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Sample records for parameter pair m3

  1. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters: Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. VI; The Second Parameter Pair M 3 and M 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moehler, S.; Landsman, W. B.; Sweigart, A. V.; Grundahl, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic analyses of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in M 13 and M 3, which form a famous "second parameter" pair. F rom the spectra and Stromgren photometry we derived - for the first time in M 13 - atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity). For stars with Stromgren temperatures between 10,000 and 12,000 K we found excellent agreement between the atmospheric parameters derived from Stromgren photometry and those derived from Balmer line profile fits. However, for cooler stars there is a disagreement in the parameters derived by the two methods, for which we have no satisfactory explanation. Stars hotter than 12,000 K show evidence for helium depletion and iron enrichment, both in M 3 and M 13. Accounting for the iron enrichment substantially improves the agreement with canonical evolutionary models, although the derived gravities and masses are still somewhat too low. This remaining discrepancy may be an indication that scaled-solar metal-rich model atmospheres do not adequately represent the highly non-solar abundance ratios found in blue HB stars affected by diffusion. We discuss the effects of an enhancement in the envelope helium abundance on the atmospheric parameters of the blue HB stars, as might be caused by deep mixing on the red giant branch or primordial pollution from an earlier generation of intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch stars. Key words. Stars: atmospheres - Stars: evolution - Stars: horizontal branch - Globular clusters: individual: M 3 - Globular clusters: individual: M 13

  2. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters - Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. VI. The Second Parameter Pair M3 and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moehler, S.; Landsman, W. B.; Sweigart, A. V.; Grundahl, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic analyses of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in M13 and M3, which form a famous second parameter pair. From the spectra we derived - for the first time in M13 - atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity) as well as abundances of helium, magnesium, and iron. Consistent with analyses of hot HB stars in other globular clusters we find evidence for helium depletion and iron enrichment in stars hotter than about 12,000 K in both M3 and M13. Accounting for the iron enrichment substantially improves the agreement with canonical evolutionary models, although the derived gravities and masses are still somewhat too low. This remaining discrepancy may be an indication that scaled-solar metal-rich model atmospheres do not adequately represent the highly non-solar abundance ratios found in blue HB stars with radiative levitation. We discuss the effects of an enhancement in the envelope helium abundance on the atmospheric parameters of the blue HB stars, as might be caused by deep mixing on the red giant branch or primordial pollution from an earlier generation of intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch stars.

  3. Modified Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation (M3AE) for Simultaneous Parameter and State Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Contents Page Dedication : iv Acknowledgments v Table Of Contents vi List of Figures . . ; x List of Tables xv Abstract xvii Chapter 1 ...INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Overview 1 1.2 Background 7 1.2.1 The Chi-Square Test 9 1.2.2 Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) Testing 10 1.2.3 Multiple...M3AE Covariance Analysis 115 4.1.3 Simulations and Performance Analysis 121 4.1.3.1 Test Case 1 : aT = 32.0 124 4.1.3.2 Test Case 2: aT = 37.89, and

  4. Skylab ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer: Instrument description, parameter determination, and analysis example (15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Skylab ATM/S-056 X-Ray Event Analyzer, part of an X-ray telescope experiment, is described. The techniques employed in the analysis of its data to determine electron temperatures and emission measures are reviewed. The analysis of a sample event - the 15 June 1973 1B/M3 flare - is performed. Comparison of the X-Ray Event Analyzer data with that of the SolRad 9 observations indicates that the X-Ray Event Analyzer accurately monitored the sun's 2.5 to 7.25 A X-ray emission and to a lesser extent the 6.1 to 20 A emission. A mean average peak temperature of 15 million K at 1,412 UT and a mean average peak electron density (assuming a flare volume of 10 to the 13 power cu km) of 27 million/cu mm at 1,416 to 1,417 UT are deduced for the event. The X-Ray Event Analyzer data, having a 2.5 s time resolution, should be invaluable in comparisons with other high-time resolution data (e.g., radio bursts).

  5. Fast Simulation of the Impact Parameter Calculation of Electrons through Pair Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyesun; Kweon, MinJung; Huh, Kyoung Bum; Pachmayer, Yvonne

    2018-05-01

    A fast simulation method is introduced that reduces tremendously the time required for the impact parameter calculation, a key observable in physics analyses of high energy physics experiments and detector optimisation studies. The impact parameter of electrons produced through pair production was calculated considering key related processes using the Bethe-Heitler formula, the Tsai formula and a simple geometric model. The calculations were performed at various conditions and the results were compared with those from full GEANT4 simulations. The computation time using this fast simulation method is 104 times shorter than that of the full GEANT4 simulation.

  6. The M3 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Francois; Carter, John; Riu, Lucie; Martinez, Antoine; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves

    2017-10-01

    An essential part of revealing the past conditions that occurred at the surface of Mars is determining its mineralogy. Igneous compositions can provide insight into mechanisms such as crustal formation, magma differentiation and volcanic activity, while clays, salts and other altered phases can constrain the past liquid water environments on/near the surface. The visible near-infrared imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board the ESA Mars Express mission provided major steps in our understanding of the composition of the Martian surface by mapping anhydrous and hydrated minerals (Riu et al. 2017; Carter et al. 2017). The ultimate step in interpreting IR OMEGA data is a quantitative retrieval of mineral abundances from the modeling of spectra of selected terrains. So far, such an approach was performed on restricted areas of the surface using a radiative transfer model (Poulet et al., 2009, 2014). The purpose of the M3 (Modal Mineralogy of Mars) project is thus to provide global distributions of Martian surface minerals using previous OMEGA investigations, and to distribute the mineral maps to the science community through the web portal PSUP (Poulet et al. 2017). Two types of terrains are considered: type 1: mafic-bearing ones; type 2: hydrated deposits.For type-1 terrains, a 3-D global image cube was constructed containing atmospheric- and aerosol-corrected NIR spectra distributed over 32px/° and +/-60° of latitude with a surface coverage of 90%. NIR reflectance spectra were modeled to retrieve mineral abundances and particle grain sizes of the mafic-bearing terrains. This work is completed with final maps presented this year (Riu et al. 2017).For type-2 terrains, a specific approach is required. First, signatures of hydrated minerals are detected for each single OMEGA cube. Second, the spectral modeling is applied to each pixel and then the modeled abundances are averaged when overlapping observations occur for a specific location. The validation of this approach has

  7. A pair of new moisture-dynamic diagnostic parameters for heavy rain location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai; Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the regional persistent heavy rain process occurred in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley from 30 June 2016 to 7 July 2016 is analyzed. We find that the pure dynamic parameters [e.g., vorticity ( V) and divergence ( D)] and two-dimensional moisture-dynamic parameters [e.g., moist vorticity ( MV), moist divergence ( MD)] have difficulty in capturing the rainfall location during such a critical process. Given the poor performance of these traditional parameters, a pair of new parameters [namely, one-dimensional moist vorticity ( ODMV) and one-dimensional moist divergence ( ODMD)] based on low-level jet is proposed for diagnosing heavy rain location. The results show that (1) ODMV and ODMD have better relations with rain belt in terms of spatial distribution. Precipitation occurs in positive (negative) region of ODMV ( ODMD), and heavy rainfall accurately locates in the positive (negative) center of ODMV ( ODMD); (2) ODMV and ODMD also have good correlation with the precipitation in terms of temporal variation (significant at the 99% confidence level). When ODMV ( ODMD) is in strong positive (negative) phase, precipitation is large, and vice versa; (3) the threat score of ODMV and ODMD for the areal-mean rainfall is improved by 119% and 16%, respectively, compared to V/ D and MV/ MD. It is anticipated that the proposed new parameters would facilitate the skills of diagnosing and forecasting the heavy rainfall.

  8. Determination of preferred parameters for multichannel compression using individually fitted simulated hearing AIDS and paired comparisons.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian C J; Füllgrabe, Christian; Stone, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    To determine preferred parameters of multichannel compression using individually fitted simulated hearing aids and a method of paired comparisons. Fourteen participants with mild to moderate hearing loss listened via a simulated five-channel compression hearing aid fitted using the CAMEQ2-HF method to pairs of speech sounds (a male talker and a female talker) and musical sounds (a percussion instrument, orchestral classical music, and a jazz trio) presented sequentially and indicated which sound of the pair was preferred and by how much. The sounds in each pair were derived from the same token and differed along a single dimension in the type of processing applied. For the speech sounds, participants judged either pleasantness or clarity; in the latter case, the speech was presented in noise at a 2-dB signal-to-noise ratio. For musical sounds, they judged pleasantness. The parameters explored were time delay of the audio signal relative to the gain control signal (the alignment delay), compression speed (attack and release times), bandwidth (5, 7.5, or 10 kHz), and gain at high frequencies relative to that prescribed by CAMEQ2-HF. Pleasantness increased with increasing alignment delay only for the percussive musical sound. Clarity was not affected by alignment delay. There was a trend for pleasantness to decrease slightly with increasing bandwidth, but this was significant only for female speech with fast compression. Judged clarity was significantly higher for the 7.5- and 10-kHz bandwidths than for the 5-kHz bandwidth for both slow and fast compression and for both talker genders. Compression speed had little effect on pleasantness for 50- or 65-dB SPL input levels, but slow compression was generally judged as slightly more pleasant than fast compression for an 80-dB SPL input level. Clarity was higher for slow than for fast compression for input levels of 80 and 65 dB SPL but not for a level of 50 dB SPL. Preferences for pleasantness were approximately equal

  9. [Impacts on urodynamic parameters and the protein expressions of M2 and M3 receptors of detrusor in the rats of detrusor hyperreflexia treated with ginger-salt-isolated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Xuerui; Li, Tianran; Lin, Liting; Shi, Guangxia; Fu, Yuanbo; Liu, Cunzhi

    2017-04-12

    To discuss the effects on detrusor hyperreflexia treated with ginger-salt-isolated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8) and its mechanism. Thirty female adult SD rats were selected. The model of detrusor hyperreflexia was prepared with complete spinal transection at T 9 , of which, 20 rats were randomized into a model group (10 rats) and a moxibustion group (10 rats). A sham-operation group (10 rats) was set up for sham-spinal transection. In the moxibustion group, when urine incontinence occurred (about in 2 weeks of modeling), the ginger-salt-isolated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8) was given, 3 moxa cones each time, once a day, continuously for 7 days. After treatment, in each group, the urodynamic parameters were determined, after which, the bladder detrusor was collected. Western blot was used to determine the protein expressions of M2 and M3 receptors. Compared with the sham-operation group, the micturition interval was shortened apparently ( P <0.01); the maximal bladder pressure was increased apparently ( P <0.01); the protein expression of M2 receptor in the detrusor was increased significantly ( P <0.05) and that of M3 receptor had no apparent change ( P >0.05) in the rats of the model group. Compared with the model group, the micturition interval was longer apparently ( P <0.01), the maximal bladder pressure was reduced apparently ( P <0.01), the protein expression of M2 receptor in the detrusor was reduced significantly ( P <0.05) and that of M3 receptor had no apparent change ( P >0.05) in the rats of the moxibustion group.Compared with the sham-operation group, the results of the above indicators were not different significantly in the moxibustion group (all P >0.05). The ginger-salt-isolated moxibustion at "Shenque" (CV 8) suppresses the overactive bladder in the rat with spinal transection and its effect mechanism is possibly relevant with reducing the protein expression of detrusor M2 and inhibiting the excessive contraction of the detrusor.

  10. Superconducting Fluctuations above T c and pair breaking parameters of two dimensional Niobium Nitride Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, B.; Ezaki, S.; Odou, T.; Makise, K.; Asano, T.

    2018-03-01

    Transport properties have been investigated for the epitaxial superconducting NbN thin films. We analysed the excess conductance σ’ ≡ σ(T) - σN by the sum of the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) and Maki-Thompson (MT) terms for thermal fluctuations above T c, where the σN ≡1/R sq N is the normal state sheet conductance. We have found that the theoretical expression σ’theo (T) = σ’AL (T) + σ’MT (T,δ) can be well fitted to σ’exp (T) with use of the suitable value of the pair breaking parameter δ in the MT term relating to the inelastic scattering rate 1/τin(T) as δ = πħ/8k B Tτin. The rate 1/τin(T) given by the sum of 1/τfluc(T), 1/τe-e(T) and 1/τe-ph (T) is determined from the analysis of the magneto-conductance Δσ = σ(H) – σ(0) by the sum of AL, MT and the localization terms, where the first, second and third terms correspond to the rate due to the superconducting fluctuation effect, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, respectively. The R sq N dependence of δ is expressed by δ = δ0 + αR sq N, where the first term δ0 due to 1/τe-ph (T) and the second term due to the sum of 1/τfluc(T) and 1/τe-e(T). Although we obtained a reasonable value of Debye temperature ΘD ≈630 K from the δ0, the magnitude of the α is about 5 times larger than the theoretical value.

  11. The pulse-pair algorithm as a robust estimator of turbulent weather spectral parameters using airborne pulse Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Lee, Jonggil

    1991-01-01

    The pulse pair method for spectrum parameter estimation is commonly used in pulse Doppler weather radar signal processing since it is economical to implement and can be shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator. With the use of airborne weather radar for windshear detection, the turbulent weather and strong ground clutter return spectrum differs from that assumed in its derivation, so the performance robustness of the pulse pair technique must be understood. Here, the effect of radar system pulse to pulse phase jitter and signal spectrum skew on the pulse pair algorithm performance is discussed. Phase jitter effect may be significant when the weather return signal to clutter ratio is very low and clutter rejection filtering is attempted. The analysis can be used to develop design specifications for airborne radar system phase stability. It is also shown that the weather return spectrum skew can cause a significant bias in the pulse pair mean windspeed estimates, and that the poly pulse pair algorithm can reduce this bias. It is suggested that use of a spectrum mode estimator may be more appropriate in characterizing the windspeed within a radar range resolution cell for detection of hazardous windspeed gradients.

  12. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function studies

    SciTech Connect

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun

    2015-01-30

    Different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements are explored and described for quantitative studies on nanomaterials. It is found that the most accurate approach to determine the camera length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  13. Controlled finite momentum pairing and spatially varying order parameter in proximitized HgTe quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Sean; Ren, Hechen; Kosowsky, Michael; Ben-Shach, Gilad; Leubner, Philipp; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; Halperin, Bertrand; Yacoby, Amir

    Conventional s-wave superconductivity arises from singlet pairing of electrons with opposite Fermi momenta, forming Cooper pairs with zero net momentum. Recent studies have focused on coupling s-wave superconductors to systems with an unusual configuration of electronic spin and momentum at the Fermi surface, where the nature of the paired state can be modified and the system may even undergo a topological phase transition. Here we present measurements on Josephson junctions based on HgTe quantum wells coupled to aluminum or niobium superconductors, and subject to a magnetic field in the plane of the quantum well. We observe that the in-plane magnetic field modulates the Fraunhofer interference pattern, and that this modulation depends both on electron density and on the direction of the in-plane field with respect to the junction. However, the orientation of the junction with respect to the underlying crystal lattice does not impact the measurements. These findings suggest that spin-orbit coupling plays a role in the observed behavior, and that measurements of Josephson junctions in the presence of an in-plane field can elucidate the Fermi surface properties of the weak link material. NSF DMR-1206016; STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant No. DMR-1231319; NSF GRFP under Grant DGE1144152, Microsoft Corporation Project Q.

  14. Modeling age differences in effects of pair repetition and proactive interference using a single parameter.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Joseph D W; Overman, Amy A

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we apply the REM model (Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997) to age differences in associative memory. Using Criss and Shiffrin's (2005) associative version of REM, we show that in a task with pairs repeated across 2 study lists, older adults' reduced benefit of pair repetition can be produced by a general reduction in the diagnosticity of information stored in memory. This reduction can be modeled similarly well by reducing the overall distinctiveness of memory features, or by reducing the accuracy of memory encoding. We report a new experiment in which pairs are repeated across 3 study lists and extend the model accordingly. Finally, we extend the model to previously reported data using the same task paradigm, in which the use of a high-association strategy introduced proactive interference effects in young adults but not older adults. Reducing the diagnosticity of information in memory also reduces the proactive interference effect. Taken together, the modeling and empirical results reported here are consistent with the claim that some age differences that appear to be specific to associative information can be produced via general degradation of information stored in memory. The REM model provides a useful framework for examining age differences in memory as well as harmonizing seemingly conflicting prior modeling approaches for the associative deficit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Comprehensive derivation of bond-valence parameters for ion pairs involving oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Published two-body bond-valence parameters for cation–oxygen bonds have been evaluated via the root mean-square deviation (RMSD) from the valence-sum rule for 128 cations, using 180 194 filtered bond lengths from 31 489 coordination polyhedra. Values of the RMSD range from 0.033–2.451 v.u. (1.1–40.9% per unit of charge) with a weighted mean of 0.174 v.u. (7.34% per unit of charge). The set of best published parameters has been determined for 128 ions and used as a benchmark for the determination of new bond-valence parameters in this paper. Two common methods for the derivation of bond-valence parameters have been evaluated: (1) fixing B and solving for R o; (2) the graphical method. On a subset of 90 ions observed in more than one coordination, fixing B at 0.37 Å leads to a mean weighted-RMSD of 0.139 v.u. (6.7% per unit of charge), while graphical derivation gives 0.161 v.u. (8.0% per unit of charge). The advantages and disadvantages of these (and other) methods of derivation have been considered, leading to the conclusion that current methods of derivation of bond-valence parameters are not satisfactory. A new method of derivation is introduced, the GRG (generalized reduced gradient) method, which leads to a mean weighted-RMSD of 0.128 v.u. (6.1% per unit of charge) over the same sample of 90 multiple-coordination ions. The evaluation of 19 two-parameter equations and 7 three-parameter equations to model the bond-valence–bond-length relation indicates that: (1) many equations can adequately describe the relation; (2) a plateau has been reached in the fit for two-parameter equations; (3) the equation of Brown & Altermatt (1985 ▸) is sufficiently good that use of any of the other equations tested is not warranted. Improved bond-valence parameters have been derived for 135 ions for the equation of Brown & Altermatt (1985 ▸) in terms of both the cation and anion bond-valence sums using the GRG method and our complete data set. PMID

  16. Lithium Abundance in M3 Red Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Rashad; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance of lithium in the red giant star vZ 1050 (SK 291) in the globular cluster M3. A previous survey of giants in the cluster showed that like IV-101, vZ 1050 displays a prominent Li I 6707 Å feature. vZ 1050 lies on the blue side of the red giant branch about 1.3 magnitudes above the level of the horizontal branch, and may be an asymptotic giant branch star. A high resolution spectrum of M3 vZ1050 was obtained with the ARC 3.5m telescope and the ARC Echelle Spectrograph (ARCES). Atmospheric parameters were determined using Fe I and Fe II lines from the spectrum using the MOOG spectral analysis program, and the lithium abundance was determined using spectrum synthesis.

  17. Derivation of Pitzer Interaction Parameters for an Aqueous Species Pair of Sodium and Iron(II)-Citrate Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J. H.; Nemer, M.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. The WIPP is located in the Permian Delaware Basin near Carlsbad, New Mexico, U.S.A. The TRU waste includes, but is not limited to, iron-based alloys and the complexing agent, citric acid. Iron is also present from the steel used in the waste containers. The objective of this analysis is to derive the Pitzer activity coefficients for the pair of Na+ and FeCit- complex to expand current WIPP thermodynamic database. An aqueous model for the dissolution of Fe(OH)2(s) in a Na3Cit solution was fitted to the experimentally measured solubility data. The aqueous model consists of several chemical reactions and related Pitzer interaction parameters. Specifically, Pitzer interaction parameters for the Na+ and FeCit- pair (β(0), β(1), and Cφ) plus the stability constant for species of FeCit- were fitted to the experimental data. Anoxic gloveboxes were used to keep the oxygen level low (<1 ppm) throughout the experiments due to redox sensitivity. EQ3NR, a computer program for geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations, packaged in EQ3/6 v.8.0a, calculates the aqueous speciation and saturation index using an aqueous model addressed in EQ3/6's database. The saturation index indicates how far the system is from equilibrium with respect to the solid of interest. Thus, the smaller the sum of squared saturation indices that the aqueous model calculates for the given number of experiments, the more closely the model attributes equilibrium to each individual experiment with respect to the solid of interest. The calculation of aqueous speciation and saturation indices was repeated by adjusting stability constant of FeCit-, β(0), β(1), and Cφ in the database until the values are found that make the sum of squared saturation indices the smallest for the given number of experiments. Results will be presented at the time of

  18. On the correlations between the polyhedron eccentricity parameters and the bond-valence sums for the cations with one lone electron pair.

    PubMed

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2008-08-01

    Applicability of the Wang-Liebau polyhedron eccentricity parameter in the bond-valence model [Wang & Liebau (2007). Acta Cryst. B63, 216-228] has been found to be doubtful: the correlations between the values of the polyhedron eccentricity parameters and the bond-valence sums calculated for the cations with one lone electron pair are probably an artifact of the poorly determined bond-valence parameters.

  19. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function (ePDF) studies

    SciTech Connect

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun

    2015-02-01

    We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  20. Assessing the Interplay between the Physicochemical Parameters of Ion-Pairing Reagents and the Analyte Sequence on the Electrospray Desorption Process for Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiri, Babak; Murph, Mandi M.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2017-08-01

    Alkylamines are widely used as ion-pairing agents during LC-MS of oligonucleotides. In addition to a better chromatographic separation, they also assist with the desorption of oligonucleotide ions into the gas phase, cause charge state reduction, and decrease cation adduction. However, the choice of such ion-pairing agents has considerable influence on the MS signal intensity of oligonucleotides as they can also cause significant ion suppression. Interestingly, optimal ion-pairing agents should be selected on a case by case basis as their choice is strongly influenced by the sequence of the oligonucleotide under investigation. Despite imposing major practical difficulties to analytical method development, such a highly variable system that responds very strongly to the nuances of the electrospray composition provides an excellent opportunity for a fundamental study of the electrospray ionization process. Our investigations using this system quantitatively revealed the major factors that influenced the ESI ionization efficiency of oligonucleotides. Parameters such as boiling point, proton affinity, partition coefficient, water solubility, and Henry's law constants for the ion-pairing reagents and the hydrophobic thymine content of the oligonucleotides were found to be the most significant contributors. Identification of these parameters also allowed for the development of a statistical predictive algorithm that can assist with the choice of an optimum IP agent for each particular oligonucleotide sequence. We believe that research in the field of oligonucleotide bioanalysis will significantly benefit from this algorithm (included in Supplementary Material) as it advocates for the use of lesser-known but more suitable ion-pair alternatives to TEA for many oligonucleotide sequences.

  1. Using paired visual and passive acoustic surveys to estimate passive acoustic detection parameters for harbor porpoise abundance estimates.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Eiren K; Forney, Karin A; Barlow, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is a promising approach for monitoring long-term trends in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance. Before passive acoustic monitoring can be implemented to estimate harbor porpoise abundance, information about the detectability of harbor porpoise is needed to convert recorded numbers of echolocation clicks to harbor porpoise densities. In the present study, paired data from a grid of nine passive acoustic click detectors (C-PODs, Chelonia Ltd., United Kingdom) and three days of simultaneous aerial line-transect visual surveys were collected over a 370 km 2 study area. The focus of the study was estimating the effective detection area of the passive acoustic sensors, which was defined as the product of the sound production rate of individual animals and the area within which those sounds are detected by the passive acoustic sensors. Visually estimated porpoise densities were used as informative priors in a Bayesian model to solve for the effective detection area for individual harbor porpoises. This model-based approach resulted in a posterior distribution of the effective detection area of individual harbor porpoises consistent with previously published values. This technique is a viable alternative for estimating the effective detection area of passive acoustic sensors when other experimental approaches are not feasible.

  2. M3 Status and Science Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle

    2007-01-01

    Members of the M3 Science Team will attend the Chandrayaan-I Science Team Meeting in Bangalore, India to present a brief summary of instrument status and the near-term milestones (e.g., final I&T, pre-ship review). The principal purpose of the meeting is to interact with other members of the Chandrayaan-I Science Team to prepare for successful science return. The objectives are: 1) Characterize the diversity and extent of different types of basaltic volcanism; 2) Constrain evolution over time; and 3) Examine high priority regional sites.

  3. All-Fiber Dual-Parameter Sensor Based on Cascaded Long Period Fiber Grating Pair Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser and CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Hao, Jiaqi; Lou, Xiaoping; Dong, Mingli; Zhu, Lianqing

    2018-03-01

    An all-fiber dual-parameter sensor based on cascaded long period grating pair fabricated by femtosecond laser and CO2 laser has been proposed and realized both theoretically and experimentally. The resonant wavelengths of LPFGs are 1557.80 nm and 1590.88 nm. In the strain range of 0-400 με, strain sensitivities are -7.2 pm/με for C-LPFG and -1.6 pm/με for F-LPFG. In the temperature range of 30-70°C, temperature sensitivities are -41.1 pm/°C for C-LPFG and -21.2 pm/°C for F-LPFG. By analyzing the resonant wavelength characterization, the proposed sensor can be efficiently used for dual-parameters measurement with promising application prospect and great research reference value.

  4. Pair Identity and Smooth Variation Rules Applicable for the Spectroscopic Parameters of H2O Transitions Involving High-J States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Lavrentieva, N. N.

    2010-01-01

    Two basic rules (i.e. the pair identity and the smooth variation) applicable for H2O transitions involving high-J states have been discovered. The origins of these rules are the properties of the energy levels and wavefunctions of H2O states with the quantum number J above certain boundaries. As a result, for lines involving high-J states in individually defined groups, all their spectroscopic parameters (i.e. the transition wavenumber, intensity, pressure-broadened half-width, pressure-induced shift, and temperature exponent) must follow these rules. One can use these rules to screen spectroscopic data provided by databases and to identify possible errors. In addition, by using extrapolation methods within the individual groups, one is able to predict the spectroscopic parameters for lines in this group involving very high-J states. The latter are required in developing high-temperature molecular spectroscopic databases such as HITEMP.

  5. Reassessment of the recombination parameters of chromium in n- and p-type crystalline silicon and chromium-boron pairs in p-type crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chang, E-mail: chang.sun@anu.edu.au; Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2014-06-07

    Injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy of both n- and p-type, Cr-doped silicon wafers with different doping levels is used to determine the defect parameters of Cr{sub i} and CrB pairs, by simultaneously fitting the measured lifetimes with the Shockley-Read-Hall model. A combined analysis of the two defects with the lifetime data measured on both n- and p-type samples enables a significant tightening of the uncertainty ranges of the parameters. The capture cross section ratios k = σ{sub n}/σ{sub p} of Cr{sub i} and CrB are determined as 3.2 (−0.6, +0) and 5.8 (−3.4, +0.6), respectively. Courtesy of a direct experimental comparison of the recombinationmore » activity of chromium in n- and p-type silicon, and as also suggested by modelling results, we conclude that chromium has a greater negative impact on carrier lifetimes in p-type silicon than n-type silicon with similar doping levels.« less

  6. Supersymmetric M3-branes and G2 manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2002-01-01

    We obtain a generalisation of the original complete Ricci-flat metric of G2 holonomy on R4×S 3 to a family with a nontrivial parameter λ. For generic λ the solution is singular, but it is regular when λ={-1,0,+1}. The case λ=0 corresponds to the original G2 metric, and λ={-1,1} are related to this by an S3 automorphism of the SU(2) 3 isometry group that acts on the S3× S3 principal orbits. We then construct explicit supersymmetric M3-brane solutions in D=11 supergravity, where the transverse space is a deformation of this class of G2 metrics. These are solutions of a system of first-order differential equations coming from a superpotential. We also find M3-branes in the deformed backgrounds of new G2 holonomy metrics that include one found by A. Brandhuber, J. Gomis, S. Gubser and S. Gukov, and show that they also are supersymmetric.

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-3 - Safe harbor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safe harbor requirements. 1.401(m)-3 Section 1.401(m)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-3 Safe harbor...

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-3 - Safe harbor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safe harbor requirements. 1.401(m)-3 Section 1.401(m)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-3 Safe...

  9. Paired Comparisons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    including multidimensional scaling. Applications have arisen in many areas, but most notably in food technolog, marketing research, and sports ... competition .- An extensive bibliography on paired comparisons by Davidson and Farquhar (1976) contains some 400 references. - Paired comparisons have been...consideration of chess competition . Ford (1957) pro- posed the model independently. Both Zermelo and Ford concentrated on solution of normal equations for

  10. Pick a Pair. Pancake Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pat

    2005-01-01

    Cold February weather and pancakes are a traditional pairing. Pancake Day began as a way to eat up the foods that were abstained from in Lent--traditionally meat, fat, eggs and dairy products. The best-known pancake event is The Pancake Day Race in Buckinghamshire, England, which has been run since 1445. This column describes pairs of books that…

  11. Mesoscopic pairing without superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    We discuss pairing signatures in mesoscopic nanowires with a variable attractive pairing interaction. Depending on the wire length, density, and interaction strength, these systems realize a simultaneous bulk-to-mesoscopic and BCS-BEC crossover, which we describe in terms of the parity parameter that quantifies the odd-even energy difference and generalizes the bulk Cooper pair binding energy to mesoscopic systems. We show that the parity parameter can be extracted from recent measurements of conductance oscillations in SrTiO3 nanowires by Cheng et al. [Nature (London) 521, 196 (2015), 10.1038/nature14398], where it marks the critical magnetic field that separates pair and single-particle currents. Our results place the experiment in the fluctuation-dominated mesoscopic regime on the BCS side of the crossover.

  12. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Michael Scott; Abes, Jeff I.; Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee

    The original M 3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M 3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  13. Modelling of NSTX hot vertical displacement events using M 3 D -C 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S. C.; Krebs, I.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-05-01

    The main results of an intense vertical displacement event (VDE) modelling activity using the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1 are presented. A pair of nonlinear 3D simulations are performed using realistic transport coefficients based on the reconstruction of a so-called NSTX frozen VDE where the feedback control was purposely switched off to trigger a vertical instability. The vertical drift phase is solved assuming axisymmetry until the plasma contacts the first wall, at which point the intricate evolution of the plasma, decaying to large extent in force-balance with induced halo/wall currents, is carefully resolved via 3D nonlinear simulations. The faster 2D nonlinear runs allow to assess the sensitivity of the simulations to parameter changes. In the limit of perfectly conducting wall, the expected linear relation between vertical growth rate and wall resistivity is recovered. For intermediate wall resistivities, the halo region contributes to slowing the plasma down, and the characteristic VDE time depends on the choice of halo temperature. The evolution of the current quench and the onset of 3D halo/eddy currents are diagnosed in detail. The 3D simulations highlight a rich structure of toroidal modes, penetrating inwards from edge to core and cascading from high-n to low-n mode numbers. The break-up of flux-surfaces results in a progressive stochastisation of field-lines precipitating the thermalisation of the plasma with the wall. The plasma current then decays rapidly, inducing large currents in the halo region and the wall. Analysis of normal currents flowing in and out of the divertor plate reveals rich time-varying patterns.

  14. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Analytical Techniques and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Vrionis, H.; Qadi, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Ellery, A.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mann, P.; Samson, C.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Whyte, L.; Wing, B.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3) project is designed to simulate a rover-based search for, and analysis of, methane sources on Mars at a serpentinite open pit mine in Quebec, using a variety of instruments.

  15. The Moon mineralogy mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Head, J.; Isaacson, P.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a NASA-supported guest instrument on ISRO's remote sensing mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1. The M3 is an imaging spectrometer that operates from the visible into the near-infrared (0.42-3.0 ??m) where highly diagnostic mineral absorption bands occur. Over the course of the mission M3 will provide low resolution spectroscopic data for the entire lunar surface at 140 m/pixel (86 spectral channels) to be used as a base-map and high spectral resolution science data (80 m/pixel; 260 spectral channels) for 25-50% of the surface. The detailed mineral assessment of different lunar terrains provided by M3 is principal information needed for understanding the geologic evolution of the lunar crust and lays the foundation for focused future in-depth exploration of the Moon.

  16. Metabolic roles of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor studied with M3 receptor mutant mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Dinesh; Jeon, Jongrye; Li, Jian Hua; Han, Sung-Jun; Hamdan, Fadi F; Cui, Yinghong; Lu, Huiyan; Deng, Chuxia; Gavrilova, Oksana; Wess, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    The M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (M(3) mAChR) is expressed in many central and peripheral tissues. It is a prototypic member of the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors and preferentially activates G proteins of the G(q) family. Recent studies involving the use of newly generated mAChR mutant mice have revealed that the M(3) mAChR plays a key role in regulating many important metabolic functions. Phenotypic analyses of mutant mice that either selectively lacked or overexpressed M(3) receptors in pancreatic beta -cells indicated that beta -cell M(3) mAChRs are essential for maintaining proper insulin release and glucose homeostasis. The experimental data also suggested that strategies aimed at enhancing signaling through beta -cell M(3) mAChRs might be beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies with whole body M(3) mAChR knockout mice showed that the absence of M(3) receptors protected mice against various forms of experimentally or genetically induced obesity and obesity-associated metabolic deficits. Under all experimental conditions tested, M(3) receptor-deficient mice showed greatly ameliorated impairments in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, reduced food intake, and a significant elevation in basal and total energy expenditure, most likely due to increased central sympathetic outflow and increased rate of fatty acid oxidation. These findings are of potential interest for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  17. On the correlations between the polyhedron eccentricity parameters and the bond-valence sums for the cations with one lone electron pair. Addendum.

    PubMed

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2009-06-01

    Systematic variations of the bond-valence sums calculated from the poorly determined bond-valence parameters [Sidey (2008), Acta Cryst. B64, 515-518] have been illustrated using a simple graphical scheme.

  18. Chemical composition of stars in globular clusters: M5, M13, and M3

    SciTech Connect

    Pilachowski, C.A.; Wallerstein, G.; Myckky Leep, E.

    The composition of giant stars in the globular clusters M3, M5, and M13 have been determined by detailed model atmosphere analysis; the average iron deficiencies relative to the Sun are -1.55, -1.33, and -1.42, respectively. Oxygen is overabundant relative to iron in M3 and M5 but not in M13. Differences in the oxygen abundance can account for variation in horizontal-branch morphology; clusters of intermediate metallicity with high oxygen have red horizontal-branch stars, and those with low oxygen have only blue horizontal-branch stars Z/sub cno/ is the second abundance parameter.

  19. Exploring Practical Responses of M3LC for Learning Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrullah; Baharman

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the responses of participants toward Mathematics-Language Literacy Learning Courseware (M3LC) for learning literacy. There are five practical aspects concerned by involving 30 participants in the focus group discussion. In the beginning, participants were given some response sheet and introduced to M3LC by watching learning video of M3LC. At the end, they were asked to concern about response sheet and give comments related what they saw during the introduction session. The results show that the responses of users’ agree and strongly agree are still higher than those of users’ disagree or strongly disagree, with below 30% of responses are in the fair category. It means that the participants tend to give a positive opinion that M3LC is a useful courseware since it is qualified to satisfy 5 practical aspects, including knowledge use, knowledge construction, evaluation practice, social programming, and valuing to support literacy learning. In future, the implementation of using this courseware can be enhanced to further recognition of literacy level so that students can be well-prepared before starting learning activities in the classroom.

  20. Quality Assurance Information for R Packages "aqfig" and "M3"

    EPA Science Inventory

    R packages “aqfig" and “M3" are optional modules for use with R statistical software (http://www.r-project.org). Package “aqfig" contains functions to aid users in the preparation of publication-quality figures for the display of air quality and other environmental data (e.g., le...

  1. Exploring the Mineralogy of the Moon with M3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Green, R.; Head, J. W. III; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.

    2006-01-01

    From the initial era or lunar exploration, we have learned that many processes active on the early Moon are common to most terrestrial planets, including the record of early and late impact bombardment. Since most major geologic activity ceased on the Moon approx. 3 Gy ago, the Moon's surface provides a record of the earliest era of terrestrial planet evolution. The type and composition of minerals that comprise a planetary surface are a direct result of the initial composition and subsequent thermal and physical processing. Lunar mineralogy seen today is thus a direct record of the early evolution of the lunar crust and subsequent geologic processes. Specifically, the distribution and concentration of specific minerals is closely tied to magma ocean products, lenses of intruded or remelted plutons, basaltic volcanism and fire-fountaining, and any process (e.g. cratering) that might redistribute or transform primary and secondary lunar crustal materials. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3, or "m-cube") is a state-of-the-art imaging spectrometer that will fly on Chandrayaan-1, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched late 2007 to early 2008. M3 is one of several foreign instruments chosen by ISRO to be flown on Chandrayaan-1 to complement the strong ISRO payload package. M3 was selected through a peer-review process as part of NASA s Discovery Program. It is under the oversight of PI Carle Pieters at Brown University and is being built by an experienced team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Data analysis and calibration are carried out by a highly qualified and knowledgeable Science Team. To characterize diagnostic properties of lunar minerals, M3 acquires high spectral resolution reflectance data from 700 to 3000 nm (optional to 430 nm). M3 operates as a pushbroom spectrometer with a slit oriented orthogonal to the S/C orbital motion. Measurements are obtained simultaneously for 640 cross track spatial elements and 261 spectral elements

  2. Inhibition of m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by local anaesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Hollmann, Markus W; Ritter, Carsten H; Henle, Philipp; de Klaver, Manuela; Kamatchi, Ganesan L; Durieux, Marcel E

    2001-01-01

    Muscarinic m1 receptors are inhibited by local anaesthetics (LA) at nM concentrations. To elucidate in more detail the site(s) of LA interaction, we compared these findings with LA effects on m3 muscarinic receptors. We expressed receptors in Xenopus oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage clamp, we measured the effects of lidocaine, QX314 (permanently charged) and benzocaine (permanently uncharged) on Ca2+-activated Cl−-currents (ICl(Ca)), elicited by acetyl-β-methylcholine bromide (MCh). We also characterized the interaction of lidocaine with [3H]-quinuclydinyl benzylate ([3H]-QNB) binding to m3 receptors. Antisense-injection was used to determine the role of specific G-protein α subunits in mediating the inhibitory effects of LA. Using chimeric receptor constructs we investigated which domains of the muscarinic receptors contribute to the binding site for LA. Lidocaine inhibited m3-signalling in a concentration-dependent, reversible, non-competitive manner with an IC50 of 370 nM, approximately 21 fold higher than the IC50 (18 nM) reported for m1 receptors. Intracellular inhibition of both signalling pathways by LA was similar, and dependent on the Gq- protein α subunit. In contrast to results reported for the m1 receptor, the m3 receptor lacks the major extracellular binding site for charged LA. The N-terminus and third extracellular loop of the m1 muscarinic receptor molecule were identified as requirements to obtain extracellular inhibition by charged LA. PMID:11325812

  3. The association between male infertility and sperm disomy: Evidence for variation in disomy levels among individuals and a correlation between particular semen parameters and disomy of specific chromosome pairs

    PubMed Central

    Tempest, Helen G; Homa, Sheryl T; Dalakiouridou, Maria; Christopikou, Dimitra; Wright, David; Zhai, Xiao P; Griffin, Darren K

    2004-01-01

    Background The association between infertility and sperm disomy is well documented. Results vary but most report that men with severely compromised semen parameters have a significantly elevated proportion of disomic sperm. The relationship between individual semen parameters and segregation of specific chromosome pairs is however less well reported as is the variation of disomy levels in individual men. Methods In order to address these questions the technique of fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) was utilised to determine the disomy levels of chromosomes X, Y and 21 in 43 sperm samples from 19 infertile males. The results generated from this study were analysed using logistic regression. Results In this study we compared levels of sperm concentration, motility and morphology with levels of sperm disomy for chromosome 21 and the sex chromosomes. Our results suggest that there is considerable variation in disomy levels for certain men. They also suggest that oligozoospermic males have significantly elevated levels of sex chromosome disomy but not disomy 21; they suggest that severe asthenozoospermic males have significantly elevated levels of disomy 21 but not sex chromosome disomy. Surprisingly, severe teratozoopsermic males appeared to have significantly lower levels of sperm disomy for both the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21. Conclusion We suggest that the association between sex chromosome disomy and oligozoospermia may be due to reduced recombination in the XY pairing region and discuss the relevance of our findings for the correlations between sperm disomy and sperm motility and morphology. PMID:15598347

  4. The association between male infertility and sperm disomy: evidence for variation in disomy levels among individuals and a correlation between particular semen parameters and disomy of specific chromosome pairs.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Helen G; Homa, Sheryl T; Dalakiouridou, Maria; Christopikou, Dimitra; Wright, David; Zhai, Xiao P; Griffin, Darren K

    2004-12-14

    The association between infertility and sperm disomy is well documented. Results vary but most report that men with severely compromised semen parameters have a significantly elevated proportion of disomic sperm. The relationship between individual semen parameters and segregation of specific chromosome pairs is however less well reported as is the variation of disomy levels in individual men. In order to address these questions the technique of fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) was utilised to determine the disomy levels of chromosomes X, Y and 21 in 43 sperm samples from 19 infertile males. The results generated from this study were analysed using logistic regression. In this study we compared levels of sperm concentration, motility and morphology with levels of sperm disomy for chromosome 21 and the sex chromosomes. Our results suggest that there is considerable variation in disomy levels for certain men. They also suggest that oligozoospermic males have significantly elevated levels of sex chromosome disomy but not disomy 21; they suggest that severe asthenozoospermic males have significantly elevated levels of disomy 21 but not sex chromosome disomy. Surprisingly, severe teratozoopsermic males appeared to have significantly lower levels of sperm disomy for both the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21. We suggest that the association between sex chromosome disomy and oligozoospermia may be due to reduced recombination in the XY pairing region and discuss the relevance of our findings for the correlations between sperm disomy and sperm motility and morphology.

  5. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify themore » binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.« less

  6. The critical boundary RSOS M(3,5) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Deeb, O.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the critical nonunitary minimal model M(3, 5) with integrable boundaries and analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory using the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz ( TBA) equations. Solving the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A 4 restricted solid-on-solid Forrester-Baxter lattice model in regime III in the continuum scaling limit, we derive the integral TBA equations for all excitations in the ( r, s) = (1, 1) sector and then determine their corresponding energies. We classify the excitations in terms of ( m, n) systems.

  7. The Chemical Composition Contrast between M3 and M13 Revisited: New Abundances for 28 Giant Stars in M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Fulbright, Jon P.

    2004-04-01

    We report new chemical abundances of 23 bright red giant members of the globular cluster M3, based on high-resolution (R~45,000) spectra obtained with the Keck I telescope. The observations, which involve the use of multislits in the HIRES Keck I spectrograph, are described in detail. Combining these data with a previously reported small sample of M3 giants obtained with the Lick 3 m telescope, we compare metallicities and [X/Fe] ratios for 28 M3 giants with a 35-star sample in the similar-metallicity cluster M13, and with Galactic halo field stars having [Fe/H]<-1. For elements having atomic number A>=A(Si), we derive little difference in [X/Fe] ratios in the M3, M13, or halo field samples. All three groups exhibit C depletion with advancing evolutionary state beginning at the level of the red giant branch ``bump,'' but the overall depletion of about 0.7-0.9 dex seen in the clusters is larger than that associated with the field stars. The behaviors of O, Na, Mg, and Al are distinctively different among the three stellar samples. Field halo giants and subdwarfs have a positive correlation of Na with Mg, as predicted from explosive or hydrostatic carbon burning in Type II supernova sites. Both M3 and M13 show evidence of high-temperature proton-capture synthesis from the ON, NeNa, and MgAl cycles, while there is no evidence for such synthesis among halo field stars. But the degree of such extreme proton-capture synthesis in M3 is smaller than it is in M13: the M3 giants exhibit only modest deficiencies of O and corresponding enhancements of Na, less extreme overabundances of Al, fewer stars with low Mg and correspondingly high Na, and no indication that O depletions are a function of advancing evolutionary state, as has been claimed for M13. We have also considered NGC 6752, for which Mg isotopic abundances have been reported by Yong et al. Giants in NGC 6752 and M13 satisfy the same anticorrelation of O abundances with the ratio (25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg, which measures the

  8. Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin

    The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemesmore » have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.« less

  9. Structure and Dynamics of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jurgen; Kobilka, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), the first neurotransmitter to be identified1, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate.2–4 Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences.5–6 We describe here the structure of the Gq/11-coupled M3 mAChR bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the Gi/o-coupled M2 receptor, offers new possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows the first structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and raise additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer new insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors. PMID:22358844

  10. To pair or not to pair: chromosome pairing and evolution.

    PubMed

    Moore, G

    1998-04-01

    Chromosome pairing in wild-type wheat closely resembles the process in both yeast and Drosophila. The recent characterisation of a mutant Ph1 wheat and the observation that chromosome pairing in the absence of Ph1 more closely resembles that of mammals and maize has shed light on the evolution of chromosome pairing in the cereals.

  11. AT on Buried LPG Tanks Over 13 m3: An Innovative and Practical Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fratta, Crescenzo; Ferraro, Antonio; Tscheliesnig, Peter; Lackner, Gerald; Correggia, Vincenzo; Altamura, Nicola

    In Italy, since 2005, techniques based on Acoustic Emission have been introduced for testing of underground LPG tanks up to 13 m3, according to the European standard EN 12818:2004. The testing procedure for these tanks plans to install one or more pairs of sensors inside the "dome" suited for the access to the valves and fittings of the tank, directly on the accessible metal shell. This methodology is not applicable for the underground LPG buried tanks, where it is necessary to install a larger number of AE sensors, in order to cover at 100% the whole tank shell, even at very deep positions. Already in 2004, the European standard EN 12820 (Appendix C - Informative)give the possibility to use Acoustic Emission testing of LPG underground or buried tanks with a capacity exceeding 13 m3, but no technique was specified for the application. In 2008, TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS srl - Italian company of TÜV AUSTRIA Group - has developed a technique to get access at tank shell, where tank capacity is greater than 13 m3 and its' diameter greater than 3,5 m. This methodology was fully in comply with the provisions of the European Standard EN 12819:2010, becoming an innovative solution widely appreciated and is used in Italy since this time. Currently, large companies and petrochemical plants, at the occurrence of the tank's requalification, have engaged TÜV AUSTRIA ITALIA - BLU SOLUTIONS to install such permanent predispositions, which allow access to the tank shell - test object - with diameters from 4 to 8 m. Through this access, you can install the AE sensors needed to cover at 100% the tank surface and then to perform AE test. In an economic crisis period, this technique is proving a valid and practically applicable answer, in order to reduce inspection costs and downtime by offering a technically advanced solution (AT), increasing the safety of the involved operators, protecting natural resources and the environment.

  12. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside.

  13. The Evolutionary Status of M3 RR Lyrae Variable Stars: Breakdown of the Canonical Framework?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to test the prevailing paradigm of horizontal-branch (HB) stellar evolution, we use the large databases of measured RR Lyrae parameters for the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272) recently provided by Bakos et al. and Corwin & Carney. We compare the observed distribution of fundamentalized periods against the predictions of synthetic HBs. The observed distribution shows a sharp peak at Pf~0.55 days, which is primarily due to the RRab variables, whereas the model predictions instead indicate that the distribution should be more uniform in Pf, with a buildup of variables with shorter periods (Pf<0.5 days). Detailed statistical tests show, for the first time, that the observed and predicted distributions are incompatible with one another at a high significance level. This indicates either that canonical HB models are inappropriate, or that M3 is a pathological case that cannot be considered representative of the Oosterhoff type I (OoI) class. In this sense, we show that the OoI cluster with the next largest number of RR Lyrae variables, M5 (NGC 5904), presents a similar, although less dramatic, challenge to the models. We show that the sharp peak in the M3 period distribution receives a significant contribution from the Blazhko variables in the cluster. We also show that M15 (NGC 7078) and M68 (NGC 4590) show similar peaks in their Pf distributions, which in spite of being located at a Pf value similar to that of M3, can, however, be primarily ascribed to the RRc variables. Again similar to M3, a demise of RRc variables toward the blue edge of the instability strip is also identified in these two globulars. This is again in sharp contrast to the evolutionary scenario, which also foresees a strong buildup of RRc variables with short periods in OoII globulars. We speculate that in OoI systems RRab variables may somehow get ``trapped'' close to the transition line between RRab and RRc pulsators as they evolve to the blue in the H-R diagram, whereas in OoII systems it

  14. Hemopoietic tissue in newts flown aboard Foton M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaratskaya, Elena I.; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Poplinskaya, Valentina A.; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike

    The effect of 12-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M3 biosatellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts was studied. These animals used at the same time in regeneration experiments after lens and tail tip amputation. In flight and synchronous groups there were performed video recording, temperature and radiation monitoring and continuous contact (via skin) with thymidine analog BrdU. We took differential blood counts and assessed histologically the liver in the flight (F), basal (BC) and synchronous (SC)control groups of animals. In the peripheral blood, we identified neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Lymphocytes (L) and neutrophils (N) prevailed, accounting for about 60 and 20% of white blood cells, respectively. The spaceflight had no apparent effect on the differential blood count in the F group: neither the L and N contents nor the maturing to mature N - ratio differed from those in the control groups. No significant differences between F, SC and BC groups were observed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic areas and the liver morphology. As in Foton-M2, BrdU labeled cells revealed in blood as well as in the hemopoietic areas of the liver. However, in previous experiments performed at satellites Bion-10 and Foton-M2 the changes in peripheral blood contents were registered in operated F newts, and we supposed it could be the result of additive effects of spaceflight factors and stimulation of reparative potency and stress due to surgical operation. Possibly, the temperature conditions also may provide some influence on blood cell content of newts that belong to poikilothermic animals. Thus, in present experiment F and SC groups were reared in the same temperature regims, whereas it was nearly 3o C differences between SC and F groups exposed on Foton-M2. At the same time as it was found in experiments on Bion-11 and Foton-M2 spaceflight factors did not affect on differential blood counts of intact non

  15. Cyclic fatigue resistance, torsional resistance, and metallurgical characteristics of M3 Rotary and M3 Pro Gold NiTi files

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the mechanical properties and metallurgical characteristics of the M3 Rotary and M3 Pro Gold files (United Dental). Materials and Methods One hundred and sixty new M3 Rotary and M3 Pro Gold files (sizes 20/0.04 and 25/0.04) were used. Torque and angle of rotation at failure (n = 20) were measured according to ISO 3630-1. Cyclic fatigue resistance was tested by measuring the number of cycles to failure in an artificial stainless steel canal (60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius). The metallurgical characteristics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results Comparing the same size of the 2 different instruments, cyclic fatigue resistance was significantly higher in the M3 Pro Gold files than in the M3 Rotary files (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the files in the maximum torque load, while a significantly higher angular rotation to fracture was observed for M3 Pro Gold (p < 0.05). In the DSC analysis, the M3 Pro Gold files showed one prominent peak on the heating curve and 2 prominent peaks on the cooling curve. In contrast, the M3 Rotary files showed 1 small peak on the heating curve and 1 small peak on the cooling curve. Conclusions The M3 Pro Gold files showed greater flexibility and angular rotation than the M3 Rotary files, without decrement of their torque resistance. The superior flexibility of M3 Pro Gold files can be attributed to their martensite phase. PMID:29765904

  16. Electrodynamics of the stratosphere using 5000 m3 superpressure balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    Recently the U. S. National Science Foundation and NASA have begun support of a long duration balloon-borne experiment to study electrical properties of the upper atmosphere. This research project titled EMA (Electrodynamics of the Middle Atmopshere) involves the design of a microprocessor controlled payload and the launch of up to eight small superpressure balloons during 1982 through early 1984. The primary payload instrument will measure the vector electric field from DC to 10 kHz and the payloads will include instruments to measure local ionization, electrical conductivity, magnetic field, pressure and temperature fluctuations and to record optical lightning. Measurement of these parameters in the stratosphere from a few balloons simultaneously for periods extending over a few solar rotations will enable us to study (1) electrical coupling between the atmosphere and magnetosphere, (2) global current systems, (3) global response to solar flares and magnetospheric storms and many other outstanding problems. In order to obtain long duration flights, it is necessary to fly in the southern hemisphere where the balloons are expected to circle the globe dozens of times in their lifetimes. Thus the balloons will be out of direct communication with any one ground station most of the time so the telemetry will be relayed via satellite. This severely limits the data rates resulting in the need for on-board data processing. This is accomplished through the use of dual microcomputers for data analysis and for telemetry formatting. This talk will concentrate on a description of our payload design as driven by the scientific requirements. Examples of the types of electric field signatures we expect to be able to distinguish will also be presented.

  17. M3D-K Simulations of Beam-Driven Alfven Eigenmodes in ASDEX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Fu, Guoyong; Lauber, Philipp; Schneller, Mirjam

    2013-10-01

    Core-localized Alfven eigenmodes are often observed in neutral beam-heated plasma in ASDEX-U tokamak. In this work, hybrid simulations with the global kinetic/MHD hybrid code M3D-K have been carried out to investigate the linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of beam-driven Alfven eigenmodes using experimental parameters and profiles of an ASDEX-U discharge. The safety factor q profile is weakly reversed with minimum q value about qmin = 3.0. The simulation results show that the n = 3 mode transits from a reversed shear Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) to a core-localized toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) as qmin drops from 3.0 to 2.79, consistent with results from the stability code NOVA as well as the experimental measurement. The M3D-K results are being compared with those of the linear gyrokinetic stability code LIGKA for benchmark. The simulation results will also be compared with the measured mode frequency and mode structure. This work was funded by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics.

  18. Geochemical and mineralogical analysis of Gruithuisen region on Moon using M3 and DIVINER images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, K. N.; Sebastian, N.; Murty, S. V. S.

    2012-07-01

    Spectral information from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 and DIVINER Lunar Radiometer onboard LRO have been used for geochemical and mineralogical characterisation of the Gruithuisen region on Moon along with morphometrical information from LOLA Digital elevation model. The apparent reflectance of M3 on global mode is used for (1) spectral characterisation (2) estimating the abundance of Ti and Fe using Lucey's method and (3) discriminating non-mare region from mare regions by means of Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transform and Integrated Band Depth (IBD) parameters. Christensen frequency (CF) value derived from DIVINER data is used to delineate the silica saturated lithology from the undersaturated rocks as well as to delineate their spatial spread. Low values of FeO, TiO2, and IBD indicate non-mare nature of the domes and highland material, also supplemented by CF values. The highland rocks represent signatures of sodic plagioclase, the end result of plagioclase crystallisation from Lunar Magma Ocean. Compositional variations are observed among the domes. NW dome has highest silica concentration than the other two domes and in turn higher viscosity. It is most likely that the three domes tapped residual liquid from different locations of the residual magma chamber which is in constant mixing. The extrusion is probably a localised phenomenon, where urKREEP welled out along the zone of crustal weakness formed by Imbrium Impact. It is likely that δ dome has extruded over a larger time span than other two features.

  19. Two-Fluid Extensions to the M3D CDX-U Validation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, J.; Strauss, H.; Sugiyama, L.

    2005-10-01

    As part of a cross-code verification and validation effort, both the M3D code [1] and the NIMROD code [2] have qualitatively reproduced the nonlinear behavior of a complete sawtooth cycle in the CDX-U tokamak, chosen for the study because its low temperature and small size puts it in a parameter regime easily accessible to both codes. Initial M3D studies on this problem used a resistive MHD model with a large, empirical perpendicular heat transport value and with modest toroidal resolution (24 toroidal planes). The success of this study prompted the pursuit of more quantitatively accurate predictions by the application of more sophisticated physical models and higher numerical resolution. The results of two consequent follow-up studies are presented here. In the first, the toroidal resolution of the original run is doubled to 48 planes. The behavior of the sawtooth in this case is essentially the same as in the lower- resolution study. The sawtooth study has also been repeated using a two-fluid plasma model, with the effects of the &*circ;i term emphasized. The resulting mode rotation, as well as the effects on the reconnection rate (sawtooth crash time), sawtooth period, and overall stability are presented. [1] W. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). [2] C. Sovinec, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004).

  20. Pairing induced superconductivity in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, Andrey; Meszena, Balazs; Schalm, Koenraad

    2014-09-01

    We study pairing induced superconductivity in large N strongly coupled systems at finite density using holography. In the weakly coupled dual gravitational theory the mechanism is conventional BCS theory. An IR hard wall cut-off is included to ensure that we can controllably address the dynamics of a single confined Fermi surface. We address in detail the interplay between the scalar order parameter field and fermion pairing. Adding an explicitly dynamical scalar operator with the same quantum numbers as the fermion-pair, the theory experiences a BCS/BEC crossover controlled by the relative scaling dimensions. We find the novel result that this BCS/BEC crossover exposes resonances in the canonical expectation value of the scalar operator. This occurs not only when the scaling dimension is degenerate with the Cooper pair, but also with that of higher derivative paired operators. We speculate that a proper definition of the order parameter which takes mixing with these operators into account stays finite nevertheless.

  1. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyun Jin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2010-02-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M(3) is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P(3). This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K(+) channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca(2+) currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca(2+) currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level.

  2. QCD pairing in primordial nuggets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    We analyze the problem of boiling and surface evaporation of quark nuggets in the cosmological quark-hadron transition. Recently, it has been shown that QCD pairing modifies the stability properties of strange quark matter. More specifically, strange quark matter in a color-flavor locked state was found to be absolutely stable for a much wider range of the parameters than ordinary unpaired strange quark matter (G. Lugones and J. E. Horvath, Phys. Rev. D, 66, 074017 (2002)). Assuming that primordial quark nuggets are actually formed we analyze the consequences of pairing on the rates of boiling and surface evaporation in order to determine whether they could have survived.

