogs, using selection models from PAML, suggests that SUSY genes are subjected to a purifying selection. One of the SUSY paralogs, under slightly stronger positive selection, may be undergoing subfunctionalization. The low copy SUSY gene is useful for phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae despite the presence of duplicate copies. This study confirms that the Caesalpinieae grade is an artificial group, and highlights the need for further analyses of lineages at the base of the Mimosoideae. PMID:22699157

  8. Phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) based on duplicated copies of the sucrose synthase gene and plastid markers.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla, Vincent; Bruneau, Anne

    2012-10-01

    The Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) forms a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of mostly tropical tree species with a complex evolutionary history. This grade comprises several distinct lineages, but the exact delimitation of the group relative to subfamily Mimosoideae and other members of subfamily Caesalpinioideae, as well as phylogenetic relationships among the lineages are uncertain. With the aim of better resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Caesalpinieae grade, we investigated the utility of several nuclear markers developed from genomic studies in the Papilionoideae. We cloned and sequenced the low copy nuclear gene sucrose synthase (SUSY) and combined the data with plastid trnL and matK sequences. SUSY has two paralogs in the Caesalpinieae grade and in the Mimosoideae, but occurs as a single copy in all other legumes tested. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses suggest the two nuclear markers are congruent with plastid DNA data. The Caesalpinieae grade is divided into four well-supported clades (Cassia, Caesalpinia, Tachigali and Peltophorum clades), a poorly supported clade of Dimorphandra Group genera, and two paraphyletic groups, one with other Dimorphandra Group genera and the other comprising genera previously recognized as the Umtiza clade. A selection analysis of the paralogs, using selection models from PAML, suggests that SUSY genes are subjected to a purifying selection. One of the SUSY paralogs, under slightly stronger positive selection, may be undergoing subfunctionalization. The low copy SUSY gene is useful for phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae despite the presence of duplicate copies. This study confirms that the Caesalpinieae grade is an artificial group, and highlights the need for further analyses of lineages at the base of the Mimosoideae.

  9. Wnt gene loss in flatworms.

    PubMed

    Riddiford, Nick; Olson, Peter D

    2011-10-01

    Wnt genes encode secreted glycoproteins that act in cell-cell signalling to regulate a wide array of developmental processes, ranging from cellular differentiation to axial patterning. Discovery that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is responsible for regulating head/tail specification in planarian regeneration has recently highlighted their importance in flatworm (phylum Platyhelminthes) development, but examination of their roles in the complex development of the diverse parasitic groups has yet to be conducted. Here, we characterise Wnt genes in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis microstoma and mine genomic resources of free-living and parasitic species for the presence of Wnts and downstream signalling components. We identify orthologs through a combination of BLAST and phylogenetic analyses, showing that flatworms have a highly reduced and dispersed complement that includes orthologs of only five subfamilies (Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt4, Wnt5 and Wnt11) and fewer paralogs in parasitic flatworms (5-6) than in planarians (9). All major signalling components are identified, including antagonists and receptors, and key binding domains are intact, indicating that the canonical (Wnt/β-catenin) and non-canonical (planar cell polarity and Wnt/Ca(2+)) pathways are functional. RNA-Seq data show expression of all Hymenolepis Wnts and most downstream components in adults and larvae with the notable exceptions of wnt1, expressed only in adults, and wnt2 expressed only in larvae. The distribution of Wnt subfamilies in animals corroborates the idea that the last common ancestor of the Cnidaria and Bilateria possessed all contemporary Wnts and highlights the extent of gene loss in flatworms.

  10. Developmentally distinct MYB genes encode functionally equivalent proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, M M; Schiefelbein, J

    2001-05-01

    The duplication and divergence of developmental control genes is thought to have driven morphological diversification during the evolution of multicellular organisms. To examine the molecular basis of this process, we analyzed the functional relationship between two paralogous MYB transcription factor genes, WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABROUS1 (GL1), in Arabidopsis. The WER and GL1 genes specify distinct cell types and exhibit non-overlapping expression patterns during Arabidopsis development. Nevertheless, reciprocal complementation experiments with a series of gene fusions showed that WER and GL1 encode functionally equivalent proteins, and their unique roles in plant development are entirely due to differences in their cis-regulatory sequences. Similar experiments with a distantly related MYB gene (MYB2) showed that its product cannot functionally substitute for WER or GL1. Furthermore, an analysis of the WER and GL1 proteins shows that conserved sequences correspond to specific functional domains. These results provide new insights into the evolution of the MYB gene family in Arabidopsis, and, more generally, they demonstrate that novel developmental gene function may arise solely by the modification of cis-regulatory sequences.

  11. Retention and Molecular Evolution of Lipoxygenase Genes in Modern Rosid Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Danmei; Chu, Wenyuan; Zhu, Dongyue; Yan, Hanwei; Xiang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication events have occurred more than once in the genomes of some rosids and played a significant role over evolutionary time. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are involved in many developmental and resistance processes in plants. Our study concerns the subject of the LOX gene family; we tracked the evolutionary process of ancestral LOX genes in four modern rosids. Here we show that some members of the LOX gene family in the Arabidopsis genome are likely to be lost during evolution, leading to a smaller size than that in Populus, Vitis, and Carica. Strong purifying selection acted as a critical role in almost all of the paralogous and orthologous genes. The structure of LOX genes in Carica and Populus are relatively stable, whereas Vitis and Arabidopsis have a difference. By searching conserved motifs of LOX genes, we found that each sub-family shared similar components. Research on intraspecies gene collinearity show that recent duplication holds an important position in Populus and Arabidopsis. Gene collinearity analysis within and between these four rosid plants revealed that all LOX genes in each modern rosid were the offspring from different ancestral genes. This study traces the evolution of LOX genes which have been differentially retained and expanded in rosid plants. Our results presented here may aid in the selection of special genes retained in the rosid plants for further analysis of biological function. PMID:27746812

  12. Origin and evolution of eukaryotic chaperonins: phylogenetic evidence for ancient duplications in CCT genes.

    PubMed

    Archibald, J M; Logsdon, J M; Doolittle, W F

    2000-10-01

    Chaperonins are oligomeric protein-folding complexes which are divided into two distantly related structural classes. Group I chaperonins (called GroEL/cpn60/hsp60) are found in bacteria and eukaryotic organelles, while group II chaperonins are present in archaea and the cytoplasm of eukaryotes (called CCT/TriC). While archaea possess one to three chaperonin subunit-encoding genes, eight distinct CCT gene families (paralogs) have been characterized in eukaryotes. We are interested in determining when during eukaryotic evolution the multiple gene duplications producing the CCT subunits occurred. We describe the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of five CCT genes from TRICHOMONAS: vaginalis and seven from GIARDIA: lamblia, representatives of amitochondriate protist lineages thought to have diverged early from other eukaryotes. Our data show that the gene duplications producing the eight CCT paralogs took place prior to the organismal divergence of TRICHOMONAS: and GIARDIA: from other eukaryotes. Thus, these divergent protists likely possess completely hetero-oligomeric CCT complexes like those in yeast and mammalian cells. No close phylogenetic relationship between the archaeal chaperonins and specific CCT subunits was observed, suggesting that none of the CCT gene duplications predate the divergence of archaea and eukaryotes. The duplications producing the CCTdelta and CCTepsilon subunits, as well as CCTalpha, CCTbeta, and CCTeta, are the most recent in the CCT gene family. Our analyses show significant differences in the rates of evolution of archaeal chaperonins compared with the eukaryotic CCTs, as well as among the different CCT subunits themselves. We discuss these results in light of current views on the origin, evolution, and function of CCT complexes.

