Sample records for paralyzed quadriceps muscle

  1. A system for evaluation and exercise-conditioning of paralyzed leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruner, J A; Glaser, R M; Feinberg, S D; Collins, S R; Nussbaum, N S

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop instrumentation and protocols in which electrical stimulation is used to induce exercise in paralyzed quadriceps muscles strength and endurance evaluation and conditioning. A computer-controlled electrical stimulation system, using surface electrodes, automatically regulates the bouts of leg extension exercise. Load weights attached just above the ankles can be progressively increased over a number of training sessions in such a manner that a measure of the fitness of the legs can be obtained. With three exercise sessions per week for 9 weeks, the strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscles of two paraplegic and four quadriplegic subjects were gradually and safely increased. During exercise at a means load weight of 5.4 kg, means heart rate did not rise above rest, whereas systolic blood pressure increased about 20 mm Hg, and skin temperature above the active muscles increased about 1.75 degrees C. Such exercise conditioning appears to be safe and may provide important health benefits, including improved fitness of the muscles and bones, better circulation in the paralyzed limbs, and enhanced self-image. Conditioned electrically stimulated paralyzed leg muscles may be used for locomotion in conjunction with special vehicles.

  2. Mathematical models of human paralyzed muscle after long-term training.

    PubMed

    Law, L A Frey; Shields, R K

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in major musculoskeletal adaptations, including muscle atrophy, faster contractile properties, increased fatigability, and bone loss. The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a method to prevent paralyzed muscle adaptations in order to sustain force-generating capacity. Mathematical muscle models may be able to predict optimal activation strategies during FES, however muscle properties further adapt with long-term training. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of three muscle models, one linear and two nonlinear, for predicting paralyzed soleus muscle force after exposure to long-term FES training. Further, we contrasted the findings between the trained and untrained limbs. The three models' parameters were best fit to a single force train in the trained soleus muscle (N=4). Nine additional force trains (test trains) were predicted for each subject using the developed models. Model errors between predicted and experimental force trains were determined, including specific muscle force properties. The mean overall error was greatest for the linear model (15.8%) and least for the nonlinear Hill Huxley type model (7.8%). No significant error differences were observed between the trained versus untrained limbs, although model parameter values were significantly altered with training. This study confirmed that nonlinear models most accurately predict both trained and untrained paralyzed muscle force properties. Moreover, the optimized model parameter values were responsive to the relative physiological state of the paralyzed muscle (trained versus untrained). These findings are relevant for the design and control of neuro-prosthetic devices for those with SCI.

  3. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio.

    PubMed

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Sargeant, Anthony J

    2003-08-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also investigated whether, apart from CSA, MVA and MRR were determinants of muscle strength. Polio subjects had significantly less strength, CSA, and MRR in the more-affected quadriceps than control subjects. MVA was reduced in 18 polio subjects and normal in all controls. PPS subjects differed from non-PPS subjects only in that the MVA of the more-affected quadriceps was significantly lower. Both CSA and MVA were found to be associated with muscle strength. Quadriceps strength in polio subjects was dependent not only on muscle mass, but also on the ability to activate the muscles. Since impaired activation was more pronounced in PPS subjects, the new muscle weakness and functional decline in PPS may be due not only to a gradual loss of muscle fibers, but also to an increasing inability to activate the muscles.

  4. Different Muscle Action Training Protocols on Quadriceps-Hamstrings Neuromuscular Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Ruas, Cassio V; Brown, Lee E; Lima, Camila D; Gregory Haff, G; Pinto, Ronei S

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three specific concentric and eccentric muscle action training protocols on quadriceps-hamstrings neuromuscular adaptations. Forty male volunteers performed 6 weeks of training (two sessions/week) of their dominant and non-dominant legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups; concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n=10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n=10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n=10), or no training (CTRL, n=10). Intensity of training was increased every week by decreasing the angular velocity for concentric and increasing it for eccentric groups in 30°/s increments. Volume of training was increased by adding one set every week. Dominant leg quadriceps and hamstrings muscle thickness, muscle quality, muscle activation, muscle coactivation, and electromechanical delay were tested before and after training. Results revealed that all training groups similarly increased MT of quadriceps and hamstrings compared to control (p<0.05). However, CON/ECC and ECC/ECC training elicited a greater magnitude of change. There were no significant differences between groups for all other neuromuscular variables (p>0.05). These findings suggest that different short-term muscle action isokinetic training protocols elicit similar muscle size increases in hamstrings and quadriceps, but not for other neuromuscular variables. Nevertheless, effect sizes indicate that CON/ECC and ECC/ECC may elicit the greatest magnitude of change in muscle hypertrophy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Quadriceps muscle use in the flywheel and barbell squat.

    PubMed

    Norrbrand, Lena; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Vargas, Roberto; Tesch, Per A

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been proposed as an aid to counteract quadriceps muscle atrophy in astronauts during extended missions in orbit. While space authorities have advocated the squat exercise should be prescribed, no exercise system suitable for in-flight use has been validated with regard to quadriceps muscle use. We compared muscle involvement in the terrestrial "gold standard" squat using free weights and a nongravity dependent flywheel resistance exercise device designed for use in space. The subjects were 10 strength-trained men who performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions using the barbell squat (BS; 10 repetition maximum) or flywheel squat (FS; each repetition maximal), respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface electromyography (EMG) techniques assessed quadriceps muscle use. Exercise-induced contrast shift of MR images was measured by means of transverse relaxation time (T2). EMG root mean square (RMS) was measured during concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) actions and normalized to EMG RMS determined during maximal voluntary contraction. The quadriceps muscle group showed greater exercise-induced T2 increase following FS compared with BS. Among individual muscles, the rectus femoris displayed greater T2 increase with FS (+24 +/- 14%) than BS (+8 +/- 4%). Normalized quadriceps EMG showed no difference across exercise modes. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that quadriceps muscle use in the squat is comparable, if not greater, with flywheel compared with free weight resistance exercise. Data appear to provide support for use of flywheel squat resistance exercise as a countermeasures adjunct during spaceflight.

  6. Atrophy of the quadriceps muscle in children with a painful hip.

    PubMed

    Robben, S G; Lequin, M H; Meradji, M; Diepstraten, A F; Hop, W C

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of muscle wasting of various components of the quadriceps muscle in children with a painful hip. Between January 1994 and September 1997, 327 consecutive children with a unilateral painful hip and/or limping were evaluated prospectively with ultrasonography. Quadriceps thickness was measured on both sides. Moreover, muscle thickness was measured in 59 control subjects. The patients were divided into eight groups; transient synovitis (n = 134), Perthes' disease (n = 35), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (n = 5), osteomyelitis (n = 4), aspecific synovitis (n = 5), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 3) and miscellaneous (n = 16). In 125 patients, no sonographic and radiological abnormalities were found and during follow-up the symptoms disappeared ('no pathology' group). Ipsilateral muscle wasting was present in all patient groups, whereas the control subjects showed no significant difference in muscle thickness between legs. The degree of muscle wasting was compared between transient synovitis, the 'no pathology' group, Perthes' disease and control subjects. For both quadriceps and vastus intermedius muscles, there was a significant difference between these groups, except between control subjects and the 'no pathology' group. For the rectus femoris muscle, there was a significant difference between these groups, except between transient synovitis and 'no pathology'. Muscle wasting showed a positive correlation with duration of symptoms and pre-existing muscle mass. In conclusion, different diseases show different degrees of muscle wasting, and there are different patterns of muscle wasting of various components of the quadriceps femoris muscle.

  7. Quadriceps intramuscular fat fraction rather than muscle size is associated with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; MacLeod, Toran D.; Lin, Wilson; Nardo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare thigh muscle intramuscular fat (intraMF) fractions and area between people with and without knee radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA); and to evaluate the relationships of quadriceps adiposity and area with strength, function and knee MRI lesions. Methods Ninety six subjects (ROA: KL >1; n = 30, control: KL = 0,1; n = 66) underwent 3-Tesla MRI of the thigh muscles using chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging (fat fractions) and the knee (clinical grading). Subjects were assessed for isometric/isokinetic quadriceps/hamstrings strength, function (KOOS, stair climbing test [SCT], and 6-minute walk test [(6MWT]. Thigh muscle intraMF fractions, muscle area and strength, and function were compared between controls and ROA subjects, adjusting for age. Relationships between measures of muscle fat/area with strength, function, KL and lesion scores were assessed using regression and correlational analyses. Results The ROA group had worse KOOS scores but SCT and 6MWT were not different. The ROA group had greater quadriceps intraMF fraction but not for other muscles. Quadriceps strength was lower in ROA group but the area was not different. Quadriceps intraMF fraction but not area predicted self-reported disability. Aging, worse KL, and cartilage and meniscus lesions were associated with higher quadriceps intraMF fraction. Conclusion Quadriceps intraMF is higher in people with knee OA and is related to symptomatic and structural severity of knee OA, where as the quadriceps area is not. Quadriceps fat fraction from chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging may have utility as a marker of structural and symptomatic severity of knee OA disease process. PMID:24361743

  8. Predicting human chronically paralyzed muscle force: a comparison of three mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Frey Law, Laura A; Shields, Richard K

    2006-03-01

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces detrimental musculoskeletal adaptations that adversely affect health status, ranging from muscle paralysis and skin ulcerations to osteoporosis. SCI rehabilitative efforts may increasingly focus on preserving the integrity of paralyzed extremities to maximize health quality using electrical stimulation for isometric training and/or functional activities. Subject-specific mathematical muscle models could prove valuable for predicting the forces necessary to achieve therapeutic loading conditions in individuals with paralyzed limbs. Although numerous muscle models are available, three modeling approaches were chosen that can accommodate a variety of stimulation input patterns. To our knowledge, no direct comparisons between models using paralyzed muscle have been reported. The three models include 1) a simple second-order linear model with three parameters and 2) two six-parameter nonlinear models (a second-order nonlinear model and a Hill-derived nonlinear model). Soleus muscle forces from four individuals with complete, chronic SCI were used to optimize each model's parameters (using an increasing and decreasing frequency ramp) and to assess the models' predictive accuracies for constant and variable (doublet) stimulation trains at 5, 10, and 20 Hz in each individual. Despite the large differences in modeling approaches, the mean predicted force errors differed only moderately (8-15% error; P=0.0042), suggesting physiological force can be adequately represented by multiple mathematical constructs. The two nonlinear models predicted specific force characteristics better than the linear model in nearly all stimulation conditions, with minimal differences between the two nonlinear models. Either nonlinear mathematical model can provide reasonable force estimates; individual application needs may dictate the preferred modeling strategy.

  9. Neuroprosthetic-enabled control of graded arm muscle contraction in a paralyzed human.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, David A; Schwemmer, Michael A; Landgraf, Andrew J; Annetta, Nicholas V; Bockbrader, Marcia A; Bouton, Chad E; Zhang, Mingming; Rezai, Ali R; Mysiw, W Jerry; Bresler, Herbert S; Sharma, Gaurav

    2017-08-21

    Neuroprosthetics that combine a brain computer interface (BCI) with functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore voluntary control of a patients' own paralyzed limbs. To date, human studies have demonstrated an "all-or-none" type of control for a fixed number of pre-determined states, like hand-open and hand-closed. To be practical for everyday use, a BCI-FES system should enable smooth control of limb movements through a continuum of states and generate situationally appropriate, graded muscle contractions. Crucially, this functionality will allow users of BCI-FES neuroprosthetics to manipulate objects of different sizes and weights without dropping or crushing them. In this study, we present the first evidence that using a BCI-FES system, a human with tetraplegia can regain volitional, graded control of muscle contraction in his paralyzed limb. In addition, we show the critical ability of the system to generalize beyond training states and accurately generate wrist flexion states that are intermediate to training levels. These innovations provide the groundwork for enabling enhanced and more natural fine motor control of paralyzed limbs by BCI-FES neuroprosthetics.

  10. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, P<0.001), but were similar to preoperative level at six months (18.4 N∙m, 7.4 N∙m P<0.001) and were maintained for up to one year (15.9 N∙m, 4.1 N∙m P<0.001). The pooled mean differences in changes in quadriceps and hamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  11. Preferential reduction of quadriceps over respiratory muscle strength and bulk after lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pinet, C; Scillia, P; Cassart, M; Lamotte, M; Knoop, C; Mélot, C; Estenne, M

    2004-09-01

    In the absence of complications, recipients of lung transplants for cystic fibrosis have normal pulmonary function but the impact of the procedure on the strength and bulk of respiratory and limb muscles has not been studied. Twelve stable patients who had undergone lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis 48 months earlier (range 8-95) and 12 normal subjects matched for age, height, and sex were studied. The following parameters were measured: standard lung function, peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometry, diaphragm surface area by computed tomographic (CT) scanning, diaphragm and abdominal muscle thickness by ultrasonography, twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and quadriceps cross section by CT scanning, and lean body mass. Diaphragm mass was computed from diaphragm surface area and thickness. Twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, diaphragm mass, and abdominal muscle thickness were similar in the two groups but quadriceps strength and cross section were decreased by nearly 30% in the patients. Patients had preserved quadriceps strength per unit cross section but reduced quadriceps cross section per unit lean body mass. The cumulative dose of corticosteroids was an independent predictor of quadriceps atrophy. Peak oxygen uptake showed positive correlations with quadriceps strength and cross section in the two groups, but peak oxygen uptake per unit quadriceps strength or cross section was reduced in the patient group. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles have preserved strength and bulk in patients transplanted for cystic fibrosis but the quadriceps is weak due to muscle atrophy. This atrophy is caused in part by corticosteroid therapy and correlates with the reduction in exercise capacity.

  12. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LONG-TERM QUADRICEPS WEAKNESS AND EARLY WALKING MUSCLE CO-CONTRACTION AFTER TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yuri; Mizner, Ryan L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Quadriceps weakness is one of the primary post-operative impairments that persist long term for patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hypothesized that early gait muscle recruitment patterns of the quadriceps and hamstrings with diminished knee performance at 3 months after surgery would be related to long-term quadriceps strength at one year after TKA. METHODS Twenty-one subjects who underwent primary unilateral TKA and 14 age-matched healthy controls were analyzed. At three months after TKA, the maximum voluntary isometric contraction of quadriceps and a comprehensive gait analysis were performed. Quadriceps strength was assessed again at one year after surgery. RESULTS Quadriceps muscle recruitment of the operated limb was greater than the non-operated limb during the loading response of gait (p=0.03), but there were no significant differences in hamstring recruitment or co-contraction between limbs (p>0.05). There were significant differences in quadriceps muscle recruitment during gait between the non-operated limb of TKA group and healthy control group (p<0.05). The TKA group showed a significant inverse relationship between one year quadriceps strength and co-contraction (r = −0.543) and hamstring muscle recruitment (r = −0.480) during loading response at 3 months after TKA. CONCLUSIONS The results revealed a reverse relationship where stronger patients tended to demonstrate lower quadriceps recruitment at 3 months post-surgery that was not observed in the healthy peer group. The altered neuromuscular patterns of quadriceps and hamstrings during gait may influence chronic quadriceps strength in individuals after TKA. PMID:23352711

  13. Recovery of gait after quadriceps muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Beretta, Stephannie Spiandor; Pereira, Vinicius A I; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recovery time after quadriceps muscle fatigue on gait in young adults. Forty young adults (20-40 years old) performed three 8-m gait trials at preferred velocity before and after muscle fatigue, and after 5, 10 and 20min of passive rest. In addition, at each time point, two maximal isometric voluntary contractions were preformed. Muscle fatigue was induced by repeated sit-to-stand transfers until task failure. Spatio-temporal, kinetic and muscle activity parameters, measured in the central stride of each trial, were analyzed. Data were compared between before and after the muscle fatigue protocol and after the recovery periods by one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The voluntary force was decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and after 5, 10 and 20min of recovery compared to before the fatigue protocol. Step width (p<0.001) and RMS of biceps femoris (p<0.05) were increased immediately after the fatigue protocol and remained increased after the recovery periods. In addition, stride duration was decreased immediately after the fatigue protocol compared to before and to after 10 and 20min of rest (p<0.001). The anterior-posterior propulsive impulse was also decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and remained low after 5, 10 and 20min of rest. We conclude that 20min is not enough to see full recovery of gait after exhaustive quadriceps muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional electrical stimulation exercise increases GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 in paralyzed skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, P D; Bell, G; Jeon, J; Weiss, C B; Murdoch, G; MacLean, I; Ryan, E; Burnham, R

    1999-11-01

    The study purpose was to determine the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-leg cycle ergometer training (30 minutes on 3 d/wk for 8 weeks) on the GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 content of paralyzed skeletal muscle. Biopsy samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained pre- and post-training from five individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury ([SCI] four men and one woman aged 31 to 50 years, 3 to 25 years postinjury involving C5-T8). Western blot analysis indicated that GLUT-1 increased by 52% and GLUT-4 increased by 72% with training (P < .05). This coincided with an increase in the muscle oxidative capacity as indicated by a 56% increase in citrate synthase (CS) activity (P < .05) and an improvement in the insulin sensitivity index as determined from oral glucose tolerance tests (P < .05). It is concluded that FES endurance training is effective to increase glucose transporter protein levels in paralyzed skeletal muscle of individuals with SCI.

  15. Quadriceps muscle injury in trans-femoral amputees.

    PubMed

    Alsindi, Z; Datta, D

    1998-12-01

    Two male trans-femoral amputees using modular trans-femoral prostheses lost control and fell to the ground when their prosthetic knees gave way. The semi-automatic knee lock malfunctioned in the first case while the free knee stabilising mechanics gave way in the second case. This resulted in a high tensile force acting on the contralateral quadriceps muscle causing it to rupture. As there are a significant number of patients with both kinds of prostheses it is important to be aware of this possibility so that necessary actions can be taken to minimise its occurrence. Even with the currently available weight activated stance phase control, the prosthetic knee will give way if the knee is flexed more than 20 degrees on weight bearing. Good power and control of hip extensors on the amputation side is needed to control the prosthetic knee joint, especially in the early stage of the walking cycle, i.e., from heel strike to mid-stance. Quadriceps muscle injury in amputees, as far as the authors are aware, has not been reported previously.

  16. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  17. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  18. Exercise-induced quadriceps muscle fatigue in men and women: effects of arterial oxygen content and respiratory muscle work.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Griesdale, Donald E G; Peters, Carli M; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Sekhon, Mypinder; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William

    2017-08-01

    High work of breathing and exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) can decrease O 2 delivery and exacerbate exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue in healthy men. Women have a higher work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles and develop EIAH. Despite a greater reduction in men's work of breathing, the attenuation of quadriceps fatigue was similar between the sexes. The degree of EIAH was similar between sexes, and regardless of sex, those who developed the greatest hypoxaemia during exercise demonstrated the most attenuation of quadriceps fatigue. Based on our previous finding that women have a greater relative oxygen cost of breathing, women appear to be especially susceptible to work of breathing-related changes in quadriceps muscle fatigue. Reducing the work of breathing or eliminating exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) during exercise decreases the severity of quadriceps fatigue in men. Women have a greater work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles, and demonstrate EIAH, suggesting women may be especially susceptible to quadriceps fatigue. Healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) completed three constant load exercise tests over 4 days. During the first (control) test, subjects exercised at ∼85% of maximum while arterial blood gases and work of breathing were assessed. Subsequent constant load exercise tests were iso-time and iso-work rate, but with EIAH prevented by inspiring hyperoxic gas or work of breathing reduced via a proportional assist ventilator (PAV). Quadriceps fatigue was assessed by measuring force in response to femoral nerve stimulation. For both sexes, quadriceps force was equally reduced after the control trial (-27 ± 2% baseline) and was attenuated with hyperoxia and PAV (-18 ± 1 and -17 ± 2% baseline, P < 0.01, respectively), with no sex difference. EIAH was similar between

  19. Postfatigue potentiation of the paralyzed soleus muscle: evidence for adaptation with long-term electrical stimulation training

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Richard K.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Littmann, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the torque output behavior of paralyzed muscle has important implications for the use of functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems. Postfatigue potentiation is an augmentation of peak muscle torque during repetitive activation after a fatigue protocol. The purposes of this study were 1) to quantify postfatigue potentiation in the acutely and chronically paralyzed soleus and 2) to determine the effect of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training on the potentiation characteristics of recently paralyzed soleus muscle. Five subjects with chronic paralysis (>2 yr) demonstrated significant postfatigue potentiation during a repetitive soleus activation protocol that induced low-frequency fatigue. Ten subjects with acute paralysis (<6 mo) demonstrated no torque potentiation in response to repetitive stimulation. Seven of these acute subjects completed 2 yr of home-based isometric soleus electrical stimulation training of one limb (compliance = 83%; 8,300 contractions/wk). With the early implementation of electrically stimulated training, potentiation characteristics of trained soleus muscles were preserved as in the acute postinjury state. In contrast, untrained limbs showed marked postfatigue potentiation at 2 yr after spinal cord injury (SCI). A single acute SCI subject who was followed longitudinally developed potentiation characteristics very similar to the untrained limbs of the training subjects. The results of the present investigation support that postfatigue potentiation is a characteristic of fast-fatigable muscle and can be prevented by timely neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. Potentiation is an important consideration in the design of functional electrical stimulation control systems for people with SCI. PMID:16575026

  20. Postfatigue potentiation of the paralyzed soleus muscle: evidence for adaptation with long-term electrical stimulation training.

    PubMed

    Shields, Richard K; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Littmann, Andrew E

    2006-08-01

    Understanding the torque output behavior of paralyzed muscle has important implications for the use of functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems. Postfatigue potentiation is an augmentation of peak muscle torque during repetitive activation after a fatigue protocol. The purposes of this study were 1) to quantify postfatigue potentiation in the acutely and chronically paralyzed soleus and 2) to determine the effect of long-term soleus electrical stimulation training on the potentiation characteristics of recently paralyzed soleus muscle. Five subjects with chronic paralysis (>2 yr) demonstrated significant postfatigue potentiation during a repetitive soleus activation protocol that induced low-frequency fatigue. Ten subjects with acute paralysis (<6 mo) demonstrated no torque potentiation in response to repetitive stimulation. Seven of these acute subjects completed 2 yr of home-based isometric soleus electrical stimulation training of one limb (compliance = 83%; 8,300 contractions/wk). With the early implementation of electrically stimulated training, potentiation characteristics of trained soleus muscles were preserved as in the acute postinjury state. In contrast, untrained limbs showed marked postfatigue potentiation at 2 yr after spinal cord injury (SCI). A single acute SCI subject who was followed longitudinally developed potentiation characteristics very similar to the untrained limbs of the training subjects. The results of the present investigation support that postfatigue potentiation is a characteristic of fast-fatigable muscle and can be prevented by timely neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. Potentiation is an important consideration in the design of functional electrical stimulation control systems for people with SCI.

  1. Posterolateral hip muscle strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening for patellofemoral pain: a comparative control trial.

    PubMed

    Khayambashi, Khalil; Fallah, Alireza; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Bagwell, Jennifer; Powers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of posterolateral hip muscle strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening in reducing pain and improving health status in persons with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Comparative control trial. Rehabilitation facility. Persons with a diagnosis of PFP (N=36; 18 men, 18 women). Patients were alternately assigned to a posterolateral hip muscle strengthening group (9 men and 9 women) or a quadriceps strengthening group (9 men and 9 women). The posterolateral hip muscle strengthening group performed hip abductor and external rotator strengthening exercises, whereas the quadriceps strengthening group performed quadriceps strengthening exercises (3 times a week for 8wk). Pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and health status (Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]) were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Significant improvements in VAS and WOMAC scores were observed in both groups from baseline to postintervention and baseline to 6-month follow-up (P<.001). Improvements in VAS and WOMAC scores in the posterolateral hip exercise group were superior to those in the quadriceps exercise group postintervention and at 6-month follow-up (P<.05). Although both intervention programs resulted in decreased pain and improved function in persons with PFP, outcomes in the posterolateral hip exercise group were superior to the quadriceps exercise group. The superior outcomes obtained in the posterolateral hip exercise group were maintained 6 months postintervention. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle.

  3. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Rehabilitation With Cryotherapy in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Joseph M.; Kuenze, Christopher M.; Diduch, David R.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. Objective: To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. Intervention(s): The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. Results: After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). Conclusions: After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone. PMID:25299442

  4. Recruitment order of quadriceps motor units: femoral nerve vs. direct quadriceps stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Place, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    To investigate potential differences in the recruitment order of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps femoris when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using femoral nerve stimulation and direct quadriceps stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 20 young, healthy subjects. Recruitment order was investigated by analysing the time-to-peak twitch and the time interval from the stimulus artefact to the M-wave positive peak (M-wave latency) for the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. During femoral nerve stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and M-wave latency decreased consistently (P < 0.05) with increasing stimulus intensity, whereas, during graded direct quadriceps stimulation, time-to-peak twitch and VL M-wave latency did not show a clear trend (P > 0.05). For the VM muscle, M-wave latency decreased with increasing stimulation level for both femoral nerve and direct quadriceps stimulation, whereas, for the VL muscle, the variation of M-wave latency with stimulus intensity was different for the two stimulation geometries (P < 0.05). Femoral nerve stimulation activated MUs according to the size principle, whereas the recruitment order during direct quadriceps stimulation was more complex, depending ultimately on the architecture of the peripheral nerve and its terminal branches below the stimulating electrodes for each muscle. For the VM, MUs were orderly recruited for both stimulation geometries, whereas, for the VL muscle, MUs were orderly recruited for femoral nerve stimulation, but followed no particular order for direct quadriceps stimulation.

  5. [Simultaneous Traumatic Rupture of Patellar Ligament and Contralateral Rupture of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle].

    PubMed

    Hladký, V; Havlas, V

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a unique case of a 64-year-old patient after a fall, treated with oral antidiabetic drugs for type II diabetes mellitus. Following a series of examinations, a bilateral injury was diagnosed - patellar ligament tear on the right side and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle on the left side. It is a rare injury, complicated by simultaneous involvement of both knee joints. The used therapy consisted of a bilateral surgery followed by gradual verticalisation, first with the support of a walking frame and later with the use of forearm crutches. During the final examination, the patient demonstrated full flexion at both knees, while an extension deficit of approx. 5 degrees was still present on the left side. The right knee X-ray showed a proper position of the patella after the removal of temporary tension band wire. Although the clinical results of operative treatment of both the patellar ligament rupture and rupture of quadriceps femoris muscle are in most cases good, early operative treatment, proper technique and post-operative rehabilitation are a prerequisite for success. Key words: knee injuries, patellar ligament, quadriceps muscle, rupture.

  6. Muscle Activation Profiles and Co-Activation of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles around Knee Joint in Indian Primary Osteoarthritis Knee Patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Yadav, Shiv Lal; Singh, U; Wadhwa, Sanjay

    2017-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of knee is a common joint disease. It is associated with reduced knee joint stability due to impaired quadriceps strength, pain, and an altered joint structure. There is altered muscle activation in knee OA patients, which interferes with normal load distribution around the knee and facilitates disease progression. Our primary aim was to determine activation patterns of the muscles i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings in knee OA patients during walking. We also studied co-activation of muscles around knee joint in primary OA knee patients including directed medial and lateral co-contractions. This observational study was done at Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Fourty-four patients with medial compartment primary knee OA were included in study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were assessed for mean, peak and integrated Root Mean Square (RMS), EMG values, muscle activation patterns and co-activation of muscles around knee joint by surface Electromyography (EMG) analysis of Vastus Medialis Obliques (VMO), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Semitendinosus (SMT) and Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles during gait cycle. The EMG waveform for each muscle was amplitude normalized and time normalized to 100% of gait cycle and plotted on graph. Quantitative variables were assessed for normal distribution and accordingly mean±SD or median (range), as appropriate, was computed. For primary OA knee, mean age 61±5 years, mean weight 63.7±10.1 kg, mean height 153.9±7.2 cm, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 26.8±3.0 kg/m 2 was found. The muscle activity of hamstrings (SMT muscle and BF) was increased during midstance, late stance and early swing phase of gait cycle as compared to quadriceps (VMO and VL) muscle activity respectively, suggesting co-contraction of opposing muscles around knee joint. Patients with knee OA walk with increased hamstring muscle activity (during

  7. Muscle Activation Profiles and Co-Activation of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles around Knee Joint in Indian Primary Osteoarthritis Knee Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shiv Lal; Singh, U; Wadhwa, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) of knee is a common joint disease. It is associated with reduced knee joint stability due to impaired quadriceps strength, pain, and an altered joint structure. There is altered muscle activation in knee OA patients, which interferes with normal load distribution around the knee and facilitates disease progression. Aim Our primary aim was to determine activation patterns of the muscles i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings in knee OA patients during walking. We also studied co-activation of muscles around knee joint in primary OA knee patients including directed medial and lateral co-contractions. Materials and Methods This observational study was done at Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Fourty-four patients with medial compartment primary knee OA were included in study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were assessed for mean, peak and integrated Root Mean Square (RMS), EMG values, muscle activation patterns and co-activation of muscles around knee joint by surface Electromyography (EMG) analysis of Vastus Medialis Obliques (VMO), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Semitendinosus (SMT) and Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles during gait cycle. The EMG waveform for each muscle was amplitude normalized and time normalized to 100% of gait cycle and plotted on graph. Quantitative variables were assessed for normal distribution and accordingly mean±SD or median (range), as appropriate, was computed. Results For primary OA knee, mean age 61±5 years, mean weight 63.7±10.1 kg, mean height 153.9±7.2 cm, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 26.8±3.0 kg/m2 was found. The muscle activity of hamstrings (SMT muscle and BF) was increased during midstance, late stance and early swing phase of gait cycle as compared to quadriceps (VMO and VL) muscle activity respectively, suggesting co-contraction of opposing muscles around knee joint. Conclusion Patients with knee

  8. Electromyographic analysis of a modified maneuver for quadriceps femoris muscle setting with co-contraction of the hamstrings.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masaaki; Kawamura, Kenji; Takeda, Isao

    2003-05-01

    A "quadriceps femoris muscle setting" is isometric quadriceps femoris exercise which can be widely used in early knee rehabilitation. However this exercise cannot obtain enough co-contraction of the hamstrings. Isolated quadriceps femoris contraction in knee extension imposes severe strain to anterior cruciate ligament. We succeeded in developing a simple training maneuver that is effective in obtaining co-contraction of the hamstrings--a modified maneuver for the quadriceps femoris muscle setting with the contralateral lower limb raised (MQS). In this study, we analyzed the effect of this maneuver by EMG quantification. Twenty-eight healthy young adult men performed sequential trials consisting of normal quadriceps femoris muscle setting (NQS) and MQS. Electromyographic activity was recorded from surface electrodes on the gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus and biceps femoris (long head), and normalized to values derived from maximal isometric trials. The % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris did not vary in the each maneuver. However, the %MVIC of the hamstrings varied significantly in the MQS. This study suggests that effective co-contraction of the hamstrings can be obtained in MQS by adjusting the load to the raised lower limb.

  9. Effective therapy of transected quadriceps muscle in rat: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Staresinic, Mario; Petrovic, Igor; Novinscak, Tomislav; Jukic, Ivana; Pevec, Damira; Suknaic, Slaven; Kokic, Neven; Batelja, Lovorka; Brcic, Luka; Boban-Blagaic, Alenka; Zoric, Zdenka; Ivanovic, Domagoj; Ajduk, Marko; Sebecic, Bozidar; Patrlj, Leonardo; Sosa, Tomislav; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-05-01

    We report complete transection of major muscle and the systemic peptide treatment that induces healing of quadriceps muscle promptly and then maintains the healing with functional restoration. Initially, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W. 1419, PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736 Pliva, Croatia; in trials for inflammatory bowel disease; wound treatment; no toxicity reported; effective alone without carrier) also superiorly accelerates the healing of transected Achilles tendon. Regularly, quadriceps muscle completely transected transversely 1.0 cm proximal to patella presents a definitive defect that cannot be compensated in rat. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg) is given intraperitoneally, once daily; the first application 30 min posttransection, the final 24 h before sacrifice. It consistently improves muscle healing throughout the whole 72-day period. Improved are: (i) biomechanic (load of failure increased); (ii) function (walking recovery and extensor postural thrust/motor function index returned toward normal healthy values); (iii) microscopy/immunochemistry [i.e., mostly muscle fibers connect muscle segments; absent gap; significant desmin positivity for ongoing regeneration of muscle; larger myofibril diameters on both sides, distal and proximal (normal healthy rat-values reached)]; (iv) macroscopic presentation (stumps connected; subsequently, atrophy markedly attenuated; finally, presentation close to normal noninjured muscle, no postsurgery leg contracture). Thus, posttransection healing-consistently improved-may suggest this peptide therapeutic application in muscle disorders. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. The evaluation of muscle recovery after anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Okano, Tatsumasa; Suruga, Makoto; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the degree of muscle recovery and report the clinical results of anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft. Twenty subjects undergoing anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft were included in this study. A 5-mm-wide, 8-cm-long graft, involving the entire layer of the quadriceps tendon, was harvested without bone block. The average graft diameter was 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. An initial tension of 30 N was applied. The femoral tunnel was created from the far-medial portal. Each femoral and tibial tunnel was created close to the antero-medial bundle insertion site. For the evaluation of muscle recovery (quadriceps and hamstring), a handheld dynamometer was used. The evaluation of muscle recovery was performed pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Muscle recovery data were calculated as a percentage of leg strength in the non-operated leg. Anterior tibial translation (ATT), pivot shift test, and IKDC score were evaluated. The average quadriceps strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 90.5 ± 19, 67.8 ± 21.4, 84 ± 17.5, and 85.1 ± 12.6 %, respectively. The average hamstring strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 99.5 ± 13.7, 78.7 ± 11.4, 90.5 ± 19, and 96.7 ± 13.8 %, respectively. ATT pre-operatively and at 12 months after surgery was 5.4 ± 1.3 and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. No subjects exhibited positive pivot shift after surgery. Within 6 months following surgery, quadriceps hypotrophy was observed in all subjects. However, the hypotrophy had recovered at 12 months following surgery. No subjects complained of donor site pain after surgery. Anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft resulted in equivalent level of muscle recovery and knee stability when compared with previously reported ACL

  11. Contributions of neural excitability and voluntary activation to quadriceps muscle strength following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Ericksen, Hayley M; Sohn, David H; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Persistent quadriceps weakness is common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). Alterations in spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation have been hypothesized as underlying mechanisms contributing to quadriceps weakness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive capabilities of spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation on quadriceps strength in healthy and ACLr participants. Quadriceps strength was measured using maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Voluntary activation was quantified via the central activation ratio (CAR). Corticospinal and spinal-reflexive excitability were measured using active motor thresholds (AMT) and Hoffmann reflexes normalized to maximal muscle responses (H:M), respectively. ACLr individuals were also split into high and low strength subsets based on MVIC. CAR was the only significant predictor in the healthy group. In the ACLr group, CAR and H:M significantly predicted 47% of the variance in MVIC. ACLr individuals in the high strength subset demonstrated significantly higher CAR and H:M than those in the low strength subset. Increased quadriceps voluntary activation, spinal-reflexive excitability and corticospinal excitability relates to increased quadriceps strength in participants following ACLr. Rehabilitation strategies used to target neural alterations may be beneficial for the restoration of muscle strength following ACLr. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, A H; Anwer, S; Zafar, H; Al-Eisa, E S

    2017-09-01

    The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men. Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack. No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p⟩0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p⟩0.05). Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  13. Quadriceps Contusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... An intramuscular contusion , which is when a muscle tears within the sheath (lining) that surrounds it. An ... the muscle and the sheath surrounding it both tear. Quadriceps contusions are common in sports that involve ...

  14. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    PubMed

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p < 0.001), also when normalized to body mass (4.1%) (p = 0.012), but not for weight-adjusted hamstring muscle strength. The H:Q ratio was higher on the dominant compared with the nondominant leg for handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p < 0.02). These normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion torques of healthy, elite, female handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be

  15. Effects of Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue on Stiff-Knee Gait in Patients with Hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Delouf, Eric; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between neuromuscular fatigue and locomotion has never been investigated in hemiparetic patients despite the fact that, in the clinical context, patients report to be more spastic or stiffer after walking a long distance or after a rehabilitation session. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quadriceps muscle fatigue on the biomechanical gait parameters of patients with a stiff-knee gait (SKG). Thirteen patients and eleven healthy controls performed one gait analysis before a protocol of isokinetic quadriceps fatigue and two after (immediately after and after 10 minutes of rest). Spatiotemporal parameters, sagittal knee and hip kinematics, rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity were analyzed. The results showed that quadriceps muscle weakness, produced by repetitive concentric contractions of the knee extensors, induced an improvement of spatiotemporal parameters for patients and healthy subjects. For the patient group, the increase in gait velocity and step length was associated with i) an increase of sagittal hip and knee flexion during the swing phase, ii) an increase of the maximal normalized length of the RF and VL and of the maximal VL lengthening velocity during the pre-swing and swing phases, and iii) a decrease in EMG activity of the RF muscle during the initial pre-swing phase and during the latter 2/3 of the initial swing phase. These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue did not alter the gait of patients with hemiparesis walking with a SKG and that neuromuscular fatigue may play the same functional role as an anti-spastic treatment such as botulinum toxin-A injection. Strength training of knee extensors, although commonly performed in rehabilitation, does not seem to be a priority to improve gait of these patients. PMID:24718087

  16. Ultrasonographic assessment of the quadriceps muscle and femoral cartilage in transtibial amputees using different prostheses.

    PubMed

    Şahin Onat, Şule; Malas, Fevziye Ünsal; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna; Akkaya, Nuray; Kara, Murat; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-08-01

    In patients with lower limb amputations, gait alteration, increased loading on the intact extremity, and use of prosthesis may lead to joint degeneration. To explore the effects of prosthesis type on quadriceps muscle and distal femoral cartilage thicknesses in transtibial amputees. A cross-sectional study. A total of 38 below-knee amputees were enrolled in the study, of which 13 patients were using vacuum system type prosthesis and 25 patients were using silicon liner pin system prosthesis. Patients' femoral cartilage and quadriceps muscle thickness measurements were performed using musculoskeletal ultrasound. When compared with the intact sides, cartilage and rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscle thickness values were significantly decreased on the amputee sides (all p < 0.05). Clinical characteristics and ultrasound measurements were similar between the two groups except the lateral and medial femoral condyle thicknesses, thinner in the silicon liner pin system users (both p < 0.05). The distal femoral cartilage and quadriceps muscle thicknesses were found to be decreased on the amputated sides, and the negative impact on the cartilage seemed to be worse in the silicon liner pin system users. This study might provide another argument as regards the preference of vacuum system type prosthesis to prevent possible knee osteoarthritis due to cartilage thinning in adult transtibial amputees. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  17. The quadriceps muscle of knee joint modelling Using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization-Neural Network (PSO-NN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin Ahmad; Marponga Tolos, Siti; Hee, Pah Chin; Ghani, Nor Azura Md; Ramli, Norazan Mohamed; Nasir, Noorhamizah Binti Mohamed; Ksm Kader, Babul Salam Bin; Saiful Huq, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Neural framework has for quite a while been known for its ability to handle a complex nonlinear system without a logical model and can learn refined nonlinear associations gives. Theoretically, the most surely understood computation to set up the framework is the backpropagation (BP) count which relies on upon the minimization of the mean square error (MSE). However, this algorithm is not totally efficient in the presence of outliers which usually exist in dynamic data. This paper exhibits the modelling of quadriceps muscle model by utilizing counterfeit smart procedures named consolidated backpropagation neural network nonlinear autoregressive (BPNN-NAR) and backpropagation neural network nonlinear autoregressive moving average (BPNN-NARMA) models in view of utilitarian electrical incitement (FES). We adapted particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach to enhance the performance of backpropagation algorithm. In this research, a progression of tests utilizing FES was led. The information that is gotten is utilized to build up the quadriceps muscle model. 934 preparing information, 200 testing and 200 approval information set are utilized as a part of the improvement of muscle model. It was found that both BPNN-NAR and BPNN-NARMA performed well in modelling this type of data. As a conclusion, the neural network time series models performed reasonably efficient for non-linear modelling such as active properties of the quadriceps muscle with one input, namely output namely muscle force.

  18. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and quadriceps strength in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Zwarts, Machiel J; Nollet, Frans; van Dijk, Johannes P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether muscle ultrasound can distinguish muscles affected by post-polio syndrome (PPS) from healthy muscles and whether severity of ultrasound abnormalities is associated with muscle strength. Echo intensity, muscle thickness, and isometric strength of the quadriceps muscles were measured in 48 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls. Patients with PPS had significantly higher echo intensity and lower muscle thickness than healthy controls. In patients, both echo intensity and muscle thickness were associated independently with muscle strength. A combined measure of echo intensity and muscle thickness was more strongly related to muscle strength than either parameter alone. Quantitative ultrasound distinguishes healthy muscles from those affected by PPS, and measures of muscle quality and quantity are associated with muscle strength. Hence, ultrasound could be a useful tool for assessing disease severity and monitoring changes resulting from disease progression or clinical intervention in patients with PPS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Immediate effects of kinesiotaping on quadriceps muscle strength: a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Stefano; Sartorio, Francesco; Foti, Calogero; Colletto, Lorenzo; Virton, Domenico; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effects on maximal muscle strength of kinesiotaping (KT) applied to the dominant quadriceps of healthy subjects. Single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. "Salvatore Maugeri" Foundation. With ethical approval and informed consent, a convenience sample of 36 healthy volunteers were recruited. Two subjects did not complete the sessions and were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were tested across 3 different sessions, randomly receiving 2 experimental KT conditions applied with the aim of enhancing and inhibiting muscle strength and a sham KT application. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured by means of an isokinetic maximal test performed at 60 and 180 degrees per second. Two secondary outcome measures were performed: the single-leg triple hop for distance to measure limb performance and the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRCS) to calculate agreement between KT application and subjective perception of strength. Compared with baseline, none of the 3 taping conditions showed a significant change in muscle strength and performance (all P > 0.05). Effect size was very low under all conditions (≤0.08). Very few subjects showed an individual change greater than the minimal detectable change. Global Rating of Change Scale scores demonstrated low to moderate agreement with the type of KT applied, but some placebo effects were reported independently of condition. Our findings indicated no significant effect in the maximal quadriceps strength immediately after the application of inhibition, facilitation, or sham KT. These results do not support the use of KT applied in this way to change maximal muscle strength in healthy people.

  20. Changes in transverse relaxation time of quadriceps femoris muscles after active recovery exercises with different intensities.

    PubMed

    Mukaimoto, Takahiro; Semba, Syun; Inoue, Yosuke; Ohno, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the metabolic state of quadriceps femoris muscles using transverse relaxation time (T2), measured by muscle functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, after inactive or active recovery exercises with different intensities following high-intensity knee-extension exercise. Eight healthy men performed recovery sessions with four different conditions for 20 min after high-intensity knee-extension exercise on separate days. During the recovery session, the participants conducted a light cycle exercise for 20 min using a cycle (50%, 70% and 100% of the lactate threshold (LT), respectively: active recovery), and inactive recovery. The MR images of quadriceps femoris muscles were taken before the trial and after the recovery session every 30 min for 120 min. The percentage changes in T2 for the rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT were significantly lower than those in either inactive recovery or 100% LT. There were no significant differences in those for vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles among the four trials. The percentage changes in T2 of rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT decreased to the values before the trial faster than those in either inactive recovery or 100% LT. Those of vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles after the recovery session in 50% LT and 70% LT decreased to the values before the trial faster than those in 100% LT. Although the changes in T2 after active recovery exercises were not uniform in exercised muscles, the results of this study suggest that active recovery exercise with the intensities below LT are more effective to recover the metabolic state of quadriceps femoris muscles after intense exercise than with either intensity at LT or inactive recovery.

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Removal of an Infected Loose Body from the Quadriceps Muscle.

    PubMed

    Razdan, Rishi N; Dube, Tiffany; Specht, Neil

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 35 year-old male with pain and swelling in his right thigh. By CT and sonography, an abscess was localized to the deep, anteromedial, mid-thigh within the quadriceps muscle, along with a 1.3 cm loose body. The infected loose body was removed under ultrasound guidance without complications.

  2. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various degrees of extension. Measurements between 110 and 130° extension present the highest values and the most significant increase after training. The objective of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle strength measurements by the Q Force in older adults in 110° extension. Forty-one healthy older adults, 13 males and 28 females were included in the study. Mean (SD) age was 81.9 (4.89) years. Isometric muscle strength of the Quadriceps muscle was assessed with the Q Force at 110° of knee extension. Participants were measured at two sessions with a three to eight day interval between sessions. To determine relative reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. To determine absolute reliability, Bland and Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA) were calculated and t-tests were performed. Relative reliability of the Q Force is good to excellent as all ICC coefficients are higher than 0.75. Generally a large 95 % LOA, reflecting only moderate absolute reliability, is found as exemplified for the peak torque left leg of -18.6 N to 33.8 N and the right leg of -9.2 N to 26.4 N was between 15.7 and 23.6 Newton representing 25.2 % to 39.9 % of the size of the mean. Small systematic differences in mean were found between measurement session 1 and 2. The present study shows that the Q Force has excellent relative test-retest reliability, but limited absolute test-retest reliability. Since the Q Force is relatively cheap and mobile it is suitable for

  3. Mechanisms of quadriceps muscle weakness in knee joint osteoarthritis: the effects of prolonged vibration on torque and muscle activation in osteoarthritic and healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Rice, David A; McNair, Peter J; Lewis, Gwyn N

    2011-01-01

    A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether γ-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the γ-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ≤0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0.554). γ-loop dysfunction may

  4. Effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hoon; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] Thirty women over 65 years of age diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated in the present study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), a progressive resistance training group (n=10), or a Russian electrical stimulation group (n=10). [Methods] Each group was treated 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, and each session lasted 45 minutes. Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the peak torque of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and at the fourth and eighth weeks of the treatment period. [Results] All groups showed significant intragroup differences in the quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque after the treatment intervention. There were significant intergroup differences between the Russian electrical stimulation group and the other groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation can be effective in strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscle in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Effect of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] The 5-week isometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  6. Impact of pain reported during isometric quadriceps muscle strength testing in people with knee pain: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Daniel L; Stratford, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. A cross-sectional design was used. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from -.36 (95% confidence interval=-.41, -.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms and disease, the data suggest that isometric quadriceps muscle

  7. Impact of Pain Reported During Isometric Quadriceps Muscle Strength Testing in People With Knee Pain: Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. Design A cross-sectional design was used. Methods Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Results Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from −.36 (95% confidence interval=−.41, −.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. Limitations The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Conclusions Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate

  8. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Ebadi, Leyla; Çetin, Ebru

    2018-03-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles' isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball) participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A) 5 min jogging; (B) 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C) 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D) 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s). Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  9. Effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia on quadriceps muscle fatigue in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Romer, Lee M; Haverkamp, Hans C; Lovering, Andrew T; Pegelow, David F; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2006-02-01

    The effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) on quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed in 11 male endurance-trained subjects [peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak) = 56.4 +/- 2.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- SE]. Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer at >or=90% VO2 peak) to exhaustion (13.2 +/- 0.8 min), during which time arterial O2 saturation (Sa(O2)) fell from 97.7 +/- 0.1% at rest to 91.9 +/- 0.9% (range 84-94%) at end exercise, primarily because of changes in blood pH (7.183 +/- 0.017) and body temperature (38.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). On a separate occasion, subjects repeated the exercise, for the same duration and at the same power output as before, but breathed gas mixtures [inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O2)) = 0.25-0.31] that prevented EIAH (Sa(O2) = 97-99%). Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed via supramaximal paired magnetic stimuli of the femoral nerve (1-100 Hz). Immediately after exercise at Fi(O2) 0.21, the mean force response across 1-100 Hz decreased 33 +/- 5% compared with only 15 +/- 5% when EIAH was prevented (P < 0.05). In a subgroup of four less fit subjects, who showed minimal EIAH at Fi(O2) 0.21 (Sa(O2) = 95.3 +/- 0.7%), the decrease in evoked force was exacerbated by 35% (P < 0.05) in response to further desaturation induced via Fi(O2) 0.17 (Sa(O2) = 87.8 +/- 0.5%) for the same duration and intensity of exercise. We conclude that the arterial O2 desaturation that occurs in fit subjects during high-intensity exercise in normoxia (-6 +/- 1% DeltaSa(O2) from rest) contributes significantly toward quadriceps muscle fatigue via a peripheral mechanism.

  10. Mechanisms of quadriceps muscle weakness in knee joint osteoarthritis: the effects of prolonged vibration on torque and muscle activation in osteoarthritic and healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether γ-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Methods Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the γ-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Results Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ≤0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0

  11. Validation of Bedside Ultrasound of Muscle Layer Thickness of the Quadriceps in the Critically Ill Patient (VALIDUM Study).

    PubMed

    Paris, Michael T; Mourtzakis, Marina; Day, Andrew; Leung, Roger; Watharkar, Snehal; Kozar, Rosemary; Earthman, Carrie; Kuchnia, Adam; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Moisey, Lesley; Compher, Charlene; Martin, Niels; Nicolo, Michelle; White, Tom; Roosevelt, Hannah; Peterson, Sarah; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-02-01

    In critically ill patients, muscle atrophy is associated with long-term disability and mortality. Bedside ultrasound may quantify muscle mass, but it has not been validated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we compared ultrasound-based quadriceps muscle layer thickness (QMLT) with precise quantifications of computed tomography (CT)-based muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Patients ≥18 years old with abdominal CT scans performed for clinical reasons were recruited from 9 ICUs for an ultrasound assessment of the quadriceps. CT scans of the third lumbar vertebra, performed <24 hours before or <72 hours after ICU admission, were analyzed for CSA. Low muscularity was defined as 170 cm 2 for men and 110 cm 2 for women. The ultrasound probe was maximally compressed against the skin and QMLT was measured on 2 sites of each quadriceps <72 hours of the CT scan. Mean CT-derived muscle CSA was 109 ± 25 cm 2 for women and 168 ± 37 cm 2 for men, where 58% of patients exhibited low muscularity; only 2.7% patients were underweight according to body mass index. QMLT was positively correlated with CT CSA ( r = 0.45, P < .001). Based on logistic regression to predict low muscularity, QMLT independently generated a concordance index ( c) of 0.67 ( P < .002), which increased to 0.77 ( P < .001) when age, sex, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and admission type (surgical vs medical) were added. Our results suggest that QMLT alone with our current protocol may not accurately identify patients with low muscle mass.

  12. Contribution of hamstring fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Hart, Joseph M; Kerrigan, D Casey; Fritz, Julie M; Saliba, Ethan N; Gansneder, Bruce; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of hamstrings and quadriceps fatigue to quadriceps inhibition following lumbar extension exercise. Regression models were calculated consisting of the outcome variable: quadriceps inhibition and predictor variables: change in EMG median frequency in the quadriceps and hamstrings during lumbar fatiguing exercise. Twenty-five subjects with a history of low back pain were matched by gender, height and mass to 25 healthy controls. Subjects performed two sets of fatiguing isometric lumbar extension exercise until mild (set 1) and moderate (set 2) fatigue of the lumbar paraspinals. Quadriceps and hamstring EMG median frequency were measured while subjects performed fatiguing exercise. A burst of electrical stimuli was superimposed while subjects performed an isometric maximal quadriceps contraction to estimate quadriceps inhibition after each exercise set. Results indicate the change in hamstring median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the exercise sets in the history of low back pain group only. Change in quadriceps median frequency explained variance in quadriceps inhibition following the first exercise set in the control group only. In conclusion, persons with a history of low back pain whose quadriceps become inhibited following lumbar paraspinal exercise may be adapting to the fatigue by using their hamstring muscles more than controls. Key PointsA neuromuscular relationship between the lumbar paraspinals and quadriceps while performing lumbar extension exercise may be influenced by hamstring muscle fatigue.QI following lumbar extension exercise in persons with a history of LBP group may involve significant contribution from the hamstring muscle group.More hamstring muscle contribution may be a necessary adaptation in the history of LBP group due to weaker and more fatigable lumbar extensors.

  13. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Training Effects of Alternated and Pulsed Currents on the Quadriceps Muscles of Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro; Modesto, Karenina Arrais Guida; Bottaro, Martim; Babault, Nicolas; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti

    2018-05-22

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks training with different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) currents (medium alternated and low-frequency pulsed current) on muscle architecture and neuromuscular performance of competitive athletes. A double-blind controlled and randomized experimental study was carried out with 33 athletes (22.2±2.6 yrs, 74.7±9.8 kg, 176.8±6.0 cm), divided into 3 groups: mid-frequency current (MF, n=12), pulsed current (PC, n=11) and the control group (CG, n=10). Quadriceps maximal voluntary peak torque (PT) and corresponding vastus lateralis electromyographic activity, evoked torque (PT-NMES), vastus lateralis muscle thickness, fascicle length, pennation angle, and level of discomfort were assessed before and after the interventions. NMES training was performed 3 times per week and consisted of 18 sessions, 15 min/session, 6 s duration in each contraction interspersed with 18 s rest. After the training period, muscle thickness increased in the MF and PC groups (p<0.05). PT-NMES increased only in the PC group (p<0.05). All currents produced similar levels of discomfort (p>0.05). Quadriceps NMES training applied through alternated or pulsed currents produced similar effects in architecture and neuromuscular performance in competitive athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The associations between quadriceps muscle strength, power, and knee joint mechanics in knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Amanda M; Thomas, Abbey C; Armstrong, Charles W; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Tevald, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal knee joint mechanics have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Deficits in muscle function (i.e., strength and power) may contribute to abnormal knee joint loading. The associations between quadriceps strength, power and knee joint mechanics remain unclear in knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to collect peak knee joint angles and moments during the first 50% of stance phase of gait in 33 participants with knee osteoarthritis. Quadriceps strength and power were assessed using a knee extension machine. Strength was quantified as the one repetition maximum. Power was quantified as the peak power produced at 40-90% of the one repetition maximum. Quadriceps strength accounted for 15% of the variance in peak knee flexion angle (P=0.016). Quadriceps power accounted for 20-29% of the variance in peak knee flexion angle (P<0.05). Quadriceps power at 90% of one repetition maximum accounted for 9% of the variance in peak knee adduction moment (P=0.05). These data suggest that quadriceps power explains more variance in knee flexion angle and knee adduction moment during gait in knee osteoarthritis than quadriceps strength. Additionally, quadriceps power at multiple loads is associated with knee joint mechanics and therefore should be assessed at a variety of loads. Taken together, these results indicate that quadriceps power may be a potential target for interventions aimed at changing knee joint mechanics in knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Focal vibration of quadriceps muscle enhances leg power and decreases knee joint laxity in female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, O; Botti, F M; Roscini, M; Brunetti, A; Panichi, R; Filippi, G M; Biscarini, A; Pettorossi, V E

    2012-12-01

    This double-blind randomized controlled study aims at determining the effect of repeated muscle vibration (rMV) on explosive and reactive leg power and on knee laxity of female volleyball players. Eighteen voluntary volleyball athletes, belonging to the same senior regional level team (age=22.7 ± 3 years, height=180.3 ± 5 cm, mass= 64 ± 4 kg) were assigned to three groups (N.=6) for vibration on contracted quadriceps (VC), vibration on relaxed muscle (VR), and sham vibration (NV), respectively. Intervention consisted in 3 rMV sessions performed in 3 consecutive days. In each session, 100 Hz, 300-500 μm amplitude vibratory stimuli were bilaterally delivered to the quadriceps in three consecutive 10-minutes applications. Explosive and reactive leg power and knee joint laxity were evaluated 1 day before, and 1, 30, and 240 days after intervention. In VC group, explosive and reactive leg power increased respectively by ~16% and ~9% at 1 day, by ~19% and ~11% at 30 days and by ~26% and ~13% at 240 days, concomitantly knee laxity decreased by ~6%, ~15% and ~18% at the same times. These changes were significantly larger than in the other groups, in which leg power increment and knee joint laxity reduction remained close to ~3%, ~5% and ~10% at 1, 30 and 240 days, respectively. Combined bilateral voluntary contraction and rMV of the quadriceps muscles is a short-lasting, non-invasive technique that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance and knee laxity in volleyball women players.