  3. N = 2 supersymmetry and Bailey pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Alexander; McCoy, Barry M.; Schilling, Anne

    1996-02-01

    We demonstrate that the Bailey pair formulation of Rogers-Ramanujan identities unifies the calculations of the characters of N = 1 and N = 2 supersymmetric conformal field theories with the counterpart theory with no supersymmetry. We illustrate this construction for the M(3,4) (Ising) model where the Bailey pairs have been given by Slater. We then present the general unitary case. We demonstrate that the model M( p,p + 1) is derived from M( p - 1, p) by a Bailey renormalization flow and conclude by obtaining the N = 1 model SM( p,p + 2) and the unitary N = 2 model with central charge c = 3(1 - 2/ p).

  4. Thermal Pairing in Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Nguyen Dinh

    2008-04-01

    The modified Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (MHFB) theory at finite temperature is derived for finite nuclei.1 In the limit of constant pairing parameter, the MHFB theory yields the modified BCS (MBCS) theory.2 These are the microscopic theories that can describe the crossover region at temperature T around the critical value Tc of the BCS superfluid-normal (SN) phase transition. By requiring the unitarity conservation of the particle-density matrix, the derivation of these theories is achieved by constructing a modified quasiparticle density matrix, where the fluctuation of the quasiparticle number is microscopically built in. This matrix can be directly obtained from the usual quasiparticle-density matrix by applying the secondary Bogoliubov transformation, which includes the quasiparticle occupation number. The calculations of the thermal pairing gap, total energy, heat capacity, quasiparticle and pairing correlation functions were carried out within MBCS theory for the Richardson model3 as well as realistic single-particle spectra. The Richardson model under consideration has varying Ω equidistant levels and N particles with a level distant equal to 1 MeV. It is shown that the limitation of the configuration space sets a limiting temperature TM up to which the MBCS theory can be applied. Enlarging the space in the half-filled case (Ω = N) by one valence level (Ω = N + 1) extends TM to a much higher temperature so that the predictions by the MBCS theory can be compared directly with the exact results up to T ~ 4 - 5 MeV even for small N. The MBCS gap does not collapse, but decreases monotonously with increasing T. The total energy and heat capacity predicted by the MBCS theory are closer to the exact results than those predicted by the BCS theory, especially in the region of the SN phase transition predicted within the BCS theory. The discontinuity in the BCS heat capacity at the critical temperature Tc is smoothed out within the MBCS theory, especially for small N

  5. RPI-AM and RPI-AF, a pair of mesh-based, size-adjustable adult male and female computational phantoms using ICRP-89 parameters and their calculations for organ doses from monoenergetic photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juying; Hum Na, Yong; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces—a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and size of individual organs, as well as the body posture. A set of surface mesh models, from Anatomium™ 3D P1 V2.0, including 140 organs (out of 500 available) was adopted to supply the basic anatomical representation at the organ level. The organ masses were carefully adjusted to agree within 0.5% relative error with the reference values provided in the ICRP Publication 89. The finalized phantoms have been designated the RPI adult male (RPI-AM) and adult female (RPI-AF) phantoms. For the purposes of organ dose calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code, these phantoms were subsequently converted to voxel formats. Monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV in six standard external photon source geometries were considered in this study: four parallel beams (anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral and right lateral), one rotational and one isotropic. The results are tabulated as fluence-to-organ-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients and fluence-to-effective-dose conversion coefficients and compared against those derived from the ICRP computational phantoms, REX and REGINA. A general agreement was found for the effective dose from these two sets of phantoms for photon energies greater than about 300 keV. However, for low-energy photons and certain individual organs, the absorbed doses exhibit profound differences due to specific anatomical features. For example, the position of the arms affects the dose to the lung by more than 20% below 300 keV in the lateral source directions, and the vertical position of the testes

  6. [Anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies and Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka, Mana; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Sumida, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that affects exocrine glands including salivary and lacrimal glands. It is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration into exocrine glands, leading to dry mouth and eyes. A number of auto-antibodies are detected in patients with SS. However, no SS-specific pathologic auto-antibodies have yet been found in this condition. M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays a crucial role in the secretion of saliva. It is reported that some patients with SS carried inhibitory auto-antibodies against M3R. To clarify the epitopes and function of anti-M3R antibodies in SS, we examined antibodies to the extracellular domains (N terminal region, the first, second, and third extracellular loop) of M3R by ELISA using synthesized peptide antigens encoding these domains in 42 SS and 42 healthy controls (HC). Titers and positivity of anti-M3R antibodies to every extracellular domain of M3R were significantly higher in SS than in HC. Our results indicated the presence of several B cell epitopes on M3R in SS. Moreover, we analyzed the functions of anti-M3R antibodies by Ca(2+)-influx assays using a human salivary gland (HSG) cell line. The functional analysis indicated that the influence of such anti-M3R antibodies on Ca(2+)-influx in HSG cells might differ based on the epitopes to which they bind. Interestingly, both IgG from anti-M3R antibodies to the second extracellular loop positive SS and anti-M3R monoclonal antibodies against the second extracellular loop of M3R, which we generated, suppressed Ca(2+)-influx in the HSG cells induced by cevimeline stimulation. These observations suggested that auto-antibodies against the second extracellular loop of M3R could be involved in salivary dysfunction in patients with SS. These results indicated the presence of several B cell epitopes on M3R in SS and the influence of anti-M3R antibodies on salivary secretion might differ based on these epitopes. Thus, anti-M3R antibodies could be not

  7. Spectroscopy of 50Sc and ab initio calculations of B (M 3 ) strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnsworthy, A. B.; Bowry, M.; Olaizola, B.; Holt, J. D.; Stroberg, S. R.; Cruz, S.; Georges, S.; Hackman, G.; MacLean, A. D.; Measures, J.; Patel, H. P.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    The GRIFFIN spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC has been used to study excited states and transitions in 50Sc following the β decay of 50Ca. Branching ratios were determined from the measured γ -ray intensities, and angular correlations of γ rays have been used to firmly assign the spins of excited states. The presence of an isomeric state that decays by an M 3 transition with a B (M 3 ) strength of 13.6(7) W.u. has been confirmed. We compare the first ab initio calculations of B (M 3 ) strengths in light- and medium-mass nuclei from the valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group approach, using consistently derived effective Hamiltonians and effective M 3 operator. The experimental data are well reproduced for isoscalar M 3 transitions when using bare g factors, but the strength of isovector M 3 transitions are found to be underestimated by an order of magnitude.

  8. Vortex pairs on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Koiller, Jair; Boatto, Stefanella

    2009-05-06

    A pair of infinitesimally close opposite vortices moving on a curved surface moves along a geodesic, according to a conjecture by Kimura. We outline a proof. Numerical simulations are presented for a pair of opposite vortices at a close but nonzero distance on a surface of revolution, the catenoid. We conjecture that the vortex pair system on a triaxial ellipsoid is a KAM perturbation of Jacobi's geodesic problem. We outline some preliminary calculations required for this study. Finding the surfaces for which the vortex pair system is integrable is in order.

  9. The Phenotype performance of M3 red rice mutant (Oryza sativa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, N.; Sjahril, R.; Riadi, M.; Arbie, F.

    2018-05-01

    Local rice genotype generally has colour, flavour and scent more preferred by consumers, yet unfortunately it has long-lived planting period and low production. Therefore, the plant breeding practices in rice needs to be implemented for better rice varieties which are superior in terms of both quality and quantity. Our findings describe the growth character performance and the production of red rice mutant from M3 generation. This study was conducted in the Agriculture Faculty wetlands, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, by using ANOVA test with some red rice mutant genotypes i.e. 7 genotypes mutants (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, G6 and G7) and controls/parent-plants (not the mutant). Results show that there were difference in growth performance and production of red rice mutant. Each parameter observed on each genotype had different results. Mutants produced best response in tillers production were G4 mutant with the tillers grain weight at 99.2 g, whereas by the results of the analysis of rank, mutants showed the best overall response were found in G6 mutants.

  10. Relaxing in Pairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the practice of paired testing of oral languages, noting the lack of published research evidence and of results from the monitoring of these tests to support their introduction into wider use. Questions whether paired testing is more effective than, and a valid alternative to, the more traditional candidate/examiner model. (SM)

  11. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema

    James Valles

    2017-12-09

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  12. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  13. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    . We analysed the hourly changes and the daily light/dark trend in the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, Fv/Fm (Fig.2). Some physiological parameters that characterize the post-flight effect on algae viability and photosynthetic performance were also determined. The dose and particle flux during Foton-M3 flight were monitored in real time by the active spectrum-dosimeter Liulin- Photo, mounted on the top of Photo-II fluorimeter (Fig.2). Liulin-Photo measurements provided information on the amount of the energy released on the samples and the quality of the incident ionizing radiation [3]. The space flight results in relationship with the ground control simulation are discussed.

  14. Dual origin of pairing in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idini, A.; Potel, G.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The pairing correlations of the nucleus 120Sn are calculated by solving the Nambu-Gor'kov equations, including medium polarization effects resulting from the interweaving of quasiparticles, spin and density vibrations, taking into account, within the framework of nuclear field theory (NFT), processes leading to self-energy and vertex corrections and to the induced pairing interaction. From these results one can not only demonstrate the inevitability of the dual origin of pairing in nuclei, but also extract information which can be used at profit to quantitatively disentangle the contributions to the pairing gap Δ arising from the bare and from the induced pairing interaction. The first is the strong 1 S 0 short-range NN potential resulting from meson exchange between nucleons moving in time reversal states within an energy range of hundreds of MeV from the Fermi energy. The second results from the exchange of vibrational modes between nucleons moving within few MeV from the Fermi energy. Short- ( v p bare) and long-range ( v p ind) pairing interactions contribute essentially equally to nuclear Cooper pair stability. That is to the breaking of gauge invariance in open-shell superfluid nuclei and thus to the order parameter, namely to the ground state expectation value of the pair creation operator. In other words, to the emergent property of generalized rigidity in gauge space, and associated rotational bands and Cooper pair tunneling between members of these bands.

  15. Statistical deprojection of galaxy pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottale, Laurent; Chamaraux, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The purpose of the present paper is to provide methods of statistical analysis of the physical properties of galaxy pairs. We perform this study to apply it later to catalogs of isolated pairs of galaxies, especially two new catalogs we recently constructed that contain ≈1000 and ≈13 000 pairs, respectively. We are particularly interested by the dynamics of those pairs, including the determination of their masses. Methods: We could not compute the dynamical parameters directly since the necessary data are incomplete. Indeed, we only have at our disposal one component of the intervelocity between the members, namely along the line of sight, and two components of their interdistance, i.e., the projection on the sky-plane. Moreover, we know only one point of each galaxy orbit. Hence we need statistical methods to find the probability distribution of 3D interdistances and 3D intervelocities from their projections; we designed those methods under the term deprojection. Results: We proceed in two steps to determine and use the deprojection methods. First we derive the probability distributions expected for the various relevant projected quantities, namely intervelocity vz, interdistance rp, their ratio, and the product rp v_z^2, which is involved in mass determination. In a second step, we propose various methods of deprojection of those parameters based on the previous analysis. We start from a histogram of the projected data and we apply inversion formulae to obtain the deprojected distributions; lastly, we test the methods by numerical simulations, which also allow us to determine the uncertainties involved.

  16. Electron pairing without superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Jeremy

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is the first and best known superconducting semiconductor. It exhibits an extremely low carrier density threshold for superconductivity, and possesses a phase diagram similar to that of high-temperature superconductors--two factors that suggest an unconventional pairing mechanism. Despite sustained interest for 50 years, direct experimental insight into the nature of electron pairing in SrTiO3 has remained elusive. Here we perform transport experiments with nanowire-based single-electron transistors at the interface between SrTiO3 and a thin layer of lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO3. Electrostatic gating reveals a series of two-electron conductance resonances--paired electron states--that bifurcate above a critical pairing field Bp of about 1-4 tesla, an order of magnitude larger than the superconducting critical magnetic field. For magnetic fields below Bp, these resonances are insensitive to the applied magnetic field; for fields in excess of Bp, the resonances exhibit a linear Zeeman-like energy splitting. Electron pairing is stable at temperatures as high as 900 millikelvin, well above the superconducting transition temperature (about 300 millikelvin). These experiments demonstrate the existence of a robust electronic phase in which electrons pair without forming a superconducting state. Key experimental signatures are captured by a model involving an attractive Hubbard interaction that describes real-space electron pairing as a precursor to superconductivity. Support from AFOSR, ONR, ARO, NSF, DOE and NSSEFF is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Neuronal M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are essential for somatotroph proliferation and normal somatic growth.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Dinesh; Jeon, Jongrye; Starost, Matthew F; Han, Sung-Jun; Hamdan, Fadi F; Cui, Yinghong; Parlow, Albert F; Gavrilova, Oksana; Szalayova, Ildiko; Mezey, Eva; Wess, Jürgen

    2009-04-14

    The molecular pathways that promote the proliferation and maintenance of pituitary somatotrophs and other cell types of the anterior pituitary gland are not well understood at present. However, such knowledge is likely to lead to the development of novel drugs useful for the treatment of various human growth disorders. Although muscarinic cholinergic pathways have been implicated in regulating somatotroph function, the physiological relevance of this effect and the localization and nature of the receptor subtypes involved in this activity remain unclear. We report the surprising observation that mutant mice that selectively lack the M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype in the brain (neurons and glial cells; Br-M3-KO mice) showed a dwarf phenotype associated with a pronounced hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary gland and a marked decrease in pituitary and serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. Remarkably, treatment of Br-M3-KO mice with CJC-1295, a synthetic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, rescued the growth deficit displayed by Br-M3-KO mice by restoring normal pituitary size and normal serum GH and IGF-1 levels. These findings, together with results from M(3) receptor/GHRH colocalization studies and hypothalamic hormone measurements, support a model in which central (hypothalamic) M(3) receptors are required for the proper function of hypothalamic GHRH neurons. Our data reveal an unexpected and critical role for central M(3) receptors in regulating longitudinal growth by promoting the proliferation of pituitary somatotroph cells.

  18. Stereo Pair, Pasadena, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-10

    This stereoscopic image pair is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada Flintridge are also shown.

  19. Stereo Pair, Honolulu, Oahu

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-10

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area. This stereoscopic image pair, combining a Landsat image with topography measured by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM, shows how topography controls the urban pattern.

  20. Thermodynamic properties and p-T phase diagrams of (NH4)3M3+F6 cryolites (M3+: Ga, Sc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Tressaud, A.

    1999-10-01

    Calorimetric and high pressure experiments are used to establish thermodynamic features of (NH4)3M3+F6 cryolites with M3+: Ga, Sc as they undergo one and three structural phase transitions, respectively. The heat capacity measurements performed between 80 K and 370 K, using an adiabatic calorimeter, have shown that all phase transitions under study are first order with different closeness to the tricritical point. The total entropy change in the Sc compound connected with the successive transformations is almost equal to the entropy change in the Ga cryolite. The effect of hydrostatic pressure has been studied up to 0.6 GPa, using differential thermographic analysis. The p-T phase diagrams of both cryolites were found to be rather complicated, including triple points. The experimental results are considered as connected with order-disorder phase transitions.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of NO/NO2 gas injected into a 10-m3 experimental chamber.

    PubMed

    Hot, Julie; Martinez, T; Wayser, B; Ringot, E; Bertron, A

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a new test method to assess the photocatalytic activity of plasterboards coated with a TiO 2 dispersion under real-world conditions. The degradation of nitrogen oxides NO x (NO and NO 2 ) is studied and the photocatalytic efficiency under UV illumination is evaluated in a 10-m 3 room after a constant gas injection. Two ultrafine TiO 2 dispersions are used: 0.85% TiO 2 and 5% TiO 2 , and three types of gas are tested: an NO/NO 2 mixture (8/8 mol-ppm), NO (45 mol-ppm) and NO 2 (45 mol-ppm). The test method presented here is midway between laboratory and real-scale procedures and allows better control of the experimental parameters than a real field experiment. Testing a mixture of NO and NO 2 is a way to get closer to real-world conditions as air is polluted by various gases. This study focuses on the degradation of NO and NO 2 under UV illumination when two types of TiO 2 dispersions are used and highlights the difference in behaviour between these two molecules in terms of photocatalytic degradation. The results show that photocatalytic activity does not appear to be efficient to degrade NO 2 molecules. Another mechanism seems to be responsible for the reduction of the concentration of NO 2 , namely adsorption. Encouraging results are obtained with NO molecules, which can be degraded by photocatalysis. The degradation observed is even greater with the more concentrated TiO 2 dispersion.

  2. The Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Results of the 2011 Field Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Whyte, L.; Qadi, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Ellery, A.; Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mann, P.; Olsen, K.; Perrot, M.; Popa, D.; Rhind, T.; Samson, C.; Sharma, R.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Wing, B.; Wong, B.

    2012-03-01

    The M3 mission simulated a rover mission to Mars to search for sources of methane. The 2011 campaign found that methane plumes from serpentinite are very localized and target selection based on imagery is preferred over direct methane detection.

  3. Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander-Brett, Jennifer M.; Fremont, Daved H.

    2008-09-23

    Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse {gamma}-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regionsmore » that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking.« less

  4. Transduction of Recombinant M3-p53-R12 Protein Enhances Human Leukemia Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tsung Chi; Zhao, Guan- Hao; Chen, Yao Yun; Chien, Chia-Ying; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lin, Kwang Hui; Chen, Shen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in initiating cell cycle arrest and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that p53 is either mutated or defective in approximately 50% of human cancers; therefore restoring normal p53 activity in cancer cells might be an effective anticancer therapeutic approach. Herein, we designed a chimeric p53 protein flanked with the MyoD N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (amino acids 1-62, called M3) and a poly-arginine (R12) cell penetrating signal in its N-and C-termini respectively. This chimeric protein, M3-p53-R12, can be expressed in E. coli and purified using immobilized metal ion chromatography followed by serial refolding dialysis. The purified M3-p53-R12 protein retains DNA-binding activity and gains of cell penetrating ability. Using MTT assay, we demonstrated that M3-p53-R12 inhibited the growth of K562, Jurkat as well as HL-60 leukemia cells carrying mutant p53 genes. Results from FACS analysis also demonstrated that transduction of M3-p53-R12 protein induced cell cycle arrest of these leukemia cells. Of special note, M3-p53-R12 has no apoptotic effect on normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and leukocytes, highlighting its differential effects on normal and tumor cells. To sum up, our results reveal that purified recombinant M3-p53-R12 protein has functions of suppressing the leukemia cell lines' proliferation and launching cell apoptosis, suggesting the feasibility of using M3-p53-R12 protein as an anticancer drug. In the future we will test whether this chimeric protein can preferentially trigger the death of malignant cancer cells without affecting normal cells in animals carrying endogenous or xenographic tumors. PMID:27390612

  5. Role of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in beta-cell function and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gautam, D; Han, S-J; Duttaroy, A; Mears, D; Hamdan, F F; Li, J H; Cui, Y; Jeon, J; Wess, J

    2007-11-01

    The release of insufficient amounts of insulin in the presence of elevated blood glucose levels is one of the key features of type 2 diabetes. Various lines of evidence indicate that acetylcholine (ACh), the major neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system, can enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. Studies with isolated islets prepared from whole body M(3) muscarinic ACh receptor knockout mice showed that cholinergic amplification of glucose-dependent insulin secretion is exclusively mediated by the M(3) muscarinic receptor subtype. To investigate the physiological relevance of this muscarinic pathway, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M(3) receptors only in pancreatic beta-cells. These mutant mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and significantly reduced insulin secretion. In contrast, transgenic mice overexpressing M(3) receptors in pancreatic beta-cells showed a pronounced increase in glucose tolerance and insulin secretion and were resistant to diet-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycaemia. These findings indicate that beta-cell M(3) muscarinic receptors are essential for maintaining proper insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, our data suggest that enhancing signalling through beta-cell M(3) muscarinic receptors may represent a new avenue in the treatment of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  6. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    PubMed

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  7. Level of helium enhancement among M3's horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; Catelan, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Alves, S.

    2016-05-01

    other words, the position of an HB star in such a CMD is exactly the same for a given chemical composition for multiple combinations of the parameters Y, MHB, and age along the HB evolutionary track. Other HST UV filters do not appear to be as severely affected by this degeneracy effect, to which visual bandpasses are also immune. On the other hand, such near-UV CMDs can be extremely useful for the hottest stars along the cool BHB end. Conclusions: Based on a reanalysis of the distribution of HB stars in the y vs. (b - y) plane, we find that the coolest BHB stars in M3 (I.e., those with Teff< 8300 K) are very likely enhanced in helium by ΔY ≈ 0.01, compared with the red HB stars in the same cluster. Using near-UV HST photometry, on the other hand, we find evidence of a progressive increase in Y with increasing temperature, reaching ΔY ≈ 0.02 at Teff ≈ 10 900 K.

  8. The stellar population of the globular cluster M 3. I. Photographic photometry of 10 000 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, R.; Corsi, C. E.; Buzzoni, A.; Cacciari, C.; Ferraro, F. R.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    1994-10-01

    A new photographic colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the Galactic globular cluster M 3 is presented. This constitutes the preliminary part of a long-term project aiming at using the M 3 stellar population as a powerful test-bench for the predictions of the stellar evolution theory and for cosmological purposes via the population synthesis methods. In this first step, more than 10 000 stars were measured on the Mt. Palomar and Mt. Wilson original plates (Sandage 1953) down to V>21.5 with very high internal accuracy to obtain complete samples over well defined areas. The list of magnitudes, colours and positions for all the measured stars is available from the CDS at Strasbourg upon request. From the analysis of the present CMD the following results are derived: (a) The overall morphology of the main branches and their normal points reproduce in essence the previous results. In particular, the existence of a sizeable population of blue straggler stars (BSS) detected by Sandage (1953) is confirmed. (b) The Red Giant Branch (RGB) and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) are clearly separated, and the RGB metallicity indicators lead to <[Fe/H]>=-1.66+/-0.10 with an upper limit σ[Fe/H]~0.09. The narrow Sub-Giant Branch (SGB) and Turn-Off (TO) region suggest that also the dispersion in the abundance of C,N,O should be very low. (c) The Horizontal Branch (HB) is narrow and the bulk of HB stars covers a wide range in effective temperature (logT_e_=3.70 to 4.55). Six groups of stars have been tentatively identified based on their location on the HB, namely: R (red), V (variables), B (blue), EB (extremely blue) HEB (hot extremely blue) ER (extremely red) - some of these stars may be non-genuine HB stars. The various population ratios computed lead: (i) to confirm the full extension of semiconvection (or, alternatively, to calibrate the overshooting parameter) and to exclude the existence of a "long" breathing pulses phase; and (ii) to determine the primordial helium abundance Y

  9. Wall touching kink mode calculations with the M3D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years there have been a number of results published concerning the transient vessel currents and forces occurring during a tokamak VDE, as predicted by simulations with the nonlinear MHD code M3D. The nature of the simulations is such that these currents and forces occur at the boundary of the computational domain, making the proper choice of boundary conditions critical to the reliability of the results. The M3D boundary condition includes the prescription that the normal component of the velocity vanish at the wall. It has been argued that this prescription invalidates the calculations because it would seem to rule out the possibility of advection of plasma surface currents into the wall. This claim has been tested by applying M3D to an idealized case - a kink-unstable plasma column - in order to abstract the essential physics from the complications involved in the attempt to model real devices. While comparison of the results is complicated by effects arising from the higher dimensionality and complexity of M3D, we have verified that M3D is capable of reproducing both the correct saturation behavior of the free boundary kink and the ``Hiro'' currents arising when the kink interacts with a conducting tile surface interior to the ideal wall.

  10. Variation of M3 muscarinic receptor expression in different prostate tissues and its significance.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Yuan, Mingzhen; Zhao, Shengtian

    2009-08-01

    To detect the expression of the muscarinic receptor (M receptor) in different prostate tissues and analyze the role of its subtype in prostatic oncogenesis. Thirty-six cases of normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 8 cases of prostatic tumor, were used in this study from the Shandong University, Shandong, China, between 2003-2006. The protein expressions of M1, M2, and M3 receptors in each group were determined by Western-blotting. The gene expressions of the M3 receptor and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) in each group were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The protein and gene expressions of the M3 receptor in the prostatic carcinoma group were higher than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia group (p=0.0001) and normal prostate group (p=0.0001). The M3 receptor and VEGF showed positive straight-line correlations of gene expressions with the 3 groups (r=0.4999, p=0.0001). The M3 receptor may have a close relationship with prostatic oncogenesis.

  11. Huperzine A derivative M3 protects PC12 cells against sodium nitroprusside-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Na; Hu, Jin-feng; Yuan, Yu-he; Zhang, Xin-yuan; Dai, Jun-gui; Chen, Nai-hong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of M3, a derivative of huperzine A, on the apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in PC12 cells. Methods: Cell viability was detected using MTT method. Apoptosis was examined with annexin V/prodium iodide (PI) stain. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using fluorophotometric quantitation. The amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) was determined with MDA detection kits. The expression of caspase-3 and Hsp70 were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Exposure of PC12 cells to SNP (200 μmol/L) for 24 h decreased the cell viability to 69.0% of that in the control group. Pretreatment with M3 (10 μmol/L) or huperzine A (10 μmol/L) significantly protected the cells against SNP-induced injury and apoptosis; the ratio of apoptotic bodies in PC12 cells was decreased from 27.3% to 15.0%. Pretreatment with M3 (10 μmol/L) significantly decreased ROS and MDA levels, and increased the expression of Hsp70 in the cells. Quercetin (10 μmol/L) blocked the protective effect of M3, while did not influence on that of huperzine A. Conclusion: M3 protects PC12 cells against SNP-induced apoptosis, possible due to ROS scavenging and Hsp70 induction. PMID:22120967

  12. Isolation and characterization of rabbit anti-m3 2,2,7G antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Luhrmann, R; Appel, B; Bringmann, P; Rinke, J; Reuter, R; Rothe, S; Bald, R

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies specific for intact 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (m3 2,2,7G) were induced by immunization of rabbits with a nucleoside-human serum albumen (HSA) conjugate. Competition radioimmunoassay showed that the antibody distinguishes well between intact m3 2,2,7G and its alkali-hydrolysed form (m3 2,2,7G*). Antibody specificity is largely dependent on the presence of all three methyl groups in m3 2,2,7G: none of the less extensively methylated nucleosides m7G, m2G and m2 2,2G is able to compete efficiently with the homologous hapten. Little or no competition was observed with m1G, m1A, m6A, m5U and each of the four unmodified ribonucleosides. Binding studies with nucleoplasmic RNAs from Ehrlich ascites cells suggest that the antibody reacts specifically with the m3 2,2,7G-containing cap structure of the small nuclear U-RNAs (U-snRNAs). Thus the antibody should be a valuable tool for studying the role of the 5'-terminal regions of the U-snRNAs of eucaryotic cells. Images PMID:7155893

  13. Two Pairs of Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-04

    Two pairs of dark spots, or storms, in Saturn atmosphere squeeze past each other as they dance around the planet. In this group of four storms, the top left and lower right storms are fringed with white clouds as seen by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  14. The application of pentaprism scanning technology on the manufacturing of M3MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Erhui; Hu, Haixiang; Hu, Haifei; Cole, Glen; Luo, Xiao; Ford, Virginia; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    The PSS (pentaprism scanning system) has advantages of simple structure, needless of reference flat, be able of on-site testing, etc, it plays an important role in large flat reflective mirror's manufacturing, especially the high accuracy testing of low order aberrations. The PSS system measures directly the slope information of the tested flat surface. Aimed at the unique requirement of M3MP, which is the prototype mirror of the tertiary mirror in TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) project, this paper analyzed the slope distribution of low order aberrations, power and astigmatism, which is very important in the manufacturing process of M3MP. Then the sample route lines of PSS are reorganized and new data process algorism is implemented. All this work is done to improve PSS's measure sensitivity of power and astigmatism, for guiding the manufacturing process of M3MP.

  15. Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki

    We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.

  16. Impaired muscarinic type 3 (M3) receptor/PKC and PKA pathways in islets from MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei; Roma, Letícia Prates; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Vanzela, Emerielle Cristine; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Bonfleur, Maria Lúcia

    2013-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate-obese rats are glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. Their pancreatic islets secrete more insulin at increasing glucose concentrations, despite the possible imbalance in the autonomic nervous system of these rats. Here, we investigate the involvement of the cholinergic/protein kinase (PK)-C and PKA pathways in MSG β-cell function. Male newborn Wistar rats received a subcutaneous injection of MSG (4 g/kg body weight (BW)) or hyperosmotic saline solution during the first 5 days of life. At 90 days of life, plasma parameters, islet static insulin secretion and protein expression were analyzed. Monosodium glutamate rats presented lower body weight and decreased nasoanal length, but had higher body fat depots, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and hypertrigliceridemia. Their pancreatic islets secreted more insulin in the presence of increasing glucose concentrations with no modifications in the islet-protein content of the glucose-sensing proteins: the glucose transporter (GLUT)-2 and glycokinase. However, MSG islets presented a lower secretory capacity at 40 mM K(+) (P < 0.05). The MSG group also released less insulin in response to 100 μM carbachol, 10 μM forskolin and 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xantine (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01). These effects may be associated with a the decrease of 46 % in the acetylcholine muscarinic type 3 (M3) receptor, and a reduction of 64 % in PKCα and 36 % in PKAα protein expressions in MSG islets. Our data suggest that MSG islets, whilst showing a compensatory increase in glucose-induced insulin release, demonstrate decreased islet M3/PKC and adenylate cyclase/PKA activation, possibly predisposing these prediabetic rodents to the early development of β-cell dysfunction.

  17. Disent to Pairing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kaijia; Cheng, Shuyu

    Up to now, the pairing mechanism is regarded as the rule of thumb criterion of an acceptable theory of superconductivity. It is generally held as a taboo for any theory which is not founded on this basis. However this is not true and it misleads the direction for the theoretical research for both the high and low temperature regions and eventually delays the progress in practice. It is now the time to clear up the situation.

  18. Overexpression of CsCaM3 Improves High Temperature Tolerance in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bingwei; Yan, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Huoyan; Dong, Riyue; Lei, Jianjun; Chen, Changming; Cao, Bihao

    2018-01-01

    High temperature (HT) stress affects the growth and production of cucumbers, but genetic resources with high heat tolerance are very scarce in this crop. Calmodulin (CaM) has been confirmed to be related to the regulation of HT stress resistance in plants. CsCaM3, a CaM gene, was isolated from cucumber inbred line “02-8.” Its expression was characterized in the present study. CsCaM3 transcripts differed among the organs and tissues of cucumber plants and could be induced by HTs or abscisic acid, but not by salicylic acid. CsCaM3 transcripts exhibited subcellular localization to the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells. Overexpression of CsCaM3 in cucumber plants has the potential to improve their heat tolerance and protect against oxidative damage and photosynthesis system damage by regulating the expression of HT-responsive genes in plants, including chlorophyll catabolism-related genes under HT stress. Taken together, our results provide useful insights into stress tolerance in cucumber. PMID:29946334

  19. Effect of a muscarinic M3 receptor agonist on gastric motility.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Toshimi; Kudara, Norihiko; Sato, Masaki; Inomata, Masaaki; Orii, Seishi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2007-11-01

    Muscarinic M3 receptors exist in the gastrointestinal wall in humans and the muscarinic M3 agonist cevimeline hydrochloride (Evoxac) is a candidate therapeutic agent for the treatment of xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome. However, M3 receptor agonists are not known to show efficacy for diseases associated with abnormal gastrointestinal motility. Herein the effects are reported of cevimeline on gastric motility in two patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. The patients both received long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy for 6 months, but their symptoms persisted. Then cevimeline was administered orally for 8 weeks at 30 mg three times daily (90 mg/day) and their dyspepsia symptoms improved. Electrogastrography was performed to examine gastric motility before and after administration of the M3 agonist. The fasting or nocturnal wave rate was significantly increased after administration compared with before administration, but no significant postprandial changes were seen. No adverse effects of cevimeline were observed. This drug might be a candidate therapeutic agent for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Because its postprandial effects on gastrointestinal motility are unclear, a dose-finding clinical study should be performed in the future.

  20. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - M3 Wave

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-08

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the M3 Wave team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  1. Wall-touching kink mode calculations with the M3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Breslau, J. A., E-mail: jbreslau@pppl.gov; Bhattacharjee, A.

    This paper seeks to address a controversy regarding the applicability of the 3D nonlinear extended MHD code M3D [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] and similar codes to calculations of the electromagnetic interaction of a disrupting tokamak plasma with the surrounding vessel structures. M3D is applied to a simple test problem involving an external kink mode in an ideal cylindrical plasma, used also by the Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) as a model case for illustrating the nature of transient vessel currents during a major disruption. While comparison of the results with those of the DSC is complicatedmore » by effects arising from the higher dimensionality and complexity of M3D, we verify that M3D is capable of reproducing both the correct saturation behavior of the free boundary kink and the “Hiro” currents arising when the kink interacts with a conducting tile surface interior to the ideal wall.« less

  2. Lost Chevalier Pairs - A Followup

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    included only if they have been corrected in some manner. As a part of this check, new matches against 2MASS ( Cutrie et aL 2003) were made to the L...against 2MASS which instead found random faint pairs which agreed within search parameters. : In checking Berko’s matches, it was noticed that...CHE 1 000851.85+ 141505.7 11.0 13.2 1910.90 39.2 3.7 Che1910 00199+2633 CHE4 001956.81+263340.8 12.8 14.1 1998.02 204.0 4.16 2MASS 00204+2617 CHE6

  3. Probing the tides in interacting galaxy pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed spectroscopic and imaging observations of colliding elliptical galaxies revealed unmistakable diagnostic signatures of the tidal interactions. It is possible to compare both the distorted luminosity distributions and the disturbed internal rotation profiles with numerical simulations in order to model the strength of the tidal gravitational field acting within a given pair of galaxies. Using the best-fit numerical model, one can then measure directly the mass of a specific interacting binary system. This technique applies to individual pairs and therefore complements the classical methods of measuring the masses of galaxy pairs in well-defined statistical samples. The 'personalized' modeling of galaxy pairs also permits the derivation of each binary's orbit, spatial orientation, and interaction timescale. Similarly, one can probe the tides in less-detailed observations of disturbed galaxies in order to estimate some of the physical parameters for larger samples of interacting galaxy pairs. These parameters are useful inputs to the more universal problems of (1) the galaxy merger rate, (2) the strength and duration of the driving forces behind tidally stimulated phenomena (e.g., starbursts and maybe quasi steller objects), and (3) the identification of long-lived signatures of interaction/merger events.

  4. Reactor performance of a 750 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant: varied substrate input conditions impacting methanogenic community.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Malin, Cornelia; Lins, Philipp; Gstraunthaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2014-10-01

    A 750 m(3) anaerobic digester was studied over a half year period including a shift from good reactor performance to a reduced one. Various abiotic parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA) (formic-, acetic-, propionic-, (iso-)butyric-, (iso-)valeric-, lactic acid), total C, total N, NH4 -N, and total proteins, as well as the organic matter content and dry mass were determined. In addition several process parameters such as temperature, pH, retention time and input of substrate and the concentrations of CH4, H2, CO2 and H2S within the reactor were monitored continuously. The present study aimed at the investigation of the abundance of acetogens and total cell numbers and the microbial methanogenic community as derived from PCR-dHPLC analysis in order to put it into context with the determined abiotic parameters. An influence of substrate quantity on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process was found as well as a shift from a hydrogenotrophic in times of good reactor performance towards an acetoclastic dominated methanogenic community in times of reduced reactor performance. After the change in substrate conditions it took the methano-archaeal community about 5-6 weeks to be affected but then changes occurred quickly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. M$^3$: A New Muon Missing Momentum Experiment to Probe $$(g-2)_{\\mu}$$ and Dark Matter at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Yonatan; Krnjaic, Gordan; Tran, Nhan

    New light, weakly-coupled particles are commonly invoked to address the persistentmore » $$\\sim 4\\sigma$$ anomaly in $$(g-2)_\\mu$$ and serve as mediators between dark and visible matter. If such particles couple predominantly to heavier generations and decay invisibly, much of their best-motivated parameter space is inaccessible with existing experimental techniques. In this paper, we present a new fixed-target, missing-momentum search strategy to probe invisibly decaying particles that couple preferentially to muons. In our setup, a relativistic muon beam impinges on a thick active target. The signal consists of events in which a muon loses a large fraction of its incident momentum inside the target without initiating any detectable electromagnetic or hadronic activity in downstream veto systems. We propose a two-phase experiment, M$^3$ (Muon Missing Momentum), based at Fermilab. Phase 1 with $$\\sim 10^{10}$$ muons on target can test the remaining parameter space for which light invisibly-decaying particles can resolve the $$(g-2)_\\mu$$ anomaly, while Phase 2 with $$\\sim 10^{13}$$ muons on target can test much of the predictive parameter space over which sub-GeV dark matter achieves freeze-out via muon-philic forces, including gauged $$U(1)_{L_\\mu - L_\\tau}$$.« less

  6. Dual origin of pairing in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Idini, A.; Potel, G.; Barranco, F.

    The pairing correlations of the nucleus {sup 120}Sn are calculated by solving the Nambu–Gor’kov equations, including medium polarization effects resulting from the interweaving of quasiparticles, spin and density vibrations, taking into account, within the framework of nuclear field theory (NFT), processes leading to self-energy and vertex corrections and to the induced pairing interaction. From these results one can not only demonstrate the inevitability of the dual origin of pairing in nuclei, but also extract information which can be used at profit to quantitatively disentangle the contributions to the pairing gap Δ arising from the bare and from the induced pairingmore » interaction. The first is the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0} short-range NN potential resulting from meson exchange between nucleons moving in time reversal states within an energy range of hundreds of MeV from the Fermi energy. The second results from the exchange of vibrational modes between nucleons moving within few MeV from the Fermi energy. Short- (v{sub p}{sup bare}) and long-range (v{sub p}{sup ind}) pairing interactions contribute essentially equally to nuclear Cooper pair stability. That is to the breaking of gauge invariance in open-shell superfluid nuclei and thus to the order parameter, namely to the ground state expectation value of the pair creation operator. In other words, to the emergent property of generalized rigidity in gauge space, and associated rotational bands and Cooper pair tunneling between members of these bands.« less

  7. The Abundance of Lithium in an ABG Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, R. A.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope indicated a prominent Li i 6707 Å feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Followup spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5 m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)NLTE = 1.6 ± 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location of vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster’s color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  8. M3MS-16OR0401086 – Report on NEAMS Workbench Support for MOOSE Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, Robert A.; Langley, Brandon R.; Thompson, Adam B.

    This report summarizes the status of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Workbench from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the integration of the MOOSE framework. This report marks the completion of NEAMS milestone M3MS-16OR0401086. This report documents the developed infrastructure to support the MOOSE framework applications, the applications’ results, visualization status, the collaboration that facilitated this progress, and future considerations.

  9. Ten-m3 Is Required for the Development of Topography in the Ipsilateral Retinocollicular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Nuwan; Glendining, Kelly A.; Young, Timothy R.; Tran, Heidi; Sawatari, Atomu; Leamey, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The alignment of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting retinal axons that view the same part of visual space is fundamental to binocular vision. While much progress has been made regarding the mechanisms which regulate contralateral topography, very little is known of the mechanisms which regulate the mapping of ipsilateral axons such that they align with their contralateral counterparts. Results Using the advantageous model provided by the mouse retinocollicular pathway, we have performed anterograde tracing experiments which demonstrate that ipsilateral retinal axons begin to form terminal zones (TZs) in the superior colliculus (SC), within the first few postnatal days. These appear mature by postnatal day 11. Importantly, TZs formed by ipsilaterally-projecting retinal axons are spatially offset from those of contralaterally-projecting axons arising from the same retinotopic location from the outset. This pattern is consistent with that required for adult visuotopy. We further demonstrate that a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family of homophilic transmembrane glycoproteins, Ten-m3, is an essential regulator of ipsilateral retinocollicular topography. Ten-m3 mRNA is expressed in a high-medial to low-lateral gradient in the developing SC. This corresponds topographically with its high-ventral to low-dorsal retinal gradient. In Ten-m3 knockout mice, contralateral ventrotemporal axons appropriately target rostromedial SC, whereas ipsilateral axons exhibit dramatic targeting errors along both the mediolateral and rostrocaudal axes of the SC, with a caudal shift of the primary TZ, as well as the formation of secondary, caudolaterally displaced TZs. In addition to these dramatic ipsilateral-specific mapping errors, both contralateral and ipsilateral retinocollicular TZs exhibit more subtle changes in morphology. Conclusions We conclude that important aspects of adult visuotopy are established via the differential sensitivity of ipsilateral and

  10. Rasch Analysis of the Malaysian Secondary School Student Leadership Inventory (M3SLI).

    PubMed

    Ling, Mei-Teng

    The importance of instilling leadership skills in students has always been a main subject of discussion in Malaysia. Malaysian Secondary School Students Leadership Inventory (M3SLI) is an instrument which has been piloted tested in year 2013. The main purpose of this study is to examine and optimize the functioning of the rating scale categories in M3SLI by investigating the rating scale category counts, average and expected rating scale category measures, and steps calibrations. In detail, the study was aimed to (1) identify whether the five-point rating scale was functioning as intended and (2) review the effect of a rating scale category revision on the psychometric characteristics of M3SLI. The study was carried out on students aged between 13 to 18 years (2183 students) by stratified random sampling in 26 public schools in Sabah, Malaysia, with the results analysed using Winsteps. This study found that the rating scale of Personality and Values constructs needed to be modified while the scale for Leadership Skills was maintained. For future studies, other aspects of psychometric properties like differential item functioning (DIF) based on demographic variables such as gender, school locations and forms should be researched on prior to the use of the instrument.

  11. Chemical abundances in the globular clusters M3, M13, and NGC 6752

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.A.; Dickens, R.J.

    The abundances of iron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen have been investigated in red giant stars in the globular clusters M3, M13, and NGC 6752. The results are based on application of spectrum synthesis and theoretical colors to observed spectra, DDO colors, and infrared CO measurements. Carbon is depleted by a factor of about 3 relative to other metals in most giants studied, with no evidence for the discontinuity along the giant branch at M/sub v/approx. =-0.7 found for more metal-poor clusters. This contrasts with the greater depletion of about a factor of 6 for the more metal-poor cluster stars, amore » difference which is expected if meridional mixing is responsible for the carbon depletion. The spectroscopic results for nitrogen are imprecise, but the colors suggest enhancements of a factor of 3. The iron abundances for M3 and M13 stars have been determined from published equivalent widths, yielding (Fe/H) close to -1.4 for both clusters. The uncertainties in M3 and M13 CO colors and (O I) equivalent widths make it impossible to derive accurate oxygen abundances, but the depletion of carbon is real and is not caused by an overabundance of oxygen.« less

  12. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  13. Determination of the pairing-strength constants in the isovector plus isoscalar pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, D.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.

    2016-05-01

    A method for the determination of the pairing-strength constants, in the neutron-proton (n-p) isovector plus isoscalar pairing case, is proposed in the framework of the BCS theory. It is based on the fitting of these constants to reproduce the experimentally known pairing gap parameters as well as the root-mean-squared (r.m.s) charge radii values. The method is applied to some proton-rich even-even nuclei. The single-particle energies used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It is shown that the obtained value of the ratio GnpT=0/G npT=1 is of the same order as the ones, arbitrary chosen, of some previous works. The effect of the inclusion of the isoscalar n-p pairing in the r.m.s matter radii is then numerically studied for the same nuclei.

  14. M3 spectral analysis of lunar swirls and the link between optical maturation and surface hydroxyl formation at magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Dhingra, D.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Clark, Roger N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J. W.; Taylor, L.A.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; McCord, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the lunar swirls using data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). The improved spectral and spatial resolution of M3 over previous spectral imaging data facilitates distinction of subtle spectral differences, and provides new information about the nature of these enigmatic features. We characterized spectral features of the swirls, interswirl regions (dark lanes), and surrounding terrain for each of three focus regions: Reiner Gamma, Gerasimovich, and Mare Ingenii. We used Principle Component Analysis to identify spectrally distinct surfaces at each focus region, and characterize the spectral features that distinguish them. We compared spectra from small, recent impact craters with the mature soils into which they penetrated to examine differences in maturation trends on- and off-swirl. Fresh, on-swirl crater spectra are higher albedo, exhibit a wider range in albedos and have well-preserved mafic absorption features compared with fresh off-swirl craters. Albedoand mafic absorptions are still evident in undisturbed, on-swirl surface soils, suggesting the maturation process is retarded. The spectral continuum is more concave compared with off-swirl spectra; a result of the limited spectral reddening being mostly constrained to wavelengths less than ∼1500 nm. Off-swirl spectra show very little reddening or change in continuum shape across the entire M3 spectral range. Off-swirl spectra are dark, have attenuated absorption features, and the narrow range in off-swirl albedos suggests off-swirl regions mature rapidly. Spectral parameter maps depicting the relative OH surface abundance for each of our three swirl focus regions were created using the depth of the hydroxyl absorption feature at 2.82 μm. For each of the studied regions, the 2.82 μm absorption feature is significantly weaker on-swirl than off-swirl, indicating the swirls are depleted in OH relative to their surroundings. The spectral characteristics of the swirls and adjacent terrains

  15. Majorana Kramers pair in a nematic vortex

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Fengcheng; Martin, Ivar

    2017-06-05

    A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductor is characterized by a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy modes on boundaries and in a core of a TR invariant vortex. A vortex defect that preserves TR symmetry has remained primarily of theoretical interest, since typically a magnetic field, which explicitly breaks TR, needs to be applied to create vortices in superconductors. In this paper, we show that an odd-parity topological superconductor with a nematic pairing order parameter can host a nematic vortex that preserves TR symmetry and binds a Majorana Kramers pair. Such a nematic superconductor could be realized in metal-doped Bi 2Semore » 3, as suggested by recent experiments. We provide an analytic solution for the zero modes in a continuous nematic vortex. In lattice, crystalline anisotropy can pin the two-component order parameter along high-symmetry directions. We show that a discrete nematic vortex, which forms when three nematic domains meet, also supports a TR pair of Majorana modes. Lastly, we discuss possible experiments to probe the zero modes.« less

  16. Majorana Kramers pair in a nematic vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fengcheng; Martin, Ivar

    A time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductor is characterized by a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy modes on boundaries and in a core of a TR invariant vortex. A vortex defect that preserves TR symmetry has remained primarily of theoretical interest, since typically a magnetic field, which explicitly breaks TR, needs to be applied to create vortices in superconductors. In this paper, we show that an odd-parity topological superconductor with a nematic pairing order parameter can host a nematic vortex that preserves TR symmetry and binds a Majorana Kramers pair. Such a nematic superconductor could be realized in metal-doped Bi 2Semore » 3, as suggested by recent experiments. We provide an analytic solution for the zero modes in a continuous nematic vortex. In lattice, crystalline anisotropy can pin the two-component order parameter along high-symmetry directions. We show that a discrete nematic vortex, which forms when three nematic domains meet, also supports a TR pair of Majorana modes. Lastly, we discuss possible experiments to probe the zero modes.« less

  17. Prospective very young asteroid pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galád, A.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Zizka, J.

    2014-07-01

    Several tens of asteroid pairs can be discerned from the background main-belt asteroids. The majority of them are thought to have formed within only the last few 10^6 yr. The youngest recognized pairs have formed more than ≈ 10 kyr ago. As some details of pair formation are still not understood well, the study of young pairs is of great importance. It is mainly because the conditions at the time of the pair formation could be deduced much more reliably for young pairs. For example, space weathering on the surfaces of the components, or changes in their rotational properties (in spin rates, tumbling, coordinates of rotational pole) could be negligible since the formation of young pairs. Also, possible strong perturbations by main-belt bodies on pair formation can be reliably studied only for extremely young pairs. Some pairs can quickly blend in with the background asteroids, so even the frequency of asteroid pair formation could be determined more reliably based on young pairs (though only after a statistically significant sample is at disposal). In our regular search for young pairs in the growing asteroid database, only multiopposition asteroids with very similar orbital and proper elements are investigated. Every pair component is represented by a number of clones within orbital uncertainties and drifting in semimajor axis due to the Yarkovsky effect. We found that, if the previously unrecognized pairs (87887) 2000 SS_{286} - 2002 AT_{49} and (355258) 2007 LY_{4} - 2013AF_{40} formed at the recent very close approach of their components, they could become the youngest known pairs. In both cases, the relative encounter velocities of the components were only ˜ 0.1 m s^{-1}. However, the minimum distances between some clones are too large and a few clones of the latter pair did not encounter recently (within ≈ 10 kyr). The age of some prospective young pairs cannot be determined reliably without improved orbital properties (e.g., the second component of a pair

  18. Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-03-11

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

  19. Selective expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 by mouse type III taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yusuke; Eguchi, Kohgaku; Yoshii, Kiyonori; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Each taste bud cell (TBC) type responds to a different taste. Previously, we showed that an unidentified cell type(s) functionally expresses a muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype, M3, and we suggested the ACh-dependent modification of its taste responsiveness. In this study, we found that M3 is expressed by type III TBCs, which is the only cell type that possesses synaptic contacts with taste nerve fibers in taste buds. The application of ACh to the basolateral membrane of mouse fungiform TBCs in situ increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in 2.4 ± 1.4 cells per taste bud (mean ± SD, n = 14). After Ca 2+ imaging, we supravitally labeled type II cells (phospholipase C β2 [PLCβ2]-immunoreactive cells) with Lucifer yellow CH (LY), a fluorescent dye and investigated the positional relationship between ACh-responding cells and LY-labeled cells. After fixation, the TBCs were immunohistostained to investigate the positional relationships between immunohistochemically classified cells and LY-labeled cells. The overlay of the two positional relationships obtained by superimposing the LY-labeled cells showed that all of the ACh-responding cells were type III cells (synaptosomal-associated protein 25 [SNAP-25]-immunoreactive cells). The ACh responses required no added Ca 2+ in the bathing solution. The addition of 1 μM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, decreased the magnitude of the ACh response, whereas that of 1 μM U73343, a negative control, had no effect. These results suggest that type III cells respond to ACh and release Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. We also discuss the underlying mechanism of the Ca 2+ response and the role of M3 in type III cells.

  20. Lunar Magma Ocean Bedrock Anorthosites Detected at Orientale Basin by M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Burratti, B.; Cheek, L.; Clark, R. N.; Combe, J.; Green, R. O.; Head, J. W.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G. Y.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J. F.; Nettles, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Runyon, C. J.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-12-01

    The lunar crust is thought to have formed as a result of global melting of the outer parts of the Moon in its earliest history, a lunar magma ocean (LMO). Crystallization of this magma ocean set the stage for the ensuing history of the planet. Models for the formation of the lunar crust and the evolution of the LMO were derived from individual Apollo samples that could not be placed directly in the context of crustal bedrock with remote sensing data that was available. Data from modern sensors, such as the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1, now allow such bedrock issues to be addressed. The ~930 km diameter Orientale multi-ringed impact basin in the western highlands provides an opportunity to evaluate the mineralogy of the in situ crust of the Moon in the search for LMO mineralogy and structure. Orientale is the youngest large basin on the Moon, and the basin deposits and ring structures expose progressively deeper bedrock layering that can be used to determine lunar crustal structure and test the LMO model. With its high spatial and spectral resolution, M3 data show that the ejecta of the basin is composed of mixed assemblages of processed feldspathic breccias with small amounts of low-Ca pyroxene comprising the upper kilometers-thick mega-regolith layer of the crust. Exposures in the outermost (Cordillera) ring reveal less processed examples of this material. The M3 data show that the next interior ring (Outer Rook), representing deeper material, is characterized by distinctly more crystalline blocks of impact-shocked anorthosite and noritic anorthosite. Most importantly, M3 data reveal that the mountains of the closest ring toward the basin interior (Inner Rook) consist of pure anorthosite, including outcrops of the unshocked crystalline form. This massive exposure of anorthosite across the entire mountain range provides validation for the LMO hypothesis. These mountains are believed to have originated in the upper crust below the impact fragmented

  1. Lunar Exploration Insights Recognized from Chandrayaan-1 M3 Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle; Green, Robert O.; Boardman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important lessons learned from the renaissance of lunar exploration over the last decade is that new discoveries and surprises occur with every new mission to the Moon. Although the color of the Moon had been measured using Earth-based telescopes even before Apollo, modern instruments sent to orbit the Moon provide a scope of inquiry unimaginable during the last century. Spacecraft have now been successfully sent to the Moon by six different space agencies from around the world and the number is growing. The Indian Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft carried a suite of indigenous instruments as well as several guest instruments from other countries, including the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M-cube) supplied by NASA. Even though Chandrayaan's lifetime in orbit was shortened by technical constraints, M3 provided a taste of the power of near-infrared imaging spectroscopy used for science and exploration at the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the lunar surface was discovered to be hydrated, which is now known to result from solar wind H combining with O of rocks and soil. Surficial hydration was found to be pervasive across the Moon and the limited data hint at both local concentrations and temporal variations. The prime objective of M3 was to characterize lunar mineralogy in a spatial context. Working in tandem with related instruments on JAXA's SELENE, M3 readily recognized and mapped known minerals from mare and highland terrains (pyroxenes, olivine) at high resolution, but also detected diagnostic properties of crystalline plagioclase which, when mapped across a spatial context, enabled the unambiguous identification of a massive crustal layer of plagioclase that clearly resulted from an early magma ocean. An additional surprise came with the discovery of a new rock type on the Moon that had not been recognized in samples returned by Apollo and Luna: a Mg-rich spinel anorthosite associated with material excavated from some of the greatest lunar depths. In

  2. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - M3 Wave

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-08-12

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the M3 Wave team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  3. X-ray spectroscopy of E2 and M3 transitions in Ni-like W

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.

    2010-01-15

    The electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic octupole (M3) ground-state transitions in Ni-like W{sup 46+} have been measured using high-resolution crystal spectroscopy at the LLNL electron-beam ion trap facility. The lines fall in the soft x-ray region near 7.93 A and were originally observed as an unresolved feature in tokamak plasmas. Using flat ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and quartz crystals, the wavelengths, intensities, and polarizations of the two lines have been measured for various electron-beam energies and compared to intensity and polarization calculations performed using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC).

  4. X-ray Spectroscopy of E2 and M3 Transitions in Ni-like W

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F

    2009-11-09

    The electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic octupole (M3) ground state transitions in Ni-like W{sup 46+} have been measured using high-resolution crystal spectroscopy at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility. The lines fall in the soft x-ray region near 7.93 {angstrom} and were originally observed as an unresolved feature in tokamak plasmas. Using flat ADP and quartz crystals the wavelengths, intensities, and polarizations of the two lines have been measured for various electron beam energies and compared to intensity and polarization calculations performed using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC).

  5. Experimental many-pairs nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.

  6. Stereo Pair, Honolulu, Oahu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area. This stereoscopic image pair, combining a Landsat image with topography measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows how topography controls the urban pattern. This color image can be viewed in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope.

    Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano near the bottom of the image), Waikiki Beach (just above Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetary (another extinct volcano, near the image center), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu harbor (image left-center), and offshore reef patterns. The slopes of the Koolau mountain range are seen in the right half of the image. Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, but in this synthesized stereo rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level.

    This stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image collected at the same time as the SRTM flight. The topography data were used to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the

  7. Generation and functional analysis of monoclonal antibodies against the second extracellular loop of human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hiroto; Nakamura, Yumi; Iizuka, Mana; Matsuo, Naomi; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

    2012-04-01

    The M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays a crucial role in the activation of salivary and lachrymal glands. The M3R contains four extracellular domains (the N-terminal, and the first, second, and third extracellular loops), and we recently detected antibodies against each of these four domains in a subgroup of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Functional analysis indicated that the influence of such anti-M3R antibodies on salivary secretion might differ based on the epitopes to which they bind. To clarify the relationship between B-cell epitopes on the M3R and its function, we generated two hybridomas producing anti-M3R monoclonal antibodies against the second extracellular loop of M3R (anti-M3R(2nd) mAbs) and analyzed their function by Ca(2+)-influx assays, using a human salivary gland (HSG) cell line. These two anti-M3R(2nd) mAbs suppressed Ca(2+)-influx in the HSG cells induced by cevimeline stimulation, suggesting that autoantibodies against the second extracellular loop of M3R could be involved in salivary dysfunction in patients with SS.

  8. Centromere pairing precedes meiotic chromosome pairing in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Han, Fangpu

    2017-11-01

    Meiosis is a specialized eukaryotic cell division, in which diploid cells undergo a single round of DNA replication and two rounds of nuclear division to produce haploid gametes. In most eukaryotes, the core events of meiotic prophase I are chromosomal pairing, synapsis and recombination. To ensure accurate chromosomal segregation, homologs have to identify and align along each other at the onset of meiosis. Although much progress has been made in elucidating meiotic processes, information on the mechanisms underlying chromosome pairing is limited in contrast to the meiotic recombination and synapsis events. Recent research in many organisms indicated that centromere interactions during early meiotic prophase facilitate homologous chromosome pairing, and functional centromere is a prerequisite for centromere pairing such as in maize. Here, we summarize the recent achievements of chromosome pairing research on plants and other organisms, and outline centromere interactions, nuclear chromosome orientation, and meiotic cohesin, as main determinants of chromosome pairing in early meiotic prophase.

  9. Modeling resistive wall modes and disruptive instabilities with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Nm; Jardin, Sc; Pfefferle, D.