  13. Rapid divergence of gene duplicates on the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kevin; Long, Manyuan

    2002-06-01

    The recent sequencing of several eukaryotic genomes has generated considerable interest in the study of gene duplication events. The classical model of duplicate gene evolution is that recurrent mutation ultimately results in one copy becoming a pseudogene, and only rarely will a beneficial new function evolve. Here, we study divergence between coding sequence duplications in Drosophila melanogaster as a function of the linkage relationship between paralogs. The mean K(a)/K(s) between all duplicates in the D. melanogaster genome is 0.2803, indicating that purifying selection is maintaining the structure of duplicate coding sequences. However, the mean K(a)/K(s) between duplicates that are both on the X chromosome is 0.4701, significantly higher than the genome average. Further, the distribution of K(a)/K(s) for these X-linked duplicates is significantly shifted toward higher values when compared with the distributions for paralogs in other linkage relationships. Two models of molecular evolution provide qualitative explanations of these observations-relaxation of selective pressure on the duplicate copies and, more likely, positive selection on recessive adaptations. We also show that there is an excess of X-linked duplicates with low K(s), suggesting a larger proportion of relatively young duplicates on the D. melanogaster X chromosome relative to autosomes.

  14. Whole-Genome Duplications Spurred the Functional Diversification of the Globin Gene Superfamily in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Storz, Jay F.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that two successive rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the stem lineage of vertebrates provided genetic raw materials for the evolutionary innovation of many vertebrate-specific features. However, it has seldom been possible to trace such innovations to specific functional differences between paralogous gene products that derive from a WGD event. Here, we report genomic evidence for a direct link between WGD and key physiological innovations in the vertebrate oxygen transport system. Specifically, we demonstrate that key globin proteins that evolved specialized functions in different aspects of oxidative metabolism (hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytoglobin) represent paralogous products of two WGD events in the vertebrate common ancestor. Analysis of conserved macrosynteny between the genomes of vertebrates and amphioxus (subphylum Cephalochordata) revealed that homologous chromosomal segments defined by myoglobin + globin-E, cytoglobin, and the α-globin gene cluster each descend from the same linkage group in the reconstructed proto-karyotype of the chordate common ancestor. The physiological division of labor between the oxygen transport function of hemoglobin and the oxygen storage function of myoglobin played a pivotal role in the evolution of aerobic energy metabolism, supporting the hypothesis that WGDs helped fuel key innovations in vertebrate evolution. PMID:21965344

  15. Compensatory Drift and the Evolutionary Dynamics of Dosage-Sensitive Duplicate Genes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ammon; Zakon, Harold H; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Dosage-balance selection preserves functionally redundant duplicates (paralogs) at the optimum for their combined expression. Here we present a model of the dynamics of duplicate genes coevolving under dosage-balance selection. We call this the compensatory drift model. Results show that even when strong dosage-balance selection constrains total expression to the optimum, expression of each duplicate can diverge by drift from its original level. The rate of divergence slows as the strength of stabilizing selection, the size of the mutation effect, and/or the size of the population increases. We show that dosage-balance selection impedes neofunctionalization early after duplication but can later facilitate it. We fit this model to data from sodium channel duplicates in 10 families of teleost fish; these include two convergent lineages of electric fish in which one of the duplicates neofunctionalized. Using the model, we estimated the strength of dosage-balance selection for these genes. The results indicate that functionally redundant paralogs still may undergo radical functional changes after a prolonged period of compensatory drift.

  16. Origin and Ascendancy of a Chimeric Fusion Gene: The β/δ-Globin Gene of Paenungulate Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Sloan, Angela M.; Campbell, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    The δ-globin gene (HBD) of eutherian mammals exhibits a propensity for recombinational exchange with the closely linked β-globin gene (HBB) and has been independently converted by the HBB gene in multiple lineages. Here we report the presence of a chimeric β/δ fusion gene in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) that was created by unequal crossing-over between misaligned HBD and HBB paralogs. The recombinant chromosome that harbors the β/δ fusion gene in elephants is structurally similar to the “anti-Lepore” duplication mutant of humans (the reciprocal exchange product of the hemoglobin Lepore deletion mutant). However, the situation in the African elephant is unique in that the chimeric β/δ fusion gene supplanted the parental HBB gene and is therefore solely responsible for synthesizing the β-chain subunits of adult hemoglobin. A phylogenetic survey of β-like globin genes in afrotherian and xenarthran mammals revealed that the origin of the chimeric β/δ fusion gene and the concomitant inactivation of the HBB gene predated the radiation of “Paenungulata,” a clade of afrotherian mammals that includes three orders: Proboscidea (elephants), Sirenia (dugongs and manatees), and Hyracoidea (hyraxes). The reduced fitness of the human Hb Lepore deletion mutant helps to explain why independently derived β/δ fusion genes (which occur on an anti-Lepore chromosome) have been fixed in a number of mammalian lineages, whereas the reciprocal δ/β fusion gene (which occurs on a Lepore chromosome) has yet to be documented in any nonhuman mammal. This illustrates how the evolutionary fates of chimeric fusion genes can be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin. PMID:19332641

  17. Evolutionary interplay between sister cytochrome P450 genes shapes plasticity in plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenhua; Tavares, Raquel; Forsythe, Evan S.; André, François; Lugan, Raphaël; Jonasson, Gabriella; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Tohge, Takayuki; Beilstein, Mark A.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of the cytochrome P450 gene family is often proposed to have a critical role in the evolution of metabolic complexity, in particular in microorganisms, insects and plants. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of this complexity are poorly understood. Here we describe the evolutionary history of a plant P450 retrogene, which emerged and underwent fixation in the common ancestor of Brassicales, before undergoing tandem duplication in the ancestor of Brassicaceae. Duplication leads first to gain of dual functions in one of the copies. Both sister genes are retained through subsequent speciation but eventually return to a single copy in two of three diverging lineages. In the lineage in which both copies are maintained, the ancestral functions are split between paralogs and a novel function arises in the copy under relaxed selection. Our work illustrates how retrotransposition and gene duplication can favour the emergence of novel metabolic functions. PMID:27713409

  18. Comprehensive analysis of trihelix genes and their expression under biotic and abiotic stresses in Populus trichocarpa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanchao; Liu, Quangang; Wang, Hanzeng; Zhang, Haizhen; Xu, Xuemei; Li, Chenghao; Yang, Chuanping

    2016-01-01

    Trihelix genes play important roles in plant growth and development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we identified 56 full-length trihelix genes in Populus trichocarpa and classified them into five groups. Most genes within a given group had similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The trihelix genes were unequally distributed across 19 different linkage groups. Fifteen paralogous pairs were identified, 14 of which have undergone segmental duplication events. Promoter cis-element analysis indicated that most trihelix genes contain stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements. The expression profiles of the trihelix genes suggest that they are primarily expressed in leaves and roots. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that members of the trihelix gene family are significantly induced in response to osmotic, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and pathogen infection. PtrGT10 was identified as a target gene of miR172d, which is involved in the osmotic response. Repression of PtrGT10 could increase reactive oxygen species scavenging ability and decrease cell death. This study provides novel insights into the phylogenetic relationships and functions of the P. trichocarpa trihelix genes, which will aid future functional studies investigating the divergent roles of trihelix genes belonging to other species. PMID:27782188

  19. Operon Formation is Driven by Co-Regulation and Not by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-04-12

    Although operons are often subject to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), non-HGT genes are particularly likely to be in operons. To resolve this apparent discrepancy and to determine whether HGT is involved in operon formation, we examined the evolutionary history of the genes and operons in Escherichia coli K12. We show that genes that have homologs in distantly related bacteria but not in close relatives of E. coli (indicating HGTi) form new operons at about the same rates as native genes. Furthermore, genes in new operons are no more likely than other genes to have phylogenetic trees that are inconsistent with the species tree. In contrast, essential genes and ubiquitous genes without paralogs (genes believed to undergo HGT rarely) often form new operons. We conclude that HGT is not associated with operon formation, but instead promotes the prevalence of pre-existing operons. To explain operon formation, we propose that new operons reduce the amount of regulatory information required to specify optimal expression patterns. Consistent with this hypothesis, operons have greater amounts of conserved regulatory sequences than do individually transcribed genes.