  17. The relationship between quadriceps muscle force, knee flexion, and anterior cruciate ligament strain in an in vitro simulated jump landing.

    PubMed

    Withrow, Thomas J; Huston, Laura J; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2006-02-01

    An instrumented cadaveric knee construct was used to quantify the association between impact force, quadriceps force, knee flexion angle, and anterior cruciate ligament relative strain in simulated unipedal jump landings. Anterior cruciate ligament strain will correlate with impact force, quadriceps force, and knee flexion angle. Descriptive laboratory study. Eleven cadaveric knees (age, 70.8 [19.3] years; 5 male; 6 female) were mounted in a custom fixture with the tibia and femur secured to a triaxial load cell. Quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle forces were simulated using pretensioned steel cables (stiffness, 7 kN/cm), and the quadriceps tendon force was measured using a load cell. Mean strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a DVRT. With the knee in 25 degrees of flexion, the construct was vertically loaded by an impact force initially directed 4 cm posterior to the knee joint center. Tibiofemoral kinematics was measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system. The increase in anterior cruciate ligament relative strain was proportional to the increase in quadriceps force (r(2) = 0.74; P < .00001) and knee flexion angle (r(2) = 0.88; P < .00001) but was not correlated with the impact force (r(2) = 0.009; P = .08). The increase in knee flexion and quadriceps force during this simulated 1-footed landing strongly influenced the relative strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament. These results suggest that even in the presence of knee flexor muscle forces, the increase in quadriceps force required to prevent the knee from flexing during landing can place the anterior cruciate ligament at risk for large strains.

  18. Electromyography of the quadriceps in patellofemoral pain with patellar subluxation.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Karen J; Kvitne, Ronald S; Pink, Marilyn M; Fideler, Bradley; Perry, Jacquelin

    2003-10-01

    This study compared muscle activity and timing of gait phases during functional activities in 13 subjects with patellofemoral pain associated with lateral subluxation and in 11 subjects with healthy knees. Fine wire electromyography recorded activity in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis oblique during walking and ascending and descending stairs. Subjects were filmed to divide the activities into phases and determine timing. The vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis had similar patterns during all activities. Subjects with patellofemoral pain had significantly increased activity in the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis compared with the healthy subjects during the most demanding phases of the gait cycle, suggesting a generalized quadriceps weakness in the patients with patellofemoral pain. Timing differences were seen in walking and stair ascending with the subjects with patellofemoral pain spending significantly more time in stance compared with the healthy subjects. This may be an attempt to reduce the load on weak quadriceps. These data reflect a generalized quadriceps muscle weakness, rather than the prevailing theory of quadriceps muscle imbalance as an etiology of patellofemoral pain. Therefore, we support the practice of strengthening the entire quadriceps muscle group, rather than attempting to specifically target the vastus medialis oblique.

  19. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. −1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. −8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. −12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. −6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

  20. Urethane inhibits genioglossal long-term facilitation in un-paralyzed anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying; Ling, Liming

    2010-06-25

    For approximately 3 decades, urethane has been (partially or solely) used as a successful anesthetic in numerous respiratory long-term facilitation (LTF) studies, which were performed on anesthetized, paralyzed, vagotomized and artificially ventilated animals of several different species. However, things become complicated when LTF of muscle activity is studied in un-paralyzed animals. For example, a commonly used acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) protocol failed to induce muscle LTF in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. But muscle LTF could be induced when hypoxic episode number was increased and/or anesthetics other than urethane were used. In these studies however, neither anesthetic nor paralysis was mentioned as a potential factor influencing AIH-induced muscle LTF. This study tested whether urethane inhibits AIH-induced genioglossal LTF (gLTF) in un-paralyzed ventilated rats, and if so, determined whether reducing urethane dose reverses this inhibition. Three groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized (Group 1: approximately 1.6 g kg(-1) urethane; Group 2: 50 mg kg(-1) alpha-chloralose +0.9-1.2 g kg(-1) urethane; Group 3: 0.9 g kg(-1) urethane +200-400 microg kg(-1) min(-1) alphaxalone), vagotomized and mechanically ventilated. Integrated genioglossus activity was measured before, during and after AIH (5 episodes of 3-min isocapnic 12% O(2), separated by 3-min hyperoxic intervals). The AIH-induced gLTF was absent in Group 1 rats (success rate was only approximately 1/7), but was present in Group 2 (in 10/12 rats) and Group 3 (in 11/11 rats) rats. The genioglossal response to hypoxia was not significantly different among the 3 groups. Collectively, these data suggest that urethane dose-dependently inhibits gLTF in un-paralyzed anesthetized rats. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A cortical-spinal prosthesis for targeted limb movement in paralyzed primate avatars

    PubMed Central

    Shanechi, Maryam M.; Hu, Rollin C.; Williams, Ziv M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor paralysis is among the most disabling aspects of injury to the central nervous system. Here we develop and test a target-based cortical-spinal neural prosthesis that employs neural activity recorded from pre-motor neurons to control limb movements in functionally paralyzed primate avatars. Given the complexity by which muscle contractions are naturally controlled, we approach the problem of eliciting goal-directed limb movement in paralyzed animals by focusing on the intended targets of movement rather than their intermediate trajectories. We then match this information in real-time with spinal cord and muscle stimulation parameters that produce free planar limb movements to those intended target locations. We demonstrate that both the decoded activities of pre-motor populations and their adaptive responses can be used, after brief training, to effectively direct an avatar’s limb to distinct targets variably displayed on a screen. These findings advance the future possibility of reconstituting targeted limb movement in paralyzed subjects. PMID:24549394

  2. Progress for the Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Progress for the Paralyzed Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... Paralyzed —The expanding options for paralyzed individuals include: robotic arms spinal cord stimulation improved prosthetic limbs restored ...

  3. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles.

  4. QUADRICEPS LOW FREQUENCY FATIGUE AND MUSCLE PAIN ARE CONTRACTION TYPE DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Masaki; Shields, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Eccentric contractions are thought to induce greater low frequency fatigue (LFF) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) than concentric contractions. This study induced a similar amount of eccentric quadriceps muscle fatigue during either a concentric or eccentric fatigue task to compare LFF and DOMS. Methods Subjects (n=22) performed concentric or eccentric fatigue tasks using 75% of the pre-fatigue maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and both tasks ended when the MVC eccentric torque decreased by 25% pre-fatigue. Results When subjects reached the failure criterion during the eccentric and concentric tasks, the concentric MVC was 78 ± 9.8% and 64 ± 8.4% of initial, respectively. LFF was greater after the concentric than the eccentric protocols (22 ± 12.4% and 15 ± 7.6% increase, respectively; p < 0.01). DOMS was over 100% greater for the eccentric protocol. Discussion These results indicate that DOMS is not dependent on the events that contribute to LFF. PMID:20544933

  5. Effect of time-dependent cryotherapy on redox balance of quadriceps injuries.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marco Aurélio dos Santos; Carvalho, Taiara Ramos de; Cruz, Amanda Cristina Marques Barros da; Jesus, Lennon Rafael Guedine de; Silva Neto, Larissa Alexsandra da; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Bezerra, Frank Silva

    2016-02-01

    Muscle trauma represents a high number of injuries in professional sport and recreation and may occur through several mechanisms. This study aims at analyzing time-dependent effects of cryotherapy on the redox balance in lesioned quadriceps muscles in F1 mice. Twenty male F1 mice were divided into five groups: (a) animals were not subjected to muscle lesioning or treatment (CTR); (b) quadriceps muscle was lesioned without treatment (L); (c) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 5 min (LC5); (d) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 20 min (LC20); and quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 40 min (LC40). The mice were euthanized; the quadriceps muscles were collected and subjected to analyses for levels of protein, hydroperoxides, nitrite, catalase (CAT) activity, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Protein levels were reduced in L (-39%; p < 0.05), LC5 (-54%; p < 0.05), LC20 (-40%; p < 0.05) and LC40 (-50%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation in L (158%; p < 0.05), LC5 (300%; p < 0.01), LC20 (292%; p < 0.01) and LC40 (362%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR. We observed a significant increase in CAT activity in L (164%; p < 0.05) and LC5 (193%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR; a significant reduction in GSH in L (-60%; p < 0.05) and LC20 (-61%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR; and a significant increase in GSSG in LC5 (171%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR. In addition, GSH/GSSG was reduced in L (-89%; p < 0.01), LC5 (-95%; p < 0.01), LC20 (-59%; p < 0.05), and LC40 (-82%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR. This study showed that the cryotherapy does not improve the oxidative stress in lesioned muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force

    PubMed Central

    Çetin, Ebru

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles’ isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball) participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A) 5 min jogging; (B) 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C) 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D) 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s). Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  7. Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen availability during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Spetsioti, Stavroula; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we wished to determine whether the observed reduction in quadriceps muscle oxygen availability, reported during repetitive bouts of isometric exercise in simulated sailing efforts (i.e. hiking), is because of restricted muscle blood flow. Six national-squad Laser sailors initially performed three successive 3-min hiking bouts followed by three successive 3-min cycling tests sustained at constant intensities reproducing the cardiac output recorded during each of the three hiking bouts. The blood flow index (BFI) was determined from assessment of the vastus lateralis using near-infrared spectroscopy in association with the light-absorbing tracer indocyanine green dye, while cardiac output was determined from impedance cardiography. At equivalent cardiac outputs (ranging from 10.3±0.5 to 14.8±0.86 L · min(-1)), the increase from baseline in vastus lateralis BFI across the three hiking bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 3.1±0.6 nM · s(-1)) was lower (P = 0.036) than that seen during the three cycling bouts (from 1.1±0.2 to 7.2±1.4 nM · s(-1)) (Cohen's d: 3.80 nM · s(-1)), whereas the increase from baseline in deoxygenated haemoglobin (by ∼17.0±2.9 μM) (an index of tissue oxygen extraction) was greater (P = 0.006) during hiking than cycling (by ∼5.3±2.7 μM) (Cohen's d: 4.17 μM). The results suggest that reduced vastus lateralis muscle oxygen availability during hiking arises from restricted muscle blood flow in the isometrically acting quadriceps muscles.

  8. Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher Lean Mass and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Hannan, Marian T; Kiel, Douglas P; McLean, Robert R

    2015-07-01

    The impact of dietary protein intake on lower extremity lean mass and strength in community-dwelling adult Americans is not fully understood. The objective was to determine the associations between total protein (TP), animal protein (AP), and plant protein (PP) intakes and lean mass of the legs and quadriceps muscle strength. We further examined whether the associations with quadriceps strength may be explained by lean mass of the legs. This cross-sectional study included men (n = 1166) and women (n = 1509) from the Framingham Offspring Cohort in Massachusetts. Protein intake in grams per day was measured in either 1995-1998 or 1998-2001. Leg lean mass and isometric quadriceps strength, both in kilograms, were measured in 1996-2001. Multilinear regression models estimated adjusted least squares means of each of the muscle measures by quartile categories of protein intake, adjusting for relevant confounders and covariates. Mean age was 59 ± 9 y (range: 29-86 y) and TP intake was 80 ± 27 g/d in men and 76 ± 26 g/d in women. In men and women, leg lean mass was higher in participants in the highest quartiles of TP and AP intake compared with those in the lowest quartiles of intake [least squares means (kg): TP-17.6 vs. 17.1 in men, P-trend: 0.005, and 11.7 vs. 11.4 in women, P-trend: 0.006; AP-17.6 vs. 17.1 in men, P-trend: 0.002, and 11.7 vs. 11.4 in women, P-trend: 0.003]. PP intake was not associated with lean mass in either sex. In men and women, quadriceps strength was higher in participants in the highest quartile of PP intake compared with those in the lowest quartile [least squares means (kg): 22.9 vs. 21.7 in men, P-trend: 0.01, and 19.0 vs. 18.2 in women, P-trend: 0.01]; this association was no longer significant after adjustment for fruit and vegetable intake (P-trend: 0.06 in men and 0.10 in women). Although no significant association was observed for AP intake in either sex, nonsignificant protective trends were observed for TP intake (P-trend: 0.08 in

  9. Effect of eccentric exercise with reduced muscle glycogen on plasma interleukin-6 and neuromuscular responses of musculus quadriceps femoris.

    PubMed

    Gavin, James P; Myers, Stephen D; Willems, Mark E T

    2016-07-01

    Eccentric exercise can result in muscle damage and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. Glycogen availability is a potent stimulator of IL-6 secretion. We examined effects of eccentric exercise in a low-glycogen state on neuromuscular function and plasma IL-6 secretion. Twelve active men (23 ± 4 yr, 179 ± 5 cm, 77 ± 10 kg, means ± SD) completed two downhill treadmill runs (gradient, -12%, 5 × 8 min; speed, 12.1 ± 1.1 km/h) with normal (NG) and reduced muscle glycogen (RG) in randomized order and at least 6 wk apart. Muscle glycogen was reduced using an established cycling protocol until exhaustion and dietary manipulation the evening before the morning run. Physiological responses were measured up to 48 h after the downhill runs. During recovery, force deficits of musculus quadriceps femoris by maximal isometric contractions were similar. Changes in low-frequency fatigue were larger with RG. Voluntary activation and plasma IL-6 levels were similar in recovery between conditions. It is concluded that unaccustomed, damaging eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen of the m. quadriceps femoris 1) exacerbated low-frequency fatigue but 2) had no additional effect on IL-6 secretion. Neuromuscular impairment after eccentric exercise with low muscle glycogen appears to have a greater peripheral component in early recovery. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Quadriceps oxygenation during isometric exercise in sailing.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, I; Tzineris, D; Athanasopoulos, D; Georgiadou, O; Geladas, N

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate why blood lactate after prolonged quadriceps contraction during hiking is only marginally increased. Eight sailors performed five 3-min hiking bouts interspersed with 5-s recovery periods. Whole body oxygen uptake, heart rate and lactate were recorded, along with continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy measures of quadriceps oxygenation. The time for 50% re-oxygenation was also assessed as an indication of the degree of localized oxygen delivery stress. Hiking elicited a significant (p = 0.001) increase in mean (+/- SD) heart rate (124 +/- 10 beats . min (-1)) which was accompanied by a disproportionately low oxygen uptake (12 +/- 2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Lactate was significantly (p = 0.001) increased throughout hiking manoeuvres, though post-exercise it remained low (3.2 +/- 0.9 mmol.l(-1)). During the hiking bouts mean quadriceps oxygenation was significantly (p = 0.001) reduced compared to baseline (by 33 +/- 5%), indicating an imbalance between muscle oxygen accessibility and oxygen demand. During rest intervals quadriceps oxygenation was partially restored. After the end of the final bout the time for 50 % re-oxygenation was only 8 +/- 2 s, whereas recovery of quadriceps oxygenation and oxygen uptake was completed within 3 min. We conclude that the observed low lactate could be attributed to the small oxygen and energy deficits during hiking as the muscles' oxygen accessibility is presumably partially restored during the brief rest intervals.

  11. Asymmetry of quadriceps muscle oxygenation during elite short-track speed skating.

    PubMed

    Hesford, Catherine Mary; Laing, Stewart J; Cardinale, Marco; Cooper, Chris E

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that, because of the low sitting position in short-track speed skating, muscle blood flow is restricted, leading to decreases in tissue oxygenation. Therefore, wearable wireless-enabled near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology was used to monitor changes in quadriceps muscle blood volume and oxygenation during a 500-m race simulation in short-track speed skaters. Six elite skaters, all of Olympic standard (age = 23 ± 1.8 yr, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 80.1 ± 5.7 kg, midthigh skinfold thickness = 7 ± 2 mm), were studied. Subjects completed a 500-m race simulation time trial (TT). Whole-body oxygen consumption was simultaneously measured with muscle oxygenation in right and left vastus lateralis as measured by NIRS. Mean time for race completion was 44.8 ± 0.4 s. VO2 peaked 20 s into the race. In contrast, muscle tissue oxygen saturation (TSI%) decreased and plateaued after 8 s. Linear regression analysis showed that right leg TSI% remained constant throughout the rest of the TT (slope value = 0.01), whereas left leg TSI% increased steadily (slope value = 0.16), leading to a significant asymmetry (P < 0.05) in the final lap. Total muscle blood volume decreased equally in both legs at the start of the simulation. However, during subsequent laps, there was a strong asymmetry during cornering; when skaters traveled solely on the right leg, there was a decrease in its muscle blood volume, whereas an increase was seen in the left leg. NIRS was shown to be a viable tool for wireless monitoring of muscle oxygenation. The asymmetry in muscle desaturation observed on the two legs in short-track speed skating has implications for training and performance.

  12. The 12-week progressive quadriceps resistance training improves muscle strength, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Ewa A; Wegrzynowska, Kinga; Superlak, Malgorzata; Nowakowska, Katarzyna; Lazorczyk, Malgorzata; Biel, Bartosz; Kustrzycka-Kratochwil, Dorota; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Banasiak, Waldemar; Wozniewski, Marek; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2008-10-30

    Abnormalities in the skeletal musculature underlie exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (CHF). We investigated, whether in CHF selective resistance training without accompanying aerobic regime favourably affects muscle strength, muscle mass and improves exercise capacity. Ten patients with stable ischaemic CHF in NYHA class III (9 men, age: 70+/-6 years [mean+/-SD], left ventricular ejection fraction: 30+/-5%, peak oxygen consumption [peak VO(2)]: 12.4+/-3.0 mL/min/kg) underwent the rehabilitation programme which consisted of a 12-week training phase (progressive resistance exercises restricted to the quadriceps muscles) followed by a 12-week detraining phase. All subjects completed a training phase of the programme with no adverse events. Resistance training markedly increased quadriceps strength (right leg: 260+/-34 vs. 352+/-28 N, left leg: 264+/-38 vs. 342+/-30 N, both p<0.01 - all comparisons: baseline vs. after training), but did not affect lean tissue mass of lower extremities (both p>0.2). It was accompanied by an improvement in clinical status (all NYHA III vs. all NYHA II, p<0.01), quality of life (Minnesota questionnaire: 44+/-15 vs. 33+/-18 points, p<0.05), exercise capacity assessed using a distance during 6-minute walk test (6MWT: 362+/-83 vs. 455+/-71 m, p<0.01), but not peak VO(2) (p>0.2). Plasma NT-proBNP remained unchanged during the training. At the end of detraining phase, only a partial improvement in quadriceps strength (p<0.05), a 6MWT distance (p<0.05) and NYHA class (p=0.07 vs. baseline) persisted. Applied resistance quadriceps training is safe in patients with CHF. It increases muscle strength, improves clinical status, exercise capacity, and quality of life.

  13. Noninvasive evaluation of muscle mass by ultrasonography of quadriceps femoris muscle in End-Stage Renal Disease patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Alice; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Delsante, Marco; Di Motta, Tommaso; Cantarelli, Chiara; Pioli, Sarah; Grassi, Giulia; Batini, Valentina; Gregorini, Mariacristina; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2018-05-19

    Protein-Energy Wasting (PEW) is a pathological condition of renal patients with advanced Chronic Kidney Disease characterized by a progressive reduction of energy and protein assets. Nutritional status assessment, especially for what concerns muscle mass, is essential for both the identification of patients at risk for the development of PEW, as well as monitoring the effects of nutritional interventions. Ultrasound methods are easily applicable at the bedside for quantitative assessment of skeletal muscle. The present study was aimed at evaluating quadriceps rectus femoris thickness (QRFT) and quadriceps vastus intermedius thickness (QVIT) in patients on chronic hemodialysis. This was a prospective observational study. Three groups of adult patients were studied: young healthy subjects, well-nourished hospitalized patients with normal renal function, and End-Stage Renal Disease patients on hemodialysis (ESRD-HD). QRFT and QVIT were measured at two sites bilaterally (8 measures/patient) and were compared between groups, and also between subgroups of ESRD-HD patients stratified on the basis of conventional nutritional status parameters. We enrolled 35 healthy subjects, 30 hospitalized patients, and 121 ESRD-HD patients on hemodialysis. QRFT and QVIT of ESRD patients on hemodialysis were lower than those of both control groups (P < 0.001). After stratifying ESRD patients into subgroups based on nutritional variable cut-offs commonly used to define PEW in this clinical setting (BMI [≥ 23 vs <23 kg/m 2 ], albumin [≥3.8 vs <3.8 g/dL]) and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) status (<6 vs ≥6), QRFT and QVIT of patients with worse nutritional status were significantly lower than those of well-nourished ESRD-HD patients (P value range: <0.001 to <0.05). Skeletal muscle ultrasound is a simple and easily applicable bedside technique in the dialysis units, and could represent an adequate tool for the identification of patients with reduced muscle mass. Copyright

  14. Gender differences in tibio-femoral kinematics and quadriceps muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wünschel, Markus; Wülker, Nikolaus; Müller, Otto

    2013-11-01

    Females have a higher risk in terms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during sports than males. Reasons for this fact may be different anatomy and muscle recruitment patterns leading to less protection for the cruciate- and collateral-ligaments. This in vitro study aims to evaluate gender differences in knee joint kinematics and muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexions. Thirty-four human knee specimens (17 females/17 males) were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator. Weight-bearing single-leg knee flexions were performed with different amounts of simulated body weight (BW). Gender-specific kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic motion capture system and different loading conditions were examined. Knee joint kinematics did not show significant differences regarding anteroposterior and medial-lateral movement as well as tibial varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. This applied to all simulated amounts of BW. Simulating 100 N BW in contrast to AF50 led to a significant higher quadriceps overall force in female knees from 45° to 85° of flexion in contrast to BW 50 N. In these female specimens, the quadriceps overall force was about 20 % higher than in male knees being constant in higher flexion angles. It is indicated by our results that in a squatting movement females compared with males produce higher muscle forces, suggesting an increased demand for muscular stabilization, whereas tibio-femoral kinematics was similar for both genders.

  15. Association between leg strength and muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris with the physical activity level in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Arévalo-Arévalo, Juan Manuel; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-03

    Aging is a complex physiological process whose main feature is the progressive loss of functionality, which may be delayed or attenuated by improving physical fitness.  To determine the association between leg strength and the muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in relation to physical activity level in the elderly.  Thirty-two functionally autonomous people over 80 years (men: 82.80±2.09 years; women: 83.77±4.09 years) participated in this study. The Barthel Index, the Yale Physical Activity Survey and the Chair Stand Test were the instruments used.  There were significant differences between sexes in muscle area (p<0.001) in the Chair Stand Test (p=0.028) and the walk index (p=0.029), with higher values in men. The muscle area and the Chair Stand Test correlated significantly with the walk index (r=0.445, p<0.005, and r=0.522, p<0.001, respectively) and the total weekly activity index (r=0.430, p<0.005, and r=0.519, p<0.001, respectively). In the multiple linear regression models for the total weekly activity index, muscle area and the Chair Stand Test, only the latter behaved as a predictor variable.  Muscle strength and muscle mass of quadriceps showed a significant association with the physical activity level in older people. Leg muscle strength was useful to reveal muscle mass and physical activity level in older people, which is relevant as a clinical practice indicator.

  16. Validity and reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for the assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, K; Lauermann, S P; Schneider, D; Item-Glatthorn, J F; Casartelli, N C; Maffiuletti, N A

    2013-12-01

    Reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for quadriceps strength evaluation, and the relation between quadriceps strength and physical function was investigated in 29 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients, with an average age of 63 years. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque, isokinetic peak torque, and isoinertial one-repetition maximum load of the involved and uninvolved quadriceps were evaluated as well as objective (walking parameters) and subjective physical function (WOMAC). Reliability was good and comparable for the isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial strength outcomes on both sides (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.947-0.966; standard error of measurement range: 5.1-9.3%). Involved quadriceps strength was significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.641-0.710), step length (r range: 0.685-0.820) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.575-0.663), independent from the modality (P < 0.05). Uninvolved quadriceps strength was also significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.413-0.539), step length (r range: 0.514-0.608) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.374-0.554) (P < 0.05), except for WOMAC function/isokinetic peak torque (P > 0.05). In conclusion, isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial modalities ensure valid and reliable assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in TKA patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette; Døssing, Simon; Crameri, Regina M; Welling, Rasmus J; Langberg, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kjaer, Michael; Babraj, John A; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied over 72 h after 1 h of one-legged kicking exercise at 67% of maximum workload (Wmax). To label tissue proteins in muscle and tendon primed, constant infusions of [1-13C]leucine or [1-13C]valine and flooding doses of [15N] or [13C]proline were given intravenously, with estimation of labelling in target proteins by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Patellar tendon and quadriceps biopsies were taken in exercised and rested legs at 6, 24, 42 or 48 and 72 h after exercise. The fractional synthetic rates of all proteins were elevated at 6 h and rose rapidly to peak at 24 h post exercise (tendon collagen (0.077% h−1), muscle collagen (0.054% h−1), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h−1), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h−1)). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise in human tendon and muscle. The similar time course of changes of protein synthetic rates in different cell types supports the idea of coordinated musculotendinous adaptation. PMID:16002437

  18. Selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after 14 weeks of isokinetic and conventional resistance training.

    PubMed

    Matta, Thiago Torres; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier; Trajano, Gabriel S; Simão, Roberto; Willardson, Jeffrey Michael; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    One of the fundamental adaptations observed with resistance training (RT) is muscle hypertrophy. Conventional and isokinetic machines provide different forms of mechanical stress, and it is possible that these two training modes could promote differing degrees of hypertrophic adaptations. There is a lack of data comparing the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after training with a conventional knee extension machine versus an isokinetic machine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature and knee extension maximal isometric torque after 14 weeks of conventional versus isokinetic RT. Thirty-five men were assigned to three groups: control group and training groups (conventional and isokinetic) performed three sets of unilateral knee extensions per session with a progressive loading scheme twice a week. Prior to and following the intervention, maximal isometric knee extensor torque was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, and muscle thickness (MT) of quadriceps femoris muscles was assessed via ultrasound. The results indicated non-uniform changes in MT between the muscles that comprise the quadriceps femoris group. For the conventional group, significantly greater increases in rectus femoris thickness were evident versus all other quadriceps muscles (14%). For the isokinetic group, increases in RF thickness (11%) were significantly greater in comparison with the vastus intermedius only. Although the muscle thickness did not increase for all the quadriceps femoris muscles, the relative rectus femoris adaptation suggested a selective hypertrophy favouring this portion. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Influence of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation on quadriceps activation in individuals with knee joint injury.

    PubMed

    Glaviano, Neal R; Langston, William T; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is a common intervention to address muscle weakness, however presents with many limitations such as fatigue, muscle damage, and patient discomfort that may influence its effectiveness. One novel form of electrical stimulation purported to improve neuromuscular re-education is Patterned Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (PENS), which is proposed to mimic muscle-firing patterns of healthy individuals. PENS provides patterned stimulating to the agonist muscle, antagonist muscle and then agonist muscle again in an effort to replicate firing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a single PENS treatment on knee extension torque and quadriceps activation in individuals with quadriceps inhibition. 18 subjects (10 males and 8 females: 24.2±3.4 years, 175.3±11.8cm, 81.8±12.4kg) with a history of knee injury/pain participated in this double-blinded randomized controlled laboratory trial. Participants demonstrated quadriceps inhibition with a central activation ratio of ≤90%. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps and central activation ratio were measured before and after treatment. The treatment intervention was a 15-minute patterned electrical stimulation applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles with a strong motor contraction or a sham group, who received an identical set up as the PENS group, but received a 1mA subsensory stimulation. A 2×2 (group × time) ANCOVA was used to determine differences in maximal voluntary isometric contraction and central activation ratio between groups. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was selected as a covariate due to baseline differences. There were no differences in change scores between pre- and post-intervention for maximal voluntary isometric contraction: (PENS: 0.09±0.32Nm/kg and Sham 0.15±0.18Nm/kg, p=0.713), or central activation ratio:(PENS: -1.22±6.06 and Sham: 1.48±3.7, p=0.270). A single Patterned Electrical

  20. Electrically induced contraction levels of the quadriceps femoris muscles in healthy men: the effects of three patterns of burst-modulated alternating current and volitional muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael G; Broughton, Alex J; Larsen, Ben R; Dinius, Josh W; Cimbura, Mac J; Davis, Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare electrically induced contraction levels produced by three patterns of alternating current in fatigued and nonfatigued skeletal muscles. Eighteen male volunteers without health conditions, with a mean (SD) age of 24.9 (3.4) yrs were randomly exposed to a fatiguing volitional isometric quadriceps contraction and one of three patterns of 2.5-KHz alternating current; two were modulated at 50 bursts per second (10% burst duty cycle with five cycles per burst and 90% burst duty cycle with 45 cycles per burst), and one pattern was modulated at 100 bursts per second (10% burst duty cycle with 2.5 cycles per burst). The electrically induced contraction levels produced by the three patterns of electrical stimulation were compared before and after the fatiguing contraction. The 10% burst duty cycles produced 42.9% (95% confidence interval, 29.1%-56.7%) and 32.1% (95% confidence interval, 18.2%-45.9%) more muscle force (P < 0.001) than did the 90% burst duty cycle pattern. There was no significant interaction effect (P = 0.392) of electrical stimulation patterns and fatigue on the electrically induced contraction levels. The lower burst duty cycle (10%) patterns of electrical stimulation produced stronger muscle contractions. Furthermore, the stimulation patterns had no influence on the difference in muscle force before and after the fatiguing quadriceps contraction. Consequently, for clinical applications in which high forces are desired, the patterns using the 10% burst duty cycle may be helpful.

  1. Inter- and intramuscular differences in training-induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris: association with muscle activation during the first training session.

    PubMed

    Wakahara, Taku; Ema, Ryoichi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether inter- and intramuscular differences in hypertrophy induced by resistance training correspond to differences in muscle activation during the first training session. Eleven young men completed 12 weeks of training intervention for knee extension. Before and after the intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded to determine the volume and anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) along the length of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The T2-weighted MR images were also acquired before and immediately after the first training session. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the quadriceps femoris, from which the muscle activation was evaluated as %activated volume and area. The results showed that the %activated volume after the first training session was significantly higher in the vastus intermedius than the vastus medialis. However, the relative change in muscle volume after the training intervention was significantly greater in the rectus femoris than the vasti muscles (vastus lateralis, intermedius and medialis). Within the rectus femoris, both the %activated area and relative increase in CSA were significantly greater in the distal region than the proximal region. In contrast, the %activated area and relative increase in CSA of the vasti were nearly uniform along each muscle. These results suggest that the muscle activation during the first training session is associated with the intramuscular difference in hypertrophy induced by training intervention, but not with the intermuscular difference. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Atrophy of the Quadriceps Is Not Isolated to the Vastus Medialis Oblique in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Giles, Lachlan S; Webster, Kate E; McClelland, Jodie A; Cook, Jill

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional. Objectives To determine if quadriceps atrophy was present in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP), and whether the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) was selectively involved. Despite the lack of research investigating individual quadriceps muscle size in individuals with PFP, it has been suggested that selective atrophy of the VMO relative to the vastus lateralis could be associated with PFP. The quadriceps muscle sizes of 35 participants with PFP (22 with unilateral and 13 with bilateral symptoms) and 35 asymptomatic control participants matched for age and sex were measured using real-time ultrasound. The thicknesses of the VMO, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus intermedius were measured. Paired-samples t tests were used to compare muscle thickness between limbs in those with unilateral PFP, and independent t tests were used to compare muscle thickness between groups with and without PFP. Results In those with unilateral PFP, the thickness of all portions of the quadriceps muscle was statistically smaller in the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic limb: VMO (P = .038), vastus medialis (P<.001), vastus lateralis (P = .005), vastus intermedius (P = .013), and rectus femoris (P = .045). No difference was found in thickness of any of the portions of the quadriceps on the affected side of people with PFP compared to asymptomatic controls: VMO (P = .148), vastus medialis (P = .474), vastus lateralis (P = .122), vastus intermedius (P = .466), and rectus femoris (P = .508). Atrophy of all portions of the quadriceps muscles is present in the affected limb of people with unilateral PFP. There was no atrophy of the quadriceps in individuals with PFP compared to those without pathology. Selective atrophy of the VMO relative to the vastus lateralis was not identified in people with PFP.

  3. ACL deficient potential copers and non-copers reveal different isokinetic quadriceps strength profiles in the early stage after injury

    PubMed Central

    Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60°/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40°. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r≥0.32– 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40° of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps

  4. Quadriceps combined with hip abductor strengthening versus quadriceps strengthening in treating knee osteoarthritis: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujie; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Juan; Xu, Lili; Pang, Guoyin; Tang, Haiyan; Chen, Ruyan; Yu, Jihua; Guo, Shengmin; Xu, Fangyuan; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-15

    Lower limb strengthening, especially the quadriceps training, is of much necessity for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Previous studies suggest that strengthening of the hip muscles, especially the hip abductor, can potentially relieve the KOA-associated symptoms. Nevertheless, the effects of quadriceps combined with hip abductor strengthening remain unclear. Therefore, the current randomized controlled trial is designed aiming to observe whether quadriceps in combination with hip abductor strengthening can better improve the function and reduce pain in KOA patients than quadriceps training alone. A total of 80 subjects with symptomatic KOA will be recruited from the communities and hospital outpatient, and will be randomly assigned to the experiment group (Quadriceps-plus-hip-abductor-strengthening) or the control group (Quadriceps-strengthening). Specifically, participants in the experiment group will complete 4 exercises to train the quadriceps and hip abductor twice a day for 6 weeks at home, while those in the control group will only perform 2 exercises to strengthen the quadriceps. Besides, all patients will also receive usual care management, including health education and physical agent therapy when necessary. Knee pain will be measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline, in every week during the course of treatment, as well as 8 and 12 weeks after randomization. Furthermore, knee function will be measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scale, and the quality of life will be measured using the MOS Item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). In this study, several simple tests will be applied to assess the objective function. All the assessments except for VAS will be carried out at baseline, and in the 6th, 8th and 12th weeks respectively. Our findings will provide more evidence for the effects of hip abductor strengthening on relieving pain and improving function in KOA patients. Hip

  5. Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and impaired regeneration in murine femoral Quadriceps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radugina, E. A.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Blaber, E.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Markitantova, Y. V.; Grigoryan, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle histomorphology from microgravity specimens showed signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia relative to ground controls. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei, compared to vivarium and ground controls, and central location of myonuclei, low density of myofibers in the tissue, and of myofibrils within a fiber, as well as fragmentation and swelling of myofibers. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appeared to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed myofibers. Many of them, however, showed evidence of apoptotic cells and myofibril degradation, suggesting that long-term unloading in microgravity may affect late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals demonstrated normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new myofibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscles was observed both in microgravity and ground control groups, using Pax7 and Myogenin

  6. Motoneuron excitability of the quadriceps decreases during a fatiguing submaximal isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Finn, Harrison T; Rouffet, David M; Kennedy, David S; Green, Simon; Taylor, Janet L

    2018-04-01

    During fatiguing voluntary contractions, the excitability of motoneurons innervating arm muscles decreases. However, the behavior of motoneurons innervating quadriceps muscles is unclear. Findings may be inconsistent because descending cortical input influences motoneuron excitability and confounds measures during exercise. To overcome this limitation, we examined effects of fatigue on quadriceps motoneuron excitability tested during brief pauses in descending cortical drive after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Participants ( n = 14) performed brief (~5-s) isometric knee extension contractions before and after a 10-min sustained contraction at ~25% maximal electromyogram (EMG) of vastus medialis (VM) on one ( n = 5) or two ( n = 9) days. Electrical stimulation over thoracic spine elicited thoracic motor evoked potentials (TMEP) in quadriceps muscles during ongoing voluntary drive and 100 ms into the silent period following TMS (TMS-TMEP). Femoral nerve stimulation elicited maximal M-waves (M max ). On the 2 days, either large (~50% M max ) or small (~15% M max ) TMS-TMEPs were elicited. During the 10-min contraction, VM EMG was maintained ( P = 0.39), whereas force decreased by 52% (SD 13%) ( P < 0.001). TMEP area remained unchanged ( P = 0.9), whereas large TMS-TMEPs decreased by 49% (SD 28%) ( P = 0.001) and small TMS-TMEPs by 71% (SD 22%) ( P < 0.001). This decline was greater for small TMS-TMEPs ( P = 0.019; n = 9). Therefore, without the influence of descending drive, quadriceps TMS-TMEPs decreased during fatigue. The greater reduction for smaller responses, which tested motoneurons that were most active during the contraction, suggests a mechanism related to repetitive activity contributes to reduced quadriceps motoneuron excitability during fatigue. By contrast, the unchanged TMEP suggests that ongoing drive compensates for altered motoneuron excitability. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We provide evidence that the excitability of quadriceps

  7. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Jacksteit, Robert; Jackszis, Mario; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer; Skripitz, Ralf; Behrens, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthrosis (KOA) is commonly associated with a dysfunction of the quadriceps muscle which contributes to alterations in motor performance. The underlying neuromuscular mechanisms of muscle dysfunction are not fully understood. The main objective of this study was to analyze how KOA affects neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during different contraction intensities. Materials and methods The following parameters were assessed in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls: (i) joint position sense, i.e. position control (mean absolute error, MAE) at 30° and 50° of knee flexion, (ii) simple reaction time task performance, (iii) isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT) and root mean square of the EMG signal (RMS-EMG), (iv) torque control, i.e. accuracy (MAE), absolute fluctuation (standard deviation, SD), relative fluctuation (coefficient of variation, CV) and periodicity (mean frequency, MNF) of the torque signal at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT, (v) EMG-torque relationship at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT and (vi) performance fatigability, i.e. time to task failure (TTF) at 40% IMVT. Results Compared to the control group, the KOA group displayed: (i) significantly higher MAE of the angle signal at 30° (99.3%; P = 0.027) and 50° (147.9%; P < 0.001), (ii) no significant differences in reaction time, (iii) significantly lower IMVT (-41.6%; P = 0.001) and tendentially lower RMS-EMG of the rectus femoris (-33.7%; P = 0.054), (iv) tendentially higher MAE of the torque signal at 20% IMVT (65.9%; P = 0.068), significantly lower SD of the torque signal at all three torque levels and greater MNF at 60% IMVT (44.8%; P = 0.018), (v) significantly increased RMS-EMG of the vastus lateralis at 20% (70.8%; P = 0.003) and 40% IMVT (33.3%; P = 0.034), significantly lower RMS-EMG of the biceps femoris at 20% (-63.6%; P = 0.044) and 40% IMVT (-41.3%; P = 0.028) and tendentially lower at 60% IMVT (-24.3%; P = 0.075) and (vi) significantly shorter TTF (-51.1%; P = 0

  8. Disruption of quadriceps tendon after total knee arthroplasty: Case report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Soong, J W; Silva, A N; Andrew, Tan Hc

    2017-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but dire complication. It is associated with adverse outcomes and morbidities. Studies on such complications are scarce in the literature. In this study, we share our experience in the management of four patients who sustained quadriceps tendon rupture in the early postoperative period. Efforts should be focused on prevention. Meticulous surgical techniques during the medial parapatellar approach to preserve the integrity of quadriceps can reduce the risk of rupture. The importance of prompt diagnosis is emphasized as delayed treatment may lead to poor outcomes. However, making a diagnosis can be challenging, as worsening of the quadriceps strength after TKA is expected because of the surgical approach that violates the quadriceps muscle. In an event of postoperative trauma with resultant extensor weakness, an ultrasound evaluation to exclude a quadriceps tendon rupture should be promptly performed after a fracture is excluded.

  9. Hip Strength in Patients with Quadriceps Strength Deficits after ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Walden, Courtney E

    2016-10-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and patients with these deficits often shift torque demands away from the knee extensors to the hip during functional tasks. However, it is not clear how quadriceps strength deficits may affect hip strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower extremity strength in individuals with ACL reconstruction with differing levels of quadriceps strength asymmetry. Isometric strength was recorded bilaterally in 135 participants (73 control and 62 with unilateral ACL reconstruction, time from surgery = 30.9 ± 17.6 months) from the knee extensors and flexors, hip extensors and abductors, and hip internal and external rotator muscle groups. Symmetry indices (limb symmetry index (LSI)) were created based on quadriceps strength, and subjects with ACL reconstruction were subdivided (high quadriceps (LSI ≥ 90%), n = 37; low quadriceps (LSI < 85%), n = 18). Individual group (control vs high quadriceps vs low quadriceps) by limb (reconstructed/nondominant vs healthy/dominant) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare strength (%BW) for each of the six joint motions of interest (knee extensors/flexors, hip abductors/extensors/external, and internal rotators) while controlling for time from surgery. An interaction was observed for quadriceps strength (P < 0.001), and the reconstructed limb in the low quadriceps group was weaker than all other limbs. A main effect for group was observed with the low quadriceps group having greater hip extension (P = 0.007) strength in both limbs compared with the other groups. Knee flexion strength was weaker in the reconstructed limb of the high quadriceps group (P = 0.047) compared with all other groups and limbs. Individuals with ACL reconstruction and involved limb quadriceps weakness have greater hip extension strength in both limbs compared with patients with bilateral strength symmetry and controls.

  10. Nandrolone decanoate and physical activity affect quadriceps in peripubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Sretenovic, Jasmina; Ajdzanovic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Srejovic, Ivan; Corbic, Milena; Milosevic, Verica; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Milosavljevic, Zoran

    2018-07-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic analogs of testosterone often used by athletes to increase the skeletal muscle mass. Our goal was to examine the effects of physical activity and physical activity combined with supraphysiological doses of nandrolone on functional morphology of the quadriceps muscle. The study included 32 peripubertal Wistar rats, divided into 4 groups: control (T-N-), nandrolone (T-N+), physical activity (T+N-) and physical activity plus nandrolone (T+N+) groups. The T+N- and T+N+ group swam for 4 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week. The T-N+ and T+N+ groups received nandolone decanoate (20 mg/kg b.w.) once per week, subcutaneously. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed and muscle specimens were prepared for the processing. Tissue sections were histochemically and immunohistochemically stained, while the image analysis was used for quantification. Longitudinal diameter of quadriceps muscle cells was increased for 21% in T-N+, for 57% in T+N- and for 64% in T+N+ group while cross section muscle cell area was increased in T-N+ for 19%, in T+N- for 47% and in T+N+ group for 59%, compared to the control. Collagen fibers covered area was increased in T-N+ group for 36%, in T+N- for 109% and in T+N+ group for 159%, compared to the control. Erythrocyte depots were decreased in T-N+ group and increased in T+N- and T+N+ group, in comparison with T-N-. VEGF depots were increased in all treated groups. Chronic administration of supraphysiological doses of AASs alone or in combination with physical activity induces hypertrophy and significant changes in the quadriceps muscle tissue structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of three different equations for predicting quadriceps femoris muscle strength in patients with COPD *

    PubMed Central

    Nellessen, Aline Gonçalves; Donária, Leila; Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida; Pitta, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare equations for predicting peak quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle force; to determine the agreement among the equations in identifying QF muscle weakness in COPD patients; and to assess the differences in characteristics among the groups of patients classified as having or not having QF muscle weakness by each equation. Methods: Fifty-six COPD patients underwent assessment of peak QF muscle force by dynamometry (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee extension). Predicted values were calculated with three equations: an age-height-weight-gender equation (Eq-AHWG); an age-weight-gender equation (Eq-AWG); and an age-fat-free mass-gender equation (Eq-AFFMG). Results: Comparison of the percentage of predicted values obtained with the three equations showed that the Eq-AHWG gave higher values than did the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, with no difference between the last two. The Eq-AHWG showed moderate agreement with the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, whereas the last two also showed moderate, albeit lower, agreement with each other. In the sample as a whole, QF muscle weakness (< 80% of predicted) was identified by the Eq-AHWG, Eq-AWG, and Eq-AFFMG in 59%, 68%, and 70% of the patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Age, fat-free mass, and body mass index are characteristics that differentiate between patients with and without QF muscle weakness. Conclusions: The three equations were statistically equivalent in classifying COPD patients as having or not having QF muscle weakness. However, the Eq-AHWG gave higher peak force values than did the Eq-AWG and the Eq-AFFMG, as well as showing greater agreement with the other equations. PMID:26398750

  12. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios.

    PubMed

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-10-18

    To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). Similarly, static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, when the functional H/Q strength ratios were taken into consideration, the pre-intervention values were not significant different between the groups both during the entire and end range of knee extension (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static

  13. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). Similarly, static stretching also decreased eccentric and concentric hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P < 0.01). On the other hand, when the functional H/Q strength ratios were taken into consideration, the pre-intervention values were not significant different between the groups both during the entire and end range of knee extension (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension

  14. Spatial distribution of motor units recruited during electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle versus the femoral nerve.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Place, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the spatial recruitment of motor units (MUs) in the quadriceps when electrical stimulation is applied over the quadriceps belly versus the femoral nerve. M-waves and mechanical twitches were evoked using over-the-quadriceps and femoral nerve stimulation of gradually increasing intensity from 22 young, healthy subjects. Spatial recruitment was investigated using recruitment curves of M-waves recorded from the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) and of twitches recorded from the quadriceps. At maximal stimulation intensity (Imax), no differences were found between nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation. At submaximal intensities, VL M-wave amplitude was higher for over-the-quadriceps stimulation at 40% Imax, and peak twitch force was greater for nerve stimulation at 60% and 80% Imax. For the VM, MU spatial recruitment during nerve and over-the-quadriceps stimulation of increasing intensity occurred in a similar manner, whereas significant differences were observed for the VL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship of quadriceps muscle power and optimal shortening velocity with angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in older women.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Joanna; Sikora, Joanna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is related to muscle function (strength, power and velocity), as well as to assess if ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and other angiotensin system blocking medications (ASBMs) influence muscle performance in elderly women. Ninety-five community-dwelling elderly women took part in this study. Anthropometric data, blood ACE activity analysis, maximum power (P max ) and optimal shortening velocity (υ opt ) of the knee extensor muscles, handgrip strength, physical activity (PA) and functional performance were measured. Women taking ACEI were on average almost 2 years older than the women who did not take ACEI. They took more medicines and were also characterized by significantly lower level of ACE, but they did not differ in terms of PA level, results of functional performance and parameters characterizing muscle functions. No correlations of ACE activity with P max and handgrip strength, as well as with PA or functional performance were found. Higher ACE activity was connected with lower υ opt for women who did not take any ASBMs (rho =-0.37; p =0.01). Serum ACE activity was not associated with muscle strength, power and functional performance in both ASBM users and nonusers, but was associated with optimal shortening velocity of quadriceps muscles in older women. Further prospective studies are needed to assess if ACEIs or other ASBMs may slow down the decline in muscle function and performance.

  16. Extended healing validation of an artificial tendon to connect the quadriceps muscle to the Tibia: 180-day study.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 ± 93 N (vs. 1,179 ± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 ± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Long-term paired associative stimulation can restore voluntary control over paralyzed muscles in incomplete chronic spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Shulga, Anastasia; Lioumis, Pantelis; Zubareva, Aleksandra; Brandstack, Nina; Kuusela, Linda; Kirveskari, Erika; Savolainen, Sarianna; Ylinen, Aarne; Mäkelä, Jyrki P

    2016-01-01

    Emerging therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury aim at sparing or restoring at least part of the corticospinal tract at the acute stage. Hence, approaches that strengthen the weak connections that are spared or restored are crucial. Transient plastic changes in the human corticospinal tract can be induced through paired associative stimulation, a noninvasive technique in which transcranial magnetic brain stimulation is synchronized with electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. A single paired associative stimulation session can induce transient plasticity in spinal cord injury patients. It is not known whether paired associative stimulation can strengthen neuronal connections persistently and have therapeutic effects that are clinically relevant. We recruited two patients with motor-incomplete chronic (one para- and one tetraplegic) spinal cord injuries. The patients received paired associative stimulation for 20–24 weeks. The paraplegic patient, previously paralyzed below the knee level, regained plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankles of both legs. The tetraplegic patient regained grasping ability. The newly acquired voluntary movements could be performed by the patients in the absence of stimulation and for at least 1 month after the last stimulation session. In this unblinded proof-of-principle demonstration in two subjects, long-term paired associative stimulation induced persistent and clinically relevant strengthening of neural connections and restored voluntary movement in previously paralyzed muscles. Further study is needed to confirm whether long-term paired associative stimulation can be used in rehabilitation after spinal cord injury by itself and, possibly, in combination with other therapeutic strategies. PMID:28053760

  18. Growth trend of the quadriceps femoris muscle in junior Olympic weight lifters: an 18-month follow-up survey.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Funato, Kazuo; Kuno, Shinya; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Katsuta, Shigeru

    2003-05-01

    Isometric torque and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle (QF) were measured twice at an interval of 18 months in seven junior Olympic weight lifters (aged 15.5-17.1 years at the start of the study) to investigate the growth trend of this muscle group in junior athletes specializing in strength and power events. The CSAs of the QF and its four constituent muscles were determined at 30% (proximal to the knee), 50%, and 70% of femur length (Fl) using a magnetic resonance imaging method. Only at 30%Fl were significant increases found in the CSAs of the QF and all constituent muscles, except for the rectus femoris. At this level, the CSA of the vastus medialis relative to the QF decreased significantly, suggesting a predominant hypertrophy in the vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis muscles. Isometric torque during knee extension increased significantly compared, to the CSA for the QF measured at the three levels. Thus, the present results indicate that, at least at high school age, the QF for junior Olympic weight lifters is characterized by a preferential hypertrophy at the level proximal to the knee joint, with an increase in knee extension torque relative to the CSA.

  19. Muscle mass and composition of the hip, thigh and abdominal muscles in women with and without hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Ikezoe, Tome; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Akiyama, Haruhiko; So, Kazutaka; Kuroda, Yutaka; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare muscle mass and composition between individuals with and without hip osteoarthritis. Twenty-four women with hip osteoarthritis (OA group) and 16 healthy women (healthy group) participated in this study. Muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) were measured as indices of muscle mass and composition, respectively, using ultrasound imaging. Seven muscles were examined: gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, quadriceps femoris, rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis. MT of only quadriceps femoris in the OA group was significantly thinner than that in the healthy group. EIs of gluteus medius, quadriceps femoris and rectus abdominis were significantly higher in the OA group than those in the healthy group. Thus, actual contractile tissue of gluteus medius and rectus abdominis substantially decreased, although muscle mass was similar, whereas both quantitative and qualitative changes occurred in quadriceps femoris in patients with hip OA. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Upper and lower limb muscles in patients with COPD: similarities in muscle efficiency but differences in fatigue resistance.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Eduardo Foschini; Malaguti, Carla; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique; Dal Corso, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral muscle dysfunction is a common finding in patients with COPD; however, the structural adaptation and functional impairment of the upper and lower limb muscles do not seem to be homogenous. We compared muscle fatigue and recovery time between 2 representative muscles: the middle deltoid and the quadriceps femoris. Twenty-one subjects with COPD (FEV1 46.1 ± 10.3% of predicted) underwent maximal voluntary isometric contraction and an endurance test (60% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction, to the limit of tolerance). The maximal voluntary isometric contraction test was repeated after 10 min, 30 min, 60 min, and 24 hours for both the quadriceps femoris and middle deltoid. Surface electromyography was recorded throughout the endurance test. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction significantly decreased only for the middle deltoid between 10 and 60 min after the endurance test. A significant increase of the root mean square and a greater decline in median frequency throughout the endurance test occurred for the middle deltoid, compared with the quadriceps femoris. When dyspnea and fatigue scores were corrected by endurance time, higher values were observed for the middle deltoid (0.07 and 0.08, respectively) in relation to the quadriceps femoris (0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Subjects with COPD had a higher fatigability of a representative upper limb muscle (middle deltoid) than a lower limb muscle (quadriceps femoris).

  1. Gear Shifting of Quadriceps during Isometric Knee Extension Disclosed Using Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Huang, Weijian; Zeng, Yu; Shi, Wenxiu; Diao, Xianfen; Wei, Xiguang; Ling, Shan

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been widely employed to estimate the morphological changes of muscle during contraction. To further investigate the motion pattern of quadriceps during isometric knee extensions, we studied the relative motion pattern between femur and quadriceps under ultrasonography. An interesting observation is that although the force of isometric knee extension can be controlled to change almost linearly, femur in the simultaneously captured ultrasound video sequences has several different piecewise moving patterns. This phenomenon is like quadriceps having several forward gear ratios like a car starting from rest towards maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and then returning to rest. Therefore, to verify this assumption, we captured several ultrasound video sequences of isometric knee extension and collected the torque/force signal simultaneously. Then we extract the shapes of femur from these ultrasound video sequences using video processing techniques and study the motion pattern both qualitatively and quantitatively. The phenomenon can be seen easier via a comparison between the torque signal and relative spatial distance between femur and quadriceps. Furthermore, we use cluster analysis techniques to study the process and the clustering results also provided preliminary support to the conclusion that, during both ramp increasing and decreasing phases, quadriceps contraction may have several forward gear ratios relative to femur.