    2016-10-01

    Disruptive instabilities pose a significant challenge to the tokamak approach to magnetic fusion energy, and must be reliably avoided in a successful reactor. These instabilities generally involve rapid, global changes to the magnetic field, and electromagnetic interaction with surrounding conducting structures. Here we apply the extended-MHD code M3D-C1 to calculate the stability and evolution of disruptive modes, including their interaction with external conducting structures. The M3D-C1 model includes the effects of resistivity, equilibrium rotation, and resistive walls of arbitrary thickness, each of which may play important roles in the stability and evolution of disruptive modes. The strong stabilizing effect of rotation on resistive wall modes is explored and compared with analytic theory. The nonlinear evolution of vertical displacement events is also considered, including the evolution of non-axisymmetric instabilities that may arise during the current-quench phase of the disruption. It is found that the non-axisymmetric stability of the plasma during a VDE depends strongly on the thermal history of the plasma. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466 and the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling.

  10. FRET-based sensors for the human M1-, M3-, and M5-acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Nicole; Bätz, Julia; Zabel, Ulrike; Lohse, Martin J; Hoffmann, Carsten

    2011-02-01

    Based on the recently developed approach to generate fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensors to measure GPCR activation, we generated sensor constructs for the human M(1)-, M(3)-, and M(5)-acetylcholine receptor. The receptors were labeled with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) at their C-terminus, and with fluorescein arsenical hairpin binder (FlAsH) via tetra-cysteine tags inserted in the third intracellular loop. We then measured FRET between the donor CFP and the acceptor FlAsH in living cells and real time. Agonists like acetylcholine, carbachol, or muscarine activate each receptor construct with half-maximal activation times between 60 and 70ms. Removal of the agonist caused the reversal of the signal. Compared with all other agonists, oxotremorine M differed in two major aspects: it caused significantly slower signals at M(1)- and M(5)-acetylcholine receptors and the amplitude of these signals was larger at the M(1)-acetylcholine receptor. Concentration-response curves for the agonists reveal that all agonists tested, with the mentioned exception of oxotremorine M, caused similar maximal FRET-changes as acetylcholine for the M(1)-, M(3)- and M(5)-acetylcholine receptor constructs. Taken together our data support the notion that orthosteric agonists behave similar at different muscarinic receptor subtypes but that kinetic differences can be observed for receptor activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamical evolution of comet pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, Andrea; Fernández, Julio A.

    2016-10-01

    Some Jupiter family comets in near-Earth orbits (thereafter NEJFCs) show a remarkable similarity in their present orbits, like for instance 169P/NEAT and P/2003 T12 (SOHO), or 252P/LINEAR and P/2016 BA14 (PANSTARRS). By means of numerical integrations we studied the dynamical evolution of these objects. In particular, for each pair of presumably related objects, we are interested in assessing the stability of the orbital parameters for several thousand years, and to find a minimum of their relative spatial distance, coincident with a low value of their relative velocity. For those cases for which we find a well defined minimum of their relative orbital separation, we are trying to reproduce the actual orbit of the hypothetical fragment by modeling a fragmentation of the parent body. Some model parameters are the relative ejection velocity (a few m/s), the orbital point at which the fragmentation could have happened (e.g. perihelion), and the elapsed time since fragmentation. In addition, some possible fragmentation mechanisms, like thermal stress, rotational instability, or collisions, could be explored. According to Fernández J.A and Sosa A. 2015 (Planetary and Space Science 118,pp.14-24), some NEJFCs might come from the outer asteroid belt, and then they would have a more consolidated structure and a higher mineral content than that of comets coming from the trans-Neptunian belt or the Oort cloud. Therefore, such objects would have a much longer physical lifetime in the near-Earth region, and could become potential candidates to produce visible meteor showers (as for example 169P/NEAT which has been identified as the parent body of the alpha-Capricornid meteoroid stream, according to Jenniskens, P., Vaubaillon, J., 2010 (Astron. J. 139), and Kasuga, T., Balam, D.D., Wiegert, P.A., 2010 (Astron. J. 139).

  12. BVR photometric investigation of galaxy pair KPG 562

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, Y. H. M.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents BVR photometric observations and analyses for galaxy pair KPG 562 selected from the Karachentsev Catalog of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies. The observations were obtained using the 1.88-m Telescope of the Kottamia Astronomical Observatory (KAO), Egypt. There is no interaction signs assigned for this pair as reported by Karachentsev Catalog. We used the surface photometry technique to obtain photometric parameters for each galaxy of the pair. The isophotal contours, the luminosity profiles, color profiles (B-V, V-R), ellipticity profiles, position angle (PA) profiles and isophotal center-shift (xc, yc) profiles have been presented. The total and absolute magnitude, ellipticity and position angle (PA) were also obtained from the studied galaxy pair. The studied galaxy pair is clearly showing signs of interaction opposed to that found by Karachentsev. We found that the galaxy KPG 562b contains one tidal tail. The length and thickness of tidal tail were obtained and presented in this study.

  13. Theoretical descriptions of novel triplet germylenes M1-Ge-M2-M3 (M1 = H, Li, Na, K; M2 = Be, Mg, Ca; M3 = H, F, Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Kassaee, Mohamad Zaman; Ashenagar, Samaneh

    2018-02-06

    In a quest to identify new ground-state triplet germylenes, the stabilities (singlet-triplet energy differences, ΔE S-T ) of 96 singlet (s) and triplet (t) M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 species were compared and contrasted at the B3LYP/6-311++G**, QCISD(T)/6-311++G**, and CCSD(T)/6-311++G** levels of theory (M 1  = H, Li, Na, K; M 2  = Be, Mg, Ca; M 3  = H, F, Cl, Br). Interestingly, F-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = F) appear to be more stable and linear than the corresponding Cl- or Br-substituent triplet germylenes (M 3  = Cl or Br). Triplets with M 1  = K (i.e., the K-Ge-M 2 -M 3 series) seem to be more stable than the corresponding triplets with M 1  = H, Li, or Na. This can be attributed to the higher electropositivity of potassium. Triplet species with M 3  = Cl behave similarly to those with M 3  = Br. Conversely, triplets with M 3  = H show similar stabilities and linearities to those with M 3  = F. Singlet species of formulae K-Ge-Ca-Cl and K-Ge-Ca-Br form unexpected cyclic structures. Finally, the triplet germylenes M 1 -Ge-M 2 -M 3 become more stable as the electropositivities of the α-substituents (M 1 and M 2 ) and the electronegativity of the β-substituent (M 3 ) increase.

  14. Constraints on Helium Enhancement in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272): The Horizontal Branch Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.; Sweigart, A. V.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Cortes, C.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the presence of multiple populations showing various amounts of helium enhancement is a common feature among globular star clusters. In this scenario, such a helium enhancement would be particularly apparent in the enhanced luminosity of thc blue horizontal branch (HB) stars compared to the red HB stars. In this Letter, wc test this scenario in the case of the Galactic globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272), using high-precision Stromgren photometry and spectroscopic gravities for blue HB stars. We find that any helium enhancement among the cluster's blue HB stars must be significantly less than I%, thus ruling out the much higher helium enhancements that have been proposed in the literature.

  15. Lone pairs: an electrostatic viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anmol; Gadre, Shridhar R; Mohan, Neetha; Suresh, Cherumuttathu H

    2014-01-16

    A clear-cut definition of lone pairs has been offered in terms of characteristics of minima in molecular electrostatic potential (MESP). The largest eigenvalue and corresponding eigenvector of the Hessian at the minima are shown to distinguish lone pair regions from the other types of electron localization (such as π bonds). A comparative study of lone pairs as depicted by various other scalar fields such as the Laplacian of electron density and electron localization function is made. Further, an attempt has been made to generalize the definition of lone pairs to the case of cations.

  16. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Earley, Clarke W

    2013-11-18

    While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user's computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/.

  17. Status of the assessment phase of the ESA M3 mission candidate LOFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral van Damme, Carlos; Ayre, Mark; Lumb, David; Short, Alexander D.; Rando, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) is one of four candidates for the M3 slot (launch in 2024, with the option of a launch in 2022) of ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025 Plan, and as such it is currently undergoing an initial assessment phase lasting one year. The objective of the assessment phase is to provide the information required to enable the down selection process, in particular: the space segment definition for meeting the assigned science objectives; consideration of and initial definition of the implementation schedule; an estimate of the mission Cost at Completion (CaC); an evaluation of the technology readiness evaluation and risk assessment. The assessment phase is divided into two interleaved components: (i) A payload assessment study, performed by teams funded by member states, which is primarily intended for design, definition and programmatic/cost evaluation of the payload, and (ii) A system industrial study, which has essentially the same objectives for the space segment of the mission. This paper provides an overview of the status of the LOFT assessment phase, both for payload and platform. The initial focus is on the payload design status, providing the reader with an understanding of the main features of the design. Then the space segment assessment study status is presented, with an overview of the principal challenges presented by the LOFT payload and mission requirements, and a presentation of the expected solutions. Overall the mission is expected to enable cutting-edge science, is technically feasible, and should remain within the required CaC for an M3 candidate.

  18. Effects of novel muscarinic M3 receptor ligand C1213 in pulmonary arterial hypertension models.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed; VanPatten, Sonya; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Patel, Hardik; Coleman, Thomas R; Al-Abed, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex disease comprising a pathologic remodeling and thickening of the pulmonary vessels causing an after load on the right heart ventricle that can result in ventricular failure. Triggered by oxidative stress, episodes of hypoxia, and other undetermined causes, PH is associated with poor outcomes and a high rate of morbidity. In the neonate, this disease has a similar etiology but is further complicated by the transition to breathing after birth, which requires a reduction in vascular resistance. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is one form of PH that is frequently unresponsive to current therapies including inhaled nitric oxide (due to lack of proper absorption and diffusion), and other therapeutics targeting signaling mediators in vascular endothelium and smooth muscle. The need for novel agents, which target distinct pathways in pulmonary hypertension, remains. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of novel muscarinic receptor ligand C1213 in models of PH We demonstrated that via M3 muscarinic receptors, C1213 induced activating- eNOS phosphorylation (serine-1177), which is known to lead to nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. Using signaling pathway inhibitors, we discovered that AKT and calcium signaling contributed to eNOS phosphorylation induced by C1213. As expected for an eNOS-stimulating agent, in ex vivo and in vivo models, C1213 triggered pulmonary vasodilation and induced both pulmonary artery and systemic blood pressure reductions demonstrating its potential value in PH and PPHN In brief, this proof-of-concept study provides evidence that an M3 muscarinic receptor functionally selective ligand stimulates downstream pathways leading to antihypertensive effects using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of PH. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Nearest-neighbor thermodynamics of deoxyinosine pairs in DNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Norman E.; SantaLucia, John

    2005-01-01

    Nearest-neighbor thermodynamic parameters of the ‘universal pairing base’ deoxyinosine were determined for the pairs I·C, I·A, I·T, I·G and I·I adjacent to G·C and A·T pairs. Ultraviolet absorbance melting curves were measured and non-linear regression performed on 84 oligonucleotide duplexes with 9 or 12 bp lengths. These data were combined with data for 13 inosine containing duplexes from the literature. Multiple linear regression was used to solve for the 32 nearest-neighbor unknowns. The parameters predict the Tm for all sequences within 1.2°C on average. The general trend in decreasing stability is I·C > I·A > I·T ≈ I· G > I·I. The stability trend for the base pair 5′ of the I·X pair is G·C > C·G > A·T > T·A. The stability trend for the base pair 3′ of I·X is the same. These trends indicate a complex interplay between H-bonding, nearest-neighbor stacking, and mismatch geometry. A survey of 14 tandem inosine pairs and 8 tandem self-complementary inosine pairs is also provided. These results may be used in the design of degenerate PCR primers and for degenerate microarray probes. PMID:16264087

  20. Stereo Pair, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large purple, brown, and green 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks. At the top center of the image, two halves of a tan ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Color, tonal, and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive

  1. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The

  2. Base pairing and base mis-pairing in nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years we have learned that DNA is conformationally active. It can exist in a number of different stable conformations including both right-handed and left-handed forms. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis we are able to discover not only additional conformations of the nucleic acids but also different types of hydrogen bonded base-base interactions. Although Watson-Crick base pairings are the predominant type of interaction in double helical DNA, they are not the only types. Recently, we have been able to examine mismatching of guanine-thymine base pairs in left-handed Z-DNA at atomic resolution (1A). A minimum amount of distortion of the sugar phosphate backbone is found in the G x T pairing in which the bases are held together by two hydrogen bonds in the wobble pairing interaction. Because of the high resolution of the analysis we can visualize water molecules which fill in to accommodate the other hydrogen bonding positions in the bases which are not used in the base-base interactions. Studies on other DNA oligomers have revealed that other types of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions can occur. In the structure of a DNA octamer with the sequence d(GCGTACGC) complexed to an antibiotic triostin A, it was found that the two central AT base pairs are held together by Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick base pairs. Similarly, the G x C base pairs at the ends are also Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Hoogsteen base pairs make a modified helix which is distinct from the Watson-Crick double helix.

  3. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Results Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user’s computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. Conclusions A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/. PMID:24246004

  4. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-02-09

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, T c, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at T c. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to T c. This striking effect offers anmore » unprecedented tool for direct measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Lastly, our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon.« less

  5. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs

    PubMed Central

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at Tc. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to Tc. This striking effect offers an unprecedented tool for direct measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon. PMID:25661237

  6. Resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs.

    PubMed

    Galda, Alexey; Mel'nikov, A S; Vinokur, V M

    2015-02-09

    Superconducting fluctuations have proved to be an irreplaceable source of information about microscopic and macroscopic material parameters that could be inferred from the experiment. According to common wisdom, the effect of thermodynamic fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, is to round off all of the sharp corners and discontinuities, which otherwise would have been expected to occur at Tc. Here we report the current spikes due to radiation-induced resonant tunneling of fluctuation Cooper pairs between two superconductors which grow even sharper and more pronounced upon approach to Tc. This striking effect offers an unprecedented tool for direct measurements of fluctuation Cooper pair lifetime, which is key to our understanding of the fluctuation regime, most notably to nature of the pseudogap state in high-temperature superconductors. Our finding marks a radical departure from the conventional view of superconducting fluctuations as a blurring and rounding phenomenon.

  7. RORγt antagonist suppresses M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced Sjögren's syndrome-like sialadenitis.

    PubMed

    Tahara, M; Tsuboi, H; Segawa, S; Asashima, H; Iizuka-Koga, M; Hirota, T; Takahashi, H; Kondo, Y; Matsui, M; Matsumoto, I; Sumida, T

    2017-02-01

    We showed recently that M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R)-reactive CD3 + T cells play a pathogenic role in the development of murine autoimmune sialadenitis (MIS), which mimics Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and mechanism of action of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-gamma t (RORγt) antagonist (A213) in MIS. Splenocytes from M3R knockout (M3R -/- ) mice immunized with murine M3R peptide mixture were inoculated into recombination-activating gene 1 knockout (Rag-1 -/- ) mice (M3R -/- →Rag-1 -/- ) with MIS. Immunized M3R -/- mice (pretransfer treatment) and M3R -/- →Rag-1 -/- mice (post-transfer treatment) were treated with A213 every 3 days. Salivary volume, severity of sialadenitis and cytokine production from M3R peptide-stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells were examined. Effects of A213 on cytokine production were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and on T helper type 1 (Th1), Th17 and Th2 differentiation from CD4 + T cells by flow cytometry. Pretransfer A213 treatment maintained salivary volume, improved MIS and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 production significantly compared with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (P < 0·05). These suppressive effects involved CD4 + T cells rather than CD11c + cells. Post-transfer treatment with A213 increased salivary volume (P < 0·05), suppressed MIS (P < 0·005) and reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 production (P < 0·05). In vitro, A213 suppressed IFN-γ and IL-17 production from M3R-stimulated splenocytes and CD4 + T cells of immunized M3R -/- mice (P < 0·05). In contrast with M3R specific responses, A213 suppressed only IL-17 production from Th17 differentiated CD4 + T cells without any effect on Th1 and Th2 differentiation in vitro. Our findings suggested that RORγt antagonism is potentially suitable treatment strategy for SS-like sialadenitis through suppression of IL-17 and IFN-γ production

  8. Solution Structure of Enterocin HF, an Antilisterial Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecium M3K31.

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Lohans, Christopher T; van Belkum, Marco J; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2015-12-16

    The solution structure of enterocin HF (EntHF), a class IIa bacteriocin of 43 amino acids produced by Enterococcus faecium M3K31, was evaluated by CD and NMR spectroscopy. Purified EntHF was unstructured in water, but CD analysis supports that EntHF adopts an α-helical conformation when exposed to increasing concentrations of trifluoroethanol. Furthermore, NMR spectroscopy indicates that this bacteriocin adopts an antiparallel β-sheet structure in the N-terminal region (residues 1-17), followed by a well-defined central α-helix (residues 19-30) and a more disordered C-terminal end (residues 31-43). EntHF could be structurally organized into three flexible regions that might act in a coordinated manner. This is in agreement with the absence of long-range nuclear Overhauser effect signals between the β-sheet domain and the C-terminal end of the bacteriocin. The 3D structure recorded for EntHF fits emerging facts regarding target recognition and mode of action of class IIa bacteriocins.

  9. Radiation environment on board Foton-M 3: the neutron component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falzetta, Giuseppe; Zanini, Alba; Chiorra, Katia; Briccarello, Mauro; Belluco, Maurizio; Longo, Francesco; Jerse, Giovanna

    The recoverable capsule Foton-M 3 (ESA mission) was launched from Baikonur on 2007 September 14 and landed on the Russian-Kazakh border 12 days later. The spacecraft carried on board several ESA experiments. During this space mission a study has been performed on the neutron component of the radiation environment inside the capsule. Neutrons are a not avoidable component of the secondary radiation produced by interaction of primary radiation with the spacecraft shielding. Because of their high LET, neutrons could represent a main risk for both the electronic instruments and the health of the astronauts during space missions. Monte Carlo simulations performed by Geant4 code have been carried out using as input primary proton and alpha spectra, obtained by various tools (i.e. Creme 96, Omere, etc . . . ) and the neutron fluxes and doses, as a function of neutron energies, have been evaluated. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained by passive neutron detectors. In this study the effectiveness of various shielding materials useful in space mission has been also investigated.

  10. Modeling of lithium granule injection in NSTX using M3D-C1

    SciTech Connect

    Fil, A.; Kolemen, E.; Ferraro, N.

    In this paper, we present simulations of pedestal control by lithium granule injection (LGI) in NSTX. A model for small granule ablation has been implemented in the M3D-C1 code (Jardin et al 2012 Comput. Sci. Discovery 5 014002), allowing the simulation of realistic lithium granule injections. 2D and 3D simulations of Li injections in NSTX H-mode plasmas are performed and the effect of granule size, injection angle and velocity on the pedestal gradient increase is studied. The amplitude of the local pressure perturbation caused by the granules is found to be highly dependent on the solid granule size. Adjusting themore » granule injection velocity allows one to inject more particles at the pedestal top. 3D simulations show the destabilization of high order MHD modes whose amplitude is directly linked to the localized pressure perturbation, which is found to depend on the toroidal localization of the granule density source.« less

  11. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmospheremore » models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.« less

  12. Modeling of lithium granule injection in NSTX using M3D-C1

    DOE PAGES

    Fil, A.; Kolemen, E.; Ferraro, N.; ...

    2017-04-06

    In this paper, we present simulations of pedestal control by lithium granule injection (LGI) in NSTX. A model for small granule ablation has been implemented in the M3D-C1 code (Jardin et al 2012 Comput. Sci. Discovery 5 014002), allowing the simulation of realistic lithium granule injections. 2D and 3D simulations of Li injections in NSTX H-mode plasmas are performed and the effect of granule size, injection angle and velocity on the pedestal gradient increase is studied. The amplitude of the local pressure perturbation caused by the granules is found to be highly dependent on the solid granule size. Adjusting themore » granule injection velocity allows one to inject more particles at the pedestal top. 3D simulations show the destabilization of high order MHD modes whose amplitude is directly linked to the localized pressure perturbation, which is found to depend on the toroidal localization of the granule density source.« less

  13. M3Ag17(SPh)12 Nanoparticles and Their Structure Prediction.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Sameera; Atnagulov, Aydar; Conn, Brian E; Yoon, Bokwon; Barnett, Robert N; Griffith, Wendell P; Landman, Uzi; Bigioni, Terry P

    2015-09-16

    Although silver nanoparticles are of great fundamental and practical interest, only one structure has been determined thus far: M4Ag44(SPh)30, where M is a monocation, and SPh is an aromatic thiolate ligand. This is in part due to the fact that no other molecular silver nanoparticles have been synthesized with aromatic thiolate ligands. Here we report the synthesis of M3Ag17(4-tert-butylbenzene-thiol)12, which has good stability and an unusual optical spectrum. We also present a rational strategy for predicting the structure of this molecule. First-principles calculations support the structural model, predict a HOMO-LUMO energy gap of 1.77 eV, and predict a new "monomer mount" capping motif, Ag(SR)3, for Ag nanoparticles. The calculated optical absorption spectrum is in good correspondence with the measured spectrum. Heteroatom substitution was also used as a structural probe. First-principles calculations based on the structural model predicted a strong preference for a single Au atom substitution in agreement with experiment.

  14. Availability of endogenous peptides limits expression of an M3a-Ld major histocompatibility complex class I chimera

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Taking advantage of our understanding of the peptide specificity of the major histocompatibility complex class I-b molecule M3a, we sought to determine why these molecules are poorly represented on the cell surface. To this end we constructed a chimeric molecule with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains of M3a and alpha 3 of Ld thereby allowing use of available monoclonal antibodies to quantify surface expression. Transfected, but not control, B10.CAS2 (H-2M3b) cells were lysed readily by M3a-restricted monoclonal cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, the chimera bound, trafficked, and presented endogenous mitochondrial peptides. However, despite high levels of M3a-Ld mRNA, transfectants were negative by surface staining. This finding was consistent with inefficient trafficking to the cell surface. Incubation at 26 degrees C, thought to permit trafficking of unoccupied heavy (H) chains, resulted in detectable cell surface expression of chimeric molecules. Incubation with exogenous peptide at 26 degrees C (but not at 37 degrees C) greatly enhanced expression of M3a-Ld molecules in a dose- dependent manner, suggesting stabilization of unoccupied molecules. Stable association of beta 2-microglobulin with the chimeric H chain was observed in labeled cell lysates only in the presence of exogenous specific peptide, indicating that peptide is required for the formation of a ternary complex. These results indicate that surface expression of M3a-Ld is limited largely by the steady-state availability of endogenous peptides. Since most known M3a-binding peptides are N- formylated, native M3a may normally be expressed at high levels only during infection by intracellular bacteria. PMID:8270862

  15. High-pressure/high-temperature synthesis and characterization of the first palladium or platinum containing lithium transition-metal sulfides Li2M3S4 (M=Pd, Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, Gunter; Niehaus, Oliver; Krüger, Hannes; Selter, Philipp; Brunklaus, Gunther; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    The new lithium transition-metal sulfides Li2M3S4 (M=Pd, Pt) were obtained via multianvil high-pressure/high-temperature syntheses at 8 GPa and 1150 °C starting from a stoichiometric mixture of lithium nitride, sulfur, and palladium or platinum. Single crystal structure analyses indicated the space group P21/c (no. 14) with the following lattice parameters and refinement results: a=492.9(1), b=1005.9(2), c=614.9(2) pm, β=110.9 (1)°, R1=0.0165, wR2=0.0308 (all data) for Li2Pd3S4 and a=498.2(1), b=1005.5(2), c=613.0(2) pm, β=110.8(1)°, R1=0.0215, wR2=0.0450 (all data) for Li2Pt3S4. The crystal structures are built up from two distinct Pd/Pt sites, one of which is a special position (0,0,0), two sulfur sites, and one lithium site. The atoms Pd2/Pt2 form isolated square planar PdS4/PtS4 units, whereas the Pd1/Pt1 atoms form pairs of square planar PdS4/PtS4 units, which are connected via a common edge. These two structural motives built up a three-dimensional network structure by linking through common corners. The lithium atoms are positioned inside of the so formed channels. Li2M3S4 (M=Pd, Pt) are isostructural to the minerals jaguéite, Cu2Pd3Se4 and chrisstanleyite, Ag2Pd3Se4, which are up to now the only representatives of this structure type. Both compounds were studied with respect to their magnetic properties and can be classified as Pauli paramagnetic or diamagnetic. Regarding the possibility of lithium mobility inside the channels, of the structure, solid state 7Li NMR and high-temperature single crystal investigations revealed localization of the lithium atoms on their crystallographic sites.

  16. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Mineralogy of young lunar mare basalts: Assessment of temporal and spatial heterogeneity using M3 data from Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varatharajan, Indhu; Srivastava, Neeraj; Murty, Sripada V. S.

    2014-07-01

    A comparative assessment of the mineralogy of young basalts (∼1.2 Ga to ∼2.8 Ga) from the western nearside, Moscoviense basin, and the Orientale basin of the Moon has been made using Level 2 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from the Chandrayaan-1 mission. Spectral data characteristics of the individual units have been generated from fresh small craters to minimize the complications due to space weathering. Representative spectra for individual units and the derived spectral parameters (band centers and integrated band depth ratio) have been used to study composition of these young basalts. A modified approach of Gaffey et al. (Gaffey, M.J., Cloutis, E.A., Kelley, M.S., Reed, K.L. [2002]. Mineralogy of asteroids. In: Asteroids III. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 183-204) (for olivine-pyroxene mixtures) and the methodology of Adams (Adams, J.B. [1974]. J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4829-4836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB079i032p04829) (for interpreting pyroxene type) have been used to improve our understanding of the spectral behavior of these basalts. Most of the young basalts of Oceanus Procellarum are characterized by abundant olivines and they show complex volcanic history. Vast exposures of olivine concentrated units having higher abundance of olivine content than high-Ca pyroxenes are emplaced in the northern Oceanus Procellarum region. Mostly, they show distinct stratigraphic gradation with the immediately underlying units of relatively lower olivine content. The Moscoviense unit shows signatures of Fe-rich glasses along with clinopyroxenes. The basalts of Orientale basin are typically devoid of olivine and are rich in high-Ca pyroxene. Thus, mineralogy of these mare basalts which erupted during the late stage volcanism vary across the Moon’s surface; however, broader observations reveal apparently higher FeO content in the younger basalts of western nearside and Orientale region.

  18. Informatics-Aided Density Functional Theory Study on the Li Ion Transport of Tavorite-Type LiMTO4F (M(3+)-T(5+), M(2+)-T(6+)).

    PubMed

    Jalem, Randy; Kimura, Mayumi; Nakayama, Masanobu; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2015-06-22

    The ongoing search for fast Li-ion conducting solid electrolytes has driven the deployment surge on density functional theory (DFT) computation and materials informatics for exploring novel chemistries before actual experimental testing. Existing structure prototypes can now be readily evaluated beforehand not only to map out trends on target properties or for candidate composition selection but also for gaining insights on structure-property relationships. Recently, the tavorite structure has been determined to be capable of a fast Li ion insertion rate for battery cathode applications. Taking this inspiration, we surveyed the LiMTO4F tavorite system (M(3+)-T(5+) and M(2+)-T(6+) pairs; M is nontransition metals) for solid electrolyte use, identifying promising compositions with enormously low Li migration energy (ME) and understanding how structure parameters affect or modulate ME. We employed a combination of DFT computation, variable interaction analysis, graph theory, and a neural network for building a crystal structure-based ME prediction model. Candidate compositions that were predicted include LiGaPO4F (0.25 eV), LiGdPO4F (0.30 eV), LiDyPO4F (0.30 eV), LiMgSO4F (0.21 eV), and LiMgSeO4F (0.11 eV). With chemical substitutions at M and T sites, competing effects among Li pathway bottleneck size, polyanion covalency, and local lattice distortion were determined to be crucial for controlling ME. A way to predict ME for multiple structure types within the neural network framework was also explored.

  19. Effect of the 2.0 mg/m3 coal mine dust standard on underground environmental dust levels.

    PubMed

    Parobeck

    1975-08-01

    The 1969 Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act established environmental dust standards for underground coal mines. The Act requires that the average concentration of respirable dust in the active workings of a mine be maintained at or below 3.0 mg/m3; and, that effective December 30, 1972, the 3.0 mg/m3 standard be reduced to 2.0 mg/m3. This paper discusses the current status of dust levels in our underground coal mines, the effect of the 2.0 mg/m3 standard on underground dust levels, and associates the current levels with specific operations and occupations. The comparison is made between current levels and those existing prior to December 30, 1972.

  20. New Halo Stars of the Galactic Globular Clusters M3 and M13 in the LAMOST DR1 Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Colin A.; Martell, Sarah L.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2016-10-01

    M3 and M13 are Galactic globular clusters with previous reports of surrounding stellar halos. We present the results of a search for members and extratidal cluster halo stars within and outside of the tidal radius of these clusters in the LAMOST Data Release 1. We find seven candidate cluster members (inside the tidal radius) of both M3 and M13, respectively. In M3 we also identify eight candidate extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ˜9.8 times the tidal radius, and in M13 we identify 12 candidate extratidal cluster halo stars at distances up to ˜13.8 times the tidal radius. These results support previous indications that both M3 and M13 are surrounded by extended stellar halos, and we find that the GC destruction rates corresponding to the observed mass loss are generally significantly higher than theoretical studies predict.

  1. Effect of hyperglycaemia on muscarinic M3 receptor expression and secretory sensitivity to cholinergic receptor activation in islets.

    PubMed

    Hauge-Evans, A C; Reers, C; Kerby, A; Franklin, Z; Amisten, S; King, A J; Hassan, Z; Vilches-Flores, A; Tippu, Z; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2014-10-01

    Islets are innervated by parasympathetic nerves which release acetylcholine (ACh) to amplify glucose-induced insulin secretion, primarily via muscarinic M3 receptors (M3R). Here we investigate the consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia on islet M3R expression and secretory sensitivity of mouse islets to cholinergic receptor activation. The impact of hyperglycaemia was studied in (i) islets isolated from ob/ob mice, (ii) alginate-encapsulated mouse islets transplanted intraperitoneally into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and (iii) mouse and human islets maintained in vitro at 5.5 or 16 mmol/l glucose. Blood glucose levels were assessed by a commercial glucose meter, insulin content by RIA and M3R expression by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. M3R mRNA expression was reduced in both ob/ob islets and islets maintained at 16 mmol/l glucose for 3 days (68 and 50% control, respectively). In all three models of hyperglycaemia the secretory sensitivity to the cholinergic receptor agonist, carbachol, was reduced by 60-70% compared to control islets. Treatment for 72 h with the irreversible PKC activator, PMA, or the PKC inhibitor, Gö6983, did not alter islet M3R mRNA expression nor did incubation with the PI3K-inhibitor, LY294002, although enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion by LY294002 was reduced in islets maintained at 16 mmol/l glucose, as was mRNA expression of the PI3K regulatory subunit, p85α. Cholinergic regulation of insulin release is impaired in three experimental islet models of hyperglycaemia consistent with reduced expression of M3 receptors. Our data suggest that the receptor downregulation is a PKC- and PI3K-independent consequence of the hyperglycaemic environment, and they imply that M3 receptors could be potential targets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen abundances in the giant stars of the globular clusters M3 and M13

    SciTech Connect

    Suntzeff, N.B.

    Carbon and nitrogen abundances, as well as the strengths of calcium II H and K and the ..delta..v = 0 cyanogen band, have been measured in red giant stars in the globular clusters M3 and M13. The data consist of spectrophotometric scans of low resolution (10 A) of 29 giants in M3 and 35 giants in M13 in the wavelength region 3000--5000 A.

  3. Peculiarities of lens and tail regeneration detected in newts after spaceflight aboard Foton M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Almeida, Eduardo; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Domaratskaya, Elena; Aleinikova, Karina; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.

    In September 2007 the joint, 12 day long experiment was carried out aboard Russian satellite Foton M3. The goal of the experiment was to study eye lens, tail and forelimb toe regeneration in adult 16 newts (Pl. waltl.) operated 10 days before taking-off. In spaceflight and synchronous ground control we used video recording, temperature and irradiation control, as well as constant availability of thymidine analog BrdU for its absorption via animals' skin. New techniques allowed us to analyze animals' behavior in hyperand microgravity periods of time, to take proper account of spaceflight factors, and measure accumulated pools of DNA-synthesizing cells in regenerating tissues. All tissue specimens obtained from animals were isolated in the day of landing and then prepared for morphological, immunochemical and molecular investigations. Synchronous control was shifted for two days and reproduced flight conditions except changes of gravity influence. As a result in flown animals as compared with synchronous ground control we found lens regeneration of 0.5-1 stage speeded up and an increased BrdU+ (S-phase) cell number in eye cornea, growth zone, limbus and newly forming lens. These features of regeneration were accompanied by an increase of FGF2 expression in eye growth zone and heat shock protein (HSP90) induction purely in retinal macroglial cells of regenerating eyes. Toe regeneration rate was equal and achieved the stage of accomplished healing of amputation area in both groups - "flown" and control animals. We found no essential differences in tail regeneration rate and tail regenerate sizes in the newts exposed to space and on ground. In both groups tail regeneration reached the stage IV-V when tail length and square were around 4.4 mm and 15.5 mm2, correspondingly. However we did observe remarkable changes of tail regenerate form and some of pigmentation. Computer morphometrical analysis showed that only in ground control animals the evident dorso

  4. Mineralogy of Mare Serenitatis on the near side of the Moon based on Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Chauhan, Prakash; Ajai; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral analysis of Mare Serenitatis has been carried out using Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data in order to map the compositional diversity of the basaltic units that exist in the basin. Mare Serenitatis is characterized by multiple basaltic flows of different ages indicating a prolonged volcanism subsequent to the basin formation event. Reflectance spectra of fresh craters from the Mare Serenitatis have been analyzed to study the nature and location of the spectral absorption features around 1- and 2-μm respectively, arising due to the electronic charge transition of Fe2+ in the crystal lattice of pyroxenes and/or olivine. Chandrayaan-1 M3 data have been utilized to obtain an Integrated Band Depth (IBD) mosaic of the Serenitatis basin. Based on the spectral variations observed in the IBD mosaic, 13 spectral units have been mapped in the Mare Serenitatis. In the present study, we have also derived spectral band parameters, namely, band center, band strength, band area and band area ratio from the M3 data to study the mineralogical and compositional variations amongst the basaltic units of the studied basin. On the basis of spectral band parameter analysis, the pyroxene compositions of the basaltic units have been determined, which vary from low to intermediate end of the high-Ca pyroxene and probably represent a sub-calcic to calcic augite compositional range. Detailed spectral analyses reveal little variations in the mafic mineralogy of the mare basalts in terms of pyroxene chemistry. The uniformity in pyroxene composition across the basaltic units of Mare Serenitatis, therefore, suggest a probably stable basaltic source region, which might not have experienced large-scale fractionation during the prolonged volcanism that resulted in filling of the large Serenitatis basin.

  5. Role of M2 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in activation of bladder afferent pathways in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Miyazato, Minoru; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Kita, Masafumi; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Chancellor, Michael B; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the role of M2 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes in the activation of bladder afferent pathways in rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were spinalized at the T9 level. Continuous cystometry was performed under awake conditions 2 or 4 weeks after SCI. The effects of intravesical administration of an mAChR agonist (oxotremorine-methiodide), a nonselective antagonist (atropine), an M2-selective antagonist (methoctramine), and an M3-selective antagonist (darifenacin) were examined. After cystometry, the bladder was removed and separated into the mucosa and detrusor, and the M2 and M3 mAChR mRNA expression in the mucosa was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At 2 and 4 weeks after SCI, intravesical administration of a nonselective mAChR agonist (25 μM oxotremorine-methiodide) increased the area under the curve of nonvoiding contractions, although the intercontraction interval of voiding contractions and maximal voiding pressure did not change. This effect was blocked by atropine and methoctramine (10 μM) but not by darifenacin (50 μM). However, mAChR antagonists alone (10-50 μM) had no effect on cystometric parameters. M2 mAChR mRNA expression was increased in the mucosa of SCI rats compared with that in normal rats. Our results suggest that the M2 mAChR subtype plays an important role in bladder afferent activation that enhances detrusor overactivity in SCI rats. However, because mAChR antagonists alone did not affect any cystometric parameters, the muscarinic mechanism controlling bladder afferent activity might not be involved in the emergence of detrusor overactivity in SCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Orbitally limited pair-density-wave phase of multilayer superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möckli, David; Yanase, Youichi; Sigrist, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the magnetic field dependence of an ideal superconducting vortex lattice in the parity-mixed pair-density-wave phase of multilayer superconductors within a circular cell Ginzburg-Landau approach. In multilayer systems, due to local inversion symmetry breaking, a Rashba spin-orbit coupling is induced at the outer layers. This combined with a perpendicular paramagnetic (Pauli) limiting magnetic field stabilizes a staggered layer dependent pair-density-wave phase in the superconducting singlet channel. The high-field pair-density-wave phase is separated from the low-field BCS phase by a first-order phase transition. The motivating guiding question in this paper is: What is the minimal necessary Maki parameter αM for the appearance of the pair-density-wave phase of a superconducting trilayer system? To address this problem we generalize the circular cell method for the regular flux-line lattice of a type-II superconductor to include paramagnetic depairing effects. Then, we apply the model to the trilayer system, where each of the layers are characterized by Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ0 and a Maki parameter αM. We find that when the spin-orbit Rashba interaction compares to the superconducting condensation energy, the orbitally limited pair-density-wave phase stabilizes for Maki parameters αM>10 .

  7. Pair density waves in superconducting vortex halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Edkins, Stephen D.; Hamidian, Mohammad H.; Davis, J. C. Séamus; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the interplay between a d -wave uniform superconducting and a pair-density-wave (PDW) order parameter in the neighborhood of a vortex. We develop a phenomenological nonlinear sigma model, solve the saddle-point equation for the order-parameter configuration, and compute the resulting local density of states in the vortex halo. The intertwining of the two superconducting orders leads to a charge density modulation with the same periodicity as the PDW, which is twice the period of the charge density wave that arises as a second harmonic of the PDW itself. We discuss key features of the charge density modulation that can be directly compared with recent results from scanning tunneling microscopy and speculate on the role PDW order may play in the global phase diagram of the hole-doped cuprates.

  8. SAP is required for the development of innate phenotype in H2-M3-restricted CD8+ T cells1

    PubMed Central

    Bediako, Yaw; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Hong; Cho, Hoonsik; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2012-01-01

    H2-M3-restricted T cells have a pre-activated surface phenotype, rapidly expand and produce cytokines upon stimulation and as such, are classified as innate T cells. Unlike most innate T cells, M3-restricted T cells also express CD8αβ co-receptors and a diverse TCR repertoire: hallmarks of conventional MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. Although iNKT cells are also innate lymphocytes, they are selected exclusively on hematopoietic cells (HC), while M3-restricted T cells can be selected on either hematopoietic or thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Moreover, their phenotypes differ depending on what cells mediate their selection. Though there is a clear correlation between selection on HC and development of innate phenotype, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. SAP is required for the development of iNKT cells and mediates signals from SLAM receptors that are exclusively expressed on HC. Based on their dual selection pathway, M3-restricted T cells present a unique model for studying the development of innate T cell phenotype. Using both polyclonal and transgenic mouse models we demonstrate that while M3-restricted T cells are capable of developing in the absence of SAP, SAP is required for HC-mediated selection, development of pre-activated phenotype and heightened effector functions of M3-restricted T cells. These findings are significant because they directly demonstrate the need for SAP in HC-mediated acquisition of innate T cell phenotype and suggest that due to their SAP-dependent HC-mediated selection, M3-restricted T cells develop a pre-activated phenotype and an intrinsic ability to proliferate faster upon stimulation, allowing for an important role in the early response to infection. PMID:23041566

  9. Pair-Starved Pulsar Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple analytic model for the innermost (within the light cylinder of canonical radius, approx. c/Omega) structure of open-magnetic-field lines of a rotating neutron star (NS) with relativistic outflow of charged particles (electrons/positrons) and arbitrary angle between the NS spin and magnetic axes. We present the self-consistent solution of Maxwell's equations for the magnetic field and electric current in the pair-starved regime where the density of electron-positron plasma generated above the pulsar polar cap is not sufficient to completely screen the accelerating electric field and thus establish thee E . B = 0 condition above the pair-formation front up to the very high altitudes within the light cylinder. The proposed mode1 may provide a theoretical framework for developing the refined model of the global pair-starved pulsar magnetosphere.

  10. Comparison of JET AVDE disruption data with M3D simulations and implications for ITER

    DOE PAGES

    Strauss, H.; Joffrin, E.; Riccardo, V.; ...

    2017-10-02

    Nonlinear 3D MHD asymmetric vertical displacement disruption simulations have been performed using JET equilibrium reconstruction initial data. There were several experimentally measured quantities compared with the simulation. These include vertical displacement, halo current, toroidal current asymmetry, and toroidal rotation. The experimental data and the simulations are in reasonable agreement. Also compared was the correlation of the toroidal current asymmetry and the vertical displacement asymmetry. The Noll relation between asymmetric wall force and vertical current moment is verified in the simulations. Also verified is the toroidal flux asymmetry. Though, JET is a good predictor of ITER disruption behavior, JET and ITERmore » can be in different parameter regimes, and extrapolating from JET data can overestimate the ITER wall force.« less

  11. Comparison of JET AVDE disruption data with M3D simulations and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H.; Joffrin, E.; Riccardo, V.

    Nonlinear 3D MHD asymmetric vertical displacement disruption simulations have been performed using JET equilibrium reconstruction initial data. There were several experimentally measured quantities compared with the simulation. These include vertical displacement, halo current, toroidal current asymmetry, and toroidal rotation. The experimental data and the simulations are in reasonable agreement. Also compared was the correlation of the toroidal current asymmetry and the vertical displacement asymmetry. The Noll relation between asymmetric wall force and vertical current moment is verified in the simulations. Also verified is the toroidal flux asymmetry. Though, JET is a good predictor of ITER disruption behavior, JET and ITERmore » can be in different parameter regimes, and extrapolating from JET data can overestimate the ITER wall force.« less

  12. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 < α < 1 of vortex pair sizes at the time when one pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where σ = sqrt{2}-1 is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys. 21, 269-273 (2000)], 10.1088/0143-0807/21/3/310 determined by numerical experiments that leapfrogging is linearly unstable for σ2 < α < 0.382, but apparently stable for larger α. Here we derive a linear system of equations governing small perturbations of the leapfrogging motion. We show that symmetry-breaking perturbations are essentially governed by a 2D linear system with time-periodic coefficients and perform a Floquet analysis. We find transition from linearly unstable to stable leapfrogging at α = ϕ2 ≈ 0.381966, where φ = 1/2(sqrt{5}-1) is the golden ratio. Acheson also suggested that there was a sharp transition between a "disintegration" instability mode, where two pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L. Tophøj and H. Aref, "Chaotic scattering of two identical point vortex pairs revisited," Phys. Fluids 20, 093605 (2008)], 10.1063/1.2974830. Both leapfrogging and "walkabout" motions can appear as intermediate states in chaotic scattering at the same values of linear impulse and energy.

  13. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plantsor algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stress-tolerant strains. Site-directed and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of Photosystem II D1 protein were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. Metabolite profiling by quantitative HPLC methods revealed the organisms and the stress conditions capable to accumulate the highest pigment levels. In order to develop a project for a rationale metabolic engineering of algal secondary metabolites overproduction, we are performing expression analyses on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway under physiological and mimicked space conditions. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton-M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence biosensor, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device

  14. Meeting Report: “Metagenomics, Metadata and Meta-analysis” (M3) Special Interest Group at ISMB 2009

    PubMed Central

    Field, Dawn; Friedberg, Iddo; Sterk, Peter; Kottmann, Renzo; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Garrity, George M.; Cochrane, Guy; Wooley, John; Gilbert, Jack

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the “Metagenomics, Metadata and Meta-analysis” (M3) Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting held at the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology 2009 conference. The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) hosted this meeting to explore the bottlenecks and emerging solutions for obtaining biological insights through large-scale comparative analysis of metagenomic datasets. The M3 SIG included 16 talks, half of which were selected from submitted abstracts, a poster session and a panel discussion involving members of the GSC Board. This report summarizes this one-day SIG, attempts to identify shared themes and recapitulates community recommendations for the future of this field. The GSC will also host an M3 workshop at the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing (PSB) in January 2010. Further information about the GSC and its range of activities can be found at http://gensc.org/. PMID:21304668

  15. Missing energies at pair creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Ela, A. A.; Hassan, S.; Bagge, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Wilson cloud chamber measurements of the separated spectra of positrons and electrons produced by gamma quanta of 6.14 MeV differ considerably from the theoretically predicted spectra by BETHE and HEITLER, but are in good agreement with those of a modified theory of pair creation.

  16. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  17. Applicability of effective pair potentials for active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Rein, Markus; Speck, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We have performed a case study investigating a recently proposed scheme to obtain an effective pair potential for active Brownian particles (Farage et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 042310 (2015)). Applying this scheme to the Lennard-Jones potential, numerical simulations of active Brownian particles are compared to simulations of passive Brownian particles interacting by the effective pair potential. Analyzing the static pair correlations, our results indicate a limited range of activity parameters (speed and orientational correlation time) for which we obtain quantitative, or even qualitative, agreement. Moreover, we find a qualitatively different behavior for the virial pressure even for small propulsion speeds. Combining these findings we conclude that beyond linear response active particles exhibit genuine non-equilibrium properties that cannot be captured by effective pair interaction alone.

  18. Mineralogy of the Lunar Crust in Spatial Context: First Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Combe, J-P; Green, R.; Goswami, J. N.; Head, J. W., III; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; hide

    2009-01-01

    India's Chandrayaan-1 successfully launched October 22, 2008 and went into lunar orbit a few weeks later. Commissioning of instruments began in late November and was near complete by the end of the year. Initial data for NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) were acquired across the Orientale Basin and the science results are discussed here. M 3 image-cube data provide mineralogy of the surface in geologic context. A major new result is that the existence and distribution of massive amounts of anorthosite as a continuous stratigraphic crustal layer is now irrefutable.

  19. Observing RR Lyrae Variables in the M3 Globular Cluster with the BYU West Mountain Observatory (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on the northern hemisphere globular cluster NGC 5272 (M3). We made 216 observations in the V filter spaced between March and August 2012. We present light curves of the M3 RR Lyrae stars using different techniques. We compare light curves produced using DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages for stars in both the halo and core regions of this globular cluster. The light curve fitting is done using FITLC.

  20. Pairing versus quarteting coherence length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Baran, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    We systematically analyze the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density-dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have, in all considered cases, a long-range character inside the nucleus and a decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in the continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are put in evidence, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar shape, but with larger values on the nuclear surface. We provide evidence of the important role of proton-neutron correlations by estimating the so-called alpha coherence length, which takes into account the overlap with the proton-neutron part of the α -particle wave function. It turns out that it does not depend on the nuclear size and has a value comparable to the free α -particle radius. We have shown that pairing correlations are mainly concentrated inside the nucleus, while quarteting correlations are connected to the nuclear surface.

  1. Distribution function of random strains in an elastically anisotropic continuum and defect strengths of T m3 + impurity ions in crystals with zircon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, B. Z.; Abishev, N. M.; Baibekov, E. I.; Pytalev, D. S.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Bettinelli, M.

    2017-07-01

    We construct a distribution function of the strain-tensor components induced by point defects in an elastically anisotropic continuum, which can be used to account quantitatively for many effects observed in different branches of condensed matter physics. Parameters of the derived six-dimensional generalized Lorentz distribution are expressed through the integrals computed over the array of strains. The distribution functions for the cubic diamond and elpasolite crystals and tetragonal crystals with the zircon and scheelite structures are presented. Our theoretical approach is supported by a successful modeling of specific line shapes of singlet-doublet transitions of the T m3 + ions doped into AB O4 (A =Y , Lu; B =P , V) crystals with zircon structure, observed in high-resolution optical spectra. The values of the defect strengths of impurity T m3 + ions in the oxygen surroundings, obtained as a result of this modeling, can be used in future studies of random strains in different rare-earth oxides.

  2. Spin-1 Heisenberg ferromagnet using pair approximation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat; Mert, Gülistan; Kılıç, Ahmet

    2016-06-08

    Thermodynamic properties for Heisenberg ferromagnet with spin-1 on the simple cubic lattice have been calculated using pair approximation method. We introduce the single-ion anisotropy and the next-nearest-neighbor exchange interaction. We found that for negative single-ion anisotropy parameter, the internal energy is positive and heat capacity has two peaks.

  3. Genome-wide molecular dissection of serotype M3 group A Streptococcus strains causing two epidemics of invasive infections.

    PubMed

    Beres, Stephen B; Sylva, Gail L; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Granville, Chanel N; Liu, Mengyao; Ricklefs, Stacy M; Whitney, Adeline R; Parkins, Larye D; Hoe, Nancy P; Adams, Gerald J; Low, Donald E; DeLeo, Frank R; McGeer, Allison; Musser, James M

    2004-08-10

    Molecular factors that contribute to the emergence of new virulent bacterial subclones and epidemics are poorly understood. We hypothesized that analysis of a population-based strain sample of serotype M3 group A Streptococcus (GAS) recovered from patients with invasive infection by using genome-wide investigative methods would provide new insight into this fundamental infectious disease problem. Serotype M3 GAS strains (n = 255) cultured from patients in Ontario, Canada, over 11 years and representing two distinct infection peaks were studied. Genetic diversity was indexed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, DNA-DNA microarray, whole-genome PCR scanning, prophage genotyping, targeted gene sequencing, and single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. All variation in gene content was attributable to acquisition or loss of prophages, a molecular process that generated unique combinations of proven or putative virulence genes. Distinct serotype M3 genotypes experienced rapid population expansion and caused infections that differed significantly in character and severity. Molecular genetic analysis, combined with immunologic studies, implicated a 4-aa duplication in the extreme N terminus of M protein as a factor contributing to an epidemic wave of serotype M3 invasive infections. This finding has implications for GAS vaccine research. Genome-wide analysis of population-based strain samples cultured from clinically well defined patients is crucial for understanding the molecular events underlying bacterial epidemics.

  4. Improved the microstructures and properties of M3:2 high-speed steel by spray forming and niobium alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.; Hou, L.G., E-mail: lghou@skl.ustb.edu.cn; Zhang, J.X.

    The microstructures and properties of spray formed (SF) high-speed steels (HSSs) with or without niobium (Nb) addition were studied. Particular emphasis was placed on the effect of Nb on the solidification microstructures, decomposition of M{sub 2}C carbides, thermal stability and mechanical properties. The results show that spray forming can refine the cell size of eutectic carbides due to the rapid cooling effect during atomization. With Nb addition, further refinement of the eutectic carbides and primary austenite grains are obtained. Moreover, the Nb addition can accelerate the decomposition of M{sub 2}C carbides and increase the thermal stability of high-speed steel, andmore » also can improve the hardness and bending strength with slightly decrease the impact toughness. The high-speed steel made by spray forming and Nb alloying can give a better tool performance compared with powder metallurgy M3:2 and commercial AISI M2 high-speed steels. - Highlights: • Spray forming can effectively refine the microstructure of M3:2 steel. • Niobium accelerates the decomposition of M{sub 2}C carbides. • Niobium increases the hardness and bending strength of spray formed M3:2 steel. • Spray-formed niobium-containing M3:2 steel has the best tool performance.« less

  5. 75 FR 3471 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2008-D-0470... Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a guidance entitled ``M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human...

  6. G protein γ (Gγ) subtype dependent targeting of GRK2 to M3 receptor by Gβγ.

    PubMed

    Samaradivakara, Saroopa; Kankanamge, Dinesh; Senarath, Kanishka; Ratnayake, Kasun; Karunarathne, Ajith

    2018-06-11

    Interactions of cytosolic G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) with activated G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induce receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. GRK2 is recruited to active M3-muscarinic receptors (M3R) with the participation of the receptor, Gαq and Gβγ. Since we have shown that signaling efficacy of Gβγ is governed by its Gγ subtype identity, the present study examined whether recruitment of GRK2 to M3R is also Gγ subtype dependent. To capture the dynamics of GRK2-recruitment concurrently with GPCR-G protein activation, we employed live cell confocal imaging and a novel assay based on Gβγ translocation. Data show that M3R activation-induced GRK2 recruitment is Gγ subtype dependent in which Gβγ dimers with low PM-affinity Gγ9 exhibited a two-fold higher GRK2-recruitment compared to high PM affinity Gγ3 expressing cells. Since 12-mammalian Gγ types exhibit a cell and tissue specific expressions and the PM-affinity of a Gγ is linked to its subtype identity, our results indicate a mechanism by which Gγ profile of a cell controls GRK2 signaling and GPCR desensitization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  8. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... (Loss) Reconciliation for S Corporations With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1... Corporation, Schedule D (Form 1120S), Capital Gains and Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S...

  9. Base pairing among three cis-acting sequences contributes to template switching during hepadnavirus reverse transcription

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Tian, Ru; Loeb, Daniel D.

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis of the relaxed-circular (RC) DNA genome of hepadnaviruses requires two template switches during plus-strand DNA synthesis: primer translocation and circularization. Although primer translocation and circularization use different donor and acceptor sequences, and are distinct temporally, they share the common theme of switching from one end of the minus-strand template to the other end. Studies of duck hepatitis B virus have indicated that, in addition to the donor and acceptor sequences, three other cis-acting sequences, named 3E, M, and 5E, are required for the synthesis of RC DNA by contributing to primer translocation and circularization. The mechanism by which 3E, M, and 5E act was not known. We present evidence that these sequences function by base pairing with each other within the minus-strand template. 3E base-pairs with one portion of M (M3) and 5E base-pairs with an adjacent portion of M (M5). We found that disrupting base pairing between 3E and M3 and between 5E and M5 inhibited primer translocation and circularization. More importantly, restoring base pairing with mutant sequences restored the production of RC DNA. These results are consistent with the model that, within duck hepatitis B virus capsids, the ends of the minus-strand template are juxtaposed via base pairing to facilitate the two template switches during plus-strand DNA synthesis. PMID:12578983

  10. Base pairing among three cis-acting sequences contributes to template switching during hepadnavirus reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Tian, Ru; Loeb, Daniel D

    2003-02-18

    Synthesis of the relaxed-circular (RC) DNA genome of hepadnaviruses requires two template switches during plus-strand DNA synthesis: primer translocation and circularization. Although primer translocation and circularization use different donor and acceptor sequences, and are distinct temporally, they share the common theme of switching from one end of the minus-strand template to the other end. Studies of duck hepatitis B virus have indicated that, in addition to the donor and acceptor sequences, three other cis-acting sequences, named 3E, M, and 5E, are required for the synthesis of RC DNA by contributing to primer translocation and circularization. The mechanism by which 3E, M, and 5E act was not known. We present evidence that these sequences function by base pairing with each other within the minus-strand template. 3E base-pairs with one portion of M (M3) and 5E base-pairs with an adjacent portion of M (M5). We found that disrupting base pairing between 3E and M3 and between 5E and M5 inhibited primer translocation and circularization. More importantly, restoring base pairing with mutant sequences restored the production of RC DNA. These results are consistent with the model that, within duck hepatitis B virus capsids, the ends of the minus-strand template are juxtaposed via base pairing to facilitate the two template switches during plus-strand DNA synthesis.

  11. Acetylcholine ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells after hypoxia/reoxygenation via M3 AChR-AMPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xueyuan; He, Xi; Xu, Man; Zhao, Ming; Yu, Xiaojiang; Lu, Xingzhu; Zang, Weijin

    2015-08-03

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. However, its pathophysiological relevance and the underlying mechanisms in the context of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in endothelial cells are not fully understood. Previous findings have suggested that acetylcholine (ACh), the major vagal nerve neurotransmitter, protected against cardiomyocyte injury by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This study investigated the role of ER stress in endothelial cells during H/R and explored the beneficial effects of ACh. Our results showed that H/R triggered ER stress and apoptosis in endothelial cells, evidenced by the elevation of glucose-regulated protein 78, cleaved caspase-12 and C/EBP homologous protein expression. ACh significantly decreased ER stress and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling positive cells and restored ER ultrastructural changes induced by H/R, possibly via protein kinase-like ER kinase and inositol-requiring kinase 1 pathways. Additionally, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, a type-3 muscarinic ACh receptor (M3 AChR) inhibitor, abolished ACh-mediated increase in AMPK phosphorylation during H/R. Furthermore, M3 AChR or AMPK siRNA abrogated the ACh-elicited the attenuation of ER stress in endothelial cells, indicating that the salutary effects of ACh were likely mediated by M3 AChR-AMPK signaling. Overall, ACh activated AMPK through M3 AChR, thereby inhibited H/R-induced ER stress and apoptosis in endothelial cells. We have suggested for the first time that AMPK may function as an essential intermediate step between M3 AChR stimulation and inhibition of ER stress-associated apoptotic pathway during H/R, which may help to develop novel therapeutic approaches targeting ER stress to prevent or alleviate ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  12. Leg pairs as virtual wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Russel; Duttweiler, Mark; Khanlian, Luke; Setrakian, Mark

    2005-05-01

    We propose the use of virtual wheels as the starting point of a new vehicle design. Each virtual wheel incorporates a pair of simple legs that, by simulating the rotary motion and ground contact of a traditional wheel, combine many of the benefits of legged and wheeled motion. We describe the use of virtual wheels in the design of a robotic mule, presenting an analysis of the mule's mobility the results of our efforts to model and build such a device.

  13. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Brak, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  14. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubov, A. A.; Tanaka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Asano, Y.