  20. Comprehensive identification and expression analysis of Hsp90s gene family in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Zai, W S; Miao, L X; Xiong, Z L; Zhang, H L; Ma, Y R; Li, Y L; Chen, Y B; Ye, S G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a protein produced by plants in response to adverse environmental stresses. In this study, we identified and analyzed Hsp90 gene family members using a bioinformatic method based on genomic data from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The results illustrated that tomato contains at least 7 Hsp90 genes distributed on 6 chromosomes; protein lengths ranged from 267-794 amino acids. Intron numbers ranged from 2-19 in the genes. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Hsp90 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) could be divided into 5 groups, which included 3 pairs of orthologous genes and 4 pairs of paralogous genes. Expression analysis of RNA-sequence data showed that the Hsp90-1 gene was specifically expressed in mature fruits, while Hsp90-5 and Hsp90-6 showed opposite expression patterns in various tissues of cultivated and wild tomatoes. The expression levels of the Hsp90-1, Hsp90-2, and Hsp90- 3 genes in various tissues of cultivated tomatoes were high, while both the expression levels of genes Hsp90-3 and Hsp90-4 were low. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were involved in the responses to yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plant leaves. Our results provide a foundation for identifying the function of the Hsp90 gene in tomato. PMID:26214462

  1. Birth, life and death of developmental control genes: new challenges for the homology concept.

    PubMed

    Theissen, Günter

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the interrelationship between the phylogeny of developmental control genes and the evolution of morphological features is a central goal of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). It requires that one distinguishes properly between gene genealogy and function. Gene duplication, gene loss and speciation in combination with differential changes in gene function can generate complex evolutionary scenarios that require additional terms beyond homology for a proper description. Use and possible misuse of these terms, including "orthology", "paralogy" and "subfunctionalization", is exemplified with AGAMOUS-like genes encoding transcription factors involved in flower and fruit development. This MADS-box gene subfamily demonstrates that homologous genes in different species with (almost) identical functions can be paralogues rather than orthologues, corroborating that functional similarity of genes is not a valid criterion for orthology. Homeosis fails some tests of homology, but might be of greater evolutionary importance than previously assumed, justifying yet another term, "homocracy". It describes organs that share the expression of the same patterning genes, irrespective of the homology of these organs. All in all this article opts for a careful use of a limited and well-chosen set of terms describing gene relationships and function, rather than the inflationary production of novel terms that may seem to be precise, but whose obscurity hampers communication. PMID:17046356

  2. Natural selection drives extremely rapid evolution in antiviral RNAi genes.

    PubMed

    Obbard, Darren J; Jiggins, Francis M; Halligan, Daniel L; Little, Tom J

    2006-03-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is perhaps best known as a laboratory tool. However, RNAi-related pathways represent an antiviral component of innate immunity in both plants and animals. Since viruses can protect themselves by suppressing RNAi, interaction between RNA viruses and host RNAi may represent an ancient coevolutionary "arms race." This could lead to strong directional selection on RNAi genes, but to date their evolution has not been studied. By comparing DNA sequences from different species of Drosophila, we show that the rate of amino acid evolution is substantially elevated in genes related to antiviral RNAi function (Dcr2, R2D2, and Ago2). They are among the fastest evolving 3% of all Drosophila genes; they evolve significantly faster than other components of innate immunity and faster than paralogous genes that mediate "housekeeping" functions. Based on DNA polymorphism data from three species of Drosophila, McDonald-Kreitman tests showed that this rapid evolution is due to strong positive selection. Furthermore, Dcr2 and Ago2 display reduced genetic diversity, indicative of a recent selective sweep in both genes. Together, these data show rapid adaptive evolution of the antiviral RNAi pathway in Drosophila. This is a signature of host-pathogen arms races and implies that the ancient battle between RNA viruses and host antiviral RNAi genes is active and significant in shaping RNAi function.

  3. Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy and Tracking of Bacterial Flotillin (Reggie) Paralogs Provide Evidence for Defined-Sized Protein Microdomains within the Bacterial Membrane but Absence of Clusters Containing Detergent-Resistant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dempwolff, Felix; Schmidt, Felix K.; Hervás, Ana B.; Stroh, Alex; Rösch, Thomas C.; Riese, Cornelius N.; Dersch, Simon; Heimerl, Thomas; Lucena, Daniella; Hülsbusch, Nikola; Stuermer, Claudia A. O.; Takeshita, Norio; Fischer, Reinhard; Graumann, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes have been proposed to contain microdomains of a specific lipid composition, in which distinct groups of proteins are clustered. Flotillin-like proteins are conserved between pro—and eukaryotes, play an important function in several eukaryotic and bacterial cells, and define in vertebrates a type of so-called detergent-resistant microdomains. Using STED microscopy, we show that two bacterial flotillins, FloA and FloT, form defined assemblies with an average diameter of 85 to 110 nm in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, flotillin microdomains are of similar size in eukaryotic cells. The soluble domains of FloA form higher order oligomers of up to several hundred kDa in vitro, showing that like eukaryotic flotillins, bacterial assemblies are based in part on their ability to self-oligomerize. However, B. subtilis paralogs show significantly different diffusion rates, and consequently do not colocalize into a common microdomain. Dual colour time lapse experiments of flotillins together with other detergent-resistant proteins in bacteria show that proteins colocalize for no longer than a few hundred milliseconds, and do not move together. Our data reveal that the bacterial membrane contains defined-sized protein domains rather than functional microdomains dependent on flotillins. Based on their distinct dynamics, FloA and FloT confer spatially distinguishable activities, but do not serve as molecular scaffolds. PMID:27362352

  4. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Parupalli, Swathi; Azam, Sarwar; Lee, Suk-Ha; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2013-01-01

    Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF) by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e., Medicago truncatula (Mt), Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc), Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv), and Glycine max (Gm). Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) and non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (Ka) between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the highest distance between Mt and Pv in six legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reports some interesting observations e.g., no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed. PMID:23986765

  5. Diversification of genes for carotenoid biosynthesis in aphids following an ancient transfer from a fungus.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Eva; Moran, Nancy A