  2. Knee joint laxity does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps strength and physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Altubasi, Ibrahim M

    2018-06-07

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common and a disabling musculoskeletal disorder. Patients with knee osteoarthritis have activity limitations which are linked to the strength of the quadriceps muscle. Previous research reported that the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function is moderated by the level of knee joint frontal plane laxity. The purpose of the current study is to reexamine the moderation effect of the knee joint laxity as measured by stress radiographs on the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function. One-hundred and sixty osteoarthritis patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Isometric quadriceps muscle strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Self-rated and performance-based physical function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and Get Up and Go test, respectively. Stress radiographs which were taken while applying varus and valgus loads to knee using the TELOS device. Knee joint laxity was determined by measuring the distance between joint surfaces on the medial and lateral sides. Hierarchical multiple regression models were constructed to study the moderation effect of laxity on the strength function relationship. Two regression models were constructed for self-rated and performance-based function. After controlling for demographics, strength contributed significantly in the models. The addition of laxity and laxity-strength interaction did not add significant contributions in the regression models. Frontal plane knee joint laxity measured by stress radiographs does not moderate the relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lean muscle volume of the thigh has a stronger relationship with muscle power than muscle strength in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Davison, Michael J; Maly, Monica R; Keir, Peter J; Hapuhennedige, Sandani M; Kron, Amie T; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Thigh lean muscle and intramuscular fat have been implicated in the impairment of physical function observed in people with knee osteoarthritis. We investigated the relationships of quadriceps and hamstrings intramuscular fat fraction and lean muscle volume with muscle power and strength, controlling for neuromuscular activation, and physical performance in women with knee OA. Women (n=20) 55years or older with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis underwent a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thigh of their most symptomatic knee. Axial fat-separated images were analyzed using software to quantify intramuscular fat and lean muscle volumes of the quadriceps and hamstrings. To quantify strength and power of the knee extensors and flexors, participants performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction and isotonic knee extensions and flexions, respectively. Electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured. Participants also completed five physical performance tests. Quadriceps and hamstrings lean muscle volumes were related to isotonic knee extensor (B=0.624; p=0.017) and flexor (B=1.518; p=0.032) power, but not knee extensor (B=0.001; p=0.615) or flexor (B=0.001; p=0.564) isometric strength. Intramuscular fat fractions were not related to isotonic knee extensor or flexor power, nor isometric strength. No relationships were found between intramuscular fat or lean muscle volume and physical performance. Muscle power may be more sensitive than strength to lean muscle mass in women with knee osteoarthritis. Thigh lean muscle mass, but neither intramuscular nor intermuscular fat, is related to knee extensor and flexor power in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Torque decrease during submaximal evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle is linked not only to muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Matkowski, Boris; Lepers, Romuald; Martin, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the torque decrease induced by submaximal electromyostimulation (EMS) of the quadriceps muscle. It was hypothesized that torque decrease after EMS would reflect the fatigability of the activated motor units (MUs), but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited as a result of changes in axonal excitability threshold. Two experiments were performed on 20 men to analyze 1) the supramaximal twitch superimposed and evoked at rest during EMS (Experiment 1, n = 9) and 2) the twitch response and torque-frequency relation of the MUs activated by EMS (Experiment 2, n = 11). Torque loss was assessed by 15 EMS-evoked contractions (50 Hz; 6 s on/6 s off), elicited at a constant intensity that evoked 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The same stimulation intensity delivered over the muscles was used to induce the torque-frequency relation and the single electrical pulse evoked after each EMS contraction (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, supramaximal twitch was induced by femoral nerve stimulation. Torque decreased by ~60% during EMS-evoked contractions and by only ~18% during MVCs. This was accompanied by a rightward shift of the torque-frequency relation of MUs activated and an increase of the ratio between the superimposed and posttetanic maximal twitch evoked during EMS contraction. These findings suggest that the torque decrease observed during submaximal EMS-evoked contractions involved muscular mechanisms but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited due to changes in axonal excitability. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Quadriceps Muscles O2 Extraction and EMG Breakpoints during a Ramp Incremental Test

    PubMed Central

    Iannetta, Danilo; Qahtani, Ahmad; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Murias, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle deoxygenated breakpoint ([HHb]BP) has been found to be associated with other indices of exercise tolerance in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle but not in the vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF). Purpose: To investigate whether the [HHb]BP occurs also in the VM and RF muscles and whether or not it is associated with other physiological indices of exercise tolerance, such as the EMG threshold (EMGt) and the respiratory compensation point (RCP). Methods: Twelve young endurance trained participants performed maximal ramp incremental (RI) cycling tests (25–30 W·min−1 increments). Muscle oxygen extraction and activity as well as ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were measured. After accounting for the mean response time, the oxygen uptake (V·O2) corresponding to the RCP, [HHb]BP, and the EMGt was determined. Results: Peak power output (POpeak) was 359 ± 48 W. Maximal oxygen consumption (V·O2max) was 3.87 ± 0.46 L·min−1. The V·O2 at the RCP was 3.39 ± 0.41 L·min−1. The V·O2 (L·min−1) corresponding to the [HHb]BP and EMGt were: 3.49 ± 0.46 and 3.40 ± 0.44; 3.44 ± 0.61 and 3.43 ± 0.49; 3.59 ± 0.52, and 3.48 ± 0.46 for VL, VM, and RF, respectively. Pearson's correlation between these thresholds ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 (P < 0.05). No difference was found for the absolute V·O2 and the normalized PO (%) at which the thresholds occurred in all three muscles investigated (P > 0.05). Although in eight out of 12 participants, the [HHb]BP in the RF led to a steeper increase instead of leading to a plateau-like response as observed in the VL and VM, the V·O2 at the breakpoints still coincided with that at the RCP. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that local indices of exercise tolerance derived from different portions of the quadriceps are not different to the systemic index of the RCP. PMID:28970805

  6. Knee flexion with quadriceps cocontraction: A new therapeutic exercise for the early stage of ACL rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Contemori, Samuele; Busti, Daniele; Botti, Fabio M; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2016-12-08

    Quadriceps strengthening exercises designed for the early phase of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rehabilitation should limit the anterior tibial translation developed by quadriceps contraction near full knee extension, in order to avoid excessive strain on the healing tissue. We hypothesize that knee-flexion exercises with simultaneous voluntary contraction of quadriceps (voluntary quadriceps cocontraction) can yield considerable levels of quadriceps activation while preventing the tibia from translating forward relative to the femur. Electromyographic activity in quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured in 20 healthy males during isometric knee-flexion exercises executed near full knee extension with maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction and external resistance (R) ranging from 0% to 60% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Biomechanical modeling was applied to derive the shear (anterior/posterior) tibiofemoral force developed in each exercise condition. Isometric knee-flexion exercises with small external resistance (R=10% 1RM) and maximal voluntary effort of quadriceps cocontraction yielded a net posterior (ACL-unloading) tibial pull (P=0.005) and levels of activation of 32%, 50%, and 45% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction, for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis, respectively. This exercise might potentially rank as one of the most appropriate quadriceps strengthening interventions in the early phase of ACL rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to ∼ 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

  8. Volume measurements of individual muscles in human quadriceps femoris using atlas-based segmentation approaches.

    PubMed

    Le Troter, Arnaud; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Gondin, Julien; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2016-04-01

    Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful method for automatic structural segmentation of several sub-structures in many organs. However, such an approach has been very scarcely used in the context of muscle segmentation, and so far no study has assessed such a method for the automatic delineation of individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF). In the present study, we have evaluated a fully automated multi-atlas method and a semi-automated single-atlas method for the segmentation and volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. The study was conducted in 32 young healthy males, using high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the thigh. The multi-atlas-based segmentation method was conducted in 25 subjects. Different non-linear registration approaches based on free-form deformable (FFD) and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization algorithms (SyN) were assessed. Optimal parameters of two fusion methods, i.e., STAPLE and STEPS, were determined on the basis of the highest Dice similarity index (DSI) considering manual segmentation (MSeg) as the ground truth. Validation and reproducibility of this pipeline were determined using another MRI dataset recorded in seven healthy male subjects on the basis of additional metrics such as the muscle volume similarity values, intraclass coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Both non-linear registration methods (FFD and SyN) were also evaluated as part of a single-atlas strategy in order to assess longitudinal muscle volume measurements. The multi- and the single-atlas approaches were compared for the segmentation and the volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. Considering each muscle of the QF, the DSI of the multi-atlas-based approach was high 0.87 ± 0.11 and the best results were obtained with the combination of two deformation fields resulting from the SyN registration method and the STEPS fusion algorithm. The optimal variables for FFD

  9. Permanent medialization of the paralyzed vocal fold utilizing botulinum toxin and Gelfoam.

    PubMed

    Rontal, Eugene; Rontal, Michael

    2003-09-01

    The clinical picture of a paralyzed vocal fold often has the same appearance as a subluxated arytenoid, with anterior and medial displacement of the arytenoid and a foreshortened and lax vocal fold. Previous work by the authors has shown that a subluxated arytenoid may be permanently repositioned by reduction and selective injection of the intrinsic laryngeal musculature with botulinum toxin. The injection changes the forces within the larynx, allowing the arytenoid to be brought back to proper position on the cricoid cartilage. This concept has been extended to the paralyzed vocal fold. It has been noted that even a clinically paralyzed vocal fold has voluntary motor units that may still act on the arytenoid through residual action from the interarytenoid and synkinesis. These forces are significant enough to manipulate the arytenoid and, thus, the vocal fold, into its correct, adducted position. In this paper, the arytenoid is mobilized to free any fibrosis. The thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles are then injected to prevent any forward synkinetic pull on the arytenoid. Next, a Gelfoam injection medializes the vocal fold to create glottic closure. This rebalancing sufficiently positions the arytenoid, so that valvular function is permanently restored. In the ten patients studied for over 1 year, there was a 90% success rate as measured by videostroboscopy, phonation time, and V-RQOL analysis. There were no untoward complications. All the materials used are nonpermanent. The procedure does not limit other techniques from being performed at a later time.

  10. Blood flow occlusion-related O2 extraction "reserve" is present in different muscles of the quadriceps but greater in deeper regions after ramp-incremental test.

    PubMed

    Iannetta, Danilo; Okushima, Dai; Inglis, Erin Calaine; Kondo, Narihiko; Murias, Juan M; Koga, Shunsaku

    2018-05-03

    It was recently demonstrated that an O 2 extraction reserve, as assessed by the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived deoxygenation signal ([HHb]), exists in the superficial region of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle during an occlusion performed at the end of a ramp-incremental test. However, it is unknown whether this reserve is present and/or different in magnitude in other portions and depths of the quadriceps muscles. We tested the hypothesis that O 2 extraction would exist in other regions of this muscle but greater in deep compared to more superficial portions. Superficial and deep VL (VL-s and VL-d, respectively) as well as superficial rectus femoris (RF-s) were monitored by a combination of low- and high- power time resolved (TRS) NIRS. During the occlusion immediately post ramp-incremental test there was a significant overshoot in the [HHb] signal (P<0.05). However, the magnitude of this increase was greater in VL-d (93.2{plus minus}42.9%) compared to VL-s (55.0{plus minus}19.6%) and RF-s (47.8{plus minus}14.0%) (P<0.05). The present study demonstrated that an O2 extraction reserve exists in different pools of active muscle fibers of the quadriceps at the end of a ramp exercise to exhaustion. The greater magnitude in the reserve observed in the deeper portion of VL, however, suggests that this portion of muscle may present a greater surplus of oxygenated blood, likely due to a greater population of slow-twitch fibers. These findings add to the notion that the plateau in the [HHb] signal towards the end of a ramp-incremental exercise does not indicate the upper limit of O 2 extraction.

  11. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected Twitter @PVA1946 Facebook @Paralyzed Veterans of America Instagram @PVA1946 National Veterans Wheelchair Games App Download Now ... 838-7782 CONNECT WITH US Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Flickr STAY INFORMED WITH NEWS & UPDATES Enter your ...

  12. Relative Distribution of Quadriceps Head Anatomical Cross-Sectional Areas and Volumes – Sensitivity to Pain and to Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, M; Dannhauer, T; Ring-Dimitriou, S; Sänger, AM; Wirth, W; Hudelmaier, M; Eckstein, F

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Quadriceps heads are important in biomechanical stabilization and in the pathogenesis osteoarthritis of the knee. This is the first study to explore the relative distribution of quadriceps head anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) and volumes, and their response to pain and to training intervention. Methods The relative proportions of quadriceps heads were determined in 48 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with unilateral pain (65% women; age 45–78y). Quadriceps head volumes were also measured in 35 untrained women (45–55y) before and after 12 week training intervention. Cross-sectional areas of the vastus medialis (VM), inter-medius (VIM), and lateralis (VL), and of the rectus femoris (RF) were determined from axial T1-weighted MR images. Results The proportion of the VM on the total quadriceps ACSA increased from proximal to distal. The difference in quadriceps ACSA of painful (vs. pain-free) limbs was −5.4% for the VM (p<0.001), −6.8% for the VL (p<0.01), −2.8% for the VIM (p=0.06), and +3.4% for the RF (p=0.67) but the VM/VL ratio was not significantly altered. The muscle volume increase during training intervention was +4.2% (p<0.05) for VM, +1.3% for VL, +2.0% for VIM (p<0.05) and +1.6% for RF. Conclusion The proportion of quadriceps head relative to total muscle ACSA and volume depends on the anatomical level studied. The results suggest that there may be a differential response of the quadriceps heads to pain-induced atrophy and to training-related hypertrophy. Studies in larger samples are needed to ascertain whether the observed differences in response to pain and training are statistically and clinically significant. PMID:25153247

  13. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  14. Functional restoration of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization utilizing the functional spinal accessory nerve.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-liang; Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Shao-cheng; Du, Liang-jie; Gao, Feng; Li, Jun; Wang, Yu-ming; Gong, Hui-ming; Cheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    The authors report a case of functional improvement of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization using a functional spinal accessory nerve. Complete spinal cord injury at the C-2 level was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man. Left diaphragm activity was decreased, and the right diaphragm was completely paralyzed. When the level of metabolism or activity (for example, fever, sitting, or speech) slightly increased, dyspnea occurred. The patient underwent neurotization of the right phrenic nerve with the trapezius branch of the right spinal accessory nerve at 11 months postinjury. Four weeks after surgery, training of the synchronous activities of the trapezius muscle and inspiration was conducted. Six months after surgery, motion was observed in the previously paralyzed right diaphragm. The lung function evaluation indicated improvements in vital capacity and tidal volume. This patient was able to sit in a wheelchair and conduct outdoor activities without assisted ventilation 12 months after surgery.

  15. Musculoskeletal Model-Guided, Customizable Selection of Shoulder and Elbow Muscles for a C5 SCI Neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hincapie, Juan Gabriel; Blana, Dimitra; Chadwick, Edward K.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with C5/C6 spinal cord injury (SCI) have a number of paralyzed muscles in their upper extremities that can be electrically activated in a coordinated manner to restore function. The selection of a practical subset of paralyzed muscles for stimulation depends on the specific condition of the individual, the functions targeted for restoration, and surgical considerations. This paper presents a musculoskeletal model-based approach for optimizing the muscle set used for functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the shoulder and elbow in this population. Experimentally recorded kinematics from able-bodied subjects served as inputs to a musculoskeletal model of the shoulder and elbow, which was modified to reflect the reduced muscle force capacities of an individual with C5 SCI but also the potential of using FES to activate paralyzed muscles. A large number of inverse dynamic simulations mimicking typical activities of daily living were performed that included 1) muscles with retained voluntary control and 2) many different combinations of stimulated paralyzed muscles. These results indicate that a muscle set consisting of the serratus anterior, infraspinatus and triceps would enable the greatest range of relevant movements. This set will become the initial target in a C5 SCI neuroprosthesis to restore shoulder and elbow function. PMID:18586604

  16. PARALYZER FOR PULSE HEIGHT DISTRIBUTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Fairstein, E.

    1960-01-19

    A paralyzer circuit is described for use with a pulseheight distribution analyzer to prevent the analyzer from counting overlapping pulses where they would serve to provide a false indication. The paralyzer circuit comprises a pair of cathode-coupled amplifiers for amplifying pulses of opposite polarity. Diodes are provided having their anodes coupled to the separate outputs of the amplifiers to produce only positive signals, and a trigger circuit is coupled to the diodes ior operation by input pulses of either polarity from the amplifiers. A delay network couples the output of the trigger circuit for delaying the pulses.

  17. Quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, and gait speed in older U.S. adults with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Tra, Yolande; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Brancati, Frederick L

    2013-05-01

    mellitus have lower quadriceps strength and quadriceps power that is related to the presence of comorbidities and walk slower than those without diabetes mellitus. Future studies should investigate the relationship between hyperglycemia and subsequent declines in leg muscle function. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Reliability of quadriceps surface electromyography measurements is improved by two vs. single site recordings.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, T G; Fry, A; Maden-Wilkinson, T M; Kong, P W; Folland, J P

    2017-06-01

    The reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG) is typically modest even with rigorous methods, and therefore further improvements in sEMG reliability are desirable. This study compared the between-session reliability (both within participant absolute reliability and between-participant relative reliability) of sEMG amplitude from single vs. average of two distinct recording sites, for individual muscle (IM) and whole quadriceps (WQ) measures during voluntary and evoked contractions. Healthy males (n = 20) performed unilateral isometric knee extension contractions: voluntary maximum and submaximum (60%), as well as evoked twitch contractions on two separate days. sEMG was recorded from two distinct sites on each superficial quadriceps muscle. Averaging two recording sites vs. using single site measures improved reliability for IM and WQ measurements during voluntary (16-26% reduction in within-participant coefficient of variation, CV W ) and evoked contractions (40-56% reduction in CV W ). For sEMG measurements from large muscles, averaging the recording of two distinct sites is recommended as it improves within-participant reliability. This improved sensitivity has application to clinical and research measurement of sEMG amplitude.

  19. The Influence of External Load on Quadriceps Muscle and Tendon Dynamics during Jumping.

    PubMed

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling. Estimated FT and RFDT, but not peak LT, increased with external loading. Temporal comparisons between 0% and 90% loads revealed that FT was greater with 90% loading throughout the majority of the movement (11%-81% and 87%-95% movement duration). However, RFDT was greater with 90% load only during the early movement initiation phase (8%-15% movement duration) but was greater in the 0% load condition later in the eccentric phase (27%-38% movement duration). LT was longer during the early movement (12%-23% movement duration) but shorter in the late eccentric and early concentric phases (48%-55% movement duration) with 90% load. External loading positively influenced peak FT and RFDT but tendon strain appeared unaffected, suggesting no additive effect of external loading on patellar tendon lengthening during human jumping. Temporal analysis revealed that external loading resulted in a large initial RFDT that may have caused dynamic stiffening of the tendon and attenuated tendon strain throughout the movement. These results suggest that external loading influences tendon lengthening in both a load- and movement-dependent manner.

  20. EXERCISES THAT FACILITATE OPTIMAL HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEPS CO-ACTIVATION TO HELP DECREASE ACL INJURY RISK IN HEALTHY FEMALES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed Central

    Dedinsky, Rachel; Baker, Lindsey; Imbus, Samuel; Bowman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is common among females due to many anatomic, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors. One modifiable risk factor that places females at increased risk of ACL injury is a poor hamstrings: quadriceps (H:Q) co-activation ratio, which should be 0.6 or greater in order to decrease the stress placed on the ACL. Exercises that produce more quadriceps dominant muscle activation can add to the tension placed upon the ACL, potentially increasing the risk of ACL injury. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to compare quadriceps and hamstring muscle activation during common closed kinetic chain therapeutic exercises in healthy female knees to determine what exercises are able to produce adequate H:Q co-activation ratios. Study Design Systematic Review Methods Multiple online databases were systematically searched and screened for inclusion. Eight articles were identified for inclusion. Data on mean electromyography (EMG) activation of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles, % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and H:Q co-activation ratios were extracted from the studies. Quality assessment was performed on all included studies. Results Exercises analyzed in the studies included variations of the double leg squat, variations of the single leg squat, lateral step-up, Fitter, Stairmaster® (Core Health and Fitness, Vancouver, WA), and slide board. All exercises, except the squat machine with posterior support at the level of the scapula and feet placed 50 cm in front of the hips, produced higher quadriceps muscle activation compared to hamstring muscle activation. Conclusion Overall, two leg squats demonstrate poor H:Q co-activation ratios. Single leg exercises, when performed between 30 and 90 degrees of knee flexion, produce adequate H:Q ratios, thereby potentially reducing the risk of tensile stress on the ACL and ACL injury. Level of Evidence 2a- Systematic Review of Cohort Studies PMID

  1. Chronic neuromuscular electrical stimulation of paralyzed hindlimbs in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ranu; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Venkatasubramanian, Ganapriya; Abbas, James J

    2009-10-15

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be used to activate paralyzed or paretic muscles to generate functional or therapeutic movements. The goal of this research was to develop a rodent model of NMES-assisted movement therapy after spinal cord injury (SCI) that will enable investigation of mechanisms of NMES-induced plasticity, from the molecular to systems level. Development of the model requires accurate mapping of electrode and muscle stimulation sites, the capability to selectively activate muscles to produce graded contractions of sufficient strength, stable anchoring of the implanted electrode within the muscles and stable performance with functional reliability over several weeks of the therapy window. Custom designed electrodes were implanted chronically in hindlimb muscles of spinal cord transected rats. Mechanical and electrical stability of electrodes and the ability to achieve appropriate muscle recruitment and joint angle excursion were assessed by characterizing the strength duration curves, isometric torque recruitment curves and kinematics of joint angle excursion over 6-8 weeks post implantation. Results indicate that the custom designed electrodes and implantation techniques provided sufficient anchoring and produced stable and reliable recruitment of muscles both in the absence of daily NMES (for 8 weeks) as well as with daily NMES that is initiated 3 weeks post implantation (for 6 weeks). The completed work establishes a rodent model that can be used to investigate mechanisms of neuroplasticity that underlie NMES-based movement therapy after spinal cord injury and to optimize the timing of its delivery.

  2. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  3. The effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps strength and pain in individuals with knee synovitis: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Rice, David Andrew; McNair, Peter John; Lewis, Gwyn Nancy; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2015-07-28

    Substantial weakness of the quadriceps muscles is typically observed in patients with arthritis. This is partly due to ongoing neural inhibition that prevents the quadriceps from being fully activated. Evidence from animal studies suggests enhanced flexion reflex excitability may contribute to this weakness. This prospective observational study examined the effects of joint aspiration and intra-articular corticosteroid injection on flexion reflex excitability, quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain in individuals with knee synovitis. Sixteen patients with chronic arthritis and clinically active synovitis of the knee participated in this study. Knee pain flexion reflex threshold, and quadriceps peak torque were measured at baseline, immediately after knee joint aspiration alone and 5 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 days after knee joint aspiration and the injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate. Compared to baseline, knee pain was significantly reduced 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p = 0.009) post intervention. Flexion reflex threshold increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.009) and 5 (p = 0.01) and 15 days (p = 0.002) post intervention. Quadriceps peak torque increased immediately after joint aspiration (p = 0.004) and 5 (p = 0.001) and 15 days (p <0.001) post intervention. The findings from this study suggest that altered sensory output from an inflamed joint may increase flexion reflex excitability in humans, as has previously been shown in animals. Joint aspiration and corticosteroid injection may be a clinically useful intervention to reverse quadriceps muscle weakness in individuals with knee synovitis.

  4. Shear-Wave Elastography Assessments of Quadriceps Stiffness Changes prior to, during and after Prolonged Exercise: A Longitudinal Study during an Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon.

    PubMed

    Andonian, Pierre; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; de Bourguignon, Charles; Tourel, Charline; Morel, Jérome; Giardini, Guido; Gergelé, Laurent; Millet, Grégoire P; Croisille, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In sports medicine, there is increasing interest in quantifying the elastic properties of skeletal muscle, especially during extreme muscular stimulation, to improve our understanding of the impact of alterations in skeletal muscle stiffness on resulting pain or injuries, as well as the mechanisms underlying the relationships between these parameters. Our main objective was to determine whether real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) can monitor changes in quadriceps muscle elasticity during an extreme mountain ultra-marathon, a powerful mechanical stress model. Our study involved 50 volunteers participating in an extreme mountain marathon (distance: 330 km, elevation: +24,000 m). Quantitative SWE velocity and shear modulus measurements were performed in most superficial quadriceps muscle heads at the following 4 time points: before the race, halfway through the race, upon finishing the race and after recovery (+48 h). Blood biomarker levels were also measured. A significant decrease in the quadriceps shear modulus was observed upon finishing the race (3.31±0.61 kPa) (p<0.001) compared to baseline (3.56±0.63 kPa), followed by a partial recovery +48 h after the race (3.45±0.6 kPa) (p = 0.002) across all muscle heads, as well as for each of the following three muscle heads: the rectus femoris (p = 0.003), the vastus medialis (p = 0.033) and the vastus lateralis (p = 0.001). Our study is the first to assess changes in muscle stiffness during prolonged extreme physical endurance exercises based on shear modulus measurements using non-invasive SWE. We concluded that decreases in stiffness, which may have resulted from quadriceps overuse in the setting of supra-physiological stress caused by the extreme distance and unique elevation of the race, may have been responsible for the development of inflammation and muscle swelling. SWE may hence represent a promising tool for monitoring physiologic or pathological variations in muscle stiffness and may be useful for

  5. Shear-Wave Elastography Assessments of Quadriceps Stiffness Changes prior to, during and after Prolonged Exercise: A Longitudinal Study during an Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Andonian, Pierre; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; de Bourguignon, Charles; Tourel, Charline; Morel, Jérome; Giardini, Guido; Gergelé, Laurent; Millet, Grégoire P.; Croisille, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In sports medicine, there is increasing interest in quantifying the elastic properties of skeletal muscle, especially during extreme muscular stimulation, to improve our understanding of the impact of alterations in skeletal muscle stiffness on resulting pain or injuries, as well as the mechanisms underlying the relationships between these parameters. Our main objective was to determine whether real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) can monitor changes in quadriceps muscle elasticity during an extreme mountain ultra-marathon, a powerful mechanical stress model. Our study involved 50 volunteers participating in an extreme mountain marathon (distance: 330 km, elevation: +24,000 m). Quantitative SWE velocity and shear modulus measurements were performed in most superficial quadriceps muscle heads at the following 4 time points: before the race, halfway through the race, upon finishing the race and after recovery (+48 h). Blood biomarker levels were also measured. A significant decrease in the quadriceps shear modulus was observed upon finishing the race (3.31±0.61 kPa) (p<0.001) compared to baseline (3.56±0.63 kPa), followed by a partial recovery +48 h after the race (3.45±0.6 kPa) (p = 0.002) across all muscle heads, as well as for each of the following three muscle heads: the rectus femoris (p = 0.003), the vastus medialis (p = 0.033) and the vastus lateralis (p = 0.001). Our study is the first to assess changes in muscle stiffness during prolonged extreme physical endurance exercises based on shear modulus measurements using non-invasive SWE. We concluded that decreases in stiffness, which may have resulted from quadriceps overuse in the setting of supra-physiological stress caused by the extreme distance and unique elevation of the race, may have been responsible for the development of inflammation and muscle swelling. SWE may hence represent a promising tool for monitoring physiologic or pathological variations in muscle stiffness and may be useful for

  6. Muscle and bone plasticity after spinal cord injury: Review of adaptations to disuse and to electrical muscle stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The paralyzed musculoskeletal system retains a remarkable degree of plasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI). In response to reduced activity, muscle atrophies and shifts toward a fast-fatigable phenotype arising from numerous changes in histochemistry and metabolic enzymes. The loss of routine gravitational and muscular loads removes a critical stimulus for maintenance of bone mineral density (BMD), precipitating neurogenic osteoporosis in paralyzed limbs. The primary adaptations of bone to reduced use are demineralization of epiphyses and thinning of the diaphyseal cortical wall. Electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscle markedly reduces deleterious post-SCI adaptations. Recent studies demonstrate that physiological levels of electrically induced muscular loading hold promise for preventing post-SCI BMD decline. Rehabilitation specialists will be challenged to develop strategies to prevent or reverse musculoskeletal deterioration in anticipation of a future cure for SCI. Quantifying the precise dose of stress needed to efficiently induce a therapeutic effect on bone will be paramount to the advancement of rehabilitation strategies. PMID:18566946

  7. Predictive model of muscle fatigue after spinal cord injury in humans.

    PubMed

    Shields, Richard K; Chang, Ya-Ju; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Lin, Cheng-Hsiang

    2006-07-01

    The fatigability of paralyzed muscle limits its ability to deliver physiological loads to paralyzed extremities during repetitive electrical stimulation. The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of measuring paralyzed muscle fatigue and to develop a model to predict the temporal changes in muscle fatigue that occur after spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-four subjects underwent soleus fatigue testing with a modified Burke electrical stimulation fatigue protocol. The between-day reliability of this protocol was high (intraclass correlation, 0.96). We fit the fatigue index (FI) data to a quadratic-linear segmental polynomial model. FI declined rapidly (0.3854 per year) for the first 1.7 years, and more slowly (0.01 per year) thereafter. The rapid decline of FI immediately after SCI implies that a "window of opportunity" exists for the clinician if the goal is to prevent these changes. Understanding the timing of change in muscle endurance properties (and, therefore, load-generating capacity) after SCI may assist clinicians when developing therapeutic interventions to maintain musculoskeletal integrity.

  8. Quadriceps muscle function after exercise in men and women with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kuenze, Christopher M; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in lower extremity neuromuscular function have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Research evidence supports different levels of fatigability in men and women and between patients with ACLR and healthy controls. The influence of sex on the response to continuous exercise in patients with ACLR is not clear. To compare quadriceps neuromuscular function after exercise between men and women with ACLR. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. Twenty-six active volunteers (13 men [50%]: age = 24.1 ± 4.4 years, height = 179.1 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 80.1 ± 9.4 kg, months since surgery = 43.5 ± 37.0; 13 women [50%]: age = 24.2 ± 5.6 years, height = 163.0 ± 5.9 cm, mass = 62.3 ± 8.3 kg, months since surgery = 45.8 ± 42.7) with a history of unilateral primary ACLR at least 6 months earlier. Thirty minutes of continuous exercise comprising 5 separate 6-minute cycles, including 5 minutes of uphill walking and 1 minute of body-weight squatting and step-ups. Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, quadriceps superimposed-burst torque, and quadriceps central activation ratio before and after exercise. We performed separate 2 (sex: men, women) × 2 (time: preexercise, postexercise) repeated-measures analyses of variance for the 3 variables. Separate, independent-samples t tests were calculated to compare preexercise with postexercise change in all dependent variables between sexes. A significant group-by-time interaction was present for knee-extension torque (P = .04). The percentage reduction in knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (men = 1.94%, women = -10.32%; P = .02) and quadriceps central activation ratio (men = -1.45%, women = -8.69%; P = .03) experienced by men was less than that observed in women. In the presence of quadriceps dysfunction, female participants experienced greater-magnitude reductions in quadriceps function after 30 minutes of exercise than male

  9. Molecular profiles of Quadriceps muscle in myostatin-null mice reveal PI3K and apoptotic pathways as myostatin targets

    PubMed Central

    Chelh, Ilham; Meunier, Bruno; Picard, Brigitte; Reecy, Mark James; Chevalier, Catherine; Hocquette, Jean-François; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the TGF-β superfamily, has been identified as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Inactivating mutations in the MSTN gene are responsible for the development of a hypermuscular phenotype. In this study, we performed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to detect altered expression/abundance of genes and proteins. These differentially expressed genes and proteins may represent new molecular targets of MSTN and could be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. Results Transcriptomic analysis of the Quadriceps muscles of 5-week-old MSTN-null mice (n = 4) and their controls (n = 4) was carried out using microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences) of 6,473 genes expressed in muscle. Proteomic profiles were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Comparison of the transcriptomic profiles revealed 192 up- and 245 down- regulated genes. Genes involved in the PI3K pathway, insulin/IGF pathway, carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis regulation were up-regulated. Genes belonging to canonical Wnt, calcium signalling pathways and cytokine-receptor cytokine interaction were down-regulated. Comparison of the protein profiles revealed 20 up- and 18 down-regulated proteins spots. Knockout of the MSTN gene was associated with up-regulation of proteins involved in glycolytic shift of the muscles and down-regulation of proteins involved in oxidative energy metabolism. In addition, an increased abundance of survival/anti-apoptotic factors were observed. Conclusion All together, these results showed a differential expression of genes and proteins related to the muscle energy metabolism and cell survival/anti-apoptotic pathway (e.g. DJ-1, PINK1, 14-3-3ε protein, TCTP/GSK-3β). They revealed the PI3K and apoptotic pathways as MSTN targets and are in favour of a role of MSTN as a modulator of cell survival in vivo. PMID:19397818

  10. Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Function in Lung Transplant Candidates.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Dmitry; Singer, Lianne G; Herridge, Margaret; Goldstein, Roger; Wickerson, Lisa; Chowdhury, Noori A; Mathur, Sunita

    2017-09-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is offered to older and more complex patients who may be at higher risk of skeletal muscle dysfunction, but the clinical implications of this remain uncertain. The study aims were to characterize deficits in skeletal muscle mass, strength and physical performance, and examine the associations of these deficits with clinical outcomes. Fifty LTx candidates (58% men; age, 59 ± 9 years) were prospectively evaluated for skeletal muscle deficits: muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance, quadriceps, respiratory muscle and handgrip strength, and physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery. Comparisons between number of muscle deficits (low muscle mass, quadriceps strength and physical performance) and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), London Chest Activity of Daily Living Questionnaire, and quality of life were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Associations with pretransplant and posttransplant delisting/mortality, hospital duration, and 3-month posttransplant 6MWD were evaluated using Fisher exact test and Spearman correlation. Deficits in quadriceps strength (n = 27) and physical performance (n = 24) were more common than muscle mass (n = 8). LTx candidates with 2 or 3 muscle deficits (42%) compared with those without any deficits (26%) had worse 6MWD = -109 m (95% confidence interval [CI], -175 to -43), London Chest Activity of Daily Living Questionnaire = 18 (95% CI, 7-30), and St. George's Activity Domain = 12 (95% CI, 2-21). Number of muscle deficits was associated with posttransplant hospital stay (r = 0.34, P = 0.04), but not with delisting/mortality or posttransplant 6MWD. Deficits in quadriceps muscle strength and physical performance are common in LTx candidates and further research is needed to assess whether modifying muscle function pretransplant can lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  11. Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (≤46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (≤25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity. PMID:24478643

  12. Muscle glucose metabolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Muñoz, Antonio; Trampal, Carlos; Pascual, Sergi; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Chalela, Roberto; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Muscle dysfunction is one of the most extensively studied manifestations of COPD. Metabolic changes in muscle are difficult to study in vivo, due to the lack of non-invasive techniques. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic activity simultaneously in various muscle groups in COPD patients. Thirty-nine COPD patients and 21 controls with normal lung function, due to undergo computed axial and positron emission tomography for staging of localized lung lesions were included. After administration of 18-fluordeoxyglucose, images of 2 respiratory muscles (costal and crural diaphragm, and rectus abdominus) and 2 peripheral muscles (brachial biceps and quadriceps) were obtained, using the standard uptake value as the glucose metabolism index. Standard uptake value was higher in both portions of the diaphragm than in the other muscles of all subjects. Moreover, the crural diaphragm and rectus abdominus showed greater activity in COPD patients than in the controls (1.8±0.7 vs 1.4±0.8; and 0.78±0.2 vs 0.58±0.1; respectively, P<.05). A similar trend was observed with the quadriceps. In COPD patients, uptake in the two respiratory muscles and the quadriceps correlated directly with air trapping (r=0.388, 0.427 and 0.361, respectively, P<.05). There is greater glucose uptake and metabolism in the human diaphragm compared to other muscles when the subject is at rest. Increased glucose metabolism in the respiratory muscles (with a similar trend in their quadriceps) of COPD patients is confirmed quantitatively, and is directly related to the mechanical loads confronted. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound assessment of hamstring muscle size using posterior thigh muscle thickness.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between ultrasound-measured muscle thickness (MT) and individual muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle volume (MV) in extremity and trunk muscles; however, the hamstring muscle has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between posterior thigh MT by ultrasound and the muscle CSA and MV of the hamstring obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten young women aged 20-31 had MT measured by ultrasound at three sites on the medial anterior (50% of thigh length; TL) and posterior (50% and 70% of TL) aspects of the thigh. On the same day, a series of continuous muscle CSA along the thigh was measured by MRI. In each slice, the anatomical CSA of the hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus) and quadriceps muscle was analysed, and the CSAs at 50% and 70% of TL and maximal CSA of the hamstring (CSAmax ) were determined. MV was calculated by multiplying CSA by slice thickness. A significant correlation was observed between posterior 50% MT and 50% hamstring CSA (r = 0·848, P = 0·002) and between posterior 70% MT and 70% hamstring CSA (r = 0·679, P = 0·031). Posterior 50% MT (r = 0·732, P = 0·016) and 50% MTxTL (r = 0·873, P = 0·001) were also correlated to hamstring MV. Anterior:posterior 50% thigh MT ratio was correlated to MV ratio of quadriceps and hamstring muscles (r = 0·803, P = 0·005). Our results suggest that posterior thigh MT reflects hamstring muscle CSA and MV. The anterior:posterior MT ratio may serve as a surrogate for MV ratio of quadriceps and hamstring. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relationship between quadriceps strength and rate of loading during gait in women.

    PubMed

    Mikesky, A E; Meyer, A; Thompson, K L

    2000-03-01

    One function of skeletal muscle is to serve as the body's shock absorbers and thus dampen rates of loading during activity. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the significance of muscle strength on rates of loading during gait. Thirty-seven women (mean age: 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) were solicited by advertisement and placed into one of two groups-strength-trained or sedentary-on the basis of training history. They walked (10 trials) over a 10-m walkway at a controlled speed of 1.22-1.35 m/s while the rate of loading was sampled with a 1,000-Hz force platform. Quadriceps and hamstring strength was measured at 90 degrees/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. Statistical analyses (p < 0.05) included descriptive statistics and unpaired t tests for comparison between groups. The women in the sedentary group weighed more and had significantly less concentric and eccentric strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings relative to body weight than did those in the strength-trained group. In addition, they demonstrated significantly higher rates of loading (2.21 +/- 0.15 compared with 1.75 +/- 0.08%wt/ms) than those in the strength-trained group.

  15. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  16. Sonomyography Analysis on Thickness of Skeletal Muscle During Dynamic Contraction Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Feng, Jing; Xu, Jiapeng; Xu, Rui; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Peng; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhang, Lixin; Ming, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that stimulates skeletal muscles to induce contractions has been widely applied to restore functions of paralyzed muscles. However, the architectural changes of stimulated muscles induced by NMES are still not well understood. The present study applies sonomyography (SMG) to evaluate muscle architecture under NMES-induced and voluntary movements. The quadriceps muscles of seven healthy subjects were tested for eight cycles during an extension exercise of the knee joint with/without NMES, and SMG and the knee joint angle were recorded during the process of knee extension. A least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) LS-SVM model was developed and trained using the data sets of six cycles collected under NMES, while the remaining data was used to test. Muscle thickness changes were extracted from ultrasound images and compared between NMES-induced and voluntary contractions, and LS-SVM was used to model a relationship between dynamical knee joint angles and SMG signals. Muscle thickness showed to be significantly correlated with joint angle in NMES-induced contractions, and a significant negative correlation was observed between Vastus intermedius (VI) thickness and rectus femoris (RF) thickness. In addition, there was a significant difference between voluntary and NMES-induced contractions . The LS-SVM model based on RF thickness and knee joint angle provided superior performance compared with the model based on VI thickness and knee joint angle or total thickness and knee joint angle. This suggests that a strong relation exists between the RF thickness and knee joint angle. These results provided direct evidence for the potential application of RF thickness in optimizing NMES system as well as measuring muscle state under NMES.

  17. Comparison of the large muscle group widths of the pelvic limb in seven breeds of dogs.

    PubMed

    Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Ocal, Mehmet Kamil

    2018-05-14

    Orthopaedic diseases are common in the pelvic limbs of dogs, and reference values for large muscle groups of the pelvic limb may aid in diagnosis such diseases. As such, the objective of this study was to compare the large muscle groups of the pelvic limb in seven breeds of dogs. A total of 126 dogs from different breeds were included, and the widths of the quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were measured from images of the lateral radiographies. The width of the quadriceps was not different between the breeds, but the widths of the hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were significantly different between the breeds. The widest hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were seen in the Rottweilers and the Boxers, respectively. The narrowest hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles were seen in the Belgian Malinois and the Golden retrievers, respectively. All ratios between the measured muscles differed significantly between the breeds. Doberman pinschers and Belgian Malinois had the highest ratio of gastrocnemius width:hamstring width. Doberman pinschers had also the highest ratio of quadriceps width:hamstring width. German shepherds had the highest ratio of gastrocnemius width:quadriceps width. The lowest ratios of quadriceps width:hamstring width were determined in the German shepherds. The ratios of the muscle widths may be used as reference values to assess muscular atrophy or hypertrophy in cases of bilateral or unilateral orthopaedic diseases of the pelvic limbs. Further studies are required to determine the widths and ratios of the large muscle groups of the pelvic limbs in other dog breeds. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of ThermaCare HeatWraps and Icy Hot Cream/Patches on Skin and Quadriceps Muscle Temperature and Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Laymon, Michael; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of over-the-counter treatments-ThermaCare HeatWraps (chemical reaction to produce heat above the skin), Icy Hot Patch, and Icy Hot Cream (topically applied menthol)-on skin and deep tissue temperature. This was a longitudinal crossover study. On each of 3 days, a ThermaCare HeatWrap, Icy Hot Cream, or Icy Hot Patch was applied randomly over the quadriceps muscle in 15 healthy volunteers with normal body mass. Skin and muscle temperature and blood flow were measured by laser flowmetry every 15 minutes for 2 hours. After 2 hours, mean temperature decreased by 2.1°C (7.0%; P = .02) in skin and 1.0°C (2.9%; P = .01) in muscle with Icy Hot Cream. Icy Hot Patch decreased skin and muscle temperature by 1.7°C (5.4%; P = .03) and 1.3°C (3.8%; P = .01), respectively. In contrast, ThermaCare raised skin and muscle temperature by 7.8°C (25.8%; P = .001) and 2.7°C (7.7%; P = .002), respectively; both were significantly warmer with ThermaCare vs either Icy Hot product (all P < .007). Icy Hot products produced a net decrease in skin blood flow (Cream: 56.7 flux [39.3%; P = .003]; Patch: 19.1 flux [16.7%; P = .045]). Muscle blood flow decreased with the Patch (6.7 flux [7.0%; P = .02]). After a period of fluctuations, Icy Hot Cream produced a net increase vs baseline of 7.0 flux (16.9%; P = .02). ThermaCare more than doubled blood flow in skin (83.3 flux [109.7%; P = .0003]) and muscle (25.1 flux [148.5%; P = .004]). In this group of 15 healthy volunteers, ThermaCare HeatWraps provided the greatest degree of tissue warming and increase in tissue blood flow.

  19. Feedback Control for Functional Electrical Stimulation of Paralyzed Muscle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    and pubic symphysis. Insertion - tibia and fascia of shank. Action - adducts the leg. 3. Iliopsoas - a triangular shaped muscle which is caudal to the...first caudal vertebrae. Insertion - fascia lata and greater throchanter of femur. Action - abducts thigh. 6. Caudofemoralis - band of muscle posterior...and extends shank. 7. Biceps femoris - very broad mscle posterior to the fascia lata. Origin - tiiherositv of ishium. Insertion - patella, tibia, and

  20. Skeletal muscle strength and endurance in recipients of lung transplants.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sunita; Levy, Robert D; Reid, W Darlene

    2008-09-01

    Exercise limitation in recipients of lung transplant may be a result of abnormalities in the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are merely a reflection of the changes observed in the pretransplant condition. The purpose of this paper was to compare thigh muscle volume and composition, strength, and endurance in lung transplant recipients to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Single lung transplant recipients (n=6) and people with COPD (n=6), matched for age, sex, and BMI participated in the study. Subjects underwent MRI to determine muscle size and composition, lower extremity strength testing and an isometric endurance test of the quadriceps. Lung transplant recipients had similar muscle volumes and intramuscular fat infiltration of their thigh muscles and similar strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings to people with COPD who had not undergone transplant. However, quadriceps endurance tended to be lower in transplant recipients compared to people with COPD (15 +/- 7 seconds in transplant versus 31 +/- 12 seconds in COPD, p = 0.08). Recipients of lung transplant showed similar changes in muscle size and strength as people with COPD, however muscle endurance tended to be lower in people with lung transplants. Impairments in muscle endurance may reflect the effects of immunosuppressant medications on skeletal muscle in people with lung transplant.

  1. Chronic exercise preserves lean muscle mass in masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Andrew P; Amati, Francesca; Smiley, Mark A; Goodpaster, Bret; Wright, Vonda

    2011-09-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a loss of muscle mass and strength, resulting in falls, functional decline, and the subjective feeling of weakness. Exercise modulates the morbidities of muscle aging. Most studies, however, have examined muscle-loss changes in sedentary aging adults. This leaves the question of whether the changes that are commonly associated with muscle aging reflect the true physiology of muscle aging or whether they reflect disuse atrophy. This study evaluated whether high levels of chronic exercise prevents the loss of lean muscle mass and strength experienced in sedentary aging adults. A cross-section of 40 high-level recreational athletes ("masters athletes") who were aged 40 to 81 years and trained 4 to 5 times per week underwent tests of health/activity, body composition, quadriceps peak torque (PT), and magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral quadriceps. Mid-thigh muscle area, quadriceps area (QA), subcutaneous adipose tissue, and intramuscular adipose tissue were quantified in magnetic resonance imaging using medical image processing, analysis, and visualization software. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine age group differences. Relationships were evaluated using Spearman correlations. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.31) and lean mass (P = 0.15) did not increase with age and were significantly related to retention of mid-thigh muscle area (P < 0.0001). This occurred despite an increase in total body fat percentage (P = 0.003) with age. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.12), QA (P = 0.17), and quadriceps PT did not decline with age. Specific strength (strength per QA) did not decline significantly with age (P = 0.06). As muscle area increased, PT increased significantly (P = 0.008). There was not a significant relationship between intramuscular adipose tissue (P = 0.71) or lean mass (P = 0.4) and PT. This study contradicts the common observation that muscle mass and strength decline as a function of aging alone. Instead, these

  2. Quadriceps force and anterior tibial force occur obviously later than vertical ground reaction force: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryo; Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Taniguchi, Shohei; Ikuta, Ryohei; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2017-11-18

    Although it is well known that quadriceps force generates anterior tibial force, it has been unclear whether quadriceps force causes great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the quadriceps force induced great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. Fourteen young, healthy, female subjects performed a single-leg landing task. Muscle force and anterior tibial force were estimated from motion capture data and synchronized force data from the force plate. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance and the post hoc Bonferroni test were conducted to compare the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force, quadriceps force and anterior tibial force during the single-leg landing. In addition, we examined the contribution of vertical and posterior ground reaction force, knee flexion angle and moment to peak quadriceps force using multiple linear regression. The peak times of the estimated quadriceps force (96.0 ± 23.0 ms) and anterior tibial force (111.9 ± 18.9 ms) were significantly later than that of the vertical ground reaction force (63.5 ± 6.8 ms) during the single-leg landing. The peak quadriceps force was positively correlated with the peak anterior tibial force (R = 0.953, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the peak knee flexion moment contributed significantly to the peak quadriceps force (R 2  = 0.778, P < 0.001). The peak times of the quadriceps force and the anterior tibial force were obviously later than that of the vertical ground reaction force for the female athletes during successful single-leg landings. Studies have reported that the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force was close to the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption in ACL injury cases. It is possible that early contraction of the quadriceps during landing might induce ACL disruption as a result of

  3. Comparison of hamstring and quadriceps femoris electromyographic activity between men and women during a single-limb squat on both a stable and labile surface.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H; Hitchcock, James R; Hoyme, Gregory J; Johnsen, Jeremiah J

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of a partial single-leg squat (SLS) on both a stable and labile ground surface against body weight resistance. Thirty healthy participants (15 men and 15 women) performed an SLS on both a stable surface and a 6.4-cm-thick vinyl pad. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles during the extension phase of the SLS. Statistical analysis revealed that women produced 14% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their quadriceps than the men during the SLS on a stable surface, whereas the men generated 18% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their hamstrings than the women during the SLS on a labile surface. Additionally, we found a statistically significant sex effect (p = 0.048) for the hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) EMG ratio, which was 2.25 and 0.62, respectively, for men and women on the stable surface and 2.52 and 0.71, respectively, on the labile surface. We concluded that women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of SLS against body weight resistance on either a stable or labile surface condition. During an SLS, men showed an H/Q ratio approximately 3.5 times larger than their female counterparts, suggesting that men activate their hamstrings more effectively than women during an SLS. According to our data, the SLS may not be an ideal exercise for activating the hamstring muscles in women without additional neuromuscular training techniques, because women are quadriceps dominant during the SLS.

  4. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30-60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5-10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake.

  6. Does Roller Massage With a Foam Roll Change Pressure Pain Threshold of the Ipsilateral Lower Extremity Antagonist and Contralateral Muscle Groups? An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Scott W; Kolber, Morey J

    2018-03-01

    Foam rolling is a popular intervention used by allied health professionals and the general population. Current research suggests that foam rolling may have an effect on the ipsilateral antagonist muscle group and produce a cross-over effect in the muscles of the contralateral limb. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of foam rolling to the left quadriceps on ipsilateral antagonist hamstrings and contralateral quadriceps muscle group pressure pain threshold (PPT). Through this research, we sought to gather data to further develop the methodology for future studies of this intervention. A pretest-posttest exploratory study. University kinesiology laboratory. 21 healthy adults (age = 27.52 ± 8.9 y). Video-guided foam roll intervention on the left quadriceps musculature. Ipsilateral hamstring (antagonist) and contralateral quadriceps muscle PPT. A significant difference was found between pretest to posttest measures for the ipsilateral hamstrings (t[20] = -6.2, P < 0.001) and contralateral quadriceps (t[20] = -9.1, P < 0.001) suggesting an increase in PPT. These findings suggest that foam rolling of the quadriceps musculature may have an acute effect on the PPT of the ipsilateral hamstrings and contralateral quadriceps muscles. Clinicians should consider these results to be exploratory and future investigations examining this intervention on PPT is warranted.

  7. Reinnervation of Paralyzed Muscle by Nerve-Muscle-Endplate Band Grafting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    frozen in melting isopentane cooled with dry ice and cut on a cryostat (Reichert- Jung 1800; Mannheim, Germany) at –25ºC. Some sections were stained with... Jung 1800; Mannheim, Germany) at –25ºC, and stored at –80ºC until staining was performed. For each muscle, the caudal and rostral segments were cut...The stained sections were examined under a Zeiss photomicroscope (Axiophot-2; Carl Zeiss, Gottingen, Germany) and photographed using a digital camera

  8. THIGH MUSCLE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAS AND STRENGTH IN KNEES WITH EARLY VS KNEES WITHOUT RADIOGRAPHIC KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A BETWEEN-KNEE, WITHIN-PERSON COMPARISON

    PubMed Central

    Ruhdorfer, AS; Dannhauer, T; Wirth, W; Cotofana, S; Roemer, F; Nevitt, M; Eckstein, F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cross-sectional and longitudinal side-differences in thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSAs), muscle strength, and specific strength (strength/ACSA), between knees with early radiographic change vs. knees without radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA), in the same person. Design 55 (of 4796) Osteoarthritis Initiative participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria of early RKOA in one limb (definite tibiofemoral osteophytes; no radiographic joint space narrowing [JSN]) vs. no RKOA (no osteophyte; no JSN) in the contralateral limb. ACSAs of the thigh muscles and quadriceps heads were determined using axial MRIs at 33%/30% femoral length (distal to proximal). Isometric extensor and flexor muscle strength were measured (Good Strength Chair). Baseline quadriceps ACSA and extensor (specific) strength represented the primary analytic focus, and two-year changes of quadriceps ACSAs the secondary focus. Results No statistically significant side-differences in quadriceps (or other thigh muscle) ACSAs, muscle strength, or specific strength were observed between early RKOA vs. contralateral limbs without RKOA (p≥0.44), neither in men nor in women. The two-year reduction in quadriceps ACSA in limbs with early RKOA was −0.9±6% (mean ± standard deviation) vs. −0.5±6% in limbs without RKOA (statistical difference p=0.85). Conclusion Our results do not provide evidence that early unilateral radiographic changes, i.e. presence of osteophytes, are associated with cross-sectional or longitudinal differences in quadriceps muscle status compared with contralateral knees without RKOA. At the stage of early unilateral RKOA there thus appears to be no clinical need for countervailing a potential dys-balance in quadriceps ACSAs and strength between both knees. PMID:25278072

  9. Skeletal muscle expression of p43, a truncated thyroid hormone receptor α, affects lipid composition and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Casas, François; Fouret, Gilles; Lecomte, Jérome; Cortade, Fabienne; Pessemesse, Laurence; Blanchet, Emilie; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2018-02-01

    Thyroid hormone is a major regulator of metabolism and mitochondrial function. Thyroid hormone also affects reactions in almost all pathways of lipids metabolism and as such is considered as the main hormonal regulator of lipid biogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the possible involvement of p43, a 43 Kda truncated form of the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor TRα1 which stimulates mitochondrial activity. Therefore, using mouse models overexpressing p43 in skeletal muscle (p43-Tg) or lacking p43 (p43-/-), we have investigated the lipid composition in quadriceps muscle and in mitochondria. Here, we reported in the quadriceps muscle of p43-/- mice, a fall in triglycerides, an inhibition of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) synthesis, an increase in elongase index and an decrease in desaturase index. However, in mitochondria from p43-/- mice, fatty acid profile was barely modified. In the quadriceps muscle of p43-Tg mice, MUFA content was decreased whereas the unsaturation index was increased. In addition, in quadriceps mitochondria of p43-Tg mice, we found an increase of linoleic acid level and unsaturation index. Last, we showed that cardiolipin content, a key phospholipid for mitochondrial function, remained unchanged both in quadriceps muscle and in its mitochondria whatever the mice genotype. In conclusion, this study shows that muscle lipid content and fatty acid profile are strongly affected in skeletal muscle by p43 levels. We also demonstrate that regulation of cardiolipin biosynthesis by the thyroid hormone does not imply p43.

  10. Sex- and age-related differences in mid-thigh composition and muscle quality determined by computed tomography in middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Takehiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Matsui, Yasumoto; Harada, Atsushi; Takemura, Marie; Yuki, Atsumu; Kato, Yuki; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Sex- and age-related differences in mid-thigh composition and muscle quality remain unclear. The present study aimed to clarify these differences using computed tomography in middle-aged and elderly Japanese. A total of 2310 participants (age 40-89 years), who were randomly selected from the local residents, underwent computed tomography examination of the right mid-thigh. Thigh circumference and cross-sectional areas of the thigh, muscle, quadriceps, non-quadriceps, fat, and bone were measured. Knee extension strength and muscle quality index (knee extension strength/quadriceps cross-sectional area) were also assessed. Sex- and age-related differences in these indices were analyzed. The thigh cross-sectional area in men and women decreased by 0.6% and 0.5%/year, respectively, because of a decrease in muscle cross-sectional area (men 75.2%, women 40.6%), fat cross-sectional area (men 24.4%, women 59.6%) and bone cross-sectional area (men 0.5%, women -0.2%). Muscle cross-sectional area in men and women decreased by 0.6% and 0.4%/year, respectively, because of a decrease in quadriceps cross-sectional area (men 65.6%, women 81.6%) and non-quadriceps cross-sectional area (men 34.4%, women 18.4%). Muscle quality in men and women decreased by 0.4% and 0.3%/year, respectively. Thigh cross-sectional area decreased with age mainly because of a decrease in muscle cross-sectional area in men and fat cross-sectional area in women. The rate of decrease in muscle cross-sectional area was 1.5-fold higher in men than in women. Muscle cross-sectional area decreased with age mainly because of a decrease in quadriceps cross-sectional area, especially in women. Decrease in muscle quality with age was similar in both sexes. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. Purpose: To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m2) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm2). Results: Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3

  12. Improvement of stance control and muscle performance induced by focal muscle vibration in young-elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Guido M; Brunetti, Orazio; Botti, Fabio M; Panichi, Roberto; Roscini, Mauro; Camerota, Filippo; Cesari, Matteo; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2009-12-01

    Filippi GM, Brunetti O, Botti FM, Panichi R, Roscini M, Camerota F, Cesari M, Pettorossi VE. Improvement of stance control and muscle performance induced by focal muscle vibration in young-elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. To determine the effect of a particular protocol of mechanical vibration, applied focally and repeatedly (repeated muscle vibration [rMV]) on the quadriceps muscles, on stance and lower-extremity muscle power of young-elderly women. Double-blind randomized controlled trial; 3-month follow-up after intervention. Human Physiology Laboratories, University of Perugia, Italy. Sedentary women volunteers (N=60), randomized in 3 groups (mean age +/- SD, 65.3+/-4.2y; range, 60-72). rMV (100Hz, 300-500microm, in three 10-minute sessions a day for 3 consecutive days) was applied to voluntary contracted quadriceps (vibrated and contracted group) and relaxed quadriceps (vibrated and relaxed group). A third group received placebo stimulation (nonvibrated group). Area of sway of the center of pressure, vertical jump height, and leg power. Twenty-four hours after the end of the complete series of applications, the area of sway of the center of pressure decreased significantly by approximately 20%, vertical jump increased by approximately 55%, and leg power increased by approximately 35%. These effects were maintained for at least 90 days after treatment. rMV is a short-lasting and noninvasive protocol that can significantly and persistently improve muscle performance in sedentary young-elderly women.