    2007-03-01

    We present a general theory of the proximity effect in junctions between unconventional superconductors and diffusive normal metals (DN) or ferromagnets (DF). We consider all possible symmetry classes in a superconductor allowed by the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity state. For each of the above states, symmetry and spectral properties of the induced pair amplitude in the DN (DF) are determined. The cases of junctions with spin-singlet s- and d-wave superconductors and spin-triplet p-wave superconductors are adressed in detail. We discuss the interplay between the proximity effect and midgap Andreev bound states arising at interfaces in unconventional (d- or p-wave) junctions. The most striking property is the odd-frequency symmetry of the pairing amplitude induced in DN (DF) in contacts with p-wave superconductors. This leads to zero-energy singularity in the density of states and to anomalous screening of an external magnetic field. Peculiarities of Josephson effect in d- or p-wave junctions are discussed. Experiments are suggested to detect an order parameter symmetry using heterostructures with unconventional superconductors.

  15. Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses

    PubMed Central

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity. PMID:27804956

  16. Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity.

  17. Pairing matrix elements and pairing gaps with bare, effective, and induced interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, F.; Bortignon, P.F.; Colo, G.

    2005-11-01

    The dependence on the single-particle states of the pairing matrix elements of the Gogny force and of the bare low-momentum nucleon-nucleon potential v{sub low-k}--designed so as to reproduce the low-energy observables avoiding the use of a repulsive core--is studied for a typical finite, superfluid nucleus ({sup 120}Sn). It is found that the matrix elements of v{sub low-k} follow closely those of v{sub Gogny} on a wide range of energy values around the Fermi energy e{sub F}, those associated with v{sub low-k} being less attractive. This result explains the fact that around e{sub F} the pairing gap {delta}{sub Gogny} associated withmore » the Gogny interaction (and with a density of single-particle levels corresponding to an effective k mass m{sub k}{approx_equal}0.7 m) is a factor of about 2 larger than {delta}{sub low-k}, being in agreement with {delta}{sub exp}=1.4 MeV. The exchange of low-lying collective surface vibrations among pairs of nucleons moving in time-reversal states gives rise to an induced pairing interaction v{sub ind} peaked at e{sub F}. The interaction (v{sub low-k}+v{sub ind}) Z{sub {omega}} arising from the renormalization of the bare nucleon-nucleon potential and of the single-particle motion ({omega}-mass and quasiparticle strength Z{sub {omega}}) associated with the particle-vibration coupling mechanism, leads to a value of the pairing gap at the Fermi energy {delta}{sub ren} that accounts for the experimental value. An important question that remains to be studied quantitatively is to what extent {delta}{sub Gogny}, which depends on average parameters, and {delta}{sub ren}, which explicitly depends on the parameters describing the (low-energy) nuclear structure, display or not a similar isotopic dependence and whether this dependence is borne out by the data.« less

  18. Calcium abundances in giant stars of the globular clusters M3, M13, M15, and M92

    SciTech Connect

    Suntzeff, N.B.

    The average calcium II H and K line strengths of giant stars in M3, M13, M15, and M92 are found to be closely correlated with the (Fe/H) of the cluster. Simple physical arguments are provided to show the observed average line strengths reproduce the difference in (Fe/H) between the clusters. The observed dispersion in H and K line strengths yields an upper limit of 0.15 dex for M15 and M92, and 0.11 dex for M3+M13 for the average intracluster variation of (Ca/H), provided (Ca/H)=Fe/H). The dispersions drop to half these values if the calcium abundance varies independently of the ironmore » peak abundances.« less

  19. Dirty two-band superconductivity with interband pairing order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiro; Golubov, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    We study theoretically the effects of random nonmagnetic impurities on the superconducting transition temperature T c in a two-band superconductor characterized by an equal-time s-wave interband pairing order parameter. Because of the two-band degree of freedom, it is possible to define a spin-triplet s-wave pairing order parameter as well as a spin-singlet s-wave order parameter. The former belongs to odd-band-parity symmetry class, whereas the latter belongs to even-band-parity symmetry class. In a spin-singlet superconductor, T c is insensitive to the impurity concentration when we estimate the self-energy due to the random impurity potential within the Born approximation. On the other hand in a spin-triplet superconductor, T c decreases with the increase of the impurity concentration. We conclude that Cooper pairs belonging to odd-band-parity symmetry class are fragile under the random impurity potential even though they have s-wave pairing symmetry.

  20. Passive estimation of the waveguide invariant per pair of modes.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Yann; Bonnel, Julien

    2013-08-01

    In many oceanic waveguides, acoustic propagation is characterized by a parameter called waveguide invariant. This property is used in many passive and active sonar applications where knowledge of the waveguide invariant value is required. The waveguide invariant is classically considered as scalar but several studies show that it is better modeled by a distribution because of its dependence on frequency and mode pairs. This paper presents a new method for estimating the waveguide invariant distribution. Using the noise radiated by a distant ship and a single hydrophone, the proposed methodology allows estimating the waveguide invariant for each pair of modes in shallow water. Performance is evaluated on simulated data.

  1. M3BA: A Mobile, Modular, Multimodal Biosignal Acquisition Architecture for Miniaturized EEG-NIRS-Based Hybrid BCI and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    von Luhmann, Alexander; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Sander, Tilmann; Muller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-06-01

    For the further development of the fields of telemedicine, neurotechnology, and brain-computer interfaces, advances in hybrid multimodal signal acquisition and processing technology are invaluable. Currently, there are no commonly available hybrid devices combining bioelectrical and biooptical neurophysiological measurements [here electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)]. Our objective was to design such an instrument in a miniaturized, customizable, and wireless form. We present here the design and evaluation of a mobile, modular, multimodal biosignal acquisition architecture (M3BA) based on a high-performance analog front-end optimized for biopotential acquisition, a microcontroller, and our openNIRS technology. The designed M3BA modules are very small configurable high-precision and low-noise modules (EEG input referred noise @ 500 SPS 1.39 μV pp , NIRS noise equivalent power NEP 750 nm = 5.92 pW pp , and NEP 850 nm = 4.77 pW pp ) with full input linearity, Bluetooth, 3-D accelerometer, and low power consumption. They support flexible user-specified biopotential reference setups and wireless body area/sensor network scenarios. Performance characterization and in-vivo experiments confirmed functionality and quality of the designed architecture. Telemedicine and assistive neurotechnology scenarios will increasingly include wearable multimodal sensors in the future. The M3BA architecture can significantly facilitate future designs for research in these and other fields that rely on customized mobile hybrid biosignal modal biosignal acquisition architecture (M3BA), multimodal, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), wireless body area network (WBAN), wireless body sensor network (WBSN).

  2. Development of the My Medicines and Me (M3Q) side effect questionnaire for mental health patients: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ashoorian, Deena M.; Davidson, Rowan M.; Rock, Daniel J. T.; Seubert, Liza J.; Clifford, Rhonda M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability, content validity and usability of the My Medicines and Me (M3Q) self-report side effect questionnaire. Methods: Eight focus groups consisting of mental health patients, carers, general practitioners, psychiatrists, mental health nurses and pharmacists were conducted, involving 78 participants. Two researchers independently examined the transcriptions and analysed the data thematically using an inductive method. Results: The findings supported changes to the formatting, length and phrasing of questions in the original version of the questionnaire. Although the groups provided differing views on the usability of the M3Q in clinical practice, the patient and carer groups were unconditionally in favour of such a tool to be used systematically to describe patients’ subjective experiences with side effects. Conclusion: The differing contribution made by all groups involved in the administration and completion of the M3Q assisted with content validity of the questionnaire. The acceptability and usability of this novel side effect questionnaire was also explored, with many participants agreeing it was a necessary tool for a patient centred approach to treatment. Following implementation of the changes to the current format of the questionnaire, investigation into the uptake and use in clinical practice should be carried out. PMID:26557985

  3. Deletion of Ten-m3 Induces the Formation of Eye Dominance Domains in Mouse Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Merlin, Sam; Horng, Sam; Marotte, Lauren R.; Sur, Mriganka; Sawatari, Atomu

    2013-01-01

    The visual system is characterized by precise retinotopic mapping of each eye, together with exquisitely matched binocular projections. In many species, the inputs that represent the eyes are segregated into ocular dominance columns in primary visual cortex (V1), whereas in rodents, this does not occur. Ten-m3, a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family, regulates axonal guidance in the retinogeniculate pathway. Significantly, ipsilateral projections are expanded in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and are not aligned with contralateral projections in Ten-m3 knockout (KO) mice. Here, we demonstrate the impact of altered retinogeniculate mapping on the organization and function of V1. Transneuronal tracing and c-fos immunohistochemistry demonstrate that the subcortical expansion of ipsilateral input is conveyed to V1 in Ten-m3 KOs: Ipsilateral inputs are widely distributed across V1 and are interdigitated with contralateral inputs into eye dominance domains. Segregation is confirmed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Single-unit recording shows ipsilateral, and contralateral inputs are mismatched at the level of single V1 neurons, and binocular stimulation leads to functional suppression of these cells. These findings indicate that the medial expansion of the binocular zone together with an interocular mismatch is sufficient to induce novel structural features, such as eye dominance domains in rodent visual cortex. PMID:22499796

  4. Structure, stability, and cluster-cage interactions in nitride clusterfullerenes M3N@C2n (M = Sc, Y; 2n = 68-98): a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar

    2007-09-26

    Extensive semiempirical calculations of the hexaanions of IPR (isolated pentagon rule) and non-IPR isomers of C(68)-C(88) and IPR isomers of C(90)-C(98) followed by DFT calculations of the lowest energy structures were performed to find the carbon cages that can provide the most stable isomers of M(3)N@C(2n) clusterfullerenes (M = Sc, Y) with Y as a model for rare earth ions. DFT calculations of isomers of M(3)N@C(2n) (M = Sc, Y; 2n = 68-98) based on the most stable C(2n)(6-) cages were also performed. The lowest energy isomers found by this methodology for Sc(3)N@C(68), Sc(3)N@C(78), Sc(3)N@C(80), Y(3)N@C(78), Y(3)N@C(80), Y(3)N@C(84), Y(3)N@C(86), and Y(3)N@C(88) are those that have been shown to exist by single-crystal X-ray studies as Sc(3)N@C(2n) (2n = 68, 78, 80), Dy(3)N@C(80), and Tb(3)N@C(2n) (2n = 80, 84, 86, 88) clusterfullerenes. Reassignment of the carbon cage of Sc(2)@C(76) to the non-IPR Cs: 17490 isomer is also proposed. The stability of nitride clusterfullerenes was found to correlate well with the stability of the empty 6-fold charged cages. However, the dimensions of the cage in terms of its ability to encapsulate M(3)N clusters were also found to be an important factor, especially for the medium size cages and the large Y(3)N cluster. In some cases the most stable structures are based on the different cage isomers for Sc(3)N and Y(3)N clusters. Up to the cage size of C(84), non-IPR isomers of C(2n)(6-) and M(3)N@C(2n) were found to compete with or to be even more stable than IPR isomers. However, the number of adjacent pentagon pairs in the most stable non-IPR isomers decreases as cage size increases: the most stable M(3)N@C(2n) isomers have three such pairs for 2n = 68-72, two pairs for n = 74-80, and only one pair for n = 82, 84. For C(86) and C(88) the lowest energy IPR isomers are much more stable than any non-IPR isomer. The trends in the stability of the fullerene isomers and the cluster-cage binding energies are discussed, and general

  5. Wear Calculation Approach for Sliding - Friction Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springis, G.; Rudzitis, J.; Lungevics, J.; Berzins, K.

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important things how to predict the service life of different products is always connected with the choice of adequate method. With the development of production technologies and measuring devices and with ever increasing precision one can get the appropriate data to be used in analytic calculations. Historically one can find several theoretical wear calculation methods but still there are no exact wear calculation model that could be applied to all cases of wear processes because of difficulties connected with a variety of parameters that are involved in wear process of two or several surfaces. Analysing the wear prediction theories that could be classified into definite groups one can state that each of them has shortcomings that might impact the results thus making unnecessary theoretical calculations. The offered wear calculation method is based on the theories of different branches of science. It includes the description of 3D surface micro-topography using standardized roughness parameters, explains the regularities of particle separation from the material in the wear process using fatigue theory and takes into account material’s physical and mechanical characteristics and definite conditions of product’s working time. The proposed wear calculation model could be of value for prediction of the exploitation time for sliding friction pairs thus allowing the best technologies to be chosen for many mechanical details.

  6. The nearest neighbor and next nearest neighbor effects on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of RNA base pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yanli; Liu, Taigang; Zhang, Wenbing

    2018-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of an RNA base pair with different nearest and next nearest neighbors were obtained through long-time molecular dynamics simulation of the opening-closing switch process of the base pair near its melting temperature. The results indicate that thermodynamic parameters of GC base pair are dependent on the nearest neighbor base pair, and the next nearest neighbor base pair has little effect, which validated the nearest-neighbor model. The closing and opening rates of the GC base pair also showed nearest neighbor dependences. At certain temperature, the closing and opening rates of the GC pair with nearest neighbor AU is larger than that with the nearest neighbor GC, and the next nearest neighbor plays little role. The free energy landscape of the GC base pair with the nearest neighbor GC is rougher than that with nearest neighbor AU.

  7. Odd-frequency triplet pairing in mixed-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoco, Mario; Gentile, Paola; Noce, Canio; Romano, Alfonso; Annunziata, Gaetano; Linder, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    We show that mixed-parity superconductors may exhibit equal-spin pair correlations that are odd-in-time and can be tuned by means of an applied field. The direction and the amplitude of the pair correlator in the spin space turn out to be strongly dependent on the symmetry of the order parameter, and thus provide a tool to identify different types of singlet-triplet mixed configurations. We suggest that odd-in-time spin-polarized pair correlations can be generated without magnetic inhomogeneities in superconducting/ferromagnetic hybrids with non-centrosymmetric superconductor or when parity mixing is induced at the interface. Paola Gentile, Canio Noce, Alfonso Romano, Gaetano Annunziata, Jacob Linder, Mario Cuoco, arXiv:1109.4885

  8. A Moment Rate Function Deduced from Peak Ground Motions from M 3.3-5.3 Earthquakes: Implications for Scaling, Corner Frequency and Stress Drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Ji, C.

    2016-12-01

    Based on 3827 records of peak horizontal ground motions in the NGA-West2 database we computed linear regressions for Log PGA, Log PGV and the ratio PGA/2πPGV (which we call dominant frequency, DomF) versus moment magnitude for M 3.3-5.3 earthquakes. The slopes are nearly one for Log PGA and Log PGV and negative one for PGA/PGV. For magnitudes 5.3 and smaller the source can be treated as a point source. Using these regressions and an expression between the half peak-to-peak amplitude of Wood Anderson records (PWA) and moment magnitude, we have deduced an `apparent' moment rate function (aMRF) that increases quadratically in time until it reaches its maximum at time tp after which it decays linearly until a final duration td. For t*=0.054 s and with parameters tp and td scaling with seismic moment, tp(M0) = 0.03[M0/ M0(M=3.3)]1/7.0 and td(M0) = 0.31[M0/ M0(M=3.3)]1/3.3 . all the magnitude dependence within M 3.3-5.3 can be explained. The Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS) of the aMRF has two corner frequencies connected by an intermediate slope of f-1. The smaller corner frequency fC 1/ td, i.e., a corner frequency related to the full duration. Stress drop associated with the average over the fault scales weakly with seismic moment Δσ M00.09. The larger corner frequency is proportional to 1/ tp. We also find that DomF ≈ 1/[2.2(tp(M0) + t*)], thus there is a strong tradeoff between tp and t*. The higher corner frequency and the intermediate slope in the spectrum could be completely obscured by t* for t* 0.04-0.06 s, producing a Brune-type spectrum. If so, it will be practically impossible to retrieve the true spectrum. Because the fC derived from the spectrum is controlled by td while PGA and PGV are controlled mostly by the time scale tp, this aMRF could explain the difference in uncertainty of the mean stress drop inferred from peak ground motion data and that inferred from displacement amplitude spectra. This aMRF is consistent with a rupture that initiates from

  9. Biodegradation and kinetic study of benzene in bioreactor packed with PUF and alginate beads and immobilized with Bacillus sp. M3.

    PubMed

    Kureel, M K; Geed, S R; Giri, B S; Rai, B N; Singh, R S

    2017-10-01

    Benzene removal in free and immobilized cells on polyurethane foam (PUF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate beads was studied using an indigenous soil bacterium Bacillus sp. M3 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. The important process parameters (pH, temperature and inoculums size) were optimized and found to be 7, 37°C and 6.0×10 8 CFU/mL, respectively. Benzene removals were observed to be 70, 84 and 90% within 9days in a free cell, immobilized PVA-alginate beads and PUF, respectively under optimum operating conditions. FT-IR and GC-MS analysis confirm the presence of phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, hydroquinone and benzoate as metabolites. The important kinetic parameter ratios (µ max /K s ; L/mg·day ) calculated using Monod model was found to be 0.00123 for free cell, 0.00159 for immobilized alginate beads and 0.002016 for immobilized PUF. Similarly inhibition constants (K i ; mg/L) calculated using Andrew-Haldane model was found to be 435.84 for free cell, 664.25 for immobilized alginate beads and 724.93 for immobilized PUF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Individuation of Pairs of Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Alan M.; Chen, Marian L.

    2007-01-01

    Looking-time studies examined whether 11-month-old infants can individuate two pairs of objects using only shape information. In order to test individuation, the object pairs were presented sequentially. Infants were familiarized either with the sequential pairs, disk-triangle/disk-triangle (XY/XY), whose shapes differed within but not across…

  11. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acetylcholine-induced activation of M3 muscarinic receptors stimulates robust matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guofeng; Cheng, Kunrong; Shant, Jasleen; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Previously, we showed that ACh-induced proliferation of human colon cancer cells is mediated by transactivation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (EGFRs). In the present study, we elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this action. ACh-induced proliferation of H508 colon cancer cells, which express exclusively M3 muscarinic receptors (M3Rs), was attenuated by anti-EGFR ligand binding domain antibody, a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, anti-MMP7 antibody, a diphtheria toxin analog that blocks release of an EGFR ligand [heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF)], and anti-HBEGF antibody. Conditioned media from ACh-treated H508 cells induced proliferation of SNU-C4 colon cancer cells that express EGFR but not M3R. These actions were attenuated by an EGFR inhibitor and by anti-EGFR and anti-HBEGF antibodies. In H508, but not SNU-C4, colon cancer cells, ACh caused a striking dose- and time-dependent increase in levels of MMP7 mRNA and MMP7 protein. Similarly, ACh induced robust MMP1 and MMP10 gene transcription. ACh-induced MMP1, MMP7, and MMP10 gene transcription was attenuated by atropine, anti-EGFR antibody, and chemical inhibitors of EGFR and ERK activation. In contrast, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and NF-kappaB activation did not alter MMP gene transcription. Collectively, these findings indicate that MMP7-catalyzed release of HBEGF mediates ACh-induced transactivation of EGFR and consequent proliferation of colon cancer cells. ACh-induced activation of EGFR and downstream ERK signaling also regulates transcriptional activation of MMP7, thereby identifying a novel feed-forward mechanism for neoplastic cell proliferation.

  13. Acetylcholine-induced activation of M3 muscarinic receptors stimulates robust matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guofeng; Cheng, Kunrong; Shant, Jasleen; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we showed that ACh-induced proliferation of human colon cancer cells is mediated by transactivation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (EGFRs). In the present study, we elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this action. ACh-induced proliferation of H508 colon cancer cells, which express exclusively M3 muscarinic receptors (M3Rs), was attenuated by anti-EGFR ligand binding domain antibody, a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, anti-MMP7 antibody, a diphtheria toxin analog that blocks release of an EGFR ligand [heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF)], and anti-HBEGF antibody. Conditioned media from ACh-treated H508 cells induced proliferation of SNU-C4 colon cancer cells that express EGFR but not M3R. These actions were attenuated by an EGFR inhibitor and by anti-EGFR and anti-HBEGF antibodies. In H508, but not SNU-C4, colon cancer cells, ACh caused a striking dose- and time-dependent increase in levels of MMP7 mRNA and MMP7 protein. Similarly, ACh induced robust MMP1 and MMP10 gene transcription. ACh-induced MMP1, MMP7, and MMP10 gene transcription was attenuated by atropine, anti-EGFR antibody, and chemical inhibitors of EGFR and ERK activation. In contrast, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and NF-κB activation did not alter MMP gene transcription. Collectively, these findings indicate that MMP7-catalyzed release of HBEGF mediates ACh-induced transactivation of EGFR and consequent proliferation of colon cancer cells. ACh-induced activation of EGFR and downstream ERK signaling also regulates transcriptional activation of MMP7, thereby identifying a novel feed-forward mechanism for neoplastic cell proliferation. PMID:19221016

  14. Inflammation triggers constitutive activity and agonist-induced negative responses at M(3) muscarinic receptor in dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Sterin-Borda, Leonor; Orman, Betina; De Couto Pita, Alejandra; Borda, Enri

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the inflammation of rat dental pulp induces the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) constitutive receptor activity. Pulpitis was induced with bacterial lipolysaccharide in rat incisors dental pulp. Saturation assay with [(3)H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([(3)H] QNB), competitive binding with different mAChR antagonist subtypes, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were performed. A drastic change in expression and response to mAChR subtypes was observed in pulpitis. Inflamed pulp expressed high number of M(3) mAChR of high affinity, whereas the M(1) mAChR is the main subtype displayed in normal pulp. Consistent with the identification of the affinity constant (Ki) of M(3) and Ki of M(1) in both pulpitis and in normal pulps are the differences in the subtype functionality of these cells. In pulpitis, pilocarpine (1 × 10(-11) mol/L to 5 × 10(-9) mol/L) exerted an inhibitory action on NOS activity that was blocked by J 104129 fumarate (highest selective affinity to M(3) mAChR). In normal pulps, pilocarpine (1 × 10(-11) mol/L to 5 × 10(-9) mol/L) has no effect. NOS basal activity was 5.9 times as high in pulpitis as in the normal pulp as a result of the activation of inducible NOS. The irreversible pulpitis could induce a mAChR alteration, increasing the high-affinity receptor density and transduction-coupling efficiency of inducible NOS activity, leading to a spontaneously active conformation of the receptor. Pilocarpine acting as an inverse agonist might be useful therapeutically to prevent necrosis and subsequent loss of dental pulp. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Globular cluster photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope. 3: Blue stragglers and variable stars in the core of M3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Yanny, Brian; Bahcall, John N.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Planetary Camera-I images of the core of the dense globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272). Stellar photometry in the F555W (V) and F785LP (I) bands, with a 1-sigma photometric accuracy of about 0.1 mag, has been used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of about 4700 stars above the main-sequence turnoff within r less than or approximately equal to 1 min of the cluster center. We have also analyzed archival HST F336W (U) images of M3 obtained by the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-I Instrument Definition Team. The UVI data are used to identify 28 blue straggler (BS) stars within the central 0.29 sq. arcmin. The specific frequency of BSs in this region of M3, N(sub BS)/N(sub V less than (V(HB)+2)) = 0.094 +/- 0.019, is about a factor of 2 - 3 higher than that found by Bolte et al. in a recent ground-based study of the same region, but comparable to that seen in the sparse outer parts of the same cluster and in HST observations of the core of the higher density cluster 47 Tuc. The BSs in M3 are slightly more centrally concentrated than red giant branch stars while horizontal branch stars are somewhat less concentrated red giants. The radial distribution of V-selected subgiant and turnoff stars is well fit by a King model with a core radius r(sub core) = 28 arcmin +/- 2 arcmin (90% confidence limits), which corresponds to 1.4 pc. Red giant and horizontal branch stars selected in the ultraviolet data (U less than 18) have a somewhat more compact distribution (r(sub core) = 22.5 arcmin). The HST U data consist of 17 exposures acquired over a span of three days. We have used these data to isolate 40 variable stars for which relative astrometry, brightnesses, colors, and light curves are presented. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicates that, typically, the variability for each star is significant at the 95% level. We identify two variable BS candidates (probably of the SX Phe type), out of a sample of approximately 25 BSs in which

  16. Estimation of lunar surface maturity and ferrous oxide from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data through data interpolation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith Kumar, P.; Kumar, Shashi

    2016-04-01

    Surface maturity estimation of the lunar regolith revealed selenological process behind the formation of lunar surface, which might be provided vital information regarding the geological evolution of earth, because lunar surface is being considered as 8-9 times older than as that of the earth. Spectral reflectances data from Moon mineralogy mapper (M3), the hyperspectral sensor of chandrayan-1 coupled with the standard weight percentages of FeO from lunar returned samples of Apollo and Luna landing sites, through data interpolation techniques to generate the weight percentage FeO map of the target lunar locations. With the interpolated data mineral maps were prepared and the results are analyzed.

  17. Development of a 5,000 m(3) super-pressure balloon with a diamond-shaped net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shigeki; Nakashino, Kyoichi; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Goto, Ken; Furuta, Ryosuke; Domoto, Kodai; Akita, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    A light super-pressure balloon of which weight will be comparable to the weight of the zero-pressure balloon has been developed using a method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net of high-tensile fibers. The goal is to fly a payload of 900 kg to the altitude of 37 km with a 300,000 m(3) balloon. A flight test of a 3,000 m(3) balloon in the tandem balloon configuration with a 15,000 m(3) zero-pressure balloon was performed in 2012. Although a small gas leak occurred in the super-pressure balloon at the differential pressure of 400 to 500 Pa, the differential pressure reached the highest value of 814 Pa and kept positive through the level flight lasting for 25 minutes due to its slow leakage. To avoid a possible stress concentration to films at the polar area, a new design setting the meridian length of the balloon gore film equal to the length of the net was adopted. A 3-m balloon with the design was developed and its capacity to resist pressure at room temperature and at -30 (°) C was checked through the ground inflation tests. In 2013, a balloon of the same model was launched in the tandem balloon configuration with 2 kg rubber balloons. It was confirmed that the balloon could withstand the maximum differential pressure of 6,280 Pa, could withstand the differential pressure of 5,600 Pa for 2 hours, and there was a small gas leak through a hole with an area of 0.4 mm(2) which was also found in the ground leakage test. These results indicated that the improvement was adequate and there was no problem for the super-pressure balloon to fly in the environment of the stratosphere except for the problem of the small gas leak. In 2014, a flight test of a 5,000 m(3) balloon will be performed. In this paper, after reviewing the method to cover a balloon with a diamond-shaped net, the current status of the development will be reported.

  18. Pairing mechanism in Bi-O superconductors: A finite-size chain calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligia, A. A.; Nuez Regueiro, M. D.; Gagliano, E. R.

    1989-09-01

    We have studied the pairing mechanism in BiO3 systems by calculating the binding energy of a pair of holes in finite Bi-O chains, for parameters that simulate three-dimensional behavior. In agreement with previous results using perturbation theory in the hopping t, for covalent Bi-O binding and parameters for which the parent compound has a disproportionate ground state, pairing induced by the presence of biexcitons is obtained for sufficiently large interatomic Coulomb repulsion. The analysis of appropriate correlation functions shows a rapid metallization of the system as t and the number of holes increase. This fact shrinks the region of parameters for which the finite-size calculations can be trusted without further study. The same model for other parameters yields pairing in two other regimes: bipolaronic and magnetic excitonic.

  19. Fermion superfluid with hybridized s- and p-wave pairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, LiHong; Yi, Wei; Cui, XiaoLing

    2017-12-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer in the 1950s, exploring novel pairing mechanisms for fermion superfluids has become one of the central tasks in modern physics. Here, we investigate a new type of fermion superfluid with hybridized s- and p-wave pairings in an ultracold spin-1/2 Fermi gas. Its occurrence is facilitated by the co-existence of comparable s- and p-wave interactions, which is realizable in a two-component 40K Fermi gas with close-by s- and p-wave Feshbach resonances. The hybridized superfluid state is stable over a considerable parameter region on the phase diagram, and can lead to intriguing patterns of spin densities and pairing fields in momentum space. In particular, it can induce a phase-locked p-wave pairing in the fermion species that has no p-wave interactions. The hybridized nature of this novel superfluid can also be confirmed by measuring the s- and p-wave contacts, which can be extracted from the high-momentum tail of the momentum distribution of each spin component. These results enrich our knowledge of pairing superfluidity in Fermi systems, and open the avenue for achieving novel fermion superfluids with multiple partial-wave scatterings in cold atomic gases.

  20. Incoherent pair generation in a beam-beam interaction simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbault, C.; Bambade, P.; Mönig, K.; Schulte, D.

    2006-03-01

    This paper deals with two topics: the generation of incoherent pairs in two beam-beam simulation programs, GUINEA-PIG and CAIN, and the influence of the International Linear Collider (ILC) beam parameter choices on the background in the micro vertex detector (VD) induced by direct hits. One of the processes involved in incoherent pair creation (IPC) is equivalent to a four fermions interaction and its cross section can be calculated exactly with a dedicated generator, BDK. A comparison of GUINEA-PIG and CAIN results with BDK allows to identify and quantify the uncertainties on IPC background predictions and to benchmark the GUINEA-PIG calculation. Based on this simulation and different VD designs, the five currently suggested ILC beam parameter sets have been compared regarding IPC background induced in the VD by direct IPC hits. We emphasize that the high luminosity set, as it is currently defined, would constrain both the choices of magnetic field and VD inner layer radius.

  1. Stability of M 3S 3 complexes on fcc M(111) surfaces: M = Au, Ag, Cu, and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Lee, Jiyoung; Windus, Theresa L.

    Density Functional Theory is utilized to assess the stability of metal (M)-sulfur (S) complexes adsorbed on fcc M(111) surfaces, specifically considering S-decorated planar M trimers, M 3S 3. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy studies have identified structures proposed to be Ni 3S 3 on Ni(111), and Au 3S 3 on Au(111). In addition, Cu 3S 3 on Cu(111) has been suggested to facilitate enhanced Cu surface mass transport. Our analysis considers M 3S 3 complexes for M = Au, Ag, Cu, and Ni, assessing key measures of stability on surfaces, and also comparing behavior with trends in gas-phase stability. These surface andmore » gas-phase analyses are systematically related within the framework of Hess’s law, which allows elucidation of various contributions to the overall energetics. In all cases, the adsorbed complex is stable relative to its separated constituents adsorbed on the terrace. However, only for Ag does one find a negative energy of formation from excess S on terraces and M extracted from kink sites along step edges, implying spontaneous complex formation for this pathway. We interpret various experimental observations in the context of our results for energetics.« less

  2. Stability of M 3S 3 complexes on fcc M(111) surfaces: M = Au, Ag, Cu, and Ni

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Lee, Jiyoung; Windus, Theresa L.; ...

    2018-02-08

    Density Functional Theory is utilized to assess the stability of metal (M)-sulfur (S) complexes adsorbed on fcc M(111) surfaces, specifically considering S-decorated planar M trimers, M 3S 3. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy studies have identified structures proposed to be Ni 3S 3 on Ni(111), and Au 3S 3 on Au(111). In addition, Cu 3S 3 on Cu(111) has been suggested to facilitate enhanced Cu surface mass transport. Our analysis considers M 3S 3 complexes for M = Au, Ag, Cu, and Ni, assessing key measures of stability on surfaces, and also comparing behavior with trends in gas-phase stability. These surface andmore » gas-phase analyses are systematically related within the framework of Hess’s law, which allows elucidation of various contributions to the overall energetics. In all cases, the adsorbed complex is stable relative to its separated constituents adsorbed on the terrace. However, only for Ag does one find a negative energy of formation from excess S on terraces and M extracted from kink sites along step edges, implying spontaneous complex formation for this pathway. We interpret various experimental observations in the context of our results for energetics.« less

  3. Solar Drift-Pair Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, A.; Volvach, Ya.; Konovalenko, A.; Koval, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new sight on the study of solar bursts historically called drift pairs (DPs) is presented. Having a simple morphology on dynamic spectra of radio records (two short components separated in time, and often they are very similar) and discovered at the dawn of radio astronomy, their features remain unexplained totally up to now. Generally, the DPs are observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, but not every storm of type III bursts is linked with DPs. Detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, the DP bursts are limited in frequency bandwidth. They can drift from high frequencies to low ones and vice versa. Their frequency drift rate may be both lower and higher than typical rates of type III bursts at the same frequency range. The development of low-frequency radio telescopes and data processing provide additional possibilities in the research. In this context the fresh analysis of DPs, made from recent observations in the summer campaign of 2015, are just considered. Their study was implemented by updated tools of the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9-33 MHz. During 10-12 July of 2015, DPs forming the longest patterns on dynamic spectra are about 7% of the total number of recorded DPs. Their marvelous resemblance in frequency drift rates with the solar S-bursts is discussed.

  4. FIR statistics of paired galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the effects of interaction on galaxies (see reviews in this volume by Heckman and Kennicutt). Evidence for enhanced emission from galaxies in pairs first emerged in the radio (Sulentic 1976) and optical (Larson and Tinsley 1978) domains. Results in the far infrared (FIR) lagged behind until the advent of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The last five years have seen numerous FIR studies of optical and IR selected samples of interacting galaxies (e.g., Cutri and McAlary 1985; Joseph and Wright 1985; Kennicutt et al. 1987; Haynes and Herter 1988). Despite all of this work, there are still contradictory ideas about the level and, even, the reality of an FIR enhancement in interacting galaxies. Much of the confusion originates in differences between the galaxy samples that were studied (i.e., optical morphology and redshift coverage). Here, the authors report on a study of the FIR detection properties for a large sample of interacting galaxies and a matching control sample. They focus on the distance independent detection fraction (DF) statistics of the sample. The results prove useful in interpreting the previously published work. A clarification of the phenomenology provides valuable clues about the physics of the FIR enhancement in galaxies.

  5. Pulsational Pair-instability Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    2017-02-01

    The final evolution of stars in the mass range 70-140 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ is explored. Depending upon their mass loss history and rotation rates, these stars will end their lives as pulsational pair-instability supernovae (PPISN) producing a great variety of observational transients with total durations ranging from weeks to millennia and luminosities from 1041 to over 1044 erg s-1. No nonrotating model radiates more than 5× {10}50 erg of light or has a kinetic energy exceeding 5× {10}51 erg, but greater energies are possible, in principle, in magnetar-powered explosions, which are explored. Many events resemble SNe Ibn, SNe Icn, and SNe IIn, and some potential observational counterparts are mentioned. Some PPISN can exist in a dormant state for extended periods, producing explosions millennia after their first violent pulse. These dormant supernovae contain bright Wolf-Rayet stars, possibly embedded in bright X-ray and radio sources. The relevance of PPISN to supernova impostors like Eta Carinae, to superluminous supernovae, and to sources of gravitational radiation is discussed. No black holes between 52 and 133 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ are expected from stellar evolution in close binaries.

  6. Report on Pairing-based Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST's position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed.

  7. Report on Pairing-based Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST’s position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed. PMID:26958435

  8. Weighted analysis of paired microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, Erik; Sjögren, Anders; Rudemo, Mats; Nerman, Olle

    2005-01-01

    In microarray experiments quality often varies, for example between samples and between arrays. The need for quality control is therefore strong. A statistical model and a corresponding analysis method is suggested for experiments with pairing, including designs with individuals observed before and after treatment and many experiments with two-colour spotted arrays. The model is of mixed type with some parameters estimated by an empirical Bayes method. Differences in quality are modelled by individual variances and correlations between repetitions. The method is applied to three real and several simulated datasets. Two of the real datasets are of Affymetrix type with patients profiled before and after treatment, and the third dataset is of two-colour spotted cDNA type. In all cases, the patients or arrays had different estimated variances, leading to distinctly unequal weights in the analysis. We suggest also plots which illustrate the variances and correlations that affect the weights computed by our analysis method. For simulated data the improvement relative to previously published methods without weighting is shown to be substantial.

  9. The ultraviolet spectrum of noncoronal late-type stars - The Gamma Crucis (M3.4 III) reference spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Stencel, Robert E.; Brown, Alexander; Johansson, Sveneric

    1988-01-01

    A guide is presented to the UV spectrum of M-type giants and supergiants whose outer atmospheres contain warm chromospheres but not coronae. The M3 giant Gamma Crucis is taken as the archetype of the cooler, oxygen-rich, noncoronal stars. Line identifications and integrated line flux measurements of the chromospheric emission features seen in the 1200-3200 A range of IUE high-resolution spectra are presented. The major fluorescence processes operating in the outer atmosphere of Gamma Crucis, including eight previously unknown pumping processes and 21 new fluorescent line products, are summarized, and the enhancements of selected line strengths by 'line leakage' is discussed. A set of absorption features toward the longer wavelength end of this range is identified which can be used to characterize the radial velocity of the stellar photospheres. The applicability of the results to the spectra of noncoronal stars with different effective temperatures and gravities is discussed.

  10. Mode of interaction of 1,4-dioxane agonists at the M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor orthosteric sites.

    PubMed

    Del Bello, Fabio; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Quaglia, Wilma; Mazzolari, Angelica; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Bertoni, Simona; Matucci, Rosanna; Nesi, Marta; Piergentili, Alessandro; Vistoli, Giulio

    2014-08-01

    The methyl group in cis stereochemical relationship with the basic chain of all pentatomic cyclic analogues of ACh is crucial for the agonist activity at mAChR. Among these only cevimeline (1) is employed in the treatment of xerostomia associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Here we demonstrated that, unlike 1,3-dioxolane derivatives, in the 1,4-dioxane series the methyl group is not essential for the activation of mAChR subtypes. Docking studies, using the crystal structures of human M2 and rat M3 receptors, demonstrated that the 5-methylene group of the 1,4-dioxane nucleus of compound 10 occupies the same lipophilic pocket as the methyl group of the 1,3-dioxolane 4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photo-fermentative hydrogen production in a 4m3 baffled reactor: Effects of hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Lu, Chaoyang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Yu-Jen; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhou, Xuehua; Hu, Jianjun; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Danping; He, Chao; Zhang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    A 4m 3 pilot-scale baffled continuous-flow photoreactor with four sequential chambers (#1-#4) was established and tested to evaluate its photo-fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater that contains (10g/L glucose using a functional consortium at 30°C, under light with an intensity of 3000±200lux with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24-72h. The hydrogen production rate and the broth characteristics varied significantly in the flow direction. The hydrogen production rate was highest in chamber #1, and lower in chambers #2-#4 at an HRT of 72h, while the peak production rate shifted to the latter chambers as the HRT was shortened. The overall H 2 production rate increased as HRT decreased, but was not consistent with the predictions that were based on the complete-mixing assumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anomalous Hall hysteresis in T m3F e5O12/Pt with strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chi; Sellappan, Pathikumar; Liu, Yawen; Xu, Yadong; Garay, Javier E.; Shi, Jing

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate robust interface strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in atomically flat ferrimagnetic insulator T m3F e5O12 (TIG) films grown with pulsed laser deposition on a substituted G d3G a5O12 substrate which maximizes the tensile strain at the interface. In bilayers consisting of Pt and TIG, we observe large squared Hall hysteresis loops over a wide range of thicknesses of Pt at room temperature. When a thin Cu layer is inserted between Pt and TIG, the Hall hysteresis magnitude decays but stays finite as the thickness of Cu increases up to 5 nm. However, if the Cu layer is placed atop Pt instead, the Hall hysteresis magnitude is consistently larger than when the Cu layer with the same thickness is inserted in between for all Cu thicknesses. These results suggest that both the proximity-induced ferromagnetism and spin current contribute to the anomalous Hall effect.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in M3, M13, and M92 (Kamann+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.; Gerssen, J.; Husser, T.-O.; Sandin, C.; Weilbacher, P.

    2014-04-01

    Radial velocity data are presented for three Galactic globular clusters, M3, M13, and M92. The provided catalogues include several hundreds of stars in each cluster that cover a wide range of distances to the cluster centres. Besides the measured radial velocities, the catalogues contain measurement uncertainties, identifiers, world coordinates and variability information for each star. The velocities for stars near the centres of the clusters were obtained using PMAS integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Note that in order to facilitate future variability studies, for each star the individual velocity measurements are provided instead of a single combined velocity. The PMAS data are complemented with velocities reported in various literature studies for stars at larger distances to the centres. (6 data files).

  14. Altered trafficking and unfolded protein response induction as a result of M3 muscarinic receptor impaired N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Garcia-Mesa, Yoelvis; Garriga, Pere

    2011-12-01

    The human M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is present in both the central and peripheral nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. We suggested a possible N-glycosylation map for the M(3) muscarinic receptor expressed in COS-7 cells. Here, we examined the role that N-linked glycans play in the folding and in the cell surface trafficking of this receptor. The five potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites in the muscarinic receptor were mutated and transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. The elimination of N-glycan attachment sites did not affect the cellular expression levels of the receptor. However, proper receptor localization to the plasma membrane was affected as suggested by reduced [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine binding. Confocal microscopy confirmed this observation and showed that the nonglycosylated receptor was primarily localized in the intracellular compartments. The mutant variant showed an increase in phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eukaryote initiation factor 2, and other well-known endoplasmic reticulum stress markers of the unfolded protein response pathway, which further supports the proposal of the improper intracellular accumulation of the nonglycosylated receptor. The receptor devoid of glycans showed more susceptibility to events that culminate in apoptosis reducing cell viability. Our findings suggest up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and cleavage of caspase-3 effectors. Collectively, our data provide experimental evidence of the critical role that N-glycan chains play in determining muscarinic receptor distribution, localization, as well as cell integrity. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. L-689,660, a novel cholinomimetic with functional selectivity for M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, R. J.; McKnight, A. T.; Scholey, K.; Newberry, N. R.; Street, L. J.; Hutson, P. H.; Semark, J. E.; Harley, E. A.; Patel, S.; Freedman, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    1. L-689,660, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 3-(6-chloropyrazinyl)maleate, a novel cholinomimetic, demonstrated high affinity binding (pKD (apparent) 7.42) at rat cerebral cortex muscarinic receptors. L-689,660 had a low ratio (34) of pKD (apparent) values for the displacement of binding of the antagonist ([3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) compared with the displacement of the agonist [3H]-oxotremorine-M ([3H]-Oxo-M), in rat cerebral cortex. Low NMS/Oxo-M ratios have been shown previously to be a characteristic of compounds that are low efficacy partial agonists with respect to stimulation of phosphatidyl inositol turnover in the cerebral cortex. 2. L-689,660 showed no muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity in radioligand binding assays but showed functional selectivity in pharmacological assays. At M1 muscarinic receptors in the rat superior cervical ganglion, L-689,660 was a potent (pEC50 7.3 +/- 0.2) full agonist in comparison with (+/-)-muscarine. At M3 receptors in the guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle or in trachea, L-689,660 was again a potent agonist (pEC50 7.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 0.3 respectively) but had a lower maximum response than carbachol. In contrast L-689,660 was an antagonist at M2 receptors in guinea-pig atria (pA2 7.2 (95% confidence limits 7, 7.4)) and at muscarinic autoreceptors in rat hippocampal slices. 3. The putative M1-selective muscarinic agonist, AF102B (cis-2-methylspiro-(1,3-oxathiolane 5,3')-quinuclidine hydrochloride) was found to have a profile similar to L-689,660 but had up to 100 times less affinity in binding and functional assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422595

  16. Airborne fine particulate matter causes murine bronchial hyperreactivity via MAPK pathway-mediated M3 muscarinic receptor upregulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Xiao, Xue; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Lei; Cao, Yongxiao

    2017-02-01

    Regarding the human health effects, airborne fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ) is an important environmental risk factor. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study examined the hypothesis that PM 2.5 causes bronchial hyperreactivity by upregulated muscarinic receptors via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The isolated rat bronchi segments were cultured with different concentration of PM 2.5 for different time. The contractile response of the bronchi segments were recorded by a sensitive myograph. The mRNA and protein expression levels of M 3 muscarinic receptors were studied by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The muscarinic receptors agonist, carbachol induced a remarkable contractile response on fresh and DMSO cultured bronchial segments. Compared with the fresh or DMSO culture groups, 1.0 µg/mL of PM 2.5 cultured for 24 h significantly enhanced muscarinic receptor-mediated contractile responses in bronchi with a markedly increased maximal contraction. In addition, the expression levels of mRNA and protein for M 3 muscarinic receptors in bronchi of PM 2.5 group were higher than that of fresh or DMSO culture groups. SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) significantly inhibited the PM 2.5 -induced enhanced contraction and increased mRNA and protein expression of muscarinic receptors. However, JNK inhibitor SP600125 had no effect on PM 2.5 -induced muscarinic receptor upregulation and bronchial hyperreactivity. In conclusion, airborne PM 2.5 upregulates muscarinic receptors, which causes subsequently bronchial hyperreactivity shown as enhanced contractility in bronchi. This process may be mediated by p38 and MEK1/2 MAPK pathways. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 371-381, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impaired M3 and enhanced M2 muscarinic receptor contractile function in a streptozotocin model of mouse diabetic urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pak, K. J.; Ostrom, R. S.; Matsui, M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg−1) 2–24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, was measured in isolated urinary bladder (intact or denuded of urothelium). Denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated wild-type and M2 KO mice exhibited similar contractile responses to oxotremorine-M, when contraction was normalized relative to that elicited by KCl (50 mM). Eight to 9 weeks after streptozotocin treatment, the EC50 value of oxotremorine-M increased 3.1-fold in urinary bladder from the M2 KO mouse (N = 5) compared to wild type (N = 6; P < 0.001). Analogous changes were observed in intact bladder. In denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated mice, forskolin (5 µM) caused a much greater inhibition of contraction in M2 KO bladder compared to wild type. Following streptozotocin treatment, this forskolin effect increased 1.6-fold (P = 0.032). At the 20- to 24-week time point, the forskolin effect increased 1.7-fold for denuded as well as intact bladders (P = 0.036, 0.01, respectively). Although streptozotocin treatment inhibits M3 receptor-mediated contraction in denuded urinary bladder, muscarinic contractile function is maintained in wild-type bladder by enhanced M2 contractile function. M2 receptor activation opposes forskolin-induced relaxation of the urinary bladder, and this M2 function is enhanced following streptozotocin treatment. PMID:20349044

  18. Impaired M3 and enhanced M2 muscarinic receptor contractile function in a streptozotocin model of mouse diabetic urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Pak, K J; Ostrom, R S; Matsui, M; Ehlert, F J

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg(-1)) 2-24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, was measured in isolated urinary bladder (intact or denuded of urothelium). Denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated wild-type and M2 KO mice exhibited similar contractile responses to oxotremorine-M, when contraction was normalized relative to that elicited by KCl (50 mM). Eight to 9 weeks after streptozotocin treatment, the EC(50) value of oxotremorine-M increased 3.1-fold in urinary bladder from the M2 KO mouse (N = 5) compared to wild type (N = 6; P < 0.001). Analogous changes were observed in intact bladder. In denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated mice, forskolin (5 microM) caused a much greater inhibition of contraction in M2 KO bladder compared to wild type. Following streptozotocin treatment, this forskolin effect increased 1.6-fold (P = 0.032). At the 20- to 24-week time point, the forskolin effect increased 1.7-fold for denuded as well as intact bladders (P = 0.036, 0.01, respectively). Although streptozotocin treatment inhibits M3 receptor-mediated contraction in denuded urinary bladder, muscarinic contractile function is maintained in wild-type bladder by enhanced M2 contractile function. M2 receptor activation opposes forskolin-induced relaxation of the urinary bladder, and this M(2) function is enhanced following streptozotocin treatment.

  19. Carbachol induces Ca(2+)-dependent contraction via muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors in rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Koichi; Murata, Takahisa; Okada, Muneyoshi; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) that exist adjacent to the basement membrane of intestines have contractility and contribute to physical barriers of the intestine. Nerve endings distribute adjacent to IMFs, suggesting neurotransmitters may influence IMFs motility; however, there is no direct evidence showing the interaction. Here, we isolated IMFs from rat colon and investigated the effect of acetylcholine on IMFs contractility. In the collagen gel contraction assay, carbachol (1 - 10 microM) and the muscarinic receptor agonist bethanechol (30 - 300 microM) dose-dependently induced IMFs contraction. Pretreatment with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (1 - 10 nM) inhibited carbachol-induced contraction. In RT-PCR, mRNA expression of all muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) - M(5)) was detected in IMFs. Subsequently we found pretreatment with the muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperdinyl]acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX116) (10 and 30 nM) or the muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP) (3 and 10 nM) dose-dependently inhibited carbachol-induced contraction. In Ca(2+) measurement, 1 - 10 microM carbachol and 30 - 300 microM bethanechol elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in IMFs. Atropine (10 nM) eliminated carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. The Ca(2+)-channel blocker LaCl(3) (3 microM) abolished carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation and contraction. Furthermore, AF-DX116 and 4-DAMP dose-dependently inhibited the carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. These observations suggest that acetylcholine elicits Ca(2+)-dependent IMF contraction through muscarinic M(2) and M(3) receptors.

  20. Differential regulation of muscarinic M2 and M3 receptor signaling in gastrointestinal smooth muscle by caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sayak; Mahavadi, Sunila; Al-Shboul, Othman; Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2013-08-01

    Caveolae act as scaffolding proteins for several G protein-coupled receptor signaling molecules to regulate their activity. Caveolin-1, the predominant isoform in smooth muscle, drives the formation of caveolae. The precise role of caveolin-1 and caveolae as scaffolds for G protein-coupled receptor signaling and contraction in gastrointestinal muscle is unclear. Thus the aim of this study was to examine the role of caveolin-1 in the regulation of Gq- and Gi-coupled receptor signaling. RT-PCR, Western blot, and radioligand-binding studies demonstrated the selective expression of M2 and M3 receptors in gastric smooth muscle cells. Carbachol (CCh) stimulated phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis, Rho kinase and zipper-interacting protein (ZIP) kinase activity, induced myosin phosphatase 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation (at Thr(696)) and 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation (at Ser(19)) and muscle contraction, and inhibited cAMP formation. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis, Rho kinase, and ZIP kinase activity, phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC20, and muscle contraction in response to CCh were attenuated by methyl β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) or caveolin-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Similar inhibition of PI hydrolysis, Rho kinase, and ZIP kinase activity and muscle contraction in response to CCh and gastric emptying in vivo was obtained in caveolin-1-knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Agonist-induced internalization of M2, but not M3, receptors was blocked by MβCD or caveolin-1 siRNA. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis, Rho kinase, and ZIP kinase activities in response to other Gq-coupled receptor agonists such as histamine and substance P was also attenuated by MβCD or caveolin-1 siRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that caveolin-1 facilitates signaling by Gq-coupled receptors and contributes to enhanced smooth muscle function.

  1. Properties of isoscalar-pair condensates

    DOE PAGES

    Van Isacker, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Fallon, P.; ...

    2016-08-17

    In this work, it is pointed out that the ground state of $n$ neutrons and n protons in a single-$j$ shell, interacting through an isoscalar ($T=0$) pairing force, is not paired, $J=0$, but rather spin aligned, $J=n$. This observation is explained in the context of a model of isoscalar $P(J=1)$ pairs, which is mapped onto a system of $p$ bosons, leading to an approximate analytic solution of the isoscalar-pairing limit in $jj$ coupling.

  2. Heteroditopic receptors for ion-pair recognition.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Anna J; Beer, Paul D

    2012-05-21

    Ion-pair recognition is a new field of research emerging from cation and anion coordination chemistry. Specific types of heteroditopic receptor designs for ion pairs and the complexity of ion-pair binding are discussed to illustrate key concepts such as cooperativity. The importance of this area of research is reflected by the wide variety of potential applications of ion-pair receptors, including applications as membrane transport and salt solubilization agents and sensors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G (sup 1) be any galaxy and G (sup 2) be its nearest neighbor at a distance R sub 2. If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G (sup 1) is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G (sup 1) and G (sup 2) be O sub 2 and r sub 2=R sub 2/2. For the volume V sub 2, defined with the radius r sub 2, the density D sub 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G (sup 2) is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten.

  4. Sequential dark and photo fermentation hydrogen production from hydrolyzed corn stover: A pilot test using 11 m3 reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Zhang, Zhiping; Wang, Yi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Li, Gang; Zhou, Xuehua; Jiang, Danping; Xu, Bo; Lu, Chaoyang; Li, Yameng; Ge, Xumeng

    2018-04-01

    Pilot tests of sequential dark and photo fermentation H 2 production were for the first time conducted in a 11 m 3 reactor (3 m 3 for dark and 8 m 3 for photo compartments). A combined solar and light-emitting diode illumination system and a thermal controlling system was installed and tested. With dark fermentation unit maintained at pH 4.5 and 35 °C and photo fermentation unit at pH 7.0 and 30 °C, the overall biogas production rate using hydrolyzed corn stover as substrate reached 87.8 ± 3.8 m 3 /d with 68% H 2 content, contributed by dark unit at 7.5 m 3 -H 2 /m 3 -d and by photo unit at 4.7 m 3 /m 3 -d. Large variation was noted for H 2 production rate in different compartments of the tested units, revealing the adverse effects of poor mixing, washout, and other inhomogeneity associated with large reactor operations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reversible geminate recombination of hydrogen-bonded water molecule pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovitch, Omer; Agmon, Noam

    2008-08-01

    The (history independent) autocorrelation function for a hydrogen-bonded water molecule pair, calculated from classical molecular dynamics trajectories of liquid water, exhibits a t-3/2 asymptotic tail. Its whole time dependence agrees quantitatively with the solution for reversible diffusion-influenced geminate recombination derived by Agmon and Weiss [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6937 (1989)]. Agreement with diffusion theory is independent of the precise definition of the bound state. Given the water self-diffusion constant, this theory enables us to determine the dissociation and bimolecular recombination rate parameters for a water dimer. (The theory is indispensable for obtaining the bimolecular rate coefficient.) Interestingly, the activation energies obtained from the temperature dependence of these rate coefficients are similar, rather than differing by the hydrogen-bond (HB) strength. This suggests that recombination requires displacing another water molecule, which meanwhile occupied the binding site. Because these activation energies are about twice the HB strength, cleavage of two HBs may be required to allow pair separation. The autocorrelation function without the HB angular restriction yields a recombination rate coefficient that is larger than that for rebinding to all four tetrahedral water sites (with angular restrictions), suggesting the additional participation of interstitial sites. Following dissociation, the probability of the pair to be unbound but within the reaction sphere rises more slowly than expected, possibly because binding to the interstitial sites delays pair separation. An extended diffusion model, which includes an additional binding site, can account for this behavior.

  6. Evaluation of new collision-pair selection models in DSMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Hassan; Roohi, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    The current paper investigates new collision-pair selection procedures in a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Collision partner selection based on the random procedure from nearest neighbor particles and deterministic selection of nearest neighbor particles have already been introduced as schemes that provide accurate results in a wide range of problems. In the current research, new collision-pair selections based on the time spacing and direction of the relative movement of particles are introduced and evaluated. Comparisons between the new and existing algorithms are made considering appropriate test cases including fluctuations in homogeneous gas, 2D equilibrium flow, and Fourier flow problem. Distribution functions for number of particles and collisions in cell, velocity components, and collisional parameters (collision separation, time spacing, relative velocity, and the angle between relative movements of particles) are investigated and compared with existing analytical relations for each model. The capability of each model in the prediction of the heat flux in the Fourier problem at different cell numbers, numbers of particles, and time steps is examined. For new and existing collision-pair selection schemes, the effect of an alternative formula for the number of collision-pair selections and avoiding repetitive collisions are investigated via the prediction of the Fourier heat flux. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages and weaknesses of each model in different test cases.

  7. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    PubMed Central

    Presciuttini, Silvano; Toni, Chiara; Tempestini, Elena; Verdiani, Simonetta; Casarino, Lucia; Spinetti, Isabella; Stefano, Francesco De; Domenici, Ranieri; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2002-01-01

    Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi) depend on locus heterozygosity (H), and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals. PMID:12441003

  8. [Clinical Efficacy of NOPHO-AML 2004 Regimen for Treatment of Children with Acute Myelocytic Leukemia (Non-M3)].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kun-Yin; Liao, Xiong-Yu; Huang, Ke; Li, Yang; Weng, Wen-Jun; Xu, Hong-Gui; Fang, Jian-Pei; Wu, Ruo-Hao; Zhou, Dun-Hua

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of NOPHO-AML 2004 chemotherapy regimen for treatment of children with acute myelocytic leukemia(non-M3). Thirty-three patients aged 1-13 with acute myelocytic leukemia (non-M3) were diagnosed from January 2013 to June 2017. FAB typing showed that 1 case in M0, 4 cases in M1, 12 cases in M2, 5 cases in M4, 8 cases in M5, 1 case in M6, and 2 cases in M7; Risk stratification showed that: 19 cases in standard risk, and 14 cases in high risk. All patients were treated with NOPHO-AML 2004 chemotherapy regimen. SPSS 22.0 software was used, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis method and Cox regression model were used for statistical analysis. In the first course of treatment (AIET), among 33 child patients there were 27 cases with complete remission, and 5 cases with non-remission, thus the remission rate was 81.8%. Out of the 5 child patients without remission, 4 cases reached to the complete remission after the second course (AM), and 1 case did not remission, thus the total remission rate was 96.9%.9 cases (27.3%) underwent bone marrow recurrence and the median recurrence time was 30 months after complete continuous remission. Univariate analysis showed that age and erythrocyte transfusion frequency were significant factors to affect the early treatment response; the multiple Cox regression analysis showed that: age >7, MRD positive, erythrocyte transfusion >4 times and poor response to early treatment were independent risk factors for recurrence; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT) in 8 high-risk children received enhanced chemotherapy had better efficacy as compared with the chemotherapy alone. The 3-year event-free survival rate was 59.9%, and 3-year overall survival rate was 69.2%. 33 children patients experienced varying degrees of infection and myelosuppression, or drug-related gastrointestinal reactions and allergic reactions, patients were tolerable to these side reactions after active symptomatic

  9. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  10. Pair Programming in Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renee; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in…

  11. Paired Reading: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Cheryl; Edovald, Triin; Kiss, Zsolt; Morris, Stephen; Skipp, Amy; Ahmed, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Paired Reading is a peer tutoring programme in secondary schools which trains teachers to support and encourage the regular tutoring of Year 7 pupils (aged 11-12 years) by Year 9 pupils (aged 13-14 years). The Paired Reading programme aims to improve pupils' general literacy in addition to speaking and listening skills. This is achieved by pupils…

  12. Electromagnetic decay of Monopole-Antimonopole pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calucci, Giorgio

    2018-04-01

    A Monopole-Antimonopole pair could annihilate producing a photon shower: Some aspects of the shower like the multiplicity distribution and angular correlations are investigated within a model suitable for processes with high multiplicities and therefore difficult to deal with standard perturbative treatment. The possible production of electron-positron pairs is also considered.