    2012-01-01

    The pea aphid genome was recently found to harbor genes for carotenoid biosynthesis, reflecting an ancestral transfer from a fungus. To explore the evolution of the carotene desaturase gene family within aphids, sequences were retrieved from a set of 34 aphid species representing numerous deeply diverging lineages of aphids and analyzed together with fungal sequences retrieved from databases. All aphids have at least one copy of this gene and some aphid species have up to seven, whereas fungal genomes consistently have a single copy. The closest relatives of aphids, adelgids, also have carotene desaturase; these sequences are most closely related to those from aphids, supporting a shared origin from a fungal to insect transfer predating the divergence of adelgids and aphids. Likewise, all aphids, and adelgids, have carotenoid profiles that are consistent with their biosynthesis using the acquired genes of fungal origin rather than derivation from food plants. The carotene desaturase was acquired from a fungal species outside of Ascomycota or Basidiomycota and closest to Mucoromycotina among sequences available in databases. In aphids, an ongoing pattern of gene duplication is indicated by the presence of both anciently and recently diverged paralogs within genomes and by the presence of a high frequency of pseudogenes that appear to be recently inactivated. Recombination among paralogs is evident, making analyses of patterns of selection difficult, but tests of selection for a nonrecombining region indicates that duplications tend to be followed by bouts of positive selection. Species of Macrosiphini, which often show color polymorphisms, typically have a larger number of desaturase copies relative to other species sampled in the study. These results indicate that aphid evolution has been accompanied by ongoing evolution of carotenogenic genes, which have undergone duplication, recombination, and occasional positive selection to yield a wide variety of carotenoid

  6. Gene duplication, loss and selection in the evolution of saxitoxin biosynthesis in alveolates.

    PubMed

    Murray, Shauna A; Diwan, Rutuja; Orr, Russell J S; Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    A group of marine dinoflagellates (Alveolata, Eukaryota), consisting of ∼10 species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense, produce the toxin saxitoxin and its analogues (STX), which can accumulate in shellfish, leading to ecosystem and human health impacts. The genes, sxt, putatively involved in STX biosynthesis, have recently been identified, however, the evolution of these genes within dinoflagellates is not clear. There are two reasons for this: uncertainty over the phylogeny of dinoflagellates; and that the sxt genes of many species of Alexandrium and other dinoflagellate genera are not known. Here, we determined the phylogeny of STX-producing and other dinoflagellates based on a concatenated eight-gene alignment. We determined the presence, diversity and phylogeny of sxtA, domains A1 and A4 and sxtG in 52 strains of Alexandrium, and a further 43 species of dinoflagellates and thirteen other alveolates. We confirmed the presence and high sequence conservation of sxtA, domain A4, in 40 strains (35 Alexandrium, 1 Pyrodinium, 4 Gymnodinium) of 8 species of STX-producing dinoflagellates, and absence from non-producing species. We found three paralogs of sxtA, domain A1, and a widespread distribution of sxtA1 in non-STX producing dinoflagellates, indicating duplication events in the evolution of this gene. One paralog, clade 2, of sxtA1 may be particularly related to STX biosynthesis. Similarly, sxtG appears to be generally restricted to STX-producing species, while three amidinotransferase gene paralogs were found in dinoflagellates. We investigated the role of positive (diversifying) selection following duplication in sxtA1 and sxtG, and found negative selection in clades of sxtG and sxtA1, clade 2, suggesting they were functionally constrained. Significant episodic diversifying selection was found in some strains in clade 3 of sxtA1, a clade that may not be involved in STX biosynthesis, indicating pressure for diversification

  7. BodyMap-Xs: anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal ESTs for cross-species comparison of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Osamu; Otsuji, Makiko; Watanabe, Kouji; Iizuka, Takayasu; Tamura, Takuro; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Kawamoto, Shoko; Okubo, Kousaku

    2006-01-01

    BodyMap-Xs (http://bodymap.jp) is a database for cross-species gene expression comparison. It was created by the anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal expressed sequence tag (EST) records in DDBJ using a sorting program tailored for this purpose. In BodyMap-Xs, users are allowed to compare the expression patterns of orthologous and paralogous genes in a coherent manner. This will provide valuable insights for the evolutionary study of gene expression and identification of a responsive motif for a particular expression pattern. In addition, starting from a concise overview of the taxonomical and anatomical breakdown of all animal ESTs, users can navigate to obtain gene expression ranking of a particular tissue in a particular animal. This method may lead to the understanding of the similarities and differences between the homologous tissues across animal species. BodyMap-Xs will be automatically updated in synchronization with the major update in DDBJ, which occurs periodically.

  8. SpinachDB: A Well-Characterized Genomic Database for Gene Family Classification and SNP Information of Spinach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Dong; Tan, Hua-Wei; Zhu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), which originated in central and western Asia, belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. Spinach is one of most important leafy vegetables with a high nutritional value as well as being a perfect research material for plant sex chromosome models. As the completion of genome assembly and gene prediction of spinach, we developed SpinachDB (http://222.73.98.124/spinachdb) to store, annotate, mine and analyze genomics and genetics datasets efficiently. In this study, all of 21702 spinach genes were annotated. A total of 15741 spinach genes were catalogued into 4351 families, including identification of a substantial number of transcription factors. To construct a high-density genetic map, a total of 131592 SSRs and 1125743 potential SNPs located in 548801 loci of spinach genome were identified in 11 cultivated and wild spinach cultivars. The expression profiles were also performed with RNA-seq data using the FPKM method, which could be used to compare the genes. Paralogs in spinach and the orthologous genes in Arabidopsis, grape, sugar beet and rice were identified for comparative genome analysis. Finally, the SpinachDB website contains seven main sections, including the homepage; the GBrowse map that integrates genome, genes, SSR and SNP marker information; the Blast alignment service; the gene family classification search tool; the orthologous and paralogous gene pairs search tool; and the download and useful contact information. SpinachDB will be continually expanded to include newly generated robust genomics and genetics data sets along with the associated data mining and analysis tools. PMID:27148975

  9. SpinachDB: A Well-Characterized Genomic Database for Gene Family Classification and SNP Information of Spinach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), which originated in central and western Asia, belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. Spinach is one of most important leafy vegetables with a high nutritional value as well as being a perfect research material for plant sex chromosome models. As the completion of genome assembly and gene prediction of spinach, we developed SpinachDB (http://222.73.98.124/spinachdb) to store, annotate, mine and analyze genomics and genetics datasets efficiently. In this study, all of 21702 spinach genes were annotated. A total of 15741 spinach genes were catalogued into 4351 families, including identification of a substantial number of transcription factors. To construct a high-density genetic map, a total of 131592 SSRs and 1125743 potential SNPs located in 548801 loci of spinach genome were identified in 11 cultivated and wild spinach cultivars. The expression profiles were also performed with RNA-seq data using the FPKM method, which could be used to compare the genes. Paralogs in spinach and the orthologous genes in Arabidopsis, grape, sugar beet and rice were identified for comparative genome analysis. Finally, the SpinachDB website contains seven main sections, including the homepage; the GBrowse map that integrates genome, genes, SSR and SNP marker information; the Blast alignment service; the gene family classification search tool; the orthologous and paralogous gene pairs search tool; and the download and useful contact information. SpinachDB will be continually expanded to include newly generated robust genomics and genetics data sets along with the associated data mining and analysis tools. PMID:27148975