  13. A new isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise using EMG-biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Kesemenli, Cumhur C; Sarman, Hakan; Baran, Tuncay; Memisoglu, Kaya; Binbir, Ismail; Savas, Yilmaz; Isik, Cengiz; Boyraz, Ismail; Koc, Bunyamin

    2014-01-01

    A new isometric contraction quadriceps-strengthening exercise was developed to restore the quadriceps strength lost after knee surgery more rapidly. This study evaluated the results of this new method. Patients were taught to perform the isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise in the unaffected knee in the supine position, and then they performed it in the affected knee. First, patients were taught the classical isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise, and then they were taught our new alternative method: "pull the patella superiorly tightly and hold the leg in the same position for 10 seconds". Afterward, the quadriceps contraction was evaluated using a non-invasive Myomed 932 EMG-biofeedback device (Enraf-Nonius, The Netherlands) with gel-containing 48 mm electrodes (Türklab, The Turkey) placed on both knees. The isometric quadriceps-strengthening exercise performed using our new method had stronger contraction than the classical method (P < 0.01). The new method involving pulling the patella superiorly appears to be a better choice, which can be applied easily, leading to better patient compliance and greater quadriceps force after arthroscopic and other knee surgeries.

  14. Effects of different duration isometric contractions on tendon elasticity in human quadriceps muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2001-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of isometric training protocols with long- and short-duration contractions on the elasticity of human tendon structures in vivo. The elasticity was assessed through in vivo determination of the elongation (L) of the tendons and aponeuroses using ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric exercise up to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC).Eight young males completed 12 weeks (4 days per week) of a unilateral isometric training programme on knee extensors, which consisted of two different combinations of contraction and relaxation times at 70 % MVC: one leg was trained using a short-duration protocol (3 sets of 50 repetitions of contraction for 1 s and relaxation for 2 s), and the other leg was trained using a long-duration protocol (4 sets of a combination of contraction for 20 s and relaxation for 1 min). The training volume per session, expressed as the integrated torque, was the same for the two protocols.Both protocols resulted in a significant increase in MVC: 31.8 ± 17.2 % for the short-duration protocol and 33.9 ± 14.4 % for the long-duration protocol. Moreover, the training produced significant increases in the muscle volume of the constituents of the quadriceps femoris, with similar relative gains for the two protocols: 7.4 ± 3.9 % for the short-duration protocol and 7.6 ± 4.3 % for the long-duration protocol.The short-duration protocol produced no significant change in L values at any of the force production levels. For the long-duration protocol, however, the L values above 550 N were significantly shorter after training. Analysis revealed that the group × test time interaction effect on tendon stiffness was significant. Stiffness increased significantly for the long-duration protocol, but not for the short-duration protocol.The present study demonstrates a greater increase in stiffness of human tendon structures following isometric training using longer duration contractions

  15. Changes in calsequestrin, TNF-α, TGF-β and MyoD levels during the progression of skeletal muscle dystrophy in mdx mice: a comparative analysis of the quadriceps, diaphragm and intrinsic laryngeal muscles.

    PubMed

    Barros Maranhão, Juliana; de Oliveira Moreira, Drielen; Maurício, Adriana Fogagnolo; de Carvalho, Samara Camaçari; Ferretti, Renato; Pereira, Juliano Alves; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia

    2015-10-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the search for new biomarkers to follow the evolution of the disease is of fundamental importance in the light of the evolving gene and pharmacological therapies. In addition to the lack of dystrophin, secondary events including changes in calcium levels, inflammation and fibrosis greatly contribute to DMD progression and the molecules involved in these events may represent potential biomarkers. In this study, we performed a comparative evaluation of the progression of dystrophy within muscles that are differently affected by dystrophy (diaphragm; DIA and quadriceps; QDR) or spared (intrinsic laryngeal muscles) using the mdx mice model of DMD. We assessed muscle levels of calsequestrin (calcium-related protein), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α; pro-inflammatory cytokine), tumour growth factor (TGF-β; pro-fibrotic factor) and MyoD (muscle proliferation) vs. histopathology at early (1 and 4 months of age) and late (9 months of age) stages of dystrophy. Fibrosis was the primary feature in the DIA of mdx mice (9 months: 32% fibrosis), which was greater than in the QDR (9 months: 0.6% fibrosis). Muscle regeneration was the primary feature in the QDR (9 months: 90% of centrally nucleated fibres areas vs. 33% in the DIA). The QDR expressed higher levels of calsequestrin than the DIA. Laryngeal muscles showed normal levels of TNF-α, TGF-β and MyoD. A positive correlation between histopathology and cytokine levels was observed only in the diaphragm, suggesting that TNF-α and TGF-β serve as markers of dystrophy primarily for the diaphragm. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  16. A mathematical model of forces in the knee under isometric quadriceps contractions.

    PubMed

    Huss, R A; Holstein, H; O'Connor, J J

    2000-02-01

    To predict the knee's response to isometric quadriceps contractions against a fixed tibial restraint.Design. Mathematical modelling of the human knee joint. Isometric quadriceps contraction is commonly used for leg muscle strengthening following ligament injury or reconstruction. It is desirable to know the ligament forces induced but direct measurement is difficult. The model, previously applied to the Lachmann or 'drawer' tests, combines an extensible fibre-array representation of the cruciate ligaments with a compressible 'thin-layer' representation of the cartilage. The model allows the knee configuration and force system to be calculated, given flexion angle, restraint position and loading. Inclusion of cartilage deformation increases relative tibio-femoral translation and decreases the ligament forces generated. For each restraint position, a range of flexion angles is found in which no ligament force is required, as opposed to a single flexion angle in the case of incompressible cartilage layers. Knee geometry and ligament elasticity are found to be the most important factors governing the joint's response to isometric quadriceps contractions, but cartilage deformation is found to be more important than in the Lachmann test. Estimation of knee ligament forces is important when devising exercise regimes following ligament injury or reconstruction. The finding of a 'neutral zone' of zero ligament force may have implications for rehabilitation of the ligament-injured knee.

  17. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  18. Nessi: An EEG-Controlled Web Browser for Severely Paralyzed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, Michael; Karim, Ahmed A.; Mellinger, Jürgen; Hinterberger, Thilo; Tangermann, Michael; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Birbaumer, Niels

    2007-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that an EEG-controlled web browser based on self-regulation of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) enables severely paralyzed patients to browse the internet independently of any voluntary muscle control. However, this system had several shortcomings, among them that patients could only browse within a limited number of web pages and had to select links from an alphabetical list, causing problems if the link names were identical or if they were unknown to the user (as in graphical links). Here we describe a new EEG-controlled web browser, called Nessi, which overcomes these shortcomings. In Nessi, the open source browser, Mozilla, was extended by graphical in-place markers, whereby different brain responses correspond to different frame colors placed around selectable items, enabling the user to select any link on a web page. Besides links, other interactive elements are accessible to the user, such as e-mail and virtual keyboards, opening up a wide range of hypertext-based applications. PMID:18350132

  19. Mechanical principles of effects of botulinum toxin on muscle length-force characteristics: an assessment by finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Ahu N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

    2014-05-07

    Recent experiments involving muscle force measurements over a range of muscle lengths show that effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) are complex e.g., force reduction varies as a function of muscle length. We hypothesized that altered conditions of sarcomeres within active parts of partially paralyzed muscle is responsible for this effect. Using finite element modeling, the aim was to test this hypothesis and to study principles of how partial activation as a consequence of BTX affects muscle mechanics. In order to model the paralyzing effect of BTX, only 50% of the fascicles (most proximal, or middle, or most distal) of the modeled muscle were activated. For all muscle lengths, a vast majority of sarcomeres of these BTX-cases were at higher lengths than identical sarcomeres of the BTX-free muscle. Due to such "longer sarcomere effect", activated muscle parts show an enhanced potential of active force exertion (up to 14.5%). Therefore, a muscle force reduction originating exclusively from the paralyzed muscle fiber populations, is compromised by the changes of active sarcomeres leading to a smaller net force reduction. Moreover, such "compromise to force reduction" varies as a function of muscle length and is a key determinant of muscle length dependence of force reduction caused by BTX. Due to longer sarcomere effect, muscle optimum length tends to shift to a lower muscle length. Muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions occurring via their mutual connections along full peripheral fiber lengths (i.e., myofascial force transmission) are central to these effects. Our results may help improving our understanding of mechanisms of how the toxin secondarily affects the muscle mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu, E-mail: sakai@hoshi.ac.jp; Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501; Sagara, Atsunobu

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only themore » muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.« less

  1. Muscle strength and knee range of motion after femoral lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Anil; Shabtai, Lior; Woelber, Erik; Apelyan, Arman; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Femoral lengthening may result in decrease in knee range of motion (ROM) and quadriceps and hamstring muscle weakness. We evaluated preoperative and postoperative knee ROM, hamstring muscle strength, and quadriceps muscle strength in a diverse group of patients undergoing femoral lengthening. We hypothesized that lengthening would not result in a significant change in knee ROM or muscle strength. Patients and methods - This prospective study of 48 patients (mean age 27 (9-60) years) compared ROM and muscle strength before and after femoral lengthening. Patient age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, level of osteotomy, fixation time, and method of lengthening were also evaluated regarding knee ROM and strength. The average length of follow-up was 2.9 (2.0-4.7) years. Results - Mean amount of lengthening was 5.2 (2.4-11.0) cm. The difference between preoperative and final knee flexion ROM was 2° for the overall group. Congenital shortening cases lost an average of 5% or 6° of terminal knee flexion, developmental cases lost an average of 3% or 4°, and posttraumatic cases regained all motion. The difference in quadriceps strength at 45° preoperatively and after lengthening was not statistically or clinically significant (2.7 Nm; p = 0.06). Age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, osteotomy level, fixation time, and lengthening method had no statistically significant influence on knee ROM or quadriceps strength at final follow-up. Interpretation - Most variables had no effect on ROM or strength, and higher age did not appear to be a limiting factor for femoral lengthening. Patients with congenital causes were most affected in terms of knee flexion.

  2. The embryonic genes Dkk3, Hoxd8, Hoxd9 and Tbx1 identify muscle types in a diet-independent and fiber-type unrelated way.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Janneke; Hulshof, Martijn F M; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Groot, Philip; Smit, Egbert; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2010-03-15

    The mouse skeletal muscle is composed of four distinct fiber types that differ in contractile function, number of mitochondria and metabolism. Every muscle type has a specific composition and distribution of the four fiber types. To find novel genes involved in specifying muscle types, we used microarray analysis to compare the gastrocnemius with the quadriceps from mice fed a low fat diet (LFD) or high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. Additional qPCR analysis were performed in the gastrocnemius, quadriceps and soleus muscle from mice fed an LFD or HFD for 20 weeks. In mice fed the 8-week LFD 162 genes were differentially expressed in the gastrocnemius vs. the quadriceps. Genes with the strongest differences in expression were markers for oxidative fiber types (e.g. Tnni1) and genes which are known to be involved in embryogenesis (Dkk3, Hoxd8,Hoxd9 and Tbx1). Also Dkk2, Hoxa5, Hoxa10, Hoxc9, Hoxc10, Hoxc6 and Tbx15 were detectably, but not differentially expressed in adult muscle tissue. Expression of differentially expressed genes was not influenced by an 8-week or 20-week HFD. Comparing gastrocnemius, quadriceps and soleus, expression of Hoxd8 and Hoxd9 was not related with expression of markers for the four different fiber types. We found that the expression of both Hoxd8 and Hoxd9 was much higher in the gastrocnemius than in the quadriceps or soleus, whereas the expression of Dkk3 was high in quadriceps, but low in both gastrocnemius and soleus. Finally, expression of Tbx1 was high in quadriceps, intermediate in soleus and low in gastrocnemius. We found that genes from the Dkk family, Hox family and Tbx family are detectably expressed in adult mouse muscle. Interestingly, expression of Dkk3, Hoxd8, Hoxd9 and Tbx1 was highly different between gastrocnemius, quadriceps and soleus. In fact, every muscle type showed a unique combination of expression of these four genes which was not influenced by diet. Altogether, we conclude that genes important for embryogenesis

  3. Rules of tissue packing involving different cell types: human muscle organization

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Sáez, Aurora; Gómez-Gálvez, Pedro; Paradas, Carmen; Escudero, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Natural packed tissues are assembled as tessellations of polygonal cells. These include skeletal muscles and epithelial sheets. Skeletal muscles appear as a mosaic composed of two different types of cells: the “slow” and “fast” fibres. Their relative distribution is important for the muscle function but little is known about how the fibre arrangement is established and maintained. In this work we capture the organizational pattern in two different healthy muscles: biceps brachii and quadriceps. Here we show that the biceps brachii muscle presents a particular arrangement, based on the different sizes of slow and fast fibres. By contrast, in the quadriceps muscle an unbiased distribution exists. Our results indicate that the relative size of each cellular type imposes an intrinsic organization into natural tessellations. These findings establish a new framework for the analysis of any packed tissue where two or more cell types exist. PMID:28071729

  4. Rules of tissue packing involving different cell types: human muscle organization.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Sáez, Aurora; Gómez-Gálvez, Pedro; Paradas, Carmen; Escudero, Luis M

    2017-01-10

    Natural packed tissues are assembled as tessellations of polygonal cells. These include skeletal muscles and epithelial sheets. Skeletal muscles appear as a mosaic composed of two different types of cells: the "slow" and "fast" fibres. Their relative distribution is important for the muscle function but little is known about how the fibre arrangement is established and maintained. In this work we capture the organizational pattern in two different healthy muscles: biceps brachii and quadriceps. Here we show that the biceps brachii muscle presents a particular arrangement, based on the different sizes of slow and fast fibres. By contrast, in the quadriceps muscle an unbiased distribution exists. Our results indicate that the relative size of each cellular type imposes an intrinsic organization into natural tessellations. These findings establish a new framework for the analysis of any packed tissue where two or more cell types exist.

  5. Decreased torque and electromyographic activity in the extensor thigh muscles in chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Väätäinen, U; Airaksinen, O; Jaroma, H; Kiviranta, I

    1995-01-01

    The alterations in thigh muscle properties of chondromalacia patellae patients during isometric and dynamic endurance tests were studied using a variokinetic knee testing system linked to surface EMG. A total of 41 patients (chondromalacia group) with arthroscopically certified chondromalacia of the patella were studied. The control group consisted of 31 healthy adult volunteers with no history of knee pain or trauma. Peak torque values were 21% (p < 0.01) and force output values 25% (p < 0.05) lower on the symptomatic side of the chondromalacia group than in the control group. The decrease in the ratio between integrated EMG (IEMG) and measured force were found in all parts of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with chondromalacia of the patella in isometric extension. No change in the normalized IEMG levels of the thigh muscles were found between chondromalacia patients and controls in dynamic endurance test. The severity of the chondromalacia of the patella did not affect the level of electromyographic activation in thigh muscles. The ratio of normalized EMG levels of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis did not differ between the groups. The present study showed that chondromalacia patellae patients have reduced force and electromyographic activation levels of quadriceps femoris muscle. Especially, the explosive strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle is reduced.

  6. Evaluation of Electromyographic Biofeedback for the Quadriceps Femoris: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J.; Parker, Tonya M.; Kotsko, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback (EMGB) of the quadriceps femoris muscle in treating various knee conditions. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials included PubMed (1980–2010), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, 1995–2007), Web of Science (1986–2010), SPORTDiscus (1990–2007), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Key words were knee and biofeedback. Study Selection: The criteria for selection were clinical randomized controlled trials in which EMGB of the quadriceps femoris was used for various knee conditions of musculoskeletal origin. Trials were excluded because of research designs other than randomized controlled trials, articles published in a non-English language, inclusion of healthy research participants, inability to identify EMGB as the source of clinical improvement, and lack of pain, functional outcome, or quadriceps torque as outcome measures. Data Extraction: Twenty specific data points were abstracted from each clinical trial under the broad categories of attributes of the patient and injury, treatment variables for the EMGB group, treatment variables for the control group, and attributes of the research design. Data Synthesis: Eight trials yielded a total of 319 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome (n = 86), anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (n = 52), arthroscopic surgery (n = 91), or osteoarthritis (n = 90). The average methodologic score of the included studies was 4.6/10 based on PEDro criteria. Pooled analyses demonstrated heterogeneity of the included studies, rendering the interpretation of the pooled data inappropriate. The EMGB appeared to benefit short-term postsurgical pain or quadriceps strength in 3 of 4 postsurgical investigations but was ineffective for chronic knee conditions such as patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis in all 4 studies. Because the findings are based on limited

  7. Perturbation-enhanced neuromuscular training alters muscle activity in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Wendy J; Chmielewski, Terese L; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Female athletes involved in jumping and cutting sports injure their anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) 4-6 times more frequently than their male counterparts in comparable sports. Neuromuscular factors, including quadriceps dominance, has been incriminated as contributing to the higher rates of injury in women. Currently, the most effective form of intervention developed to reduce female ACL injury rates has been neuromuscular training. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify gender based muscle activity patterns during disturbed walking that may contribute to ACL injury, and (2) determine if a novel training program could positively influence patterns among healthy female athletes utilizing a disturbed gait paradigm. Twenty healthy athletes (female=10, male=10) were tested. All subjects participated in five trials during which a platform translated horizontally in a lateral direction at heel contact before and after completing ten sessions of a perturbation training program. Electromyographic (EMG) data from the vastus lateralis, medial and lateral hamstrings, and medial gastrocnemius were collected. Trials were analyzed for the muscle onset, termination of activity, peak amplitude, time to peak amplitude, and integrated EMG activity. Muscle cocontraction, the simultaneous activation of antagonistic muscles (lateral hamstrings-vastus lateralis, and medial gastrocnemius-vastus lateralis), was calculated as indicators of active knee stiffness in preparation for heel strike, during weight acceptance and midstance. Prior to training, women had significantly higher peak quadriceps activity and higher integrated quadriceps activity during midstance than men. Both medial and lateral hamstring integrals during midstance increased from pre to posttraining. Onset times to peak activities for hamstrings and quadriceps were similar before training except for medial hamstring time to peak which occurred after heel strike in most women. Time to peak medial hamstring

  8. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Egerton, Thorlene; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W; Hunt, Michael; Roos, Ewa M; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben; Forbes, Andrew; Ageberg, Eva; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-12-05

    Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and

  9. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function

  10. Central activation, metabolites, and calcium handling during fatigue with repeated maximal isometric contractions in human muscle.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Simeon P; Inman, Luke A G; MacManus, Caroline P; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Ruell, Patricia A; Thom, Jeanette M; Thompson, Martin W

    2017-08-01

    To determine the roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and central activation impairment (i.e., central fatigue) during fatigue with repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) in human muscles. Contractile performance was assessed during 3 min of repeated MVCs (7-s contraction, 3-s rest, n = 17). In ten participants, in vitro SR Ca 2+ -handling, metabolites, and fibre-type composition were quantified in biopsy samples from quadriceps muscle, along with plasma venous [K + ]. In 11 participants, central fatigue was compared using tetanic stimulation superimposed on MVC in quadriceps and adductor pollicis muscles. The decline of peak MVC force with fatigue was similar for both muscles. Fatigue resistance correlated directly with % type I fibre area in quadriceps (r = 0.77, P = 0.009). The maximal rate of ryanodine-induced Ca 2+ -release and Ca 2+ -uptake fell by 31 ± 26 and 28 ± 13%, respectively. The tetanic force depression was correlated with the combined reduction of ATP and PCr, and increase of lactate (r = 0.77, P = 0.009). Plasma venous [K + ] increased from 4.0 ± 0.3 to 5.4 ± 0.8 mM over 1-3-min exercise. Central fatigue occurred during the early contractions in the quadriceps in 7 out of 17 participants (central activation ratio fell from 0.98 ± 0.05 to 0.86 ± 0.11 at 1 min), but dwindled at exercise cessation. Central fatigue was seldom apparent in adductor pollicis. Fatigue with repeated MVC in human limb muscles mainly involves peripheral aspects which include impaired SR Ca 2+ -handling and we speculate that anaerobic metabolite changes are involved. A faster early force loss in quadriceps muscle with some participants is attributed to central fatigue.

  11. The role of active muscle mass in determining the magnitude of peripheral fatigue during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Garten, Ryan S; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-06-15

    Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (-25 ± 3 vs. -12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (-44 ± 6 vs. -33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass.

  12. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  13. Isometric quadriceps strength determines sailing performance and neuromuscular fatigue during an upwind sailing emulation.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Jan G; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the physiological responses to upwind sailing on a laser emulation ergometer and analyses the components of the physical profile that determine the physiological responses related to sailing level. Ten male high-level laser sailors performed an upwind sailing test, incremental cycling test and quadriceps strength test. During the upwind sailing test, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate concentration were measured, combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electromyography (EMG) registration of the M. Vastus lateralis. Repeated measures ANOVA showed for the cardio-respiratory, metabolic and muscles responses (mean power frequency [MPF], root mean square [RMS], deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during the upwind sailing test an initial significant increase followed by a stabilisation, despite a constant increase in RPE. Stepwise regression analysis showed that better sailing level was for 46.5% predicted by lower MPF decrease. Lower MPF decrease was for 57.8% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. In conclusion, this study indicates that higher sailing level was mainly determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during the upwind sailing test (as indicated by MPF decrease). Additionally, the level of neuromuscular fatigue was mainly determined by higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength stressing the importance of resistance training in the planning of training.

  14. Quadriceps strengthening with and without blood flow restriction in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: a double-blind randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Giles, Lachlan; Webster, Kate E; McClelland, Jodie; Cook, Jill L

    2017-12-01

    Quadriceps strengthening exercises are part of the treatment of patellofemoral pain (PFP), but the heavy resistance exercises may aggravate knee pain. Blood flow restriction (BFR) training may provide a low-load quadriceps strengthening method to treat PFP. Seventy-nine participants were randomly allocated to a standardised quadriceps strengthening (standard) or low-load BFR. Both groups performed 8 weeks of leg press and leg extension, the standard group at 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and the BFR group at 30% of 1RM. Interventions were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance for Kujala Patellofemoral Score, Visual Analogue Scale for 'worst pain' and 'pain with daily activity', isometric knee extensor torque (Newton metre) and quadriceps muscle thickness (cm). Subgroup analyses were performed on those participants with painful resisted knee extension at 60°. Sixty-nine participants (87%) completed the study (standard, n=34; BFR, n=35). The BFR group had a 93% greater reduction in pain with activities of daily living (p=0.02) than the standard group. Participants with painful resisted knee extension (n=39) had greater increases in knee extensor torque with BFR than standard (p<0.01). No between-group differences were found for change in Kujala Patellofemoral Score (p=0.31), worst pain (p=0.24), knee extensor torque (p=0.07) or quadriceps thickness (p=0.2). No difference was found between interventions at 6 months. Compared with standard quadriceps strengthening, low load with BFR produced greater reduction in pain with daily living at 8 weeks in people with PFP. Improvements were similar between groups in worst pain and Kujala score. The subgroup with painful resisted knee extension had larger improvements in quadriceps strength from BFR. 12614001164684. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. EMG and EPP-integrated human-machine interface between the paralyzed and rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue H; Fan, Yuan J; Xu, Li D

    2012-07-01

    Although a lower extremity exoskeleton shows great prospect in the rehabilitation of the lower limb, it has not yet been widely applied to the clinical rehabilitation of the paralyzed. This is partly caused by insufficient information interactions between the paralyzed and existing exoskeleton that cannot meet the requirements of harmonious control. In this research, a bidirectional human-machine interface including a neurofuzzy controller and an extended physiological proprioception (EPP) feedback system is developed by imitating the biological closed-loop control system of human body. The neurofuzzy controller is built to decode human motion in advance by the fusion of the fuzzy electromyographic signals reflecting human motion intention and the precise proprioception providing joint angular feedback information. It transmits control information from human to exoskeleton, while the EPP feedback system based on haptic stimuli transmits motion information of the exoskeleton back to the human. Joint angle and torque information are transmitted in the form of air pressure to the human body. The real-time bidirectional human-machine interface can help a patient with lower limb paralysis to control the exoskeleton with his/her healthy side and simultaneously perceive motion on the paralyzed side by EPP. The interface rebuilds a closed-loop motion control system for paralyzed patients and realizes harmonious control of the human-machine system.

  16. Effects of Neuromuscular Fatigue on Quadriceps Strength and Activation and Knee Biomechanics in Individuals Post-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abbey C; Lepley, Lindsey K; Wojtys, Edward M; McLean, Scott G; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory-based experiment using a pretest/posttest design. To determine the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on quadriceps strength and activation and sagittal and frontal plane knee biomechanics during dynamic landing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Impaired quadriceps central activation occurs post-ACLR, likely altering lower extremity biomechanics. Neuromuscular fatigue similarly reduces volitional muscle activation and impairs neuromuscular control. Upon return to full activity post-ACLR, individuals likely concurrently experience quadriceps central activation deficits and neuromuscular fatigue, though the effects of fatigue on muscle strength and activation and biomechanics post-ACLR are unknown. Seventeen individuals 7 to 10 months post-ACLR and 16 controls participated. Quadriceps strength and central activation ratio were recorded prefatigue and postfatigue, which was induced via sets of double-leg squats. Knee biomechanics were recorded during a dynamic landing activity prefatigue and postfatigue. Both groups demonstrated smaller knee flexion (initial contact, P = .017; peak, P = .004) and abduction (initial contact, P = .005; peak, P = .009) angles postfatigue. The ACLR group had smaller peak knee flexion angles (P<.001) prefatigue and postfatigue than controls. Knee flexion moment was smaller in those post-ACLR than controls prefatigue (P<.001), but not postfatigue (P = .103). Controls had smaller knee flexion moments postfatigue (P = .001). Knee abduction moment was smaller in both groups postfatigue (P = .003). All participants demonstrated significantly lower strength (P<.001) and activation (P = .003) postfatigue. Impaired strength, central activation, and biomechanics were present postfatigue in both groups, suggesting that neuromuscular fatigue may increase noncontact ACL injury risk. However, these changes were not exaggerated in those post-ACLR, likely because they already demonstrated a stiff-legged landing strategy

  17. Effects of ambient temperature on mechanomyography of resting quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed

    McKay, William P; Vargo, Michael; Chilibeck, Philip D; Daku, Brian L

    2013-03-01

    It has been speculated that resting muscle mechanical activity, also known as minor tremor, microvibration, and thermoregulatory tonus, has evolved to maintain core temperature in homeotherms, and may play a role in nonshivering thermogenesis. This experiment was done to determine whether resting muscle mechanical activity increases with decreasing ambient temperature. We cooled 20 healthy, human, resting, supine subjects from an ambient temperature of 40° to 12 °C over 65 min. Core temperature, midquadriceps mechanomyography, surface electromyography, and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded. Resting muscle mechanical and electrical activity in the absence of shivering increased significantly at temperatures below 21.5 °C. Women defended core temperature more effectively than men, and showed increased resting muscle activity earlier than men. Metabolism measured by VO2 correlated with resting muscle mechanical activity (R = 0.65; p = 0.01). Resting muscle mechanical activity may have evolved, in part, to maintain core temperature in the face of mild cooling.

  18. Patellar tendon vibration reduces the increased facilitation from quadriceps to soleus in post-stroke hemiparetic individuals.

    PubMed

    Maupas, Eric; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Melo, Sibele de Andrade; Forget, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Stimulation of the femoral nerve in healthy people can facilitate soleus H-reflex and electromyography (EMG) activity. In stroke patients, such facilitation of transmission in spinal pathways linking the quadriceps and soleus muscles is enhanced and related to co-activation of knee and ankle extensors while sitting and walking. Soleus H-reflex facilitation can be depressed by vibration of the quadriceps in healthy people, but the effects of such vibration have never been studied on the abnormal soleus facilitation observed in people after stroke. To determine whether vibration of the quadriceps can modify the enhanced heteronymous facilitation of the soleus muscle observed in people with spastic stroke after femoral nerve stimulation and compare post-vibration effects on soleus facilitation in control and stroke individuals. Modulation of voluntary soleus EMG activity induced by femoral nerve stimulation (2×motor threshold) was assessed before, during and after vibration of the patellar tendon in 10 healthy controls and 17 stroke participants. Voluntary soleus EMG activity was facilitated by femoral nerve stimulation in 4/10 (40%) controls and 11/17 (65%) stroke participants. The level of facilitation was greater in the stroke than control group. Vibration significantly reduced early heteronymous facilitation in both groups (50% of pre-vibration values). However, the delay in recovery of soleus facilitation after vibration was shorter for the stroke than control group. The control condition with the vibrator turned off had no effect on the modulation. Patellar tendon vibration can reduce the facilitation between knee and ankle extensors, which suggests effective presynaptic inhibition but decreased post-activation depression in the lower limb of people after chronic hemiparetic stroke. Further studies are warranted to determine whether such vibration could be used to reduce the abnormal extension synergy of knee and ankle extensors in people after hemiparetic

  19. The alterations in adenosine nucleotides and lactic acid in striated muscles of rats during Rigor mortis following death with drowning or cervical dislocation.

    PubMed

    Pençe, Halime Hanim; Pençe, Sadrettin; Kurtul, Naciye; Yilmaz, Necat; Kocoglu, Hasan; Bakan, Ebubekir

    2003-01-01

    In this study, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and lactic acid in the muscles of masseter, triceps, and quadriceps obtained from right and left sides of Spraque-Dawley rats following death were investigated. The samples were taken immediately and 120 minutes after death occurred. The rats were killed either by cervical dislocation or drowning. ATP concentrations in the muscles of masseter, triceps, and quadriceps were lower in samples obtained 120 minutes after death than in those obtained immediately after death. ADP, AMP, and lactic acid concentrations in these muscles were higher in samples obtained 120 minutes after death than those obtained immediately after death. A positive linear correlation was determined between ATP and ADP concentrations in quadriceps muscles of the rats killed with cervical dislocation and in triceps muscles of the rats killed with drowning. When rats killed with cervical dislocation and with drowning were compared, ADP, AMP, and lactic acid concentrations were lower in the former than in the latter for both times (immediately and 120 minutes after death occurred). In the case of drowning, ATP is consumed faster because of hard exercise or severe physical activity, resulting in a faster rigor mortis. Higher lactic acid levels were determined in muscles of the rats killed with drowning than the other group. In the control and electric shock rats, ATP decreased in different levels in the three different muscle types mentioned above in control group, being much decline in masseter and then in quadriceps. This may be caused by lower mass and less glycogen storage of masseter. No different ATP levels were measured in drowning group with respect to the muscle type possibly because of the severe activity of triceps and quadriceps and because of smaller mass of masseter. One can conclude that the occurrence of rigor mortis is closely related to the mode of death.

  20. Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yongqiang; Ma, Yongcheng; Wang, Xuepeng; Jin, Fangchun; Ge, Shengfang

    2012-04-01

    Damaged bone is sensitive to mechanical stimulation throughout the remodeling phase of bone healing. Muscle damage and muscular atrophy associated with open fractures and subsequent fixation are not beneficial to maintaining optimum conditions for mechanical stability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local muscle atrophy and dysfunction affect fracture healing in a rat femur fracture model. We combined the rat model of a short period atrophy of the quadriceps with femur fracture. Forty-four-month-old male Wistar rats were adopted for this study. Two units of botulinum toxin-A (BXTA) were administered locally into the right side of the quadriceps of each rat, while the same dose of saline was injected into the contralateral quadriceps. After BXTA had been fully absorbed by the quadriceps, osteotomy was performed in both femurs with intramedullary fixation. Gross observation and weighing of muscle tissue, X-ray analysis, callus histology, and bone biomechanical testing were performed at different time points up to 8 weeks post-surgery. Local injection of BXTA led to a significant decrease in the volume and weight of the quadriceps compared to the control side. At the eighth week, the left side femurs of the saline-injected quadriceps almost reached bony union, and fibrous calluses were completely calcified into woven bone. However, a gap was still visible in the BXTA-treated side on X-ray images. As showed by bone histology, there were no mature osseous calluses or woven bone on the BXTA-treated side, but a resorption pattern was evident. Biomechanical testing indicated that the femurs of the BXTA-treated side exhibited inferior mechanical properties compared with the control side. The inferior outcome following BXTA injection, compared with saline injection, in terms of callus resistance may be the consequence of unexpected load and mechanical unsteadiness caused by muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. Changes in contractile properties of muscles receiving repeat injections of botulinum toxin (Botox).

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Rafael; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Youssef, Aliaa Rehan; Longino, David; Herzog, Walter

    2011-01-04

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a frequently used therapeutic tool to denervate muscles in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Although considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration, BTX-A can produce adverse effects in target and non-target muscles. With an increased use of BTX-A for neuromuscular disorders, the effects of repeat injections of BTX-A on strength, muscle mass and structure need to be known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in strength, muscle mass and contractile material in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Twenty NZW rabbits were divided into 4 groups: control and 1, 3 and 6 months of unilateral, repeat injections of BTX-A into the quadriceps femoris. Outcome measures included knee extensor torque, muscle mass and the percentage of contractile material in the quadriceps muscles of the target and non-injected contralateral hindlimbs. Strength in the injected muscles was reduced by 88%, 89% and 95% in the 1, 3 and 6 months BTX-A injected hindlimbs compared to controls. Muscle mass was reduced by 50%, 42% and 31% for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM), respectively, at 1 month, by 68%, 51% and 50% at 3 months and by 76%, 44% and 13% at 6 months. The percentage of contractile material was reduced for the 3 and 6 months animals to 80-64%, respectively, and was replaced primarily by fat. Similar, but less pronounced results were also observed for the quadriceps muscles of the contralateral hindlimbs, suggesting that repeat BTX-A injections cause muscle atrophy and loss of contractile tissue in target muscles and also in non-target muscles that are far removed from the injection site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of EMG-Based Control of Shoulder Muscle FNS Via Artificial Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    assuming that just two paralyzed muscles (pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi ) were stimulated. Further, the needed activations of these “stimulated...injuries at C5-C6 typically result in paralysis of several important shoulder muscles (e.g., pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi , and serratus anterior...of several important muscles (e.g., pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi ),but retain at least partial voluntary control over a number of other

  3. Invasive brain-machine interfaces: a survey of paralyzed patients' attitudes, knowledge and methods of information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Jacob; Schwartz, Christina; Heimbach, Bernhard; Aertsen, Ad; Rickert, Jörn; Ball, Tonio

    2015-08-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) are an emerging therapeutic option that can allow paralyzed patients to gain control over assistive technology devices (ATDs). BMI approaches can be broadly classified into invasive (based on intracranially implanted electrodes) and noninvasive (based on skin electrodes or extracorporeal sensors). Invasive BMIs have a favorable signal-to-noise ratio, and thus allow for the extraction of more information than noninvasive BMIs, but they are also associated with the risks related to neurosurgical device implantation. Current noninvasive BMI approaches are typically concerned, among other issues, with long setup times and/or intensive training. Recent studies have investigated the attitudes of paralyzed patients eligible for BMIs, particularly patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These studies indicate that paralyzed patients are indeed interested in BMIs. Little is known, however, about the degree of knowledge among paralyzed patients concerning BMI approaches or about how patients retrieve information on ATDs. Furthermore, it is not yet clear if paralyzed patients would accept intracranial implantation of BMI electrodes with the premise of decoding improvements, and what the attitudes of a broader range of patients with diseases such as stroke or spinal cord injury are towards this new kind of treatment. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 131 paralyzed patients for their opinions on invasive BMIs and their attitude toward invasive BMI treatment options. The majority of the patients knew about and had a positive attitude toward invasive BMI approaches. The group of ALS patients was especially open to the concept of BMIs. The acceptance of invasive BMI technology depended on the improvements expected from the technology. Furthermore, the survey revealed that for paralyzed patients, the Internet is an important source of information on ATDs. Websites tailored to prospective BMI users should be further developed to

  4. Invasive brain-machine interfaces: a survey of paralyzed patients’ attitudes, knowledge and methods of information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahr, Jacob; Schwartz, Christina; Heimbach, Bernhard; Aertsen, Ad; Rickert, Jörn; Ball, Tonio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) are an emerging therapeutic option that can allow paralyzed patients to gain control over assistive technology devices (ATDs). BMI approaches can be broadly classified into invasive (based on intracranially implanted electrodes) and noninvasive (based on skin electrodes or extracorporeal sensors). Invasive BMIs have a favorable signal-to-noise ratio, and thus allow for the extraction of more information than noninvasive BMIs, but they are also associated with the risks related to neurosurgical device implantation. Current noninvasive BMI approaches are typically concerned, among other issues, with long setup times and/or intensive training. Recent studies have investigated the attitudes of paralyzed patients eligible for BMIs, particularly patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These studies indicate that paralyzed patients are indeed interested in BMIs. Little is known, however, about the degree of knowledge among paralyzed patients concerning BMI approaches or about how patients retrieve information on ATDs. Furthermore, it is not yet clear if paralyzed patients would accept intracranial implantation of BMI electrodes with the premise of decoding improvements, and what the attitudes of a broader range of patients with diseases such as stroke or spinal cord injury are towards this new kind of treatment. Approach. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 131 paralyzed patients for their opinions on invasive BMIs and their attitude toward invasive BMI treatment options. Main results. The majority of the patients knew about and had a positive attitude toward invasive BMI approaches. The group of ALS patients was especially open to the concept of BMIs. The acceptance of invasive BMI technology depended on the improvements expected from the technology. Furthermore, the survey revealed that for paralyzed patients, the Internet is an important source of information on ATDs. Significance. Websites tailored to

  5. Mechanisms of force depression caused by different types of physical exercise studied by direct electrical stimulation of human quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Dudoniene, Vilma; Valanciene, Dovile; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    Force production frequently remains depressed for several hours or even days after various types of strenuous physical exercise. We hypothesized that the pattern of force changes during the first hour after exercise can be used to reveal muscular mechanisms likely to underlie the decline in muscle performance during exercise as well as factors involved in the triggering the prolonged force depression after exercise. Nine groups of recreationally active male volunteers performed one of the following types of exercise: single prolonged or repeated short maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs); single or repeated all-out cycling bouts; repeated drop jumps. The isometric force of the right quadriceps muscle was measured during stimulation with brief 20 and 100 Hz trains of electrical pulses given before and at regular intervals for 60 min after exercise. All exercises resulted in a prolonged force depression, which was more marked at 20 Hz than at 100 Hz. Short-lasting (≤2 min) MVC and all-out cycling exercises showed an initial force recovery (peak after ~ 5 min) followed by a secondary force depression. The repeated drop jumps, which involve eccentric contractions, resulted in a stable force depression with the 20 Hz force being markedly more decreased after 100 than 10 jumps. In accordance with our hypothesis, the results propose at least three different mechanisms that influence force production after exercise: (1) a transiently recovering process followed by (2) a prolonged force depression after metabolically demanding exercise, and (3) a stable force depression after mechanically demanding contractions.

  6. Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... paralyzed. Now, thanks to a novel combination of electrical stimulation of their spinal cords and long-term ... array implanted on his spinal cord. It delivered electrical pulses just below his injury while he underwent ...

  7. Antagonist muscle co-contraction during a double-leg landing maneuver at two heights.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Yeow, Chen Hua; Goh, James Cho Hong; Oetomo, Denny; Ewing, Katie; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

    2017-10-01

    Knee injuries are common during landing activities. Greater landing height increases peak ground reaction forces (GRFs) and loading at the knee joint. As major muscles to stabilize the knee joint, Quadriceps and Hamstring muscles provide internal forces to attenuate the excessive GRF. Despite the number of investigations on the importance of muscle function during landing, the role of landing height on these muscles forces using modeling during landing is not fully investigated. Participant-specific musculoskeletal models were developed using experimental motion analysis data consisting of anatomic joint motions and GRF from eight male participants performing double-leg drop landing from 30 and 60 cm. Muscle forces were calculated in OpenSim and their differences were analyzed at the instances of high risk during landing i.e. peak GRF for both heights. The maximum knee flexion angle and moments were found significantly higher from a double-leg landing at 60 cm compared to 30 cm. The results showed elevated GRF, and mean muscle forces during landing. At peak GRF, only quadriceps showed significantly greater forces at 60 cm. Hamstring muscle forces did not significantly change at 60 cm compared to 30 cm. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle forces changed at different heights. Since hamstring forces were similar in both landing heights, this could lead to an imbalance between the antagonist muscles, potentially placing the knee at risk of injury if combined with small flexion angles that was not observed at peak GRF in our study. Thus, enhanced neuromuscular training programs strengthening the hamstrings may be required to address this imbalance. These findings may contribute to enhance neuromuscular training programs to prevent knee injuries during landing.

  8. Muscle imaging findings in GNE myopathy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio; Ricci, Enzo; Monforte, Mauro; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Rodolico, Carmelo; Barca, Emanuele; Silvestri, Gabriella; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Broccolini, Aldobrando

    2012-07-01

    GNE myopathy (MIM 600737) is an autosomal recessive muscle disease caused by mutations in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) gene. Besides the typical phenotype, characterized by the initial involvement of the distal leg muscles that eventually spreads proximally with sparing of the quadriceps, uncommon presentations with a non-canonical clinical phenotype, unusual muscle biopsy findings or both are increasingly recognized. The aim of our study was to characterize the imaging pattern of pelvic and lower limb muscles in GNE myopathy, thus providing additional diagnostic clues useful in the identification of patients with atypical features. We retrospectively evaluated muscle MRI and CT scans of a cohort of 13 patients heterogeneous for GNE mutations and degree of clinical severity. We found that severe involvement of the biceps femoris short head and, to a lesser extent, of the gluteus minimus, tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis and digitorum longus, soleus and gastrocnemius medialis was consistently present even in patients with early or atypical disease. The vastus lateralis, not the entire quadriceps, was the only muscle spared in advanced stages, while the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius and medialis showed variable signs of fatty replacement. Younger patients showed hyperintensities on T2-weighted sequences in muscles with a normal or, more often, abnormal T1-weighted signal. Our results define a pattern of muscle involvement that appears peculiar to GNE myopathy. Although these findings need to be further validated in a larger cohort, we believe that the recognition of this pattern may be instrumental in the initial clinical assessment of patients with possible GNE myopathy.

  9. Muscle contraction controls skeletal morphogenesis through regulation of chondrocyte convergent extension.

    PubMed

    Shwartz, Yulia; Farkas, Zsuzsanna; Stern, Tomer; Aszódi, Attila; Zelzer, Elazar

    2012-10-01

    Convergent extension driven by mediolateral intercalation of chondrocytes is a key process that contributes to skeletal growth and morphogenesis. While progress has been made in deciphering the molecular mechanism that underlies this process, the involvement of mechanical load exerted by muscle contraction in its regulation has not been studied. Using the zebrafish as a model system, we found abnormal pharyngeal cartilage morphology in both chemically and genetically paralyzed embryos, demonstrating the importance of muscle contraction for zebrafish skeletal development. The shortening of skeletal elements was accompanied by prominent changes in cell morphology and organization. While in control the cells were elongated, chondrocytes in paralyzed zebrafish were smaller and exhibited a more rounded shape, confirmed by a reduction in their length-to-width ratio. The typical columnar organization of cells was affected too, as chondrocytes in various skeletal elements exhibited abnormal stacking patterns, indicating aberrant intercalation. Finally, we demonstrate impaired chondrocyte intercalation in growth plates of muscle-less Sp(d) mouse embryos, implying the evolutionary conservation of muscle force regulation of this essential morphogenetic process.Our findings provide a new perspective on the regulatory interaction between muscle contraction and skeletal morphogenesis by uncovering the role of muscle-induced mechanical loads in regulating chondrocyte intercalation in two different vertebrate models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quadriceps Function and Knee Joint Ultrasonography after ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Montgomery, Melissa M; Moffit, Tyler J; Vakula, Michael N

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis, partially because of chronic quadriceps dysfunction. Articular cartilage is commonly assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and radiography, but these methods are expensive and lack portability. Ultrasound imaging may provide a cost-effective and portable alternative for imaging the femoral cartilage. The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonography of the femoral cartilage between the injured and uninjured limbs of individuals with unilateral ACLR, and to examine the association between quadriceps function and ultrasonographic measures of femoral cartilage. Bilateral femoral cartilage thickness and quadriceps function were assessed in 44 individuals with unilateral ACLR. Quadriceps function was assessed using peak isometric strength, and early (RTD100) and late (RTD200) rate of torque development. Cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (P < 0.001) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (P = 0.007) were smaller in the injured compared with the uninjured limb. After accounting for time since ACLR, quadriceps peak isometric strength was associated with cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (r = 0.35, P = 0.02) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). RTD100 and RTD200 were not associated with femoral cartilage thickness or cross-sectional area. Individuals with ACLR have thinner cartilage in their injured limb compared with uninjured limb, and cartilage thickness is associated with quadriceps function. These results indicate that ultrasonography may be useful for monitoring cartilage health and osteoarthritis progression after ACLR.

  11. The pedicled masseter muscle transfer for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis: repositioning the origin and insertion.

    PubMed

    Matic, Damir B; Yoo, John

    2012-08-01

    The pedicled masseter muscle transfer (PMMT) is introduced as a new reconstructive option for dynamic smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis. The masseter muscle is detached from both its origin and insertion and transferred to a new position to imitate the function of the native zygomaticus major muscle. Part one of this study consisted of cadaveric dissections of 4 heads (eight sides) in order to determine whether the masseter muscle could be (a) pedicled solely by its dominant neurovascular bundle and (b) repositioned directly over the native zygomaticus major. The second part of the study consisted of clinical assessments in three patients in order to confirm the applicability of this muscle transfer. Commissure excursion and vector of contraction following PMMT were compared to the non-paralyzed side. In all eight sides, the masseter muscles were successfully isolated on their pedicle and transposed on top of and in-line with the ipsilateral zygomaticus major. The mean length of the masseter and its angle from Frankfurt's horizontal line after transposition compared favorably to the native zygomaticus major muscle. In the clinical cases, the mean commissure movements of the paralyzed and normal sides were 7 mm and 12 mm respectively. The mean angles of commissural movement for the paralyzed and normal sides were 62° and 59° respectively. The PMMT can be used as a dynamic reconstruction for patients with permanent facial paralysis. As we gain experience with the PMMT, it may be possible to use it as a first-line option for patients not eligible for free micro-neurovascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology and paralysis in the Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the paralyzing toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-05-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment.

  13. Suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-05-13

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode.

  15. Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Steensen, Robert; Gföller, Peter; Lawton, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Critically evaluate the published literature related to quadriceps tendon (QT) medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Hamstring tendon (HT) MPFL reconstruction techniques have been shown to successfully restore patella stability, but complications including patella fracture are reported. Quadriceps tendon (QT) reconstruction techniques with an intact graft pedicle on the patella side have the advantage that patella bone tunnel drilling and fixation are no longer needed, reducing risk of patella fracture. Several QT MPFL reconstruction techniques, including minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches, have been published with promising clinical results and fewer complications than with HT techniques. Parallel laboratory studies have shown macroscopic anatomy and biomechanical properties of QT are more similar to native MPFL than hamstring (HS) HT, suggesting QT may more accurately restore native joint kinematics. Quadriceps tendon MPFL reconstruction, via both open and MIS techniques, have promising clinical results and offer valuable alternatives to HS grafts for primary and revision MPFL reconstruction in both children and adults.

  16. Quadriceps tendon injuries in national football league players.

    PubMed

    Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There

  17. [Quadriceps tendon insufficiency and rupture : Treatment options in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Thiele, K; von Roth, P; Pfitzner, T; Preininger, B; Perka, C

    2016-05-01

    Quadriceps tendon injuries and insufficiencies in total knee arthroplasty are rare, but are followed by a devastating complication that left untreated leads to a complete loss of function of the knee. This review article summarizes the functional anatomy, risk factors, and the prevalence and diagnosis of quadriceps tendon injuries, in addition to the possible management options for partial and complete ruptures. The treatment options are adapted according to the extent of the loss of function (partial, complete) and the duration of the injury (acute vs chronic). Furthermore, the choice of treatment should take into account the quality and availability of primary tissue, the patient's general health, along with their likely functional requirements. Conservative treatment is often justified in partial ruptures with good results. Complete ruptures require surgical intervention and multiple operative techniques are described. Treatment options for acute ruptures include direct primary repair with autogenous or synthetic tissue augmentation. In the case of chronic insufficiency and a lack of soft-tissue surroundings, reconstruction with the aid of a muscle flap or allograft tissue can be considered. All surgical intervention techniques used so far have been fraught with complications and rarely lead to satisfactory results. A new surgical approach to the reconstruction and augmentation of the extensor mechanism consists of the use of a synthetic mesh. The technique is described here in detail.

  18. Comparison of the Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Released in the Vastus Lateralis Muscle of Patients with Fibromyalgia and Healthy Controls during Contractions of the Quadriceps Muscle – A Microdialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Anette; Palstam, Annie; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Löfgren, Monika; Bjersing, Jan; Kosek, Eva; Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia is associated with central hyperexcitability, but it is suggested that peripheral input is important to maintain central hyperexcitability. The primary aim was to investigate the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines released in the vastus lateralis muscle during repetitive dynamic contractions of the quadriceps muscle in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Secondarily, to investigate if the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were correlated with pain or fatigue during these repetitive dynamic contractions. Material and Methods 32 women with fibromyalgia and 32 healthy women (controls) participated in a 4 hour microdialysis session, to sample IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF from the most painful point of the vastus lateralis muscle before, during and after 20 minutes of repeated dynamic contractions. Pain (visual analogue scale; 0–100) and fatigue Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale; 6–20) were assessed before and during the entire microdialysis session. Results The repetitive dynamic contractions increased pain in the patients with fibromyalgia (P < .001) and induced fatigue in both groups (P < .001). Perceived fatigue was significantly higher among patients with fibromyalgia than controls (P < .001). The levels of IL-1β did not change during contractions in either group. The levels of TNF did not change during contractions in patients with fibromyalgia, but increased in controls (P < .001) and were significantly higher compared to patients with fibromyalgia (P = .033). The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 increased in both groups alike during and after contractions (P’s < .001). There were no correlations between pain or fatigue and cytokine levels after contractions. Conclusion There were no differences between patients with fibromyalgia and controls in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and no correlations between levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pain or fatigue. Thus, this study indicates that IL-1β, IL-6, IL

  19. Mechanomyography-Based Wearable Monitor of Quasi-Isometric Muscle Fatigue for Motor Neural Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Eddy; Popović-Maneski, Lana; Nohama, Percy

    2018-02-01

    A motor neural prosthesis based on surface functional electrical stimulation (sFES) can restore functional movement (e.g., standing, walking) in patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI). sFES generates muscle contractions in antigravity muscles and allows balance-assisted standing. This induced standing has several benefits, such as improved cardiovascular function, decreased incidence of urinary infections, reduced joint contractures, and muscle atrophy. The duration of sFES assisted standing is limited due to the quick onset of muscle fatigue. Currently, there is no method available to reliably estimate real-time muscle fatigue during sFES. Simply monitoring the M-wave changes is not suitable due to the high signal disturbances that arise during multi-channel electrical stimulation. Mechanomyography (MMG) is immune to electrical stimulation artifacts and can be used to detect subtle vibrations on the surface of the skin related to activation of the underlying muscle's motor units (MU). The aim of this study was to develop a method for detecting muscle fatigue brought on by sFES. The method was tested in three different heads of the quadriceps muscle in SCI patients during electrically elicited quasi-isometric contraction. Six spinal cord-injured male volunteers, with no voluntary control of the quadriceps muscle participated in the study. Electrical bursts of voltage-controlled monophasic square pulses at frequencies of 1 kHz (50% duty cycle) at 50 Hz (15% duty cycle) were used to generate thigh muscle contractions that controlled the knee joint in the sagittal plane. The pulse amplitudes were set to position the knee joint at a 5° angle from the horizontal plane and when the knee angle dropped to 20° (e.g., the quadriceps were unable to hold the lower leg in the desired position), the test was terminated. Two data segments lasting 10 s each, at the beginning and end of each test, were analyzed. The muscle contraction was assessed by MMG sensors positioned on

  20. Brain-controlled muscle stimulation for the restoration of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Ethier, Christian; Miller, Lee E

    2014-01-01

    Loss of the ability to move, as a consequence of spinal cord injury or neuromuscular disorder, has devastating consequences for the paralyzed individual, and great economic consequences for society. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) offers one means to restore some mobility to these individuals, improving not only their autonomy, but potentially their general health and well-being as well. FES uses electrical stimulation to cause the paralyzed muscles to contract. Existing clinical systems require the stimulation to be preprogrammed, with the patient typically using residual voluntary movement of another body part to trigger and control the patterned stimulation. The rapid development of neural interfacing in the past decade offers the promise of dramatically improved control for these patients, potentially allowing continuous control of FES through signals recorded from motor cortex, as the patient attempts to control the paralyzed body part. While application of these ‘Brain Machine Interfaces’ (BMIs) has undergone dramatic development for control of computer cursors and even robotic limbs, their use as an interface for FES has been much more limited. In this review, we consider both FES and BMI technologies and discuss the prospect for combining the two to provide important new options for paralyzed individuals. PMID:25447224

  1. Muscle recovery after ACL reconstruction with 4-strand semitendinosus graft harvested through either a posterior or anterior incision: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, D; Fontanin, N; Geffrier, A; Morel, N; Mensa, C; Ohl, X

    2015-09-01

    Harvesting of a 4-strand semitendinosis (ST4) graft during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be performed through either a posterior or anterior approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate the recovery of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles as a function of the graft harvesting method. We hypothesized that posterior harvesting (PH) would lead to better recovery in hamstring strength than anterior harvesting (AH). In this prospective study, the semitendinosus was harvested through an anterior incision in the first group of patients and through a posterior one in the second group of patients. The patients were enrolled consecutively, without randomization. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed three and six months postoperative to determine the strength deficit in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of the operated leg relative to the uninjured contralateral leg. Thirty-nine patients were included: 20 in the AH group and 19 in the PH group. The mean quadriceps strength deficit after three and six months was 42% and 26% for AH and 29% and 19% for the PH, respectively (P=0.01 after three months and P=0.16 after six months). The mean hamstring strength deficit after three and six months was 31% and 17% for AH and 23% and 15% for the PH, respectively (P=0.09 after three months and P=0.45 after six months). After three months, the PH group had recovered 12% more quadriceps muscle strength than the AH group (P=0.03). Our hypothesis was not confirmed. Harvesting of a ST4 graft for ACL reconstruction using a posterior approach led to better muscle strength recovery in the quadriceps only after three months. Level 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of muscle injection site on preanaesthetic sedation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Self, I A; Hughes, J M L; Kenny, D A; Clutton, R E

    2009-03-14

    The demeanour of 122 dogs was assessed, and a mixture of 0.025 mg/kg acepromazine and 0.3 mg/kg morphine was injected intramuscularly into one of four randomly assigned muscle sites (cervical epaxial, triceps brachii, middle gluteal and quadriceps femoris) and the dogs' reactions to the injections were assessed. The development of sedation and the occurrence of side effects were assessed after 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and each dog's reaction to venous catheterisation was scored. All the dogs became similarly sedated after 30 minutes. The degree of sedation and the incidence of side effects were independent of the injection site, but the dogs receiving intragluteal injections had lower sedation scores after 10 minutes. The dogs' demeanour had no effect on their response to venous catheterisation. The dogs receiving an injection into the postural quadriceps and triceps muscles showed more marked reactions than those injected into the non-postural cervical epaxial and gluteal muscles.

  3. Near-infrared muscle functional monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Marco; De Blasi, Roberto A.; Ferrari, Adriano; Pizzi, Assunta; Quaresima, Valentina

    1994-01-01

    The oxygenation of human muscle tissue can be investigated using near IR spectroscopy (NIRS). Oxy and deoxy hemoglobin changes can be quantified combining attenuation measurements with pathlength data obtained by time resolved spectroscopy. This study reports the application of NIRS to non- invasive measurements of quadriceps oxygenation on muscular dystrophy patients during treadmill exercise.