  13. Attitudes on Using Pair-Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth V.

    2007-01-01

    During a research study conducted over four semesters, students enrolled in an introductory programming class at a commuter campus used the pair-programming approach for both in-class labs and out-of-class programming assignments. This study was a comprehensive assessment of pair-programming using multiple measures of both quantitative and…

  14. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  15. Electronic and structural properties of M3(HITP)2 (M = Ni, Cu and Co) metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Orlando; Chacham, Helio; Alexandre, Simone

    Theoretical and experimental works have demonstrated that electrical and structural properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) can be significantly changed by the identity of the metal center, leading to a potential strategy for tuning the selectivity of the material toward different types of technological applications. In this work, we use first principle calculations to investigate the electronic properties of 2D MOF M3(HITP)2 (M is Ni, Cu and Co and HITP = 2,3,6,7,10,11 - hexaiminotriphenylene). Our results show that for M=Ni and Co, the structures are perfect planar and there is a full charge delocalization in the 2D plane of stacking due to the predominance of π - π bonding. The band structure for M = Ni shows that this material is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 132 meV, whilst for M = Co the band structure shows that this material is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with a direct band gap of 386 meV for spin down and a indirect band gap of 246 meV for spin up. For M=Cu, the material is a metal and adopts a distorted structure due to a different hybridization of the metal atom in comparison with its counterparts. We also propose a tight binding model that can represent the electronic structure near the Fermi level of this family of MOF.

  16. Genetic variability and heritability on Kipas Putih soybean mutant lines using gamma rays irradiation (M3 generation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilahayati; Rosmayati; Hanafiah, D. S.; Harahap, F.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the selection criteria in Kipas Putih Soybean with gamma rays irradiation in M3 generation. In this study there are four populations namely population 0 Gray (control), 100 Gray, 200 Gray and 300 Gray. The results showed that high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was obtained on the number of pods and seed weight per plant in population 200 Gy, number of branches on 100 Gy and 300 Gy, number of pods and seed weight per plants 100 and 200 Gy, moderate GCV in number of branches on 100 and 300 Gy while other characters such as plant height, numbers of branches on 200 Gy, flowering and harvest age have narrow GCV criteria. High heritability values are found in 300 Gy on plant height, number of branches 300 Gy, number of pods and seed weight per plant 200 Gy, days to flower 200 Gy and 300 Gy and days to harvest of all doses. Based on the genetic variabiliy and heritability, characters that can be used as selection criteria in this study is number of pods and seeds weight per plant, days to flower and days to harvest.

  17. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  18. Targeting acetylcholine receptor M3 prevents the progression of airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kruti R; Bai, Yan; Trieu, Kenneth G; Barrios, Juliana; Ai, Xingbin

    2017-10-01

    Asthma often progresses into adulthood from early-life episodes of adverse environmental exposures. However, how the injury to developing lungs contributes to the pathophysiology of persistent asthma remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified an age-related mechanism along the cholinergic nerve-airway smooth muscle (ASM) axis that underlies prolonged airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in mice. We showed that ASM continued to mature until ∼3 wk after birth. Coinciding with postnatal ASM maturation, there was a critical time window for the development of ASM hypercontractility after cholinergic stimulation. We found that allergen exposure in neonatal mice, but not in adult mice, elevated the level and activity of cholinergic nerves (termed neuroplasticity). We demonstrated that cholinergic neuroplasticity is necessary for the induction of persistent AHR after neonatal exposure during rescue assays in mice deficient in neuroplasticity. In addition, early intervention with cholinergic receptor muscarinic (ChRM)-3 blocker reversed the progression of AHR in the neonatal exposure model, whereas β2-adrenoceptor agonists had no such effect. Together, our findings demonstrate a functional relationship between cholinergic neuroplasticity and ASM contractile phenotypes that operates uniquely in early life to induce persistent AHR after allergen exposure. Targeting ChRM3 may have disease-modifying benefits in childhood asthma.-Patel, K. R., Bai, Y., Trieu, K. G., Barrios, J., Ai, X. Targeting acetylcholine receptor M3 prevents the progression of airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of childhood asthma. © FASEB.

  19. The Statistical Power of the Cluster Randomized Block Design with Matched Pairs--A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo; Lipsey, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This study uses simulation techniques to examine the statistical power of the group- randomized design and the matched-pair (MP) randomized block design under various parameter combinations. Both nearest neighbor matching and random matching are used for the MP design. The power of each design for any parameter combination was calculated from…

  20. Higgs Pair Production as a Signal of Enhanced Yukawa Couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Carmona, Adrián

    We present a non-trivial correlation between the enhancement of the Higgs-fermion couplings and the Higgs pair production cross section in two Higgs doublet models with a flavour symmetry. This symmetry suppresses flavour-changing neutral couplings of the Higgs boson and allows for a partial explanation of the hierarchy in the Yukawa sector. After taking into account the constraints from electroweak precision measurements, Higgs coupling strength measurements, and unitarity and perturbativity bounds, we identify an interesting region of parameter space leading to enhanced Yukawa couplings as well as enhanced di-Higgs gluon fusion production at the LHC reach. This effect is visible inmore » both the resonant and non-resonant contributions to the Higgs pair production cross section. We encourage dedicated searches based on differential distributions as a novel way to indirectly probe enhanced Higgs couplings to light fermions.« less

  1. Aerodynamic Interactions between Pairs of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John

    2017-11-01

    Increased power production has been observed in downstream vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) when positioned offset from the wake of upstream turbines. This effect was found to exist in both laboratory and field environments with pairs of co- and counter-rotating turbines. It is hypothesized that the observed power production enhancement is due to flow acceleration adjacent to the upstream turbine caused by bluff body blockage, which increases the incident freestream velocity on appropriately positioned downstream turbines. This type of flow acceleration has been observed in computational and laboratory studies of VAWTs and will be further investigated here using 3D-PTV measurements around pairs of laboratory-scale VAWTs. These measurements will be used to understand the mechanisms behind the performance enhancement effect and seek to determine optimal separation distances and angles between turbines based on turbine design parameters. These results will lead to recommendations for optimizing the power production of VAWT wind farms which utilize this effect.

  2. Topological superfluids with finite-momentum pairing and Majorana fermions.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chunlei; Zheng, Zhen; Gong, Ming; Xu, Yong; Mao, Li; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2013-01-01

    Majorana fermions (MFs), quantum particles that are their own antiparticles, are not only of fundamental importance in elementary particle physics and dark matter, but also building blocks for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Recently MFs have been intensively studied in solid state and cold atomic systems. These studies are generally based on superconducting pairing with zero total momentum. On the other hand, finite total momentum Cooper pairings, known as Fulde-Ferrell (FF) Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states, were widely studied in many branches of physics. However, whether FF and LO superconductors can support MFs has not been explored. Here we show that MFs can exist in certain types of gapped FF states, yielding a new quantum matter: topological FF superfluids/superconductors. We demonstrate the existence of such topological FF superfluids and the associated MFs using spin-orbit-coupled degenerate Fermi gases and derive their parameter regions. The implementation of topological FF superconductors in semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures is also discussed.

  3. [Structural and Dipole Structure Peculiarities of Hoogsteen Base Pairs Formed in Complementary Nucleobases according to ab initio Quantum Mechanics Studies].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanics studies for the detection of structure and dipole structure peculiarities of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson-Crick base pairs, were performed during our work. These base pairs are formed as a result of complementary interactions. It was revealed, that adenine-thymine Hoogsteen base pair and adenine-thymine Watson-Crick base pairs can be formed depending on initial configuration. Cytosine-guanine Hoogsteen pairs are formed only when cytosine was originally protonated. Both types of Hoogsteen pairs have noticeable difference in the bond distances and angles. These differences appeared in purine as well as in pyrimidine parts of the pairs. Hoogsteen pairs have mostly shorter hydrogen bond lengths and significantly larger angles of hydrogen bonds and larger angles between the hydrogen bonds than Watson-Crick base pairs. Notable differences are also observed with respect to charge distribution and dipole moment. Quantitative data on these differences are shown in our work. It is also reported that the values of local parameters (according to Cambridge classification of the parameters which determine DNA properties) in Hoogsteen base pairs, are greatly different from Watson-Crick ones.

  4. Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have discovered a speedy spinning pulsar in an elongated orbit around an apparent Sun-like star, a combination never seen before, and one that has them puzzled about how the strange system developed. Orbital Comparison Comparing Orbits of Pulsar and Its Companion to our Solar System. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for full caption information and available graphics. "Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind of orbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair," he added. Astronomers first detected the pulsar, called J1903+0327, as part of a long-term survey using the National Science Foundation's Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. They made the discovery in 2006 doing data analysis at McGill University, where Champion worked at the time. They followed up the discovery with detailed studies using the Arecibo telescope, the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, and the Gemini North optical telescope in Hawaii. The pulsar, a city-sized superdense stellar corpse left over after a massive star exploded as a supernova, is spinning on its axis 465 times every second. Nearly 21,000 light-years from Earth, it is in a highly-elongated orbit that takes it around its companion star once every 95 days. An infrared image made with the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii shows a Sun-like star at the pulsar's position. If this is an orbital companion to the pulsar, it is unlike any companions of other rapidly rotating pulsars. The pulsar, a neutron star, also is unusually massive for its type. "This combination of properties is unprecedented. Not only does it require us to figure out how this system was produced, but the large mass may help us understand how matter behaves at extremely

  5. Model of electron pairs in electron-doped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. J.; Khan, Shakeel

    2016-07-01

    In the order parameter of hole-doped cuprate superconductors in the pseudogap phase, two holes enter the order parameter from opposite sides and pass through various CuO2 cells jumping from one O2- to the other under the influence of magnetic field offered by the Cu2+ ions in that CuO2 cell and thus forming hole pairs. In the pseudogap phase of electron-doped cuprates, two electrons enter the order parameter at Cu2+ sites from opposite ends and pass from one Cu2+ site to the diagonally opposite Cu2+ site. Following this type of path, they are subjected to high magnetic fields from various Cu2+ ions in that cell. They do not travel from one Cu2+ site to the other along straight path but by helical path. As they pass through the diagonal, they face high to low to very high magnetic field. Therefore, frequency of helical motion and pitch goes on changing with the magnetic field. Just before reaching the Cu2+ ions at the exit points of all the cells, the pitch of the helical motion is enormously decreased and thus charge density at these sites is increased. So the velocity of electrons along the diagonal path is decreased. Consequently, transition temperature of electron-doped cuprates becomes less than that of hole-doped cuprates. Symmetry of the order parameter of the electron-doped cuprates has been found to be of 3dx2-y2 + iS type. It has been inferred that internal magnetic field inside the order parameter reconstructs the Fermi surface, which is requisite for superconductivity to take place. Electron pairs formed in the pseudogap phase are the precursors of superconducting order parameter when cooled below Tc.

  6. Impact of Na- and K-C pi-interactions on the structure and binding of M3(sol)n(BINOLate)3Ln catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Alfred J; Carroll, Patrick J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2007-08-16

    Shibasaki's heterobimetallic complexes M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln [M = Li, Na, K; Ln = lanthanide(III)] are among the most successful asymmetric Lewis acid catalysts. Why does M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln readily bind substrates when M = Li but not when M = Na or K? Structural studies herein indicate Na- and K-C cation-pi interactions and alkali metal radius may be more important than even lanthanide radius. Also reported is a novel polymeric [K3(THF)2(BINOLate)3Yb]n structure that provides the first evidence of interactions between M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln complexes.

  7. Impact of Na- and K-C π-Interactions on the Structure and Binding of M3(sol)n(BINOLate)3Ln Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Alfred J.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Shibasaki’s heterobimetallic complexes M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln [M = Li, Na, K, Ln = lanthanide(III)] are among the most successful asymmetric Lewis acid catalysts. Why does M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln readily bind substrates when M = Li but not when M = Na or K? Structural studies herein indicate Na- and K-C cation-π interactions and alkali metal radius may be more important than even lanthanide radius. Also reported is a novel polymeric [K3(THF)2(BINOLate)3Yb]n structure that provides the first evidence of interactions between M3(THF)n(BINOLate)3Ln complexes. PMID:17658838

  8. Constraints on the Distance Moduli, Helium, and Metal Abundances, and Ages of Globular Clusters from Their RR Lyrae and Non-variable Horizontal Branch Stars. II. Multiple Stellar Populations in 47 Tuc, M3, and M13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denissenkov, Pavel A.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Kopacki, Grzegorz; Ferguson, Jason W.

    2017-11-01

    We present a new set of horizontal branch (HB) models computed with the MESA stellar evolution code. The models adopt α-enhanced Asplund et al. metal mixtures and include the gravitational settling of He. They are used in our HB population synthesis tool to generate theoretical distributions of HB stars in order to describe the multiple stellar populations in the globular clusters 47 Tuc, M3, and M13. The observed HB in 47 Tuc is reproduced very well by our simulations for [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-0.70 and [α /{Fe}]=+0.4 if the initial helium mass fraction varies by {{Δ }}{Y}0˜ 0.03, and approximately 21%, 37%, and 42% of the stars have {Y}0=0.257, 0.270, and 0.287, respectively. These simulations yield {(m-M)}V=13.27, implying an age near 13.0 Gyr. In the case of M3 and M13, our synthetic HBs for [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-1.55 and [α /{Fe}]=0.4 match the observed ones quite well if M3 has {{Δ }}{Y}0˜ 0.01 and {(m-M)}V=15.02, resulting in an age of 12.6 Gyr, whereas M13 has {{Δ }}{Y}0˜ 0.08 and {(m-M)}V=14.42, implying an age of 12.9 Gyr. Mass loss during giant branch evolution and {{Δ }}{Y}0 appear to be the primary second parameters for M3 and M13. New observations for seven of the nine known RR Lyrae in M13 are also reported. Surprisingly, periods predicted for the c-type variables tend to be too high (by up to ˜0.1 days).

  9. Evidence of zooplankton vertical migration from continuous Southern Adriatic buoy current-meter records (E2-M3A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursella, Laura; Cardin, Vanessa; Batistić, Mirna

    2017-04-01

    The E2-M3A Station is deployed in the southern Adriatic Sea, at about 1200 m depth, in the center of the cyclonic gyre where deep convection process takes place, involving both the atmosphere and the ocean dynamics and forming new dense and oxygenated waters, thus triggering the solubility and the biological pump. In particular, the E2M3A is equipped with an upward looking 150 kHz RDI-Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) positioned between 265 and 320 m depth, with a vertical resolution of 5 m and a range of 250-300 m. The mooring line has been in water since November 2006, with an interruption from September 2010 until May 2011. ADCP backscattering signal is very useful in determining zooplankton distribution and variability at various time scales, including seasonal/annual behavior and diel vertical migration (DVM). From ADCP backscattering signal, backscattering strength (Sv) was calculated for the entire dataset. Sv permits to quantify qualitatively the scatters present in the water, i.e. the particulate and/or the phyto/zoo-plankton. Zooplankton distribution is dependent on phytoplankton presence and blooms, which on its own depend on nutrients availability (related to wind-induced vertical mixing), but also on sunlight. The variation in time of Sv together with vertical velocity allows for measuring DVM of zooplankton and its variability with seasons and years. Alternation of high and low values for Sv are present all year long with differences in intensities in particular in the surface layer. Quite high values for Sv are found in spring and summer; in spring they are found along a large part of the water column, while in summer they are detected prevalently in the upper part of the measurement range. This behavior is related to the conditions of the water column, i.e. mixing and nutrients availability, which influence phytoplankton blooms and therefore zooplankton growing and movements. Correlating Net Primary Production obtained from model and Mixed

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M-3.8+0.9 molecular cloud 3mm datacubes (Riquelme+ 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, D.; Amo-Baladron, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Mauersberger, R.; Martin, S.; Burton, M.; Cunningham, M.; Jones, P.; Menten, K. M.; Bronfman, L.; Guesten, R.

    2018-01-01

    We mapped the M-3.8+0.9 molecular cloud placed at the footpoints of a giant molecular loop, in 3-mm range molecular lines using Mopra telescope, and the 13CO (2-1) line at 1 mm using the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The Mopra observations were performed during September 2008 and August 2009. We used the digital mode filter bank MOPS in broadband mode, covering 8GHz of bandwidth simultaneously in four 2.2GHz sub-bands, each of them with 8192 channel spaced by 0.27MHz. Two polarizations were measured simultaneously. We produce one data cube per detected molecule. The final spatial resolution of the data cubes is between 49 arcsec and 51 arcsec at 115 and 86GHz respectively. The size of the pixel is 15 arcsec. The spectral resolution of the data is 269.5kHz (0.94-0.78km/s). The data is presented in T*a (K). The APEX observations were carried out on 24 June, and 1, 2, and 3 July 2014 under the APEX project code M-093.F-008-2014 using the APEX-1 (SHIFI) receiver and the eXtended bandwidth Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer (XFFTS) backend. The data were regridded in equatorial coordinates and then converted to Galactic coordinates for comparison with the Mopra data using standard CLASS routines. The pixel size is 13.8 arcsec. The spatial resolution is 30.1 arcsec and the spectral resolution is 299.8kHz (1.03km/s). The data is presented in Tmb (K). (2 data files).

  11. Properties of Decameter IIIb-III Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    2018-02-01

    A large number of Type IIIb-III pairs, in which the first component is a Type IIIb burst and the second one is a Type III burst, are often recorded during decameter Type III burst storms. From the beginning of their observation, the question of whether the components of these pairs are the first and the second harmonics of radio emission or not has remained open. We discuss properties of decameter IIIb-III pairs in detail to answer this question. The components of these pairs, Type IIIb bursts and Type III bursts, have essentially different durations and polarizations. At the same time their frequency drift rates are rather close, provided that the drift rates of Type IIIb bursts are a little larger those of Type III bursts at the same frequency. Frequency ratios of the bursts at the same moment are close to two. This points at a harmonic connection of the components in IIIb-III pairs. At the same time there was a serious difficulty, namely why the first harmonic had fine frequency structure in the form of striae and the second harmonic did not have it. Recently Loi, Cairns, and Li ( Astrophys. J. 790, 67, 2014) succeeded in solving this problem. The physical aspects of observational properties of decameter IIIb-III pairs are discussed and pros and cons of harmonic character of Type IIIb bursts and Type III bursts in IIIb-III pairs are presented. We conclude that practically all properties of the IIIb-III pair components can be understood in the framework of the harmonic relation of the components of the IIIb-III pairs.

  12. Nonrandom network connectivity comes in pairs.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Felix Z; Triesch, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Overrepresentation of bidirectional connections in local cortical networks has been repeatedly reported and is a focus of the ongoing discussion of nonrandom connectivity. Here we show in a brief mathematical analysis that in a network in which connection probabilities are symmetric in pairs, P ij = P ji , the occurrences of bidirectional connections and nonrandom structures are inherently linked; an overabundance of reciprocally connected pairs emerges necessarily when some pairs of neurons are more likely to be connected than others. Our numerical results imply that such overrepresentation can also be sustained when connection probabilities are only approximately symmetric.

  13. Differential in vitro inhibition of M3G and M6G formation from morphine by (R)- and (S)-methadone and structurally related opioids

    PubMed Central

    Morrish, Glynn A; Foster, David J R; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-01-01

    Aims To determine the in vitro kinetics of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) formation and the inhibition potential by methadone enantiomers and structurally related opioids. Methods M3G and M6G formation kinetics from morphine were determined using microsomes from five human livers. Inhibition of glucuronide formation was investigated with eight inhibitors (100 µm) and the mechanism of inhibition determined for (R)- and (S)-methadone (70–500 µm) using three microsomal samples. Results Glucuronide formation displayed single enzyme kinetics. The M3G Vmax (mean ± SD) was 4.8-fold greater than M6G Vmax (555 ± 110 vs. 115 ± 19 nmol mg−1 protein h−1; P = 0.006, mean of difference 439; 95% confidence interval 313, 565 nmol mg−1 protein h−1). Km values for M3G and M6G formation were not significantly different (1.12 ± 0.37 vs. 1.11 ± 0.31 mm; P = 0.89, 0.02; −0.29, 0.32 mm). M3G and M6G formation was inhibited (P < 0.01) with a significant increase in the M3G/M6G ratio (P < 0.01) for all compounds tested. Detailed analysis with (R)- and (S)-methadone revealed noncompetitive inhibition with (R)-methadone Ki of 320 ± 42 µm and 192 ± 12 µm for M3G and M6G, respectively, and (S)-methadone Ki of 226 ± 30 µm and 152 ± 20 µm for M3G and M6G, respectively. Ki values for M3G inhibition were significantly greater than for M6G for (R)-methadone (P = 0.017, 128; 55, 202 µm) and (S)-methadone (P = 0.026, 75; 22, 128 µm). Conclusions Both methadone enantiomers noncompetitively inhibited the formation of morphine's primary metabolites, with greater inhibition of M6G formation compared with M3G. These findings indicate a mechanism for reduced morphine clearance in methadone-maintained patients and reduced relative formation of the opioid active M6G compared with M3G. PMID:16487227

  14. Introducing a model of pairing based on base pair specific interactions between identical DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (O' Lee, Dominic J.

    2018-02-01

    At present, there have been suggested two types of physical mechanism that may facilitate preferential pairing between DNA molecules, with identical or similar base pair texts, without separation of base pairs. One mechanism solely relies on base pair specific patterns of helix distortion being the same on the two molecules, discussed extensively in the past. The other mechanism proposes that there are preferential interactions between base pairs of the same composition. We introduce a model, built on this second mechanism, where both thermal stretching and twisting fluctuations are included, as well as the base pair specific helix distortions. Firstly, we consider an approximation for weak pairing interactions, or short molecules. This yields a dependence of the energy on the square root of the molecular length, which could explain recent experimental data. However, analysis suggests that this approximation is no longer valid at large DNA lengths. In a second approximation, for long molecules, we define two adaptation lengths for twisting and stretching, over which the pairing interaction can limit the accumulation of helix disorder. When the pairing interaction is sufficiently strong, both adaptation lengths are finite; however, as we reduce pairing strength, the stretching adaptation length remains finite but the torsional one becomes infinite. This second state persists to arbitrarily weak values of the pairing strength; suggesting that, if the molecules are long enough, the pairing energy scales as length. To probe differences between the two pairing mechanisms, we also construct a model of similar form. However, now, pairing between identical sequences solely relies on the intrinsic helix distortion patterns. Between the two models, we see interesting qualitative differences. We discuss our findings, and suggest new work to distinguish between the two mechanisms.

  15. Unique Footprint in the scl1.3 Locus Affects Adhesion and Biofilm Formation of the Invasive M3-Type Group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Bachert, Beth A; Choi, Soo J; LaSala, Paul R; Harper, Tiffany I; McNitt, Dudley H; Boehm, Dylan T; Caswell, Clayton C; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R; Flores, Anthony R; Musser, James M; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Berisio, Rita; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    The streptococcal collagen-like proteins 1 and 2 (Scl1 and Scl2) are major surface adhesins that are ubiquitous among group A Streptococcus (GAS). Invasive M3-type strains, however, have evolved two unique conserved features in the scl1 locus: (i) an IS1548 element insertion in the scl1 promoter region and (ii) a nonsense mutation within the scl1 coding sequence. The scl1 transcript is drastically reduced in M3-type GAS, contrasting with a high transcription level of scl1 allele in invasive M1-type GAS. This leads to a lack of Scl1 expression in M3 strains. In contrast, while scl2 transcription and Scl2 production are elevated in M3 strains, M1 GAS lack Scl2 surface expression. M3-type strains were shown to have reduced biofilm formation on inanimate surfaces coated with cellular fibronectin and laminin, and in human skin equivalents. Repair of the nonsense mutation and restoration of Scl1 expression on M3-GAS cells, restores biofilm formation on cellular fibronectin and laminin coatings. Inactivation of scl1 in biofilm-capable M28 and M41 strains results in larger skin lesions in a mouse model, indicating that lack of Scl1 adhesin promotes bacterial spread over localized infection. These studies suggest the uniquely evolved scl1 locus in the M3-type strains, which prevents surface expression of the major Scl1 adhesin, contributed to the emergence of the invasive M3-type strains. Furthermore these studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating colonization, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis of group A streptococci.

  16. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  17. a Norm Pairing in Formal Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostokov, S. V.

    1980-02-01

    A pairing of the multiplicative group of a local field (a finite extension of the field of p-adic numbers Qp) with the group of points of a Lubin-Tate formal group is defined explicitly. The values of the pairing are roots of an isogeny of the formal group. The main properties of this pairing are established: bilinearity, invariance under the choice of a local uniformizing element, and independence of the method of expanding elements into series with respect to this uniformizing element. These properties of the pairing are used to prove that it agrees with the generalized Hilbert norm residue symbol when the field over whose ring of integers the formal group is defined is totally ramified over Qp. This yields an explicit expression for the generalized Hilbert symbol on the group of points of the formal group. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  18. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to measure differences in characteristics among applicants against those characteristics... survey of all host family and au pair participants regarding satisfaction with the program, its strengths... the Department of Homeland Security's Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS...

  19. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... designed to measure differences in characteristics among applicants against those characteristics... survey of all host family and au pair participants regarding satisfaction with the program, its strengths... the Department of Homeland Security's Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS...

  20. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... designed to measure differences in characteristics among applicants against those characteristics... survey of all host family and au pair participants regarding satisfaction with the program, its strengths... the Department of Homeland Security's Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS...

  1. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... designed to measure differences in characteristics among applicants against those characteristics... survey of all host family and au pair participants regarding satisfaction with the program, its strengths... the Department of Homeland Security's Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS...

  2. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... designed to measure differences in characteristics among applicants against those characteristics... survey of all host family and au pair participants regarding satisfaction with the program, its strengths... the Department of Homeland Security's Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS...

  3. Temporal Multimode Storage of Entangled Photon Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiranov, Alexey; Strassmann, Peter C.; Lavoie, Jonathan; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus; Verma, Varun B.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Lita, Adriana E.; Marsili, Francesco; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Multiplexed quantum memories capable of storing and processing entangled photons are essential for the development of quantum networks. In this context, we demonstrate and certify the simultaneous storage and retrieval of two entangled photons inside a solid-state quantum memory and measure a temporal multimode capacity of ten modes. This is achieved by producing two polarization-entangled pairs from parametric down-conversion and mapping one photon of each pair onto a rare-earth-ion-doped (REID) crystal using the atomic frequency comb (AFC) protocol. We develop a concept of indirect entanglement witnesses, which can be used as Schmidt number witnesses, and we use it to experimentally certify the presence of more than one entangled pair retrieved from the quantum memory. Our work puts forward REID-AFC as a platform compatible with temporal multiplexing of several entangled photon pairs along with a new entanglement certification method, useful for the characterization of multiplexed quantum memories.

  4. Spectra from pair-equilibrium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical model of relativistic nonmagnetized plasma with uniform temperature and electron density distributions is considered, and spectra from plasma in pair equilibrium are studied. A range of dimensionless temperature (T) greater than about 0.2 is considered. The spectra from low pair density plasmas in pair equilibrium vary from un-Comptonized bremsstrahlung spectra at Thomson cross section tau(N) much less than one to Comptonized bremsstrahlung spectra with tau(N) over one. For high pair density plasmas the spectra are flat for T greater than about one, and have broad intensity peaks at energy roughly equal to 3T for T less than one. In the latter region the total luminosity is approximately twice the annihilation luminosity. All spectra are flat in the X-ray region, in contradiction to observed AGN spectra. For dimensionless luminosity greater than about 100, the cooling time becomes shorter than the Thomson time.

  5. 90 Seconds of Discovery: Frustrated Lewis Pairs

    ScienceCinema

    Kathmann, Shawn; Schenter, Greg; Autrey, Tom

    2018-01-16

    Hydrogen activating catalysts play an important role in producing valuable chemicals, such as biofuels and ammonia. As a part of efforts to develop the next generation of these catalysts, PNNL researchers have found potential in Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

  6. Efficient and accurate local approximations to coupled-electron pair approaches: An attempt to revive the pair natural orbital method.

    PubMed

    Neese, Frank; Wennmohs, Frank; Hansen, Andreas

    2009-03-21

    Coupled-electron pair approximations (CEPAs) and coupled-pair functionals (CPFs) have been popular in the 1970s and 1980s and have yielded excellent results for small molecules. Recently, interest in CEPA and CPF methods has been renewed. It has been shown that these methods lead to competitive thermochemical, kinetic, and structural predictions. They greatly surpass second order Moller-Plesset and popular density functional theory based approaches in accuracy and are intermediate in quality between CCSD and CCSD(T) in extended benchmark studies. In this work an efficient production level implementation of the closed shell CEPA and CPF methods is reported that can be applied to medium sized molecules in the range of 50-100 atoms and up to about 2000 basis functions. The internal space is spanned by localized internal orbitals. The external space is greatly compressed through the method of pair natural orbitals (PNOs) that was also introduced by the pioneers of the CEPA approaches. Our implementation also makes extended use of density fitting (or resolution of the identity) techniques in order to speed up the laborious integral transformations. The method is called local pair natural orbital CEPA (LPNO-CEPA) (LPNO-CPF). The implementation is centered around the concepts of electron pairs and matrix operations. Altogether three cutoff parameters are introduced that control the size of the significant pair list, the average number of PNOs per electron pair, and the number of contributing basis functions per PNO. With the conservatively chosen default values of these thresholds, the method recovers about 99.8% of the canonical correlation energy. This translates to absolute deviations from the canonical result of only a few kcal mol(-1). Extended numerical test calculations demonstrate that LPNO-CEPA (LPNO-CPF) has essentially the same accuracy as parent CEPA (CPF) methods for thermochemistry, kinetics, weak interactions, and potential energy surfaces but is up to 500

  7. Efficient and accurate local approximations to coupled-electron pair approaches: An attempt to revive the pair natural orbital method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neese, Frank; Wennmohs, Frank; Hansen, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Coupled-electron pair approximations (CEPAs) and coupled-pair functionals (CPFs) have been popular in the 1970s and 1980s and have yielded excellent results for small molecules. Recently, interest in CEPA and CPF methods has been renewed. It has been shown that these methods lead to competitive thermochemical, kinetic, and structural predictions. They greatly surpass second order Møller-Plesset and popular density functional theory based approaches in accuracy and are intermediate in quality between CCSD and CCSD(T) in extended benchmark studies. In this work an efficient production level implementation of the closed shell CEPA and CPF methods is reported that can be applied to medium sized molecules in the range of 50-100 atoms and up to about 2000 basis functions. The internal space is spanned by localized internal orbitals. The external space is greatly compressed through the method of pair natural orbitals (PNOs) that was also introduced by the pioneers of the CEPA approaches. Our implementation also makes extended use of density fitting (or resolution of the identity) techniques in order to speed up the laborious integral transformations. The method is called local pair natural orbital CEPA (LPNO-CEPA) (LPNO-CPF). The implementation is centered around the concepts of electron pairs and matrix operations. Altogether three cutoff parameters are introduced that control the size of the significant pair list, the average number of PNOs per electron pair, and the number of contributing basis functions per PNO. With the conservatively chosen default values of these thresholds, the method recovers about 99.8% of the canonical correlation energy. This translates to absolute deviations from the canonical result of only a few kcal mol-1. Extended numerical test calculations demonstrate that LPNO-CEPA (LPNO-CPF) has essentially the same accuracy as parent CEPA (CPF) methods for thermochemistry, kinetics, weak interactions, and potential energy surfaces but is up to 500

  8. Dynamical Cooper pairing in nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems

    DOE PAGES

    Knap, Michael; Babadi, Mehrtash; Refael, Gil; ...

    2016-12-08

    In this paper, we analyze Cooper pairing instabilities in strongly driven electron-phonon systems. The light-induced nonequilibrium state of phonons results in a simultaneous increase of the superconducting coupling constant and the electron scattering. We demonstrate that the competition between these effects leads to an enhanced superconducting transition temperature in a broad range of parameters. Finally, our results may explain the observed transient enhancement of superconductivity in several classes of materials upon irradiation with high intensity pulses of terahertz light, and may pave new ways for engineering high-temperature light-induced superconducting states.

  9. Marcus Theory of Ion-Pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Santanu; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    We present a theory for ion pair dissociation and association, motivated by the concepts of the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Despite the extensive research on ion-pairing in many chemical and biological processes, much can be learned from the exploration of collective reaction coordinates. To this end, we explore two reaction coordinates, ion pair distance and coordination number. The study of the correlation between these reaction coordinates provides a new insight into the mechanism and kinetics of ion pair dissociation and association in water. The potential of mean force on these 2D-surfaces computed from molecular dynamics simulations of different monovalentmore » ion pairs reveal a Marcus-like mechanism for ion-pairing: Water molecules rearrange forming an activated coordination state prior to ion pair dissociation or association, followed by relaxation of the coordination state due to further water rearrangement. Like Marcus theory, we find the existence of an inverted region where the transition rates are slower with increasing exergonicity. This study provides a new perspective for the future investigations of ion-pairing and transport. SR, CJM, and GKS were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. MDB was supported by MS3 (Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales) Initiative, a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The research was performed using PNNL Institutional Computing. PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.« less

  10. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-06-27

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation.

  11. Terminal Area Procedures for Paired Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra; Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    Parallel runway operations have been found to increase capacity within the National Airspace but poor visibility conditions reduce the use of these operations. The NextGen and SESAR Programs have identified the capacity benefits from increased use of closely-space parallel runway. Previous research examined the concepts and procedures related to parallel runways however, there has been no investigation of the procedures associated with the strategic and tactical pairing of aircraft for these operations. This simulation study developed and examined the pilot and controller procedures and information requirements for creating aircraft pairs for parallel runway operations. The goal was to achieve aircraft pairing with a temporal separation of 15s (+/- 10s error) at a coupling point that was about 12 nmi from the runway threshold. Two variables were explored for the pilot participants: two levels of flight deck automation (current-day flight deck automation and auto speed control future automation) as well as two flight deck displays that assisted in pilot conformance monitoring. The controllers were also provided with automation to help create and maintain aircraft pairs. Results show the operations in this study were acceptable and safe. Subjective workload, when using the pairing procedures and tools, was generally low for both controllers and pilots, and situation awareness was typically moderate to high. Pilot workload was influenced by display type and automation condition. Further research on pairing and off-nominal conditions is required however, this investigation identified promising findings about the feasibility of closely-spaced parallel runway operations.

  12. Base pair probability estimates improve the prediction accuracy of RNA non-canonical base pairs

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of RNA tertiary structure from sequence is an important problem, but generating accurate structure models for even short sequences remains difficult. Predictions of RNA tertiary structure tend to be least accurate in loop regions, where non-canonical pairs are important for determining the details of structure. Non-canonical pairs can be predicted using a knowledge-based model of structure that scores nucleotide cyclic motifs, or NCMs. In this work, a partition function algorithm is introduced that allows the estimation of base pairing probabilities for both canonical and non-canonical interactions. Pairs that are predicted to be probable are more likely to be found in the true structure than pairs of lower probability. Pair probability estimates can be further improved by predicting the structure conserved across multiple homologous sequences using the TurboFold algorithm. These pairing probabilities, used in concert with prior knowledge of the canonical secondary structure, allow accurate inference of non-canonical pairs, an important step towards accurate prediction of the full tertiary structure. Software to predict non-canonical base pairs and pairing probabilities is now provided as part of the RNAstructure software package. PMID:29107980

  13. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. I. Recoupled pair bonds in carbon and sulfur monofluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, Thom H.; Xu, Lu T.; Takeshita, Tyler Y.

    2015-01-01

    The number of singly occupied orbitals in the ground-state atomic configuration of an element defines its nominal valence. For carbon and sulfur, with two singly occupied orbitals in their 3P ground states, the nominal valence is two. However, in both cases, it is possible to form more bonds than indicated by the nominal valence—up to four bonds for carbon and six bonds for sulfur. In carbon, the electrons in the 2s lone pair can participate in bonding, and in sulfur the electrons in both the 3p and 3s lone pairs can participate. Carbon 2s and sulfur 3p recoupled pair bonds are the basis for the tetravalence of carbon and sulfur, and 3s recoupled pair bonds enable sulfur to be hexavalent. In this paper, we report generalized valence bond as well as more accurate calculations on the a4Σ- states of CF and SF, which are archetypal examples of molecules that possess recoupled pair bonds. These calculations provide insights into the fundamental nature of recoupled pair bonds and illustrate the key differences between recoupled pair bonds formed with the 2s lone pair of carbon, as a representative of the early p-block elements, and recoupled pair bonds formed with the 3p lone pair of sulfur, as a representative of the late p-block elements.

  14. A counter-rotating vortex pair in inviscid fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibah, Ummu; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2017-12-01

    We study the motion of a counter-rotating vortex pair with the circulations ±Γ move in incompressible fluid. The assumption is made that the core is very thin, that is the core radius σ is much smaller than the vortex radius d such that ɛ = σ/d ≪ 1. With this condition, the method of matched asymptotic expansion is employed. The solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and the Biot-Savart law, regarding the inner and outer solutions respectively, are constructed in the form of a small parameter. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law near the vortex core provides with the matching condition for an asymptotic expansion for limiting the Navier-Stokes equations for large radius r. The general formula of an anti-parallel vortex pair is established. At leading order O(ɛ0), we apply the special case in inviscid fluid, the Rankine vortex, a circular vortex of uniform vorticity. Furthermore at leading order O(ɛ5) we show the traveling speed of a vortex pair.

  15. Neutrino signal from pair-instability supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Warren P.; Gilmer, Matthew S.; Fröhlich, Carla; Kneller, James P.

    2017-11-01

    A very massive star with a carbon-oxygen core in the range of 64M ⊙pair-instability supernova. Pair-instability supernovae are candidates for superluminous supernovae due to the prodigious amounts of radioactive elements they create. While the basic mechanism for the explosion is understood, how a star reaches a state is not, and thus observations of a nearby pair-instability supernova would allow us to test current models of stellar evolution at the extreme of stellar masses. Much will be sought within the electromagnetic radiation we detect from such a supernova but we should not forget that the neutrinos from a pair-instability supernova contain unique signatures of the event that unambiguously identify this type of explosion. We calculate the expected neutrino flux at Earth from two, one-dimensional pair-instability supernova simulations which bracket the mass range of stars which explode by this mechanism taking into account the full time and energy dependence of the neutrino emission and the flavor evolution through the outer layers of the star. We calculate the neutrino signals in five different detectors chosen to represent present or near future designs. We find the more massive progenitors explode as pair-instability supernova which can easily be detected in multiple different neutrino detectors at the "standard" supernova distance of 10 kpc producing several events in DUNE, JUNO, and Super-Kamiokande, while the lightest progenitors produce only a handful of events (if any) in the same detectors. The proposed Hyper-Kamiokande detector would detect neutrinos from a large pair-instability supernova as far as ˜50 kpc allowing it to reach the Megallanic Clouds and the several very high mass stars known to exist there.

  16. Impact of Muscarinic M3 Receptor Antagonism on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Antidepressant-Treated Patients: A Case-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Tran, Yen-Hao; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C M; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Groen, Henk; Wilffert, Bob

    2017-06-01

    M 3 muscarinic receptor antagonism has been associated with glucose intolerance and disturbance of insulin secretion. Our objective was to examine the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients using antidepressants with and without M 3 muscarinic receptor antagonism (AD_antaM 3 and AD_nonantaM 3 , respectively). We designed a case-control study using a pharmacy prescription database. We selected a cohort of patients who initiated antidepressant use between the ages of 20 and 40 years and who did not receive any anti-diabetic prescriptions at baseline. Cases were defined as those who developed T2DM [i.e., receiving oral anti-diabetic medication, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code A10B] during the follow-up period (1994-2014), and ten random controls were picked for each case from the cohort of patients who did not develop T2DM. A total of 530 cases with incident T2DM and 5300 controls were included. Compared with no use of antidepressants during the previous 2 years, recent (within the last 6 months) exposure to AD_antaM 3 was associated with a moderately increased risk of T2DM: adjusted odds ratio 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.18-2.02). In the stratified analyses, this association was dose dependent (>365 defined daily doses) and significant for patients who were in the younger age group (<45 years at the end of follow-up), were female and had no co-morbidity. On the other hand, recent exposure to AD_nonantaM 3 was not associated with a risk for T2DM in any of our analyses. Our results suggest that exposure to AD_antaM 3 was associated with the development of T2DM among antidepressant users.

  17. M3 cholinoreceptors alter electrical activity of rat left atrium via suppression of L-type Ca2+ current without affecting K+ conductance.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Tatiana S; Naumenko, Nikolay; Galenko-Yaroshevsky, Pavel A; Abramochkin, Denis V

    2017-05-01

    Electrophysiological effects produced by selective activation of M3 cholinoreceptors were studied in isolated left atrium preparations from rat using the standard sharp glass microelectrode technique. The stimulation of M3 receptors was obtained by application of muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (10 -5  M) in the presence of selective M2 antagonist methoctramine (10 -7  M). Stimulation of M3 receptors induced marked reduction of action potential duration by 14.4 ± 2.4% and 16.1 ± 2.5% of control duration measured at 50 and 90% of repolarization, respectively. This effect was completely abolished by selective M3 blocker 4-DAMP (10 -8  M). In isolated myocytes obtained from the rat left atrium, similar pharmacological stimulation of M3 receptors led to suppression of peak L-type calcium current by 13.9 ± 2.6% of control amplitude (measured at +10 mV), but failed to affect K + currents I to , I Kur , and I Kir . In the absence of M2 blocker methoctramine, pilocarpine (10 -5  M) produced stronger attenuation of I CaL and induced an increase in I Kir . This additive inward rectifier current could be abolished by highly selective blocker of K ir 3.1/3.4 channels tertiapin-Q (10 -6  M) and therefore was identified as I KACh . Thus, in the rat atrial myocardium activation of M3 receptors leads to shortening of action potentials via suppression of I CaL , but does not enhance the major potassium currents involved in repolarization. Joint stimulation of M2 and M3 receptors produces stronger action potential shortening due to M2-mediated activation of I KACh.

  18. Experimental extraction of an entangled photon pair from two identically decohered pairs.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-23

    Entanglement is considered to be one of the most important resources in quantum information processing schemes, including teleportation, dense coding and entanglement-based quantum key distribution. Because entanglement cannot be generated by classical communication between distant parties, distribution of entangled particles between them is necessary. During the distribution process, entanglement between the particles is degraded by the decoherence and dissipation processes that result from unavoidable coupling with the environment. Entanglement distillation and concentration schemes are therefore needed to extract pairs with a higher degree of entanglement from these less-entangled pairs; this is accomplished using local operations and classical communication. Here we report an experimental demonstration of extraction of a polarization-entangled photon pair from two decohered photon pairs. Two polarization-entangled photon pairs are generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and then distributed through a channel that induces identical phase fluctuations to both pairs; this ensures that no entanglement is available as long as each pair is manipulated individually. Then, through collective local operations and classical communication we extract from the two decohered pairs a photon pair that is observed to be polarization-entangled.

  19. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. I. Recoupled pair bonds in carbon and sulfur monofluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, Thom H., E-mail: thdjr@uw.edu; Xu, Lu T.; Takeshita, Tyler Y.

    2015-01-21

    The number of singly occupied orbitals in the ground-state atomic configuration of an element defines its nominal valence. For carbon and sulfur, with two singly occupied orbitals in their {sup 3}P ground states, the nominal valence is two. However, in both cases, it is possible to form more bonds than indicated by the nominal valence—up to four bonds for carbon and six bonds for sulfur. In carbon, the electrons in the 2s lone pair can participate in bonding, and in sulfur the electrons in both the 3p and 3s lone pairs can participate. Carbon 2s and sulfur 3p recoupled pairmore » bonds are the basis for the tetravalence of carbon and sulfur, and 3s recoupled pair bonds enable sulfur to be hexavalent. In this paper, we report generalized valence bond as well as more accurate calculations on the a{sup 4}Σ{sup −} states of CF and SF, which are archetypal examples of molecules that possess recoupled pair bonds. These calculations provide insights into the fundamental nature of recoupled pair bonds and illustrate the key differences between recoupled pair bonds formed with the 2s lone pair of carbon, as a representative of the early p-block elements, and recoupled pair bonds formed with the 3p lone pair of sulfur, as a representative of the late p-block elements.« less

  20. Parametric analysis for matched pair survival data.

    PubMed

    Manatunga, A K; Oakes, D

    1999-12-01

    Hougaard's (1986) bivariate Weibull distribution with positive stable frailties is applied to matched pairs survival data when either or both components of the pair may be censored and covariate vectors may be of arbitrary fixed length. When there is no censoring, we quantify the corresponding gain in Fisher information over a fixed-effects analysis. With the appropriate parameterization, the results take a simple algebraic form. An alternative marginal ("independence working model") approach to estimation is also considered. This method ignores the correlation between the two survival times in the derivation of the estimator, but provides a valid estimate of standard error. It is shown that when both the correlation between the two survival times is high, and the ratio of the within-pair variability to the between-pair variability of the covariates is high, the fixed-effects analysis captures most of the information about the regression coefficient but the independence working model does badly. When the correlation is low, and/or most of the variability of the covariates occurs between pairs, the reverse is true. The random effects model is applied to data on skin grafts, and on loss of visual acuity among diabetics. In conclusion some extensions of the methods are indicated and they are placed in a wider context of Generalized Estimation Equation methodology.

  1. Terminal Area Procedures for Paired Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Parallel Runway operations have been found to increase capacity within the National Airspace (NAS) however, poor visibility conditions reduce this capacity [1]. Much research has been conducted to examine the concepts and procedures related to parallel runways however, there has been no investigation of the procedures associated with the strategic and tactical pairing of aircraft for these operations. This study developed and examined the pilot and controller procedures and information requirements for creating aircraft pairs for parallel runway operations. The goal was to achieve aircraft pairing with a temporal separation of 15s(+/- 10s error) at a coupling point that is about 12 nmi from the runway threshold. Two variables were explored for the pilot participants: Two levels of flight deck automation (current-day flight deck automation, and a prototype future automation) as well as two flight deck displays that assisted in pilot conformance monitoring. The controllers were also provided with automation to help create and maintain aircraft pairs. Data showed that the operations in this study were found to be acceptable and safe. Workload when using the pairing procedures and tools was generally low for both controllers and pilots, and situation awareness (SA) was typically moderate to high. There were some differences based upon the display and automation conditions for the pilots. Future research should consider the refinement of the concepts and tools for pilot and controller displays and automation for parallel runway concepts.

  2. Pairing in a dry Fermi sea

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Thomas A.; Staar, Peter; Mishra, V.

    In the traditional Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the amplitude for the propagation of a pair of electrons with momentum k and -k has a log singularity as the temperature decreases. This so-called Cooper instability arises from the presence of an electron Fermi sea. It means that an attractive interaction, no matter how weak, will eventually lead to a pairing instability. However, in the pseudogap regime of the cuprate superconductors, where parts of the Fermi surface are destroyed, this log singularity is suppressed, raising the question of how pairing occurs in the absence of a Fermi sea. In this paper, wemore » report Hubbard model numerical results and the analysis of angular-resolved photoemission experiments on a cuprate superconductor. Finally, in contrast to the traditional theory, we find that in the pseudogap regime the pairing instability arises from an increase in the strength of the spin–fluctuation pairing interaction as the temperature decreases rather than the Cooper log instability.« less

  3. Pairing in a dry Fermi sea

    DOE PAGES

    Maier, Thomas A.; Staar, Peter; Mishra, V.; ...

    2016-06-17

    In the traditional Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the amplitude for the propagation of a pair of electrons with momentum k and -k has a log singularity as the temperature decreases. This so-called Cooper instability arises from the presence of an electron Fermi sea. It means that an attractive interaction, no matter how weak, will eventually lead to a pairing instability. However, in the pseudogap regime of the cuprate superconductors, where parts of the Fermi surface are destroyed, this log singularity is suppressed, raising the question of how pairing occurs in the absence of a Fermi sea. In this paper, wemore » report Hubbard model numerical results and the analysis of angular-resolved photoemission experiments on a cuprate superconductor. Finally, in contrast to the traditional theory, we find that in the pseudogap regime the pairing instability arises from an increase in the strength of the spin–fluctuation pairing interaction as the temperature decreases rather than the Cooper log instability.« less

  4. Radical-pair based avian magnetoreception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural experiments suggest that migratory birds possess a magnetic compass sensor able to detect the direction of the geomagnetic. One hypothesis for the basis of this remarkable sensory ability is that the coherent quantum spin dynamics of photoinduced radical pair reactions transduces directional magnetic information from the geomagnetic field into changes of reaction yields, possibly involving the photoreceptor cryptochrome in the birds retina. The suggested radical-pair based avian magnetoreception has attracted attention in the field of quantum biology as an example of a biological sensor which might exploit quantum coherences for its biological function. Investigations on such a spin-based sensor have focussed on uncovering the design features for the design of a biomimetic magnetic field sensor. We study the effects of slow fluctuations in the nuclear spin environment on the directional signal. We quantitatively evaluate the robustness of signals under fluctuations on a timescale longer than the lifetime of a radical pair, utilizing two models of radical pairs. Our results suggest design principles for building a radical-pair based compass sensor that is both robust and highly directional sensitive.

  5. An interatomic pair potential for cadmium selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabani, Eran

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a set of interatomic pair potentials for cadmium selenide based on a form similar to the Born-Mayer model. We show that this simple form of the pair potential, which has been used to describe the properties of alkali halides in the sixfold-coordinate structure, provides a realistic description of the properties of cadmium selenide in all three crystal structures: wurtzite, zinc blende, and rocksalt. Using the new pair potential we have studied the pressure-induced phase transition from the fourfold-coordinate wurtzite structure to the sixfold-coordinate rocksalt structure. The pressure transformation and the equation of state are in good agreement with experimental observations. Using the dispersion term in our pair potential we have also calculated the Hamaker constant for cadmium selenide within the framework of the original microscopic approach due to Hamaker. The results indicate that for ionic materials many-body terms that are included in the Lifshitz theory are well captured by the simple pair potential.

  6. New epitopes and function of anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, H; Matsumoto, I; Wakamatsu, E; Nakamura, Y; Iizuka, M; Hayashi, T; Goto, D; Ito, S; Sumida, T

    2010-01-01

    M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays a crucial role in the secretion of saliva from salivary glands. It is reported that some patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) carried inhibitory autoantibodies against M3R. The purpose of this study is to clarify the epitopes and function of anti-M3R antibodies in SS. We synthesized peptides encoding the extracellular domains of human-M3R including the N-terminal region and the first, second and third extracellular loops. Antibodies against these regions were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from 42 SS and 42 healthy controls. For functional analysis, human salivary gland (HSG) cells were preincubated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) separated from sera of anti-M3R antibody-positive SS, -negative SS and controls for 12 h. After loading with Fluo-3, HSG cells were stimulated with cevimeline hydrochloride, and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations [(Ca2+)i] were measured. Antibodies to the N-terminal, first, second and third loops were detected in 42·9% (18 of 42), 47·6% (20 of 42), 54·8% (23 of 42) and 45·2% (19 of 42) of SS, while in 4·8% (two of 42), 7·1% (three of 42), 2·4% (one of 42) and 2·4% (one of 42) of controls, respectively. Antibodies to the second loop positive SS-IgG inhibited the increase of (Ca2+)i induced by cevimeline hydrochloride. Antibodies to the N-terminal positive SS-IgG and antibodies to the first loop positive SS-IgG enhanced it, while antibodies to the third loop positive SS-IgG showed no effect on (Ca2+)i as well as anti-M3R antibody-negative SS-IgG. Our results indicated the presence of several B cell epitopes on M3R in SS. The influence of anti-M3R antibodies on salivary secretion might differ based on these epitopes. PMID:20731676

  7. New epitopes and function of anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, H; Matsumoto, I; Wakamatsu, E; Nakamura, Y; Iizuka, M; Hayashi, T; Goto, D; Ito, S; Sumida, T

    2010-10-01

    M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays a crucial role in the secretion of saliva from salivary glands. It is reported that some patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) carried inhibitory autoantibodies against M3R. The purpose of this study is to clarify the epitopes and function of anti-M3R antibodies in SS. We synthesized peptides encoding the extracellular domains of human-M3R including the N-terminal region and the first, second and third extracellular loops. Antibodies against these regions were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from 42 SS and 42 healthy controls. For functional analysis, human salivary gland (HSG) cells were preincubated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) separated from sera of anti-M3R antibody-positive SS, -negative SS and controls for 12 h. After loading with Fluo-3, HSG cells were stimulated with cevimeline hydrochloride, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [(Ca(2+) )i] were measured. Antibodies to the N-terminal, first, second and third loops were detected in 42·9% (18 of 42), 47·6% (20 of 42), 54·8% (23 of 42) and 45·2% (19 of 42) of SS, while in 4·8% (two of 42), 7·1% (three of 42), 2·4% (one of 42) and 2·4% (one of 42) of controls, respectively. Antibodies to the second loop positive SS-IgG inhibited the increase of (Ca(2+) )i induced by cevimeline hydrochloride. Antibodies to the N-terminal positive SS-IgG and antibodies to the first loop positive SS-IgG enhanced it, while antibodies to the third loop positive SS-IgG showed no effect on (Ca(2+) )i as well as anti-M3R antibody-negative SS-IgG. Our results indicated the presence of several B cell epitopes on M3R in SS. The influence of anti-M3R antibodies on salivary secretion might differ based on these epitopes. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

  8. A Model for the Vortex Pair Associated with a Jet in a Cross Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L.

    1975-01-01

    A model is presented for the contrarotating vortex pair that is formed by a round, turbulent, subsonic jet directed normally into a uniform, subsonic cross flow. The model consists of a set of algebraic equations that describe the properties of the vortex pair as a function of their location in the jet plume. The parameters of the model are physical characteristics of the vortices such as the vortex strength, spacing, and core size. These parameters are determined by velocity measurements at selective points in the jet plume.

  9. Antipodal hotspot pairs on the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The results of statistical analyses performed on three published hotspot distributions suggest that significantly more hotspots occur as nearly antipodal pairs than is anticipated from a random distribution, or from their association with geoid highs and divergent plate margins. The observed number of antipodal hotspot pairs depends on the maximum allowable deviation from exact antipodality. At a maximum deviation of not greater than 700 km, 26 to 37 percent of hotspots form antipodal pairs in the published lists examined here, significantly more than would be expected from the general hotspot distribution. Two possible mechanisms that might create such a distribution include: (1) symmetry in the generation of mantle plumes, and (2) melting related to antipodal focusing of seismic energy from large-body impacts.

  10. Thermodynamics of pairing in mesoscopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sumaryada, Tony; Volya, Alexander

    Using numerical and analytical methods implemented for different models, we conduct a systematic study of the thermodynamic properties of pairing correlations in mesoscopic nuclear systems. Various quantities are calculated and analyzed using the exact solution of pairing. An in-depth comparison of canonical, grand canonical, and microcanonical ensembles is conducted. The nature of the pairing phase transition in a small system is of a particular interest. We discuss the onset of discontinuity in the thermodynamic variables, fluctuations, and evolution of zeros of the canonical and grand canonical partition functions in the complex plane. The behavior of the invariant correlational entropy ismore » also studied in the transitional region of interest. The change in the character of the phase transition due to the presence of a magnetic field is discussed along with studies of superconducting thermodynamics.« less

  11. Hard Photodisintegration of a Proton Pair

    DOE PAGES

    Pomerantz, Ishay; Bubis, Nathaniel; Allada, Kalyan; ...

    2010-01-08

    We present the first study of high energy photodisintegration of proton-pairs through the gamma + 3He -> p+p+n channel. Photon energies from 0.8 to 4.7 GeV were used in kinematics corresponding to a proton pair with high relative momentum and a neutron nearly at rest. An s^{-11} scaling of the cross section was observed, as predicted by the constituent counting rule. The onset of the scaling is at a higher energy and the cross section is significantly lower then for pn pair photodisintegration. For photon energies below the scaling region, the scaled cross section was found to present a strongmore » energy-dependent structure not observed in deuteron photodisintegration.« less

  12. Facial expressions and pair bonds in hylobatids.

    PubMed

    Florkiewicz, Brittany; Skollar, Gabriella; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2018-06-06

    Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony

  13. Introducing Hurst exponent in pair trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Requena, J. P.; Trinidad-Segovia, J. E.; Sánchez-Granero, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we introduce a new methodology for pair trading. This new method is based on the calculation of the Hurst exponent of a pair. Our approach is inspired by the classical concepts of co-integration and mean reversion but joined under a unique strategy. We will show how Hurst approach presents better results than classical Distance Method and Correlation strategies in different scenarios. Results obtained prove that this new methodology is consistent and suitable by reducing the drawdown of trading over the classical ones getting as a result a better performance.