  10. The genomic environment around the Aromatase gene: evolutionary insights

    PubMed Central

    Castro, L Filipe C; Santos, Miguel M; Reis-Henriques, Maria A

    2005-01-01

    Background The cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), catalyses the aromatisation of androgens to estrogens, a key mechanism in vertebrate reproductive physiology. A current evolutionary hypothesis suggests that CYP19 gene arose at the origin of vertebrates, given that it has not been found outside this clade. The human CYP19 gene is located in one of the proposed MHC-paralogon regions (HSA15q). At present it is unclear whether this genomic location is ancestral (which would suggest an invertebrate origin for CYP19) or derived (genomic location with no evolutionary meaning). The distinction between these possibilities should help to clarify the timing of the CYP19 emergence and which taxa should be investigated. Results Here we determine the "genomic environment" around CYP19 in three vertebrate species Homo sapiens, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Xenopus tropicalis. Paralogy studies and phylogenetic analysis of six gene families suggests that the CYP19 gene region was structured through "en bloc" genomic duplication (as part of the MHC-paralogon formation). Four gene families have specifically duplicated in the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, the mapping location of the different paralogues is consistent with a model of "en bloc" duplication. Furthermore, we also determine that this region has retained the same gene content since the divergence of Actinopterygii and Tetrapods. A single inversion in gene order has taken place, probably in the mammalian lineage. Finally, we describe the first invertebrate CYP19 sequence, from Branchiostoma floridae. Conclusion Contrary to previous suggestions, our data indicates an invertebrate origin for the aromatase gene, given the striking conservation pattern in both gene order and gene content, and the presence of aromatase in amphioxus. We propose that CYP19 duplicated in the vertebrate lineage to yield four paralogues, followed by the subsequent loss of all but one gene in vertebrate evolution. Finally, we suggest that agnathans and

  11. Differentiation of Function among the RsbR Paralogs in the General Stress Response of Bacillus subtilis with Regard to Light Perception

    PubMed Central

    van der Steen, Jeroen B.; Ávila-Pérez, Marcela; Knippert, Doreen; Vreugdenhil, Angie; van Alphen, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The general stress response of Bacillus subtilis can be activated by a wide range of signals, including low intensities of visible light. It is regulated by a dedicated σ factor via a complex signal transduction pathway that makes use of stressosomes: hetero-oligomeric complexes that include one or more of the RsbR proteins (RsbRA, RsbRB, RsbRC, and RsbRD). The response to blue light is mediated by the photoreceptor YtvA. We show here which of the four RsbR proteins are necessary for the activation of the σB response by blue light. Experiments performed with single-, double-, and triple-deletion strains in the rsbR genes show that RsbRB and RsbRA function antagonistically, with the former being a negative regulator and the latter a positive regulator of the YtvA-dependent light activation of the stress response. A strain with RsbRB as the only RsbR protein is unable to respond to light-activation of σB. Furthermore, RsbRC and RsbRD can replace RsbRA's function only in the absence of RsbRB. This differentiation of function is confined to light stress, since strains with RsbRA or RsbRB as the only RsbR protein behave similarly in our experimental conditions in response to physicochemical stresses. Interestingly, RsbRB's absence is sufficient to result in light activation of the general stress response at wild-type expression levels of ytvA, while it was previously reported that YtvA could only activate σB when overproduced, or when cells are supplemented with an additional environmental stress. PMID:22287516

  12. Identification and characterization of the GhHsp20 gene family in Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Li, Jie; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants, Heat Shock Protein 20 (Hsp20) plays crucial roles in growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, 94 GhHsp20 genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and these genes were phylogenetically clustered into 14 subfamilies. Out of these, 73 paralogous gene pairs remained in conserved positions on segmental duplicated blocks and only 14 genes clustered into seven tandem duplication event regions. Transcriptome analysis showed that 82 GhHsp20 genes were expressed in at least one tested tissues, indicating that the GhHsp20 genes were involved in physiological and developmental processes of cotton. Further, expression profiles under abiotic stress exhibited that two-thirds of the GhHsp20 genes were responsive to heat stress, while 15 genes were induced by multiple stresses. In addition, qRT-PCR confirmed that 16 GhHsp20 genes were hot-induced, and eight genes were up-regulated under multiple abiotic stresses and stress-related phytohormone treatments. Taken together, our results presented here would be helpful in laying the foundation for understanding the complex mechanisms of GhHsp20 mediated developmental processes and abiotic stress signaling transduction pathways in cotton. PMID:27580529

  13. Auxin response factor gene family in Brassica rapa: genomic organization, divergence, expression, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Yu, Hee-Ju; Shin, Ja Young; Oh, Mijin; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Hee

    2012-10-01

    Completion of the sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enabled us to undertake a genome-wide identification and functional study of the gene families related to the morphological diversity and agronomic traits of Brassica crops. In this study, we identified the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family, which is one of the key regulators of auxin-mediated plant growth and development in the B. rapa genome. A total of 31 ARF genes were identified in the genome. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggest that ARF genes fell into four major classes and were amplified in the B. rapa genome as a result of a recent whole genome triplication after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite its recent hexaploid ancestry, B. rapa includes a relatively small number of ARF genes compared with the 23 members in A. thaliana, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative genomic and mRNA sequencing analyses demonstrated that 27 of the 31 BrARF genes were transcriptionally active, and their expression was affected by either auxin treatment or floral development stage, although 4 genes were inactive, suggesting that the generation and pseudogenization of ARF members are likely to be an ongoing process. This study will provide a fundamental basis for the modification and evolution of the gene family after a polyploidy event, as well as a functional study of ARF genes in a polyploidy crop species.

  14. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin Hox Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R A; Rowen, L; Nesbitt, R; Bloom, S; Rast, J P; Berney, K; Arenas-Mena, C; Martinez, P; Lucas, S; Richardson, P M; Davidson, E H; Peterson, K J; Hood, L

    2005-10-11

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3 gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5-Hox1, 2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, 11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3). The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  15. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin HoxCluster

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Paul M.; Lucas, Susan; Cameron, R. Andrew; Rowen,Lee; Nesbitt, Ryan; Bloom, Scott; Rast, Jonathan P.; Berney, Kevin; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Martinez, Pedro; Davidson, Eric H.; Peterson, KevinJ.; Hood, Leroy

    2005-05-10

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3' gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5'-Hox1,2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, '11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3)'. The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  16. The Ecology of Bacterial Genes and the Survival of the New

    PubMed Central

    Francino, M. Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Much of the observed variation among closely related bacterial genomes is attributable to gains and losses of genes that are acquired horizontally as well as to gene duplications and larger amplifications. The genomic flexibility that results from these mechanisms certainly contributes to the ability of bacteria to survive and adapt in varying environmental challenges. However, the duplicability and transferability of individual genes imply that natural selection should operate, not only at the organismal level, but also at the level of the gene. Genes can be considered semiautonomous entities that possess specific functional niches and evolutionary dynamics. The evolution of bacterial genes should respond both to selective pressures that favor competition, mostly among orthologs or paralogs that may occupy the same functional niches, and cooperation, with the majority of other genes coexisting in a given genome. The relative importance of either type of selection is likely to vary among different types of genes, based on the functional niches they cover and on the tightness of their association with specific organismal lineages. The frequent availability of new functional niches caused by environmental changes and biotic evolution should enable the constant diversification of gene families and the survival of new lineages of genes. PMID:22900231

  17. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    PubMed

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research. PMID:26638491

  18. Identification and characterization of the GhHsp20 gene family in Gossypium hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ting; Li, Jie; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants, Heat Shock Protein 20 (Hsp20) plays crucial roles in growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, 94 GhHsp20 genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and these genes were phylogenetically clustered into 14 subfamilies. Out of these, 73 paralogous gene pairs remained in conserved positions on segmental duplicated blocks and only 14 genes clustered into seven tandem duplication event regions. Transcriptome analysis showed that 82 GhHsp20 genes were expressed in at least one tested tissues, indicating that the GhHsp20 genes were involved in physiological and developmental processes of cotton. Further, expression profiles under abiotic stress exhibited that two-thirds of the GhHsp20 genes were responsive to heat stress, while 15 genes were induced by multiple stresses. In addition, qRT-PCR confirmed that 16 GhHsp20 genes were hot-induced, and eight genes were up-regulated under multiple abiotic stresses and stress-related phytohormone treatments. Taken together, our results presented here would be helpful in laying the foundation for understanding the complex mechanisms of GhHsp20 mediated developmental processes and abiotic stress signaling transduction pathways in cotton. PMID:27580529

  19. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    PubMed

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research.