  4. Static stretching vs. dynamic warm-ups: a comparison of their effects on torque and electromyography output of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles.

    PubMed

    Williams, N; Coburn, J; Gillum, T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if two different warm-up protocols differently affect torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings, and electromyography (EMG) output of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) when completing 30 maximal leg extensions and curls. Twenty-one healthy male (N.=8) and female (N.=13) subjects volunteered to participate in a familiarization session and three testing sessions. The three testing sessions control, dynamic, and static were completed in a counterbalanced order on non-consecutive days. First, subjects warmed-up on a treadmill for five minutes before completing six dynamic movements, six static-stretches, or no stretches. They then rested for five minutes before completing 30 maximal leg extensions and curls at a speed of 60 s-1. A significant decrease in quadriceps torque output over time was determined for the dynamic protocol when compared to the control (P<0.01) and static (P<0.05) protocols. A significant decrease was found in peak quadriceps torque for the dynamic protocol (P<0.01) when compared to the static, and a significant increase was found for the static protocol (P<0.05) when compared to the control. A significant decrease in average quadriceps torque was found for the dynamic protocol when compared to the static (P<0.05) and control (P<0.01) protocols. No difference was found in hamstring torque or EMG output of the RF and VL. Short duration static-stretching has the ability to increase peak and average torque of the leg extensors, while some types of anaerobic exercise involving maximal contractions to fatigue may be hindered by performing dynamic movements as part of the warm-up.

  5. Statistical Parameter Study of the Time Interval Distribution for Nonparalyzable, Paralyzable, and Hybrid Dead Time Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syam, Nur Syamsi; Maeng, Seongjin; Kim, Myo Gwang; Lim, Soo Yeon; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2018-05-01

    A large dead time of a Geiger Mueller (GM) detector may cause a large count loss in radiation measurements and consequently may cause distortion of the Poisson statistic of radiation events into a new distribution. The new distribution will have different statistical parameters compared to the original distribution. Therefore, the variance, skewness, and excess kurtosis in association with the observed count rate of the time interval distribution for well-known nonparalyzable, paralyzable, and nonparalyzable-paralyzable hybrid dead time models of a Geiger Mueller detector were studied using Monte Carlo simulation (GMSIM). These parameters were then compared with the statistical parameters of a perfect detector to observe the change in the distribution. The results show that the behaviors of the statistical parameters for the three dead time models were different. The values of the skewness and the excess kurtosis of the nonparalyzable model are equal or very close to those of the perfect detector, which are ≅2 for skewness, and ≅6 for excess kurtosis, while the statistical parameters in the paralyzable and hybrid model obtain minimum values that occur around the maximum observed count rates. The different trends of the three models resulting from the GMSIM simulation can be used to distinguish the dead time behavior of a GM counter; i.e. whether the GM counter can be described best by using the nonparalyzable, paralyzable, or hybrid model. In a future study, these statistical parameters need to be analyzed further to determine the possibility of using them to determine a dead time for each model, particularly for paralyzable and hybrid models.

  6. Variability and reliability of the vastus lateralis muscle anatomy.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Toia, Francesca; Brenner, Erich; Melloni, Carlo; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the variability of the morphological and neurovascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and to describe the relationships among its intramuscular partitions and with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. Clinical implications in its reliability as a flap donor are also discussed. In 2012, the extra- and intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the VL was investigated in 10 cadaveric lower limbs. In three specimens, the segmental arterial pedicles were injected with latex of different colors to point out their anastomotic connections. The morphological anatomy was investigated with regard to the mutual relationship of the three muscular partitions and the relation of the VL with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The VL has a segmental morphological anatomy. However, the fibers of its three partitions interconnect individually and with the other bellies of the quadriceps femoris, particularly, in several variable portions with the vastus intermedius and mainly in the posterior part of the VL. The lateral circumflex femoral artery and its branches have variable origin, but demonstrate constant segmental distribution. Intramuscular dissection and colored latex injections show a rich anastomotic vascular network among the three partitions. Moderate variability exists in both the myological and the neurovascular anatomy of the VL. Despite this variability, the anatomy of the VL always has a constant segmental pattern, which makes the VL a reliable flap donor. Detailed knowledge of the VL anatomy could have useful applications in a broad clinical field.

  7. [Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].

    PubMed

    Karahasanoğlu, İlker; Yoloğlu, Osman; Kerimoğlu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome.

  8. Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo-Lozano, Amada Y.; Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Contreras, Gerardo; Alonso-Rodriguez, Rosalba

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment. PMID:22822356

  9. Quantitative MRI and strength measurements in the assessment of muscle quality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wokke, B H; van den Bergen, J C; Versluis, M J; Niks, E H; Milles, J; Webb, A G; van Zwet, E W; Aartsma-Rus, A; Verschuuren, J J; Kan, H E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess leg muscle quality and give a detailed description of leg muscle involvement in a series of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients using quantitative MRI and strength measurements. Fatty infiltration, as well as total and contractile (not fatty infiltrated) cross sectional areas of various leg muscles were determined in 16 Duchenne patients and 11 controls (aged 8-15). To determine specific muscle strength, four leg muscle groups (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, anterior tibialis and triceps surae) were measured and related to the amount of contractile tissue. In patients, the quadriceps femoris showed decreased total and contractile cross sectional area, attributable to muscle atrophy. The total, but not the contractile, cross sectional area of the triceps surae was increased in patients, corresponding to hypertrophy. Specific strength decreased in all four muscle groups of Duchenne patients, indicating reduced muscle quality. This suggests that muscle hypertrophy and fatty infiltration are two distinct pathological processes, differing between muscle groups. Additionally, the quality of remaining muscle fibers is severely reduced in the legs of Duchenne patients. The combination of quantitative MRI and quantitative muscle testing could be a valuable outcome parameter in longitudinal studies and in the follow-up of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode. PMID:25969895

  11. Changes in Quadriceps Muscle Activity During Sustained Recreational Alpine Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich; Seifert, John G.; Wakeling, James M.

    2011-01-01

    During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing) and the last two (POSTskiing) runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination) within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs. Key points The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF. General muscular fatigue, where additional specific fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers, did not occur. A modified skiing style towards a less functional and hence more uncontrolled skiing technique seems to be a key

  12. Muscle paralyzing effect of the juice from the trunk of the banana tree.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y N; Dryden, W F

    1985-01-01

    The effect of an extract from the trunk of the banana tree (Musa sapientum) was investigated in isolated skeletal muscle preparations from the chick, mouse and frog using twitch tension and intracellular recording techniques. The extract produced, in the same concentration range and after an initial period of twitch augmentation, paralysis of skeletal muscle in both directly and indirectly stimulated preparations. It also had a dose-dependent stimulant effect on the muscle causing a contracture. The neuromuscular blockade was reversed by calcium, but only when added before complete paralysis of the muscle. On the other hand, neostigmine usually hastened the blockade and aggravated the contracture. The frequency of the miniature endplate potential in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation greatly increased initially, declining to an elevated plateau. Effects on quantal content of endplate potentials (e.p.p.s) were studied in the transected mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm using trains of e.p.p.s. In the presence of the extract, only a few e.p.p. trains could normally be evoked, probably due to nerve terminal block. When quantal content could be measured at low concentrations of the extract, an increase was usually obtained. Muscle action potentials in the frog sartorius muscle were decreased in amplitude until no further potentials could be generated. The results suggest that the nature of the block produced by the extract resembles that of a potent local anaesthetic with an initial atypical labilizing effect on cell calcium rather than a conventional curariform block.

  13. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jarbas da Silva, Josinaldo; Jon Schoenfeld, Brad; Nardi, Priscyla Silva Monteiro; Pecoraro, Silvio Luis; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria; Hartigan, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140°) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus maximus (GM). In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only. PMID:27504484

  14. Central and peripheral quadriceps fatigue in congestive heart failure☆

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Dayer, Mark J.; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Swallow, Elisabeth B.; Porcher, Raphael; Vazir, Ali; Poole-Wilson, Philip; Polkey, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The clinical syndrome of heart failure includes exercise limitation that is not directly linked to measures of cardiac function. Quadriceps fatigability may be an important component of this and this may arise from peripheral or central factors. Methods and results We studied 10 men with CHF and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Compared with a rest condition, 10 min after incremental maximal cycle exercise, twitch quadriceps force in response to supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation fell in both groups (CHF 14.1% ± 18.1%, p = 0.037; Control: 20.8 ± 11.0%, p < 0.001; no significant difference between groups). There was no significant change in quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction voluntary force. The difference in the motor evoked potential (MEP) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex between rest and exercise conditions at 10 min, normalised to the peripheral action potential, also fell significantly in both groups (CHF: 27.3 ± 38.7%, p = 0.037; Control: 41.1 ± 47.7%, p = 0.024). However, the fall in MEP was sustained for a longer period in controls than in patients (p = 0.048). Conclusions The quadriceps is more susceptible to fatigue, with a similar fall in TwQ occurring in CHF patients at lower levels of exercise. This is associated with no change in voluntary activation but a lesser degree of depression of quadriceps motor evoked potential. PMID:22795722

  15. Muscle MRI in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy carrying mutation c.187+1G>A.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yawen; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Yun

    2015-06-01

    We describe the clinical and muscle MRI changes in 2 siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) carrying the mutation c.187+1G>A. Peripheral blood smears, genetic tests, and muscle biopsies were performed. Thigh MRI was performed to observe fatty replacement, muscle edema, and muscle bulk from axial sections. Both siblings had similar fatty infiltration and edema. T1-weighted images of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus revealed marked and diffuse fatty infiltration. There was asymmetric involvement in biceps femoris and quadriceps. There was extensive fatty infiltration in the quadriceps, except for the rectus femoris. Gracilis and sartorius were relatively spared. Thigh muscle volume was decreased, while the gracilis and sartorius appeared to show compensatory hypertrophy. Compared with previous reports in NLSDM, MRI changes in this myopathy tended to be more severe. Asymmetry and relatively selective fatty infiltration were characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dissociation between short-term unloading and resistance training effects on skeletal muscle Na+,K+-ATPase, muscle function, and fatigue in humans.

    PubMed

    Perry, Ben D; Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Murphy, Robyn M; Steward, Collene H; Anderson, Mitchell; Levinger, Itamar; Petersen, Aaron C; McKenna, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Physical training increases skeletal muscle Na + ,K + -ATPase content (NKA) and improves exercise performance, but the effects of inactivity per se on NKA content and isoform abundance in human muscle are unknown. We investigated the effects of 23-day unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and subsequent 4-wk resistance training (RT) on muscle function and NKA in 6 healthy adults, measuring quadriceps muscle peak torque; fatigue and venous [K + ] during intense one-legged cycling exercise; and skeletal muscle NKA content ([ 3 H]ouabain binding) and NKA isoform abundances (immunoblotting) in muscle homogenates (α 1-3 , β 1-2 ) and in single fibers (α 1-3 , β 1 ). In the unloaded leg after ULLS, quadriceps peak torque and cycling time to fatigue declined by 22 and 23%, respectively, which were restored with RT. Whole muscle NKA content and homogenate NKA α 1-3 and β 1-2 isoform abundances were unchanged with ULLS or RT. However, in single muscle fibers, NKA α 3 in type I (-66%, P = 0.006) and β 1 in type II fibers (-40%, P = 0.016) decreased after ULLS, with other NKA isoforms unchanged. After RT, NKA α 1 (79%, P = 0.004) and β 1 (35%, P = 0.01) increased in type II fibers, while α 2 (76%, P = 0.028) and α 3 (142%, P = 0.004) increased in type I fibers compared with post-ULLS. Despite considerably impaired muscle function and earlier fatigue onset, muscle NKA content and homogenate α 1 and α 2 abundances were unchanged, thus being resilient to inactivity induced by ULLS. Nonetheless, fiber type-specific downregulation with inactivity and upregulation with RT of several NKA isoforms indicate complex regulation of muscle NKA expression in humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Connections that Count: Brain-Computer Interface Enables the Profoundly Paralyzed to Communicate ... of this page please turn Javascript on. A brain-computer interface (BCI) system This brain-computer interface ( ...

  18. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  19. Simultaneous Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture in Patient with Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunseok; Kim, Byounggook; Chung, Ju-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a very rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The etiology is not clear yet. But it occurs infrequently in patients with chronic metabolic disorders. A 30-year-old female patient with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture visited our hospital. She had chronic renal failure and her parathyroid hormone level was elevated due to parathyroid adenoma. We report a surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons of a patient with chronic renal failure as well as management of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:22570843

  20. Resistance training using eccentric overload induces early adaptations in skeletal muscle size.

    PubMed

    Norrbrand, Lena; Fluckey, James D; Pozzo, Marco; Tesch, Per A

    2008-02-01

    Fifteen healthy men performed a 5-week training program comprising four sets of seven unilateral, coupled concentric-eccentric knee extensions 2-3 times weekly. While eight men were assigned to training using a weight stack (WS) machine, seven men trained using a flywheel (FW) device, which inherently provides variable resistance and allows for eccentric overload. The design of these apparatuses ensured similar knee extensor muscle use and range of motion. Before and after training, maximal isometric force (MVC) was measured in tasks non-specific to the training modes. Volume of all individual quadriceps muscles was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Performance across the 12 exercise sessions was measured using the inherent features of the devices. Whereas MVC increased (P < 0.05) at all angles measured in FW, such a change was less consistent in WS. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in task-specific performance (i.e., load lifted) in WS. Average work showed a non-significant 8.7% increase in FW. Quadriceps muscle volume increased (P < 0.025) in both groups after training. Although the more than twofold greater hypertrophy evident in FW (6.2%) was not statistically greater than that shown in WS (3.0%), all four individual quadriceps muscles of FW showed increased (P < 0.025) volume whereas in WS only m. rectus femoris was increased (P < 0.025). Collectively the results of this study suggest more robust muscular adaptations following flywheel than weight stack resistance exercise supporting the idea that eccentric overload offers a potent stimuli essential to optimize the benefits of resistance exercise.

  1. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods/Design A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index – normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle

  2. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; El-Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues; Frigero, Marcelo; Antonialli, Fernanda Colella; Vanin, Adriane Aver; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo

    2014-04-09

    Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index - normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle performance in Individuals with DM-2

  3. THE EFFECTS OF VARIED TENSIONS OF KINESIOLOGY TAPING ON QUADRICEPS STRENGTH AND LOWER LIMB FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Yuri Rafael dos Santos; Nannini, Stella Bispo; Nakaoka, Gustavo Bezerra; dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bryk, Flavio Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Background Kinesiology Taping (KT) may promote changes in muscle strength and motor performance, topics of great interest in the sports-medicine sciences. These characteristics are purported to be associated with the tension generated by the KT on the skin. However, the most suitable tension for the attainment of these strength and performance effects has not yet been confirmed. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of different tensions of KT on the isometric contraction of the quadriceps and lower limb function of healthy individuals over a period of seven days. Study Design Blind, randomized, clinical trial. Methods One hundred and thirty healthy individuals were distributed into the following five groups: control (without KT); KT0 (KT without tension); KT50; KT75 and KT100 (approximately 50%, 75% and 100% tension applied to the tape, respectively). Assessments of isometric quadriceps strength were conducted using a hand held dynamometer. Lower limb function was assessed through Single Hop Test for Distance, with five measurement periods: baseline; immediately after KT application; three days after KT; five days after KT; and 72h after KT removal (follow-up). Results There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) at any of the studied periods on participants’ quadriceps strength nor in the function of the lower dominant limb, based on comparisons between the control group and the experimental groups. Conclusion KT applied with different tensions did not produce modulations, in short or long-term, on quadriceps’ strength or lower limb function of healthy individuals. Therefore, this type of KT application, when seeking these objectives, should be reconsidered. Level of Evidence 1b PMID:28217419

  4. Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P J

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two questionnaires, the CATCH and MAS. Only the CATCH was applicable with all four disabled groups. Two factors were found: behavior-positive affect and cognition-negative affect. With regard to the first factor respondents had more positive attitudes toward deaf, blind and paralyzed persons than toward intellectually disabled persons. The cognition and negative affect factor showed that respondents had more positive attitudes toward deaf and blind persons than toward paralyzed and intellectually disabled persons. Being older and familiarity with a disabled person had a significant positive effect on attitudes, while self-esteem and gender had only a partial effect and having religious beliefs was not a significant predictor in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using laser capture microdissection to study fiber specific signaling in locomotor muscle in COPD: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Divya; Lewis, Amy; Patel, Mehul S; Curtis, Katrina J; Lee, Jen Y; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Wilkinson, Ian B; Kemp, Paul R; Polkey, Michael I

    2017-06-01

    Quadriceps dysfunction is important in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with an associated increased proportion of type II fibers. Investigation of protein synthesis and degradation has yielded conflicting results, possibly due to study of whole biopsy samples, whereas signaling may be fiber-specific. Our objective was to develop a method for fiber-specific gene expression analysis. 12 COPD and 6 healthy subjects underwent quadriceps biopsy. Cryosections were immunostained for type II fibers, which were separated using laser capture microdissection (LCM). Whole muscle and different fiber populations were subject to quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Levels of muscle-RING-finger-protein-1 and Atrogin-1 were lower in type II fibers of COPD versus healthy subjects (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but differences were not apparent in whole muscle or type I fibers. We describe a novel method for studying fiber-specific gene expression in optimum cutting temperature compound-embedded muscle specimens. LCM offers a more sensitive way to identify molecular changes in COPD muscle. Muscle Nerve 55: 902-912, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Muscle MRI in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Evidence of a distinctive pattern.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Kiran; Manjunath, Mahadevappa; Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Sekar, Deepha; Vengalil, Seena; Thomas, PriyaTreesa; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of muscle involvement using MRI findings and correlate with functional as well as muscle strength measurements. Fifty genetically confirmed DMD children with a mean age of 7.6 ± 2.8 (4-15 years) underwent muscle MRI and qualitative assessment was done for muscle changes using Mercuri staging for fibro-fatty replacement on T1 sequence and Borsato score for myoedema on STIR sequence. Detailed phenotypic characterisation was done with Manual muscle testing (modified MRC grading) and Muscular Dystrophy Functional Rating Scale (MDFRS). Mercuri scoring showed severe fibro-fatty changes in Gluteus medius, minimus and Adductor magnus followed by moderate to severe changes in Gluteus maximus and Quadriceps muscles. Total sparing of Gracilis, Sartorius and Semimembranosus muscles was observed. Superficial posterior and lateral leg muscles were preferentially involved with sparing of deep posterior and anterior leg muscles. Myoedema showed significant inverse correlation with fatty infiltration in thigh muscles. Similarly, significant inverse correlation was observed between Mercuri scores and MRC grading as well as MDFRS scores. A direct linear correlation was observed between duration of illness and fibro-fatty changes in piriformis, quadriceps and superficial posterior leg muscles. There was no correlation between MRI findings and genotypic characteristics. However, this specific pattern of muscle involvement in MRI could aid in proceeding for genetic testing when clinical suspicion is high, thus reducing the need for muscle biopsy. Fibro fatty infiltration as measured by Mercuri scoring can be a useful marker for assessing the disease severity and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A new approach to assess the spasticity in hamstrings muscles using mechanomyography antagonist muscular group.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Eddy; Scheeren, Eduardo M; Nogueira-Neto, Guilherme N; Button, Vera Lúcia da S N; Nohama, Percy

    2012-01-01

    Several pathologies can cause muscle spasticity. Modified Ashworth scale (MAS) can rank spasticity, however its results depend on the physician subjective evaluation. This study aims to show a new approach to spasticity assessment by means of MMG analysis of hamstrings antagonist muscle group (quadriceps muscle). Four subjects participated in the study, divided into two groups regarding MAS (MAS0 and MAS1). MMG sensors were positioned over the muscle belly of rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. The range of movement was acquired with an electrogoniometer placed laterally to the knee. The system was based on a LabVIEW acquisition program and the MMG sensors were built with triaxial accelerometers. The subjects were submitted to stretching reflexes and the integral of the MMG (MMG(INT)) signal was calculated to analysis. The results showed that the MMG(INT) was greater to MAS1 than to MAS0 [muscle RF (p = 0.004), VL (p = 0.001) and VM (p = 0.007)]. The results showed that MMG was viable to detect a muscular tonus increase in antagonist muscular group (quadriceps femoris) of spinal cord injured volunteers.

  8. A Predictive Mathematical Model of Muscle Forces for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Samuel C. K.; Ding, Jun; Prosser, Laura A.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if our previously developed muscle model could be used to predict forces of the quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscles of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twenty-two children with CP (12 males, 10 females; mean age 10y, SD 2y, range 7-13y; Gross Motor Function…

  9. Static postural sway, proprioception, and maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction in patients with knee osteoarthritis and normal control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, B; Mockett, S; Doherty, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) have reduced static postural control, knee proprioceptive acuity, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the quadriceps compared with normal controls, and to determine possible independent predictors of static postural sway.
METHODS—77 subjects with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA (58 women, 19 men; mean age 63.4 years, range 36-82) and 63 controls with asymptomatic and clinically normal knees (45 women, 18 men; mean age 63 years, range 46-85) underwent assessment of static postural sway. 108 subjects (59 patients, 49 controls) also underwent assessment of knee proprioceptive activity and MVC (including calculation of quadriceps activation). In patients with knee OA knee pain, stiffness, and functional disability were assessed using the WOMAC Index. The height (m) and weight (kg) of all subjects was assessed.
RESULTS—Compared with controls, patients with knee OA were heavier (mean difference 15.3 kg, p<0.001), had increased postural lateral sway (controls: median 2.3, interquartile (IQ) range 1.8-2.9; patients: median 4.7, IQ range 1.9-4.7, p<0.001), reduced proprioceptive acuity (controls: mean 7.9, 95% CI 6.9 to 8.9; patients: mean 12.0, 95% CI 10.5 to 13.6, p<0.001), weaker quadriceps strength (controls: mean 22.5, 95% CI 19.9 to 24.6; patients: mean 14.7, 95% CI 12.5 to 16.9, p<0.001), and less percentage activation of quadriceps (controls: mean 87.4, 95% CI 80.7 to 94.2; patients: mean 66.0, 95% CI 58.8 to 73.2, p<0.001). The significant predictors of postural sway were knee pain and the ratio of MVC/body weight.
CONCLUSIONS—Compared with age and sex matched controls, subjects with symptomatic knee OA have quadriceps weakness, reduced knee proprioception, and increased postural sway. Pain and muscle strength may particularly influence postural sway. The interaction between physiological, structural, and functional abnormalities in knee OA

  10. Age-related conversion of dystrophin-negative to -positive fiber segments of skeletal but not cardiac muscle fibers in heterozygote mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Karpati, G; Zubrzycka-Gaarn, E E; Carpenter, S; Bulman, D E; Ray, P N; Worton, R G

    1990-03-01

    Immunoreactive dystrophin was examined in muscle fibers of quadriceps, extraocular muscles and cardiac ventricular muscles of female heterozygote mdx mice at 10, 35 and 60 days of age, with microscopic immunoperoxidase method and by immunoblots. In quadriceps muscle fibers there was a marked gradual diminution of the dystrophin-negative fiber segments between age 10 and 60 days. We suggest that this was partly due to a spontaneous fusion of dystrophin-competent satellite cells into the dystrophin-negative fiber segments and partly to an expansion of the cytoplasmic domain of dystrophin expression related to the original myonuclei. In cardiac muscle that lacks satellite cells, there was persistence of a large number of dystrophin-negative fiber segments even at age 60 days and probably beyond. The findings of this study have implications for the detection of heterozygote female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and for the possible therapy of DMD muscles by myoblast transfer.

  11. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  12. Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482

  13. Impaired voluntary neuromuscular activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Age-related alterations of neuromuscular activation may contribute to deficits in muscle power and mobility function. This study assesses whether impaired activation of the agonist quadriceps and antagonist hamstrings, including amplitude- and velocity-dependent characteristics of activa...

  14. Variability of Measurement of Patellofemoral Indices with Knee Flexion and Quadriceps Contraction: An MRI-Based Anatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Laugharne, Edward; Bali, Navi; Purushothamdas, Sanjay; Almallah, Faris; Kundra, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of varying knee flexion and quadriceps activity on patellofemoral indices measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods MRI of the knee was performed in 20 patients for indications other than patellar or patellofemoral pathology. Axial and sagittal sequences were performed in full extension of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, full extension of the knee with the quadriceps contracted, 30° flexion of the knee with the quadriceps relaxed, and 30° flexion with the quadriceps contracted. Bisect offset, patella tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were measured. Results With the knee flexed to 30° and quadriceps relaxed, the mean values of patellar tilt angle, bisect offset, Insall-Salvati ratio and Caton-Deschamps index were all within normal limits. With the knee extended and quadriceps contracted, the mean patellar tilt angle (normal value, <15°) was 14.6° and the bisect offset (normal value, <65%) was 65%, while the Caton-Deschamps index was 1.34 (normal range, 0.6 to 1.3). With the knee extended and quadriceps relaxed, the mean Caton-Deschamps index was 1.31. Conclusions MRI scanning of the knee in extension with the quadriceps contracted leads to elevated patellofemoral indices. MRI taken with the knee in 30° of flexion allows more reliable assessment of the patellofemoral joint and minimises the confounding effect of quadriceps contraction. PMID:27894177

  15. Muscle function in COPD: a complex interplay

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Anna V; Maddocks, Matthew; Martolini, Dario; Polkey, Michael I; Man, William D-C

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal muscles play an essential role in life, providing the mechanical basis for respiration and movement. Skeletal muscle dysfunction is prevalent in all stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and significantly influences symptoms, functional capacity, health related quality of life, health resource usage and even mortality. Furthermore, in contrast to the lungs, the skeletal muscles are potentially remedial with existing therapy, namely exercise-training. This review summarizes clinical and laboratory observations of the respiratory and peripheral skeletal muscles (in particular the diaphragm and quadriceps), and current understanding of the underlying etiological processes. As further progress is made in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle dysfunction, new pharmacological therapies are likely to emerge to treat this important extra-pulmonary manifestation of COPD. PMID:22973093

  16. Position of the quadriceps actuator influences knee loads during simulated squat testing.

    PubMed

    Hast, Michael W; Piazza, Stephen J

    2018-05-17

    The "Oxford Rig" cadaveric simulator permits researchers and clinicians to study knee mechanics during a simulated squatting motion. The motion of the lower limb in the Oxford Rig is typically controlled by a single actuator that applies tension to the quadriceps tendon. The location of the quadriceps actuator, however, has differed across published descriptions of the Oxford Rig. Actuators have been placed on the femur and pelvis, and on "grounded" locations external to the specimen, but the consequences of this placement for knee kinematics and kinetics are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine these effects using a validated computational musculoskeletal model. When the actuator was placed on the femur or pelvis, forces realistically increased with knee flexion, with quadriceps and patellofemoral contact forces exceeding 2000 N and 3000 N, respectively, at 100° flexion. When the actuator was grounded, however, forces were substantially reduced and did not monotonically increase with flexion. Articular joint contact forces were not strongly influenced by changing the location of the actuator from the femur to the pelvis, with small RMS differences in quadriceps forces (48.2 N), patellofemoral forces (83.6 N), and tibiofemoral forces (58.9 N) between these conditions. The location of the actuator did not substantially affect knee kinematics. The results of this study suggest that the quadriceps actuator of the Oxford Rig should be attached to either the femur or the pelvis when the goal is to make realistic estimates of quadriceps forces and articular contact forces within the knee joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quadriceps tendon autograft for arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction: use it now, use it often.

    PubMed

    Sheean, Andrew J; Musahl, Volker; Slone, Harris S; Xerogeanes, John W; Milinkovic, Danko; Fink, Christian; Hoser, Christian

    2018-04-28

    Traditional bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendon ACL grafts are not without limitations. A growing body of anatomic, biomechanical and clinical data has demonstrated the utility of quadriceps tendon autograft in arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction. The quadriceps tendon autograft provides a robust volume of tissue that can be reliably harvested, mitigating the likelihood of variably sized grafts and obviating the necessity of allograft augmentation. Modern, minimally invasive harvest techniques offer the advantages of low rates of donor site morbidity and residual extensor mechanism strength deficits. New data suggest that quadriceps tendon autograft may possess superior biomechanical characteristics when compared with bone-patella tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft. However, there have been very few direct, prospective comparisons between the clinical outcomes associated with quadriceps tendon autograft and other autograft options (eg, hamstring tendon and bone-patellar tendon-bone). Nevertheless, quadriceps tendon autograft should be one of the primary options in any knee surgeon's armamentarium. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Thomsen, Dana A; Roberts, Claire T; Burns, Brian M; Anderson, Gail I; Greenwood, Paul L; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P<0

  19. Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass

  20. One Week of Bed Rest Leads to Substantial Muscle Atrophy and Induces Whole-Body Insulin Resistance in the Absence of Skeletal Muscle Lipid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Marlou L; Wall, Benjamin T; van de Valk, Bas; Holloway, Tanya M; Holloway, Graham P; Chabowski, Adrian; Goossens, Gijs H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-10-01

    Short (<10 days) periods of muscle disuse, often necessary for recovery from illness or injury, lead to various negative health consequences. The current study investigated mechanisms underlying disuse-induced insulin resistance, taking into account muscle atrophy. Ten healthy, young males (age: 23 ± 1 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 0.9 kg · m(-2)) were subjected to 1 week of strict bed rest. Prior to and after bed rest, lean body mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA; computed tomography) were assessed, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and leg strength were determined. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Additionally, muscle biopsies were collected to assess muscle lipid (fraction) content and various markers of mitochondrial and vascular content. Bed rest resulted in 1.4 ± 0.2 kg lean tissue loss and a 3.2 ± 0.9% decline in quadriceps CSA (both P < 0.01). VO2peak and one-repetition maximum declined by 6.4 ± 2.3 (P < 0.05) and 6.9 ± 1.4% (P < 0.01), respectively. Bed rest induced a 29 ± 5% decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01). This was accompanied by a decline in muscle oxidative capacity, without alterations in skeletal muscle lipid content or saturation level, markers of oxidative stress, or capillary density. In conclusion, 1 week of bed rest substantially reduces skeletal muscle mass and lowers whole-body insulin sensitivity, without affecting mechanisms implicated in high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Epidemiology of Quadriceps Strains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, 2009–2010 Through 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Timothy G.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Padua, Darin A.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    Context:  Few researchers have examined the rates and patterns of quadriceps strains in student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Objective:  To describe the epidemiology of quadriceps strains in 25 NCAA sports during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Design:  Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting:  Convenience sample of NCAA programs from 25 sports during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Patients or Other Particpants:  Collegiate student-athletes participating in men's and women's NCAA athletics during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Aggregate quadriceps strain injury and exposure data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years were analyzed. Quadriceps strain injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results:  Overall, 517 quadriceps strains were reported, resulting in an injury rate of 1.07/10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs). The sports with the highest overall quadriceps strain rates were women's soccer (5.61/10 000 AEs), men's soccer (2.52/10 000 AEs), women's indoor track (2.24/10 000 AEs), and women's softball (2.15/10 000 AEs). Across sex-comparable sports, women had a higher rate of quadriceps strains than men overall (1.97 versus 0.65/10 000 AEs; IRR = 3.03; 95% CI = 2.45, 3.76). The majority of quadriceps strains were sustained during practice (77.8%). However, the quadriceps strain rate was higher during competition than during practice (1.29 versus 1.02/10 000 AEs; IRR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.56). Most quadriceps strains occurred in the preseason (57.8%), and rates were higher during the preseason compared with the regular season (2.29 versus 0.63/10 000 AEs; IRR = 3.60; 95% CI = 3.02, 4.30). Common injury mechanisms were noncontact (63.2%) and overuse (21.9%). Most quadriceps strains restricted

  2. Hereditary inclusion-body myopathy with sparing of the quadriceps: the many tiles of an incomplete puzzle.

    PubMed

    Broccolini, A; Gidaro, T; Morosetti, R; Sancricca, C; Mirabella, M

    2011-10-01

    The hereditary inclusion-body myopathies encompass several syndromes with autosomal recessive or dominant inheritance. Despite a different clinical presentation they all have a progressive course leading to severe disability and share similar pathologic findings at the muscle biopsy. Quadriceps-sparing autosomal recessive hereditary inclusion-body myopathy (h-IBM) is the commonest form and is tied to mutations of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) that codes for a rate-limiting enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. Despite the identification of the causative gene defect, it has not been clarified how mutations of the GNE gene impair muscle homeostasis. Although several lines of evidence argue in favor of an abnormal sialylation of muscle glycoproteins playing a key role in h-IBM pathogenesis, others studies have demonstrated new functions of the GNE gene, outside the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway, that may also be relevant. This review illustrates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of h-IBM and the main clues available to date concerning the possible pathogenic mechanisms of this disorder. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying h-IBM pathology is a fundamental requisite to plan a future attempt to therapy.

  3. Performance on a Clinical Quadriceps Activation Battery Is Related to a Laboratory Measure of Activation and Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bade, Michael; Struessel, Tamara; Paxton, Roger; Winters, Joshua; Baym, Carol; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relation between performance on a clinical quadriceps activation battery with (1) activation measured by doublet interpolation and (2) recovery of quadriceps strength and functional performance after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Planned secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Patients (N=162; mean age, 63±7y; 89 women) undergoing TKA. Patients were classified as high (quadriceps activation battery ≥4/6) or low (quadriceps activation battery ≤3/6) based on performance on the quadriceps activation battery measured 4 days after TKA. Differences between groups in activation and recovery at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after TKA were compared using a repeated-measures maximum likelihood model. The low quadriceps activation battery group demonstrated poorer quadriceps activation via doublet interpolation (P=.01), greater quadriceps strength loss (P=.01), and greater functional performance decline (all P<.001) at 1 month after TKA compared with the high quadriceps activation battery group. Differences between low and high quadriceps activation battery groups on all measures did not persist at 3 and 12 months (all P>.05). Poor performance on the quadriceps activation battery early after TKA is related to poor quadriceps activation and poor recovery in the early postoperative period. Patients in the low quadriceps activation battery group took 3 months to recover to the same level as the high quadriceps activation battery group. The quadriceps activation battery may be useful in identifying individuals who need specific interventions to target activation deficits or different care pathways in the early postoperative period to speed recovery after TKA. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on muscle-specific hypertrophy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Daniel A; Davies, Timothy B; Orr, Rhonda; Kuang, Kenny; Halaki, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether manipulation of movement velocity during resistance exercise has an effect on hypertrophy of specific muscles. The purpose of this systematic review of literature was to investigate the effect of movement velocity during resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to movement velocity and resistance training. Inclusion criteria were randomised and non-randomised comparative studies; published in English; included healthy adults; used dynamic resistance exercise interventions directly comparing fast training to slower movement velocity training; matched in prescribed intensity and volume; duration ≥4 weeks; and measured muscle hypertrophy. A total of six studies were included involving 119 untrained participants. Hypertrophy of the quadriceps was examined in five studies and of the biceps brachii in two studies. Three studies found significantly greater increases in hypertrophy of the quadriceps for moderate-slow compared to fast training. For the remaining studies examining the quadriceps, significant within-group increase in hypertrophy was found for only moderate-slow training in one study and for only fast training in the other study. The two studies that examined hypertrophy of the biceps brachii found greater increases for fast compared to moderate-slow training. Caution is required when interpreting the findings from this review due to the low number of studies, hence insufficient data. Future longitudinal randomised controlled studies in cohorts of healthy adults are required to confirm and extend our findings.

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Intermuscular Fat Volume and Quadriceps Muscle Volume in the Thighs of Female Osteoarthritis Initiative Participants

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Norma J.; Ramadan, Khaled; Inglis, Dean; Maly, Monica R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To quantify rates of change in quadriceps muscle (QM) and intermuscular fat (IMF) volumes over 2-years in women in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) study and examine group differences between those with radiographic OA (ROA) and those without (non-ROA). Methods The OAI database was queried for women ≥50 years old in the incident and progression cohorts with and without ROA at baseline. Mid-thigh MRI scans (15 contiguous slices, 5 mm slice thickness) of eligible women were randomly selected and anonymized. Image pairs were registered. QM and IMF were segmented in the 12 most proximal matching slices with the segmenter blinded to image time point. Age-adjusted differences in QM and IMF volume changes between groups were tested using ANCOVA. Results 41 women without ROA (mean (SD) age 60.7 (7.6) yrs) and 45 with ROA (mean (SD) age 64.5 (6.7) yrs) were included. Mean QM and IMF volume changes in the non-ROA group were -4.1 (11.1) cm3 and 3.4 (7.1) cm3, respectively, and -5.4 (13.5) cm3 and 3.1 (7.4) cm3 in the ROA group, respectively. Age-adjusted between-group differences in QM and IMF changes were not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions Two-year changes in QM and IMF volume appear consistent with ageing and do not seem to be related to OA status. Direct comparison with a control cohort without OA risk factors could confirm this. Since group assignment was based on baseline data, there may have been women in the non-ROA group who developed radiographic OA over follow-up resulting in some overlap between groups. PMID:21905259

  6. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry Following ACL Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri-Smith, RM; Lepley, LK

    2016-01-01

    Background Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically following anterior cruciate injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. Purpose To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry, as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Study Design Cross-Sectional study. Methods Seventy-three patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity following ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Results Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared to patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P<0.05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry was higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared to those with low symmetry (P<0.05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. PMID:25883169

  7. ISOKINETIC KNEE MUSCLE STRENGTH PROFILE IN BRAZILIAN MALE SOCCER, FUTSAL, AND BEACH SOCCER PLAYERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Mascarin, Naryana C.; Vargas, Valentine Z.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; Andrade, Marília S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament injury is higher in soccer athletes as compared to athletes of other sports. Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury include low knee hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio and bilateral strength deficits. Purpose To investigate isokinetic thigh muscles strength, hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio, and bilateral strength comparisons in athletes who participate in professional soccer, futsal, and beach soccer. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Brazilian professional soccer (n=70), futsal (n=30), and beach soccer (n=12) players were isokinetically assessed to examine strength of knee extensors and flexors at 60 degrees/second in concentric mode, to measure peak torque of dominant and non-dominant limbs. Results In the dominant limb, for extensors muscles, futsal players presented significantly lower peak torque values (223.9 ± 33.4 Nm) than soccer (250.9 ± 43.0 Nm; p=0.02) and beach soccer players (253.1 ± 32.4 Nm; p=0.03). Peak torque for extensor muscles in the non-dominant limb was significantly lower in futsal (224.0 ± 35.8 Nm) than in beach soccer players (256.8 ± 39.8 Nm; p=0.03). Hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio for dominant limbs for futsal (57.6 ± 10.1%), soccer (53.5 ± 8.8%), and beach soccer (56.3 ± 8.4%) players presented no significant differences between groups; however, the mean values were lower than recommended values found in the literature. There were no strength deficits for any of the evaluated groups when compared bilaterally. Conclusions Futsal athletes presented lower values for quadriceps strength than soccer and beach soccer athletes. Futsal, soccer, and beach soccer players presented no strength asymmetries, but they presented with strength imbalance in hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio. Level of Evidence 3 PMID:29234562

  8. Elevated Muscle TLR4 Expression and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sangeeta; Lertwattanarak, Raweewan; Garduño, Jose de Jesus; Galeana, Joaquin Joya; Li, Jinqi; Zamarripa, Frank; Lancaster, Jack L.; Mohan, Sumathy; Hussey, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in glucose metabolism and sarcopenia that jointly contribute to a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Because aging is considered as a state of low-grade inflammation, in this study we examined whether older, healthy (lean, community-dwelling) participants have altered signaling flux through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key mediator of innate and adaptive immune responses. We also examined whether a 4-month aerobic exercise program would have an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing TLR4 expression and signaling. At baseline, muscle TLR4, nuclear factor κB p50 and nuclear factor κB p65 protein content, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation were significantly elevated in older versus young participants. The plasma concentration of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide and its binding protein also were significantly elevated in older participants, indicative of metabolic endotoxemia, which is a recently described phenomenon of increased plasma endotoxin level in metabolic disease. These alterations in older participants were accompanied by decreased insulin sensitivity, quadriceps muscle volume, and muscle strength. The exercise training program increased insulin sensitivity, without affecting quadriceps muscle volume or strength. Muscle TLR4, nuclear factor κB, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and plasma lipopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide binding protein were not changed by exercise. In conclusion, insulin resistance and sarcopenia of aging are associated with increased TLR4 expression/signaling, which may be secondary to metabolic endotoxemia. PMID:24846769

  9. Influence on muscle oxygenation to EMG parameters at different skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Gaoqing

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of muscle oxygenation on EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises and to observe the relationship between EMG parameters and muscle oxygenation. Twelve rowers took part in the tests. Near infrared spectrometer was utilized for measurements of muscle oxygenation on lateral quadriceps. sEMG measurement is performed for EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises. Results indicated that Oxy-Hb decrease significantly correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal during 1/3 MVC and 2/3 MVC isometric exercise, and it is also correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal. Increase of IEMG occurred at the time after Oxy-Hb decrease during incremental exercise and highly correlated with BLa. It is concluded that no matter how heavy the intensity is, Oxy-Hb dissociation may play an important role in affecting EMG parameters of muscle fatigue during isometric exercise. 2) EMG parameters may be influenced by Oxy-Hb dissociation and blood lactate concentration during dynamic exercise.

  10. Influence on muscle oxygenation to EMG parameters at different skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Gaoqing

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of muscle oxygenation on EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises and to observe the relationship between EMG parameters and muscle oxygenation. Twelve rowers took part in the tests. Near infrared spectrometer was utilized for measurements of muscle oxygenation on lateral quadriceps. sEMG measurement is performed for EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises. Results indicated that Oxy-Hb decrease significantly correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal during 1/3 MVC and 2/3 MVC isometric exercise, and it is also correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal. Increase of IEMG occurred at the time after Oxy-Hb decrease during incremental exercise and highly correlated with BLa. It is concluded that no matter how heavy the intensity is, Oxy-Hb dissociation may play an important role in affecting EMG parameters of muscle fatigue during isometric exercise. 2) EMG parameters may be influenced by Oxy-Hb dissociation and blood lactate concentration during dynamic exercise.

  11. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Self-efficacy, pain, and quadriceps capacity at baseline predict changes in mobility performance over 2 years in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Nicholas M; Gatti, Anthony A; Stratford, Paul W; Maly, Monica R

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the extent to which baseline measures of quadriceps strength, quadriceps power, knee pain and self-efficacy for functional tasks, and their interactions, predicted 2-year changes in mobility performance (walking, stair ascent, stair descent) in women with knee osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that lesser strength, power and self-efficacy, and higher pain at baseline would each be independently associated with reduced mobility over 2 years, and each of pain and self-efficacy would interact with strength and power in predicting 2-year change in stair-climbing performance. This was a longitudinal, observational study of women with clinical knee osteoarthritis. At baseline and follow-up, mobility was assessed with the Six-Minute Walk Test, and stair ascent and descent tasks. Quadriceps strength and power, knee pain, and self-efficacy for functional tasks were also collected at baseline. Multiple linear regression examined the extent to which 2-year changes in mobility performances were predicted by baseline strength, power, pain, and self-efficacy, after adjusting for covariates. Data were analyzed for 37 women with knee osteoarthritis over 2 years. Lower baseline self-efficacy predicted decreased walking (β = 1.783; p = 0.030) and stair ascent (β = -0.054; p < 0.001) performances over 2 years. Higher baseline pain intensity/frequency predicted decreased walking performance (β = 1.526; p = 0.002). Lower quadriceps strength (β = 0.051; p = 0.015) and power (β = 0.022; p = 0.022) interacted with lesser self-efficacy to predict worsening stair ascent performance. Strategies to sustain or improve mobility in women with knee osteoarthritis must focus on controlling pain and boosting self-efficacy. In those with worse self-efficacy, developing knee muscle capacity is an important target.

  13. Chronic Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Total Knee Arthroplasty Augmented With Synthetic Mesh.

    PubMed

    Ormaza, Amaia; Moreta, Jesús; Mosquera, Javier; de Ugarte, Oskar Sáez; Mozos, José Luis Martinez-de Los

    2017-01-01

    Tear of the quadriceps tendon after revision or primary total knee arthroplasty is a rare complication, but when it occurs, this injury has serious functional consequences. In complete tears, the outcome of direct repair is unpredictable, and several authors recommend that the suture should be reinforced. Several techniques have been described, including the use of autografts, allografts, and synthetic mesh. The goal of this study was to assess the outcomes of a reconstruction technique augmented with synthetic mesh. A retrospective study was performed involving 3 patients who had chronic partial quadriceps tendon tear after total knee revision. In 2 cases, proximal quadriceps release was performed. When conservative management failed, surgical reconstruction with suture reinforced with synthetic mesh was attempted. The knee was immobilized in full extension for 6 weeks after the surgical procedure. A minimum follow-up of 12 months was required to assess results. All reconstructions showed clinical success at a mean follow-up of 19 months. Mean Knee Society Score improved from 55.7 to 87.3, with average postoperative extensor lag of 3.3° (range, 0°-10°). The mean visual analog scale pain score was 2.3 (range, 0-4). No complications were reported. Synthetic mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for patellar tendon repairs after total knee replacement, but there have been few articles on quadriceps rupture. Surgical reconstruction with synthetic mesh is a viable option that provides good functional outcomes in chronic quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):38-42.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Capacity of small groups of muscles to accomplish precision grasping tasks.

    PubMed

    Towles, Joseph D; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J; Hentz, Vincent R

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the capacity or ability of various muscle groups to generate endpoint forces that enable grasping tasks could provide a stronger biomechanical basis for the design of reconstructive surgery or rehabilitation for the treatment of the paralyzed or paretic hand. We quantified two-dimensional endpoint force distributions for every combination of the muscles of the index finger, in cadaveric specimens, to understand the capability of muscle groups to produce endpoint forces that accomplish three common types of grasps-tripod, tip and lateral pinch-characterized by a representative level of Coulomb friction. We found that muscle groups of 4 or fewer muscles were capable of generating endpoint forces that enabled performance of each of the grasping tasks examined. We also found that flexor muscles were crucial to accomplish tripod pinch; intrinsic muscles, tip pinch; and the dorsal interosseus muscle, lateral pinch. The results of this study provide a basis for decision making in the design of reconstructive surgeries and rehabilitation approaches that attempt to restore the ability to perform grasping tasks with small groups of muscles.

  15. Assessment of muscle endurance of the knee extensor muscles in adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy using a submaximal repetitions-to-fatigue protocol.

    PubMed

    Eken, Maaike M; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Doorenbosch, Caroline A; Dekkers, Hurnet; Becher, Jules G; Houdijk, Han

    2014-10-01

    To compare muscle endurance in adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with typically developing (TD) peers using a submaximal repetitions-to-fatigue (RTF) protocol. Cross sectional. Human motion laboratory. Adolescents with spastic CP (n=16; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I or II) and TD adolescents (n=18) within the age range of 12 to 19 years old. Not applicable. Each participant performed 3 RTF tests at different submaximal loads, ranging from 50% to 90% of their maximal voluntary knee extension torque. The relation between the number of repetitions (repetition maximum [RM]) and imposed submaximal relative (percent of maximal voluntary torque [%MVT]) and absolute (Nm/kg) torque was quantified. To compare adolescents with CP with TD adolescents, a mixed linear model was used to construct load endurance curves. Surface electromyography of quadriceps muscles was measured to assess changes in normalized amplitude and median frequency (MF) as physiological indicators of muscle fatigue. Adolescents with CP showed a larger decrease in %MVT per RM than TD adolescents (P<.05). TD adolescents showed substantial higher absolute (Nm/kg) load endurance curves than adolescents with CP (P<.001), but they did not show a difference in slope. Electromyographic normalized amplitude increased significantly (P<.05) in the quadriceps muscles in all tests for both groups. Electromyographic MF decreased significantly (P<.05) in tests with the low and medium loads. Electromyographic responses did not differ between groups, indicating that similar levels of muscle fatigue were reached. Adolescents with CP show slightly lower muscle endurance compared with TD adolescents on a submaximal RTF protocol, which is in contrast with earlier findings in a maximal voluntary fatigue protocol. Accordingly, adolescents with CP have a reduced capacity to endure activities at similar relative loads compared with TD adolescents. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of

  16. Injury and subsequent regeneration of muscles for activation of local innate immunity to facilitate the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Naoki; Hirata, Shinya; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahata, Kimito; Kohsaka, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether injury and regeneration of the skeletal muscles induce an inflammatory milieu that facilitates the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis. The quadriceps of C57BL/6 mice were injured with bupivacaine hydrochloride (BPVC) and evaluated histologically. Macrophages and regenerating myofibers in the treated muscles and differentiating C2C12 myotubes were examined for cytokine expression. Mice were immunized with C protein fragments at the base of the tail and in the right hind footpads (day 0) to evoke systemic anti-C protein immunity and to induce local myositis in the right hind limbs. The contralateral quadriceps muscles were injured with BPVC or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on day 7 or after spontaneous regression of myositis (day 42). The quadriceps muscle in nonimmunized mice was injured with BPVC on day 7. The muscles were examined histologically 14 days after treatment. The BPVC-injured muscles had macrophage infiltration most abundantly at 3 days after the injection, with emergence of regenerating fibers from day 5. The macrophages expressed inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and CCL2. Regenerating myofibers and C2C12 myotubes also expressed the cytokines. The BPVC-injected muscles from nonimmunized mice had regenerating myofibers with resolved cell infiltration 14 days after treatment. In mice preimmunized with C protein fragments, the muscles injected with BPVC on day 7 as well as on day 42, but not those injected with PBS, had myositis accompanied by CD8+ T cell infiltration. Injury and regeneration could set up an inflammatory milieu in the muscles and facilitate the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Nandrolone normalizes determinants of muscle mass and fiber type after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhao, Weidong; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2012-05-20

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in atrophy of skeletal muscle and changes from slow oxidative to fast glycolytic fibers, which may reflect reduced levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), increased myostatin signaling, or both. In animals, testosterone reduces loss of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and activity of enzymes of energy metabolism. To identify the molecular mechanisms behind the benefits of androgens on paralyzed muscle, male rats were spinal cord transected and treated for 8 weeks with vehicle, testosterone at a physiological replacement dose, or testosterone plus nandrolone, an anabolic steroid. Treatments were initiated immediately after SCI and continued until the day animals were euthanized. In the SCI animals, gastrocnemius muscle mass was significantly increased by testosterone plus nandrolone, but not by testosterone alone. Both treatments significantly reduced nuclear content of Smad2/3 and mRNA levels of activin receptor IIB and follistatin-like 3. Testosterone alone or with nandrolone reversed SCI-induced declines in cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1α protein and PGC-1α mRNA levels. For PGC-1α target genes, testosterone plus nandrolone partially reversed SCI-induced decreases in levels of proteins without corresponding increases in their mRNA levels. Thus, the findings demonstrate that following SCI, signaling through activin receptors and Smad2/3 is increased, and that androgens suppress activation of this signaling pathway. The findings also indicate that androgens upregulate PGC-1α in paralyzed muscle and promote its nuclear localization, but that these effects are insufficient to fully activate transcription of PGC-1α target genes. Furthermore, the transcription of these genes is not tightly coupled with their translation.

  18. Muscle Activation During Side-Step Cutting Maneuvers in Male and Female Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ashley M; Padua, Darin A; Troy Blackburn, J; Prentice, William E; Hirth, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Context: Female soccer athletes are at greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males. Sex differences in muscle activation may contribute to the increased incidence of ACL injuries in female soccer athletes. Objective: To examine sex differences in lower extremity muscle activation between male and female soccer athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level during 2 side-step cutting maneuvers. Design: Cross-sectional with 1 between-subjects factor (sex) and 2 within-subjects factors (cutting task and phase of contact). Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty males (age = 19.4 ± 1.4 years, height = 176.5 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 74.6 ± 6.0 kg) and 20 females (age = 19.8 ± 1.1 years, height = 165.7 ± 4.3 cm, mass = 62.2 ± 7.2 kg). Intervention(s): In a single testing session, participants performed the running-approach side-step cut and the box-jump side-step cut tasks. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus was recorded for each subject. Separate mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance tests were used to compare the dependent variables across sex during the preparatory and loading contact phases of each cutting task. Results: Females displayed greater vastus lateralis activity and quadriceps to hamstrings coactivation ratios during the preparatory and loading phases, as well as greater gluteus medius activation during the preparatory phase only. No significant differences were noted between the sexes for muscle activation in the other muscles analyzed during each task. Conclusions: The quadriceps-dominant muscle activation pattern observed in recreationally active females is also present in female soccer athletes at the Division I level when compared with similarly trained male soccer athletes. The relationship between increased

  19. Aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle function in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Villa, Fabiane; Castro, Ana Paula Beltran Moschione; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Santarém, José Maria; Martins, Milton Arruda; Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    Peripheral muscle strength and endurance are decreased in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and seem to contribute to patients' exercise intolerance. However, the authors are not aware of any studies evaluating peripheral muscle function in children with asthma. It seems to be implied that children with asthma have lower aerobic fitness, but there are limited studies comparing the aerobic capacity of children with and without asthma. The present study aimed to evaluate muscle strength and endurance in children with persistent asthma and their association with aerobic capacity and inhaled corticosteroid consumption. Forty children with mild persistent asthma (MPA) or severe persistent asthma (SPA) (N=20 each) and 20 children without asthma (control group) were evaluated. Upper (pectoralis and latissimus dorsi) and lower (quadriceps) muscle strength and endurance were assessed, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed. Inhaled corticosteroid consumption during the last 6 and 24 months was also quantified. Children with SPA presented a reduction in peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) (28.2±8.1 vs 34.7±6.9 ml/kg/min; p<0.01) and quadriceps endurance (43.1±6.7 vs 80.9±11.9 repetitions; p<0.05) compared with the control group, but not the MPA group (31.5±6.1 ml/kg/min and 56.7±47.7 repetitions respectively; p>0.05). Maximal upper and lower muscle strength was preserved in children with both mild and severe asthma (p>0.05). Finally, the authors observed that lower muscle endurance weakness was not associated with reductions in either peak VO(2) (r=0.22, p>0.05) or corticosteroid consumption (r=-0.31, p>0.05) in children with asthma. The findings suggest that cardiopulmonary exercise and lower limb muscle endurance should be a priority during physical training programs for children with severe asthma.

  20. Joint awareness after total knee arthroplasty is affected by pain and quadriceps strength.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Y; Wada, O; Nakakita, S; Mizuno, K

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes to provide a more patient-centered view on treatment. Forgetting the artificial joint can be regarded as the goal in joint arthroplasty. The goals of the study were to describe changes in joint awareness in the artificial joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine which factors among pain, knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and functional ability affect joint awareness after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA demonstrate changes in joint awareness and joint awareness is associated with pain, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. This prospective cohort study comprised 63 individuals undergoing TKA, evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Outcomes included joint awareness assessed using the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), pain score, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. Fifty-eight individuals completed all postoperative assessments. All measures except for knee extension ROM improved from 1 to 6 months. However, there were no differences in any measures from 6 to 12 months. FJS was affected most greatly by pain at 1 month and by quadriceps strength at 6 and 12 months. Patients following TKA demonstrate improvements in joint awareness and function within 6 months after surgery, but reach a plateau from 6 to 12 months. Quadriceps strength could contribute to this plateau of joint awareness. Prospective cohort study, IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Minahan, Clare; Joyce, Sarah; Bulmer, Andrew C; Cronin, Neil; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2015-07-01

    To examine the influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise. Eight men (MEN), eight normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and eight women using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) participated in this study. Subjects performed 240 maximal-effort bilateral eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscle groups designed to elicit exercise-induced muscle damage (EiMD). Serum creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) concentrations were measured before (pre-) EiMD, as well as 0, 6, 24, and 48 h post-EiMD. Peak isometric quadriceps torque (i.e., leg strength) was measured pre-EiMD, as well as 24 and 48 h post-EiMD. The increases in CK, Mb, and FABP concentrations from pre- to post-EiMD were greater in MEN (10-fold, 15-fold, and fourfold, respectively) and WomenOC (sevenfold, 11-fold, and ninefold) compared with WomenNM (five-, six-, and threefold; p < 0.05). The decline in leg strength was about 10 % pre- to 24 h post-EiMD in all groups and decreased a further 10-15 % by 48 h post-EiMD in the MEN and WomenOC only. Our findings suggest an important role of estradiol in blunting the muscle damage response to intense eccentric exercise and preserving muscle function after EiMD.