  14. Quasiparticle pair creation in unstable superflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Veit

    1995-06-01

    Landau's instability mechanism in superflow is considered with special attention given to the role of nonuniformity in the flow. Linear stability analysis applied to the first in a series of approximate microscopic equations for the superfluid reveals a growth rate for Landau's instability proportional to the shear in the flow. In a quasiparticle description, the shear acts as a source of particle pair creation. The observation of roton-pair creation in experiments with electron bubbles in helium is offered as evidence of this phenomenon.

  15. Ponderomotive effects in multiphoton pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlfürst, Christian; Alkofer, Reinhard

    2018-02-01

    The Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism is employed to investigate electron-positron pair production in cylindrically symmetric but otherwise spatially inhomogeneous, oscillating electric fields. The oscillation frequencies are hereby tuned to obtain multiphoton pair production in the nonperturbative threshold regime. An effective mass, as well as a trajectory-based semiclassical analysis, is introduced in order to interpret the numerical results for the distribution functions as well as for the particle yields and spectra. The results, including the asymptotic particle spectra, display clear signatures of ponderomotive forces.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of a Streptococcus pyogenes emm3 Strain M3-b isolated from a Japanese Patient with Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kohei; Watanabe, Shinya; Kirikae, Teruo; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic typing of Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is frequently based on the genotype of the emm gene, which encodes M/Emm protein. In this study, the complete genome sequence of GAS emm3 strain M3-b, isolated from a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), was determined. This strain exhibited 99% identity with other complete genome sequences of emm3 strains MGAS315, SSI-1, and STAB902. The complete genomes of five additional strains isolated from Japanese patients with and without STSS were also sequences. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis showed that strains M3-b, M3-e, and SSI-1, all which were isolated from STSS patients, were relatively close.

  17. A critical role for beta cell M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in regulating insulin release and blood glucose homeostasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Dinesh; Han, Sung-Jun; Hamdan, Fadi F; Jeon, Jongrye; Li, Bo; Li, Jian Hua; Cui, Yinghong; Mears, David; Lu, Huiyan; Deng, Chuxia; Heard, Thomas; Wess, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    One of the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes is that pancreatic beta cells fail to release sufficient amounts of insulin in the presence of elevated blood glucose levels. Insulin secretion is modulated by many hormones and neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, the major neurotransmitter of the peripheral parasympathetic nervous system. The physiological role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by pancreatic beta cells remains unclear at present. Here, we demonstrate that mutant mice selectively lacking the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype in pancreatic beta cells display impaired glucose tolerance and greatly reduced insulin release. In contrast, transgenic mice selectively overexpressing M3 receptors in pancreatic beta cells show a profound increase in glucose tolerance and insulin release. Moreover, these mutant mice are resistant to diet-induced glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. These findings indicate that beta cell M3 muscarinic receptors play a key role in maintaining proper insulin release and glucose homeostasis.

  18. Highly specific detection of muscarinic M3 receptor, G protein interaction and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor using Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).

    PubMed

    Berndt-Paetz, Mandy; Herbst, Luise; Weimann, Annett; Gonsior, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2018-05-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e.g. altered intracellular receptor trafficking, could explain those differences. In addition, alternative G protein (GP) coupling could add to the pathophysiology via modulation of muscarinic signaling. In our proof-of-principle study, we addressed these questions in situ. We established PLA in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy (CLSM) and 3D object reconstruction for highly specific detection and analysis of muscarinic 3 receptors (M3), G protein (GP) coupling and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor samples. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed bladder tissue (FFPE) of BPS/IC patients receiving transurethral biopsy were examined by Cy3-PLA for M3 expression, coupling of M3 to GPs (G αq/11 , G αs , G αi ) and interaction of M3 with endocytic regulator proteins. Membranes were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor ® 488, nuclei were stained with DAPI. Object density and co-localization were analyzed in 3D-reconstruction of high resolution confocal z-stacks. Confocal image stack processing resulted in well demarcated objects. Calculated receptor densities correlated significantly with existing confocal expression data, while significantly improved specificity of M3 detection by PLA was verified using bladder tissue samples from transgenic mice. 50-60% of the M3 receptor complexes were plasma membrane associated in human bladder detrusor. Application of PLA for M3 and GPs allowed visualization of M3-GP interactions and revealed individual GP

  19. Research on sub-surface damage and its stress deformation in the process of large aperture and high diameter-to-thickness ratio TMT M3MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-xiang; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Hai-fei; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Xue-jun

    2016-10-01

    Large flat mirrors play important roles in large aperture telescopes. However, they also introduce unpredictable problems. The surface errors created during manufacturing, testing, and supporting are all combined during measurement, thus making understanding difficult for diagnosis and treatment. Examining a high diameter-to-thickness ratio flat mirror, TMT M3MP, and its unexpected deformation during processing, we proposed a strain model of subsurface damage to explain the observed phenomenon. We designed a set of experiment, and checked the validity of our diagnosis. On that basis, we theoretical predicted the trend of this strain and its scale effect on Zerodur®, and checked the validity on another piece experimentally. This work guided the grinding-polishing process of M3MP, and will be used as reference for M3M processing as well.

  20. Formation of ion-pairs in aqueous solutions of diclofenac salts.

    PubMed

    Fini, A; Fazio, G; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M; Cavallari, C; Passerini, N; Rodriguez, L

    1999-10-05

    In this work we studied the ability of the diclofenac anion to form ion-pairs in aqueous solution in the presence of organic and inorganic cations: ion-pairs have a polarity and hydrophobicity more suitable to the partition than each ion considered separately and can be extracted by a lipid phase. The cations considered were those of the organic bases diethylamine, diethanolamine, pyrrolidine, N-(2-hydroxyethyl) pyrrolidine and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperidine; the inorganic cations studied were Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+). Related to each cation we determined the equilibrium constant (K(XD)) for the ion-pair formation with the diclofenac anion in aqueous solution and the water/n-octanol partition coefficient (P(XD)) for each type of ion-pair formed. Among the alkali metal cations, only Li(+) shows some interaction with the diclofenac anion, in agreement with its physiological behaviour of increasing clearance during the administration of diclofenac. The influence of the ionic radius and desolvation enthalpy of the alkali metal cations on the ion-pair formation and partition was briefly discussed. Organic cations promote the formation of ion-pairs with the diclofenac anion better than the inorganic ones, and improve the partition of the ion-pair according to their hydrophobicity. The values of the equilibrium parameters for the formation and partition of ion-pairs are not high enough to allow the direct detection of their presence in the aqueous solution. Their formation can be appreciated in the presence of a lipid phase that continuously extracts the ion-pair. Extraction constants (E(XD)=P(XD) times K(XD)) increase passing from inorga to organic cations. This study could help to clarify the mechanism of the percutaneous absorption of diclofenac in the form of a salt, a route where the formation of ion-pairs appears to play an important role.

  1. Paired Learning: Tutoring by Non-Teachers. Incorporating "The Paired Reading Bulletin" No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paired Reading Bulletin, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The eight papers constituting the Proceedings of the fourth National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with seven papers constituting the Supplementary Proceedings of the Peer Tutoring Conference, and nine feature articles, as follows: (1) "Whole-School Policy on Parental…

  2. Comparative study of the requantization of the time-dependent mean field for the dynamics of nuclear pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Fang; Nakatsukasa, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    To describe quantal collective phenomena, it is useful to requantize the time-dependent mean-field dynamics. We study the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory for the two-level pairing Hamiltonian, and compare results of different quantization methods. The one constructing microscopic wave functions, using the TDHFB trajectories fulfilling the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller quantization condition, turns out to be the most accurate. The method is based on the stationary-phase approximation to the path integral. We also examine the performance of the collective model which assumes that the pairing gap parameter is the collective coordinate. The applicability of the collective model is limited for the nuclear pairing with a small number of single-particle levels, because the pairing gap parameter represents only a half of the pairing collective space.

  3. Intermittent pair-housing, pair relationship qualities, and HPA activity in adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Cassidy, Lauren C; Vandeleest, Jessica; Semple, Stuart; Barnard, Allison; Chun, Katie; Winkler, Sasha; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-05-02

    Laboratory rhesus macaques are often housed in pairs and may be temporarily or permanently separated for research, health, or management reasons. While both long-term social separations and introductions can stimulate a stress response that impacts inflammation and immune function, the effects of short-term overnight separations and whether qualities of the pair relationship mediate these effects are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of overnight separations on the urinary cortisol concentration of 20 differentially paired adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center. These females were initially kept in either continuous (no overnight separation) or intermittent (with overnight separation) pair-housing and then switched to the alternate pair-housing condition part way through the study. Each study subject was observed for 5 weeks, during which we collected measures of affiliative, aggressive, anxious, abnormal, and activity-state behaviors in both pair-housing conditions. Additionally, up to three urine samples were collected from each subject per week and assayed for urinary free cortisol and creatinine. Lastly, the behavioral observer scored each pair on four relationship quality attributes ("Anxious," "Tense," "Well-meshed," and "Friendly") using a seven-point scale. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and an information theoretic approach to determine the best model set. An interaction between the intermittent pairing condition and tense pair adjective rating was in the top three models of the best model set. Dominance and rates of affiliation were also important for explaining urinary cortisol variation. Our results suggest that to prevent significant changes in HPA-axis activation in rhesus macaque females, which could have unintended effects on research outcomes, pairs with "Tense" relationships and overnight separations preventing tactile contact

  4. Sample size considerations for paired experimental design with incomplete observations of continuous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Xu, Xiaohan; Ahn, Chul

    2017-01-01

    Paired experimental design is widely used in clinical and health behavioral studies, where each study unit contributes a pair of observations. Investigators often encounter incomplete observations of paired outcomes in the data collected. Some study units contribute complete pairs of observations, while the others contribute either pre- or post-intervention observations. Statistical inference for paired experimental design with incomplete observations of continuous outcomes has been extensively studied in literature. However, sample size method for such study design is sparsely available. We derive a closed-form sample size formula based on the generalized estimating equation approach by treating the incomplete observations as missing data in a linear model. The proposed method properly accounts for the impact of mixed structure of observed data: a combination of paired and unpaired outcomes. The sample size formula is flexible to accommodate different missing patterns, magnitude of missingness, and correlation parameter values. We demonstrate that under complete observations, the proposed generalized estimating equation sample size estimate is the same as that based on the paired t-test. In the presence of missing data, the proposed method would lead to a more accurate sample size estimate comparing with the crude adjustment. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the finite-sample performance of the generalized estimating equation sample size formula. A real application example is presented for illustration.

  5. A chaotic micromixer using obstruction-pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang Min; Duck Seo, Kyoung; Kwon, Tai Hun

    2010-01-01

    A micromixer is one of the most important components for a chemical and/or diagnostic analysis in microfluidic devices such as a micro-total-analysis-system and a lab-on-a-chip. In this paper, a novel chaotic micromixer is developed in a simple design by introducing obstruction-pairs on the bottom of a microchannel. An obstruction-pair, which is composed of two hexahedron blocks arranged in an asymmetric manner, can induce a rotational flow along the down-channel direction due to the anisotropy of flow resistance. By utilizing this characteristic of the obstruction-pair, four mixing units are designed in such a way that three obstruction-pairs induce three rotational flows which result in a down-welling and a hyperbolic point in the channel cross-section. There can be a variety of micromixer geometries by arranging the mixing units in various sequences along the microchannel, and their mixing performances will differ from each other due to different flow characteristics. In this regard, numerical investigations are carried out to predict and characterize the mixing performances of various micromixers. Also experimental verifications are carried out by a flow visualization technique using phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide solutions in a polydimethylsiloxane-based micromixer.

  6. Klein tunneling phenomenon with pair creation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Fu, L. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Klein tunneling phenomenon with electron-positron pair creation process. Pairs can be created from the vacuum by a supercritical single-well potential (for electrons). In the time region, the time-dependent growth pattern of the created pairs can be characterized by four distinct regimes which can be considered as four different statuses of the single well. We find that if positrons penetrate the single well by Klein tunneling in different statuses, the total number of the tunneling positrons will be different. If Klein tunneling begins at the initial stage of the first status i.e. when the sing well is empty, the tunneling process and the total number of tunneling positrons are similar to the traditional Klein tunneling case without considering the pair creation process. As the tunneling begins later, the total tunneling positron number increases. The number will finally settle to an asymptotic value when the tunneling begins later than the settling-down time t s of the single well which has been defined in this paper.

  7. Pairing the Adult Learner and Boutique Wineries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke, Laura; Heath-Simpson, Delta

    2013-01-01

    This study explored connections between adult learners and their experiences in the context of small boutique wineries operating in the start-up phase of the organizational life cycle. The research objective was to gain insight regarding the pairing of adult learners with the entering of a specialty industry. Fourteen individuals from four…

  8. Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

  9. Pair aligning improved motility of Quincke rollers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shi Qing; Zhang, Bing Yue; Zhang, Zhi Chao; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Tian Hui

    2018-06-06

    Density-dependent speed is studied in a two-dimensional active colloid in which the colloidal particles are propelled by an external electric field via a Quincke rotation. Above the critcal electric field, dense dynamic clusters form spotaneously, in which the particles are highly aligned in velocity and move much faster than isolated units. Detailed observations on pair collision reveal that the alignment of velocity is induced by the long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions and the improvement of speed in the clusters arises from pair aligning in which two particles are closely paired and rotate synchronically. In the aligning state, the short-range in-plane dipole-dipole attraction enhances the rotation torque and gives rises to a larger rolling speed. The pair aligning becomes difficult and unstable at high electric field where the normal dipole-dipole repulsion becomes dominant. As a consequence, the dependence of speed on density becomes weak increasingly upon the increase of the electric field. This result offers an interpretation for the discrepancy between our and previous observations on Quincke rollers.

  10. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  11. A Novel Approach for Collaborative Pair Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Sanjay; Kathuria, Vanshi

    2010-01-01

    The majority of an engineer's time in the software industry is spent working with other programmers. Agile methods of software development like eXtreme Programming strongly rely upon practices like daily meetings and pair programming. Hence, the need to learn the skill of working collaboratively is of primary importance for software developers.…

  12. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  13. Asteroid clusters similar to asteroid pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, Petr; Vokrouhlicky, David; Fatka, Petr; Kusnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2016-10-01

    We study five small, tight and young clusters of asteroids. They are placed around following largest (primary) bodies: (11842) Kap'bos, (14627) Emilkowalski, (16598) 1992 YC2, (21509) Lucascavin and (39991) 1998 HR37. Each cluster has 2-4 secondaries that are tightly clustered around the primary body, with distance in the 5-dimensional space of mean orbital elements mostly within 10 m/s, and always < 23 m/s. Backward orbital integrations indicate that they formed between 105 and 106 yr ago. In the P1-q space, where P1 is the primary's spin period and q = Σ Mj/M1 is the total secondary-to-primary mass ratio, the clusters lie in the same range as asteroid pairs formed by rotational fission. We have extended the model of a proto-system separation after rotational fission by Pravec et al. (2010) for application to systems with more than one secondary and found a perfect match for the five tight clusters. We find these clusters to be similar to asteroid pairs and we suggest that they are "extended pairs", having 2-4 escaped secondaries rather than just one secondary as in the case of an asteroid pair. We compare them to six young mini-families (1270) Datura, (2384) Schulhof, (3152) Jones, (6825) Irvine, (10321) Rampo and (20674) 1999 VT1. These mini-families have similar ages, but they have a higher number of members and/or they show a significantly larger spread in the mean orbital elements (dmean on an order of tens m/s) than the five tight clusters. In the P1-q space, all but one of the mini-families lie in the same range as asteroid pairs and the tight clusters; the exception is the mini-family of (3152) Jones which appears to be a collisional family. A possibility that the other five mini-families were also formed by rotational fission as we suggest for the tight clusters ("extended asteroid pairs") is being explored.Reference:Pravec, P., et al. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission. Nature 466, 1085-1088.

  14. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Li Manni, Giovanni; Carlson, Rebecca K; Luo, Sijie; Ma, Dongxia; Olsen, Jeppe; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2014-09-09

    We present a new theoretical framework, called Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory (MC-PDFT), which combines multiconfigurational wave functions with a generalization of density functional theory (DFT). A multiconfigurational self-consistent-field (MCSCF) wave function with correct spin and space symmetry is used to compute the total electronic density, its gradient, the on-top pair density, and the kinetic and Coulomb contributions to the total electronic energy. We then use a functional of the total density, its gradient, and the on-top pair density to calculate the remaining part of the energy, which we call the on-top-density-functional energy in contrast to the exchange-correlation energy of Kohn-Sham DFT. Because the on-top pair density is an element of the two-particle density matrix, this goes beyond the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem that refers only to the one-particle density. To illustrate the theory, we obtain first approximations to the required new type of density functionals by translating conventional density functionals of the spin densities using a simple prescription, and we perform post-SCF density functional calculations using the total density, density gradient, and on-top pair density from the MCSCF calculations. Double counting of dynamic correlation or exchange does not occur because the MCSCF energy is not used. The theory is illustrated by applications to the bond energies and potential energy curves of H2, N2, F2, CaO, Cr2, and NiCl and the electronic excitation energies of Be, C, N, N(+), O, O(+), Sc(+), Mn, Co, Mo, Ru, N2, HCHO, C4H6, c-C5H6, and pyrazine. The method presented has a computational cost and scaling similar to MCSCF, but a quantitative accuracy, even with the present first approximations to the new types of density functionals, that is comparable to much more expensive multireference perturbation theory methods.

  15. 77 FR 76598 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006-2010 BMW M3 Passenger Cars Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT... passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle... 2006-2010 BMW M3 passenger cars) and they are capable of being readily altered to conform to the...

  16. Overexpression of AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in Arabidopsis and effects key flowering-related genes in poplar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Ye, Meixia; Su, Xiaoxing; Liao, Weihua; Ma, Huandi; Gao, Kai; Lei, Bingqi; An, Xinmin

    2015-08-01

    APETALA1 plays a crucial role in the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase and in floral development. In this study, to determine the effect of AP1 expression on flowering time and floral organ development, transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar overexpressing of AtAP1M3 (Arabidopsis AP1 mutant by dominant negative mutation) were generated. Transgenic Arabidopsis with e35Spro::AtAP1M3 displayed phenotypes with delayed-flowering compared to wild-type and flowers with abnormal sepals, petals and stamens. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited reduced growth vigor compared to the wild-type plants. Ectopic expression of AtAP1M3 in poplar resulted in up- or down-regulation of some endogenous key flowering-related genes, including floral meristems identity gene LFY, B-class floral organ identity genes AP3 and PI, flowering pathway integrator FT1 and flower repressors TFL1 and SVP. These results suggest that AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in plants.

  17. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. M3D (Media 3D): a new programming language for web-based virtual reality in E-Learning and Edutainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakaveh, Sepideh; Skaley, Detlef; Laine, Patricia; Haeger, Ralf; Maad, Soha

    2003-01-01

    Today, interactive multimedia educational systems are well established, as they prove useful instruments to enhance one's learning capabilities. Hitherto, the main difficulty with almost all E-Learning systems was latent in the rich media implementation techniques. This meant that each and every system should be created individually as reapplying the media, be it only a part, or the whole content was not directly possible, as everything must be applied mechanically i.e. by hand. Consequently making E-learning systems exceedingly expensive to generate, both in time and money terms. Media-3D or M3D is a new platform independent programming language, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute Media Communication to enable visualisation and simulation of E-Learning multimedia content. M3D is an XML-based language, which is capable of distinguishing between the3D models from that of the 3D scenes, as well as handling provisions for animations, within the programme. Here we give a technical account of M3D programming language and briefly describe two specific application scenarios where M3D is applied to create virtual reality E-Learning content for training of technical personnel.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure study on high temperature superconductors: HgBa(2)Casb(m-1)Cu(m)O(2m+2+delta) (m = 1 to 6) and (Cu,C)Ba(2)Ca(m-1)Cu(m)O(2m+3) (m = 3 and 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong

    1998-12-01

    Over the last decade, numerous extensive as well as intensive experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out since the great discovery of high temperature superconductivity (HTSy) in cuprate superconductors Lasb{2-x}Basb{x}CuOsb4,\\ YBasb2Cusb2Osb{7-delta} and other compounds. Although there is still no widely accepted microscopic theory on the mechanism responsible for such high superconducting transition temperatures (Tsb{c}), systematic trends of the evolution of HTSy with various parameters have been studied and analyzed. One of them is the universal inverse parabolic correlation between the Tsb{c} and the number of carriers per CuOsb2 plane (n) in various cuprate superconductors. The high pressure technique provides a clean way to change the distance between atoms without causing the side effects typical of chemical doping, and thus has long been used to test and provide guidance for theoretical models, as well as give hints about the synthesis of compounds with higher Tsb{c}. Therefore, we have done a systematic study on the pressure effect on Tsb{c} of two homologous superconducting compound series: HgBasb2Casb{m-1}Cusb{m}Osb{2m+2+delta} (Hg-12(m-1)m) (m = 1 to 6) and (Cu,C)Basb2Casb{m-1}Cusb{m}Osb{2m+3+delta} ((Cu,C)-12(m-1)m) (m = 3 and 4). Several factors which influence the hydrostatic pressure effect on Tsb{c} have been systematically analyzed. They include the n, the type of charge reservoir layer, and the number of CuOsb2 layers per unit cell (m). We came to several conclusion: (1) The inverse parabolic Tsb{c}(n) correlation and its universal parameters are valid only under conditions more restrictive than originally expected, and the rigid band model may not hold for some cuprate superconductors under pressure. (2) The pressure coefficient (dTsb{c}/dP) may have a different dependence on n. The compounds with Cu-O chains in their charge reservoir usually show a large linear variation of dTsb{c}/dP with n, while no significant

  20. The Minimum M3-M4 Loop Length of Neurotransmitter-activated Pentameric Receptors Is Critical for the Structural Integrity of Cytoplasmic Portals*

    PubMed Central

    Baptista-Hon, Daniel T.; Deeb, Tarek Z.; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Peters, John A.; Hales, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    The 5-HT3A receptor homology model, based on the partial structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata, reveals an asymmetric ion channel with five portals framed by adjacent helical amphipathic (HA) stretches within the 114-residue loop between the M3 and M4 membrane-spanning domains. The positive charge of Arg-436, located within the HA stretch, is a rate-limiting determinant of single channel conductance (γ). Further analysis reveals that positive charge and volume of residue 436 are determinants of 5-HT3A receptor inward rectification, exposing an additional role for portals. A structurally unresolved stretch of 85 residues constitutes the bulk of the M3-M4 loop, leaving a >45-Å gap in the model between M3 and the HA stretch. There are no additional structural data for this loop, which is vestigial in bacterial pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and was largely removed for crystallization of the Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-activated pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. We created 5-HT3A subunit loop truncation mutants, in which sequences framing the putative portals were retained, to determine the minimum number of residues required to maintain their functional integrity. Truncation to between 90 and 75 amino acids produced 5-HT3A receptors with unaltered rectification. Truncation to 70 residues abolished rectification and increased γ. These findings reveal a critical M3-M4 loop length required for functions attributable to cytoplasmic portals. Examination of all 44 subunits of the human neurotransmitter-activated Cys-loop receptors reveals that, despite considerable variability in their sequences and lengths, all M3-M4 loops exceed 70 residues, suggesting a fundamental requirement for portal integrity. PMID:23740249

  1. Metal-mediated DNA base pairing: alternatives to hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2012-12-18

    With its capacity to store and transfer the genetic information within a sequence of monomers, DNA forms its central role in chemical evolution through replication and amplification. This elegant behavior is largely based on highly specific molecular recognition between nucleobases through the specific hydrogen bonds in the Watson-Crick base pairing system. While the native base pairs have been amazingly sophisticated through the long history of evolution, synthetic chemists have devoted considerable efforts to create alternative base pairing systems in recent decades. Most of these new systems were designed based on the shape complementarity of the pairs or the rearrangement of hydrogen-bonding patterns. We wondered whether metal coordination could serve as an alternative driving force for DNA base pairing and why hydrogen bonding was selected on Earth in the course of molecular evolution. Therefore, we envisioned an alternative design strategy: we replaced hydrogen bonding with another important scheme in biological systems, metal-coordination bonding. In this Account, we provide an overview of the chemistry of metal-mediated base pairing including basic concepts, molecular design, characteristic structures and properties, and possible applications of DNA-based molecular systems. We describe several examples of artificial metal-mediated base pairs, such as Cu(2+)-mediated hydroxypyridone base pair, H-Cu(2+)-H (where H denotes a hydroxypyridone-bearing nucleoside), developed by us and other researchers. To design the metallo-base pairs we carefully chose appropriate combinations of ligand-bearing nucleosides and metal ions. As expected from their stronger bonding through metal coordination, DNA duplexes possessing metallo-base pairs exhibited higher thermal stability than natural hydrogen-bonded DNAs. Furthermore, we could also use metal-mediated base pairs to construct or induce other high-order structures. These features could lead to metal-responsive functional

  2. ac Josephson effect and resonant Cooper pair tunneling emission of a single Cooper pair transistor.

    PubMed

    Billangeon, P-M; Pierre, F; Bouchiat, H; Deblock, R

    2007-05-25

    We measure the high-frequency emission of a single Cooper pair transistor (SCPT) in the regime where transport is only due to tunneling of Cooper pairs. This is achieved by coupling on chip the SCPT to a superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction and by measuring the photon assisted tunneling current of quasiparticles across the junction. This technique allows a direct detection of the ac Josephson effect of the SCPT and provides evidence of Landau-Zener transitions for proper gate voltage. The emission in the regime of resonant Cooper pair tunneling is also investigated. It is interpreted in terms of transitions between charge states coupled by the Josephson effect.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the variable domain of Scl2.3, a streptococcal collagen-like protein from invasive M3-type Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Flavia; Bachert, Beth; Romano, Maria; Lukomski, Slawomir; Berisio, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcal collagen-like proteins (Scls) are widely expressed by the well recognized human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. These surface proteins contain a signature central collagen-like region and an amino-terminal globular domain, termed the variable domain, which is protruded away from the cell surface by the collagen-like domain. Despite their recognized importance in bacterial pathogenicity, no structural information is presently available on proteins of the Scl class. The variable domain of Scl2 from invasive M3-type S. pyogenes has successfully been crystallized using vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group H32, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.23, b = 44.23, c = 227.83 Å. The crystal structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using anomalous signal from a europium chloride derivative.|

  4. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    DOE PAGES

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managedmore » loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum), 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.« less

  5. Transient radical pairs studied by time-resolved EPR.

    PubMed

    Bittl, Robert; Weber, Stefan

    2005-02-25

    Photogenerated short-lived radical pairs (RP) are common in biological photoprocesses such as photosynthesis and enzymatic DNA repair. They can be favorably probed by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods with adequate time resolution. Two EPR techniques have proven to be particularly useful to extract information on the working states of photoinduced biological processes that is only difficult or sometimes even impossible to obtain by other types of spectroscopy. Firstly, transient EPR yields crucial information on the chemical nature and the geometry of the individual RP halves in a doublet-spin pair generated by a short laser pulse. This time-resolved method is applicable in all magnetic field/microwave frequency regimes that are used for continuous-wave EPR, and is nowadays routinely utilized with a time resolution reaching about 10 ns. Secondly, a pulsed EPR method named out-of-phase electron spin echo envelope modulation (OOP-ESEEM) is increasingly becoming popular. By this pulsed technique, the mutual spin-spin interaction between the RP halves in a doublet-spin pair manifests itself as an echo modulation detected as a function of the microwave-pulse spacing of a two-pulse echo sequence subsequent to a laser pulse. From the dipolar coupling, the distance between the radicals is readily derived. Since the spin-spin interaction parameters are typically not observable by transient EPR, the two techniques complement each other favorably. Both EPR methods have recently been applied to a variety of light-induced RPs in photobiology. This review summarizes the results obtained from such studies in the fields of plant and bacterial photosynthesis and DNA repair mediated by the enzyme DNA photolyase.

  6. Pairing success of Kirtland's warblers in marginal vs. suitable habitat

    Treesearch

    John R. Probst; Jack P. Hayes

    1987-01-01

    We compared pairing success of male Kirtland's Warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii) in different habitats to test the hypothesis that a lower proportion of males in marginal habitat are mated. Fewer than 60% of the males in marginal habitat were paired, but 95% of the males in suitable habitat were paired. We estimated the overall pairing success of...

  7. New acceptor-bridge-donor strategy for enhancing NLO response with long-range excess electron transfer from the NH2...M/M3O donor (M = Li, Na, K) to inside the electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the unusual σ chain bridge (CH2)4.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-04-04

    Using the strong electron hole cage C20F19 acceptor, the NH2...M/M3O (M = Li, Na, and K) complicated donors with excess electron, and the unusual σ chain (CH2)4 bridge, we construct a new kind of electride molecular salt e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...M(+)/M3O(+) (M = Li, Na, and K) with excess electron anion inside the hole cage (to be encapsulated excess electron-hole pair) serving as a new A-B-D strategy for enhancing nonlinear optical (NLO) response. An interesting push-pull mechanism of excess electron generation and its long-range transfer is exhibited. The excess electron is pushed out from the (super)alkali atom M/M3O by the lone pair of NH2 in the donor and further pulled inside the hole cage C20F19 acceptor through the efficient long σ chain (CH2)4 bridge. Owing to the long-range electron transfer, the new designed electride molecular salts with the excess electron-hole pair exhibit large NLO response. For the e(-)@C20F19-(CH2)4-NH2...Na(+), its large first hyperpolarizability (β0) reaches up to 9.5 × 10(6) au, which is about 2.4 × 10(4) times the 400 au for the relative e(-)@C20F20...Na(+) without the extended chain (CH2)4-NH2. It is shown that the new strategy is considerably efficient in enhancing the NLO response for the salts. In addition, the effects of different bridges and alkali atomic number on β0 are also exhibited. Further, three modulating factors are found for enhancing NLO response. They are the σ chain bridge, bridge-end group with lone pair, and (super)alkali atom. The new knowledge may be significant for designing new NLO materials and electronic devices with electrons inside the cages. They may also be the basis of establishing potential organic chemistry with electron-hole pair.

  8. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.-L.; Pravec, P.; Taylor, P.; Carry, B.; Jacobson, S.

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main-belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main-belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (≲20 km) binaries form by rotational fission and establishes that the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect powers the spin-up process. A unifying paradigm based on rotational fission and post-fission dynamics can explain the formation of small binaries, triples, and pairs. Large (>~20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  9. Magnetically-enhanced open string pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the stringy interaction between two parallel stacks of D3 branes placed at a separation. Each stack of D3 branes in a similar fashion carry an electric flux and a magnetic flux with the two sharing no common field strength index. The interaction amplitude has an imaginary part, giving rise to the Schwinger-like pair production of open strings. We find a significantly enhanced rate of this production when the two electric fluxes are almost identical and the brane separation is on the order of string scale. This enhancement will be largest if the two magnetic fluxes are opposite in direction. This novel enhancement results from the interplay of the non-perturbative Schwinger-type pair production due to the electric flux and the stringy tachyon due to the magnetic flux, and may have realistic physical applications.

  10. Dual Resolution Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Dual Resolution Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 30 is being distributed for use in development and testing of fingerprint compression and fingerprint matching systems. The database allows the user to develop and evaluate data compression algorithms for fingerprint images scanned at both 19.7 ppmm (500 dpi) and 39.4 ppmm (1000 dpi). The data consist of 36 ten-print paired cards with both the rolled and plain images scanned at 19.7 and 39.4 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  11. Dynamics and Instabilities of Vortex Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leweke, Thomas; Le Dizès, Stéphane; Williamson, Charles H. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics and behavior of counter-rotating and corotating vortex pairs, which are seemingly simple flow configurations yet immensely rich in phenomena. Since the reviews in this journal by Widnall (1975) and Spalart (1998) , who studied the fundamental structure and dynamics of vortices and airplane trailing vortices, respectively, there have been many analytical, computational, and experimental studies of vortex pair flows. We discuss two-dimensional dynamics, including the merging of same-sign vortices and the interaction with the mutually induced strain, as well as three-dimensional displacement and core instabilities resulting from this interaction. Flows subject to combined instabilities are also considered, in particular the impingement of opposite-sign vortices on a ground plane. We emphasize the physical mechanisms responsible for the flow phenomena and clearly present the key results that are useful to the reader for predicting the dynamics and instabilities of parallel vortices.

  12. Paired peer learning through engineering education outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Lewis, Fay; Edmonds, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate education incorporating active learning and vicarious experience through education outreach presents a critical opportunity to influence future engineering teaching and practice capabilities. Engineering education outreach activities have been shown to have multiple benefits; increasing interest and engagement with science and engineering for school children, providing teachers with expert contributions to engineering subject knowledge, and developing professional generic skills for engineers such as communication and teamwork. This pilot intervention paired 10 pre-service teachers and 11 student engineers to enact engineering outreach in primary schools, reaching 269 children. A longitudinal mixed methods design was employed to measure change in attitudes and Education Outreach Self-Efficacy in student engineers; alongside attitudes, Teaching Engineering Self-Efficacy and Engineering Subject Knowledge Confidence in pre-service teachers. Highly significant improvements were noted in the pre-service teachers' confidence and self-efficacy, while both the teachers and engineers qualitatively described benefits arising from the paired peer mentor model.

  13. Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).

  14. Array-Based Discovery of Aptamer Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-11

    affinities greatly exceeding either monovalent component. DNA aptamers are especially well-suited for such constructs, because they can be linked via...standard synthesis techniques without requiring chemical conjugation. Unfortunately, aptamer pairs are difficult to generate, primarily because...conventional selection methods preferentially yield aptamers that recognize a dominant “hot spot” epitope. Our 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND

  15. Signature scheme based on bilinear pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Rui Y.; Geng, Yong J.

    2013-03-01

    An identity-based signature scheme is proposed by using bilinear pairs technology. The scheme uses user's identity information as public key such as email address, IP address, telephone number so that it erases the cost of forming and managing public key infrastructure and avoids the problem of user private generating center generating forgery signature by using CL-PKC framework to generate user's private key.

  16. Analytical potential-density pairs for bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P. S.

    2010-11-01

    An identity that relates multipolar solutions of the Einstein equations to Newtonian potentials of bars with linear densities proportional to Legendre polynomials is used to construct analytical potential-density pairs of infinitesimally thin bars with a given linear density profile. By means of a suitable transformation, softened bars that are free of singularities are also obtained. As an application we study the equilibrium points and stability for the motion of test particles in the gravitational field for three models of rotating bars.

  17. Migrational homing by a pair of mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, T.J.; Derrickson, S.R.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1973-01-01

    It is generally assumed that wild, North American female dabbling ducks (Anatinae: Anatini) select new mates each year and may return to the same nesting areas in consecutive years (McKinney 1964, Wildfowl 16: 93). Lincoln (1934, Bird-Banding 5: 151) first documented migrational homing in a female Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Sowls (1955, Prairie ducks, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Stackpole Co., pp. 25-45), working with color-marked birds, established that female Pintails (A. acuta), Gadwalls (A. strepera), Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) also return to previously used nesting areas. Black-bellied Tree Ducks (Dendrocygna autumnalis), in the same subfamily as the true geese (Anserinae), not only home to previously used nesting sites, but also retain the same mates in consecutive years (Bolen 1971, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 35: 386). Instances are recorded of males in the subfamily Anatinae returning to the same locality in consecutive years (Sowls, ibid.; Lewis Cowardin, pers. comm.), but no information exists on the homing of pairs. During the course of a study on the social behavior and habitat use of various dabbling ducks in North Dakota, we documented the migrational homing of a pair of Mallards. On 6 May 1971 we captured a pair of Mallards in a cannon-net trap and affixed numbered nasal saddles and a miniature radio transmitter to both the hen and drake. The drake's transmitter failed in a few days, but the hen's transmitter allowed us to locate the pair several times until 2 June 1971. Our last record for the hen was on 15 June 1971. We never found a nest site, and feel that she did not raise a brood.

  18. Modelling the secular evolution of migrating planet pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michtchenko, T. A.; Rodríguez, A.

    2011-08-01

    The subject of this paper is the secular behaviour of a pair of planets evolving under dissipative forces. In particular, we investigate the case when dissipative forces affect the planetary semimajor axes and the planets move inwards/outwards the central star, in a process known as planet migration. To perform this investigation, we introduce fundamental concepts of conservative and dissipative dynamics of the three-body problem. Based on these concepts, we develop a qualitative model of the secular evolution of the migrating planetary pair. Our approach is based on the analysis of the energy and the orbital angular momentum exchange between the two-planet system and an external medium; thus no specific kind of dissipative forces is invoked. We show that, under the assumption that dissipation is weak and slow, the evolutionary routes of the migrating planets are traced by the Mode I and Mode II stationary solutions of the conservative secular problem. The ultimate convergence and the evolution of the system along one of these secular modes of motion are determined uniquely by the condition that the dissipation rate is sufficiently smaller than the proper secular frequency of the system. We show that it is possible to reassemble the starting configurations and the migration history of the systems on the basis of their final states and consequently to constrain the parameters of the physical processes involved.

  19. Pairing from dynamically screened Coulomb repulsion in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhman, Jonathan; Lee, Patrick A.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, Prakash et al. have discovered bulk superconductivity in single crystals of bismuth, which is a semimetal with extremely low carrier density. At such low density, we argue that conventional electron-phonon coupling is too weak to be responsible for the binding of electrons into Cooper pairs. We study a dynamically screened Coulomb interaction with effective attraction generated on the scale of the collective plasma modes. We model the electronic states in bismuth to include three Dirac pockets with high velocity and one hole pocket with a significantly smaller velocity. We find a weak-coupling instability, which is greatly enhanced by the presence of the hole pocket. Therefore we argue that bismuth is the first material to exhibit superconductivity driven by retardation effects of Coulomb repulsion alone. By using realistic parameters for bismuth we find that the acoustic plasma mode does not play the central role in pairing. We also discuss a matrix element effect, resulting from the Dirac nature of the conduction band, which may affect Tc in the s -wave channel without breaking time-reversal symmetry.

  20. Dark-bright soliton pairs: Bifurcations and collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsimiga, G. C.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Prinari, B.; Biondini, G.; Schmelcher, P.

    2018-04-01

    The statics, stability, and dynamical properties of dark-bright soliton pairs are investigated here, motivated by applications in a homogeneous two-component repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. One of the intraspecies interaction coefficients is used as the relevant parameter controlling the deviation from the integrable Manakov limit. Two different families of stationary states are identified consisting of dark-bright solitons that are either antisymmetric (out-of-phase) or asymmetric (mass imbalanced) with respect to their bright soliton. Both of the above dark-bright configurations coexist at the integrable limit of equal intra and interspecies repulsions and are degenerate in that limit. However, they are found to bifurcate from it in a transcritical bifurcation. This bifurcation interchanges the stability properties of the bound dark-bright pairs rendering the antisymmetric states unstable and the asymmetric ones stable past the associated critical point (and vice versa before it). Finally, on the dynamical side, it is found that large kinetic energies and thus rapid soliton collisions are essentially unaffected by the intraspecies variation, while cases involving near equilibrium states or breathing dynamics are significantly modified under such a variation.

  1. Excess close burst pairs in FRB 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2018-05-01

    The repeating FRB 121102 emitted a pair of apparently discrete bursts separated by 37 ms and another pair, 131 d later, separated by 34 ms, during observations that detected bursts at a mean rate of ˜2 × 10-4 s-1. While FRB 121102 is known to produce multipeaked bursts, here I assume that these `burst pairs' are truly separate bursts and not multicomponent single bursts, and consider the implications of that assumption. Their statistics are then non-Poissonian. Assuming that the emission comes from a narrow range of rotational phase, then the measured burst intervals constrain any possible periodic modulation underlying the highly episodic emission. If more such short intervals are measured a period may be determined or periodicity may be excluded. The excess of burst intervals much shorter than their mean recurrence time may be explained if FRB emit steady but narrow beams that execute a random walk in direction, perhaps indicating origin in a black hole's accretion disc.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of pairs and RS steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Andrew D.

    2004-06-01

    We give initial results from a new project which performs statistically accurate evaluation of the reliability of image steganalysis algorithms. The focus here is on the Pairs and RS methods, for detection of simple LSB steganography in grayscale bitmaps, due to Fridrich et al. Using libraries totalling around 30,000 images we have measured the performance of these methods and suggest changes which lead to significant improvements. Particular results from the project presented here include notes on the distribution of the RS statistic, the relative merits of different "masks" used in the RS algorithm, the effect on reliability when previously compressed cover images are used, and the effect of repeating steganalysis on the transposed image. We also discuss improvements to the Pairs algorithm, restricting it to spatially close pairs of pixels, which leads to a substantial performance improvement, even to the extent of surpassing the RS statistic which was previously thought superior for grayscale images. We also describe some of the questions for a general methodology of evaluation of steganalysis, and potential pitfalls caused by the differences between uncompressed, compressed, and resampled cover images.

  3. Paired-Pulse Depression at Photoreceptor Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Rabl, Katalin; Cadetti, Lucia; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic depression produced by repetitive stimulation is likely to be particularly important in shaping responses of second-order retinal neurons at the tonically active photoreceptor synapse. We analyzed the time course and mechanisms of synaptic depression at rod and cone synapses using paired-pulse protocols involving two complementary measurements of exocytosis: (1) paired whole-cell recordings of the postsynaptic current (PSC) in second-order retinal neurons and (2) capacitance measurements of vesicular membrane fusion in rods and cones. PSCs in ON bipolar, OFF bipolar, and horizontal cells evoked by stimulation of either rods or cones recovered from paired-pulse depression (PPD) at rates similar to the recovery of exocytotic capacitance changes in rods and cones. Correlation between presynaptic and postsynaptic measures of recovery from PPD suggests that 80 –90% of the depression at these synapses is presynaptic in origin. Consistent with a predominantly presynaptic mechanism, inhibiting desensitization of postsynaptic glutamate receptors had little effect on PPD. The depression of exocytotic capacitance changes exceeded depression of the presynaptic calcium current, suggesting that it is primarily caused by a depletion of synaptic vesicles. In support of this idea, limiting Ca2+ influx by using weaker depolarizing stimuli promoted faster recovery from PPD. Although cones exhibit much faster exocytotic kinetics than rods, exocytotic capacitance changes recovered from PPD at similar rates in both cell types. Thus, depression of release is not likely to contribute to differences in the kinetics of transmission from rods and cones. PMID:16510733

  4. Pair-correlations in swimmer suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambiar, Sankalp; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of rear-actuated swimming microorganisms, such as E.coli, exhibit several interesting phenomena including spontaneous pattern formation above a critical concentration, novel rheological properties, shear-induced concentration banding etc. Explanations based on mean-field theory are only qualitative, since interactions between swimmers are important for typical experimental concentrations. We analytically characterize the hydrodynamic pair-interactions in a quiescent suspension of slender straight swimmers. The pair-correlation, calculated at leading order by integrating the swimmer velocity disturbances along straight trajectories, decays as 1/r2 for r >> L (L being the swimmer size). This allows us to characterize both polar and nematic correlations in an interacting swimmer suspension. In the absence of correlations, the velocity covariance asymptotes from a constant for r << L to a far-field decay of O(1/r2) for r >> L, the latter being characteristic of a suspension of non-interacting point force-dipoles. On including correlations, the slow decay of the pair-orientation correlation leads to an additional contribution to the velocity covariance that diverges logarithmically with system size.

  5. Persistent Ion Pairing in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Marcel D.; Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

    2014-07-03

    For strong acids, like hydrochloric acid, the complete dissociation into an excess proton and conjugated base as well as the formation of independent solvated charged fragments is assumed. The existence of a chloride-Hyronium (Cl-H3O+) contact ion pairs even in moderate concentration hydrochloric acid (2.5 m) demonstrates that the counter ions do not behave merely as spectators. Through the use of modern extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements in conjunction with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we are able to obtain an unprecedented view into the molecular structure of medium to high concentrated electrolytes. Here we report that themore » Cl-H3O+ contact ion pair structure persists throughout the entire concentration range studied and that these structures differ significantly from moieties studied in micro-solvated hydrochloric acid clusters. Characterizing distinct populations of these ion pairs gives rise to a novel molecular level description of how to think about the activity of the proton that impacts our picture of the pH scale. Funding for CJM, GKS, and JLF was provided by DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Funding for MDB was provided throught the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MB was funded through Argonne National Laboratory.« less

  6. Paired and interacting galaxies: Conference summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin A.

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a summary of the conference proceedings. The conference began with the presentation of the basic data sets on pairs, groups, and interacting galaxies with the latter being further discussed with respect to both global properties and properties of the galactic nuclei. Then followed the theory, modelling and interpretation using analytic techniques, simulations and general modelling for spirals and ellipticals, starbursts and active galactic nuclei. Before the conference the author wrote down the three questions concerning pairs, groups and interacting galaxies that he hoped would be answered at the meeting: (1) How do they form, including the role of initial conditions, the importance of subclustering, the evolution of groups to compact groups, and the fate of compact groups; (2) How do they evolve, including issues such as relevant timescales, the role of halos and the problem of overmerging, the triggering and enhancement of star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei, and the relative importance of dwarf versus giant encounters; and (3) Are they important, including the frequency of pairs and interactions, whether merging and interactions are very important aspects of the life of a normal galaxy at formation, during its evolution, in forming bars, shells, rings, bulges, etc., and in the formation and evolution of active galaxies? Where possible he focuses on these three central issues in the summary.

  7. Galactic Pairs in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    In the spirit of Valentines Day, today well be exploring apparent pairs of galaxies in the distant, early universe. How can we tell whether these duos are actually paired galaxies, as opposed to disguised singles?Real Pair, or Trick of the Light?In the schematic timeline of the universe, the epoch of reionization is when the first galaxies and quasars began to form and evolve. [NASA]The statistics of merging galaxies throughout the universe reveal not only direct information about how galaxies interact, but also cosmological information about the structure of the universe. While weve observed many merging galaxy pairs at low redshift, however, its much more challenging to identify these duos in the early universe.A merging pair of galaxies at high redshift appears to us as a pair of unresolved blobs that lie close to each other in the sky. But spotting such a set of objects doesnt necessarily mean were looking at a merger! There are three possible scenarios to explain an observed apparent duo:Its a pair of galaxies in a stage of merger.Its a projection coincidence; the two galaxies arent truly near each other.Its a single galaxy being gravitationally lensed by a foreground object. This strong lensing produces the appearance of multiple galaxies.Hubble photometry of one of the three galaxy groups identified at z 8, with the galaxies in the image labeled with their corresponding approximate photometric redshifts. [Adapted from Chaikin et al. 2018]Hunting for Distant DuosIn a recent study led by Evgenii Chaikin (Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia), a team of scientists has explored the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in search ofhigh-redshift galaxies merging during the epoch of reionization, when the first galaxies formed and evolved.Using an approach called the dropout technique, which leverages the visibility of the galaxies in different wavelength filters, Chaikin and collaborators obtain approximate redshifts for an initial sample of 7

  8. Extra-pair copulations in Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Daniel; Sedinger, James S.

    1990-01-01

    Monogamy is the primary mating system among waterfowl, but extra-pair copulations (EPCs) have been documented in at least 39 species (McKinney et al. 1983). Extra-pair copulations occur in most Holarctic species of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.), but have been recorded in only three species of geese: Lesser Snow Geese, Chen caerulescens caerulescens (Mineau and Cooke 1979a), Ross’ Geese, C. rossii (J. Ryder in McKinney et al. 1984), and Greater White-fronted Geese, Anser albifrons frontalis (C.R. Ely, pers. comm.).In colonial Lesser Snow Geese, the close proximity of nesting conspecifics may enable males to pursue EPCs as a secondary reproductive strategy (Mineau and Cooke, 1979a, 1979b). Copulatory behavior of other geese has not been studied in sufficient detail to permit comparison with Lesser Sone Geese. Here we report on timing and rates of pair copulations (PCs) and EPCs, and describe behaviors associated with EPCs in colonially nesting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans).

  9. Magnetic Pair Creation Transparency in Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Sarah; Baring, M. G.

    2013-04-01

    The Fermi gamma-ray pulsar database now exceeds 115 sources and has defined an important part of Fermi's science legacy, providing rich information for the interpretation of young energetic pulsars and old millisecond pulsars. Among the well established population characteristics is the common occurrence of exponential turnovers in the 1-10 GeV range. These turnovers are too gradual to arise from magnetic pair creation in the strong magnetic fields of pulsar inner magnetospheres, so their energy can be used to provide lower bounds to the typical altitude of GeV band emission. We explore such constraints due to single-photon pair creation transparency below the turnover energy. We adopt a semi-analytic approach, spanning both domains when general relativistic influences are important and locales where flat spacetime photon propagation is modified by rotational aberration effects. Our work clearly demonstrates that including near-threshold physics in the pair creation rate is essential to deriving accurate attenuation lengths. The altitude bounds, typically in the range of 2-6 neutron star radii, provide key information on the emission altitude in radio quiet pulsars that do not possess double-peaked pulse profiles. For the Crab pulsar, which emits pulsed radiation up to energies of 120 GeV, we obtain a lower bound of around 15 neutron star radii to its emission altitude.

  10. Grandmothering life histories and human pair bonding.

    PubMed

    Coxworth, James E; Kim, Peter S; McQueen, John S; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-09-22

    The evolution of distinctively human life history and social organization is generally attributed to paternal provisioning based on pair bonds. Here we develop an alternative argument that connects the evolution of human pair bonds to the male-biased mating sex ratios that accompanied the evolution of human life history. We simulate an agent-based model of the grandmother hypothesis, compare simulated sex ratios to data on great apes and human hunter-gatherers, and note associations between a preponderance of males and mate guarding across taxa. Then we explore a recent model that highlights the importance of mating sex ratios for differences between birds and mammals and conclude that lessons for human evolution cannot ignore mammalian reproductive constraints. In contradiction to our claim that male-biased sex ratios are characteristically human, female-biased ratios are reported in some populations. We consider the likelihood that fertile men are undercounted and conclude that the mate-guarding hypothesis for human pair bonds gains strength from explicit links with our grandmothering life history.

  11. Estimating Eulerian spectra from pairs of drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasce, Joe

    2017-04-01

    GPS-tracked surface drifters offer the possibility of sampling energetic variations at the ocean surface on scales of only 10s of meters, much less than that resolved by satellite. Here we investigate whether velocity differences between pairs of drifters can be used to estimate kinetic energy spectra. Theoretical relations between the spectrum and the second-order longitudinal structure function for 2D non-divergent flow are derived. The structure function is a natural statistic for particle pairs and is easily calculated. However it integrates contributions across wavenumber, and this tends to obscure the spectral dependencies when turbulent inertial ranges are of finite extent. Nevertheless, the transform from spectrum to structure function is robust, as illustrated with Eulerian data collected from aircraft. The inverse transform, from structure function to spectrum, is much less robust, yielding poor results in particular at large wavenumbers. This occurs because the transform involves a filter function which magnifies contributions from large pair separations, which tend to be noisy. Fitting the structure function to a polynomial improves the spectral estimate, but not sufficiently to distinguish correct inertial range dependencies. Thus with Lagrangian data, it is appears preferable to focus on structure functions, despite their shortcomings.

  12. On fast reconnection in pair plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocco, A.; Chacon, L.; Simakov, A.; Lukin, V.

    2008-11-01

    The relevance of two-fluid effects to fast magnetic reconnection in standard electron-proton plasmas is well-known. The currently accepted view is that such fast reconnection is enabled by fast dispersive waves, which originate in the ion-electron mass difference. However, electron-positron (pair) plasmas do not feature such mass difference, and thus do not support fast dispersive waves. Nevertheless, recent kinetic and fluid pair-plasmas simulations have demonstrated that fast magnetic reconnection is indeed possible, thus casting doubt on the accepted view. In this study, we develop an analytical fluid model for 2D reconnection in non-relativistic, large-guide-field, low-β pair plasmas, including inertia, resistivity, and parallel viscosity.^4 We conclude that fast reconnection is possible in the collisionless (viscosity-dominated) regime, but not in the collisional (resistivity-dominated) one. J. Birn et al., J. Geophys. Res. 106 (A3), pp. 3715--3719 (2001) M. A. Shay et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2163 (1999); B. N. Rogers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 195004 (2001) See e.g. S. Zenitani and M. Hoshino, Astrophys. J. 562, L63 (2001); N. Bessho and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 245001 (2005); W. Daughton and H. Karimabadi, Phys. Plasmas 14, 72303 (2007). L. Chac'on, A. N. Simakov, V. S. Lukin, A. Zocco, Phys. Rev. Lett., 025003 (2008)

  13. Pairing in half-filled Landau level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Mandal, Ipsita; Chung, Suk Bum; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2015-03-01

    Pairing of composite fermions in half-filled Landau level state is reexamined by solving the BCS gap equation with full frequency dependent current-current interactions. Our results show that there can be a continuous transition from the Halperin-Lee-Read state to a chiral odd angular momentum Cooper pair state for short-range contact interaction. This is at odds with the previously established conclusion of first order pairing transition, in which the low frequency effective interaction was assumed for the entire frequency range. We find that even if the low frequency effective interaction is repulsive, it is compensated by the high frequency regime, which is attractive. We construct the phase diagrams and show that l = 1 angular momentum channel is quite different from higher angular momentum channel l >= 3 . Remarkably, the full frequency dependent analysis applied to the bilayer Hall system with a total filling fraction ν =1/2 +1/2 is quantitatively changed from the previously established results but not qualitatively. This work was supported by US NSF under the Grant DMR-1004520, the funds from the David S. Saxon Presidential Chair at UCLA(37952), and by the Institute for Basic Science in Korea through the Young Scientist grant (5199-2014003).

  14. Single evolution equation in a light-matter pairing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaychuk, S.; Tobisch, E.

    2018-03-01

    The coupled system including wave mixing and nonlinear dynamics of a nonlocal optical medium is usually studied (1) numerically, with the medium being regarded as a black box, or (2) experimentally, making use of some empirical assumptions. In this paper we deduce for the first time a single evolution equation describing the dynamics of the pairing system as a holistic complex. For a non-degenerate set of parameters, we obtain the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with coefficients being written out explicitly. Analytical solutions of this equation can be experimentally realized in any photorefractive medium, e.g. in photorefractive, liquid or photonic crystals. For instance, a soliton-like solution can be used in dynamical holography for designing an artificial grating with maximal amplification of an image.

  15. A novel speech watermarking algorithm by line spectrum pair modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Senbin; Chen, Guang; Zhou, Jun

    2011-10-01

    To explore digital watermarking specifically suitable for the speech domain, this paper experimentally investigates the properties of line spectrum pair (LSP) parameters firstly. The results show that the differences between contiguous LSPs are robust against common signal processing operations and small modifications of LSPs are imperceptible to the human auditory system (HAS). According to these conclusions, three contiguous LSPs of a speech frame are selected to embed a watermark bit. The middle LSP is slightly altered to modify the differences of these LSPs when embedding watermark. Correspondingly, the watermark is extracted by comparing these differences. The proposed algorithm's transparency is adjustable to meet the needs of different applications. The algorithm has good robustness against additive noise, quantization, amplitude scale and MP3 compression attacks, for the bit error rate (BER) is less than 5%. In addition, the algorithm allows a relatively low capacity, which approximates to 50 bps.

  16. Excitonic condensation with different pairing symmetries in double quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamell, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Double quantum wells with one containing electrons and the other containing holes as carriers are a promising candidate for condensation of dipolar excitons with lifetime much larger than lifetime of excitons in bulk semiconductors. When the inter-well distance is comparable to the interparticle distance within a single well, d <=rsaB, inter-well coherence is expected to lead to an excitonic condensation. We explore the ground state of a balanced system as a function of inter-well distance d and the carrier density n2D. We present Hartree-Fock mean-field results for the quasiparticle and order parameter dispersion with different pairing symmetries. We obtain the quasiparticle density of states in each case. These results lay the ground work for mean-field study of excitonic condensate states with spontaneously broken translational symmetry.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of some non-hydrogen-bonding base pair DNA strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rakesh K.; Ojha, Rajendra P.; Tiwari, Gargi; Pandey, Vishnudatt; Mall, Vijaysree

    2018-05-01

    In order to elucidate the structural activity of hydrophobic modified DNA, the DMMO2-D5SICS, base pair is introduced as a constituent in different set of 12-mer and 14-mer DNA sequences for the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit water solvent. AMBER 14 force field was employed for each set of duplex during the 200ns production-dynamics simulation in orthogonal-box-water solvent by the Particle-Mesh-Ewald (PME) method in infinite periodic boundary conditions (PBC) to determine conformational parameters of the complex. The force-field parameters of modified base-pair were calculated by Gaussian-code using Hartree-Fock /ab-initio methodology. RMSD Results reveal that the conformation of the duplex is sequence dependent and the binding energy of the complex depends on the position of the modified base-pair in the nucleic acid strand. We found that non-bonding energy had a significant contribution to stabilising such type of duplex in comparison to electrostatic energy. The distortion produced within strands by such type of base-pair was local and destabilised the duplex integrity near to substitution, moreover the binding energy of duplex depends on the position of substitution of hydrophobic base-pair and the DNA sequence and strongly supports the corresponding experimental study.