  20. In with the Old, in with the New: The Promiscuity of the Duplication Process Engenders Diverse Pathways for Novel Gene Creation

    PubMed Central

    Katju, Vaishali

    2012-01-01

    The gene duplication process has exhibited far greater promiscuity in the creation of paralogs with novel exon-intron structures than anticipated even by Ohno. In this paper I explore the history of the field, from the neo-Darwinian synthesis through Ohno's formulation of the canonical model for the evolution of gene duplicates and culminating in the present genomic era. I delineate the major tenets of Ohno's model and discuss its failure to encapsulate the full complexity of the duplication process as revealed in the era of genomics. I discuss the diverse classes of paralogs originating from both DNA- and RNA-mediated duplication events and their evolutionary potential for assuming radically altered functions, as well as the degree to which they can function unconstrained from the pressure of gene conversion. Lastly, I explore theoretical population-genetic considerations of how the effective population size (Ne) of a species may influence the probability of emergence of genes with radically altered functions. PMID:23008799

  1. Duplication of floral regulatory genes in the Lamiales.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Jan E; Olmstead, Richard G; Willis, John H; Phillips, Patrick C

    2005-08-01

    Duplication of some floral regulatory genes has occurred repeatedly in angiosperms, whereas others are thought to be single-copy in most lineages. We selected three genes that interact in a pathway regulating floral development conserved among higher tricolpates (LFY/FLO, UFO/FIM, and AP3/DEF) and screened for copy number among families of Lamiales that are closely related to the model species Antirrhinum majus. We show that two of three genes have duplicated at least twice in the Lamiales. Phylogenetic analyses of paralogs suggest that an ancient whole genome duplication shared among many families of Lamiales occurred after the ancestor of these families diverged from the lineage leading to Veronicaceae (including the single-copy species A. majus). Duplication is consistent with previous patterns among angiosperm lineages for AP3/DEF, but this is the first report of functional duplicate copies of LFY/FLO outside of tetraploid species. We propose Lamiales taxa will be good models for understanding mechanisms of duplicate gene preservation and how floral regulatory genes may contribute to morphological diversity. PMID:21646149

  2. Actin gene family dynamics in cryptomonads and red algae.

    PubMed

    Tanifuji, Goro; Archibald, John M

    2010-09-01

    Here we present evidence for a complex evolutionary history of actin genes in red algae and cryptomonads, a group that acquired photosynthesis secondarily through the engulfment of a red algal endosymbiont. Four actin genes were found in the nuclear genome of the cryptomonad, Guillardia theta, and in the genome of the red alga, Galdieria sulphuraria, a member of the Cyanidiophytina. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the both organisms possess two distinct sequence types, designated "type-1" and "type-2." A weak but consistent phylogenetic affinity between the cryptomonad type-2 sequences and the type-2 sequences of G. sulphuraria and red algae belonging to the Rhodophytina was observed. This is consistent with the possibility that the cryptomonad type-2 sequences are derived from the red algal endosymbiont that gave rise to the cryptomonad nucleomorph and plastid. Red algae as a whole possess two very different actin sequence types, with G. sulphuraria being the only organism thus far known to possess both. The common ancestor of Rhodophytina and Cyanidiophytina may have had two actin genes, with differential loss explaining the distribution of these genes in modern-day groups. Our study provides new insight into the evolution and divergence of actin genes in cryptomonads and red algae, and in doing so underscores the challenges associated with heterogeneity in actin sequence evolution and ortholog/paralog detection.

  3. The Lineage-Specific Evolution of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Chauvigné, François; Hlidberg, Jón Baldur; Cutler, Christopher P.; Cerdà, Joan

    2014-01-01

    A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16). The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation. PMID:25426855

  4. Divergent evolution of two corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) genes in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    Genome duplication, thought to have happened twice early in vertebrate evolution and a third time in teleost fishes, gives rise to gene paralogs that can evolve subfunctions or neofunctions via sequence and regulatory changes. To explore the evolution and functions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we searched sequenced teleost genomes for CRH paralogs. Our phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that two CRH genes, crha and crhb, evolved via duplication of crh1 early in the teleost lineage. We examined the expression of crha and crhb in two teleost species from different orders: an African cichlid, Burton's mouthbrooder, (Astatotilapia burtoni; Order Perciformes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio; Order Cypriniformes). Furthermore, we compared expression of the teleost crha and crhb genes with the crh1 gene of an outgroup to the teleost clade: the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). In situ hybridization for crha and crhb mRNA in brains and eyes revealed distinct expression patterns for crha in different teleost species. In the cichlid, crha mRNA was found in the retina but not in the brain. In zebrafish, however, crha mRNA was not found in the retina, but was detected in the brain, restricted to the ventral hypothalamus. Spotted gar crh1 was found in the retina as well as the brain, suggesting that the ancestor of teleost fishes likely had a crh1 gene expressed in both retina and brain. Thus, genome duplication may have freed crha from constraints, allowing it to evolve distinct sequences, expression patterns, and likely unique functions in different lineages. PMID:26528116

  5. Genes and gene regulation

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, N.

    1988-01-01

    Genetics has long been a central topic for biologists, and recent progress has captured the public imagination as well. This book addresses questions that are at the leading edge of this continually advancing discipline. In tune with the increasing emphasis on molecular biology and genetic engineering, this text emphasizes the molecular aspects of gene expression, and the evolution of gene sequence organization and control. It reviews the genetic material of viruses, bacteria, and of higher organisms. Cells and organisms are compared in terms of gene numbers, their arrangements within a cell, and the control mechanisms which regulate the activity of genes.

  6. Comparative genomics and evolution of genes encoding bacterial (p)ppGpp synthetases/hydrolases (the Rel, RelA and SpoT proteins).

    PubMed

    Mittenhuber, G

    2001-10-01

    In the gram-negative model organism Escherichia coli, the effector molecule of the stringent response, (p)ppGpp, is synthesized by two different enzymes, RelA and SpoT, whereas in the gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis only one enzyme named Rel is responsible for this activity. Rel and SpoT also possess (p)ppGpp hydrolase activity. BLAST searches were used to identify orthologous genes in databases. The construction and bootstrapping of phylogenetic trees allowed classification of these orthologs. Four groups could be distinguished: With the exception of Neisseria and Bordetella (beta subdivision), the RelA and SpoT groups are exclusively found in the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria. Two Rel groups representing the actinobacterial and the Bacillus/Clostridium group were also identified. The SpoT proteins are related to the gram positive Rel proteins. RelA proteins carry substitutions in the HD domain (Aravind and Koonin, 1998, TIBS 23: 469-472) responsible for ppGpp degradation. A theory for the evolution of the specialized, paralogous relA and spoT genes is presented: After gene duplication of an ancestral rellike gene, the spoT and relA genes evolved from the duplicated genes. The distribution pattern of the paralogous RelA and SpoT proteins supports a new model of linear bacterial evolution (Gupta, 2000, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 24: 367-402). This model postulates that the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria represents the most recently evolved bacterial lineage. However, two paralogous, closely related genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum) encoding proteins with functions probably identical to the RelA and SpoT proteins do not fit in this model. Completely sequenced genomes of several obligately parasitic organisms (Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia species, Rickettsia prowazekii) and the obligate aphid symbiont Buchnera sp. APS as well as archaea do not contain rel-like genes but they are present in the