  2. Paralyzed subject controls telepresence mobile robot using novel sEMG brain-computer interface: case study.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kenneth R; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2013-06-01

    Here we demonstrate the use of a new singlesignal surface electromyography (sEMG) brain-computer interface (BCI) to control a mobile robot in a remote location. Previous work on this BCI has shown that users are able to perform cursor-to-target tasks in two-dimensional space using only a single sEMG signal by continuously modulating the signal power in two frequency bands. Using the cursor-to-target paradigm, targets are shown on the screen of a tablet computer so that the user can select them, commanding the robot to move in different directions for a fixed distance/angle. A Wifi-enabled camera transmits video from the robot's perspective, giving the user feedback about robot motion. Current results show a case study with a C3-C4 spinal cord injury (SCI) subject using a single auricularis posterior muscle site to navigate a simple obstacle course. Performance metrics for operation of the BCI as well as completion of the telerobotic command task are developed. It is anticipated that this noninvasive and mobile system will open communication opportunities for the severely paralyzed, possibly using only a single sensor.

  3. Acute fatigue impairs neuromuscular activity of anterior cruciate ligament-agonist muscles in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Zebis, M K; Bencke, J; Andersen, L L; Alkjaer, T; Suetta, C; Mortensen, P; Kjaer, M; Aagaard, P

    2011-12-01

    In sports, like team handball, fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. While effects of fatigue on muscle function are commonly assessed during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), such measurements may not relate to the muscle function during match play. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle fatigue induced by a simulated handball match on neuromuscular strategy during a functional sidecutting movement, associated with the incidence of ACL injury. Fourteen female team handball players were tested for neuromuscular activity [electromyography (EMG)] during a sidecutting maneuver on a force plate, pre and post a simulated handball match. MVC was obtained during maximal isometric quadriceps and hamstring contraction. The simulated handball match consisted of exercises mimicking handball match activity. Whereas the simulated handball match induced a decrease in MVC strength for both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (P<0.05), a selective decrease in hamstring neuromuscular activity was seen during sidecutting (P<0.05). This study shows impaired ACL-agonist muscle (i.e. hamstring) activity during sidecutting in response to acute fatigue induced by handball match play. Thus, screening procedures should involve functional movements to reveal specific fatigue-induced deficits in ACL-agonist muscle activation during high-risk phases of match play. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Efficacy of kinesio taping on isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis: a double blinded randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Sudarshan, Shobhalakshmi; Nagpal, Pratima

    2014-08-01

    Double blind pre-test post-test control group design. To compare the isokinetic quadriceps torque, standardized stair-climbing task (SSCT) and pain during SSCT between subjects diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis pre and post kinesio tape (KT) application with and without tension. Strength of the quadriceps and torque producing capability is frequently found to be compromised in knee osteoarthritis. The efficacy of KT in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis is unknown, forming the basis for this study. Forty subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental (therapeutic KT with tension) or control group (sham KT without tension) with the allocation being concealed. Pre and post test measurements of isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and pain during SSCT were carried out by a blinded assessor. A large effect size with significant improvements in the peak quadriceps torque (concentric and eccentric at angular velocities of 90° per second and 120° per second), SSCT and pain were obtained in the experimental group when compared to the control group. Application of therapeutic KT is effective in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Longitudinal sensitivity to change of MRI-based muscle cross-sectional area versus isometric strength analysis in osteoarthritic knees with and without structural progression: pilot data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Dannhauer, Torben; Sattler, Martina; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hunter, David J; Kwoh, C Kent; Eckstein, Felix

    2014-08-01

    Biomechanical measurement of muscle strength represents established technology in evaluating limb function. Yet, analysis of longitudinal change suffers from relatively large between-measurement variability. Here, we determine the sensitivity to change of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurement of thigh muscle anatomical cross sectional areas (ACSAs) versus isometric strength in limbs with and without structural progressive knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with focus on the quadriceps. Of 625 "Osteoarthritis Initiative" participants with radiographic KOA, 20 had MRI cartilage and radiographic joint space width loss in the right knee isometric muscle strength measurement and axial T1-weighted spin-echo acquisitions of the thigh. Muscle ACSAs were determined from manual segmentation at 33% femoral length (distal to proximal). In progressor knees, the reduction in quadriceps ACSA between baseline and 2-year follow-up was -2.8 ± 7.9 % (standardized response mean [SRM] = -0.35), and it was -1.8 ± 6.8% (SRM = -0.26) in matched, non-progressive KOA controls. The decline in extensor strength was more variable than that in ACSAs, both in progressors (-3.9 ± 20%; SRM = -0.20) and in non-progressive controls (-4.5 ± 28%; SRM = -0.16). MRI-based analysis of quadriceps muscles ACSAs appears to be more sensitive to longitudinal change than isometric extensor strength and is suggestive of greater loss in limbs with structurally progressive KOA than in non-progressive controls.

  6. Regional muscle loss after short duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, A; Rowe, R; Schneider, V; Evans, H; Hedrick, T

    1995-12-01

    Muscle strength and limb girth measurements during Skylab and Apollo missions suggested that loss of muscle mass may occur as a result of spaceflight. Extended duration spaceflight is important for the economical and practical use of space. The loss of muscle mass during spaceflight is a medical concern for long duration flights to the planets or extended stays aboard space stations. Understanding the extent and temporal relationships of muscle loss is important for the development of effective spaceflight countermeasures. We hypothesized that significant and measurable changes in muscle volume would occur in Shuttle crewmembers following 8 d of weightlessness. MRI was used to obtain the muscle volumes of the calf, thigh and lower back before and after the STS-47 Shuttle mission. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the soleus-gastrocnemius (-6.3%), anterior calf (-3.9%), hamstrings (-8.3%), quadriceps (-6.0%) and intrinsic back (-10.3%) muscles were decreased, p < 0.05, compared to baseline, 24 h after landing. At 2 weeks post recovery, the hamstrings and intrinsic lower back muscles were still below baseline, p < 0.05. These results demonstrate that even short duration spaceflight can result in significant muscle atrophy.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging with k-means clustering objectively measures whole muscle volume compartments in sarcopenia/cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Calum; MacGillivray, Thomas J; Eeley, Clare; Stephens, Nathan A; Beggs, Ian; Fearon, Kenneth C; Greig, Carolyn A

    2011-02-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are characterized by infiltration of non-contractile tissue within muscle which influences area and volume measurements. We applied a statistical clustering (k-means) technique to magnetic resonance (MR) images of the quadriceps of young and elderly healthy women and women with cancer to objectively separate the contractile and non-contractile tissue compartments. MR scans of the thigh were obtained for 34 women (n = 16 young, (median) age 26 y; n = 9 older, age 80 y; n = 9 upper gastrointestinal cancer patients, age 65 y). Segmented regions of consecutive axial images were used to calculate cross-sectional area and (gross) volume. The k-means unsupervised algorithm was subsequently applied to the MR binary mask image array data with resultant volumes compared between groups. Older women and women with cancer had 37% and 48% less quadriceps muscle respectively than young women (p < 0.001). Application of k-means subtracted a significant 9%, 14% and 20% non-contractile tissue from the quadriceps of young, older and patient groups respectively (p < 0.001). There was a significant effect of group (i.e., cancer vs healthy) when controlling for age as a covariate (p = 0.003). K-means objectively separates contractile and non-contractile tissue components. Women with upper GI cancer have significant fatty infiltration throughout whole muscle groups which is maintained when controlling for age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Obesity is associated with higher absolute tibiofemoral contact and muscle forces during gait with and without knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Harding, Graeme T; Dunbar, Michael J; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Stanish, William D; Astephen Wilson, Janie L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for knee osteoarthritis initiation and progression. However, it is unclear how obesity may directly affect the mechanical loading environment of the knee joint, initiating or progressing joint degeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the interacting role of obesity and moderate knee osteoarthritis presence on tibiofemoral contact forces and muscle forces within the knee joint during walking gait. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 80 asymptomatic participants and 115 individuals diagnosed with moderate knee osteoarthritis. Each group was divided into three body mass index categories: healthy weight (body mass index<25), overweight (25≤body mass index≤30), and obese (body mass index>30). Tibiofemoral anterior-posterior shear and compressive forces, as well as quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle forces, were estimated based on a sagittal plane contact force model. Peak contact and muscle forces during gait were compared between groups, as well as the interaction between disease presence and body mass index category, using a two-factor analysis of variance. There were significant osteoarthritis effects in peak shear, gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces only when they were normalized to body mass, and there were significant BMI effects in peak shear, compression, gastrocnemius and hamstrings forces only in absolute, non-normalized forces. There was a significant interaction effect in peak quadriceps muscle forces, with higher forces in overweight and obese groups compared to asymptomatic healthy weight participants. Body mass index was associated with higher absolute tibiofemoral compression and shear forces as well as posterior muscle forces during gait, regardless of moderate osteoarthritis presence or absence. The differences found may contribute to accelerated joint damage with obesity, but with the osteoarthritic knees less able to accommodate the high loads. Copyright © 2015

  9. Knee joint contact mechanics during downhill gait and its relationship with varus/valgus motion and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p < 0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p < 0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p = 0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p = 0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with deficits in muscle strength.

  10. High-intensity exercise training induces morphological and biochemical changes in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Toti, L; Bartalucci, A; Ferrucci, M; Fulceri, F; Lazzeri, G; Lenzi, P; Soldani, P; Gobbi, P; La Torre, A; Gesi, M

    2013-12-01

    IN THE PRESENT STUDY WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT EXERCISE PROTOCOLS ON FIBRE COMPOSITION AND METABOLISM OF TWO SPECIFIC MUSCLES OF MICE: the quadriceps and the gastrocnemius. Mice were run daily on a motorized treadmill, at a velocity corresponding to 60% or 90% of the maximal running velocity. Blood lactate and body weight were measured during exercise training. We found that at the end of training the body weight significantly increased in high-intensity exercise mice compared to the control group (P=0.0268), whereas it decreased in low-intensity exercise mice compared to controls (P=0.30). In contrast, the food intake was greater in both trained mice compared to controls (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a progressive reduction in blood lactate levels at the end of training in both the exercised mice compared with controls (P=0.03 and P < 0.0001 for low-intensity and high-intensity exercise mice, respectively); in particular, blood lactate levels after high-intensity exercise were significantly lower than those measured in low-intensity exercise mice (P=0.0044). Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that high-intensity exercise training produced a significant increase in the expression of mitochondrial enzymes contained within gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. These changes were associated with an increase in the amount of slow fibres in both these muscles of high-intensity exercise mice, as revealed by the counts of slow fibres stained with specific antibodies (P < 0.0001 for the gastrocnemius; P=0.0002 for the quadriceps). Our results demonstrate that high-intensity exercise, in addition to metabolic changes consisting of a decrease in blood lactate and body weight, induces an increase in the mitochondrial enzymes and slow fibres in different skeletal muscles of mice, which indicates an exercise-induced increase in the aerobic metabolism.

  11. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity.

    PubMed

    Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Lepley, Lindsey K

    2015-07-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 73 patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity after ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared with patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P < .05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry were higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared with those with low symmetry (P < .05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P < .05). Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  13. Nandrolone Normalizes Determinants of Muscle Mass and Fiber Type after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhao, Weidong; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in atrophy of skeletal muscle and changes from slow oxidative to fast glycolytic fibers, which may reflect reduced levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), increased myostatin signaling, or both. In animals, testosterone reduces loss of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and activity of enzymes of energy metabolism. To identify the molecular mechanisms behind the benefits of androgens on paralyzed muscle, male rats were spinal cord transected and treated for 8 weeks with vehicle, testosterone at a physiological replacement dose, or testosterone plus nandrolone, an anabolic steroid. Treatments were initiated immediately after SCI and continued until the day animals were euthanized. In the SCI animals, gastrocnemius muscle mass was significantly increased by testosterone plus nandrolone, but not by testosterone alone. Both treatments significantly reduced nuclear content of Smad2/3 and mRNA levels of activin receptor IIB and follistatin-like 3. Testosterone alone or with nandrolone reversed SCI-induced declines in cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1α protein and PGC-1α mRNA levels. For PGC-1α target genes, testosterone plus nandrolone partially reversed SCI-induced decreases in levels of proteins without corresponding increases in their mRNA levels. Thus, the findings demonstrate that following SCI, signaling through activin receptors and Smad2/3 is increased, and that androgens suppress activation of this signaling pathway. The findings also indicate that androgens upregulate PGC-1α in paralyzed muscle and promote its nuclear localization, but that these effects are insufficient to fully activate transcription of PGC-1α target genes. Furthermore, the transcription of these genes is not tightly coupled with their translation. PMID:22208735

  14. Comparison of Muscle Recovery Following Bi-cruciate Substituting versus Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Takubo, Akihito; Ryu, Keinosuke; Iriuchishima, Takanori; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle recovery in the lower extremities following the newly developed bi-cruciate substituting (BCS) to posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the Asian population. Forty-one knees in 41 patients undergoing BCS-TKA (41 female, average age: 71 ± 8.8) and 34 knees in 34 patients undergoing PS-TKA (33 female, average age: 73 ± 7.2) were included in this study. The maximum isometric power of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery using a handheld dynamometer. Postoperative muscle recovery was calculated regarding preoperative muscle power as 100%. Pre- and postoperative range of knee motion, femorotibial angle, and clinical scores (Knee Society score and function score) were also compared. No significant difference in sex, age, preoperative quadriceps, or preoperative hamstring power was observed between the BCS and PS-TKA groups. When regarding the preoperative muscle power as 100%, quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 61.2 ± 22%, 86.3 ± 28.3%, 97 ± 27.4%, and 112.4 ± 30.8%, respectively. Quadriceps power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 72.4 ± 20.8%, 84 ± 16.9%, 95 ± 20.7%, and 110.8 ± 27%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following BCS-TKA was 96.3 ± 30%, 111.4 ± 35%, 120 ± 37%, and 125 ± 31%, respectively. Hamstring power at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following PS-TKA was 95 ± 25%, 112.4 ± 27%, 117 ± 38.5%, and 120.4 ± 18.5%, respectively. No significant difference in muscle power recovery was observed at 3 ( p  = 0.995), 6 ( p  = 0.944), and 12 ( p  = 0.917) months after surgery between the two groups. No significant difference of the clinical score was observed between the groups (Knee Society score: p  = 0.479, function score: p  = 0.342). No significant

  15. Eccentric and concentric muscle performance following 7 days of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.; Roper, Mary L.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Mcbrine, John J.; Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle strength occur in response to chronic disuse or insufficient functional loading. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle performance of the lower extremity and torso prior to and immediately after 7 days of simulated weightlessness (horizontal bed rest). A Biodex was used to determine concentric and eccentric peak torque and angle at peak torque for the back, abdomen, quadriceps, hamstring, soleus, and tibialis anterior. A reference angle of 0 degrees was set at full extension. Data were analyzed by ANOVA.

  16. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  17. Effects of electromyographic biofeedback on quadriceps strength: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Gribble, Phillip A; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2012-03-01

    Quadriceps strength is a vital component to lower extremity function and is often the focus in resistance training interventions and injury rehabilitation. Electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) is frequently used to supplement strength gains; however, the true effect remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine the magnitude of the treatment effect for EMGBF on quadriceps strength compared with that of placebo and traditional exercise interventions in both healthy and pathological populations. Web of Science and ProQuest databases were searched, and bibliographies of relevant articles were crossreferenced. Six articles measuring isometric quadriceps strength in response to EMGBF training were included and methodologically assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Standardized effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from preintervention and postintervention measures for EMGBF, placebo, and exercise-only interventions. Separate comparisons were made between studies assessing different intervention length (<4 and ≥4 weeks) and patient populations (pathological and healthy). Articles included received an average PEDro score of 6.5 ± 0.84. Homogeneous EMGBF effect sizes were found in all 6 studies (d = 0.01-5.56), with 4 studies reporting CI that crossed 0. A heterogeneous collection of effect sizes was found for exercise alone (d = -0.12 to 1.18) and placebo (d = -0.2 to 1.38), with 4 and 1 studies having a CI that crossed 0, respectively. The greatest EMGBF effects were found in pathological populations (d = 0.01-5.56), with the strongest effect found in the subjects with knee osteoarthritis (d = 5.56, CI = 4.26-6.68). As a group, effects were the strongest for EMGBF compared with that of placebo and exercise-only interventions, yet definitive evidence that EMGBF is beneficial for increasing quadriceps strength could not be concluded because of the 4 studies demonstrating a wide CI.

  18. Lower Body Stiffness and Muscle Activity Differences Between Female Dancers and Basketball Players During Drop Jumps

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Shultz, Sandra J.; Perrin, David H.; Schmitz, Randy J.; Ackerman, Terry A.; Schulz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often occur during landing, with female athletes at higher injury risk than male athletes. Interestingly, female dancers have lower ACL injury rates than do female athletes in general. Hypothesis: Female dancers will have earlier and greater lower extremity muscle activity and higher sagittal knee joint and leg stiffness than will female basketball players. Study Design: Cross-sectional group comparison. Methods: Fifty-five healthy female athletes (35 dancers, 20 basketball players) performed 5 double-leg drop jumps from a 45-cm box. Surface electromyography (onsets and amplitudes; prelanding and postlanding) was recorded from the lateral gastrocnemius, medial and lateral hamstrings, lateral quadriceps muscles with a 3-dimensional electromagnetic tracking system, and forceplates recording biomechanics (leg spring stiffness and knee joint stiffness). Results: Compared with basketball players, dancers had greater leg spring stiffness (P = 0.047) but similar knee joint stiffness (P = 0.44). Although no significant differences were observed in overall muscle onset times (P = 0.22) or activation amplitudes (prelanding, P = 0.60; postlanding, P = 0.78), small to moderate effect sizes (ESs) suggest trends in dancers toward earlier (ES = 0.53) and higher medial hamstrings activation pre- (ES = 0.55) and post- (ES = 0.41) landing and lower lateral quadriceps (ES = 0.30) and higher gastrocnemius (ES = 0.33) postlanding muscle activation. Conclusions: In dancers, the higher leg spring stiffness and trends toward higher hamstrings prelanding and postlanding, as well as lower quadriceps and higher gastrocnemius activation postlanding with similar knee joint stiffness, indicate lower extremity neuromechanical differences across other joints. Clinical Relevance: Female dancers may have lower extremity neuromechanics that are different from those of basketball players during drop jumps. If dancers use ACL-protective strategies

  19. Quadriceps tendon rupture - treatment results.

    PubMed

    Popov, Iva; Ristić, Vladimir; Maljanović, Mirsad; Milankov, Vukadin

    2013-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare but rather serious injury. If this injury is not promptly recognized and early operated, it may lead to disability. This research was aimed at pointing out the results and complications of the quadriceps tendon rupture surgical treatment. This retrospective multicentric study was conducted in a group of 29 patients (mostly elderly men). Lysholm knee scoring scale was used to evaluate the surgical results. The post-operative results were compared in relation to the type of tendon rupture reconstructions (acute or chronic), various surgical techniques, type of injuries (unilateral or bilateral) as well as the presence or absence of comorbid risk factors in the patients. The average value of a Lysholm score was 87.6. Excellent and satisfactory Lysholm score results dominated in our sample of patients. Better post-operative results were recorded in the group of patients without risk factors, in case of a bilateral injury, and in case of an acute injury. The best result was obtained after performing the reconstruction using anchors, and the worst result came after using Codivilla technique. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment are an absolute imperative in management of this injury. We have not proven that a certain surgical technique has an advantage over the others. A comorbid risk factor is related to a lower Lysholm score. Despite a few cases of complications, we can conclude that the surgical treatment yields satisfactory results.

  20. Anthropometric and quantitative EMG status of femoral quadriceps before and after conventional kinesitherapy with and without magnetotherapy.

    PubMed

    Graberski Matasović, M; Matasović, T; Markovac, Z

    1997-06-01

    The frequency of femoral quadriceps muscle hypotrophy has become a significant therapeutic problem. Efforts are being made to improve the standard scheme of kinesitherapeutic treatment by using additional more effective therapeutic methods. Beside kinesitherapy, the authors have used magnetotherapy in 30 of the 60 patients. The total of 60 patients, both sexes, similar age groups and intensity of hypotrophy, were included in the study. They were divided into groups A and B, the experimental and the control one (30 patients each). The treatment was scheduled for the usual 5-6 weeks. Electromyographic quantitative analysis was used to check-up the treatment results achieved after 5 and 6 weeks of treatment period. Analysis of results has confirmed the assumption that magnetotherapy may yield better and faster treatment results, disappearance of pain and decreased risk of complications. The same results were obtained in the experimental group, only one week earlier than in the control group. The EMG quantitative analysis has not proved sufficiently reliable and objective method in the assessment of real condition of the muscle and effects of treatment.

  1. Young Athletes With Quadriceps Femoris Strength Asymmetry at Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Demonstrate Asymmetric Single-Leg Drop-Landing Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ithurburn, Matthew P; Paterno, Mark V; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Schmitt, Laura C

    2015-11-01

    Young athletes who have had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction demonstrate suboptimal rates of return to sport, high rates of second ACL injuries, and persistent movement asymmetries. Therefore, the influence of musculoskeletal impairments on movement mechanics in this population needs to be further evaluated. The primary hypothesis was that among young athletes who have had ACL reconstruction, those with greater quadriceps strength asymmetry would demonstrate altered single-leg drop-landing mechanics at return to sport compared with individuals with more symmetric quadriceps strength and also compared with healthy controls (ie, those with no ACL reconstruction). A second hypothesis was that quadriceps strength symmetry would predict single-leg drop-landing symmetry in individuals who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. The study entailed a total of 103 participants (age, 17.4 years) at the time of return to sport after ACL reconstruction and 47 control participants (age, 17.0 years). The quadriceps index (QI) was calculated for isometric quadriceps strength, which was then used to divide the ACL reconstruction participants into high-quadriceps (QI ≥90%; n = 52) and low-quadriceps (QI <85%; n = 41) subgroups. Biomechanical data were collected by use of 3-dimensional motion analysis during a single-leg drop-landing task. The LSI was calculated for kinematic and kinetic sagittal-plane variables of interest during landing. Group differences were compared by use of 1-way analysis of variance and linear regression analyses (α < .05). Both the low- and high-quadriceps groups demonstrated greater limb asymmetry during landing compared with the control group in knee flexion excursion (mean LSI ± SD: low quadriceps, 85.8% ± 15.5% [P < .001]; high quadriceps, 94.2% ± 15.6% [P = .019]; control, 102.7% ± 14.1%), peak trunk flexion angle (low quadriceps, 129.2% ± 36.6% [P < .001]; high quadriceps, 110.5% ± 22.6% [P = .03

  2. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  3. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and physical activity. A population-based study of 332 subjects aged 15-42 years.

    PubMed

    Düppe, H; Gärdsell, P; Johnell, O; Nilsson, B E; Ringsberg, K

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to find out whether differences in levels of physical activity have an influence on bone mass quantity and whether quadriceps muscle strength is a reliable determinant of bone mass. Included were 175 men and 157 women, aged 15-42 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at various sites by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Muscle strength was assessed using an isokinetic muscle force meter. A questionnaire was used to estimate the level of physical activity. We found a positive correlation between physical activity and BMD for boys at the distal forearm and for girls at the trochanter (age group 15-16 years). Active men (age group 21-42 years) had up to 9% higher BMD levels at the hip than those who were less active. Quadriceps muscle torque was not an independent predictor of BMD. Our data suggest that a higher level of physical activity-within the limits of a "normal life style"-may have a positive effect on BMD in the proximal femur of young adults, which in turn may lessen the subsequent risk of fracture.

  4. Quantification, Variability, and Reproducibility of Basal Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake in Healthy Humans Using 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Gheysens, Olivier; Postnov, Andrey; Deroose, Christophe M; Vandermeulen, Corinne; de Hoon, Jan; Declercq, Ruben; Dennie, Justin; Mixson, Lori; De Lepeleire, Inge; Van Laere, Koen; Klimas, Michael; Chakravarthy, Manu V

    2015-10-01

    The quantification and variability of skeletal muscle glucose utilization (SMGU) in healthy subjects under basal (low insulin) conditions are poorly known. This information is essential early in clinical drug development to effectively interrogate novel pharmacologic interventions that modulate glucose uptake. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest characteristics and variability of SMGU within and between healthy subjects under basal conditions. Furthermore, different kinetic modeling strategies were evaluated to find the best-fitting model to assess SMGU studied by 18F-FDG. Six healthy male volunteers underwent 2 dynamic 18F-FDG PET/CT scans with an interval of 24 h. Subjects were admitted to the clinical unit to minimize variability in daily activities and food intake and restrict physical activity. 18F-FDG PET/CT scans of gluteal and quadriceps muscle area were obtained with arterial input. Regions of interest were drawn over the muscle area to obtain time-activity curves and standardized uptake values (SUVs) between 60 and 90 min. Spectral analysis of the data and kinetic modeling was performed using 2-tissue-irreversible (2T3K), 2-tissue-reversible, and 3-tissue-sequential-irreversible (3T5KS) models. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV). SUVs in gluteal and quadriceps areas were 0.56±0.09 and 0.64±0.07. ICCs (with 90% confidence intervals in parentheses) were 0.88 (0.64-0.96) and 0.96 (0.82-0.99), respectively, for gluteal and quadriceps muscles, and WSCV for gluteal and quadriceps muscles was 2.2% and 3.6%, respectively. The rate of glucose uptake into muscle was 0.0016±0.0004 mL/mL⋅min, with an ICC of 0.94 (0.93-0.95) and WSCV of 6.6% for the 3T5KS model, whereas an ICC of 0.98 (0.92-1.00) and WSCV of 2.8% was obtained for the 2T3K model. 3T5KS demonstrated the best fit to the measured experimental points. Minimal variability in skeletal muscle glucose

  5. Elevated muscle TLR4 expression and metabolic endotoxemia in human aging.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sangeeta; Lertwattanarak, Raweewan; Garduño, Jose de Jesus; Galeana, Joaquin Joya; Li, Jinqi; Zamarripa, Frank; Lancaster, Jack L; Mohan, Sumathy; Hussey, Sophie; Musi, Nicolas

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in glucose metabolism and sarcopenia that jointly contribute to a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Because aging is considered as a state of low-grade inflammation, in this study we examined whether older, healthy (lean, community-dwelling) participants have altered signaling flux through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key mediator of innate and adaptive immune responses. We also examined whether a 4-month aerobic exercise program would have an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing TLR4 expression and signaling. At baseline, muscle TLR4, nuclear factor κB p50 and nuclear factor κB p65 protein content, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation were significantly elevated in older versus young participants. The plasma concentration of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide and its binding protein also were significantly elevated in older participants, indicative of metabolic endotoxemia, which is a recently described phenomenon of increased plasma endotoxin level in metabolic disease. These alterations in older participants were accompanied by decreased insulin sensitivity, quadriceps muscle volume, and muscle strength. The exercise training program increased insulin sensitivity, without affecting quadriceps muscle volume or strength. Muscle TLR4, nuclear factor κB, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and plasma lipopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide binding protein were not changed by exercise. In conclusion, insulin resistance and sarcopenia of aging are associated with increased TLR4 expression/signaling, which may be secondary to metabolic endotoxemia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH THE CENTRAL THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE TENDON: ANALYSIS OF 10-YEAR RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marcus Valladares; Junior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Terra, Dalton Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess clinical results using two different protocols, 10 years after ACL reconstruction surgery with the central third of quadriceps muscle tendon (QT). Method: Between November /1997 and April/1998, 25 patients were submitted to 25 ACL reconstructions with QT by transtibial technique. The bone portion of the graft was fixated on femoral tunnel with interference screw and the tendinous portion of tibial tunnel with screw with washer. Two patients injured the new when playing soccer. Six patients were not available for follow-up (24%). Seventeen patients were evaluated, 15 men and two women, with mean age at surgery time of 28.53 ± 6.64 years. All patients were examined at six months, one year, and ten years after surgery. Clinical evaluation was made by the Lysholm scale, and the knee evaluation, with the Hospital for Special Surgery scale. Results: The patients had their injuries operated after 9.87 ± 14.42 months of the accident. According to Lysholm scale, the results at the end of the first year were 98.71 ± 2.47 and, after 10 years, 97.35 ± 3.12. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery scale, the mean score was 95.07 ± 5.23 in one year, and 94.87 ± 4.16 in 10 years. All patients returned to their professional activities with the same previous status. Fifteen (88.24%) patients were able to return to their sports activities, one by modifying the practice, while another one switched to another sport. No patient complained of pain on the donor area in the medium and long term. The sports return rate was excellent, and no changes were found on the femoropatellar joint. PMID:27022511

  7. Tribute to Dr Jacques Rogge: muscle activity and fatigue during hiking in Olympic dinghy sailing.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Jan G; Dumortier, Jasmien; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; Capelli, Carlo; Sjøgaard, Gisela; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2017-06-01

    'A tribute to Dr J. Rogge' aims to systematically review muscle activity and muscle fatigue during sustained submaximal quasi-isometric knee extension exercise (hiking) related to Olympic dinghy sailing as a tribute to Dr Rogge's merits in the world of sports. Dr Jacques Rogge is not only the former President of the International Olympic Committee, he was also an orthopaedic surgeon and a keen sailor, competing at three Olympic Games. In 1972, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Sports Medicine, he was the first who studied a sailors' muscle activity by means of invasive needle electromyography (EMG) during a specific sailing technique (hiking) on a self-constructed sailing ergometer. Hiking is a bilateral and multi-joint submaximal quasi-isometric movement which dinghy sailors use to optimize boat speed and to prevent the boat from capsizing. Large stresses are generated in the anterior muscles that cross the knee and hip joint, mainly employing the quadriceps at an intensity of 30-40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), sometimes exceeding 100% MVC. Better sailing level is partially determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during hiking and for ≈60% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. Although useful in exercise testing, prediction of hiking endurance capacity based on the changes in surface EMG in thigh and trunk muscles during a hiking maintenance task is not reliable. This could probably be explained by the varying exercise intensity and joint angles, and the great number of muscles and joints involved in hiking. Highlights Dr Jacques Rogge, former president of the International Olympic Committee and Olympic Finn sailor, was the first to study muscle activity during sailing using invasive needle EMG to obtain his Master degree in Sports Medicine at the Ghent University. Hiking is a critical bilateral and multi-joint movement during dinghy racing, accounting for >60% of the total upwind leg time

  8. Contributions of muscle imbalance and impaired growth to postural and osseous shoulder deformity following brachial plexus birth palsy: a computational simulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Cornwall, Roger; Crouch, Dustin L; Li, Zhongyu; Saul, Katherine R

    2015-06-01

    Two potential mechanisms leading to postural and osseous shoulder deformity after brachial plexus birth palsy are muscle imbalance between functioning internal rotators and paralyzed external rotators and impaired longitudinal growth of paralyzed muscles. Our goal was to evaluate the combined and isolated effects of these 2 mechanisms on transverse plane shoulder forces using a computational model of C5-6 brachial plexus injury. We modeled a C5-6 injury using a computational musculoskeletal upper limb model. Muscles expected to be denervated by C5-6 injury were classified as affected, with the remaining shoulder muscles classified as unaffected. To model muscle imbalance, affected muscles were given no resting tone whereas unaffected muscles were given resting tone at 30% of maximal activation. To model impaired growth, affected muscles were reduced in length by 30% compared with normal whereas unaffected muscles remained normal in length. Four scenarios were simulated: normal, muscle imbalance only, impaired growth only, and both muscle imbalance and impaired growth. Passive shoulder rotation range of motion and glenohumeral joint reaction forces were evaluated to assess postural and osseous deformity. All impaired scenarios exhibited restricted range of motion and increased and posteriorly directed compressive glenohumeral joint forces. Individually, impaired muscle growth caused worse restriction in range of motion and higher and more posteriorly directed glenohumeral forces than did muscle imbalance. Combined muscle imbalance and impaired growth caused the most restricted joint range of motion and the highest joint reaction force of all scenarios. Both muscle imbalance and impaired longitudinal growth contributed to range of motion and force changes consistent with clinically observed deformity, although the most substantial effects resulted from impaired muscle growth. Simulations suggest that treatment strategies emphasizing treatment of impaired longitudinal

  9. The A55T and K153R polymorphisms of MSTN gene are associated with the strength training-induced muscle hypertrophy among Han Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Shi-Jun; Tan, Shing Cheng; Chew, Pey Ling; Liu, Lihong; Wang, Li; Wen, Li; Ma, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin, encoded by the MSTN gene, is a strong regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The present study aimed to investigate whether the A55T and K153R polymorphisms of MSTN were associated with the strength training-induced muscle hypertrophy among Han Chinese men. A total of 94 healthy, untrained men were recruited for an 8-week strength training programme. The thicknesses of biceps and quadriceps, along with anthropometric measurements of the participants, were assessed before and after the programme. The MSTN polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped employing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique and confirmed by DNA sequencing. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the pre- and post-training measurements between carriers of different polymorphic genotypes. Our results indicated that individuals with AT + TT genotype of the A55T polymorphism showed a significant increase in the thickness of biceps (0.292 ± 0.210 cm, P = 0.03), but not quadriceps (0.254 ± 0.198 cm, P = 0.07), compared to carriers of AA genotype. For the K153R polymorphism, the increases in the thicknesses of both biceps (0.300 ± 0.131 cm) and quadriceps (0.421 ± 0.281 cm) were significantly higher among individuals with KR than those with KK genotypes (P < 0.01 for both muscles). The results obtained therefore suggested a possible association between the two polymorphisms and the strength training-induced muscle hypertrophy among men of Han Chinese ethnicity.

  10. Polypropylene mesh augmentation for complete quadriceps rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nodzo, Scott R; Rachala, Sridhar R

    2016-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for failed patellar tendon repairs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but there have been few reports of this synthetic mesh used in complete quadriceps rupture after TKA. We retrospectively reviewed seven consecutive cases in six patients with complete quadriceps tears after TKA who had their quadriceps tendon repaired with suture and polypropylene mesh augmentation. All but two patients had previously failed primary suture repair. Patient outcomes were evaluated using the Knee Society Score. Standardized anterior-posterior (AP), lateral and merchant radiographs were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up. Seven knees in six patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 34±10 (range 24 to 49months) months. There were only four clinical successes defined as an extensor lag less than 30°. Of the functioning knees at final follow-up (n=5) the overall extensor lag in this group did significantly improve from 50±13° to 20±15° (range 5 to 40°) (p=.01). Mean postoperative flexion at final follow-up was 115±8°. Mean Knee Society Score for function improved from 20±30 to 45±54 (p=.03) as did the mean Knee Society Score for pain (44±18 vs. 74±78, p=.02). Polypropylene mesh offered limited postoperative functional results when used as an augment to the multiply operated knee that sustains a complete quadriceps rupture after TKA, but did allow for significant improvement in postoperative pain outcomes. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2010-09-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (P(o), P(o)/mg and P(o)/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased P(o) and an inability to sustain P(o) for the 300-ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. p62/SQSTM1 but not LC3 is accumulated in sarcopenic muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Kunihiro; Kinoshita, Masakazu; Ito, Yoshinori; Aizawa, Miki; Aoi, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the pathway of autophagy signaling linked to sarcopenia of mice. Young adult (3-month) and aged (24- month) C57BL/6J mice were used. Using real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical microscopy, we evaluated the amounts of p62/SQSTM1, LC3, and Beclin-1 in the quadriceps muscle change with aging in mice. Marked fiber atrophy (30%) and many fibers with central nuclei were observed in the aged mice. Western blotting using homogenate of the cytosolic fraction clearly showed that the amounts of p62/SQSTM1 and Beclin-1 proteins were significantly increased in the aged skeletal muscle. The amounts of these proteins in both nuclear and membrane fractions did not change significantly with age. Immunofluorescence labeling indicated that aged mice more frequently possessed p62/SQSTM1-positive fibers in the cytosol in quadriceps muscle than young ones (aged: 14% vs. young: 1%). In aged muscle, p62/SQSTM1-positive fibers were significantly smaller than the surrounding p62/SQSTM1-negative fibers. Aging did not elicit significant changes in the mRNA levels of p62/SQSTM1 and Beclin-1, but decreased LC3 mRNA level. In aged muscle, the location of p62/SQSTM1 immunoreactivity was similar to that of Beclin-1 protein, but not LC3. Sarcopenia in mice appears to include a marked defect of autophagy signaling.

  13. Muscle coordination is habitual rather than optimal.

    PubMed

    de Rugy, Aymar; Loeb, Gerald E; Carroll, Timothy J

    2012-05-23

    When sharing load among multiple muscles, humans appear to select an optimal pattern of activation that minimizes costs such as the effort or variability of movement. How the nervous system achieves this behavior, however, is unknown. Here we show that contrary to predictions from optimal control theory, habitual muscle activation patterns are surprisingly robust to changes in limb biomechanics. We first developed a method to simulate joint forces in real time from electromyographic recordings of the wrist muscles. When the model was altered to simulate the effects of paralyzing a muscle, the subjects simply increased the recruitment of all muscles to accomplish the task, rather than recruiting only the useful muscles. When the model was altered to make the force output of one muscle unusually noisy, the subjects again persisted in recruiting all muscles rather than eliminating the noisy one. Such habitual coordination patterns were also unaffected by real modifications of biomechanics produced by selectively damaging a muscle without affecting sensory feedback. Subjects naturally use different patterns of muscle contraction to produce the same forces in different pronation-supination postures, but when the simulation was based on a posture different from the actual posture, the recruitment patterns tended to agree with the actual rather than the simulated posture. The results appear inconsistent with computation of motor programs by an optimal controller in the brain. Rather, the brain may learn and recall command programs that result in muscle coordination patterns generated by lower sensorimotor circuitry that are functionally "good-enough."

  14. Thigh muscle segmentation of chemical shift encoding-based water-fat magnetic resonance images: The reference database MyoSegmenTUM.

    PubMed

    Schlaeger, Sarah; Freitag, Friedemann; Klupp, Elisabeth; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Weidlich, Dominik; Inhuber, Stephanie; Deschauer, Marcus; Schoser, Benedikt; Bublitz, Sarah; Montagnese, Federica; Zimmer, Claus; Rummeny, Ernst J; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Kirschke, Jan S; Baum, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can non-invasively assess muscle anatomy, exercise effects and pathologies with different underlying causes such as neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Quantitative MRI including fat fraction mapping using chemical shift encoding-based water-fat MRI has emerged for reliable determination of muscle volume and fat composition. The data analysis of water-fat images requires segmentation of the different muscles which has been mainly performed manually in the past and is a very time consuming process, currently limiting the clinical applicability. An automatization of the segmentation process would lead to a more time-efficient analysis. In the present work, the manually segmented thigh magnetic resonance imaging database MyoSegmenTUM is presented. It hosts water-fat MR images of both thighs of 15 healthy subjects and 4 patients with NMD with a voxel size of 3.2x2x4 mm3 with the corresponding segmentation masks for four functional muscle groups: quadriceps femoris, sartorius, gracilis, hamstrings. The database is freely accessible online at https://osf.io/svwa7/?view_only=c2c980c17b3a40fca35d088a3cdd83e2. The database is mainly meant as ground truth which can be used as training and test dataset for automatic muscle segmentation algorithms. The segmentation allows extraction of muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and volume. Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) of the defined muscle groups from the corresponding images and quadriceps muscle strength measurements/neurological muscle strength rating can be used for benchmarking purposes.

  15. Why Is That Dog Paralyzed? A Problem-Based Case & Laboratory Exercise about Neuromuscular Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanick, Mark; Graham, Kerri; Wessel, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Students are provided with a mystery concerning dogs that are paralyzed. This motivates a laboratory exercise to measure parameters from the dog's "blood" to determine whether the paralysis is due to pesticide poisoning or an autoimmune attack on nerve myelin. Most of the materials are available from the grocery store. The real-world nature of the…

  16. Kinematic MRI study of upper-airway biomechanics using electrical muscle stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennick, Michael J.; Margulies, Susan S.; Ford, John C.; Gefter, Warren B.; Pack, Allan I.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new and powerful method to study the movement and function of upper airway muscles. Our method is to use direct electrical stimulation of individual upper airway muscles, while performing state of the art high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have adapted a paralyzed isolated UA cat model so that positive or negative static pressure in the UA can be controlled at specific levels while electrical muscle stimulation is applied during MRI. With these techniques we can assess the effect of muscle stimulation on airway cross-sectional area compliance and soft tissue motion. We are reporting the preliminary results and MRI techniques which have enabled us to examine changes in airway dimensions which result form electrical stimulation of specific upper airway dilator muscles. The results of this study will be relevant to the development of new clinical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea by providing new information as to exactly how upper airway muscles function to dilate the upper airway and the strength of stimulation required to prevent the airway obstruction when overall muscle tone may not be sufficient to maintain regular breathing.

  17. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Cryotherapy for Increasing Quadriceps Activation in Patients With Knee Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Conrad M; Lepley, Adam S; Uhl, Tim L; Mattacola, Carl G

    2016-08-01

    Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95-1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals

  18. Comparison of the Effect of Sensory-Level and Conventional Motor-Level Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulations on Quadriceps Strength After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Single-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yosuke; Ikuno, Koki; Shomoto, Koji

    2017-12-01

    To compare sensory-level neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and conventional motor-level NMES in patients after total knee arthroplasty. Prospective randomized single-blind trial. Hospital total arthroplasty center: inpatients. Patients with osteoarthritis (N=66; mean age, 73.5±6.3y; 85% women) were randomized to receive either sensory-level NMES applied to the quadriceps (the sensory-level NMES group), motor-level NMES (the motor-level NMES group), or no stimulation (the control group) in addition to a standard rehabilitation program. Each type of NMES was applied in 45-minute sessions, 5d/wk, for 2 weeks. Data for the quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction, the leg skeletal muscle mass determined using multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, the timed Up and Go test, the 2-minute walk test, the visual analog scale, and the range of motion of the knee were measured preoperatively and at 2 and 4 weeks after total knee arthroplasty. The motor-level NMES (P=.001) and sensory-level NMES (P=.028) groups achieved better maximum voluntary isometric contraction results than did the control group. The motor-level NMES (P=.003) and sensory-level NMES (P=.046) groups achieved better 2-minute walk test results than did the control group. Some patients in the motor-level NMES group dropped out of the experiment because of discomfort. Motor-level NMES significantly improved muscle strength and functional performance more than did the standard program alone. Motor-level NMES was uncomfortable for some patients. Sensory-level NMES was comfortable and improved muscle strength and functional performance more than did the standard program alone. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.

    PubMed

    McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2014-12-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PGC-1α and exercise intensity dependent adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dethlefsen, Maja Munk; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of PGC-1α in intensity dependent exercise and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle. Whole body PGC-1α knockout (KO) and littermate wildtype (WT) mice performed a single treadmill running bout at either low intensity (LI) for 40 min or moderate intensity (MI) for 20 min. Blood and quadriceps muscles were removed either immediately after exercise or at 3h or 6h into recovery from exercise and from resting controls. In addition PGC-1α KO and littermate WT mice were exercise trained at either low intensity (LIT) for 40 min or at moderate intensity (MIT) for 20 min 2 times pr. day for 5 weeks. In the first and the last week of the intervention period, mice performed a graded running endurance test. Quadriceps muscles were removed before and after the training period for analyses. The acute exercise bout elicited intensity dependent increases in LC3I and LC3II protein and intensity independent decrease in p62 protein in skeletal muscle late in recovery and increased LC3II with exercise training independent of exercise intensity and volume in WT mice. Furthermore, acute exercise and exercise training did not increase LC3I and LC3II protein in PGC-1α KO. In addition, exercise-induced mRNA responses of PGC-1α isoforms were intensity dependent. In conclusion, these findings indicate that exercise intensity affected autophagy markers differently in skeletal muscle and suggest that PGC-1α regulates both acute and exercise training-induced autophagy in skeletal muscle potentially in a PGC-1α isoform specific manner. PMID:29049322

  1. Distal muscle involvement in granulomatous myositis can mimic inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Larue, Sandrine; Maisonobe, Thierry; Benveniste, Olivier; Chapelon-Abric, Catherine; Lidove, Olivier; Papo, Thomas; Eymard, Bruno; Dubourg, Odile

    2011-06-01

    The authors report on four patients aged over 50 with chronic myopathy suggestive of sporadic inclusion body myositis. They present progressive and selective weakness of the quadriceps femoris muscles. Asymmetrical and selective atrophy of the forearm muscles were noted in all, with more severe involvement of the flexors than the extensors. Biopsy revealed granulomatous myositis. Histological features of sporadic inclusion body myositis were lacking. Evidence for systemic sarcoidosis was found in one patient. Corticosteroid treatment was associated with a partial but significant improvement in two patients. Granulomatous myositis may mimic inclusion body myositis and may be steroid-responsive.

  2. [Morphohistochemical study of skeletal muscles in rats after experimental flight on "Kosmos-1887"].

    PubMed

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    1990-01-01

    Morphometric and histochemical methods were used to examine the soleus, gastrocnemius (medial portion), quadriceps femoris (central portion) and biceps brachii muscles of Wistar SPF rats two days after the 13-day flight on Cosmos-1887. It was found that significant atrophy developed only in the soleus muscle. The space flight did not change the percentage content of slow (type I) and fast (type II) fibers in fast twitch muscles. During two days at 1 g the slow soleus muscle developed substantial circulation disorders, which led to interstitial edema and necrotic changes. The gastrocnemius muscle showed small foci containing necrotic myofibers. Two days after recovery no glycogen aggregates were seen in myofibers, which were previously observed in other rats examined 4--8 hours after flight. An initial stage of muscle readaptation to 1 g occurred, when NAD.H2-dehydrogenase activity was decreased.

  3. Redox responses are preserved across muscle fibres with differential susceptibility to aging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil T; Soriano-Arroquia, Ana; Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Jackson, Malcolm J; McDonagh, Brian

    2018-04-15

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and function is associated with increased frailty and loss of independence. The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of different muscle types to age-related atrophy are not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognised as important signalling molecules in healthy muscle and redox sensitive proteins can respond to intracellular changes in ROS concentrations modifying reactive thiol groups on Cysteine (Cys) residues. Conserved Cys residues tend to occur in functionally important locations and can have a direct impact on protein function through modifications at the active site or determining protein conformation. The aim of this work was to determine age-related changes in the redox proteome of two metabolically distinct murine skeletal muscles, the quadriceps a predominantly glycolytic muscle and the soleus which contains a higher proportion of mitochondria. To examine the effects of aging on the global proteome and the oxidation state of individual redox sensitive Cys residues, we employed a label free proteomics approach including a differential labelling of reduced and reversibly oxidised Cys residues. Our results indicate the proteomic response to aging is dependent on muscle type but redox changes that occur primarily in metabolic and cytoskeletal proteins are generally preserved between metabolically distinct tissues. Skeletal muscle containing fast twitch glycolytic fibres are more susceptible to age related atrophy compared to muscles with higher proportions of oxidative slow twitch fibres. Contracting skeletal muscle generates reactive oxygen species that are required for correct signalling and adaptation to exercise and it is also known that the intracellular redox environment changes with age. To identify potential mechanisms for the distinct response to age, this article combines a global proteomic approach and a differential labelling of reduced and reversibly oxidised Cysteine residues in two

  4. Quadriceps force during knee extension in different replacement scenarios with a modular partial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Calliess, Tilman; Schado, Ssuheib; Richter, Berna I; Becher, Christoph; Ezechieli, Marco; Ostermeier, Sven

    2014-02-01

    Previous biomechanical studies have shown that bi-cruciate retaining knee replacement does not significantly alter normal knee kinematics, however, there are no data on the influence of a combined medial and patellofemoral bi-compartimental arthroplasty. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different replacement scenarios with a modular partial knee replacement system on the amount of quadriceps force required to extend the knee during an isokinetic extension cycle. Ten human knee specimens were tested in a kinematic knee simulator under (1) physiologic condition and after subsequent implantation of (2) a medial unicondylar and (3) a trochlear replacement. An isokinetic extension cycle of the knee with a constant extension moment of 31 Nm was simulated. The resulting quadriceps extension force was measured from 120° to full knee extension. The quadriceps force curve described a typically sinusoidal characteristic before and after each replacement scenario. The isolated medial replacement resulted in a slightly, but significantly higher maximum quadriceps force (1510 N vs. 1585 N, P = 0.006) as well as the subsequent trochlear replacement showed an additional increase (1801 N, P = 0.008). However, for both replacements no significant difference to the untreated condition could be detected in mid-flexion (10-50°). When considering a bi-compartimental replacement an increase of required maximum quadriceps force needed to extend the knee has to keep in mind. However, the close to physiological movement in mid-flexion suggests that patients with a bi-crutiate retaining arthroplasty might have an advantage in knee stability compared to total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quadriceps Weakness, Patella Alta and Structural Features of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Stefanik, Joshua J.; Guermazi, Ali; Zhu, Yanyan; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Gross, K. Douglas; Clancy, Margaret; Lynch, John A.; Segal, Neil A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Roemer, Frank W.; Powers, Christopher M.; Felson, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between quadriceps weakness and cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), and if this relationship is modified by patella alta. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a cohort study of persons aged 50–79 years with or at risk for knee OA. Concentric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Patella alta was measured using the Insall-Salvati ratio (ISR) on the lateral radiograph, and cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) were graded on MRI in the PFJ. We determined the association between quadriceps weakness with cartilage damage and BMLs in the PFJ among those knees with (ISR≥1.2) and without patella alta (ISR<1.2) using multiple binomial regression. Results 807 knees were studied (mean age 62 years, BMI 30, ISR 1.10), 64% from female subjects. Compared with knees in the highest strength tertile, those in the lowest had 10.2% {95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3–18}, 9.1% (95% CI 2–16), and 7.1% (95% CI 1–13) higher prevalence of lateral PFJ cartilage damage, medial PFJ cartilage damage, and lateral PFJ BMLs, respectively. The association between quadriceps weakness with cartilage damage and BMLs was not different between knees with and with out patella alta in the lateral PFJ. Conclusion Quadriceps weakness was associated with PFJ cartilage damage and BMLs. While both patella alta and quadriceps weakness are associated with PFJ damage, the combination of the two was not associated with more damage than either of these factors alone. PMID:21702087

  6. Knee Joint Contact Mechanics during Downhill Gait and its Relationship with Varus/Valgus Motion and Muscle Strength in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Group differences in contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion excursions were compared using analysis of covariance with adjustments for body mass index. Differences in strength were compared using independent sample t-tests. Additionally, linear associations between contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee motion and muscle strength were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p<0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p<0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p=0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p=0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Conclusion Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with

  7. Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Harris, Robert T.; Woodard, Daniel; Dudley, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of muscle contractile activity elicited by electromyostimulation (EMS) was mapped and compared to the contractile-activity pattern produced by voluntary effort. This was done by examining the patterns and the extent of contrast shift, as indicated by T2 values, im magnetic resonance (MR) images after isometric activity of the left m. quadriceps of human subjects was elicited by EMS (1-sec train of 500-microsec sine wave pulses at 50 Hz) or voluntary effort. The results suggest that, whereas EMS stimulates the same fibers repeatedly, thereby increasing the metabolic demand and T2 values, the voluntary efforts are performed by more diffuse asynchronous activation of skeletal muscle even at forces up to 75 percent of maximal to maintain performance.

  8. Comparative study of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening treatments in the management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohesn; Alanezi, Aqeel M

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50-65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  9. Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Sampson, Jill N Best; Pennel, Kathryn; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2016-06-01

    Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) impact subsequent training sessions and activities of daily living (ADL) even in active individuals. In sedentary or diseased individuals, EIMD and DOMS may be even more pronounced and present even in the absence of structured exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida® 400 mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) following EMID (eccentric-only dual-leg press exercise). Subjects (N = 28) were randomly assigned to either curcumin (400 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour) and supplemented 2 days before to 4 days after EMID. Blood samples were collected prior to (PRE), and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after EIMD to measure CK and inflammatory cytokines. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with P < 0.05. Curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly smaller increases in CK (- 48%), TNF-α (- 25%), and IL-8 (- 21%) following EIMD compared to placebo. We observed no significant differences in IL-6, IL-10, or quadriceps muscle soreness between conditions for this sample size. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that consumption of curcumin reduced biological inflammation, but not quadriceps muscle soreness, during recovery after EIMD. The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions. These findings support the use of oral curcumin supplementation to reduce the symptoms of EIMD. The next logical step is to evaluate further the efficacy of an inflammatory clinical disease model.

  10. The nonlinearity of passive extraocular muscles

    PubMed Central

    Quaia, Christian; Ying, Howard S.; Optican, Lance M.

    2011-01-01

    Passive extraocular muscles (EOMs), like most biological tissues, are hyper-elastic, i.e., their stiffness increases as they are stretched. It has always been assumed, and in a few occasions argued, that this is their only nonlinearity and that it can be ignored in central gaze. However, using novel measurement techniques in anesthetized paralyzed monkeys, we have recently demonstrated that EOMs are characterized by another prominent nonlinearity: the forces induced by sequences of stretches do not sum. Thus, superposition, a central tenet of linear and quasi-linear models, does not hold in passive EOMs. Here, we outline the implications of this finding, especially in light of the common assumption that it is easier for the brain to control a linear than a nonlinear plant. We argue against this common belief: the specific nonlinearity of passive EOMs may actually make it easier for the brain to control the plant than if muscles were linear. PMID:21950971

  11. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P < 0.05) and REC (type I: 10.0 ± 2.7%, type IIA: 14.8 ± 4.3% type IIX: 20.8 ± 6.0%, P < 0.05). In contrast, RFD decreased and fascicle angle increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. Capillary density and estimated aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. These results suggest that high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Attitudes of Children and Adolescents toward Persons Who Are Deaf, Blind, Paralyzed or Intellectually Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two…

  13. Quality of life, muscle strength, and fatigue perception in patients on suppressive therapy with levothyroxine for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Chachamovitz, Dhiãnah Santini; dos Santos Vigário, Patrícia; Nogueira Cordeiro, Mônica Fabíola; de Castro, Carmen Lucia Natividade; Vaisman, Mário; dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatigue perception, the muscle function, and the health-related quality of life (QoL) in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) induced by levothyroxine in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, in comparison with a group of euthyroid (EU) subjects. A cross-sectional study with 38 SCH individuals and 54 EU subjects was performed. They were submitted to Short Form-36 and Chalder questionnaires to evaluate QoL and fatigue, respectively. The tests performed to evaluate muscle function of upper and lower limbs were: maximum quadriceps isometric strength (QS); quadriceps fatigue resistance (T50% QS), QS at 30 seconds (QS30s); quadriceps functional capacity (QFC); maximum isometric handgrip strength (HS); fatigue handgrip resistance (T50% HS), HS at 30 seconds (HS30s); and functional capacity of the shoulder. The SCH patients had worse muscle function, regarding HS (25.19 ± 7.00 vs. 30.45 ± 9.98 kgf in EU, P = 0.009) and functional capacity of the shoulder (41.28 ± 48.36 vs. 56.68 ± 37.44 s in EU, P = 0.004). The self-perception of fatigue by Chalder questionnaire (23.91 ± 5.39 vs. 29.77 ± 7.03, P = 0.000) and the QoL in terms of functional capacity (70.20 ± 21.57 vs. 56.25 ± 28.79, P = 0.025), physical aspects (71.42 ± 36.44 vs. 45.83 ± 42.88, P = 0.004), pain (62.48 ± 22.20 vs. 50.05 ± 24.80, P = 0.035), and emotional aspects (70.74 ± 38.26 vs. 46.29 ± 44.56, P = 0.008) were also worse in SCH. In conclusion, the SCH was associated with alterations in the QoL, reduction in the muscle function of upper limbs, and higher degree of fatigue.