  18. Calculation of the decay rate of tachyonic neutrinos against charged-lepton-pair and neutrino-pair Cerenkov radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, Ulrich D.; Nándori, István; Ehrlich, Robert

    2017-10-01

    We consider in detail the calculation of the decay rate of high-energy superluminal neutrinos against (charged) lepton pair Cerenkov radiation, and neutrino pair Cerenkov radiation, i.e., against the decay channels ν \\to ν {e}+ {e}- and ν \\to ν \\overline{ν } ν . Under the hypothesis of a tachyonic nature of neutrinos, these decay channels put constraints on the lifetime of high-energy neutrinos for terrestrial experiments as well as on cosmic scales. For the oncoming neutrino, we use the Lorentz-covariant tachyonic relation {E}ν =\\sqrt{{p}2-{m}ν 2}, where m ν is the tachyonic mass parameter. We derive both threshold conditions as well as on decay and energy loss rates, using the plane-wave fundamental bispinor solutions of the tachyonic Dirac equation. Various intricacies of rest frame versus lab frame calculations are highlighted. The results are compared to the observations of high-energy IceCube neutrinos of cosmological origin.

  19. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the moon seen by M3 on chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Goswami, J.N.; Clark, R.N.; Annadurai, M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Combe, J.-P.; Dyar, M.D.; Green, R.; Head, J.W.; Hibbitts, C.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, S.; Livo, E.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-01-01

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration.

  20. Character and spatial distribution of OH/H2O on the surface of the Moon seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1.

    PubMed

    Pieters, C M; Goswami, J N; Clark, R N; Annadurai, M; Boardman, J; Buratti, B; Combe, J-P; Dyar, M D; Green, R; Head, J W; Hibbitts, C; Hicks, M; Isaacson, P; Klima, R; Kramer, G; Kumar, S; Livo, E; Lundeen, S; Malaret, E; McCord, T; Mustard, J; Nettles, J; Petro, N; Runyon, C; Staid, M; Sunshine, J; Taylor, L A; Tompkins, S; Varanasi, P

    2009-10-23

    The search for water on the surface of the anhydrous Moon had remained an unfulfilled quest for 40 years. However, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 has recently detected absorption features near 2.8 to 3.0 micrometers on the surface of the Moon. For silicate bodies, such features are typically attributed to hydroxyl- and/or water-bearing materials. On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M3 data with neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water are ongoing surficial processes. Hydroxyl/water production processes may feed polar cold traps and make the lunar regolith a candidate source of volatiles for human exploration.

  1. Parameter Estimation for Thurstone Choice Models

    SciTech Connect

    Vojnovic, Milan; Yun, Seyoung

    We consider the estimation accuracy of individual strength parameters of a Thurstone choice model when each input observation consists of a choice of one item from a set of two or more items (so called top-1 lists). This model accommodates the well-known choice models such as the Luce choice model for comparison sets of two or more items and the Bradley-Terry model for pair comparisons. We provide a tight characterization of the mean squared error of the maximum likelihood parameter estimator. We also provide similar characterizations for parameter estimators defined by a rank-breaking method, which amounts to deducing one ormore » more pair comparisons from a comparison of two or more items, assuming independence of these pair comparisons, and maximizing a likelihood function derived under these assumptions. We also consider a related binary classification problem where each individual parameter takes value from a set of two possible values and the goal is to correctly classify all items within a prescribed classification error. The results of this paper shed light on how the parameter estimation accuracy depends on given Thurstone choice model and the structure of comparison sets. In particular, we found that for unbiased input comparison sets of a given cardinality, when in expectation each comparison set of given cardinality occurs the same number of times, for a broad class of Thurstone choice models, the mean squared error decreases with the cardinality of comparison sets, but only marginally according to a diminishing returns relation. On the other hand, we found that there exist Thurstone choice models for which the mean squared error of the maximum likelihood parameter estimator can decrease much faster with the cardinality of comparison sets. We report empirical evaluation of some claims and key parameters revealed by theory using both synthetic and real-world input data from some popular sport competitions and online labor platforms.« less

  2. MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS AT Z = 0: DUST PROPERTIES AND COMPANION MORPHOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Domingue, Donovan L.; Ronca, Joseph; Hill, Emily

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by K {sub s} magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral–spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral–elliptical (S+E). The Code Investigating GALaxy Emission software is used to fit dust models to the Two Micron All Sky Survey, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , and Herschel flux density measurements, and to derive the parameters describing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contribution, interstellar radiation field, and photodissociation regions. Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not havemore » the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. The spirals of mixed-morphology galaxy pairs do not exhibit the enhancements in interstellar radiation field and therefore dust temperature for spirals in S+S pairs in contrast to what would be expected according to standard models of gas redistribution due to encounter torques. This suggests the importance of the companion environment/morphology in determining the dust properties of a spiral galaxy in a close major-merger pair.« less

  3. Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone emergence.

    PubMed

    Beres, Stephen B; Sylva, Gail L; Barbian, Kent D; Lei, Benfang; Hoff, Jessica S; Mammarella, Nicole D; Liu, Meng-Yao; Smoot, James C; Porcella, Stephen F; Parkins, Larye D; Campbell, David S; Smith, Todd M; McCormick, John K; Leung, Donald Y M; Schlievert, Patrick M; Musser, James M

    2002-07-23

    Genome sequences are available for many bacterial strains, but there has been little progress in using these data to understand the molecular basis of pathogen emergence and differences in strain virulence. Serotype M3 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) are a common cause of severe invasive infections with unusually high rates of morbidity and mortality. To gain insight into the molecular basis of this high-virulence phenotype, we sequenced the genome of strain MGAS315, an organism isolated from a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The genome is composed of 1,900,521 bp, and it shares approximately 1.7 Mb of related genetic material with genomes of serotype M1 and M18 strains. Phage-like elements account for the great majority of variation in gene content relative to the sequenced M1 and M18 strains. Recombination produces chimeric phages and strains with previously uncharacterized arrays of virulence factor genes. Strain MGAS315 has phage genes that encode proteins likely to contribute to pathogenesis, such as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and SpeK, streptococcal superantigen (SSA), and a previously uncharacterized phospholipase A(2) (designated Sla). Infected humans had anti-SpeK, -SSA, and -Sla antibodies, indicating that these GAS proteins are made in vivo. SpeK and SSA were pyrogenic and toxic for rabbits. Serotype M3 strains with the phage-encoded speK and sla genes increased dramatically in frequency late in the 20th century, commensurate with the rise in invasive disease caused by M3 organisms. Taken together, the results show that phage-mediated recombination has played a critical role in the emergence of a new, unusually virulent clone of serotype M3 GAS.

  4. Sources and physical processes responsible for OH/H2O in the lunar soil as revealed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, T.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Combe, J.-P.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C.M.; Sunshine, J.M.; Clark, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of two absorption features near 3 m in the lunar reflectance spectrum, observed by the orbiting M3 spectrometer and interpreted as being due to OH and H2O, is presented, and the results are used to discuss the processes producing these molecules. This analysis focuses on the dependence of the absorptions on lunar physical properties, including composition, illumination, latitude, and temperature. Solar wind proton-induced hydroxylation is proposed as the creation process, and its products could be a source for other reported types of hydrogen-rich material and water. The irregular and damaged fine-grained lunar soil seems especially adapted for trapping solar wind protons and forming OH owing to abundant dangling oxygen bonds. The M3 data reveal that the strengths of the two absorptions are correlated and widespread, and both are correlated with lunar composition but in different ways. Feldspathic material seems richer in OH. These results seem to rule out water from the lunar interior and cometary infall as major sources. There appear to be correlations of apparent band strengths with time of day and lighting conditions. However, thermal emission from the Moon reduces the apparent strengths of the M3 absorptions, and its removal is not yet completely successful. Further, many of the lunar physical properties are themselves intercorrelated, and so separating these dependencies on the absorptions is difficult, due to the incomplete M3 data set. This process should also operate on other airless silicate surfaces, such as Mercury and Vesta, which will be visited by the Dawn spacecraft in mid-2011. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Sources and physical processes responsible for OH/H2O in the lunarsoil as revealed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, T.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Combe, J.-P.; Kramer, G.; C.M. Pieters,; Sunshine, J.M.; Clark, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of two absorption features near 3 μm in the lunar reflectance spectrum, observed by the orbiting M3 spectrometer and interpreted as being due to OH and H2O, is presented, and the results are used to discuss the processes producing these molecules. This analysis focuses on the dependence of the absorptions on lunar physical properties, including composition, illumination, latitude, and temperature. Solar wind proton-induced hydroxylation is proposed as the creation process, and its products could be a source for other reported types of hydrogen-rich material and water. The irregular and damaged fine-grained lunar soil seems especially adapted for trapping solar wind protons and forming OH owing to abundant dangling oxygen bonds. The M3data reveal that the strengths of the two absorptions are correlated and widespread, and both are correlated with lunar composition but in different ways. Feldspathic material seems richer in OH. These results seem to rule out water from the lunar interior and cometary infall as major sources. There appear to be correlations of apparent band strengths with time of day and lighting conditions. However, thermal emission from the Moon reduces the apparent strengths of the M3absorptions, and its removal is not yet completely successful. Further, many of the lunar physical properties are themselves intercorrelated, and so separating these dependencies on the absorptions is difficult, due to the incomplete M3 data set. This process should also operate on other airless silicate surfaces, such as Mercury and Vesta, which will be visited by the Dawn spacecraft in mid-2011.

  6. Activation of muscarinic M3 receptors inhibits large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Shankar P.

    2013-01-01

    Large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are key regulators of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contraction and relaxation during urine voiding and storage. Here, we explored whether BK channels are regulated by muscarinic receptors (M-Rs) in native freshly isolated rat DSM cells under physiological conditions using the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique and pharmacological inhibitors. M-R activation with carbachol (1 μM) initially evoked large transient outward BK currents, followed by inhibition of the spontaneous transient outward BK currents (STBKCs) in DSM cells. Carbachol (1 μM) also inhibited the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous transient hyperpolarizations (STHs) and depolarized the DSM cell membrane potential. Selective inhibition of the muscarinic M3 receptors (M3-Rs) with 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP; 0.1 μM), but not muscarinic M2 receptors with methoctramine (1 μM), blocked the carbachol inhibitory effects on STBKCs. Furthermore, blocking the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors with xestospongin-C (1 μM) inhibited the carbachol-induced large transient outward BK currents without affecting carbachol inhibitory effects on STBKCs. Upon pharmacological inhibition of all known cellular sources of Ca2+ for BK channel activation, carbachol (1 μM) did not affect the voltage-step-induced steady-state BK currents, suggesting that the muscarinic effects in DSM cells are mediated by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, our findings provide strong evidence that activation of M3-Rs leads to inhibition of the STBKCs, STHs, and depolarization of DSM cells. Collectively, the data suggest the existence of functional interactions between BK channels and M3-Rs at a cellular level in DSM. PMID:23703523

  7. M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors are involved in enteric nerve-mediated contraction of the mouse ileum: Findings obtained with muscarinic-receptor knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Matsui, Minoru; Azuma, Yasu-Taka

    2007-01-01

    The involvement of muscarinic receptors in neurogenic responses of the ileum was studied in wild-type and muscarinic-receptor (M-receptor) knockout (KO) mice. Electrical field stimulation to the wild-type mouse ileum induced a biphasic response, a phasic and sustained contraction that was abolished by tetrodotoxin. The sustained contraction was prolonged for an extended period after the termination of electrical field stimulation. The phasic contraction was completely inhibited by atropine. In contrast, the sustained contraction was enhanced by atropine. Ileal strips prepared from M2-receptor KO mice exhibited a phasic contraction similar to that seen in wild-type mice and a sustained contraction that was larger than that in wild-type mice. In M3-receptor KO mice, the phasic contraction was smaller than that observed in wild-type mice. Acetylcholine exogenously administrated induced concentration-dependent contractions in strips isolated from wild-type, M2- and M3-receptor KO mice. However, contractions in M3-receptor KO mice shifted to the right. The sustained contraction was inhibited by capsaicin and neurokinin NK2 receptor antagonist, suggesting that it is mediated by substance P (SP). SP-induced contraction of M2-receptor KO mice did not differ from that of wild-type mice. SP immunoreactivity was located in enteric neurons, colocalized with M2 receptor immunoreactivity. These results suggest that atropine-sensitive phasic contraction is mainly mediated via the M3 receptor, and SP-mediated sustained contraction is negatively regulated by the M2 receptor at a presynaptic level.

  8. Scale-up and large-scale production of Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta) for CO2 mitigation: from an agar plate to 100-m3 industrial photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Hugo; Páramo, Jaime; Silva, Joana; Marques, Ana; Barros, Ana; Maurício, Dinis; Santos, Tamára; Schulze, Peter; Barros, Raúl; Gouveia, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2018-03-23

    Industrial production of novel microalgal isolates is key to improving the current portfolio of available strains that are able to grow in large-scale production systems for different biotechnological applications, including carbon mitigation. In this context, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 was successfully scaled up from an agar plate to 35- and 100-m 3 industrial scale tubular photobioreactors (PBR). Growth was performed semi-continuously for 60 days in the autumn-winter season (17 th October - 14 th December). Optimisation of tubular PBR operations showed that improved productivities were obtained at a culture velocity of 0.65-1.35 m s -1 and a pH set-point for CO 2 injection of 8.0. Highest volumetric (0.08 ± 0.01 g L -1 d -1 ) and areal (20.3 ± 3.2 g m -2 d -1 ) biomass productivities were attained in the 100-m 3 PBR compared to those of the 35-m 3 PBR (0.05 ± 0.02 g L -1 d -1 and 13.5 ± 4.3 g m -2 d -1 , respectively). Lipid contents were similar in both PBRs (9-10% of ash free dry weight). CO 2 sequestration was followed in the 100-m 3 PBR, revealing a mean CO 2 mitigation efficiency of 65% and a biomass to carbon ratio of 1.80. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is thus a robust candidate for industrial-scale production with promising biomass productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies up to 3.5% of total solar irradiance.

  9. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  10. Reclamation of the wastewater from an industrial park using hollow-fibre and spiral-wound membranes: 50 m3 d(-1) pilot testing and cost evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Jiaoa, S R; Hung, J M; Lu, C J; Chung, Y J

    2009-08-01

    The feasibility of reclaiming effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plants through a membrane process was evaluated in three phases. In phase 1 we selected nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), each with a design capacity exceeding 10,000 m3 d(-1), and analyzed the corresponding effluent composition. 'Potential recycling percentage', R, ranged from 50% to 80% for the industrial park WWTPs, indicating a high feasibility for the reuse of effluent. In phase 2, a 50 m3 d(-1) pilot plant was installed in one of the selected WWTPs and underwent testing for one year. The quality of the reclaimed water was suitable for general-purpose industrial use. In the two ultrafiltration (UF) modules tested, the hydrophilic polyethersulfone hollow-fibre module was more tolerant to variable properties, and had higher recycling percentages than those of backwashable hydrophobic polyvinylidene difluoride spiral-wound module. Using the spiral-wound UF module helped reduce the cost for producing 1 m3 of reclaimed water (US$0.80) compared with a hollow-fibre module (US$0.88). In phase 3, we evaluated the negative effects of refluxing the reverse osmosis retentate, containing high total dissolved solids and non-biodegradable organics, with the biological treatment unit of the upstream WWTP. Biological compactibility tests showed that the refluxed retentate ratio should be reduced to maintain the conductivity of mixed liquor in the aeration tank at less than 110% of the original value.

  11. Property of mono-vacancy in MAX phase M3AC2 (M=Ti, A=Al, Si, or Ge): First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Duan, G.; Gao, X. F.; Wang, C. L.

    2018-05-01

    The formation and migration energies of the mono-vacancy in M3AC2 have been investigated using first-principles calculations. The results have shown that M element vacancy formation is the most energetically difficult in M3AC2. The A atomic layer is the most active one. It was also found that the energies of mono-vacancy formation and migration in Ti3AlC2 are higher than that in Ti3SiC2 and Ti3GeC2. Moreover, our calculation of the density of state confirms the conclusion that Ti3AlC2 is the most stable in the selected M3AC2 materials under high-temperature or irradiation environment conditions. These results could provide theoretical insights for the experimental results that Ti3AlC2 has a better radiation resistance than Ti3SiC2 and Ti3GeC2.

  12. Ferroelectric and magnetic properties of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Tingting, E-mail: jia.tingting@nims.go.jp; Kimura, Hideo, E-mail: KIMURA.Hideo@nims.go.jp; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2015-11-15

    Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} (m = 4, 5, 6) thin films have been deposited by a pulsed laser deposition system. The x-ray diffraction patterns indicate the formation of orthorhombic phase. The remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3} thin films is decreased with the m-number. Positive-up-negative-down measurements indicate the presence of ferroelectric (FE) polarization in as-obtained thin films. Piezoresponse force microscopy investigations confirm the existence of FE domains and the switchable polarization. Weak magnetic moment is detected in the Aurivillius films at room temperature. The present work suggests the possibility of Aurivillius Bi{sub m+1}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub m−3}O{sub 3m+3}more » (m = 4, 5, 6) materials as potential room-temperature multiferroics.« less

  13. Design Considerations for a Dedicated Gravity Recovery Satellite Mission Consisting of Two Pairs of Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, D. N.; Nerem, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    Future satellite missions dedicated to measuring time-variable gravity will need to address the concern of temporal aliasing errors; i.e., errors due to high-frequency mass variations. These errors have been shown to be a limiting error source for future missions with improved sensors. One method of reducing them is to fly multiple satellite pairs, thus increasing the sampling frequency of the mission. While one could imagine a system architecture consisting of dozens of satellite pairs, this paper explores the more economically feasible option of optimizing the orbits of two pairs of satellites. While the search space for this problem is infinite by nature, steps have been made to reduce it via proper assumptions regarding some parameters and a large number of numerical simulations exploring appropriate ranges for other parameters. A search space originally consisting of 15 variables is reduced to two variables with the utmost impact on mission performance: the repeat period of both pairs of satellites (shown to be near-optimal when they are equal to each other), as well as the inclination of one of the satellite pairs (the other pair is assumed to be in a polar orbit). To arrive at this conclusion, we assume circular orbits, repeat groundtracks for both pairs of satellites, a 100-km inter-satellite separation distance, and a minimum allowable operational satellite altitude of 290 km based on a projected 10-year mission lifetime. Given the scientific objectives of determining time-variable hydrology, ice mass variations, and ocean bottom pressure signals with higher spatial resolution, we find that an optimal architecture consists of a polar pair of satellites coupled with a pair inclined at 72deg, both in 13-day repeating orbits. This architecture provides a 67% reduction in error over one pair of satellites, in addition to reducing the longitudinal striping to such a level that minimal post-processing is required, permitting a substantial increase in the spatial

  14. Sauter-Schwinger pair creation dynamically assisted by a plane wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgrimsson, Greger; Schneider, Christian; Schützhold, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    We study electron-positron pair creation by a strong and constant electric field superimposed with a weaker transversal plane wave which is incident perpendicularly (or under some angle). Comparing the fully nonperturbative approach based on the world-line instanton method with a perturbative expansion into powers of the strength of the weaker plane wave, we find good agreement—provided that the latter is carried out to sufficiently high orders. As usual for the dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect, the additional plane wave induces an exponential enhancement of the pair-creation probability if the combined Keldysh parameter exceeds a certain threshold.

  15. Advanced Twisted Pair Cables for Distributed Local Area Networks in Intelligent Structure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of a significant increase in the length of cable communication channels of local area networks of automation and engineering support systems of buildings in the case of their implementation on balanced twisted pair cables is shown. Assuming a direct connection scheme and an effective speed of 100 Mbit/s, analytical relationships are obtained for the calculation of the maximum communication distance. The necessity of using in the linear part of such systems of twisted pair cables with U/UTP structure and interference parameters at the level of category 5e is grounded.

  16. Opposing functions of spinal M2, M3, and M4 receptor subtypes in regulation of GABAergic inputs to dorsal horn neurons revealed by muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Matsui, Minoru; Gautam, Dinesh; Wess, Jürgen; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2006-03-01

    Spinal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in the regulation of nociception. To determine the role of individual mAChR subtypes in control of synaptic GABA release, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) were recorded in lamina II neurons using whole-cell recordings in spinal cord slices of wild-type and mAChR subtype knockout (KO) mice. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M (3-10 microM) dose-dependently decreased the frequency of GABAergic sIPSCs and mIPSCs in wild-type mice. However, in the presence of the M2 and M4 subtype-preferring antagonist himbacine, oxotremorine-M caused a large increase in the sIPSC frequency. In M3 KO and M1/M3 double-KO mice, oxotremorine-M produced a consistent decrease in the frequency of sIPSCs, and this effect was abolished by himbacine. We were surprised to find that in M2/M4 double-KO mice, oxotremorine-M consistently increased the frequency of sIPSCs and mIPSCs in all neurons tested, and this effect was completely abolished by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, an M3 subtype-preferring antagonist. In M2 or M4 single-KO mice, oxotremorine-M produced a variable effect on sIPSCs; it increased the frequency of sIPSCs in some cells but decreased the sIPSC frequency in other neurons. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that activation of the M3 subtype increases synaptic GABA release in the spinal dorsal horn of mice. In contrast, stimulation of presynaptic M2 and M4 subtypes predominantly attenuates GABAergic inputs to dorsal horn neurons in mice, an action that is opposite to the role of M2 and M4 subtypes in the spinal cord of rats.

  17. Series-Coupled Pairs of Silica Microresonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Handley, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Series-coupled pairs of whispering-gallery-mode optical microresonators have been demonstrated as prototypes of stable, narrow-band-pass photonic filters. Characteristics that are generally considered desirable in a photonic or other narrow-band-pass filter include response as nearly flat as possible across the pass band, sharp roll-off, and high rejection of signals outside the pass band. A single microresonator exhibits a Lorentzian filter function: its peak response cannot be made flatter and its roll-off cannot be made sharper. However, as a matter of basic principle applicable to resonators in general, it is possible to (1) use multiple resonators, operating in series or parallel, to obtain a roll-off sharper, and out-of-band rejection greater, relative to those of a Lorentzian filter function and (2) to make the peak response (the response within the pass band) flatter by tuning the resonators to slightly different resonance frequencies that span the pass band. The first of the two microresonators in each series-coupled pair was a microtorus made of germania-doped silica (containing about 19 mole percent germania), which is a material used for the cores of some optical fibers. The reasons for choosing this material is that exposing it to ultraviolet light causes it to undergo a chemical change that changes its index of refraction and thereby changes the resonance frequency. Hence, this material affords the means to effect the desired slight relative detuning of the two resonators. The second microresonator in each pair was a microsphere of pure silica. The advantage of making one of the resonators a torus instead of a sphere is that its spectrum of whispering-gallery-mode resonances is sparser, as needed to obtain a frequency separation of at least 100 GHz between resonances of the filter as a whole.

  18. Older Galaxy Pair Has Surprisingly Youthful Glow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    A pair of interacting galaxies might be experiencing the galactic equivalent of a mid-life crisis. For some reason, the pair, called Arp 82, didn't make their stars early on as is typical of most galaxies. Instead, they got a second wind later in life -- about 2 billion years ago -- and started pumping out waves of new stars as if they were young again.

    Arp 82 is an interacting pair of galaxies with a strong bridge and a long tail. NGC 2535 is the big galaxy and NGC 2536 is its smaller companion. The disk of the main galaxy looks like an eye, with a bright 'pupil' in the center and oval-shaped 'eyelids.' Dramatic 'beads on a string' features are visible as chains of evenly spaced star-formation complexes along the eyelids. These are presumably the result of large-scale gaseous shocks from a grazing encounter. The colors of this galaxy indicate that the observed stars are young to intermediate in age, around 2 million to 2 billion years old, much less than the age of the universe (13.7 billion years).

    The puzzle is: why didn't Arp 82 form many stars earlier, like most galaxies of that mass range? Scientifically, it is an oddball and provides a relatively nearby lab for studying the age of intermediate-mass galaxies.

    This picture is a composite captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera with light at wavelength 8 microns shown in red, NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer combined 1530 and 2310 Angstroms shown in blue, and the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy Observatory light at 6940 Angstroms shown in green.

  19. A Guide to Fluorescent Protein FRET Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Bajar, Bryce T.; Wang, Emily S.; Zhang, Shu; Lin, Michael Z.; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Förster or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology and genetically encoded FRET biosensors provide a powerful tool for visualizing signaling molecules in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are most commonly used as both donor and acceptor fluorophores in FRET biosensors, especially since FPs are genetically encodable and live-cell compatible. In this review, we will provide an overview of methods to measure FRET changes in biological contexts, discuss the palette of FP FRET pairs developed and their relative strengths and weaknesses, and note important factors to consider when using FPs for FRET studies. PMID:27649177

  20. Resonant pairing between fermions with unequal masses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shin-Tza; Pao, C.-H.; Yip, S.-K.

    We study via mean-field theory the pairing between fermions of different masses, especially at the unitary limit. At equal populations, the thermodynamic properties are identical with the equal mass case provided an appropriate rescaling is made. At unequal populations, for sufficiently light majority species, the system does not phase separate. For sufficiently heavy majority species, the phase separated normal phase have a density larger than that of the superfluid. For atoms in harmonic traps, the density profiles for unequal mass fermions can be drastically different from their equal-mass counterparts.

  1. Slepton Pair Production at Hadron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, B.

    2007-04-01

    In R-parity conserving supersymmetric models, sleptons are produced in pairs at hadron colliders. We show that measurements of the longitudinal single-spin asymmetry at possible polarization upgrades of existing colliders allow for a direct extraction of the slepton mixing angle. A calculation of the transverse-momentum spectrum shows the importance of resummed contributions at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy in the small and intermediate transverse-momentum regions and little dependence on unphysical scales and non-perturbative contributions.

  2. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, Andrew M.; Dawson, John

    1993-01-01

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source.

  3. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  4. The Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley; Buckley, James H.

    2008-01-01

    We present a mission concept for the Advanced Pair Telescope (APT), a high-energy gamma-ray instrument with an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity, 6 sr field of view, and angular resolution a factor of 3-10 times that of GLAST. With its very wide instantaneous field-of-view and large effective area, this instrument would be capable of detecting GRBs at very large redshifts, would enable a very high resolution study of SNRs and PWN, and could provide hour-scale temporal resolution of transients from many AGN and galactic sources. The APT instrument will consist of a Xe time-projection-chamber tracker that bridges the energy regime between Compton scattering and pair production and will provide an unprecedented improvement in angular resolution; a thick scintillating-fiber trackerlcalorimeter that will provide sensitivity and energy resolution to higher energies and will possess a factor of 10 improvement in geometric factor over GLAST; and an anticoincidence detector using scintillator-tiles to reject charged particles. After the anticipated 10-years of GLAST operation , the APT instrument would provide continued coverage of the critial high-energy gamma-ray band (between 30 MeV to 100 GeV), providing an essential component of broad-band multiwavelength studies of the high-energy universe.

  5. Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain.

    PubMed

    Jun, S; Desplan, C

    1996-09-01

    The Pax proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators involved in many developmental processes in all higher eukaryotes. They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains. The PD is also often associated with a homeodomain (HD) which is itself able to form homo- and hetero-dimers on DNA. Many of these proteins therefore contain three HTH motifs each able to recognize DNA. However, all PDs recognize highly related DNA sequences, and most HDs also recognize almost identical sites. We show here that different Pax proteins use multiple combinations of their HTHs to recognize several types of target sites. For instance, the Drosophila Paired protein can bind, in vitro, exclusively through its PAI domain, or through a dimer of its HD, or through cooperative interaction between PAI domain and HD. However, prd function in vivo requires the synergistic action of both the PAI domain and the HD. Pax proteins with only a PD appear to require both PAI and RED domains, while a Pax-6 isoform and a new Pax protein, Lune, may rely on the RED domain and HD. We propose a model by which Pax proteins recognize different target genes in vivo through various combinations of their DNA binding domains, thus expanding their recognition repertoire.

  6. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  7. ``Schooling'' of wing pairs in flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif; AML, Courant Collaboration; Physics NYU Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The experimental setup implements two independent flapping wings swimming in tandem. Both are driven with the same prescribed vertical heaving motion, but the horizontal motion is free, which means that the swimmers can take up any relative position and forward speed. Experiments show however clearly coordinated motions, where the pair of wings `crystallize' into specific stable arrangements. The follower wing locks into the path of the leader, adopting its speed, and with a separation distance that takes on one of several discrete values. By systematically varying the kinematics and wing size, we show that the set of stable spacings is dictated by the wavelength of the periodic wake structure. The forces maintaining the pair cohesion are characterized by applying an external force to the follower to perturb it away from the `stable wells'. These results show that hydrodynamics alone is sufficient to induce cohesive and coordinated collective locomotion through a fluid, and we discuss the hypothesis that fish schools and bird flocks also represent stable modes of motion.

  8. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Gardner, Susan

    2012-02-16

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p{sup 2} can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainlymore » makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.« less

  9. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-05-07

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source.

  10. Understanding Fomalhaut as a Cooper pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, F.; Jones, H. R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Fomalhaut is a nearby stellar system and has been found to be a triple based on astrometric observations. With new radial velocity and astrometric data, we study the association between Fomalhaut A, B, and C in a Bayesian framework, finding that the system is gravitationally bound or at least associated. Based on simulations of the system, we find that Fomalhaut C can be easily destabilized through combined perturbations from the Galactic tide and stellar encounters. Considering that observing the disruption of a triple is probably rare in the solar neighbourhood, we conclude that Fomalhaut C is a so-called `gravitational pair' of Fomalhaut A and B. Like the Cooper pair mechanism in superconductors, this phenomenon only appears once the orbital energy of a component becomes comparable with the energy fluctuations caused by the environment. Based on our simulations, we find (1) an upper limit of 8 km s-1 velocity difference is appropriate when selecting binary candidates, and (2) an empirical formula for the escape radius, which is more appropriate than tidal radius when measuring the stability of wide binaries.

  11. Using Dictionary Pair Learning for Seizure Detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Yu, Nana; Zhou, Weidong

    2018-02-13

    Automatic seizure detection is extremely important in the monitoring and diagnosis of epilepsy. The paper presents a novel method based on dictionary pair learning (DPL) for seizure detection in the long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. First, for the EEG data, wavelet filtering and differential filtering are applied, and the kernel function is performed to make the signal linearly separable. In DPL, the synthesis dictionary and analysis dictionary are learned jointly from original training samples with alternating minimization method, and sparse coefficients are obtained by using of linear projection instead of costly [Formula: see text]-norm or [Formula: see text]-norm optimization. At last, the reconstructed residuals associated with seizure and nonseizure sub-dictionary pairs are calculated as the decision values, and the postprocessing is performed for improving the recognition rate and reducing the false detection rate of the system. A total of 530[Formula: see text]h from 20 patients with 81 seizures were used to evaluate the system. Our proposed method has achieved an average segment-based sensitivity of 93.39%, specificity of 98.51%, and event-based sensitivity of 96.36% with false detection rate of 0.236/h.

  12. Maximizing the significance in Higgs boson pair analyses [Mad-Maximized Higgs Pair Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, Felix; Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter

    Here, we study Higgs pair production with a subsequent decay to a pair of photons and a pair of bottoms at the LHC. We use the log-likelihood ratio to identify the kinematic regions which either allow us to separate the di-Higgs signal from backgrounds or to determine the Higgs self-coupling. We find that both regions are separate enough to ensure that details of the background modeling will not affect the determination of the self-coupling. Assuming dominant statistical uncertainties we determine the best precision with which the Higgs self-coupling can be probed in this channel. We finally comment on the samemore » questions at a future 100 TeV collider.« less

  13. Maximizing the significance in Higgs boson pair analyses [Mad-Maximized Higgs Pair Analyses

    DOE PAGES

    Kling, Felix; Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter

    2017-02-22

    Here, we study Higgs pair production with a subsequent decay to a pair of photons and a pair of bottoms at the LHC. We use the log-likelihood ratio to identify the kinematic regions which either allow us to separate the di-Higgs signal from backgrounds or to determine the Higgs self-coupling. We find that both regions are separate enough to ensure that details of the background modeling will not affect the determination of the self-coupling. Assuming dominant statistical uncertainties we determine the best precision with which the Higgs self-coupling can be probed in this channel. We finally comment on the samemore » questions at a future 100 TeV collider.« less

  14. Treatment of pairing correlations based on the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreozzi, F.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Ye, Liu Jian; Porrino, A.

    1985-07-01

    The pairing problem is treated by means of the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators. Exact equations for the seniority-v states of N particles are derived. These equations can be solved by a step-by-step procedure which consists of progressively adding pairs of particles to a core. The theory can be applied at several levels of approximation depending on the number of core states which are taken into account. Some numerical applications to the treatment of v=0, v=1, and v=2 states in the Ni isotopes are performed. The accuracy of various approximations is tested by comparison with exact results. For the seniority-one and seniority-two problems it turns out that the results obtained from the first-order theory are very accurate, while those of higher order calculations are practically exact. Concerning the seniority-zero problem, a fifth-order calculation reproduces quite well the three lowest states.

  15. Assessment of effect of Yb3+ ion pairs on a highly Yb-doped double-clad fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallés, J. A.; Martín, J. C.; Berdejo, V.; Cases, R.; Álvarez, J. M.; Rebolledo, M. Á.

    2018-03-01

    Using a previously validated characterization method based on the careful measurement of the characteristic parameters and fluorescence emission spectra of a highly Yb-doped double-clad fibre, we evaluate the contribution of ion pair induced processes to the output power of a double-clad Yb-doped fibre ring laser. This contribution is proved to be insignificant, contrary to analysis by other authors, who overestimate the role of ion pairs.

  16. Investigation of chemical and spin dynamics in micellized radical pairs by time-resolved stimulated nuclear polarization. Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, A. P.; Bagryanskaya, E. G.; Tarasov, V. F.; Lukzen, N. N.; Sagdeev, R. Z.

    1995-10-01

    A numerical solution of the stochastic Liouville equation for a microreactor model is applied to the theoretical treatment of time-resolved stimulated nuclear polarization data, obtained during the investigation of micellized radical pairs, conducted in two different modes. Escape rate constants and relaxation parameters of radical pairs formed in the photolysis of methyldeoxybenzoin and benzoin in alkyl sulfate micelles of different sizes have been obtained. The conditions of the S-T 0 quantum oscillations in SNP kinetics have been determined.

  17. Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin

    2015-01-01

    Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females’ alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females’ within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases. PMID:25346331

  18. Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin

    2015-01-01

    Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females' alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females' within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    SciTech Connect

    Kadry, Heba, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Zakaria, Nordin, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters.

  20. Schwinger pair production by electric field coupled to inflaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jia-Jia; Li, Bao-Fei; Soda, Jiro; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang; Zhu, Tao

    2018-02-01

    We analytically investigate the Schwinger pair production in the de Sitter background by using the uniform asymptotic approximation method, and show that the equation of motion in general has two turning points, and the nature of these points could be single, double, real or complex, depending on the choice of the free parameters involved in the theory. Different natures of these points lead to different electric currents. In particular, when β ≡ m2/H2‑9/4 is positive, both turning points are complex, and the electric current due to the Schwinger process is highly suppressed, where m and H denote, respectively, the mass of the particle and the Hubble parameter. For the turning points to be real, it is necessary to have β < 0, and the more negative of β, the easier to produce particles. In addition, when β < 0, we also study the particle production when the electric field E is very weak. We find that the electric current in this case is proportional to E1/2 ‑ √|β|, which is strongly enhanced in the weak electric field limit when m < √2 H.

  1. MUTUAL DIFFUSION OF PAIRS OF RARE GASES AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, B.N.; Srivastava, K.P.

    1959-04-01

    The eoefficient of mutual diffusion of the binary gas mixtures Ne--Ar, Ar--Krs and Ne--Kr has been determined at 0, 15, 30s and 45 C. Diffusion is allowed to take place between two diffusion bulbs through a precision capillary tube and samples of gas are withdrawn from one bulb at different times and analyzed by a differential conductivity analyzer. From the experimentally determined values of the diffusion coefficient at different temperatures the unlike interaction parameters for the above gas pairs have been calculated by two different methods on the Lennard-Jones I2:6 model. These values of the force parameters are found tomore » be in good agreement with those obtained from the usual combination rules and also from the thermal diffusion data following the method of Srivastava and Madan. These values are found to reproduce the experimental data on mutual diffusion quite satisfactorily. With Kelvin's method, these data have also been utilized to calculate the self-diffusion coefficient of neon, argons and krypton. (auth)« less

  2. Inertial collapse of bubble pairs near a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahyari Beig, Shahaboddin; Johnsen, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of applications ranging from naval structures to biomedical ultrasound. One important consequence is structural damage to neighboring surfaces following repeated inertial collapse of vapor bubbles. Although the mechanical loading produced by the collapse of a single bubble has been widely investigated, less is known about the detailed dynamics of the collapse of multiple bubbles. In such a problem, the bubble-bubble interactions typically affect the dynamics, e.g., by increasing the non-sphericity of the bubbles and amplifying/hindering the collapse intensity depending on the flow parameters. Here, we quantify the effects of bubble-bubble interactions on the bubble dynamics, as well as the pressures/temperatures produced by the collapse of a pair of gas bubbles near a rigid surface. We perform high-resolution simulations of this problem by solving the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for gas/liquid flows. The results are used to investigate the non-spherical bubble dynamics and characterize the pressure and temperature fields based on the relevant parameters entering the problem: stand-off distance, geometrical configuration (angle, relative size, distance), collapse strength. This research was supported in part by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0751 and NSF Grant CBET 1253157.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dust properties of major-merger galaxy pairs (Domingue+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, D. L.; Cao, C.; Xu, C. K.; Jarrett, T. H.; Ronca, J.; Hill, E.; Jacques, A.

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by Ks magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral-spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral-elliptical (S+E). The Code Investigating GALaxy Emission (CIGALE) software is used to fit dust models to the Two Micron All Sky Survey, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and Herschel flux density measurements, and to derive the parameters describing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contribution, interstellar radiation field, and photodissociation regions. Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not have the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. (1 data file).

  4. Pulsar Polar Cap Heating and Surface Thermal X-ray Emission. 1; Curvature Radiation Pair Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pulsar polar cap (PC) heating produced by positrons returning from the upper pair formation front. Our calculations are based on a self-consistent treatment of the pair dynamics and the effect of electric field screening by the returning positrons. We calculate the resultant X-ray luminosities and discuss the dependence of the PC heating efficiencies on pulsar parameters, such as characteristic spin-down age, spin period, and surface magnetic field strength. In this study we concentrate on the regime where the pairs are produced in a magnetic field by curvature photons emitted by accelerating electrons. Our theoretical results are not in conflict with the available observational x-ray data and suggest that the effect of PC heating should significantly contribute to the thermal x-ray fluxes from middle-aged and old pulsars. The implications for current and future x-ray observations of pulsars are briefly outlined.

  5. Virtual Antiparticle Pairs, the Unit of Charge Epsilon and the QCD Coupling Alpha(sub s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, David

    2001-01-01

    New semi-classical models of virtual antiparticle pairs are used to compute the pair lifetimes, and good agreement with the Heisenberg lifetimes from quantum field theory (QFT) is found. When the results of the new models and QFT are combined, formulae for e and alpha(sub s)(q) are derived in terms of only h and c. The modeling method applies to both the electromagnetic and color forces. Evaluation of the action integral of potential field fluctuation for each interaction potential yields approx. = h/2 for both electromagnetic and color fluctuations, in agreement with QFT. Thus each model is a quantized semiclassical representation for such virtual antiparticle pairs, to good approximation. This work reduces the number of arbitrary parameters of the Standard Model by two from 18 to 16. These are remarkable, unexpected results from a basically classical method.

  6. Piezoelectric detection of ion pairs between sulphonate and catecholamines for flow injection analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Mo, Z; Long, X; Zhang, M

    1999-03-01

    Fundamentals of ion-pair flow injection with piezoelectric detection were investigated experimentally and theoretically for the adsorption of dodecyl phenylsulfonate and interfacial ion-pair formation with epinephrine and l-dopa on silver electrode of quartz crystal microbalance. The influences of sulfonate concentration and operating parameters on the frequency response were demonstrated and provided the possibility for the discriminating determination of mixtures. The selected system of ion-pair flow injection with piezoelectric detection was applied to the determination of epinephrine and l-dopa. Calibration curves were linear in ranges 4.00-850 and 3.50-730 mug ml(-1), with detection limits of 1.22 and 1.05 mug ml(-1) and sampling frequencies of 120 samples h(-1), for epinephrine and l-dopa, respectively. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of catecholamines in pharmaceutical preparations.

  7. A miniaturized microbial fuel cell with three-dimensional graphene macroporous scaffold anode demonstrating a record power density of over 10,000 W m(-3) .

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Tian, He; Gardner, Cameron L; Ren, Tian-Ling; Chae, Junseok

    2016-02-14

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired renewable energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity. This is accomplished via the unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) of a specific species of microbe called the exoelectrogen. Many studies have attempted to improve the power density of MFCs, yet the reported power density is still nearly two orders of magnitude lower than other power sources/converters. Such a low performance can primarily be attributed to two bottlenecks: (i) ineffective electron transfer from microbes located far from the anode and (ii) an insufficient buffer supply to the biofilm. This work takes a novel approach to mitigate these two bottlenecks by integrating a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene scaffold anode in a miniaturized MFC. This implementation has delivered the highest power density reported to date in all MFCs of over 10,000 W m(-3). The miniaturized configuration offers a high surface area to volume ratio and improved mass transfer of biomass and buffers. The 3D graphene macroporous scaffold warrants investigation due to its high specific surface area, high porosity, and excellent conductivity and biocompatibility which facilitates EET and alleviates acidification in the biofilm. Consequently, the 3D scaffold houses an extremely thick and dense biofilm from the Geobacter-enriched culture, delivering an areal/volumetric current density of 15.51 A m(-2)/31,040 A m(-3) and a power density of 5.61 W m(-2)/11,220 W m(-3), a 3.3 fold increase when compared to its planar two-dimensional (2D) control counterparts.

  8. Mucosal immunization with recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing murine gammaherpesvirus-68 genes M2 and M3 can reduce latent viral load.

    PubMed

    Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P; Holst, Peter J

    2009-11-12

    Gammaherpesviruses establish life-long latent infections in their hosts. If the host becomes immunosuppressed, these viruses may reactivate and cause severe disease, and even in immunocompetent individuals the gammaherpesviruses are presumed to have an oncogenic potential. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) is a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily and represents a useful murine model for this category of infections, in which new vaccination strategies may initially be evaluated. Two attenuated variants of MHV-68 have successfully been used as vaccines, but the oncogenic potential of the gammaherpesvirinae speaks against using a similar approach in humans. DNA immunization with plasmids encoding the MHV-68 genes M2 or M3 caused a reduction in either acute or early latent viral load, respectively, but neither immunization had an effect at times later than 14 days post-infection. Adenovirus-based vaccines are substantially more immunogenic than DNA vaccines and can be applied to induce mucosal immunity. Here we show that a significant reduction of the late viral load in the spleens, at 60 days post-infection, was achieved when immunizing mice both intranasally and subcutaneously with adenoviral vectors encoding both M2 and M3. Additionally we show that M3 immunization prevented the usual development of virus-induced splenomegaly at 2-3 weeks post-infection. This is the first time that immunization with a non-replicating vaccine has lead to a significantly reduced viral load at time points beyond 14 days post-infection, and thus demonstrates that a non-replicating vaccine may successfully be employed to reduce the viral burden during chronic gammaherpesvirus infection.

  9. Bonding the superalkali M3O (M = Li and K): An effective strategy to improve the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of the inorganic B40 nanocage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Yu, Guangtao; Zhang, Xueying; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by the fascinating finding of all-boron fullerene B40 (Nat Chem, 2014, 6, 727), we propose a new and effective strategy to construct a series of typical Donor-Acceptor (D-A) frameworks via linking the superalkali M3O (M = Li and K) unit with the low ionization potential to the B40 nanocage with large electron affinity. By means of the density functional theory computations, we have systematically investigated the structures, electronic properties, the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of these modified B40 nanocage systems. Owing to the formation of a B-O chemical bond, these composite systems (M3O)n-B40 (M = Li and K, n = 1 and 2) can possess the considerably large binding energy ranging from 57.0 to 99.8 kcal/mol, indicating their high structure stabilities. Compared with the pristine B40 nanocage, linking the superalkali M3O can effectively narrow the wide energy gap from the original 2.86 eV to 0.61-1.11 eV, and significantly increase the first and second hyperpolarizabilities to as large as 5.00 × 104-2.46 × 105 au and 1.48 × 107-4.85 × 108 au, respectively, owing to the occurrence of evident electron transfer process in this kind of typical D-A framework. These fascinating findings will be advantageous for promoting the potential applications of the inorganic boron-based nanosystems in the new type of electronic nanodevices and high-performance nonlinear optical materials.

  10. Classification of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML M2 and AML M3) using Momentum Back Propagation from Watershed Distance Transform Segmented Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, Esti; Wiharto; Palgunadi, Sarngadi; Nurcahya Pradana, TP

    2017-01-01

    This study uses image processing to analyze white blood cell with leukemia indicated that includes the identification, analysis of shapes and sizes, as well as white blood cell count indicated the symptoms of leukemia. A case study in this research was blood cells, from the type of leukemia Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), M2 and M3 in particular. Image processing operations used for segmentation by utilizing the color conversion from RGB (Red, Green dab Blue) to obtain white blood cell candidates. Furthermore, the white blood cells candidates are separated by other cells with active contour without edge. WBC (White Blood Cell) results still have intersected or overlap condition. Watershed distance transform method can separate overlap of WBC. Furthermore, the separation of the nucleus from the cytoplasm using the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity). The further characteristic extraction process is done by calculating the area WBC, WBC edge, roundness, the ratio of the nucleus, the mean and standard deviation of pixel intensities. The feature extraction results are used for training and testing in determining the classification of AML: M2 and M3 by using the momentum backpropagation algorithm. The classification process is done by testing the numeric data input from the feature extraction results that have been entered in the database. K-Fold validation is used to divide the amount of training data and to test the classification of AML M2 and M3. The experiment results of eight images trials, the result, was 94.285% per cell accuracy and 75% per image accuracy

  11. Chemical Synthesis of a 5'-Terminal TMG-Capped Triribonucleotide m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA of U1 RNA.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Mitsuo; Kadokura, Michinori; Satoh, Takahiko; Seio, Kohji; Wada, Takeshi; Fischer, Utz; Sumpter, Vicki; Lührmann, Reinhard

    1996-06-26

    The 5'-terminal TMG-capped triribonucleotide, m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA, has been synthesized by condensation of an appropriately protected triribonucleotide derivative of ppAmpUmpA with a new TMG-capping reagent. During this total synthesis, it was found that the regioselective 2'-O-methylation of 3',5'-O-(1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl)-N-(4-monomethoxytrityl)adenosine was achieved by use of MeI/Ag(2)O without affecting the base moiety. A new route to 2-N,2-N-dimethylguanosine from guanosine via a three-step reaction has also been developed by reductive methylation using paraformaldehyde and sodium cyanoborohydride. These key intermediates were used as starting materials for the construction of a fully protected derivative of pAmpUmpA and a TMG-capping reagent of Im-pm(3)(2,2,7)G. The target TMG-capped tetramer, m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA, was synthesized by condensation of a partially protected triribonucleotide 5'-terminal diphosphate species, ppA(MMTr)mpUmpA, with Im-pm(3)(2,2,7)G followed by treatment with 80% acetic acid. The structure of m(3)(2,2,7)G(5)(')pppAmpUmpA was characterized by (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy as well as enzymatic assay using snake venom phosphodiesterase, calf intestinal phosphatase, and nuclease P1.

  12. Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Allan E.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter identification for nonlinear aerodynamic systems is examined. It is presumed that the underlying model can be arranged into an input/output (I/O) differential operator equation of a generic form. The algorithm estimation is especially efficient since the equation error can be integrated exactly given any I/O pair to obtain an algebraic function of the parameters. The algorithm for parameter identification was extended to the order determination problem for linear differential system. The degeneracy in a least squares estimate caused by feedback was addressed. A method of frequency analysis for determining the transfer function G(j omega) from transient I/O data was formulated using complex valued Fourier based modulating functions in contrast with the trigonometric modulating functions for the parameter estimation problem. A simulation result of applying the algorithm is given under noise-free conditions for a system with a low pass transfer function.

  13. Using Pair Programming to Teach CAD Based Engineering Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Pair programming was introduced into a course in engineering graphics that emphasizes solid modeling using SolidWorks. In pair programming, two students work at a single computer, and periodically trade off roles as driver (hands on the keyboard and mouse) and navigator (discuss strategy and design issues). Pair programming was used in a design…

  14. Linking Associative and Serial List Memory: Pairs Versus Triples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Glaholt, Mackenzie G.; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Paired associates and serial list memory are typically investigated separately. An "isolation principle" (J. B. Caplan, 2005) was proposed to explain behavior in both paradigms by using a single model, in which serial list and paired associates memory differ only in how isolated pairs of items are from interference from other studied items. In…

  15. Modeling the secular evolution of migrating planet pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michtchenko, T. A.; Rodríguez, A.

    2011-10-01

    The secular regime of motion of multi-planetary systems is universal; in contrast with the 'accidental' resonant motion, characteristic only for specific configurations of the planets, secular motion is present everywhere in phase space, even inside the resonant region. The secular behavior of a pair of planets evolving under dissipative forces is the principal subject of this study, particularly, the case when the dissipative forces affect the planetary semi-major axes and the planets move inward/outward the central star, the process known as planet migration. Based on the fundamental concepts of conservative and dissipative dynamics of the three-body problem, we develop a qualitative model of the secular evolution of the migrating planetary pair. Our approach is based on analysis of the energy and the orbital angular momentum exchange between the two-planet system and an external medium; thus no specific kind of dissipative forces is invoked. We show that, under assumption that dissipation is weak and slow, the evolutionary routes of the migrating planets are traced by the Mode I and Mode II stationary solutions of the conservative secular problem. The ultimate convergence and the evolution of the system along one of these secular modes of motion is determined uniquely by the condition that the dissipation rate is sufficiently smaller than the proper secular frequency of the system. We show that it is possible to reassemble the starting configurations and migration history of the systems on the basis of their final states and consequently to constrain the parameters of the physical processes involved.

  16. The stratospheric arrival pair in infrasound propagation.

    PubMed

    Waxler, Roger; Evers, Läslo G; Assink, Jelle; Blom, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    The ideal case of a deep and well-formed stratospheric duct for long range infrasound propagation in the absence of tropospheric ducting is considered. A canonical form, that of a pair of arrivals, for ground returns of impulsive signals in a stratospheric duct is determined. The canonical form is derived from the geometrical acoustics approximation, and is validated and extended through full wave modeling. The full caustic structure of the field of ray paths is found and used to determine phase relations between the contributions to the wavetrain from different propagation paths. Finally, comparison with data collected from the 2005 fuel gas depot explosion in Buncefield, England is made. The correspondence between the theoretical results and the observations is shown to be quite good.

  17. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOEpatents

    Sessler, A.M.; Dawson, J.

    1993-12-14

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source. 6 figures.

  18. Variable soft X-ray excesses in active galactic nuclei from nonthermal electron-positron pair cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Coppi, Paolo S.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study of the formation of steep soft X-ray excesses that are superposed on flatter, hard X-ray power-law spectra in nonthermal electron-positron pair cascade sources, the soft excess in pair-cascade AGN models appears as a steep power law superposed on the tail of the UV bump and the flat nonthermal (hard X-ray) power law. The model-parameter space in which an excess in soft X-rays is visible is ascertained, and the time-variability of soft excesses in pair cascade models is examined. It is established that the parameter space in which soft excesses appear encompasses the range of preferred input parameters for a recently development Compton reflection model of UV and X-ray emission from the central engine of an AGN.

  19. Asteroid clusters similar to asteroid pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.; Fatka, P.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Scheeres, D. J.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Vraštil, J.; Pray, D. P.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Inasaridze, R. Ya.; Ayvazian, V. R.; Kvaratskhelia, O. I.; Zhuzhunadze, V. T.; Husárik, M.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Világi, J.; Kornoš, L.; Gajdoš, Š.; Burkhonov, O.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Donchev, Z.; Borisov, G.; Bonev, T.; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Molotov, I. E.

    2018-04-01

    We studied the membership, size ratio and rotational properties of 13 asteroid clusters consisting of between 3 and 19 known members that are on similar heliocentric orbits. By backward integrations of their orbits, we confirmed their cluster membership and estimated times elapsed since separation of the secondaries (the smaller cluster members) from the primary (i.e., cluster age) that are between 105 and a few 106 years. We ran photometric observations for all the cluster primaries and a sample of secondaries and we derived their accurate absolute magnitudes and rotation periods. We found that 11 of the 13 clusters follow the same trend of primary rotation period vs mass ratio as asteroid pairs that was revealed by Pravec et al. (2010). We generalized the model of the post-fission system for asteroid pairs by Pravec et al. (2010) to a system of N components formed by rotational fission and we found excellent agreement between the data for the 11 asteroid clusters and the prediction from the theory of their formation by rotational fission. The two exceptions are the high-mass ratio (q > 0.7) clusters of (18777) Hobson and (22280) Mandragora for which a different formation mechanism is needed. Two candidate mechanisms for formation of more than one secondary by rotational fission were published: the secondary fission process proposed by Jacobson and Scheeres (2011) and a cratering collision event onto a nearly critically rotating primary proposed by Vokrouhlický et al. (2017). It will have to be revealed from future studies which of the clusters were formed by one or the other process. To that point, we found certain further interesting properties and features of the asteroid clusters that place constraints on the theories of their formation, among them the most intriguing being the possibility of a cascade disruption for some of the clusters.

  20. Dig Hazard Assessment Using a Stereo Pair of Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2012-01-01

    This software evaluates the terrain within reach of a lander s robotic arm for dig hazards using a stereo pair of cameras that are part of the lander s sensor system. A relative level of risk is calculated for a set of dig sectors. There are two versions of this software; one is designed to run onboard a lander as part of the flight software, and the other runs on a PC under Linux as a ground tool that produces the same results generated on the lander, given stereo images acquired by the lander and downlinked to Earth. Onboard dig hazard assessment is accomplished by executing a workspace panorama command sequence. This sequence acquires a set of stereo pairs of images of the terrain the arm can reach, generates a set of candidate dig sectors, and assesses the dig hazard of each candidate dig sector. The 3D perimeter points of candidate dig sectors are generated using configurable parameters. A 3D reconstruction of the terrain in front of the lander is generated using a set of stereo images acquired from the mast cameras. The 3D reconstruction is used to evaluate the dig goodness of each candidate dig sector based on a set of eight metrics. The eight metrics are: 1. The maximum change in elevation in each sector, 2. The elevation standard deviation in each sector, 3. The forward tilt of each sector with respect to the payload frame, 4. The side tilt of each sector with respect to the payload frame, 5. The maximum size of missing data regions in each sector, 6. The percentage of a sector that has missing data, 7. The roughness of each sector, and 8. Monochrome intensity standard deviation of each sector. Each of the eight metrics forms a goodness image layer where the goodness value of each sector ranges from 0 to 1. Goodness values of 0 and 1 correspond to high and low risk, respectively. For each dig sector, the eight goodness values are merged by selecting the lowest one. Including the merged goodness image layer, there are nine goodness image layers for each

  1. Reactivity of Hydride Bridges in High-Spin [3M-3(μ-H)] Clusters (M = FeII, CoII).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yousoon; Anderton, Kevin J; Sloane, Forrest T; Ermert, David M; Abboud, Khalil A; García-Serres, Ricardo; Murray, Leslie J

    2015-08-26

    The designed [3M-3(μ-H)] clusters (M = Fe(II), Co(II)) Fe3H3L (1-H) and Co3H3L (2-H) [where L(3-) is a tris(β-diketiminate) cyclophane] were synthesized by treating the corresponding M3Br3L complexes with KBEt3H. From single-crystal X-ray analysis, the hydride ligands are sterically protected by the cyclophane ligand, and these complexes selectively react with CO2 over other unsaturated substrates (e.g., CS2, Me3SiCCH, C2H2, and CH3CN). The reaction of 1-H or 2-H with CO2 at room temperature yielded Fe3(OCHO)(H)2L (1-CO2) or Co3(OCHO)(H)2L (2-CO2), respectively, which evidence the differential reactivity of the hydride ligands within these complexes. The analogous reactions at elevated temperatures revealed a distinct difference in the reactivity pattern for 2-H as compared to 1-H; Fe3(OCHO)3L (1-3CO2) was generated from 1-H, while 2-H afforded only 2-CO2.

  2. Compositional diversity of near-, far-side transitory zone around Naonobu, Webb and Sinus Successus craters: Inferences from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Rishikesh; Ramakrishnan, D.; Singh, K. D.

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data for studying compositional variation in the near-, far-side transition zone of the lunar surface. For this purpose, the radiance values of the M3 data were corrected for illumination and emission related effects and converted to apparent reflectance. Dimensionality of the calibrated reflectance image cube was reduced using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and endmembers were extracted by using Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm. The selected endmembers were linearly unmixed and resolved for mineralogy using United States Geological Survey (USGS) library spectra of minerals. These mineralogically resolved endmembers were used to map the compositional variability within, and outside craters using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Cross validation for certain litho types was attempted using band ratios like Optical Maturity (OMAT), Color Ratio Composite and Integrated Band Depth ratio (IBD). The identified lithologies for highland and basin areas match well with published works and strongly support depth related magmatic differentiation. Prevalence of pigeonite-basalt, pigeonite-norite and pyroxenite in crater peaks and floors are unique to the investigated area and are attributed to local, lateral compositional variability in magma composition due to pressure, temperature, and rate of cooling.