  7. CNMS: The preferred genic markers for comparative genomic, molecular phylogenetic, functional genetic diversity and differential gene regulatory expression analyses in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-09-01

    The intra/inter-genomic comparative mapping-based phylogenetic footprinting identified 5 paralogous and 656 orthologous genome-wide CNMS markers in the upstream sequences of chickpea genes. These CNMS markers revealed a high-degree of gene-based syntenic relationship between chickpea and Medicago genomes while minimum between chickpea and Vitis genomes. The time of divergence and duplication estimated using CNMS markers highlight the expected phylogenetic relationships between chickpea and six dicot (legume) species as well as occurrence of ancient genome (approximately 53 Mya) with small-scale recent segmental (approximately 10 Mya) duplication events in chickpea. A wider level of functional molecular diversity (14 to 88 percent) and admixed population genetic structure was detected among desi, kabuli and wild genotypes by genic CNMS markers at a genome-wide scale suggesting their utility in large-scale genetic analysis in chickpea. The subfunctionalization at the cis-regulatory element region and TFBS (transcription factor binding site) motif levels in the upstream sequences of CNMS marker-associated orthologous genes than the paralogues was predominant. Functional constraint might have considerable effect on these CNMScontaining regulatory elements controlling consistent orthologous gene expression in dicots. A rapid subfunctionalization based on diverge differential expression of paralogous CNMS marker-associated genes particularly those that underwent recent small-scale segmental duplication events in chickpea was apparent. The differential regulation of expression and subfunctionalization potential of Ultra CNMS marker-associated genes suggest their utility in deciphering the complex gene regulatory function as well as identification and targeted mapping of potential genes/QTLs governing vital agronomic traits in chickpea. The gene-based CNMS markers with desirable inherent genetic attributes like higher degree of comparative genome mapping, functional

  8. Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Vicoso, Beatriz; Russo, Claudia A M; Swenor, Bonnielin; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Contrary to the pattern seen in mammalian sex chromosomes, where most Y-linked genes have X-linked homologs, the Drosophila X and Y chromosomes appear to be unrelated. Most of the Y-linked genes have autosomal paralogs, so autosome-to-Y transposition must be the main source of Drosophila Y-linked genes. Here we show how these genes were acquired. We found a previously unidentified gene (flagrante delicto Y, FDY) that originated from a recent duplication of the autosomal gene vig2 to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Four contiguous genes were duplicated along with vig2, but they became pseudogenes through the accumulation of deletions and transposable element insertions, whereas FDY remained functional, acquired testis-specific expression, and now accounts for ∼20% of the vig2-like mRNA in testis. FDY is absent in the closest relatives of D. melanogaster, and DNA sequence divergence indicates that the duplication to the Y chromosome occurred ∼2 million years ago. Thus, FDY provides a snapshot of the early stages of the establishment of a Y-linked gene and demonstrates how the Drosophila Y has been accumulating autosomal genes.

  9. Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Vicoso, Beatriz; Russo, Claudia A M; Swenor, Bonnielin; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Contrary to the pattern seen in mammalian sex chromosomes, where most Y-linked genes have X-linked homologs, the Drosophila X and Y chromosomes appear to be unrelated. Most of the Y-linked genes have autosomal paralogs, so autosome-to-Y transposition must be the main source of Drosophila Y-linked genes. Here we show how these genes were acquired. We found a previously unidentified gene (flagrante delicto Y, FDY) that originated from a recent duplication of the autosomal gene vig2 to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Four contiguous genes were duplicated along with vig2, but they became pseudogenes through the accumulation of deletions and transposable element insertions, whereas FDY remained functional, acquired testis-specific expression, and now accounts for ∼20% of the vig2-like mRNA in testis. FDY is absent in the closest relatives of D. melanogaster, and DNA sequence divergence indicates that the duplication to the Y chromosome occurred ∼2 million years ago. Thus, FDY provides a snapshot of the early stages of the establishment of a Y-linked gene and demonstrates how the Drosophila Y has been accumulating autosomal genes. PMID:26385968

  10. Differentiation of the maize subgenomes by genome dominance and both ancient and ongoing gene loss.

    PubMed

    Schnable, James C; Springer, Nathan M; Freeling, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Ancient tetraploidies are found throughout the eukaryotes. After duplication, one copy of each duplicate gene pair tends to be lost (fractionate). For all studied tetraploidies, the loss of duplicated genes, known as homeologs, homoeologs, ohnologs, or syntenic paralogs, is uneven between duplicate regions. In maize, a species that experienced a tetraploidy 5-12 million years ago, we show that in addition to uneven ancient gene loss, the two complete genomes contained within maize are differentiated by ongoing fractionation among diverse inbreds as well as by a pattern of overexpression of genes from the genome that has experienced less gene loss. These expression differences are consistent over a range of experiments quantifying RNA abundance in different tissues. We propose that the universal bias in gene loss between the genomes of this ancient tetraploid, and perhaps all tetraploids, is the result of selection against loss of the gene responsible for the majority of total expression for a duplicate gene pair. Although the tetraploidy of maize is ancient, biased gene loss and expression continue today and explain, at least in part, the remarkable genetic diversity found among modern maize cultivars. PMID:21368132

  11. Refinement of light-responsive transcript lists using rice oligonucleotide arrays: evaluation of gene-redundancy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki-Hong; Dardick, Christopher; Bartley, Laura E; Cao, Peijian; Phetsom, Jirapa; Canlas, Patrick; Seo, Young-Su; Shultz, Michael; Ouyang, Shu; Yuan, Qiaoping; Frank, Bryan C; Ly, Eugene; Zheng, Li; Jia, Yi; Hsia, An-Ping; An, Kyungsook; Chou, Hui-Hsien; Rocke, David; Lee, Geun Cheol; Schnable, Patrick S; An, Gynheung; Buell, C Robin; Ronald, Pamela C

    2008-10-06

    Studies of gene function are often hampered by gene-redundancy, especially in organisms with large genomes such as rice (Oryza sativa). We present an approach for using transcriptomics data to focus functional studies and address redundancy. To this end, we have constructed and validated an inexpensive and publicly available rice oligonucleotide near-whole genome array, called the rice NSF45K array. We generated expression profiles for light- vs. dark-grown rice leaf tissue and validated the biological significance of the data by analyzing sources of variation and confirming expression trends with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We examined trends in the data by evaluating enrichment of gene ontology terms at multiple false discovery rate thresholds. To compare data generated with the NSF45K array with published results, we developed publicly available, web-based tools (www.ricearray.org). The Oligo and EST Anatomy Viewer enables visualization of EST-based expression profiling data for all genes on the array. The Rice Multi-platform Microarray Search Tool facilitates comparison of gene expression profiles across multiple rice microarray platforms. Finally, we incorporated gene expression and biochemical pathway data to reduce the number of candidate gene products putatively participating in the eight steps of the photorespiration pathway from 52 to 10, based on expression levels of putatively functionally redundant genes. We confirmed the efficacy of this method to cope with redundancy by correctly predicting participation in photorespiration of a gene with five paralogs. Applying these methods will accelerate rice functional genomics.