  14. Improved Inflammatory Balance of Human Skeletal Muscle during Exercise after Supplementations of the Ginseng-Based Steroid Rg1

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L.; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge. PMID:25617625

  15. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  16. [Correlations Between Joint Proprioception, Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yoa; Yu, Yong; He, Cheng-qi

    2015-11-01

    To establish correlations between joint proprioception, muscle flexion and extension peak torque, and functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-six patients with symptomatic knee OA were recruited in this study. Both proprioceptive acuity and muscle strength were measured using the isomed-2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Proprioceptive acuity was evaluated by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT). Muscle strength was evaluated by Max torque (Nm) and Max torque/weight (Nm/ kg). Functional ability was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. A multiple stepwise regression model was established, with WOMAC-PF as dependent variable and patient age, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale (VAS)-score, mean grade for Kellgren-Lawrance of both knees, mean strength for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of both knees, and mean JMDT of both knees as independent variables. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was negatively correlated with muscle strength (P<0.05). There was no significant correlation between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint pain (WOMAC pain score), and between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint stiffness (WOMAC stiffness score). Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was correlated with limitation in functional ability (WOMAC physical function score r=0.659, P<0.05). WOMAC score was correlated with poor muscle strength (quadriceps muscle strength r = -0.511, P<0.05, hamstring muscle strength r = -0.408, P<0.05). The multiple stepwise regression model showed that high JMDT C standard partial regression coefficient (B) = 0.385, P<0.50 and high VAS-scale score (B=0.347, P<0.05) were significant predictors of WOMAC-PF score. Patients with poor proprioception is associated with poor muscle strength and limitation in functional

  17. Impact of Chiropractic Manipulation on Bone and Skeletal Muscle of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    López-Herradón, A; Fujikawa, R; Gómez-Marín, M; Stedile-Lovatel, J P; Mulero, F; Ardura, J A; Ruiz, P; Muñoz, I; Esbrit, P; Mahíllo-Fernández, I; Ortega-de Mues, A

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that chiropractic manipulation might exert positive effects in osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chiropractic manipulation on bone structure and skeletal muscle in rats with bone loss caused by ovariectomy (OVX). The 6-month old Sprague-Dawley rats at 10 weeks following OVX or sham operation (Sh) did not suffer chiropractic manipulation (NM group) or were submitted to true chiropractic manipulation using the chiropractic adjusting instrument Activator V ® three times/week for 6 weeks as follows: Force 1 setting was applied onto the tibial tubercle of the rat right hind limb (TM group), whereas the corresponding left hind limb received a false manipulation (FM group) consisting of ActivatorV ® firing in the air and slightly touching the tibial tubercle. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in long bones and L3-L4 vertebrae in all rats. Femora and tibia were analyzed by μCT. Mechano growth factor (MGF) was detected in long bones and soleus, quadriceps and tibial muscles by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The decrease of BMD and BMC as well as trabecular bone impairment in the long bones of OVX rats vs Sh controls was partially reversed in the TM group versus FM or NM rats. This bone improvement by chiropractic manipulation was associated with an increased MGF expression in the quadriceps and the anterior tibial muscle in OVX rats. These findings support the notion that chiropractic manipulation can ameliorate osteoporotic bone at least partly by targeting skeletal muscle.

  18. Restoration of orbicularis oculi muscle function in rabbits with peripheral facial paralysis via an implantable artificial facial nerve system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yajing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Keyong; Zhang, Qunfeng; Geng, Liang; Liu, Xundao; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to restore orbicularis oculi muscle function using the implantable artificial facial nerve system (IAFNS). The in vivo part of the IAFNS was implanted into 12 rabbits that were facially paralyzed on the right side of the face to restore the function of the orbicularis oculi muscle, which was indicated by closure of the paralyzed eye when the contralateral side was closed. Wireless communication links were established between the in vivo part (the processing chip and microelectrode) and the external part (System Controller program) of the system, which were used to set the working parameters and indicate the working state of the processing chip and microelectrode implanted in the body. A disturbance field strength test of the IAFNS processing chip was performed in a magnetic field dark room to test its electromagnetic radiation safety. Test distances investigated were 0, 1, 3 and 10 m, and levels of radiation intensity were evaluated in the horizontal and vertical planes. Anti-interference experiments were performed to test the stability of the processing chip under the interference of electromagnetic radiation. The fully implanted IAFNS was run for 5 h per day for 30 consecutive days to evaluate the accuracy and precision as well as the long-term stability and effectiveness of wireless communication. The stimulus intensity (range, 0–8 mA) was set every 3 days to confirm the minimum stimulation intensity which could indicate the movement of the paralyzed side was set. Effective stimulation rate was also tested by comparing the number of eye-close movements on both sides. The results of the present study indicated that the IAFNS could rebuild the reflex arc, inducing the experimental rabbits to close the eye of the paralyzed side. The System Controller program was able to reflect the in vivo part of the artificial facial nerve system in real-time and adjust the working pattern, stimulation intensity and frequency, range of wave

  19. Effects of physical therapist-guided quadriceps-strengthening exercises for the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kooiker, Laura; Van De Port, Ingrid G L; Weir, Adam; Moen, Maarten H

    2014-06-01

    Systematic literature review. To summarize the evidence for physical therapist-guided quadriceps-strengthening exercises as a treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although quadriceps strengthening is often included in the plan of care for patellofemoral pain syndrome, a systematic review published in 2003 found only limited evidence that exercise was more effective than no exercise for this common condition. The PubMed, Embase/MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, from inception to January 9, 2014, were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing the use of quadriceps-strengthening exercises to interventions consisting of advice/information or a placebo. Outcomes of interest were pain measures and function, as measured with self-report questionnaires. The methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Results were summarized using a best-evidence synthesis and graphically illustrated using forest plots without meta-analysis. Seven studies were included in the literature review. These studies reported strong evidence that isolated quadriceps strengthening is more effective in reducing pain and improving function than advice and information alone. In addition, compared to advice and information or placebo, there was strong evidence that quadriceps-strengthening exercises combined with other interventions may be more effective in reducing pain immediately postintervention and after 12 months, but not in improving function. The literature provides strong evidence for the use of quadriceps-strengthening exercises, with or without other interventions, for the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Ultrasonography in Nutrition and Functional Outcome Assessment of Critically Ill Children: Experience and Insights From Pediatric Disease and Adult Critical Care Studies [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Ong, Chengsi; Lee, Jan Hau; Leow, Melvin K S; Puthucheary, Zudin A

    2017-09-01

    Evidence suggests that critically ill children develop muscle wasting, which could affect outcomes. Muscle ultrasound has been used to track muscle wasting and association with outcomes in critically ill adults but not children. This review aims to summarize methodological considerations of muscle ultrasound, structural findings, and possibilities for its application in the assessment of nutrition and functional outcomes in critically ill children. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched up until April 2016. Articles describing skeletal muscle ultrasound in children and critically ill adults were analyzed qualitatively for details on techniques and findings. Thickness and cross-sectional area of various upper and lower body muscles have been studied to quantify muscle mass and detect muscle changes. The quadriceps femoris muscle is one of the most commonly measured muscles due to its relation to mobility and is sensitive to changes over time. However, the margin of error for quadriceps thickness is too wide to reliably detect muscle changes in critically ill children. Muscle size and its correlation with strength and function also have not yet been studied in critically ill children. Echogenicity, used to detect compromised muscle structure in neuromuscular disease, may be another property worth studying in critically ill children. Muscle ultrasound may be useful in detecting muscle wasting in critically ill children but has not been shown to be sufficiently reliable in this population. Further study of the reliability and correlation with functional outcomes and nutrition intake is required before muscle ultrasound is routinely employed in critically ill children.

  1. Biomechanical Evaluation of Suture Anchor Versus Transosseous Tunnel Quadriceps Tendon Repair Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Seth L; Copeland, Marilyn E; Milles, Jeffrey L; Flood, David A; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical fixation strength of suture anchor and transosseous tunnel repair of the quadriceps tendon in a standardized cadaveric repair model. Twelve "patella-only" specimens were used. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurement was performed to ensure equal bone quality amongst groups. Specimens were randomly assigned to either a suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon group (n = 6) or a transosseous tunnel repair group (n = 6). Suture type and repair configuration were equivalent. After the respective procedures were performed, each patella was mounted into a gripping jig. Tensile load was applied at a rate of 0.1 mm/s up to 100 N after which cyclic loading was applied at a rate of 1 Hz between magnitudes of 50 to 150 N, 50 to 200 N, 50 to 250 N, and tensile load at a rate of 0.1 mm/s until failure. Outcome measures included load to failure, displacement at 1st 100 N load, and displacement after each 10th cycle of loading. The measured cyclic displacement to the first 100 N, 50 to 150 N, 50 to 200 N, and 50 to 250 N was significantly less for suture anchors than transosseous tunnels. There was no statistically significant difference in ultimate load to failure between the 2 groups (P = .40). Failure mode for all suture anchors except one was through the soft tissue. Failure mode for all transosseous specimens but one was pulling the repair through the transosseous tunnel. Suture anchor quadriceps tendon repairs had significantly decreased gapping during cyclic loading, but no statistically significant difference in ultimate load to failure when compared with transosseous tunnel repairs. Although suture anchor quadriceps tendon repair appears to be a biomechanically superior construct, a clinical study is needed to confirm this technique as a viable alternative to gold standard transosseous techniques. Although in vivo studies are needed, these results support the suture anchor technique as a viable alternative to

  2. Multi-muscle FES force control of the human arm for arbitrary goals.

    PubMed

    Schearer, Eric M; Liao, Yu-Wei; Perreault, Eric J; Tresch, Matthew C; Memberg, William D; Kirsch, Robert F; Lynch, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    We present a method for controlling a neuroprosthesis for a paralyzed human arm using functional electrical stimulation (FES) and characterize the errors of the controller. The subject has surgically implanted electrodes for stimulating muscles in her shoulder and arm. Using input/output data, a model mapping muscle stimulations to isometric endpoint forces measured at the subject's hand was identified. We inverted the model of this redundant and coupled multiple-input multiple-output system by minimizing muscle activations and used this inverse for feedforward control. The magnitude of the total root mean square error over a grid in the volume of achievable isometric endpoint force targets was 11% of the total range of achievable forces. Major sources of error were random error due to trial-to-trial variability and model bias due to nonstationary system properties. Because the muscles working collectively are the actuators of the skeletal system, the quantification of errors in force control guides designs of motion controllers for multi-joint, multi-muscle FES systems that can achieve arbitrary goals.

  3. Do oarsmen have asymmetries in the strength of their back and leg muscles?

    PubMed

    Parkin, S; Nowicky, A V; Rutherford, O M; McGregor, A H

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether asymmetry of the strength of the leg and trunk musculature is more prominent in rowers than in controls. Nineteen oarsmen and 20 male controls matched for age, height and body mass performed a series of isokinetic and isometric strength tests on an isokinetic dynamometer. These strength tests focused on the trunk and leg muscles. Comparisons of strength were made between and within groups for right and left symmetry patterns, hamstring: quadriceps ratios, and trunk flexor and extensor ratios. The results revealed no left and right asymmetries in either the knee extensor or flexor strength parameters (including both isometric and isokinetic measures). Knee extensor strength was significantly greater in the rowing population, but knee flexor strength was similar between the two groups. No difference was seen between the groups for the hamstring: quadriceps strength ratio. In the rowing population, stroke side had no influence on leg strength. No differences were observed in the isometric strength of the trunk flexors and extensors between groups, although EMG activity was significantly higher in the rowing population. Patterns of asymmetry of muscle activity were observed between the left and right erector spinae muscles during extension, which was significantly related to rowing side (P < 0.01). These observations could be related to the high incidence of low back pain in oarsmen.

  4. Effect of limited ischemia time on the amount and function of mitochondria within human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Jawhar, A; Ponelies, N; Schild, L

    2016-12-01

    The clinical success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) depends substantially on the quadriceps muscle function. A frequently applied thigh tourniquet during TKA may induce ischemia related injuries to quadriceps muscle cells. Animal limb muscles subjected to 2-5 h ischemia revealed dysfunctional mitochondria, which in turn compromised the cellular bioenergetics and increased the level of reactive oxygen species. The hypothesis of the present study was that tourniquet application during TKA for 60 min (min) affects the amount and function of mitochondria within musculus vastus medialis cells. In a randomized clinical trial, 10 patients enrolled to undergo primary TKA. The patients were randomly assigned to the tourniquet (n = 5) or non-tourniquet group (n = 5) after obtaining a written informed consent. For each of the groups, the first muscle biopsy was harvested immediately after performing the surgical approach and the second biopsy exactly 60 min later. All biopsies (5 × 5 × 5 mm) 125 mm 3 were harvested from musculus vastus medialis and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The biochemical analysis of the prepared muscle tissues included the measurement of activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-III and citrate synthase. Tourniquet-induced 60 min ischemia time did not significantly change the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes complexes I-III of the skeletal muscle cells. The citrate synthase activities found to be not significantly different between both groups. The use of tourniquet during TKA within a limited time period of 60 min remained without substantial effects on the amount and function of mitochondria within human skeletal muscle cells.

  5. Loss of motor unit size and quadriceps strength over 10 years in post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, A; van Dijk, J P; Beelen, A; Zwarts, M J; Nollet, F

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether strength decline in post-polio syndrome (PPS) results from excessive distal axonal degeneration of enlarged motor units. We assessed changes over 10 years in isometric quadriceps strength, mean motor unit action potential (MUAP) size, root mean squared (RMS) amplitude, and level of interference (LOI) in 47 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls, using high density surface EMG. At baseline, all patients had symptomatic quadriceps dysfunction, evidenced by transmission defects on single-fibre EMG. MU size and strength declined significantly by 20% and 15%, respectively in patients with PPS. Those with the largest initial MU sizes exhibited the greatest losses of mean MU size (27%) and proportional decreases in quadriceps strength (23%). Initial strength, change in LOI and change in RMS amplitude together explained 35% of the variability in strength changes in patients. MU size of controls did not change, although they lost 29% strength. MU size and strength declined concomitantly in a homogeneous cohort of patients with PPS and quadriceps dysfunction. This long term follow-up study provides evidence that size diminution of enlarged MUs combined with a reduced number of active MUs contributes to the gradual strength decline in PPS. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Apigenin enhances skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation by regulating Prmt7

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Young Jin; Son, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Yong Min; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2017-01-01

    Apigenin, a natural flavone abundant in various plant-derived foods including parsley and celery, has been shown to prevent inflammation and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of apigenin on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic differentiation has not previously been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of apigenin on quadricep muscle weight and running distance using C57BL/6 mice on an accelerating treadmill. Apigenin stimulated mRNA expression of MHC (myosin heavy chain) 1, MHC2A, and MHC2B in the quadricep muscles of these animals. GPR56 (G protein-coupled receptor 56) and its ligand collagen III were upregulated by apigenin supplementation, together with enhanced PGC-1α, PGC-1α1, PGC-1α4, IGF1, and IGF2 expression. Prmt7 protein expression increased in conjunction with Akt and mTORC1 activation. Apigenin treatment also upregulated FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5) mRNA expression and serum irisin levels. Furthermore, apigenin stimulated C2C12 myogenic differentiation and upregulated total MHC, MHC2A, and MHC2B expression. These events were attributable to an increase in Prmt7-p38-myoD expression and Akt and S6K1 phosphorylation. We also observed that Prmt7 regulates both PGC-1α1 and PGC-1α4 expression, resulting in a subsequent increase in GPR56 expression and mTORC1 activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that apigenin supplementation can promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic differentiation by regulating the Prmt7-PGC-1α-GPR56 pathway, as well as the Prmt7-p38-myoD pathway, which may contribute toward the prevention of skeletal muscle weakness. PMID:29108230

  7. Apigenin enhances skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation by regulating Prmt7.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Jin; Son, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Yong Min; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2017-10-03

    Apigenin, a natural flavone abundant in various plant-derived foods including parsley and celery, has been shown to prevent inflammation and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of apigenin on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic differentiation has not previously been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of apigenin on quadricep muscle weight and running distance using C57BL/6 mice on an accelerating treadmill. Apigenin stimulated mRNA expression of MHC (myosin heavy chain) 1, MHC2A, and MHC2B in the quadricep muscles of these animals. GPR56 (G protein-coupled receptor 56) and its ligand collagen III were upregulated by apigenin supplementation, together with enhanced PGC-1α, PGC-1α1, PGC-1α4, IGF1, and IGF2 expression. Prmt7 protein expression increased in conjunction with Akt and mTORC1 activation. Apigenin treatment also upregulated FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5) mRNA expression and serum irisin levels. Furthermore, apigenin stimulated C2C12 myogenic differentiation and upregulated total MHC, MHC2A, and MHC2B expression. These events were attributable to an increase in Prmt7-p38-myoD expression and Akt and S6K1 phosphorylation. We also observed that Prmt7 regulates both PGC-1α1 and PGC-1α4 expression, resulting in a subsequent increase in GPR56 expression and mTORC1 activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that apigenin supplementation can promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic differentiation by regulating the Prmt7-PGC-1α-GPR56 pathway, as well as the Prmt7-p38-myoD pathway, which may contribute toward the prevention of skeletal muscle weakness.

  8. Kinesiology Taping does not Modify Electromyographic Activity or Muscle Flexibility of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study in Healthy Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Halski, Tomasz; Dymarek, Robert; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Rajfur, Katarzyna; Rajfur, Joanna; Pasternok, Małgorzata; Smykla, Agnieszka; Taradaj, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background Kinesiology taping (KT) is a popular method of supporting professional athletes during sports activities, traumatic injury prevention, and physiotherapeutic procedures after a wide range of musculoskeletal injuries. The effectiveness of KT in muscle strength and motor units recruitment is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of KT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and muscle flexibility of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles in healthy volleyball players. Material/Methods Twenty-two healthy volleyball players (8 men and 14 women) were included in the study and randomly assigned to 2 comparative groups: “kinesiology taping” (KT; n=12; age: 22.30±1.88 years; BMI: 22.19±4.00 kg/m2) in which KT application over the RF muscle was used, and “placebo taping” (PT; n=10; age: 21.50±2.07 years; BMI: 22.74±2.67 kg/m2) in which adhesive nonelastic tape over the same muscle was used. All subjects were analyzed for resting sEMG activity of the VL and VM muscles, resting and functional sEMG activity of RF muscle, and muscle flexibility of RF muscle. Results No significant differences in muscle flexibility of the RF muscle and sEMG activity of the RF, VL, and VM muscles were registered before and after interventions in both groups, and between the KT and PT groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The results show that application of the KT to the RF muscle is not useful to improve sEMG activity. PMID:26232122

  9. Osgood-Schlatter Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness of the muscles surrounding the knee (the hamstring and quadriceps muscles) Symptoms that aren't typical ... bruises. A good stretching program, focusing on the hamstring and quadriceps muscles, before and after activity is ...

  10. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria

    2015-07-01

    Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women.

  11. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Man, F S; Handoko, M L; Groepenhoff, H; van 't Hul, A J; Abbink, J; Koppers, R J H; Grotjohan, H P; Twisk, J W R; Bogaard, H-J; Boonstra, A; Postmus, P E; Westerhof, N; van der Laarse, W J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2009-09-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained. 6-min walk distance and peak exercise capacity did not change after training. However, endurance capacity improved significantly after training, demonstrated by a shift of the anaerobic threshold to a higher workload (from 32+/-5 to 46+/-6 W; p = 0.003) together with an increase in exercise endurance time (p<0.001). Moreover, exercise training increased quadriceps strength by 13% (p = 0.005) and quadriceps endurance by 34% (p = 0.001). Training enhanced aerobic capacity of the quadriceps, by increasing capillarisation (1.36+/-0.10 to 1.78+/-0.13 capillaries per muscle fibre; p<0.001) and oxidative enzyme activity, especially of the type-I (slow) muscle fibres. No changes were found in cross-sectional area and fibre type distribution. Exercise training in iPAH improves exercise endurance and quadriceps muscle function, which is also reflected by structural changes of the quadriceps.

  12. Detection of the electromechanical delay and its components during voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle.

    PubMed

    Begovic, Haris; Zhou, Guang-Quan; Li, Tianjie; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Electromechanical delay (EMD) was described as a time elapsed between first trigger and force output. Various results have been reported based on the measurement method with observed inconsistent results when the trigger is elicited by voluntary contraction. However, mechanomyographic (MMG) sensor placed far away on the skin from the contracting muscle was used to detect muscle fiber motion and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling which may give unreliable results. On this basis, the purpose of this study was to detect EMD during active muscle contraction whilst introducing an ultrafast ultrasound (US) method to detect muscle fiber motion from a certain depth of the muscle. Time delays between onsets of EMG-MMG, EMG-US, MMG-FORCE, US-FORCE, and EMG-FORCE were calculated as 20.5 ± 4.73, 28.63 ± 6.31, 19.21 ± 6.79, 30.52 ± 8.85, and 49.73 ± 6.99 ms, respectively. Intrarater correlation coefficient (ICC) was higher than MMG when ultrafast US was used for detecton of the Δt EMG-US and Δt US-FORCE, ICC values of 0.75 and 0.70, respectively. Synchronization of the ultrafast ultrasound with EMG and FORCE sensors can reveal reliable and clinically useful results related to the EMD and its components when muscle is voluntarily contracted. With ultrafast US, we detect onset from the certain depth of the muscle excluding the tissues above the muscle acting as a low-pass filter which can lead to inaccurate time detection about the onset of the contracting muscle fibers. With this non-invasive technique, understanding of the muscle dynamics can be facilitated.

  13. The Time Course of Knee Swelling Post Total Knee Arthroplasty and Its Associations with Quadriceps Strength and Gait Speed.

    PubMed

    Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the time course of knee swelling post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its associations with quadriceps strength and gait speed. Eighty-five patients with unilateral TKA participated. Preoperatively and on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 4, 14, and 90, knee swelling was measured using bioimpedance spectrometry. Preoperatively and on PODs 14 and 90, quadriceps strength was measured using isokinetic dynamometry while fast gait speed was measured using the timed 10-meter walk. On POD1, knee swelling increased ~35% from preoperative levels after which, knee swelling reduced but remained at ~11% above preoperative levels on POD90. In longitudinal, multivariable analyses, knee swelling was associated with quadriceps weakness (P<0.01) and slower gait speed (P=0.03). Interventions to reduce post-TKA knee swelling may be indicated to improve quadriceps strength and gait speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cooling during inter-exercise periods on subsequent intramuscular water movement and muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, O; Otsuka, S; Fukubayashi, T

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of cooling between exercise sessions on intramuscular water movement and muscle performance, the lower extremities of nine untrained men were assigned to either a cooling protocol (20-min water immersion, 15 °C) or a noncooling protocol. Each subject performed two exercise sessions involving maximal concentric knee extension and flexion (three repetitions, 60°/s; followed by 50 repetitions, 180°/s). The peak torque at 60°/s and total work, mean power, and decrease rate of torque value at 180°/s were evaluated. Axial magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of the mid-thigh were obtained before and after each exercise session. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for the quadriceps and hamstrings were calculated for evaluating intramuscular water movement. Both groups exhibited significantly increased ADC values for the quadriceps and hamstrings after each exercise session. These ADC values returned to the pre-exercise level after water immersion. No significant difference was observed in muscle performance from first exercise session to the next in either group, except for increased total work and mean power in knee flexion in the cooled group. Cooling intervention between exercise sessions decreased exercise-induced elevation of intramuscular water movement and had some beneficial effects on muscle endurance of knee flexors, but not knee extensors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oxidative Stress and COPD: The Impact of Oral Antioxidants on Skeletal Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Groot, H. Jonathan; Van Reese; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Oxidative stress may contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study sought to determine the effect of an acute oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC: vitamins C, E, and alpha-lipoic acid) on skeletal muscle function during dynamic quadriceps exercise in COPD. METHODS Ten patients with COPD performed knee extensor exercise to exhaustion and isotime trials following either the AOC or placebo (PL). Pre- to post-exercise changes in quadriceps maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and potentiated twitch forces (Qtw,pot) quantified quadriceps fatigue. RESULTS Under PL conditions, the plasma electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy signal was inversely correlated with the forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC), an index of lung dysfunction (r=−0.61, p=0.02), and MVC force (r=−0.56, p=0.04). AOC consumption increased plasma ascorbate levels (10.1±2.2 to 24.1±3.8 ug/ml, p<0.05) and attenuated the area under the curve of the EPR spectroscopy free radical signal (11.6±3.7 to 4.8±2.2 AU, p<0.05), but did not alter endurance time or quadriceps fatigue. The ability of the AOC to decrease the EPR spectroscopy signal, however, was prominent in those with high basal free radicals (n=5, PL: 19.7±5.8 to AOC: 5.8±4.5 AU, p<0.05) with minimal effects in those with low levels (n=5, PL: 1.6±0.5 to AOC: 3.4±1.1 AU). DISCUSSION These data document a relationship between directly measured free radicals and lung dysfunction, and the ability of the AOC to decrease oxidative stress in COPD. Acute amelioration of free radicals, however, does not appear to impact dynamic quadriceps exercise performance. PMID:23299763

  16. The Effects of Knee Joint Effusion on Quadriceps Electromyography During Jogging

    PubMed Central

    Torry, Michael R.; Decker, Michael J.; Millett, Peter J.; Steadman, J. Richard; Sterett, William I.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate and describe the influence of intra-articular effusion on knee joint kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) profiles during jogging. Thirteen individuals underwent a 20 cc 0.9% saline insufflation of the knee joint capsule and completed 8 jogging trials. Stance phase, sagittal plane knee joint kinematics and thigh muscular EMG profiles were compared pre- and post-insufflation utilizing a paired t-test ( = 0.05). Mild knee effusion caused a reduction in vastus medialis (p = 0.005) and lateralis (p = 0.006) EMG activity. The rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstring muscles did not exhibit changes due to this protocol. There were no changes in the sagittal plane knee joint kinematic pattern. Twenty cc effusion can cause quadriceps inhibition in the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis in otherwise healthy individuals during jogging. This study provides baseline data for the effects of mild knee joint effusion on thigh musculature during jogging. Key Points 20 cc of knee effusion can cause vastus medialis and lateralis inhibition as noted by decreases in EMG amplitude. This effusion does not appear to alter sagittal plane knee joint kinematics during jogging. This finding if different from previous work investigating knee joint kinematic changes during a less dynamic activity (gait) with 20 cc of effusion. PMID:24431955

  17. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  18. Repair of insertional achilles tendinosis with a bone-quadriceps tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Rémi; Wegrzyn, Julien; Grosclaude, Sophie; Besse, Jean Luc

    2010-09-01

    While conservative treatment may be successful in most cases, partial rupture at the calcaneal insertion point is a significant concern with insertional Achilles tendinopathy. We report on the outcomes of a surgical technique for Achilles tendon augmentation using a bone-tendon graft harvested from the knee extensor system. Our retrospective case series includes 25 surgical procedures performed in 24 patients, 19 males and five females, with a mean age of 47 (range, 30 to 59) years, 18 of whom were athletes. The mean followup period was 52 (range, 12 to 156) months. All patients underwent MRI examination prior to surgery which showed partial Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was debrided through a posterolateral approach. The bone-quadriceps tendon graft was harvested, then the bone plug of the graft was inserted into a blind tunnel drilled into the calcaneus and fixed with an interference screw. The fibers of the quadriceps tendon were sutured to the residual part of the Achilles tendon with the foot at an angle of 90 degrees. Patients were able to resume their sporting activity after an average of 6.7 months. At last followup examination, physical activity was scored 5.2 on the 10-point Tegner Scale; the mean AOFAS score was 98.4. MRI examination showed good graft integration 1 year postoperatively. The bone-quadriceps tendon grafting technique was a good alternative for the insertional Achilles lesions with partial detachment which we felt required augmentation.

  19. Restoring voluntary control of locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Rubia; Heutschi, Janine; Barraud, Quentin; DiGiovanna, Jack; Bartholdi, Kay; Huerlimann, Michèle; Friedli, Lucia; Vollenweider, Isabel; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Duis, Simone; Dominici, Nadia; Micera, Silvestro; Musienko, Pavel; Courtine, Grégoire

    2012-06-01

    Half of human spinal cord injuries lead to chronic paralysis. Here, we introduce an electrochemical neuroprosthesis and a robotic postural interface designed to encourage supraspinally mediated movements in rats with paralyzing lesions. Despite the interruption of direct supraspinal pathways, the cortex regained the capacity to transform contextual information into task-specific commands to execute refined locomotion. This recovery relied on the extensive remodeling of cortical projections, including the formation of brainstem and intraspinal relays that restored qualitative control over electrochemically enabled lumbosacral circuitries. Automated treadmill-restricted training, which did not engage cortical neurons, failed to promote translesional plasticity and recovery. By encouraging active participation under functional states, our training paradigm triggered a cortex-dependent recovery that may improve function after similar injuries in humans.

  20. Noninvasive detection of change in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Guodong; Li, Pengcheng

    2003-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a non-invasive method to assess O2 delivery, O2 consumption and blood flow, in diverse local muscle groups at rest and during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate local O2 consumption in exercising muscle by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Ten elite athletes of different sport items were tested in rest and during step incremental load exercise. Local variations of quadriceps muscles were investigated with our wireless NIRS blood oxygen monitor system. The results show that the changes of blood oxygen relate on the sport items, type of muscle, kinetic capacity et al. These results indicate that NIRS is a potential useful tool to detect local muscle oxygenation and blood flow profiles; therefore it might be easily applied for evaluating the effect of athletes training.

  1. Effect of a lateral step-up exercise protocol on quadriceps and lower extremity performance.

    PubMed

    Worrell, T W; Borchert, B; Erner, K; Fritz, J; Leerar, P

    1993-12-01

    Closed kinetic chain exercises have been promoted as more functional and more appropriate than open kinetic chain exercises. Limited research exists demonstrating the effect of closed kinetic chain exercise on quadriceps and lower extremity performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a lateral step-up exercise protocol on isokinetic quadriceps peak torque and the following lower extremity activities: 1) leg press, 2) maximal step-up repetitions with body weight plus 25%, 3) hop for distance, and 4) 6-m timed hop. Twenty subjects participated in a 4-week training period, and 18 subjects served as controls. For the experimental group, a repeated measure ANOVA comparing pretest and posttest values revealed significant improvements in the leg press (p < or = .05), step-ups (p < or = .05), hop for distance (p < or = .05), and hop for time (p < or = .05) and no significant increase in isokinetic quadriceps peak torque (p > or = .05). Over the course of the training period, weight used for the step-up exercise increased (p < or = .05), repetitions decreased (p < or = .05), and step-up work did not change (p > or = .05). For the control group, no significant change (p > or = .05) occurred in any variable. The inability of the isokinetic dynamometer to detect increases in quadriceps performance is important because the isokinetic values are frequently used as criteria for return to functional activities. We conclude that closed kinetic chain testing and exercise provide additional means to assess and rehabilitate the lower extremity.

  2. Influence of complete spinal cord injury on skeletal muscle within 6 mo of injury.

    PubMed

    Castro, M J; Apple, D F; Staron, R S; Campos, G E; Dudley, G A

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the influence of spinal cord injury (SCI) on affected skeletal muscle. The right vastus lateralis muscle was biopsied in 12 patients as soon as they were clinically stable (average 6 wk after SCI), and 11 and 24 wk after injury. Samples were also taken from nine able-bodied controls at two time points 18 wk apart. Surface electrical stimulation (ES) was applied to the left quadriceps femoris muscle to assess fatigue at these same time intervals. Biopsies were analyzed for fiber type percent and cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type-specific succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities, and myosin heavy chain percent. Controls showed no change in any variable over time. Patients showed 27-56% atrophy (P = 0.000) of type I, IIa, and IIax+IIx fibers from 6 to 24 wk after injury, resulting in fiber CSA approximately one-third that of controls. Their fiber type specific SDH and GPDH activities increased (P muscle shows marked fiber atrophy, no change in the proportion of type I fibers, and a relative independence of metabolic enzyme levels from activation during the first 24 wk after clinically complete SCI. Over this time, quadriceps femoris muscle showed moderately greater force loss during ES in patients than in controls. It is suggested that the predominant response of mixed human skeletal muscle within 6 mo of SCI is loss of contractile protein. Therapeutic interventions could take advantage of this to increase

  3. Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance: effects of ballistic vs controlled contractions.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-02-01

    The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: lowmuscles ballistic contractions with medium load showed similar EMG amplitude as controlled contractions with high load. At flexed knee joint positions with elastic resistance, quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude during medium-load ballistic contractions exceeded that recorded during high-load controlled contractions. Quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude increased at flexed knee positions. In contrast, hamstrings EMG amplitude remained constant throughout ROM during dumbbell lunge, but increased at more extended knee joint positions during lunges using elastic resistance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that lunges performed using medium-load ballistic muscle contractions may induce similar or even higher leg muscle activity than lunges using high-load slow-speed contractions. Consequently, lunges using elastic resistance appear to be equally effective in inducing high leg muscle activity as traditional lunges using isoinertial resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Residual Upper Arm Motor Function Primes Innervation of Paretic Forearm Muscles in Chronic Stroke after Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) Training

    PubMed Central

    Curado, Marco Rocha; Cossio, Eliana Garcia; Broetz, Doris; Agostini, Manuel; Cho, Woosang; Brasil, Fabricio Lima; Yilmaz, Oezge; Liberati, Giulia; Lepski, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal upper arm-forearm muscle synergies after stroke are poorly understood. We investigated whether upper arm function primes paralyzed forearm muscles in chronic stroke patients after Brain-Machine Interface (BMI)-based rehabilitation. Shaping upper arm-forearm muscle synergies may support individualized motor rehabilitation strategies. Methods Thirty-two chronic stroke patients with no active finger extensions were randomly assigned to experimental or sham groups and underwent daily BMI training followed by physiotherapy during four weeks. BMI sessions included desynchronization of ipsilesional brain activity and a robotic orthosis to move the paretic limb (experimental group, n = 16). In the sham group (n = 16) orthosis movements were random. Motor function was evaluated with electromyography (EMG) of forearm extensors, and upper arm and hand Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores. Patients performed distinct upper arm (e.g., shoulder flexion) and hand movements (finger extensions). Forearm EMG activity significantly higher during upper arm movements as compared to finger extensions was considered facilitation of forearm EMG activity. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test inter-session reliability of facilitation of forearm EMG activity. Results Facilitation of forearm EMG activity ICC ranges from 0.52 to 0.83, indicating fair to high reliability before intervention in both limbs. Facilitation of forearm muscles is higher in the paretic as compared to the healthy limb (p<0.001). Upper arm FMA scores predict facilitation of forearm muscles after intervention in both groups (significant correlations ranged from R = 0.752, p = 0.002 to R = 0.779, p = 0.001), but only in the experimental group upper arm FMA scores predict changes in facilitation of forearm muscles after intervention (R = 0.709, p = 0.002; R = 0.827, p<0.001). Conclusions Residual upper arm motor function primes recruitment of paralyzed forearm muscles in chronic stroke

  5. Residual Upper Arm Motor Function Primes Innervation of Paretic Forearm Muscles in Chronic Stroke after Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) Training.

    PubMed

    Curado, Marco Rocha; Cossio, Eliana Garcia; Broetz, Doris; Agostini, Manuel; Cho, Woosang; Brasil, Fabricio Lima; Yilmaz, Oezge; Liberati, Giulia; Lepski, Guilherme; Birbaumer, Niels; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal upper arm-forearm muscle synergies after stroke are poorly understood. We investigated whether upper arm function primes paralyzed forearm muscles in chronic stroke patients after Brain-Machine Interface (BMI)-based rehabilitation. Shaping upper arm-forearm muscle synergies may support individualized motor rehabilitation strategies. Thirty-two chronic stroke patients with no active finger extensions were randomly assigned to experimental or sham groups and underwent daily BMI training followed by physiotherapy during four weeks. BMI sessions included desynchronization of ipsilesional brain activity and a robotic orthosis to move the paretic limb (experimental group, n = 16). In the sham group (n = 16) orthosis movements were random. Motor function was evaluated with electromyography (EMG) of forearm extensors, and upper arm and hand Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores. Patients performed distinct upper arm (e.g., shoulder flexion) and hand movements (finger extensions). Forearm EMG activity significantly higher during upper arm movements as compared to finger extensions was considered facilitation of forearm EMG activity. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test inter-session reliability of facilitation of forearm EMG activity. Facilitation of forearm EMG activity ICC ranges from 0.52 to 0.83, indicating fair to high reliability before intervention in both limbs. Facilitation of forearm muscles is higher in the paretic as compared to the healthy limb (p<0.001). Upper arm FMA scores predict facilitation of forearm muscles after intervention in both groups (significant correlations ranged from R = 0.752, p = 0.002 to R = 0.779, p = 0.001), but only in the experimental group upper arm FMA scores predict changes in facilitation of forearm muscles after intervention (R = 0.709, p = 0.002; R = 0.827, p<0.001). Residual upper arm motor function primes recruitment of paralyzed forearm muscles in chronic stroke patients and predicts changes in their

  6. Yacht type and crew-specific differences in anthropometric, aerobic capacity, and muscle strength parameters among international Olympic class sailors.

    PubMed

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Larsson, Benny; Magnusson, S Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2007-08-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance factors for Olympic class sailors, but the physical demands vary greatly between yacht classes, and limited information is available regarding the physical demands for the different crew positions. In the present paper, strength and aerobic capacity data from elite Olympic sailors are presented and compared with previous findings. Furthermore, a system for classification of Olympic class sailors is suggested. Peak aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake, VO(2peak)) and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors were assessed, together with the hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q ratio). Peak aerobic capacity (ml O(2) . min(-1) . kg(-2/3)) was as follows: males - static hikers (n = 5) 215, s = 7; dynamic hikers (n = 8) 252, s = 17; trapezing helmsmen (n = 6) 234, s = 15; trapezing crew (n = 10) 239, s = 16; females - dynamic hikers (n = 6) 194, s = 16; trapezing crew (n = 2) 200, s = 13. Strength data for hikers, presented as peak moments (normalized to body weight) obtained during eccentric, isometric, and concentric contraction (Nm . kg(-1)) respectively were as follows: males - quadriceps: 3.66 (s = 0.68), 3.97 (s = 0.66), 1.82 (s = 0.34); hamstrings: 1.93 (s = 0.22), 1.38 (s = 0.41), 1.05 (s = 0.21); females - quadriceps: 3.84 (s = 0.71), 3.81 (s = 0.58), 1.60 (s = 0.28); hamstrings: 1.75 (s = 0.23), 1.10 (s = 0.16), 0.84 (s = 0.13). The peak moment based H/Q ratios for slow eccentric and concentric contractions were 0.42 (s = 0.11) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for males and 0.43 (s = 0.06) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for females respectively. Elite Olympic class sailors demonstrated high VO(2peak) values comparable to those observed in other non-endurance sports. The strength data revealed very high quadriceps strength for hikers, which is likely a result of the high muscle forces encountered during sailing, and a low H/Q ratio. To ensure optimal knee joint stabilization

  7. Electrical stimulation modulates Wnt signaling and regulates genes for the motor endplate and calcium binding in muscle of rats with spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in muscle atrophy and a shift of slow oxidative to fast glycolytic fibers. Electrical stimulation (ES) at least partially restores muscle mass and fiber type distribution. The objective of this study was to was to characterize the early molecular adaptations that occur in rat soleus muscle after initiating isometric resistance exercise by ES for one hour per day for 1, 3 or 7 days when ES was begun 16 weeks after SCI. Additionally, changes in mRNA levels after ES were compared with those induced in soleus at the same time points after gastrocnemius tenotomy (GA). Results ES increased expression of Hey1 and Pitx2 suggesting increased Notch and Wnt signaling, respectively, but did not normalize RCAN1.4, a measure of calcineurin/NFAT signaling, or PGC-1ß mRNA levels. ES increased PGC-1α expression but not that of slow myofibrillar genes. Microarray analysis showed that after ES, genes coding for calcium binding proteins and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were increased, and the expression of genes involved in blood vessel formation and morphogenesis was altered. Of the 165 genes altered by ES only 16 were also differentially expressed after GA, of which 12 were altered in the same direction by ES and GA. In contrast to ES, GA induced expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions Notch and Wnt signaling may be involved in ES-induced increases in the mass of paralyzed muscle. Molecular adaptations of paralyzed soleus to resistance exercise are delayed or defective compared to normally innervated muscle. PMID:23914941

  8. Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renata; Caram, Laura M O; Faganello, Marcia M; Sanchez, Fernanda F; Tanni, Suzana E; Godoy, Irma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years) with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] =54%±23%) were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT); midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA) and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA) were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001), between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001), and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001). Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (-3.09 [-5.99, -0.18]; P=0.04) and triceps pulley (-1.31 [-2.35, -0.28]; P=0.01), while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (-0.06 [-0.11, -0.01]; P=0.02). Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT) and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles.

  9. Pain level after ACL reconstruction: A comparative study between free quadriceps tendon and hamstring tendons autografts.

    PubMed

    Buescu, Cristian Tudor; Onutu, Adela Hilda; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald; Todor, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels and analgesic consumption after single bundle ACL reconstruction with free quadriceps tendon autograft versus hamstring tendon autograft. A total of 48 patients scheduled for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction were randomized into two groups: the free quadriceps tendon autograft group (24 patients) and the hamstring tendons autograft group (24 patients). A basic multimodal analgesic postoperative program was used for all patients and rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol, at pain scores over 30 on the Visual Analog Scale. The time to the first rescue analgesic, the number of doses of tramadol and pain scores were recorded. The results within the same group were compared with the Wilcoxon signed test. Supplementary analgesic drug administration proved significantly higher in the group of subjects with hamstring grafts, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1.3) dose, compared to the group of subjects treated with a quadriceps graft, median = 0.5 (0.1.25) (p = 0.009). A significantly higher number of subjects with a quadriceps graft did not require any supplementary analgesic drug (50%) as compared with subjects with hamstring graft (13%; Z-statistics = 3.01, p = 0.002). The percentage of subjects who required a supplementary analgesic drug was 38% higher in the HT group compared with the FQT group. The use of the free quadriceps tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction leads to less pain and analgesic consumption in the immediate postoperative period compared with the use of hamstrings autograft. Level I Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations Among Quadriceps Strength and Rate of Torque Development 6 Weeks Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Future Hop and Vertical Jump Performance: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Clark, Ross A; Ho, Jia-Ying

    2017-11-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background Quadriceps strength is associated with hop distance and jump height in persons who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, it is unknown whether the ability to rapidly generate quadriceps torque in the early phase of recovery is associated with future hopping and jumping performance in this population. Objective To evaluate the prospective associations among quadriceps strength and rate of torque development (RTD) and single-leg hop for distance, vertical jump height, vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), and vertical force loading rate during a landing task in persons who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Methods Seventy patients with unilateral ACL reconstruction participated. At 6 weeks post ACL reconstruction, isometric quadriceps strength and RTD were measured using a dynamometer. At 6 months following ACL reconstruction, patients performed the single-leg hop for distance test. Patients also performed the single-leg vertical jump test on a force plate that measured maximum jump height, vGRF, and average loading rate during landing. Results Both quadriceps strength and RTD at 6 weeks post ACL reconstruction were associated with all hopping and jumping measures at 6 months post ACL reconstruction (P≤.04). Single-leg hop distance was associated more closely with quadriceps strength than with quadriceps RTD (P = .05), and vertical jump height and vGRF measures were associated more closely with quadriceps RTD than with quadriceps strength (P = .05 and P<.01, respectively). Both quadriceps measures were associated with loading rate. Conclusion Quadriceps strength and RTD are complementary but distinct predictors of future hopping and jumping performance in persons who have undergone ACL reconstruction. These findings may contribute to improved rehabilitation of patients who are at risk for poor jumping/hopping performance and abnormal knee loading. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017

  11. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise.

    PubMed

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-04-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t -test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles ( P <0.05). The decreased Gmax/ES ratio was significantly related to peak knee extension angle in downward ( r =0.687) and upward motions ( r =0.753) ( P <0.05). These findings indicate the importance of synergistic muscles and trunk muscles coactivation in eccentric and concentric hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk.

  12. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise

    PubMed Central

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21–36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t-test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles (P<0.05). The decreased Gmax/ES ratio was significantly related to peak knee extension angle in downward (r=0.687) and upward motions (r=0.753) (P<0.05). These findings indicate the importance of synergistic muscles and trunk muscles coactivation in eccentric and concentric hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk. PMID:29740557

  13. Mechanical Characteristics of Reflex Durign Upright Posture in Paralyzed Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Lee, Bumsuk; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Hyeonki

    The characteristics of flexor reflexes have been investigated in the previous studies with human subjects who were seated or supine position. However, researchers did not describe how the spinal circuits are used in different hip angles for paralyzed subjects, such as the standing position with walker or cane. In upright posture the compatibility between a flexor reflex of leg and body balance is a special problem for lower limb injured subjects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hip angle change on the flexor reflex evoked in standing paralyzed subjects supported by walker. In this study, six spinal cord injured and four stroke subjects were recruited through the inpatient physical therapy clinics of Korea national rehabilitation hospital. A single axis electronic goniometer was mounted on the lateral side of the hip joint of the impaired limb to record movements in the sagittal plane at this joint. The electronic goniometer was connected to a data acquisition system, through amplifiers to a computer. Since subject' posture influenced characteristics of the flexion reflex response, the subjects were supported in an upright posture by the help of parallelogram walder. Two series of tests were performed on each leg. The first series of the tests investigated the influence of hip angle during stationary standing posture on flexion reflex response. The hip angle was adjusted by the foot plate. The second examined the effect of the voluntary action of subject on swing motion during the gait. The electrically induced flexion reflex simultaneously produced the flexion of the hip, knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle enabling the swing phase of walking. Form the experimental results we observed that the reflex response of hip joint was largerwith the hip in the extended position than in the flexed position during standing posture. Under voluntary movement on flexion reflex during gaint, the peak hip angle induced by stimulation was

  14. Manual therapy directed at the knee or lumbopelvic region does not influence quadriceps spinal reflex excitability.

    PubMed

    Grindstaff, Terry L; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Sauer, Lindsay D; Kerrigan, D Casey; Patrie, James T; Hertel, Jay; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Manual therapies, directed to the knee and lumbopelvic region, have demonstrated the ability to improve neuromuscular quadriceps function in individuals with knee pathology. It remains unknown if manual therapies may alter impaired spinal reflex excitability, thus identifying a potential mechanism in which manual therapy may improve neuromuscular function following knee injury. To determine the effect of local and distant mobilisation/manipulation interventions on quadriceps spinal reflex excitability. Seventy-five individuals with a history of knee joint injury and current quadriceps inhibition volunteered for this study. Participants were randomised to one of five intervention groups: lumbopelvic manipulation (grade V), lumbopelvic manipulation positioning (no thrust), grade IV patellar mobilisation, grade I patellar mobilisation, and control (no treatment). Changes in spinal reflex excitability were quantified by assessing the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), presynaptic, and postsynaptic excitability. A hierarchical linear-mixed model for repeated measures was performed to compare changes in outcome variables between groups over time (pre, post 0, 30, 60, 90 min). There were no significant differences in H-reflex, presynaptic, or postsynaptic excitability between groups across time. Manual therapies directed to the knee or lumbopelvic region did not acutely change quadriceps spinal reflex excitability. Although manual therapies may improve impairments and functional outcomes the underlying mechanism does not appear to be related to changes in spinal reflex excitability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intraoperative muscle electrical stimulation for accurate positioning of the temporalis muscle tendon during dynamic, one-stage lengthening temporalis myoplasty for facial and lip reanimation.

    PubMed

    Har-Shai, Yaron; Gil, Tamir; Metanes, Issa; Labbé, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Facial paralysis is a significant functional and aesthetic handicap. Facial reanimation is performed either by two-stage microsurgical methods or by regional one-stage muscle pedicle flaps. Labbé has modified and improved the regional muscle pedicle transfer flaps for facial reanimation (i.e., the lengthening temporalis myoplasty procedure). This true myoplasty technique is capable of producing a coordinated, spontaneous, and symmetrical smile. An intraoperative electrical stimulation of the temporal muscle is proposed to simulate the smile of the paralyzed side on the surgical table. The intraoperative electrical stimulation of the temporalis muscle, employing direct percutaneous electrode needles or transcutaneous electrical stimulation electrodes, was utilized in 11 primary and four secondary cases with complete facial palsy. The duration of the facial paralysis was up to 12 years. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. The insertion points of the temporalis muscle tendon to the nasolabial fold, upper lip, and oral commissure had been changed according to the intraoperative muscle stimulation in six patients of the 11 primary cases (55 percent) and in all four secondary (revisional) cases. A coordinated, spontaneous, and symmetrical smile was achieved in all patients by 3 months after surgery by employing speech therapy and biofeedback. This adjunct intraoperative refinement provides crucial feedback for the surgeon in both primary and secondary facial palsy cases regarding the vector of action of the temporalis muscle and the accuracy of the anchoring points of its tendon, thus enhancing a more coordinated and symmetrical smile.

  16. Modulation of Isometric Quadriceps Strength in Soccer Players With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Valentine Z; Baptista, Abrahão F; Pereira, Guilherme O C; Pochini, Alberto C; Ejnisman, Benno; Santos, Marcelo B; João, Silvia M A; Hazime, Fuad A

    2018-05-01

    Vargas, VZ, Baptista, AF, Pereira, GOC, Pochini, AC, Ejnisman, B, Santos, MB, João, SMA, and Hazime, FA. Modulation of isometric quadriceps strength in soccer players with transcranial direct current stimulation: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1336-1341, 2018-The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the maximum isometric muscle contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors in soccer players at the preprofessional level. Twenty female soccer players aged 15-17 years (mean = 16.1; SD = 0.9) with 5.2 ± 2.6 years of training were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive either active or sham tDCS in a single session (2 mA; 0.057 mA·cm). The MVIC of the knee extensors was evaluated in both lower limbs by manual dynamometry in 5 sets of contractions divided into 4 blocks: (a) prestimulation, (b) during tDCS, (c) 30 minutes after tDCS, and (d) 60 minutes after tDCS. After an interval of 7 days, the groups were evaluated again, and the type of initial stimulation was inverted between participants. The MVIC of the knee extensors increased significantly during active tDCS (dominant limb (DL) = 0.4; IC = 0.1-0.8 N·Kg), 30 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 0.9; IC 0.4-1.4 N·Kg), and 60 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 1.0; IC 0.3-1.6 N·Kg) but not for sham tDCS. Our conclusion was that tDCS temporarily increases isometric quadriceps strength in adolescent female soccer players, which may be useful for both strength training and rehabilitation.

  17. Towards evidence based strength training: a comparison of muscle forces during deadlifts, goodmornings and split squats.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Florian; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    To ensure an efficient and targeted adaptation with low injury risk during strength exercises, knowledge of the participant specific internal loading conditions is essential. The goal of this study was to calculate the lower limb muscles forces during the strength exercises deadlifts, goodmornings and splits squats by means of musculoskeletal simulation. 11 participants were assessed performing 10 different variations of split squats by varying the step length as well as the maximal frontal tibia angle, and 13 participants were measured performing deadlift and goodmorning exercises. Using individualised musculoskeletal models, forces of the Quadriceps ( four parts), Hamstrings (four parts) and m. gluteus maximus (three parts) were computed. Deadlifts resulted highest loading for the Quadriceps, especially for the vasti (18-34 N/kg), but not for the rectus femoris (8-10 N/kg), which exhibited its greatest loading during split squats (13-27 N/kg) in the rear limb. Hamstrings were loaded isometrically during goodmornings but dynamically during deadlifts. For the m. gluteus maximus , the highest loading was observed during split squats in the front limb (up to 25 N/kg), while deadlifts produced increasingly, large loading over large ranges of motion in hip and knee. Acting muscle forces vary between exercises, execution form and joint angle. For all examined muscles, deadlifts produced considerable loading over large ranges of motion, while split squats seem to be highly dependent upon exercise variation. This study provides key information to design strength-training programs with respect to loading conditions and ranges of motion of lower extremity muscles.

  18. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Whiteley, Rodney; Tol, Johannes L; Kumar, Bhavesh D; Hamilton, Bruce; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-07-01

    A hamstring strain injury (HSI) has become the most common noncontact injury in soccer. Isokinetic muscle strength deficits are considered a risk factor for HSIs. However, underpowered studies with small sample sizes unable to determine small associations have led to inconclusive results regarding the role of isokinetic strength and strength testing in HSIs. To examine whether differences in isokinetic strength measures of knee flexion and extension represent risk factors for hamstring injuries in a large cohort of professional soccer players in an adequately powered study design. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 614 professional soccer players from 14 teams underwent isokinetic strength testing during preseason screening. Testing consisted of concentric knee flexion and extension at 60 deg/s and 300 deg/s and eccentric knee extension at 60 deg/s. A clustered multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with the risk of HSIs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity. Of the 614 players, 190 suffered an HSI during the 4 seasons. Quadriceps concentric strength at 60 deg/s (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92; P = .03) and hamstring eccentric strength at 60 deg/s (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.85; P = .04) adjusted for bodyweight were independently associated with the risk of injuries. The absolute differences between the injured and uninjured players were 6.9 N·m and 9.1 N·m, with small effect sizes (d < 0.2). The ROC analyses showed an area under the curve of 0.54 and 0.56 for quadriceps concentric strength and hamstring eccentric strength, respectively, indicating a failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the 2 strength variables identified in the logistic regression models. This study identified small absolute strength differences and a wide overlap of the absolute strength measurements at the group level. The small associations between lower

  19. Effects of stretching and fatigue on peak torque, muscle imbalance, and stability.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pablo B; Ruas, Cassio V; Smith, Cory M

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the acute effects of hamstrings stretching and fatigue on knee extension and flexion peak torque (PT), hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and postural stability. Seventeen women (mean±SD age=21.8±2.1 years; body mass=63.0±10.5 kg; height=164.7±6.2 cm) and eighteen men (25.8±4.6 years; 83.6±13.2 kg; 175.3±6.0 cm) took part in three laboratory visits. The first visit was a familiarization session, and the subsequent two visits were randomly assigned as a control or stretching condition. For the testing visits, subjects performed a postural stability assessment, stretched (or sat quietly during the control condition), performed a 50-repetition unilateral isokinetic fatigue protocol, and repeated the postural stability assessment. There were no significant differences between control and stretching conditions for initial quadriceps and hamstrings PT, initial H:Q ratio, quadriceps and hamstrings PT fatigue indexes, H:Q ratio Fatigue Index, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), or postural stability (P>0.05). When analyzing 5 intervals of 10 repetitions, significant declines in quadriceps PT were found in all intervals for both conditions (P<0.05). However, a decline in hamstrings PT was only found until the fourth interval (i.e., repetitions 31 to 40) for the stretching condition (P<0.05). Stretching the hamstrings immediately prior to long-duration activities may eventually cause adverse effects in force-generating capacity of this muscle group to occur earlier when fatiguing tasks are involved. Nevertheless, no changes were found for the H:Q ratios after stretching when compared to no-stretching.