  3. Degradation of submandibular gland AQP5 by parasympathetic denervation of chorda tympani and its recovery by cevimeline, an M3 muscarinic receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefei; Azlina, Ahmad; Karabasil, Mileva Ratko; Purwanti, Nunuk; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Yao, Chenjuan; Akamatsu, Tetsuya; Hosoi, Kazuo

    2008-07-01

    By chorda tympani denervation (CTD, parasympathectomy), the aquaporin 5 (AQP5), but not AQP1, protein level in the rat submandibular gland (SMG) was significantly decreased, dropping to 37% of that of the contralateral gland at 4 wk. The protein levels of AQP5 and AQP1 were not significantly affected by denervation of the cervical sympathetic trunk (sympathectomy). Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride, an M3 muscarinic receptor agonist (10 mg/kg for 7 days po), but not pilocarpine (0.3 mg/kg for 7 days po), recovered the AQP5 protein level reduced by CTD and increased the AQP1 protein level above the control one. The mRNA level of AQP5 was scarcely affected by CTD and cevimeline hydrochloride administration. Administration of chloroquine (50 mg/kg for 7 days po), a denaturant of lysosomes, increased the AQP5 protein level reduced by CTD. An extract obtained from the submandibular lysosomal fraction degraded the AQP5 protein in the total membrane fraction in vitro. These results suggest the possible regulation of the AQP5 protein level in the SMG by the parasympathetic nerves/M3 muscarinic receptor agonist and imply the involvement of lysosomal enzymes, but not a transcriptional mechanism, in this regulation.

  4. A bis(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone)-EDTA derivative as a strong chelator for M3+ hard metal ions: complexation ability and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Gama, Sofia; Dron, Paul; Chaves, Silvia; Farkas, Etelka; Santos, M Amélia

    2009-08-21

    The study of chelating compounds is very important to solve problems related to human metal overload. 3-Hydroxy-3-pyridinones (HP), namely deferiprone, have been clinically used for chelating therapy of Fe and Al over the last decade. A multi-disciplinary search for alternative molecules led us to develop poly-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinones) to increase metal chelation efficacy. We present herein a complexation study of a new bis-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone)-EDTA derivative with a set of M(3+) hard metal ions (M = Fe, Al, Ga), as well as Zn(2+), a biologically relevant metal ion. Thus a systematic aqueous solution equilibrium study was performed using potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, NMR methods). These set of results enables the establishment of specific models as well as the determination of thermodynamic stability constants and coordination modes of the metal complexes. The results indicate that this ligand has a higher affinity for chelating to these hard metal ions than deferiprone, and that the coordination occurs mostly through the HP moieties. Furthermore, it was also found that this ligand has a higher selectivity for chelating to M(3+) hard metal ions (M = Fe, Al, Ga) than Zn(2+).

  5. Endosulfan induced alteration in bacterial protein profile and RNA yield of Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6, and Rhodococcus sp. M2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu; Singh, Dileep Kumar

    2014-01-30

    Three bacterial strains identified as Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2 were isolated by soil enrichment with endosulfan followed by shake flask enrichment technique. They were efficiently degrading endosulfan in the NSM (non sulfur medium) broth. Degradation of endosulfan was faster with the cell free extract of bacterial cells grown in the sulfur deficient medium (NSM) supplemented with endosulfan than that of nutrient rich medium (Luria Bertani). In the cell free extract of NSM supplemented with endosulfan as sole sulfur source, a unique band was visualized on SDS-PAGE but not with magnesium sulfate as the sole sulfur source in NSM and LB with endosulfan. Expression of a unique polypeptide band was speculated to be induced by endosulfan under sulfur starved condition. These unique polypeptide bands were identified as OmpK35 protein, sulfate binding protein and outer membrane porin protein, respectively, in Klebsiella sp. M3, Achromobacter sp. M6 and Rhodococcus sp. M2. Endosulfan showed dose dependent negative effect on total RNA yield of bacterial strains in nutrient rich medium. Absence of plasmid DNA indicated the presence of endosulfan metabolizing gene on genomic DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical characteristics of sol-gel derived M3SiO5:Eu3+ (M = Sr, Ca and Mg) nanophosphors for display device technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devender; Sheoran, Suman; Bhagwan, Shri; Kadyan, Sonika

    2016-12-01

    A series of trivalent europium-doped M3SiO5 (M = Sr, Ca and Mg) phosphors were synthesized using sol-gel process at 950°C. Samples were further reheated at high temperature to study the effect of reheating on crystal structure and optical characteristics. X-ray diffraction measurement of these materials was carried out to know the crystal structure. Diffraction pattern showed monoclinic structure having space group Cm for Ca3SiO5 materials. However, tetragonal phase with space group P4/ncc was observed for Sr3SiO5 materials. Mg3SiO5 material show mixed diffraction peaks at 950 and 1,150°C. Transmission electron microscopic analysis was used to estimate the particle size of silicates. Photoluminescence emission spectra were recorded to check the luminescence properties of prepared materials. These phosphors exhibited a strong orange-red light under excitation at 395 nm. The prepared phosphors exhibited most intense peak in 610-620 nm region due to the 5D0→7F2 transition of europium (III) ion available in lattice. To overcome the deficiency of red silicates, M3SiO5 materials were explored and they might be integrated with ultraviolet LEDs to generate light which may be suitable for display applications.

  7. Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects: First Results of Experiments on the LIFE-TARSE Mission on FOTON-M3 (September 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebecchi, Lorena; Altiero, Tiziana; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Bertolani, Roberto; Negroni, Manuela; Rizzo, Angela M.

    2009-08-01

    The Tardigrade Resistance to Space Effects (TARSE) project, part of the mission LIFE on FOTON-M3, analyzed the effects of the space environment on desiccated and active tardigrades. Four experiments were conducted in which the eutardigrade Macrobiotus richtersi was used as a model species. Desiccated (in leaf litter or on paper) and hydrated tardigrades (fed or starved) were flown on FOTON-M3 for 12 days in September 2007, which, for the first time, allowed for a comparison of the effects of the space environment on desiccated and on active animals. In this paper, we report the experimental design of the TARSE project and data on tardigrade survival. In addition, data on survival, genomic DNA integrity, Hsp70 and Hsp90 expressions, antioxidant enzyme contents and activities, and life history traits were compared between hydrated starved tardigrades flown in space and those maintained on Earth as a control. Microgravity and radiation had no effect on survival or DNA integrity of active tardigrades. Hsp expressions between the animals in space and the control animals on Earth were similar. Spaceflight induced an increase of glutathione content and its related enzymatic activities. Catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased with spaceflight, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances did not change. During the flight mission, tardigrades molted, and females laid eggs. Several eggs hatched, and the newborns exhibited normal morphology and behavior.

  8. Coordination-Driven Self-Assembly of M3L2 Trigonal Cages from Pre-organized Metalloligands Incorporating Octahedral Metal Centers and Fluorescent Detection of Nitroaromatics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Vajpayee, Vaishali; Shanmugaraju, Sankarasekaran; Zheng, Yao-Rong; Zhao, Zhigang; Kim, Hyunuk

    2011-01-01

    The design and preparation of novel M3L2 trigonal cages via coordination-driven self-assembly of pre-organized metalloligands containing octahedral aluminum(III), gallium(III), or ruthenium(II) centers is described. By employing tritopic or dinuclear linear metalloligands and appropriate complementary subunits, M3L2 trigonal-bipyramidal and trigonal prismatic cages are self-assembled under mild conditions. These 3-D cages were characterized with multinuclear NMR spectroscopy (1H and 31P) and high-resolution electronic spray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). The structure of one such trigonal prismatic cage, self-assembled from an arene ruthenium metalloligand, was confirmed via single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The fluorescent nature of these prisms, due to the presence of their electron-rich ethynyl functionalities, prompted photophysical studies which revealed that electron-deficient nitroaromatics are effective quenchers of the cages' emission. Excited state charge transfer from the prisms to the nitroaromatic substrates can be used as the basis for developing selective and discriminatory turn-off fluorescent sensors for nitroaromatics. PMID:21214171

  9. Characterization of thimet- and neurolysin-like activities in Escherichia coli M 3 A peptidases and description of a specific substrate.

    PubMed

    Paschoalin, Thaysa; Carmona, Adriana K; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Luiz; Travassos, Luiz R

    2005-09-01

    M 3 A oligopeptidases from Escherichia coli, with hydrolytic properties similar to Zn-dependent mammalian thimet oligopeptidase (EP 24.15) and neurolysin (EP 24.16), were studied aiming at identification of comparative enzyme and substrate specificity, hydrolytic products, and susceptibility to inhibitors. Fluorescent peptides, neurotensin (NT) and bradykinin (BK), were used as substrates for bacterial lysates. Bacterial enzymes were totally inhibited by o-phenanthrolin, JA-2 and partially by Pro-Ile, but not by leupeptin, PMSF, E-64, and Z-Pro-Prolinal, using internally quenched Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp as substrate. The molecular mass of the bacterial oligopeptidase activity (77--78 kDa) was determined by gel filtration, and the effect of inhibitors, including captopril, suggested that it results from a combination of oligopeptidase A (OpdA) and peptidyl dipeptidase Dcp (77.1 and 77.5 kDa, respectively). Recombinant OpdA cloned from the same E. coli strain entirely reproduced the primary cleavage of fluorescent peptides, NT and BK, by the bacterial lysate. Genes encoding these M 3 A enzymes were those recognized in E. coli genome, bearing identity at the amino acid level (25--31%) with mammalian Zn-dependent oligopeptidases. We also describe a substrate, Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp, that differentiates bacterial and mammalian oligopeptidases.

  10. Computational insights into the concomitant changes of hollow interior evolution in [SbnAunSbn]m (n=3, 4, 5, 6; m= -3, -2, -1, -2) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tingting; Ning, Ping; Tang, Lihong; Li, Kai; Bao, Shuangyou; Jin, Xu; Song, Xin; Zhang, Xiuying; Han, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    A series of novel all-metal sandwich species, [SbnAunSbn]m (n= 3, 4, 5, 6; m= -3, -2, -1, -2), are carefully designed and are systematically investigated in term of structure, bonding nature, stability, and potential application. These results show that [SbnAunSbn]m (n=3, 4, 5, 6; m= -3, -2, -1, -2), have local minimum values on their potential energy surfaces. For the Sb-Sb and Sb-Au bond, they are obviously covalent features, while in Au-Au, there is a typical aurophilic interaction. Furthermore, these species present expected stability owing to the positive dissociation energy, great Egap, ionization potential (IP), aromaticity and perfected mechanical stability. Interestingly, [Sb5Au5Sb5]- and [Sb6Au6Sb6]2- are aromatic, while both [Sb3Au3Sb3]3- and [Sb4Au4Sb4]2- possess conflicting aromaticity. And all the title species hold tube aromaticty and δ aromaticty. prediction The application suggests that the Sb site is favorable for absorbing CO in the units, and [Sb3Au3Sb3]3- is more suitable than others; CO is absorbed by the p-p interaction between the C and Sb atoms.

  11. Exotic superfluidity and pairing phenomena in atomic Fermi gases in mixed dimensions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leifeng; Che, Yanming; Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin

    2017-10-11

    Atomic Fermi gases have been an ideal platform for simulating conventional and engineering exotic physical systems owing to their multiple tunable control parameters. Here we investigate the effects of mixed dimensionality on the superfluid and pairing phenomena of a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas with a short-range pairing interaction, while one component is confined on a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice whereas the other is in a homogeneous 3D continuum. We study the phase diagram and the pseudogap phenomena throughout the entire BCS-BEC crossover, using a pairing fluctuation theory. We find that the effective dimensionality of the non-interacting lattice component can evolve from quasi-3D to quasi-1D, leading to strong Fermi surface mismatch. Upon pairing, the system becomes effectively quasi-two dimensional in the BEC regime. The behavior of T c bears similarity to that of a regular 3D population imbalanced Fermi gas, but with a more drastic departure from the regular 3D balanced case, featuring both intermediate temperature superfluidity and possible pair density wave ground state. Unlike a simple 1D optical lattice case, T c in the mixed dimensions has a constant BEC asymptote.

  12. PAIRS, The GIS-Based Incident Response System for Pennsylvania, and NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Eric; Arbegast, Daniel; Maynard, Nancy; Vicente, Gilberto

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years the Pennsylvania Departments of Environmental Protection (DEP), Health (DOH), and Agriculture (PDA) built the GIs-based Pennsylvania West Nile Surveillance System. That system has become a model for collecting data that has a field component, laboratory component, reporting and mapping component, and a public information component. Given the success of the West Nile Virus System and the events of September 11, 2001, DEP then embarked on the development of the Pennsylvania Incident Response System, or PAIRS. PAIRS is an effective GIs-based approach to providing a system for response to incidents of any kind, including terrorism because it is building upon the existing experience, infrastructure and databases that were successfully developed to respond to the West Nile Virus by DEP, DOH, and PDA. The proposed system can be described as one that supports data acquisition, laboratory forensics, decision making/response, and communications. Decision makers will have tools to view and analyze data from various sources and, at the same time, to communicate with the large numbers of people responding to the same incident. Recent collaborations with NASA partners are creating mechanisms for the PAIRS system to incorporate space-based and other remote sensing geophysical parameters relevant to public health assessment and management, such as surface temperatures, precipitation, land cover/land use change, and humidity. This presentation will describe the PAIRS system and outline the Pennsylvania-NASA collaboration for integration of space-based data into the PAIRS system.

  13. Interlayer-coupled spin vortex pairs and their response to external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintz, Sebastian; Bunce, Christopher; Banholzer, Anja; Körner, Michael; Strache, Thomas; Mattheis, Roland; McCord, Jeffrey; Raabe, Jörg; Quitmann, Christoph; Erbe, Artur; Fassbender, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    We report on the response of multilayer spin textures to static magnetic fields. Coupled magnetic vortex pairs in trilayer elements (ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic) are imaged directly by means of layer-selective magnetic x-ray microscopy. We observe two different circulation configurations with parallel and opposing senses of magnetization rotation at remanence. Upon application of a field, all of the vortex pairs investigated react with a displacement of their cores. For purely dipolar coupled pairs, the individual core displacements are similar to those of an isolated single-layer vortex, but also a noticeable effect of the mutual stray fields is detected. Vortex pairs that are linked by an additional interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), which is either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, mainly exhibit a layer-congruent response. We find that, apart from a possible decoupling at higher fields, these strict IEC vortex pairs can be described by a single-layer model with effective material parameters. This result implies the possibility to design multilayer spin structures with arbitrary effective magnetization.

  14. Brueckner G -matrix approach for neutron-proton pairing correlations in the deformed BCS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Eunja; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Šimkovic, F.

    2015-10-01

    Ground states of even-even Ge isotopes with mass number A =64 -76 have been studied in the deformed Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory by taking neutron-proton (n p ) pairing correlations as well as neutron-neutron (n n ) and proton-proton (p p ) pairing correlations. The n p pairing has two different modes J =0 ,T =1 (isotriplet) and J =1 ,T =0 (isosinglet). In this work, the Brueckner G matrix, based on the CD-Bonn potential, has been exploited to reduce the ambiguity regarding nucleon-nucleon interactions inside nuclei compared to the results by a simple schematic phenomenological force. We found that the G matrix plays important roles to obtain reasonable descriptions of even-even nuclei compared to the schematic force. The n p pairing strength has been shown to have a clear correlation with quadrupole deformation parameter β2 for the isotopes, and affects the smearing of the Fermi surfaces of not only N =Z nuclei but also N ≠Z nuclei. In particular, the coexistence of the like particle (n n and p p ) and the n p pairing modes was found to become more salient by the G -matrix approach than by the schematic force approach.

  15. A natively paired antibody library yields drug leads with higher sensitivity and specificity than a randomly paired antibody library.

    PubMed

    Adler, Adam S; Bedinger, Daniel; Adams, Matthew S; Asensio, Michael A; Edgar, Robert C; Leong, Renee; Leong, Jackson; Mizrahi, Rena A; Spindler, Matthew J; Bandi, Srinivasa Rao; Huang, Haichun; Tawde, Pallavi; Brams, Peter; Johnson, David S

    2018-04-01

    Deep sequencing and single-chain variable fragment (scFv) yeast display methods are becoming more popular for discovery of therapeutic antibody candidates in mouse B cell repertoires. In this study, we compare a deep sequencing and scFv display method that retains native heavy and light chain pairing with a related method that randomly pairs heavy and light chain. We performed the studies in a humanized mouse, using interleukin 21 receptor (IL-21R) as a test immunogen. We identified 44 high-affinity binder scFv with the native pairing method and 100 high-affinity binder scFv with the random pairing method. 30% of the natively paired scFv binders were also discovered with the randomly paired method, and 13% of the randomly paired binders were also discovered with the natively paired method. Additionally, 33% of the scFv binders discovered only in the randomly paired library were initially present in the natively paired pre-sort library. Thus, a significant proportion of "randomly paired" scFv were actually natively paired. We synthesized and produced 46 of the candidates as full-length antibodies and subjected them to a panel of binding assays to characterize their therapeutic potential. 87% of the antibodies were verified as binding IL-21R by at least one assay. We found that antibodies with native light chains were more likely to bind IL-21R than antibodies with non-native light chains, suggesting a higher false positive rate for antibodies from the randomly paired library. Additionally, the randomly paired method failed to identify nearly half of the true natively paired binders, suggesting a higher false negative rate. We conclude that natively paired libraries have critical advantages in sensitivity and specificity for antibody discovery programs.

  16. Molecular recognition of DNA base pairs by the formamido/pyrrole and formamido/imidazole pairings in stacked polyamides

    PubMed Central

    Buchmueller, Karen L.; Staples, Andrew M.; Uthe, Peter B.; Howard, Cameron M.; Pacheco, Kimberly A. O.; Cox, Kari K.; Henry, James A.; Bailey, Suzanna L.; Horick, Sarah M.; Nguyen, Binh; Wilson, W. David; Lee, Moses

    2005-01-01

    Polyamides containing an N-terminal formamido (f) group bind to the minor groove of DNA as staggered, antiparallel dimers in a sequence-specific manner. The formamido group increases the affinity and binding site size, and it promotes the molecules to stack in a staggered fashion thereby pairing itself with either a pyrrole (Py) or an imidazole (Im). There has not been a systematic study on the DNA recognition properties of the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings. These pairings were analyzed here in the context of f-ImPyPy, f-ImPyIm, f-PyPyPy and f-PyPyIm, which contain the central pairing modes, –ImPy– and –PyPy–. The specificity of these triamides towards symmetrical recognition sites allowed for the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings to be directly compared by SPR, CD and ΔTM experiments. The f/Py pairing, when placed next to the –ImPy– or –PyPy– central pairings, prefers A/T and T/A base pairs to G/C base pairs, suggesting that f/Py has similar DNA recognition specificity to Py/Py. With –ImPy– central pairings, f/Im prefers C/G base pairs (>10 times) to the other Watson–Crick base pairs; therefore, f/Im behaves like the Py/Im pair. However, the f/Im pairing is not selective for the C/G base pair when placed next to the –PyPy– central pairings. PMID:15703305

  17. Molecular recognition of DNA base pairs by the formamido/pyrrole and formamido/imidazole pairings in stacked polyamides.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Karen L; Staples, Andrew M; Uthe, Peter B; Howard, Cameron M; Pacheco, Kimberly A O; Cox, Kari K; Henry, James A; Bailey, Suzanna L; Horick, Sarah M; Nguyen, Binh; Wilson, W David; Lee, Moses

    2005-01-01

    Polyamides containing an N-terminal formamido (f) group bind to the minor groove of DNA as staggered, antiparallel dimers in a sequence-specific manner. The formamido group increases the affinity and binding site size, and it promotes the molecules to stack in a staggered fashion thereby pairing itself with either a pyrrole (Py) or an imidazole (Im). There has not been a systematic study on the DNA recognition properties of the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings. These pairings were analyzed here in the context of f-ImPyPy, f-ImPyIm, f-PyPyPy and f-PyPyIm, which contain the central pairing modes, -ImPy- and -PyPy-. The specificity of these triamides towards symmetrical recognition sites allowed for the f/Py and f/Im terminal pairings to be directly compared by SPR, CD and DeltaT (M) experiments. The f/Py pairing, when placed next to the -ImPy- or -PyPy- central pairings, prefers A/T and T/A base pairs to G/C base pairs, suggesting that f/Py has similar DNA recognition specificity to Py/Py. With -ImPy- central pairings, f/Im prefers C/G base pairs (>10 times) to the other Watson-Crick base pairs; therefore, f/Im behaves like the Py/Im pair. However, the f/Im pairing is not selective for the C/G base pair when placed next to the -PyPy- central pairings.

  18. A systematic molecular dynamics study of nearest-neighbor effects on base pair and base pair step conformations and fluctuations in B-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Richard; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Beveridge, David; Bishop, Thomas C.; Case, David A.; Cheatham, Thomas; Dixit, Surjit; Jayaram, B.; Lankas, Filip; Laughton, Charles; Maddocks, John H.; Michon, Alexis; Osman, Roman; Orozco, Modesto; Perez, Alberto; Singh, Tanya; Spackova, Nada; Sponer, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    It is well recognized that base sequence exerts a significant influence on the properties of DNA and plays a significant role in protein–DNA interactions vital for cellular processes. Understanding and predicting base sequence effects requires an extensive structural and dynamic dataset which is currently unavailable from experiment. A consortium of laboratories was consequently formed to obtain this information using molecular simulations. This article describes results providing information not only on all 10 unique base pair steps, but also on all possible nearest-neighbor effects on these steps. These results are derived from simulations of 50–100 ns on 39 different DNA oligomers in explicit solvent and using a physiological salt concentration. We demonstrate that the simulations are converged in terms of helical and backbone parameters. The results show that nearest-neighbor effects on base pair steps are very significant, implying that dinucleotide models are insufficient for predicting sequence-dependent behavior. Flanking base sequences can notably lead to base pair step parameters in dynamic equilibrium between two conformational sub-states. Although this study only provides limited data on next-nearest-neighbor effects, we suggest that such effects should be analyzed before attempting to predict the sequence-dependent behavior of DNA. PMID:19850719

  19. Joint M3 and Diviner Analysis of the Mineralogy, Glass Composition, and Country Rock Content of Pyroclastic Deposits in Oppenheimer Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Kristen A.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Allen, Carlton C.; Paige, David A.; Bell, James F., III

    2013-01-01

    Here we present our analysis of the near- and mid-infrared spectral properties of pyroclastic deposits within the floor fractured Oppenheimer Crater that are hypothesized to be Vulcanian in origin. These are the first results of our global study of lunar pyroclastic deposits aimed at constraining the range of eruption processes on the Moon. In the near-infrared, we have employed a new method of spectral analysis developed in Horgan et al. (2013) of the 1 ?m iron absorption band in Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra. By analyzing both the position and shape of the 1 ?m band we can detect and map the distribution of minerals, glasses, and mixtures of these phases in pyroclastic deposits. We are also using mid-infrared spectra from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment to develop 200 m/pixel Christiansen Feature (CF) maps, which correlate with silica abundance. One of the benefits of using CF maps for analysis of pyroclastic deposits is that they can be used to detect silicic country rock that may have been emplaced by Vulcanian-style eruptions, and are sensitive to iron abundance in glasses, neither of which is possible in the near-infrared. M3 analysis reveals that the primary spectral endmembers are low-calcium pyroxene and iron-bearing glass, with only minor high-calcium pyroxene, and no detectable olivine. The large deposit in the south shows higher and more extensive glass concentrations than the surrounding deposits. We interpret the M3 spectra of the pyroclastic deposits as indicating a mixture of low-calcium pyroxene country rock and juvenile glass, and no significant olivine. Analysis of Diviner CF maps of the Oppenheimer crater floor indicates an average CF value of 8.16, consistent with a mixture of primarily plagioclase and some pyroxene. The average CF values of the pyroclastic deposits range from 8.31 in the SW to 8.24 in the SE. Since CF values within the deposits are as high as 8.49, the lower average CF

  20. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter

    2015-07-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within

  1. Interpreting anomalous electron pairs as new particle decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczynski, Henryk

    1999-08-01

    In heavy particle decays found in cosmic ray interactions recorded in the JACEE emulsion chambers, multiple electron pairs were previously reported. These pairs apparently originated from conversions of photons emitted in the decays. It is difficult to explain the overall properties of these decays in terms of known heavy particle decay modes. A recently published compilation of low-energy nuclear data suggests existence of excess electron pairs with invariant mass about 9 MeV/c2 , which may be explained by postulating a new neutral boson decaying into the electron pair. The feasibility of explaining the JACEE electron pairs with this hypothesis is presented.

  2. Scheduler for multiprocessor system switch with selective pairing

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael Karl; Salapura, Valentina

    2015-01-06

    System, method and computer program product for scheduling threads in a multiprocessing system with selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). The method configures the selective pairing facility to use checking provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability and allocate threads to corresponding processor cores indicating need for hardware checking. The method configures the selective pairing facility to provide multiple independent cores and allocate threads to corresponding processor cores indicating inherent resilience.

  3. Photofragmentation, state interaction, and energetics of Rydberg and ion-pair states: Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of HI

    SciTech Connect

    Hróðmarsson, Helgi Rafn; Wang, Huasheng; Kvaran, Ágúst, E-mail: agust@hi.is

    2014-06-28

    Mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization data for hydrogen iodide (HI), for two-photon resonance excitation to Rydberg and ion-pair states in the 69 600–72 400 cm{sup −1} region were recorded and analyzed. Spectral perturbations due to homogeneous and heterogeneous interactions between Rydberg and ion-pair states, showing as deformations in line-positions, line-intensities, and line-widths, were focused on. Parameters relevant to photodissociation processes, state interaction strengths and spectroscopic parameters for deperturbed states were derived. Overall interaction and dynamical schemes to describe the observations are proposed.

  4. Structure of thermal pair clouds around gamma-ray-emitting black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1991-01-01

    Using certain simplifying assumptions, the general structure of a quasi-spherical thermal pair-balanced cloud surrounding an accreting black hole is derived from first principles. Pair-dominated hot solutions exist only for a restricted range of the viscosity parameter. These results are applied as examples to the 1979 HEAO 3 gamma-ray data of Cygnus X-1 and the Galactic center. Values are obtained for the viscosity parameter lying in the range of about 0.1-0.01. Since the lack of synchrotron soft photons requires the magnetic field to be typically less than 1 percent of the equipartition value, a magnetic field cannot be the main contributor to the viscous stress of the inner accretion flow, at least during the high gamma-ray states.

  5. Nucleic acid duplexes incorporating a dissociable covalent base pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, K.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We have used molecular modeling techniques to design a dissociable covalently bonded base pair that can replace a Watson-Crick base pair in a nucleic acid with minimal distortion of the structure of the double helix. We introduced this base pair into a potential precursor of a nucleic acid double helix by chemical synthesis and have demonstrated efficient nonenzymatic template-directed ligation of the free hydroxyl groups of the base pair with appropriate short oligonucleotides. The nonenzymatic ligation reactions, which are characteristic of base paired nucleic acid structures, are abolished when the covalent base pair is reduced and becomes noncoplanar. This suggests that the covalent base pair linking the two strands in the duplex is compatible with a minimally distorted nucleic acid double-helical structure.

  6. Nucleic acid duplexes incorporating a dissociable covalent base pair

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kui; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1999-01-01

    We have used molecular modeling techniques to design a dissociable covalently bonded base pair that can replace a Watson-Crick base pair in a nucleic acid with minimal distortion of the structure of the double helix. We introduced this base pair into a potential precursor of a nucleic acid double helix by chemical synthesis and have demonstrated efficient nonenzymatic template-directed ligation of the free hydroxyl groups of the base pair with appropriate short oligonucleotides. The nonenzymatic ligation reactions, which are characteristic of base paired nucleic acid structures, are abolished when the covalent base pair is reduced and becomes noncoplanar. This suggests that the covalent base pair linking the two strands in the duplex is compatible with a minimally distorted nucleic acid double-helical structure. PMID:10611299

  7. Spectroscopic determination of the water pair potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellers, Raymond Scott, II

    This thesis details the first experimental determination of a water pair potential via nonlinear least squares fit of high precision microwave and far-IR vibration- rotation-tunneling (VRT) data. Provided is a review of the theory of intermolecular forces, methods of determining these forces by ab initio theory, and a survey of analytical forms that are parameterized to model such forces. Also reviewed are important features of water dimer VRT spectra, in particular the characteristic tunneling splittings due to hydrogen bond rearrangements, and how these features are related to the anisotropy of the water dimer potential energy surface (PES). Comparisons are made between high level ab initio calculations of the water dimer PES and a number of well known water pair potentials. The importance of the intramolecular degrees of freedom in the parameterization of a new PES is studied through a systematic series of ab initio calculations. These results suggest that a reasonably accurate pair potential can be constructed with the constraint of rigid monomers. ÅThe computation of the VRT states of the water dimer in a fully-coupled six-dimensional Hamiltonian by the split Wigner pseudospectral (SWPS) method is presented. Discussed in detail is the performance of the code and recent improvements of the algorithm which significantly decrease the execution time over an earlier implementation. The VRT states of several potentials are calculated and compared to experiment. It is shown that none of these potentials can reproduce the water dimer tunneling splittings with quantitative accuracy. The SWPS code is embedded in a non-linear least squares fitting routine and is used to fit a potential to 22 microwave and far-IR transitions. The resulting PES, VRT- 1(R,P), is derived from the ab initio/semiempirical ASPW (Anisotropic Site Potential for Water) potential which includes multipole expansions for the electrostatic, dispersion, exchange- repulsion, and induction terms

  8. A natively paired antibody library yields drug leads with higher sensitivity and specificity than a randomly paired antibody library

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Adam S.; Bedinger, Daniel; Adams, Matthew S.; Asensio, Michael A.; Edgar, Robert C.; Leong, Renee; Leong, Jackson; Mizrahi, Rena A.; Spindler, Matthew J.; Bandi, Srinivasa Rao; Huang, Haichun; Brams, Peter; Johnson, David S.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deep sequencing and single-chain variable fragment (scFv) yeast display methods are becoming more popular for discovery of therapeutic antibody candidates in mouse B cell repertoires. In this study, we compare a deep sequencing and scFv display method that retains native heavy and light chain pairing with a related method that randomly pairs heavy and light chain. We performed the studies in a humanized mouse, using interleukin 21 receptor (IL-21R) as a test immunogen. We identified 44 high-affinity binder scFv with the native pairing method and 100 high-affinity binder scFv with the random pairing method. 30% of the natively paired scFv binders were also discovered with the randomly paired method, and 13% of the randomly paired binders were also discovered with the natively paired method. Additionally, 33% of the scFv binders discovered only in the randomly paired library were initially present in the natively paired pre-sort library. Thus, a significant proportion of “randomly paired” scFv were actually natively paired. We synthesized and produced 46 of the candidates as full-length antibodies and subjected them to a panel of binding assays to characterize their therapeutic potential. 87% of the antibodies were verified as binding IL-21R by at least one assay. We found that antibodies with native light chains were more likely to bind IL-21R than antibodies with non-native light chains, suggesting a higher false positive rate for antibodies from the randomly paired library. Additionally, the randomly paired method failed to identify nearly half of the true natively paired binders, suggesting a higher false negative rate. We conclude that natively paired libraries have critical advantages in sensitivity and specificity for antibody discovery programs. PMID:29376776

  9. Homologous pairing and chromosome dynamics in meiosis and mitosis.

    PubMed

    McKee, Bruce D

    2004-03-15

    Pairing of homologous chromosomes is an essential feature of meiosis, acting to promote high levels of recombination and to ensure segregation of homologs. However, homologous pairing also occurs in somatic cells, most regularly in Dipterans such as Drosophila, but also to a lesser extent in other organisms, and it is not known how mitotic and meiotic pairing relate to each other. In this article, I summarize results of recent molecular studies of pairing in both mitosis and meiosis, focusing especially on studies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and GFP-tagging of single loci, which have allowed investigators to assay the pairing status of chromosomes directly. These approaches have permitted the demonstration that pairing occurs throughout the cell cycle in mitotic cells in Drosophila, and that the transition from mitotic to meiotic pairing in spermatogenesis is accompanied by a dramatic increase in pairing frequency. Similar approaches in mammals, plants and fungi have established that with few exceptions, chromosomes enter meiosis unpaired and that chromosome movements involving the telomeric, and sometimes centromeric, regions often precede the onset of meiotic pairing. The possible roles of proteins involved in homologous recombination, synapsis and sister chromatid cohesion in homolog pairing are discussed with an emphasis on those for which mutant phenotypes have permitted an assessment of effects on homolog pairing. Finally, I consider the question of the distribution and identity of chromosomal pairing sites, using recent data to evaluate possible relationships between pairing sites and other chromosomal sites, such as centromeres, telomeres, promoters and heterochromatin. I cite evidence that may point to a relationship between matrix attachment sites and homologous pairing sites.

  10. Flagellar central pair assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most motile cilia and flagella have nine outer doublet and two central pair (CP) microtubules. Outer doublet microtubules are continuous with the triplet microtubules of the basal body, are templated by the basal body microtubules, and grow by addition of new subunits to their distal (“plus”) ends. In contrast, CP microtubules are not continuous with basal body microtubules, raising the question of how these microtubules are assembled and how their polarity is established. Methods CP assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was analyzed by electron microscopy and wide-field and super-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy. To analyze CP assembly independently from flagellar assembly, the CP-deficient katanin mutants pf15 or pf19 were mated to wild-type cells. HA-tagged tubulin and the CP-specific protein hydin were used as markers to analyze de novo CP assembly inside the formerly mutant flagella. Results In regenerating flagella, the CP and its projections assemble near the transition zone soon after the onset of outer doublet elongation. During de novo CP assembly in full-length flagella, the nascent CP was first apparent in a subdistal region of the flagellum. The developing CP replaces a fibrous core that fills the axonemal lumen of CP-deficient flagella. The fibrous core contains proteins normally associated with the C1 CP microtubule and proteins involved in intraflagellar transport (IFT). In flagella of the radial spoke-deficient mutant pf14, two pairs of CPs are frequently present with identical correct polarities. Conclusions The temporal separation of flagellar and CP assembly in dikaryons formed by mating CP-deficient gametes to wild-type gametes revealed that the formation of the CP does not require proximity to the basal body or transition zone, or to the flagellar tip. The observations on pf14 provide further support that the CP self-assembles without a template and eliminate the possibility that CP polarity is established by interaction

  11. Down-regulation of muscarinic receptors and the m3 subtype in white-footed mice by dietary exposure to parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jett, David A.; Hill, E.F.; Fernando, J.C.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of ad libitum dietary exposure (as occurs in the field) to parathion for 14 d was investigated on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in brains and submaxillary glands of adults of a field species, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus. Immunoprecipitation using subtype selective antibodies revealed that the relative ratios of the m1-m5 mAChR subtypes in Peromyscus brain were similar to those in rat brain. There was little variability in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in control mice brains but large variability in 39 exposed mice, resulting from differences in food ingestion and parathion metabolism. Accordingly, data on radioligand binding to mAChRs in each mouse brain were correlated with brain AChE activity in the same mouse, and AChE inhibition served as a biomarker of exposure reflecting in situ paraoxon concentrations. Exposure to parathion for 14 d reduced maximal binding (Bmax) of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB), [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS), and [3H]-4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide ([3H]-4-DAMP) by up to approximately 58% without affecting receptor affinities for these ligands. Maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]QNB and [3H]-4-DAMP binding occurred in mice with highest AChE inhibition, while equivalent maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]NMS occurred in mice with only approximately 10% AChE inhibition, without further change at higher parathion doses. This is believed to be due to the hydrophilicity of [3H]NMS, which limits its accessibility to internalized desensitized receptors. In submaxillary glands (mAChRs are predominantly m3 subtype), there were significant dose-dependent reductions in [3H]QNB binding and m3 mRNA levels in exposed mice, revealed by Northern blot analyses. The reduction in m3 receptors is suggested to result mostly from reduced synthesis at the transcription level, rather than from translational or posttranslational events. The data suggest that down-regulation of mAChRs occurs

  12. The central dynamics of M3, M13, and M92: stringent limits on the masses of intermediate-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.; Gerssen, J.; Husser, T.-O.; Sandin, C.; Weilbacher, P.

    2014-06-01

    We used the PMAS integral field spectrograph to obtain large sets of radial velocities in the central regions of three northern Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13, and M92. By applying the novel technique of crowded field 3D spectroscopy, we measured radial velocities for about 80 stars within the central ~10″ of each cluster. These are by far the largest spectroscopic datasets obtained in the innermost parts of these clusters up to now. To obtain kinematical data across the whole extent of the clusters, we complement our data with measurements available in the literature. We combine our velocity measurements with surface brightness profiles to analyse the internal dynamics of each cluster using spherical Jeans models, and investigate whether our data provide evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in any of the clusters. The surface brightness profiles reveal that all three clusters are consistent with a core profile, although shallow cusps cannot be excluded. We find that spherical Jeans models with a constant mass-to-light ratio provide a good overall representation of the kinematical data. A massive black hole is required in none of the three clusters to explain the observed kinematics. Our 1σ (3σ) upper limits are 5300 M⊙ (12 000 M⊙) for M3, 8600 M⊙ (13 000 M⊙) for M13, and 980 M⊙ (2700 M⊙) for M92. A puzzling circumstance is the existence of several potential high velocity stars in M3 and M13, as their presence can account for the majority of the discrepancies that we find in our mass limits compared to M92. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables D.1 to D.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  13. Cranial Pair 0: The Nervus Terminalis.

    PubMed

    PeñA-Melian, Angel; Cabello-de la Rosa, Juan Pablo; Gallardo-Alcañiz, Maria Jose; Vaamonde-Gamo, Julia; Relea-Calatayud, Fernanda; Gonzalez-Lopez, Lucia; Villanueva-Anguita, Patricia; Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2018-04-16

    Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults. Fibers originating in the nasal cavity passes into the cranium through the middle area of the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone. Intracranially, fibers joint the telencephalon at several sites including the olfactory trigone and the primordium of the hippocampus to reach preoptic and precommissural regions. The nervus terminalis shows ganglion cells, that sometimes form clusters, normally one or two located at the base of the crista galli, the so-called ganglion of the nervus terminalis. Its function is uncertain. It has been described that its fibers facilitates migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone cells to the hypothalamus thus participating in the development of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis, which alteration may provoke Kallmann's syndrome in humans. This review summarizes current knowledge on this structure, incorporating original illustrations of the nerve at different developmental stages, and focuses on its anatomical and clinical relevance. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development of pair distribution function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vondreele, R.; Billinge, S.; Kwei, G.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. It has become more and more evident that structural coherence in the CuO{sub 2} planes of high-{Tc} superconducting materials over some intermediate length scale (nm range) is important to superconductivity. In recent years, the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of powder diffraction data has been developed for extracting structural information on these length scales. This project sought to expand and develop this technique, use it to analyze neutron powder diffraction data, and apply it to problems. In particular, interest is in the area of high-{Tc} superconductors, although wemore » planned to extend the study to the closely related perovskite ferroelectric materials andother materials where the local structure affects the properties where detailed knowledge of the local and intermediate range structure is important. In addition, we planned to carry out single crystal experiments to look for diffuse scattering. This information augments the information from the PDF.« less

  15. Pauli graphs, Riemann hypothesis, and Goldbach pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planat, M.; Anselmi, F.; Solé, P.

    2012-06-01

    We consider the Pauli group Pq generated by unitary quantum generators X (shift) and Z (clock) acting on vectors of the q-dimensional Hilbert space. It has been found that the number of maximal mutually commuting sets within Pq is controlled by the Dedekind psi function ψ(q) and that there exists a specific inequality involving the Euler constant γ ˜ 0.577 that is only satisfied at specific low dimensions q ∈ A = { 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 30}. The set A is closely related to the set A∪{ 1, 24} of integers that are totally Goldbach, i.e., that consist of all primes p < n - 1 with p not dividing n and such that n-p is prime. In the extreme high-dimensional case, at primorial numbers Nr, the Hardy-Littlewood function R(q) is introduced for estimating the number of Goldbach pairs, and a new inequality (Theorem 4) is established for the equivalence to the Riemann hypothesis in terms of R(Nr). We discuss these number-theoretical properties in the context of the qudit commutation structure.

  16. The paired-object affordance effect.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eun Young; Humphreys, Glyn W; Riddoch, M Jane

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate that right-handed participants make speeded classification responses to pairs of objects that appear in standard co-locations for right-handed actions relative to when they appear in reflected locations. These effects are greater when participants "weight" information for action when deciding if 2 objects are typically used together, compared with deciding if objects typically occur in a given context. The effects are enhanced, and affect both types of decision, when an agent is shown holding the objects. However, the effects are eliminated when the objects are not viewed from the first-person perspective and when words are presented rather than objects. The data suggest that (a) participants are sensitive to whether objects are positioned correctly for their own actions, (b) the position information is coded within an egocentric reference frame, (c) the critical representation involved is visual and not semantic, and (d) the effects are enhanced by a sense of agency. The results can be interpreted within a dual-route framework for action retrieval in which a direct visual route is influenced by affordances for action.

  17. Fast evolving pair-instability supernovae

    DOE PAGES

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Gilmer, Matthew; Hirschi, Raphael; ...

    2016-10-06

    With an increasing number of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered the ques- tion of their origin remains open and causes heated debates in the supernova commu- nity. Currently, there are three proposed mechanisms for SLSNe: (1) pair-instability supernovae (PISN), (2) magnetar-driven supernovae, and (3) models in which the su- pernova ejecta interacts with a circumstellar material ejected before the explosion. Based on current observations of SLSNe, the PISN origin has been disfavoured for a number of reasons. Many PISN models provide overly broad light curves and too reddened spectra, because of massive ejecta and a high amount of nickel. In themore » cur- rent study we re-examine PISN properties using progenitor models computed with the GENEC code. We calculate supernova explosions with FLASH and light curve evolu- tion with the radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We find that high-mass models (200 M⊙ and 250 M⊙) at relatively high metallicity (Z=0.001) do not retain hydro- gen in the outer layers and produce relatively fast evolving PISNe Type I and might be suitable to explain some SLSNe. We also investigate uncertainties in light curve modelling due to codes, opacities, the nickel-bubble effect and progenitor structure and composition.« less

  18. Milestone M3FT-15OR0203112. Build redesigned HFIR rabbit capsules and make ready for insertion for irradiation in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Richard H; McDuffee, Joel Lee; Okuniewski, Maria A.

    2015-09-01

    This report details the fabrication and delivery of two Fuel Cycle Research and Development irradiation capsules (FCRP20 and FCRP03), with associated quality assurance documentation, to the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The capsules and documentation were delivered by September 30, 2015, thus meeting the deadline for milestone M3FT-15OR0203112. These irradiation experiments irradiate metal parallelepiped specimens that may consist of various compositions including uranium metal, steel, etc. This document contains a copy of the completed capsule fabrication request sheets, which detail all constituent components, pertinent drawings, etc., along with a detailed summary of the capsule assembly process performed by the Thermal Hydraulicsmore » and Irradiation Engineering Group (THIEG) in the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division. A complete fabrication package record is maintained by THIEG and is available upon request.« less

  19. [Population characteristics of mucous tissue basocytes in the Mongolian gerbil's jejunum following the 12-day orbital flight onboard space platform "Foton-M3"].

    PubMed

    Atyakshin, D A; Bykov, E G

    2013-01-01

    Optical (light) microscopy and histochemical techniques were used for the first-ever studies of the population characteristics of tissue basocytes in the jejunum mucous membrane in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: flown over 12 days aboard space platform Foton-M3, subjected to spaceflight factors simulation (SFS) in dedicated system Kontur-L (2) and maintained in standard vivarium conditions (control). Space flight was shown to induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the population of jejunum mucus labrocytes. Reduction of the basocytes population, alterations in age composition and ratio of the morphofunctional cell types in microgravity were indicative of cytoplasmic aggregation intensity, paths of biosynthesis products release into the intersticium, and their tinctorial properties. Also, heparin maturation and liberalization into the extracellular space in support of the jejunum mucus adaptive functions progressed with greater intensity. SFS did not affect size of the basocytes population significantly although it did cause qualitative rearrangements in the population structure.

  20. Analysis of dosimetry from the H.B. Robinson unit 2 pressure vessel benchmark using RAPTOR-M3G and ALPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: The dosimetry from the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 Pressure Vessel Benchmark is analyzed with a suite of Westinghouse-developed codes and data libraries. The radiation transport from the reactor core to the surveillance capsule and ex-vessel locations is performed by RAPTOR-M3G, a parallel deterministic radiation transport code that calculates high-resolution neutron flux information in three dimensions. The cross-section library used in this analysis is the ALPAN library, an Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF)/B-VII.0-based library designed for reactor dosimetry and fluence analysis applications. Dosimetry is evaluated with the industry-standard SNLRMLmore » reactor dosimetry cross-section data library. (authors)« less

  1. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2010-01-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance, which is a revision of an existing guidance, discusses the types of nonclinical studies, their scope and duration, and their relation to the conduct of human clinical trials and marketing authorization for pharmaceuticals. The guidance is intended to facilitate the timely conduct of clinical trials and reduce the unnecessary use of animals and other drug development resources.

  2. Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal

    2018-05-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.

  3. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Unger, Holger W; Cates, Jordan E; Gutman, Julie; Briand, Valerie; Fievet, Nadine; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Landis, Sarah H; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Dellicour, Stephanie; Ouma, Peter; Slutsker, Laurence; Terlouw, Dianne J; Kariuki, Simon; Ayisi, John; Nahlen, Bernard; Desai, Meghna; Madanitsa, Mwayi; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Kenneth; Mueller, Ivo; Stanisic, Danielle; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Lusingu, John; Westreich, Daniel; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Meshnick, Steven; Rogerson, Stephen

    2016-12-21

    The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015. Data are available at the time of antenatal enrolment of women into their respective parent study and at delivery. The data set comprises essential data such as malaria infection status, anthropometric assessments of maternal nutritional status, presence of anaemia and birth weight, as well as additional variables such gestational age at delivery for a subset of women. Participating studies are described in detail with regard to setting and primary outcome measures, and summarised data are available from each contributing cohort. This pooled birth cohort is the largest pregnancy data set to date to permit a more definite evaluation of the impact of plausible interactions between poor nutritional status and malaria infection in pregnant women on fetal growth and gestational length. Given the current comparative lack of large pregnancy cohorts in malaria-endemic settings, compilation of suitable pregnancy cohorts is likely to provide adequate statistical power to assess malaria-nutrition interactions, and could point towards settings where such interactions are most relevant. The M3 cohort may thus help to identify pregnant women at high risk of adverse outcomes who may benefit from tailored intensive antenatal care including nutritional supplements and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  4. Urothelial/lamina propria spontaneous activity and the role of M3 muscarinic receptors in mediating rate responses to stretch and carbachol.

    PubMed

    Moro, Christian; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Chess-Williams, Russ

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of tissue stretch and muscarinic receptor stimulation on the spontaneous activity of the urothelium/lamina propria and identify the specific receptor subtype mediating these responses. Isolated strips of porcine urothelium with lamina propria were set up for in vitro recording of contractile activity. Muscarinic receptor subtype-selective antagonists were used to identify the receptors influencing the contractile rate responses to stretch and stimulation with carbachol. Isolated strips of urothelium with lamina propria developed spontaneous contractions (3.7 cycles/min) that were unaffected by tetrodotoxin, Nω-nitro-L-arginine, or indomethacin. Carbachol (1 μM) increased the spontaneous contractile rate of these tissue strips by 122% ± 27% (P < .001). These responses were significantly depressed in the presence of the M3-selective muscarinic antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (10-30 nM) but were not affected by the M1-selective antagonist pirenzepine (30-100 nM) or the M2-selective antagonist methoctramine (0.1-1 μM). Stretching of the tissue also caused an increase in the spontaneous contractile rate, and these responses were abolished by atropine (1 μM) and low concentrations of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (10 nM). Darifenacin, oxybutynin, tolterodine, and solifenacin (1 μM) all significantly depressed the frequency responses to carbachol (1 μM). The urothelium with the lamina propria exhibits a spontaneous contractile activity that is increased during stretch. The mechanism appears to involve endogenous acetylcholine release acting on M3 muscarinic receptors. Anticholinergic drugs used clinically depress the responses of these tissues, and this mechanism might represent an additional site of action for these drugs in the treatment of bladder overactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative, a pooled birth cohort of 13 pregnancy studies in Africa and the Western Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Holger W; Gutman, Julie; Briand, Valerie; Fievet, Nadine; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Landis, Sarah H; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Dellicour, Stephanie; Ouma, Peter; Slutsker, Laurence; Terlouw, Dianne J; Kariuki, Simon; Ayisi, John; Nahlen, Bernard; Desai, Meghna; Madanitsa, Mwayi; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Kenneth; Mueller, Ivo; Stanisic, Danielle; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Lusingu, John; Westreich, Daniel; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Meshnick, Steven; Rogerson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria–nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. Participants Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015. Findings to date Data are available at the time of antenatal enrolment of women into their respective parent study and at delivery. The data set comprises essential data such as malaria infection status, anthropometric assessments of maternal nutritional status, presence of anaemia and birth weight, as well as additional variables such gestational age at delivery for a subset of women. Participating studies are described in detail with regard to setting and primary outcome measures, and summarised data are available from each contributing cohort. Future plans This pooled birth cohort is the largest pregnancy data set to date to permit a more definite evaluation of the impact of plausible interactions between poor nutritional status and malaria infection in pregnant women on fetal growth and gestational length. Given the current comparative lack of large pregnancy cohorts in malaria-endemic settings, compilation of suitable pregnancy cohorts is likely to provide adequate statistical power to assess malaria–nutrition interactions, and could point towards settings where such interactions are most relevant. The M3 cohort may thus help to identify pregnant women at high risk of adverse outcomes who may benefit from tailored intensive antenatal care including nutritional supplements and alternative or intensified malaria prevention regimens, and the settings in which these interventions would be most effective. PMID:28003287

  6. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  7. Magnetic field homogeneity of a conical coaxial coil pair.

    PubMed

    Salazar, F J; Nieves, F J; Bayón, A; Gascón, F

    2017-09-01

    An analytical study of the magnetic field created by a double-conical conducting sheet is presented. The analysis is based on the expansion of the magnetic field in terms of Legendre polynomials. It is demonstrated analytically that the angle of the conical surface that produces a nearly homogeneous magnetic field coincides with that of a pair of loops that fulfills the Helmholtz condition. From the results obtained, we propose an electric circuit formed by pairs of isolated conducting loops tightly wound around a pair of conical surfaces, calculating numerically the magnetic field produced by this system and its heterogeneity. An experimental setup of the proposed circuit was constructed and its magnetic field was measured. The results were compared with those obtained by numerical calculation, finding a good agreement. The numerical results demonstrate a significant improvement in homogeneity in the field of the proposed pair of conical coils compared with that achieved with a simple pair of Helmholtz loops or with a double solenoid. Moreover, a new design of a double pair of conical coils based on Braunbek's four loops is also proposed to achieve greater homogeneity. Regarding homogeneity, the rating of the analyzed configurations from best to worst is as follows: (1) double pair of conical coils, (2) pair of conical coils, (3) Braunbek's four loops, (4) Helmholtz pair, and (5) solenoid pair.

  8. Magnetic field homogeneity of a conical coaxial coil pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F. J.; Nieves, F. J.; Bayón, A.; Gascón, F.

    2017-09-01

    An analytical study of the magnetic field created by a double-conical conducting sheet is presented. The analysis is based on the expansion of the magnetic field in terms of Legendre polynomials. It is demonstrated analytically that the angle of the conical surface that produces a nearly homogeneous magnetic field coincides with that of a pair of loops that fulfills the Helmholtz condition. From the results obtained, we propose an electric circuit formed by pairs of isolated conducting loops tightly wound around a pair of conical surfaces, calculating numerically the magnetic field produced by this system and its heterogeneity. An experimental setup of the proposed circuit was constructed and its magnetic field was measured. The results were compared with those obtained by numerical calculation, finding a good agreement. The numerical results demonstrate a significant improvement in homogeneity in the field of the proposed pair of conical coils compared with that achieved with a simple pair of Helmholtz loops or with a double solenoid. Moreover, a new design of a double pair of conical coils based on Braunbek's four loops is also proposed to achieve greater homogeneity. Regarding homogeneity, the rating of the analyzed configurations from best to worst is as follows: (1) double pair of conical coils, (2) pair of conical coils, (3) Braunbek's four loops, (4) Helmholtz pair, and (5) solenoid pair.

  9. Efficient Implementation of the Pairing on Mobilephones Using BREW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Motoi; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Pairing based cryptosystems can accomplish novel security applications such as ID-based cryptosystems, which have not been constructed efficiently without the pairing. The processing speed of the pairing based cryptosystems is relatively slow compared with the other conventional public key cryptosystems. However, several efficient algorithms for computing the pairing have been proposed, namely Duursma-Lee algorithm and its variant ηT pairing. In this paper, we present an efficient implementation of the pairing over some mobilephones. Moreover, we compare the processing speed of the pairing with that of the other standard public key cryptosystems, i. e. RSA cryptosystem and elliptic curve cryptosystem. Indeed the processing speed of our implementation in ARM9 processors on BREW achieves under 100 milliseconds using the supersingular curve over F397. In addition, the pairing is more efficient than the other public key cryptosystems, and the pairing can be achieved enough also on BREW mobilephones. It has become efficient enough to implement security applications, such as short signature, ID-based cryptosystems or broadcast encryption, using the pairing on BREW mobilephones.

  10. Beamlike photon pairs entangled by a 2x2 fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Hsin-Pin; Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan; Yabushita, Atsushi

    Polarization-entangled photon pairs have been widely used as a light source of quantum communication. The polarization-entangled photon pairs are generally obtained at the crossing points of the light cones that are generated from a type-II nonlinear crystal. However, it is hard to pick up the photon pairs coming out from the crossing points because of their invisible wavelength and low intensity. In our previous work, we succeeded in generating polarization-entangled photon pairs by overlapping two light paths for the photon-pair generation. The photon pairs could be entangled in all of the generated photon pairs without clipping the crossing points, evenmore » with some difficulty in its alignment to overlap the two light paths. In this paper, we have developed an optical system which generates polarization-entangled photon pairs using a beamlike photon pair, without the difficulty in alignment. The measured results show that the photon pairs generated in the system are entangled in their polarizations.« less

  11. Topological Nodal Cooper Pairing in Doped Weyl Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2018-02-01

    We generalize the concept of Berry connection of the single-electron band structure to that of a two-particle Cooper pairing state between two Fermi surfaces with opposite Chern numbers. Because of underlying Fermi surface topology, the pairing Berry phase acquires nontrivial monopole structure. Consequently, pairing gap functions have topologically protected nodal structure as vortices in the momentum space with the total vorticity solely determined by the pair monopole charge qp. The nodes of gap function behave as the Weyl-Majorana points of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes pairing Hamiltonian. Their relation with the connection patterns of the surface modes from the Weyl band structure and the Majorana surface modes inside the pairing gap is also discussed. Under the approximation of spherical Fermi surfaces, the pairing symmetry are represented by monopole harmonic functions. The lowest possible pairing channel carries angular momentum number j =|qp|, and the corresponding gap functions are holomorphic or antiholomorphic functions on Fermi surfaces. After projected on the Fermi surfaces with nontrivial topology, all the partial-wave channels of pairing interactions acquire the monopole charge qp independent of concrete pairing mechanism.

  12. Pulsar Pair Cascades in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L(sub sd). We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L(sub pair) is proportional to L(sub sd), with L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -3) L(sub sd) for normal pulsars and L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -2) L(sub sd) for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  13. Enhanced sampling simulations of DNA step parameters.

    PubMed

    Karolak, Aleksandra; van der Vaart, Arjan

    2014-12-15

    A novel approach for the selection of step parameters as reaction coordinates in enhanced sampling simulations of DNA is presented. The method uses three atoms per base and does not require coordinate overlays or idealized base pairs. This allowed for a highly efficient implementation of the calculation of all step parameters and their Cartesian derivatives in molecular dynamics simulations. Good correlation between the calculated and actual twist, roll, tilt, shift, and slide parameters is obtained, while the correlation with rise is modest. The method is illustrated by its application to the methylated and unmethylated 5'-CATGTGACGTCACATG-3' double stranded DNA sequence. One-dimensional umbrella simulations indicate that the flexibility of the central CG step is only marginally affected by methylation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Paired quantum Hall states on noncommutative two-tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, Vincenzo; Naddeo, Adele

    2010-08-01

    By exploiting the notion of Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative tori and choosing rational values of the noncommutativity parameter θ (in appropriate units), a one-to-one correspondence between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space can be established. Starting from this general result, we focus on the conformal field theory (CFT) describing a quantum Hall fluid (QHF) at paired states fillings ν=mp/m+2 Cristofano et al. (2000) [1], recently obtained by means of m-reduction procedure, and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. In this way we extend the construction proposed in Marotta and Naddeo (2008) [2] for the Jain series ν=>m2p/m+1. The case m=2 is explicitly discussed and the role of noncommutativity in the physics of quantum Hall bilayers is emphasized. Our results represent a step forward the construction of a new effective low energy description of certain condensed matter phenomena and help to clarify the relationship between noncommutativity and quantum Hall fluids.

  15. Unconventional superconductivity in iron pnictides: Magnon mediated pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kar, Raskesh; Paul, Bikash Chandra; Misra, Anirban

    2018-02-01

    We study the phenomenon of unconventional superconductivity in iron pnictides on the basis of localiz