  12. SHORT INTERNODES-like genes regulate shoot growth and xylem proliferation in Populus.

    PubMed

    Zawaski, Christine; Kadmiel, Mahita; Ma, Cathleen; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Strauss, Steve H; Busov, Victor B

    2011-08-01

    Genes controlling plant growth and form are of considerable interest, because they affect survival and productivity traits, and are largely unknown or poorly characterized. The SHORT INTERNODES(SHI) gene is one of a 10-member SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE (SRS) gene family in Arabidopsis that includes important developmental regulators. • Using comparative sequence analysis of the SRS gene families in poplar and Arabidopsis, we identified two poplar proteins that are most similar to SHI and its closely related gene STYLISH1 (STY1). The two poplar genes are very similar in sequence and expression and are therefore probably paralogs with redundant functions. • RNAi suppression of the two Populus genes enhanced shoot and root growth, whereas the overexpression of Arabidopsis SHI in poplar reduced internode and petiole length. The suppression of the two genes increased fiber length and the proportion of xylem tissue, mainly through increased xylem cell proliferation. The transgenic modifications were also associated with significant changes in the concentrations of gibberellins and cytokinin. • We conclude that Populus SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE (SRS) genes play an important role in the regulation of vegetative growth, including wood formation, and thus could be useful tools for the modification of biomass productivity, wood quality or plant form.

  13. The sequence of rice chromosomes 11 and 12, rich in disease resistance genes and recent gene duplications

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Rice is an important staple food and, with the smallest cereal genome, serves as a reference species for studies on the evolution of cereals and other grasses. Therefore, decoding its entire genome will be a prerequisite for applied and basic research on this species and all other cereals. Results We have determined and analyzed the complete sequences of two of its chromosomes, 11 and 12, which total 55.9 Mb (14.3% of the entire genome length), based on a set of overlapping clones. A total of 5,993 non-transposable element related genes are present on these chromosomes. Among them are 289 disease resistance-like and 28 defense-response genes, a higher proportion of these categories than on any other rice chromosome. A three-Mb segment on both chromosomes resulted from a duplication 7.7 million years ago (mya), the most recent large-scale duplication in the rice genome. Paralogous gene copies within this segmental duplication can be aligned with genomic assemblies from sorghum and maize. Although these gene copies are preserved on both chromosomes, their expression patterns have diverged. When the gene order of rice chromosomes 11 and 12 was compared to wheat gene loci, significant synteny between these orthologous regions was detected, illustrating the presence of conserved genes alternating with recently evolved genes. Conclusion Because the resistance and defense response genes, enriched on these chromosomes relative to the whole genome, also occur in clusters, they provide a preferred target for breeding durable disease resistance in rice and the isolation of their allelic variants. The recent duplication of a large chromosomal segment coupled with the high density of disease resistance gene clusters makes this the most recently evolved part of the rice genome. Based on syntenic alignments of these chromosomes, rice chromosome 11 and 12 do not appear to have resulted from a single whole-genome duplication event as previously suggested. PMID:16188032

  14. Sequence analyses of the distal-less homeobox gene family in East African cichlid fishes reveal signatures of positive selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gen(om)e duplication events are hypothesized as key mechanisms underlying the origin of phenotypic diversity and evolutionary innovation. The diverse and species-rich lineage of teleost fishes is a renowned example of this scenario, because of the fish-specific genome duplication. Gene families, generated by this and other gene duplication events, have been previously found to play a role in the evolution and development of innovations in cichlid fishes - a prime model system to study the genetic basis of rapid speciation, adaptation and evolutionary innovation. The distal-less homeobox genes are particularly interesting candidate genes for evolutionary novelties, such as the pharyngeal jaw apparatus and the anal fin egg-spots. Here we study the dlx repertoire in 23 East African cichlid fishes to determine the rate of evolution and the signatures of selection pressure. Results Four intact dlx clusters were retrieved from cichlid draft genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of these eight dlx loci in ten teleost species, followed by an in-depth analysis of 23 East African cichlid species, show that there is disparity in the rates of evolution of the dlx paralogs. Dlx3a and dlx4b are the fastest evolving dlx genes, while dlx1a and dlx6a evolved more slowly. Subsequent analyses of the nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate ratios indicate that dlx3b, dlx4a and dlx5a evolved under purifying selection, while signs of positive selection were found for dlx1a, dlx2a, dlx3a and dlx4b. Conclusions Our results indicate that the dlx repertoire of teleost fishes and cichlid fishes in particular, is shaped by differential selection pressures and rates of evolution after gene duplication. Although the divergence of the dlx paralogs are putative signs of new or altered functions, comparisons with available expression patterns indicate that the three dlx loci under strong purifying selection, dlx3b, dlx4a and dlx5a, are transcribed at high levels in the cichlids

  15. Identification and evolution of the orphan genes in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2015-09-14

    Orphan genes (OGs) which have no recognizable homology to any sequences in other species could contribute to the species specific adaptations. In this study, we identified 738 OGs in the silkworm genome. About 31% of the silkworm OGs is derived from transposable elements, and 5.1% of the silkworm OGs emerged from gene duplication followed by divergence of paralogs. Five de novo silkworm OGs originated from non-coding regions. Microarray data suggested that most of the silkworm OGs were expressed in limited tissues. RNA interference experiments suggested that five de novo OGs are not essential to the silkworm, implying that they may contribute to genetic redundancy or species-specific adaptation. Our results provide some new insights into the evolutionary significance of the silkworm OGs.

  16. The Generation Challenge Programme comparative plant stress-responsive gene catalogue.

    PubMed

    Wanchana, Samart; Thongjuea, Supat; Ulat, Victor Jun; Anacleto, Mylah; Mauleon, Ramil; Conte, Matthieu; Rouard, Mathieu; Ruiz, Manuel; Krishnamurthy, Nandini; Sjolander, Kimmen; van Hintum, Theo; Bruskiewich, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    The Generation Challenge Programme (GCP; www.generationcp.org) has developed an online resource documenting stress-responsive genes comparatively across plant species. This public resource is a compendium of protein families, phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments (MSA) and associated experimental evidence. The central objective of this resource is to elucidate orthologous and paralogous relationships between plant genes that may be involved in response to environmental stress, mainly abiotic stresses such as water deficit ('drought'). The web-based graphical user interface (GUI) of the resource includes query and visualization tools that allow diverse searches and browsing of the underlying project database. The web interface can be accessed at http://dayhoff.generationcp.org.

  17. Studying Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many ... material in an organism. This includes genes and DNA elements that control the activity of genes. Does ...

  18. The Gut Fungus Basidiobolus ranarum Has a Large Genome and Different Copy Numbers of Putatively Functionally Redundant Elongation Factor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Henk, Daniel A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal genomes range in size from 2.3 Mb for the microsporidian Encephalitozoon intestinalis up to 8000 Mb for Entomophaga aulicae, with a mean genome size of 37 Mb. Basidiobolus, a common inhabitant of vertebrate guts, is distantly related to all other fungi, and is unique in possessing both EF-1α and EFL genes. Using DNA sequencing and a quantitative PCR approach, we estimated a haploid genome size for Basidiobolus at 350 Mb. However, based on allelic variation, the nuclear genome is at least diploid, leading us to believe that the final genome size is at least 700 Mb. We also found that EFL was in three times the copy number of its putatively functionally overlapping paralog EF-1α. This suggests that gene or genome duplication may be an important feature of B. ranarum evolution, and also suggests that B. ranarum may have mechanisms in place that favor the preservation of functionally overlapping genes. PMID:22363602

  19. Reptin and Pontin function antagonistically with PcG and TrxG complexes to mediate Hox gene control</