  20. Clinical management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with muscle dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Carme; Pascual, Sergi; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Muscle dysfunction is frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contributing to their exercise limitation and a worsening prognosis. The main factor leading to limb muscle dysfunction is deconditioning, whereas respiratory muscle dysfunction is mostly the result of pulmonary hyperinflation. However, both limb and respiratory muscles are also influenced by other negative factors, including smoking, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exacerbations and some drugs. Limb muscle weakness is generally diagnosed through voluntary isometric maneuvers such as handgrip or quadriceps muscle contraction (dynamometry); while respiratory muscle loss of strength is usually recognized through a decrease in maximal static pressures measured at the mouth. Both types of measurements have validated reference values. Respiratory muscle strength can also be evaluated determining esophageal, gastric and transdiaphragmatic maximal pressures although there is a lack of widely accepted reference equations. Non-volitional maneuvers, obtained through electrical or magnetic stimulation, can be employed in patients unable to cooperate. Muscle endurance can also be assessed, generally using repeated submaximal maneuvers until exhaustion, but no validated reference values are available yet. The treatment of muscle dysfunction is multidimensional and includes improvement in lifestyle habits (smoking abstinence, healthy diet and a good level of physical activity, preferably outside), nutritional measures (diet supplements and occasionally, anabolic drugs), and different modalities of general and muscle training. PMID:28066619

  1. Quadricep and hamstring activation during drop jumps with changes in drop height.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsien-Te; Kernozek, Thomas W; Song, Chen-Yi

    2011-08-01

    Compare the muscle activation patterns of the quadricep-hamstring during drop jumps with increasing demands of drop heights. Observational. University biomechanics laboratory. Fifteen male and eight female college physical education students. Electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) during the landing and takeoff phase of drop jumps from 20 to 60-cm heights. The ground contact time, vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), knee flexion angle during ground contact, and jump height after takeoff were also analyzed. The activation of RF was higher in the drop jump from 60-cm than that from 20- and 30-cm (comparing 107.0 ± 45.9 to 82.3 ± 30.8 and 88.9 ± 38.9 %MVIC, P<.05) during the landing phase. Activation of BF remained similar across all drop heights. Drop jump from 60-cm resulted in greater contact time during takeoff phase and peak vGRF, and resulted in greater maximum knee flexion but straighter knee at ground contact than from lower drop heights. At drop height of 60-cm, the altered knee muscular activation and movement patterns may diminish the effectiveness of plyometric training and increase the potential injury risk of knee. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Skeletal muscle damage and impaired regeneration due to LPL-mediated lipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tamilarasan, K P; Temmel, H; Das, S K; Al Zoughbi, W; Schauer, S; Vesely, P W; Hoefler, G

    2012-01-01

    According to the concept of lipotoxicity, ectopic accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissue induces pathological changes. The most prominent effects are seen in fatty liver disease, lipid cardiomyopathy, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and skeletal muscle myopathy. We used the MCK(m)-hLPL mouse distinguished by skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific human lipoprotein lipase (hLPL) overexpression to investigate effects of lipid overload in skeletal muscle. We were intrigued to find that ectopic lipid accumulation induced proteasomal activity, apoptosis and skeletal muscle damage. In line with these findings we observed reduced Musculus gastrocnemius and Musculus quadriceps mass in transgenic animals, accompanied by severely impaired physical endurance. We suggest that muscle loss was aggravated by impaired muscle regeneration as evidenced by reduced cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after cardiotoxin-induced injury in MCK(m)-hLPL mice. Similarly, an almost complete loss of myogenic potential was observed in C2C12 murine myoblasts upon overexpression of LPL. Our findings directly link lipid overload to muscle damage, impaired regeneration and loss of performance. These findings support the concept of lipotoxicity and are a further step to explain pathological effects seen in muscle of obese patients, patients with the metabolic syndrome and patients with cancer-associated cachexia. PMID:22825472

  3. Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated with Satellite Cell Numbers and Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type IIB Receptor Inhibition in Mtm1 p.R69C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Michael W.; Viola, Marissa G.; Meng, Hui; Edelstein, Rachel V.; Liu, Fujun; Yan, Ke; Luna, Elizabeth J.; Lerch-Gaggl, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Pierson, Christopher R.; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Pearsall, Scott; Yang, Lin; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1δ4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and histological evidence of hypertrophy in gastrocnemius muscles but not in quadriceps or triceps. The ability of the muscles to respond to activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment correlated with treatment-induced increases in satellite cell number and several muscle-specific abnormalities of hypertrophic signaling. Treatment-responsive Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscles displayed lower levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 and higher levels of phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase than were observed in Mtm1 p.R69C quadriceps muscle or in muscles from wild-type littermates. Hypertrophy in the Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscle was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6. Our findings indicate that muscle-, fiber type-, and mutation-specific factors affect the response to hypertrophic therapies that will be important to assess in future therapeutic trials. PMID:24726641

  4. Uncoupling nicotine mediated motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors and muscle degeneration in zebrafish

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Welsh, Lillian; Tanguay, Robert L.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    Zebrafish embryos offer a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms by which nicotine exposure impacts early vertebrate development. Embryos exposed to nicotine become functionally paralyzed by 42 hpf suggesting that the neuromuscular system is compromised in exposed embryos. We previously demonstrated that secondary spinal motoneurons in nicotine-exposed embryos were delayed in development and that their axons made pathfinding errors (Svoboda, K.R., Vijayaraghaven, S., Tanguay, R.L., 2002. Nicotinic receptors mediate changes in spinal motoneuron development and axonal pathfinding in embryonic zebrafish exposed to nicotine. J. Neurosci. 22, 10731-10741). In that study, we did not consider the potential role that altered skeletalmore » muscle development caused by nicotine exposure could play in contributing to the errors in spinal motoneuron axon pathfinding. In this study, we show that an alteration in skeletal muscle development occurs in tandem with alterations in spinal motoneuron development upon exposure to nicotine. The alteration in the muscle involves the binding of nicotine to the muscle-specific AChRs. The nicotine-induced alteration in muscle development does not occur in the zebrafish mutant (sofa potato, [sop]), which lacks muscle-specific AChRs. Even though muscle development is unaffected by nicotine exposure in sop mutants, motoneuron axonal pathfinding errors still occur in these mutants, indicating a direct effect of nicotine exposure on nervous system development.« less

  5. Compression Garments, Muscle Contractile Function, and Economy in Trail Runners.

    PubMed

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Gruet, Mathieu; Colson, Serge S; Ehrstrom, Sabine; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2017-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms behind the use of compression garments (CGs) during off-road running are unknown. To investigate the influence of wearing CGs vs conventional running clothing (CON) on muscle contractile function and running economy before and after short-distance trail running. Knee-extensor neuromuscular function and running economy assessed from two 5-min treadmill runs (11 and 14 km/h) were evaluated before and after an 18.6-km short-distance trail run in 12 trained athletes wearing either CGs (stocking + short-tight) or CON. Quadriceps neuromuscular function was assessed from mechanical and EMG recording after maximal percutaneous electrical femoral-nerve stimulations (single-twitch doublets at 10 [Db 10 ] and 100 Hz [Db 100 ] delivered at rest and during maximal quadriceps voluntary contraction [MVC]). Running economy (in mL O 2 · km -1 · kg -1 ) increased after trail running independent of the clothing condition and treadmill speeds (P < .001). Similarly, MVC decreased after CON and CGs conditions (-11% and -13%, respectively, P < .001). For both clothing conditions, a significant decrease in quadriceps voluntary activation, Db 10 , Db 100 , and the low-to-high frequency doublet ratio were observed after trail running (time effect, all P < .01), without any changes in rectus femoris maximal M-wave. Wearing CGs does not reduce physiological alterations induced during short-distance trail running. Further studies should determine whether higher intensity of compression pressure during exercises of longer duration may be effective to induce any physiological benefits in experienced trail runners.

  6. Impact of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on muscle healing impaired by systemic corticosteroid application.

    PubMed

    Pevec, Danira; Novinscak, Tomislav; Brcic, Luka; Sipos, Kristijan; Jukic, Ivana; Staresinic, Mario; Mise, Sandro; Brcic, Iva; Kolenc, Danijela; Klicek, Robert; Banic, Tihomir; Sever, Marko; Kocijan, Ana; Berkopic, Lidija; Radic, Bozo; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Zoricic, Ivan; Bojanic, Ivan; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2010-03-01

    The effect of systemic and local peptide treatment effective in muscle contusion and then on counteraction of corticosteroid-induced impairment was tested. The pentadecapeptide BPC 157, given without a carrier, improved the healing of transected quadriceps muscle. It also improved muscle healing in rats with muscle crush injury when applied systemically or locally. Importantly, it counteracted corticosteroid-impairment in tendon to bone healing. Thus BPC 157 is proposed as an effective treatment that can improve muscle healing in spite of corticosteroid treatment. After the gastrocnemius muscle complex had been injured, rats received BPC 157 (intraperitoneally or locally as a cream) and/or 6alpha-methylprednisolone (intraperitoneally) only once (immediately after injury, sacrifice at 2 h) or once daily (final dose 24 hours before sacrifice and/or assessment procedure at days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14). Muscle healing was evaluated functionally, macroscopically, and histologically. Without therapy, crushed gastrocnemius muscle complex controls showed limited improvement. 6alpha-methylprednisolone markedly aggravated healing. In contrast, BPC 157 induced faster muscle healing and full function restoration and improved muscle healing despite systemic corticosteroid treatment when given intraperitoneally or locally and demonstrated functionally, macroscopically, and histologically at all investigated intervals. BPC 157 completely reversed systemic corticosteroid-impaired muscle healing.

  7. Individual muscle segmentation in MR images: A 3D propagation through 2D non-linear registration approaches.

    PubMed

    Ogier, Augustin; Sdika, Michael; Foure, Alexandre; Le Troter, Arnaud; Bendahan, David

    2017-07-01

    Manual and automated segmentation of individual muscles in magnetic resonance images have been recognized as challenging given the high variability of shapes between muscles and subjects and the discontinuity or lack of visible boundaries between muscles. In the present study, we proposed an original algorithm allowing a semi-automatic transversal propagation of manually-drawn masks. Our strategy was based on several ascending and descending non-linear registration approaches which is similar to the estimation of a Lagrangian trajectory applied to manual masks. Using several manually-segmented slices, we have evaluated our algorithm on the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris group. We mainly showed that our 3D propagated segmentation was very accurate with an averaged Dice similarity coefficient value higher than 0.91 for the minimal manual input of only two manually-segmented slices.

  8. Muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squats.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Chemello, Alessandro; Schena, Federico

    2016-12-01

    Muscle damage and repeated bout effect have been studied after pure eccentric-only exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. Thirteen healthy males volunteered for this study. Creatine kinase blood activity (CK), quadriceps isometric peak torque and muscle soreness were used as markers of muscle damage. The dependent parameters were measured at baseline, immediately after and each day up to 96 hours after the exercise session. The intervention consisted of 100 repetitions of enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. The same protocol was repeated after 4 weeks. After the first bout, CK and muscle soreness were significantly greater (P<0.05) than baseline respectively up to 72 and 96 hours. Isometric peak torque was significantly lower (P<0.05) up to 72 hours. After the second bout, CK showed no significant increase (P>0.05), while isometric peak torque and muscle soreness returned to values similar to baseline after respectively 48 and 72 hours. All muscle damage markers were significantly lower after second compared to first bout. The enhanced eccentric exercise induced symptoms of muscle damage up to 96 hours. However, it provided muscle protection after the second bout, performed four weeks later. Although it was not eccentric-only exercise, the enhancement of eccentric phase provided muscle protection.

  9. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as an effective therapy for muscle crush injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Novinscak, Tomislav; Brcic, Luka; Staresinic, Mario; Jukic, Ivana; Radic, Bozo; Pevec, Danira; Mise, Sandro; Tomasovic, Sanja; Brcic, Iva; Banic, Tihomir; Jakir, Ana; Buljat, Gojko; Anic, Tomislav; Zoricic, Ivan; Romic, Zeljko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2008-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 accelerates the healing of a transected Achilles tendon and a transected quadriceps muscle. It may also be of clinical relevance as a systemic and local peptide treatment for crush injury of a major muscle, such as gastrocnemius muscle complex. BPC 157 is effective without a carrier, and it is presently undergoing trials for inflammatory bowel disease, and no toxicity has so far been reported. In crushed rats (force delivered 0.727 Ns/cm2), BPC 157 was applied either intraperitoneally or locally, as a thin cream layer, immediately after injury (sacrifice at 2 h), and once a day for 14 days. BPC 157 improved muscle healing, macroscopically (less hematoma and edema, no post-injury leg contracture), microscopically, functionally, and also based on enzyme activity (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase). BPC 157, at all investigated intervals, given locally or intraperitoneally, accelerated post-injury muscle healing and also helped to restore the full function.

  10. Association of knee confidence with pain, knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Skou, Søren T; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-05-01

    To investigate associations between self-reported knee confidence and pain, self-reported knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 100 participants with symptomatic and radiographic medial tibiofemoral compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment recruited for a randomized controlled trial. The extent of knee confidence, assessed using a 5-point Likert scale item from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, was set as the dependent variable in univariable and multivariable ordinal regression, with pain during walking, self-reported knee instability, quadriceps strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking as independent variables. One percent of the participants were not troubled with lack of knee confidence, 17% were mildly troubled, 50% were moderately troubled, 26% were severely troubled, and 6% were extremely troubled. Significant associations were found between worse knee confidence and higher pain intensity, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion. The multivariable model consisting of the same variables significantly accounted for 24% of the variance in knee confidence (P < 0.001). Worse knee confidence is associated with higher pain, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps muscle strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. Since previous research has shown that worse knee confidence is predictive of functional decline in knee OA, addressing lack of knee confidence by treating these modifiable impairments could represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Matching initial torque with different stimulation parameters influences skeletal muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bickel, C Scott; Gregory, Chris M; Azuero, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental barrier to using electrical stimulation in the clinical setting is an inability to maintain torque production secondary to muscle fatigue. Electrical stimulation parameters are manipulated to influence muscle torque production, and they may also influence fatigability during repetitive stimulation. Our purpose was to determine the response of the quadriceps femoris to three different fatigue protocols using the same initial torque obtained by altering stimulator parameter settings. Participants underwent fatigue protocols in which either pulse frequency (lowHz), pulse duration (lowPD), or voltage (lowV) was manipulated to obtain an initial torque that equaled 25% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Muscle soreness was reported on a visual analog scale 48 h after each fatigue test. The lowHz protocol resulted in the least fatigue (25% +/- 14%); the lowPD (50% +/- 13%) and lowV (48% +/- 14%) protocols had similar levels of fatigue. The lowHz protocol resulted in significantly less muscle soreness than the higher frequency protocols. Stimulation protocols that use a lower frequency coupled with long pulse durations and high voltages result in lesser amounts of muscle fatigue and perceived soreness. The identification of optimal stimulation patterns to maximize muscle performance will reduce the effect of muscle fatigue and potentially improve clinical efficacy.

  12. Exercise capacity, muscle strength and fatigue in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcellis, R G J; Lenssen, A F; Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Kassim, S; Foerster, K; Drent, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the prevalence of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and fatigue in sarcoidosis patients. Additionally, we evaluated whether fatigue can be explained by exercise capacity, muscle strength or other clinical characteristics (lung function tests, radiographic stages, prednisone usage and inflammatory markers). 124 sarcoidosis patients (80 males) referred to the Maastricht University Medical Centre (Maastricht, the Netherlands) were included (mean age 46.6±10.2 yrs). Patients performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and handgrip force (HGF), elbow flexor muscle strength (EFMS), quadriceps peak torque (QPT) and hamstring peak torque (HPT) tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure (P(I,max)) was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) questionnaire. The 6MWT was reduced in 45% of the population, while HGF, EFMS, QPT and HPT muscle strength were reduced in 15, 12, 27 and 18%, respectively. P(I,max) was reduced in 43% of the population. The majority of the patients (81%) reported fatigue (FAS ≥22). Patients with reduced peripheral muscle strength of the upper and/or lower extremities were more fatigued and demonstrated impaired lung functions, fat-free mass, P(I,max), 6MWT and quality of life. Fatigue was neither predicted by exercise capacity, nor by muscle strength. Besides fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness are frequent problems in sarcoidosis. We therefore recommend physical tests in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients, even in nonfatigued patients.

  13. [Selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator for chondromalacia patella].

    PubMed

    Guo, K; Ye, Q; Lin, J; Shen, J; Yang, X

    1996-04-01

    Chondromalacia patella is closely related with subluxation and tilt of patella, as well as with muscular atrophy of quadriceps, especially in vastus medialis muscle. 364 cases of chondromalacia patella were treated with selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator in our hospital. 211 cases were followed up after treatment from 6 months to 3 years. Among them excellent and good results were seen in 130 cases (62%), fair results were seen in 69 cases (33%) and no change was seen in 12 cases (5%). Significant reduction of CA (P < 0.01) and LPA (P < 0.001) were observed in all these patients in comparison with their primary angle. We believe that the selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator is one of the effective methods for the treatment of chondromalacia patella.

  14. Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure (case report and review of the literature).

    PubMed

    Hassani, Zouhir Ameziane; Boufettal, Moncef; Mahfoud, Moustapha; Elyaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the quadriceps tendon are infrequent injuries, it is seen primarily in patients with predisposing diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic renal failure. A 32-year-old man had a history of end stage renal disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 5 years. He was admitted in our service for total functional impotence of the right lower limb with knee pain after a common fall two months ago. The radiogram showed a ''patella baja" with suprapatellar calcifications. The ultrasound and MRI showed an aspect of rupture of the quadriceps tendon in its proximal end with retraction of 3 cm. Quadriceps tendon repair was performed with a lengthening plasty, and the result was satisfactory after a serial rehabilitation program. The diagnosis of quadriceps tendon ruptures needs more attention in patients with predisposing diseases. They should not be unknown because the treatment of neglected lesions is more difficult. We insist on the early surgical repair associated with early rehabilitation that can guarantee recovery of good active extension.

  15. PhcrTx2, a New Crab-Paralyzing Peptide Toxin from the Sea Anemone Phymanthus crucifer

    PubMed Central

    Garateix, Anoland; Salceda, Emilio; Zaharenko, André Junqueira; Pons, Tirso; Santos, Yúlica; Arreguín, Roberto; Ständker, Ludger; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Tytgat, Jan; Vega, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Sea anemones produce proteinaceous toxins for predation and defense, including peptide toxins that act on a large variety of ion channels of pharmacological and biomedical interest. Phymanthus crucifer is commonly found in the Caribbean Sea; however, the chemical structure and biological activity of its toxins remain unknown, with the exception of PhcrTx1, an acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor. Therefore, in the present work, we focused on the isolation and characterization of new P. crucifer toxins by chromatographic fractionation, followed by a toxicity screening on crabs, an evaluation of ion channels, and sequence analysis. Five groups of toxic chromatographic fractions were found, and a new paralyzing toxin was purified and named PhcrTx2. The toxin inhibited glutamate-gated currents in snail neurons (maximum inhibition of 35%, IC50 4.7 µM), and displayed little or no influence on voltage-sensitive sodium/potassium channels in snail and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, nor on a variety of cloned voltage-gated ion channels. The toxin sequence was fully elucidated by Edman degradation. PhcrTx2 is a new β-defensin-fold peptide that shares a sequence similarity to type 3 potassium channels toxins. However, its low activity on the evaluated ion channels suggests that its molecular target remains unknown. PhcrTx2 is the first known paralyzing toxin in the family Phymanthidae. PMID:29414882

  16. Muscle wasting associated with pathologic change is a risk factor for the exacerbation of joint swelling in collagen-induced arthritis in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Not only joint destruction but also muscle wasting due to rheumatoid cachexia has been problem in terms of quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we performed histopathological examination and assessed relationships between characteristic parameters relating to muscle and joint swelling in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model using cynomolgus monkeys (CMs). Methods Female CMs were used and CIA was induced by twice immunizations using bovine type II collagen with Freund’s complete adjuvant. Arthritis level was evaluated from the degree of swelling at the peripheral joints of the fore and hind limbs. Food consumption, body weight, and serum biochemical parameters were measured sequentially. Five or 6 animals per time point were sacrificed at 2, 3, 5 and 9 weeks after the first immunization to obtain quadriceps femoris specimens for histopathology. Pimonidazole hydrochloride was intravenously administered to determine tissue hypoxia in skeletal muscle. Results Gradual joint swelling was observed and the maximum arthritis score was noted at Week 5. In histopathology, necrosis of muscle fiber in the quadriceps femoris was observed only at Week 2 and the most significant findings such as degeneration, atrophy, and regeneration of muscle fiber were mainly observed at Week 5. Food consumption was decreased up to Week 4 but recovered thereafter. Body weight decreased up to Week 5 and did not completely recover thereafter. A biphasic increase in serum cortisol was also observed at Weeks 2 and 5. Histopathology showed that muscle lesions were mainly composed of degeneration and atrophy of the muscle fibers, and ATPase staining revealed that the changes were more pronounced in type II muscle fiber than type I muscle fiber. In the pimonidazole experiment, mosaic pattern in skeletal muscle was demonstrated in the intact animal, but not the CIA animal. Increased arthritis score was accompanied by a decrease in serum

  17. Effects of the belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation system on lower extremity skeletal muscle activity: Evaluation using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle weakness in athletes after lower limb trauma or surgery can hinder their return to sports, and the associated muscle atrophy may lead to deterioration in performance after returning to sports. Recently, belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES) which can contract all the lower limb skeletal muscles simultaneously was developed. However, no study has evaluated skeletal muscle activity with B-SES. Since only superficial muscles as well as a limited number of muscles can be investigated using electromyography, we investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) can evaluate the activity of all the skeletal muscles in the body simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B-SES system using PET. Twelve healthy males (mean age, 24.3 years) were divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group remained in a sitting position for 10 min, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was intravenously injected. In the exercise group, subjects exercised using the B-SES system for 20 min daily for three consecutive days as a pre-test exercise. On the measurement day, they exercised for 10 min, received an injection of FDG, and exercised for another 10 min. PET-computed tomography images were obtained in each group 60 min after the FDG injection. Regions of interest were drawn in each lower-extremity muscle. We compared each skeletal muscle metabolism using the standardized uptake value. In the exercise group, FDG accumulation in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, and hamstrings was significantly higher than the muscles in the control (P < 0.05). Exercise with B-SES increased the skeletal muscle activity of the gluteal muscles as well as the most lower-extremity muscles simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Free Bone Plug Quadriceps Tendon Harvest and Suspensory Button Attachment for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Khallouki, Youssef

    2016-06-01

    The most commonly used autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons. Each has its advantages and limitations. The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft can lead to more donor-site morbidity, and the hamstring autograft can be unpredictable in size. The quadriceps tendon, with or without a bone block, has been described as an alternative graft source and has been used especially in revision cases, but in recent years, it has attracted attention even for primary cases. We report a technique for harvesting a free bone quadriceps tendon graft and attaching an extracortical button for femoral fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  19. Evaluation of diaphragmatic motion in normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs using M-mode ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Kim, Ahyoung; Keh, Seoyeon; Lee, Jinsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Choi, Mincheol

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in dogs is currently based on fluoroscopic detection of unequal movement between the crura. Bilateral paralysis may be more difficult to confirm with fluoroscopy because diaphragmatic movement is sometimes produced by compensatory abdominal muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to evaluate diaphragmatic movement using M-mode ultrasonography and to describe findings for normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs. Fifty-five clinically normal dogs and two dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis were recruited. Thoracic radiographs were acquired for all dogs and fluoroscopy studies were also acquired for clinically affected dogs. Two observers independently measured diaphragmatic direction of motion and amplitude of excursion using M-mode ultrasonography for dogs meeting study inclusion criteria. Eight of the clinically normal dogs were excluded due to abnormal thoracic radiographic findings. For the remaining normal dogs, the lower limit values of diaphragmatic excursion were 2.85-2.98 mm during normal breathing. One dog with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis showed paradoxical movement of both crura at the end of inspiration. One dog with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis had diaphragmatic excursion values of 2.00 ± 0.42 mm on the left side and 4.05 ± 1.48 mm on the right side. The difference between left and right diaphragmatic excursion values was 55%. Findings indicated that M-mode ultrasonography is a relatively simple and objective method for measuring diaphragmatic movement in dogs. Future studies are needed in a larger number of dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis to determine the diagnostic sensitivity of this promising new technique. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of

  1. Differential muscle hypertrophy is associated with satellite cell numbers and Akt pathway activation following activin type IIB receptor inhibition in Mtm1 p.R69C mice.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Michael W; Viola, Marissa G; Meng, Hui; Edelstein, Rachel V; Liu, Fujun; Yan, Ke; Luna, Elizabeth J; Lerch-Gaggl, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Pierson, Christopher R; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L; Pearsall, Scott; Yang, Lin; Hillard, Cecilia J; Beggs, Alan H

    2014-06-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1δ4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and histological evidence of hypertrophy in gastrocnemius muscles but not in quadriceps or triceps. The ability of the muscles to respond to activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment correlated with treatment-induced increases in satellite cell number and several muscle-specific abnormalities of hypertrophic signaling. Treatment-responsive Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscles displayed lower levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 and higher levels of phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase than were observed in Mtm1 p.R69C quadriceps muscle or in muscles from wild-type littermates. Hypertrophy in the Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscle was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6. Our findings indicate that muscle-, fiber type-, and mutation-specific factors affect the response to hypertrophic therapies that will be important to assess in future therapeutic trials. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of knee and ankle muscle fatigue on postural control in the unipedal stance.

    PubMed

    Bizid, Riadh; Margnes, Eric; François, Yrieix; Jully, Jean Louis; Gonzalez, Gerard; Dupui, Philippe; Paillard, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute muscle fatigue of the ankle and knee musculature on postural control by immediate measures after performing fatiguing tasks (POST condition). One group of subjects (n = 8) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the triceps surae (group TRI) and the other (n = 9) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the quadriceps femoris (group QUA). Each muscle group was exercised until the loss of maximal voluntary contraction torque reached 50% (isokinetic dynamometer). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure (COP) with a force platform during a test of unipedal quiet standing posture with eyes closed. Initially (in PRE condition), the mean COP velocity was not significantly different between group TRI and group QUA. In POST condition, the mean COP velocity increased more in group QUA than in group TRI. The postural control was more impaired by knee muscle fatigue than by ankle muscle fatigue.

  3. Evoked EMG versus Muscle Torque during Fatiguing Functional Electrical Stimulation-Evoked Muscle Contractions and Short-Term Recovery in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Estigoni, Eduardo H.; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M.; Davis, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery. PMID:25479324

  4. Evoked EMG versus muscle torque during fatiguing functional electrical stimulation-evoked muscle contractions and short-term recovery in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Estigoni, Eduardo H; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M; Davis, Glen M

    2014-12-03

    This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery.

  5. Experimental knee pain impairs submaximal force steadiness in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle actions.

    PubMed

    Rice, David A; McNair, Peter J; Lewis, Gwyn N; Mannion, Jamie

    2015-09-12

    Populations with knee joint damage, including arthritis, have noted impairments in the regulation of submaximal muscle force. It is difficult to determine the exact cause of such impairments given the joint pathology and associated neuromuscular adaptations. Experimental pain models that have been used to isolate the effects of pain on muscle force regulation have shown impaired force steadiness during acute pain. However, few studies have examined force regulation during dynamic contractions, and these findings have been inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of experimental knee joint pain on submaximal quadriceps force regulation during isometric and dynamic contractions. The study involved fifteen healthy participants. Participants were seated in an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee extensor force matching tasks were completed in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle contraction conditions. The target force was set to 10 % of maximum for each contraction type. Hypertonic saline was then injected into the infrapatella fat pad to generate acute joint pain. The force matching tasks were repeated during pain and once more 5 min after pain had subsided. Hypertonic saline resulted in knee pain with an average peak pain rating of 5.5 ± 2.1 (0-10 scale) that lasted for 18 ± 4 mins. Force steadiness significantly reduced during pain across all three muscle contraction conditions. There was a trend to increased force matching error during pain but this was not significant. Experimental knee pain leads to impaired quadriceps force steadiness during isometric, eccentric, and concentric contractions, providing further evidence that joint pain directly affects motor performance. Given the established relationship between submaximal muscle force steadiness and function, such an effect may be detrimental to the performance of tasks in daily life. In order to restore motor performance in people with painful arthritic conditions of the

  6. Muscle, functional and cognitive adaptations after flywheel resistance training in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Prieto, Cristina; Tesch, Per A; García-Carreira, Maria del Carmen

    2016-04-06

    Resistance exercise (RE) improves neuromuscular function and physical performance after stroke. Yet, the effects of RE emphasizing eccentric (ECC; lengthening) actions on muscle hypertrophy and cognitive function in stroke patients are currently unknown. Thus, this study explored the effects of ECC-overload RE training on skeletal muscle size and function, and cognitive performance in individuals with stroke. Thirty-two individuals with chronic stroke (≥6 months post-stroke) were randomly assigned into a training group (TG; n = 16) performing ECC-overload flywheel RE of the more-affected lower limb (12 weeks, 2 times/week; 4 sets of 7 maximal closed-chain knee extensions; <2 min of contractile activity per session) or a control group (CG; n = 16), maintaining daily routines. Before and after the intervention, quadriceps femoris volume, maximal force and power for each leg were assessed, and functional and dual task performance, and cognitive functions were measured. Quadriceps femoris volume of the more-affected leg increased by 9.4 % in TG. Muscle power of the more-affected, trained (48.2 %), and the less-affected, untrained limb (28.1 %) increased after training. TG showed enhanced balance (8.9 %), gait performance (10.6 %), dual-task performance, executive functions (working memory, verbal fluency tasks), attention, and speed of information processing. CG showed no changes. ECC-overload flywheel resistance exercise comprising 4 min of contractile activity per week offers a powerful aid to regain muscle mass and function, and functional performance in individuals with stroke. While the current intervention improved cognitive functions, the cause-effect relationship, if any, with the concomitant neuromuscular adaptations remains to be explored. Clinical Trials NCT02120846.

  7. Quadriceps rate of torque development and disability in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Davis, Hope C; Troy Blackburn, J; Ryan, Eric D; Luc-Harkey, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew S; Padua, Darin A; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-reported function (International Knee Documentation Committee Index), isometric quadriceps strength and rate of torque development in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Forty-one individuals [31% male, BMI mean 25 (SD 4) kg/m 2 , months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction mean 49 (SD 40)] completed the self-reported function and isometric quadriceps function testing. Rate of torque development was assessed at 0-100ms (early), 100-200ms (late) ms, and peak following the onset of contraction. Associations were examined between rate of torque development, strength, and self-reported function. Linear regression was used to determine the unique amount of variance explained by the combination of rate of torque development and strength. Higher rate of torque development 100-200ms is weakly associated with higher self-reported function in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (r=0.274, p=0.091); however, rate of torque development 100-200ms does not predict a significant amount of variance in self-reported function after accounting for strength (ΔR 2 =0.003, P=0.721). Quadriceps strength has a greater influence on self-reported function compared to rate of torque development in individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with time from surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Energetics Are Associated With Maximal Aerobic Capacity and Walking Speed in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lower ambulatory performance with aging may be related to a reduced oxidative capacity within skeletal muscle. This study examined the associations between skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and efficiency with walking performance in a group of older adults. Methods. Thirty-seven older adults (mean age 78 years; 21 men and 16 women) completed an aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) test and measurement of preferred walking speed over 400 m. Maximal coupled (State 3; St3) mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized myofibers obtained from percutanous biopsies of vastus lateralis (n = 22). Maximal phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax) of vastus lateralis was determined in vivo by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 30). Quadriceps contractile volume was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Mitochondrial efficiency (max ATP production/max O2 consumption) was characterized using ATPmax per St3 respiration (ATPmax/St3). Results. In vitro St3 respiration was significantly correlated with in vivo ATPmax (r 2 = .47, p = .004). Total oxidative capacity of the quadriceps (St3*quadriceps contractile volume) was a determinant of VO2 peak (r 2 = .33, p = .006). ATPmax (r 2 = .158, p = .03) and VO2 peak (r 2 = .475, p < .0001) were correlated with preferred walking speed. Inclusion of both ATPmax/St3 and VO2 peak in a multiple linear regression model improved the prediction of preferred walking speed (r 2 = .647, p < .0001), suggesting that mitochondrial efficiency is an important determinant for preferred walking speed. Conclusions. Lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency were both associated with slower walking speed within a group of older participants with a wide range of function. In addition to aerobic capacity, lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency likely play roles in slowing gait speed with age. PMID:23051977

  9. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics are associated with maximal aerobic capacity and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Coen, Paul M; Jubrias, Sharon A; Distefano, Giovanna; Amati, Francesca; Mackey, Dawn C; Glynn, Nancy W; Manini, Todd M; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Cummings, Steven R; Newman, Anne B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Toledo, Frederico G S; Shankland, Eric; Conley, Kevin E; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2013-04-01

    Lower ambulatory performance with aging may be related to a reduced oxidative capacity within skeletal muscle. This study examined the associations between skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and efficiency with walking performance in a group of older adults. Thirty-seven older adults (mean age 78 years; 21 men and 16 women) completed an aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) test and measurement of preferred walking speed over 400 m. Maximal coupled (State 3; St3) mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized myofibers obtained from percutanous biopsies of vastus lateralis (n = 22). Maximal phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax) of vastus lateralis was determined in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 30). Quadriceps contractile volume was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Mitochondrial efficiency (max ATP production/max O2 consumption) was characterized using ATPmax per St3 respiration (ATPmax/St3). In vitro St3 respiration was significantly correlated with in vivo ATPmax (r (2) = .47, p = .004). Total oxidative capacity of the quadriceps (St3*quadriceps contractile volume) was a determinant of VO2 peak (r (2) = .33, p = .006). ATPmax (r (2) = .158, p = .03) and VO2 peak (r (2) = .475, p < .0001) were correlated with preferred walking speed. Inclusion of both ATPmax/St3 and VO2 peak in a multiple linear regression model improved the prediction of preferred walking speed (r (2) = .647, p < .0001), suggesting that mitochondrial efficiency is an important determinant for preferred walking speed. Lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency were both associated with slower walking speed within a group of older participants with a wide range of function. In addition to aerobic capacity, lower mitochondrial capacity and efficiency likely play roles in slowing gait speed with age.

  10. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    A number of research studies provide evidence that hamstring cocontraction during open kinetic chain knee extension exercises enhances tibiofemoral (TF) stability and reduces the strain on the anterior cruciate ligament. To determine the possible increase in hamstring muscle coactivation caused by a voluntary cocontraction effort during open kinetic chain leg-extension exercises, and to assess whether an intentional hamstring cocontraction can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force during these exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Knee kinematics as well as electromyographic activity in the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured in 20 healthy men during isotonic leg extension exercises with resistance (R) ranging from 10% to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The same exercises were also performed while the participants attempted to enhance hamstring coactivation through a voluntary cocontraction effort. The data served as input parameters for a model to calculate the shear and compressive TF forces in leg extension exercises for any set of coactivation patterns of the different hamstring muscles. For R≤ 40% 1RM, the peak coactivation levels obtained with intentional cocontraction (l) were significantly higher (P < 10(-3)) than those obtained without intentional cocontraction (l 0). For each hamstring muscle, maximum level l was reached at R = 30% 1RM, corresponding to 9.2%, 10.5%, and 24.5% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the BF, ST, and SM, respectively, whereas the ratio l/l 0 reached its maximum at R = 20% 1RM and was approximately 2, 3, and 4 for the BF, SM, and ST, respectively. The voluntary enhanced coactivation level l obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM completely suppressed the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. In leg extension exercises with resistance R≤ 40% 1RM, coactivation of the BF, SM, and ST can be

  11. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  12. Torque and mechanomyogram relationships during electrically-evoked isometric quadriceps contractions in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Davis, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between muscle contractions and joint loading produces torques necessary for movements during activities of daily living. However, during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked contractions in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), a simple and reliable proxy of torque at the muscle level has been minimally investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between muscle mechanomyographic (MMG) characteristics and NMES-evoked isometric quadriceps torques in persons with motor complete SCI. Six SCI participants with lesion levels below C4 [(mean (SD) age, 39.2 (7.9) year; stature, 1.71 (0.05) m; and body mass, 69.3 (12.9) kg)] performed randomly ordered NMES-evoked isometric leg muscle contractions at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion angles on an isokinetic dynamometer. MMG signals were detected by an accelerometer-based vibromyographic sensor placed over the belly of rectus femoris muscle. The relationship between MMG root mean square (MMG-RMS) and NMES-evoked torque revealed a very high association (R(2)=0.91 at 30°; R(2)=0.98 at 60°; and R(2)=0.97 at 90° knee angles; P<0.001). MMG peak-to-peak (MMG-PTP) and stimulation intensity were less well related (R(2)=0.63 at 30°; R(2)=0.67 at 60°; and R(2)=0.45 at 90° knee angles), although were still significantly associated (P≤0.006). Test-retest interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the dependent variables ranged from 0.82 to 0.97 for NMES-evoked torque, between 0.65 and 0.79 for MMG-RMS, and from 0.67 to 0.73 for MMG-PTP. Their standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged between 10.1% and 31.6% (of mean values) for torque, MMG-RMS and MMG-PTP. The MMG peak frequency (MMG-PF) of 30Hz approximated the stimulation frequency, indicating NMES-evoked motor unit firing rate. The results demonstrated knee angle differences in the MMG-RMS versus NMES-isometric torque relationship, but a similar torque related pattern for MMG-PF. These findings

  13. Relationship between quadriceps strength and patellofemoral joint chondral lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Ao, Ying-Fang; Jiang, Dong; Gong, Xi; Wang, Yong-Jian; Wang, Jian; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of the patellofemoral joint chondral lesions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is disturbingly high. Few studies have assessed the factors affecting patellofemoral joint chondral lesions postoperatively. The recovery of quadriceps strength after ACLR could be associated with patellofemoral joint cartilage damage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 88 patients who underwent arthroscopic anatomic double-bundle ACLR with hamstring autografts received second-look arthroscopy at the time of metal staple removal at an average of 24.1 months (range, 12-51 months) postoperatively. All patients underwent standardized isokinetic strength testing for bilateral quadriceps and hamstrings 1 to 2 days before second-look arthroscopy. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Patients in group 1 had a ≥20% deficit on the peak torque measures for quadriceps compared with that of the contralateral knee, whereas those in group 2 had a <20% deficit on peak torque. Cartilage status at the patellofemoral joint and tibiofemoral joint were evaluated by second-look arthroscopy and the Outerbridge classification. Other assessments included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Tegner and Lysholm scores, side-to-side difference on KT-2000 arthrometer, and range of motion. There were 42 patients included in group 1 and 46 patients in group 2. The mean postoperative quadriceps peak torque of the involved knee compared with the contralateral knee was 70% (range, 57%-80%) in group 1 and 95% (range, 81%-116%) in group 2. For all patients, a significant worsening was seen in the patellar and trochlear cartilage (P = .030 and <.001, respectively) but not at the medial or lateral tibiofemoral joint after ACLR. A significant worsening in the status of both patellar and trochlear cartilage was seen after ACLR in group 1 (P = .013 and =.011, respectively) and of trochlear cartilage in group 2 (P = .006). Significantly fewer severe

  14. Side Differences of Thigh Muscle Cross-Sectional Areas and Maximal Isometric Muscle Force in Bilateral Knees with the Same Radiographic Disease Stage, but Unilateral Frequent Pain – Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Martina; Dannhauer, Torben; Hudelmaier, Martin; Wirth, Wolfgang; Sänger, Alexandra M.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Hunter, David J.; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether anatomical thigh muscle cross-sectional areas (MCSAs) and strength differ between osteoarthritis (OA) knees with frequent pain compared with contralateral knees without pain, and to examine the correlation between MCSAs and strength in painful versus painless knees. Methods 48 subjects (31 women; 17 men; age 45–78 years) were drawn from 4796 Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants, in whom both knees displayed the same radiographic stage (KLG2 or 3), one with frequent pain (most days of the month within the past 12 months) and the contralateral one without pain. Axial MR images were used to determine MCSAs of extensors, flexors and adductors at 35% femoral length (distal to proximal) and in two adjacent 5 mm images. Maximal isometric extensor and flexor forces were used as provided from the OAI data base. Results Painful knees showed 5.2% lower extensor MCSAs (p=0.00003; paired t-test), and 7.8% lower maximal extensor muscle forces (p=0.003) than contra-lateral painless knees. There were no significant differences in flexor forces, or flexor and adductor MCSAs (p>0.39). Correlations between force and MCSAs were similar in painful and painless OA knees (0.44quadriceps (but not of other thigh muscles) compared with contra-lateral knees without knee pain with the same radiographic stage. Frequent pain does not appear to affect the correlations between MCSAs and strength in OA knees. The findings suggest that quadriceps strengthening exercise may be useful in treating symptomatic knee OA. PMID:22395037

  15. Effects of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on neuromuscular tensiomyographic characteristics of the lower extremity in competitive male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Seijas, Roberto; Ballester, Jordi; Cugat, Ramon

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on mechanical and contractile properties of the skeletal muscles of the lower extremities in soccer players through tensiomyography (TMG). All soccer players with acute ACL tear included underwent resting TMG assessment of muscles of both lower extremities before and 1 year after ACL reconstruction. The muscles assessed were vastus medialis (VM), vastus laterals (VL), rectus femoris (RF), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL). The TMG parameters obtained for each muscle were maximal displacement (D m), delay time (T d), contraction time (T c), sustained time (T s), and half-relaxation time (T r). The injured leg had a significant decrease in VL-T c, ST-T c, GM-T c, GL-T r, and GL-T d, and a significant increase in VM-T r and GM-T s in the postoperative compared to preoperative period. The non-injured leg demonstrated significant preoperative-postoperative changes in the VL, RF, and BF, but not in VM, ST, GM, and GL The magnitude of preoperative-postoperative differences in the injured leg was significantly higher in RF-T c, ST-T c, BF-D m, and GL-T r, but lower in RF-T r and GM-T s, compared to the non-injured leg. Both groups improved their symmetry between the quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups in both sides. The quadriceps muscles improved their resistance to fatigue and contraction velocity in both sides, and the hamstring muscles improved their contraction velocity and muscle tone in both sides as well. Improvements in contraction velocity and muscle tone were more evident in the quadriceps and hamstrings of the injured compared to the uninjured side. In addition, the intervention increased the percentage of symmetry between both sides in the TMG of the quadriceps muscles and the balance between ACL-agonist (hamstrings) and ACL-antagonist (quadriceps) muscle groups in both sides. This study shows how ACL

  16. Effect of botulinum-A toxin to cremaster muscle: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Murat; Cağlayan, Fatma; Erdemoğlu, Ali Kemal; Ulusoy, Sevgi

    2003-10-01

    A controversy exists on the definition, etiology and treatment of the retractile testes. In the present experimental study, we aimed to show the effect of botulinum-A toxin (Botox) on cremasteric muscle of a rat, and whether it may be an alternative to surgical treatment of retractile testis. Ten Wistar rats were used in the study. By stimulating cremasteric reflex, five compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of the right and left cremasteric muscles of each rat were recorded using surface electrodes. Intramuscular injection of botulinum-A toxin was done to the right side. Saline was injected to the left cremasteric muscles, and the left side also served as control. CMAP of the cremasteric muscles were recorded 45 days after the injection. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon Signed rank test. Mean CMAP of the right side was 3.25+/-1.39 microV before the injection and 0.44+/-0.25 microV after botulinum-A toxin injection. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Mean CMAP on the left side was 3.48+/-0.32 microV and 3.14+/-1.12 microV at baseline and the end of the study, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The botulinum-A toxin paralyzes the cremasteric muscles of the rats. As cremasteric hypertonicity is accepted as one of the reasons for retractile testes, botulinum-A toxin injection to cremasteric muscles may be helpful in diagnosis and may be an alternative to surgical treatment of this pathology in repeated dosages. Long-term evaluation of this paralysis is necessary.

  17. Muscle fiber type-specific response of Hsp70 expression in human quadriceps following acute isometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Tupling, A R; Bombardier, E; Stewart, R D; Vigna, C; Aqui, A E

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the time course of fiber type-specific heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in human skeletal muscle after acute exercise, 10 untrained male volunteers performed single-legged isometric knee extensor exercise at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with a 50% duty cycle (5-s contraction and 5-s relaxation) for 30 min. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before (Pre) exercise in the rested control leg (C) and immediately after exercise (Post) in the exercised leg (E) only and on recovery days 1 (R1), 2 (R2), 3 (R3), and 6 (R6) from both legs. As demonstrated by Western blot analysis, whole muscle Hsp70 content was unchanged (P > 0.05) immediately after exercise (Pre vs. Post), was increased (P < 0.05) by approximately 43% at R1, and remained elevated throughout the entire recovery period in E only. Hsp70 expression was also assessed in individual muscle fiber types I, IIA, and IIAX/IIX by immunohistochemistry. There were no fiber type differences (P > 0.05) in basal Hsp70 expression. Immediately after exercise, Hsp70 expression was increased (P < 0.05) in type I fibers by approximately 87% but was unchanged (P > 0.05) in type II fibers (Pre vs. Post). At R1 and throughout recovery, Hsp70 content in E was increased above basal levels (P < 0.05) in all fiber types, but Hsp70 expression was always highest (P < 0.05) in type I fibers. Hsp70 content in C was not different from Pre at any time throughout recovery. Glycogen depletion was observed at Post in all type II, but not type I, fibers, suggesting that the fiber type differences in exercise-induced Hsp70 expression were not related to glycogen availability. These results demonstrate that the time course of exercise-induced Hsp70 expression in human skeletal muscle is fiber type specific.

  18. Tibiofemoral loss of contact area but no changes in peak pressures after meniscectomy in a Lapine in vivo quadriceps force transfer model.

    PubMed

    Leumann, Andre; Fortuna, Rafael; Leonard, Tim; Valderrabano, Victor; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The menisci are thought to modulate load transfer and to absorb shocks in the knee joint. No study has experimentally measured the meniscal functions in the intact, in vivo joint loaded by physiologically relevant muscular contractions. Right knee joints of seven New Zealand white rabbits were loaded using isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris muscles controlled by femoral nerve stimulation. Isometric knee extensor torques at the maximal and two submaximal force levels were performed at knee angles of 70°, 90°, 110°, and 130°. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral contact areas and pressure distributions were measured using Fuji Presensor film inserted above and below the menisci and also with the menisci removed. Meniscectomy was associated with a decrease in tibiofemoral contact area ranging from 30 to 70% and a corresponding increase in average contact pressures. Contact areas measured below the menisci were consistently larger than those measured on top of the menisci. Contact areas in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), and peak pressures in tibiofemoral and PFJs, were not affected by meniscectomy. Contact areas and peak pressures in all joints depended crucially on knee joint angle and quadriceps force: The more flexed the knee joint was, the larger were the contact areas and the higher were the peak pressures. In agreement with the literature, removal of the menisci was associated with significant decreases in tibiofemoral contact area and corresponding increases in average contact pressures, but surprisingly, peak pressures remained unaffected, indicating that the function of the menisci is to distribute loads across a greater contact area.

  19. Reduced Appendicular Lean Body Mass, Muscle Strength, and Size of Type II Muscle Fibers in Patients with Spondyloarthritis versus Healthy Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Røren Nordén, Kristine; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Løvstad, Amund; Raastad, Truls

    Introduction . The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, muscle function, and muscle morphology in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods . Ten male SpA patients (mean ± SD age 39 ± 4.1 years) were compared with ten healthy controls matched for sex, age, body mass index, and self-reported level of physical exercise. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Musculus quadriceps femoris (QF) strength was assessed by maximal isometric contractions prior to test of muscular endurance. Magnetic resonance imaging of QF was used to measure muscle size and calculate specific muscle strength. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples were taken from m. vastus lateralis . Results . SpA patients presented with significantly lower appendicular lean body mass (LBM) ( p = 0.02), but there was no difference in bone mineral density, fat mass, or total LBM. Absolute QF strength was significantly lower in SpA patients ( p = 0.03) with a parallel trend for specific strength ( p = 0.08). Biopsy samples from the SpA patients revealed significantly smaller cross-sectional area (CSA) of type II muscle fibers ( p = 0.04), but no difference in CSA type I fibers. Conclusions . Results indicate that the presence of SpA disease is associated with reduced appendicular LBM, muscle strength, and type II fiber CSA.

  20. Exploring the Link between Serum Phosphate Levels and Low Muscle Strength, Dynapenia, and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Yuei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chou, Cheng-Wai; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Lai, Ching-Huang; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2018-02-23

    Emerging evidences addressed an association between phosphate and muscle function. Because little attention was focused on this issue, the objective of our study was to explore the relationship of phosphate with muscle strength, dynapenia, and sarcopenia. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 7421 participants aged 20 years or older were included in our study with comprehensive examinations included anthropometric parameters, strength of the quadriceps muscle, and appendicular lean masses. Within the normal range of serum phosphate, we used quartile-based analyses to determine the potential relationships of serum phosphate with dynapenia, and sarcopenia through multivariate regression models. After adjusting for the pertinent variables, an inverse association between the serum phosphate quartiles and muscle strength was observed and the linear association was stronger than other anthropometric parameters. Notably, the significant association between phosphate and muscle strength was existed in >65 years old age group, not in 20-65 years old. The higher quartiles of phosphate had higher likelihood for predicting the presence of dynapenia rather than sarcopenia in entire population. Our study highlighted that higher quartiles of phosphate had significant association with lower muscle strength and higher risks for predicting the presence of dynapenia.

  1. In Vivo Demonstration of a Self-Sustaining, Implantable, Stimulated-Muscle-Powered Piezoelectric Generator Prototype

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, B. E.; Kilgore, K. L.; Gustafson, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    An implantable, stimulated-muscle-powered piezoelectric active energy harvesting generator was previously designed to exploit the fact that the mechanical output power of muscle is substantially greater than the electrical power necessary to stimulate the muscle’s motor nerve. We reduced to practice the concept by building a prototype generator and stimulator. We demonstrated its feasibility in vivo, using rabbit quadriceps to drive the generator. The generated power was sufficient for self-sustaining operation of the stimulator and additional harnessed power was dissipated through a load resistor. The prototype generator was developed and the power generating capabilities were tested with a mechanical muscle analog. In vivo generated power matched the mechanical muscle analog, verifying its usefulness as a test-bed for generator development. Generator output power was dependent on the muscle stimulation parameters. Simulations and in vivo testing demonstrated that for a fixed number of stimuli/minute, two stimuli applied at a high frequency generated greater power than single stimuli or tetanic contractions. Larger muscles and circuitry improvements are expected to increase available power. An implanted, self-replenishing power source has the potential to augment implanted battery or transcutaneously powered electronic medical devices. PMID:19657742

  2. Molecular and biological pathways of skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gea, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will be a major leading cause of death worldwide in the near future. Weakness and atrophy of the quadriceps are associated with a significantly poorer prognosis and increased mortality in COPD. Despite that skeletal muscle dysfunction may affect both respiratory and limb muscle groups in COPD, the latter are frequently more severely affected. Therefore, muscle dysfunction in COPD is a common systemic manifestation that should be evaluated on routine basis in clinical settings. In the present review, several aspects of COPD muscle dysfunction are being reviewed, with special emphasis on the underlying biological mechanisms. Figures on the prevalence of COPD muscle dysfunction and the most relevant etiologic contributors are also provided. Despite that ongoing research will shed light into the contribution of additional mechanisms to COPD muscle dysfunction, current knowledge points toward the involvement of a wide spectrum of cellular and molecular events that are differentially expressed in respiratory and limb muscles. Such mechanisms are thoroughly described in the article. The contribution of epigenetic events on COPD muscle dysfunction is also reviewed. We conclude that in view of the latest discoveries, from now, on new avenues of research should be designed to specifically target cellular mechanisms and pathways that impair muscle mass and function in COPD using pharmacological strategies and/or exercise training modalities. PMID:27056059

  3. Selective contribution of each hamstring muscle to anterior cruciate ligament protection and tibiofemoral joint stability in leg-extension exercise: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2013-09-01

    A biomechanical model was developed to simulate the selective effect of the co-contraction force provided by each hamstring muscle on the shear and compressive tibiofemoral joint reaction forces, during open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises. This model accounts for instantaneous values of knee flexion angle [Formula: see text], angular velocity and acceleration, and for changes in magnitude, orientation, and application point of external resistance. The tibiofemoral shear force (TFSF) largely determines the tensile force on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Biceps femoris is the most effective hamstring muscle in decreasing the ACL-loading TFSF developed by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. In this range, the semimembranosus generates the dominant tibiofemoral compressive force, which enhances joint stability, opposes anterior/posterior tibial translations, and protects cruciate ligaments. The semitendinosus force provides the greatest decreasing gradient of ACL-loading TFSF for [Formula: see text], and the greatest increasing gradient of tibiofemoral compressive force for [Formula: see text]. However, semitendinosus efficacy is strongly limited by its small physiological section. Hamstring muscles behave as a unique muscle in enhancing the PCL-loading TFSF produced by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. The levels of hamstrings co-activation that suppress the ACL-loading TFSF considerably shift when the knee angular acceleration is changed while maintaining the same level of knee extensor torque by a concurrent adjustment in the magnitude of external resistance. The knowledge of the specific role and the optimal activation level of each hamstring muscle in ACL protection and tibiofemoral stability are fundamental for planning safe and effective rehabilitative knee-extension exercises.

  4. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrates and peptides on postoperative endocrine response, mobilization, nutrition and muscle function in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, M G; Hessov, I; Dela, F; Hansen, H Vind; Haraldsted, V; Rodt, S A

    2003-02-01

    Surgery is succeeded by long-lasting state of relative peripheral insulin resistance, which is reduced by giving glucose infusion or oral carbohydrate-rich drinks immediate before operating instead of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oral carbohydrate or carbohydrate with peptide drinks preoperatively instead of fasting would improve postoperative voluntary muscle strength, nutritional intake and ambulation, decrease postoperative fatigue, anxiety and discomfort, and reduce the endocrine response to surgery. Forty-eight patients were included and randomized into three groups to receive 2 x 400 ml of carbohydrate-rich drinks or to fast overnight and allowed only water. Voluntary grip and quadriceps strength, body composition, pulmonary function, VAS-score of eight parameters of wellbeing, muscle biopsies and insulin, glucagon, IGF-1 and free fatty acids were measured before and after the operation. The basic postoperative regimen for all groups were immediate oral nutrition and early enforced mobilization. Significant postoperative decrease in glycogen synthase activity in the muscle biopsies was reduced in the intervention groups, and in combination, the intervention groups had a less reduced quadriceps strength after one week (-10% vs. -16%, NS) and one month (-5% vs. -13%, P < 0.05). Minor changes in the endocrine response to surgery were found without differences between the groups, and there were no differences between the groups in ambulation time, nutritional intake or subjective measures of wellbeing. Copyright Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 47 (2003)

  5. Prospective multicentre study of the clinical and functional outcomes following quadriceps tendon repair with suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Mille, F; Adam, A; Aubry, S; Leclerc, G; Ghislandi, X; Sergent, P; Garbuio, P

    2016-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon avulsions are typically treated by reattaching the tendon through bone tunnels, with or without tendon or hardware augmentation. The operated knee joint can be moved right away; however, tendon grafting or tension banding will be required to protect the repair, and the hardware must be removed later on. The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes when