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Sample records for parameters grape variety

  1. Foaming properties of various Champagne wines depending on several parameters: grape variety, aging, protein and CO2 content.

    PubMed

    Cilindre, Clara; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Marchal, Richard

    2010-02-15

    A comparison of the foaming parameters of various Champagne wines was undergone with two well distinct methods: (i) a classical gas-sparging method providing standardized but artificial effervescence conditions (the so-called Mosalux), and (ii) a computer assisted viewing equipment (CAVE), much closer to the real champagne tasting conditions. The latter one is the only apparatus which enables a thorough descriptive analysis of foam behavior, during the pouring process of a sparkling wine, and from the end of its pouring. Various Champagne wines elaborated from two grape varieties (Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier) and having experienced different aging-periods (15 months and 5 years) were analyzed and compared to a model sparkling wine, elaborated from a model base wine (devoid of grape colloids). The CO(2) and protein content was also investigated to discuss the foaming behavior of these wines. A significant loss of the CO(2) content during aging was observed and might be the reason for the worse foaming properties of the old champagnes, as determined with CAVE. It is worth noting that contradictory foaming parameters were obtained through the Mosalux method, which is indeed more intrusive than the CAVE, and finally far from the real champagne tasting conditions, since it requires filtration and champagne degassing prior experiment.

  2. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  3. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  4. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  5. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  6. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the approval...

  7. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness.

    PubMed

    Medina-Plaza, C; de Saja, J A; Fernández-Escudero, J A; Barajas, E; Medrano, G; Rodriguez-Mendez, M L

    2016-12-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, d-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis.

  8. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must.

  9. A wireless and portable electronic nose to differentiate musts of different ripeness degree and grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Santos, Jose Pedro; Sayago, Isabel; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, Maria Carmen

    2015-04-13

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry-The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties-Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA) and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA). The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga) and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc) grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  10. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Santos, Jose Pedro; Sayago, Isabel; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA) and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA). The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga) and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc) grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies. PMID:25871715

  11. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-09-23

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  12. Anticancer effects of four varieties of muscadine grape.

    PubMed

    God, Jason M; Tate, Patricia; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2007-03-01

    The initiating event in carcinogenesis is a somatic mutation. During progression of the disease, additional mutations accumulate as the transformed cells develop the ability to proliferate and metastasize. These mutations can be produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated through metabolism, or environmental insult. Metastasis involves tissue degradative enzymes, many of which are members of the matrix metalloproteinase family. Hence, substances that can neutralize ROS, inhibit mutagenesis, or block activity of the matrix metalloproteinases should prove to be anticarcinogenic. This study was performed to evaluate the possible anticarcinogenic characteristics of muscadine grapes. These grow wild in the southeast United States and have not been subjected to extensive breeding, as have most commercially cultivated fruits. The extracts tested were from pomace remaining after wine production. This is usually discarded, but the results obtained in this study indicate that pomace water extracts could be used as sources for purification of anticarcinogenic compounds. Four varieties of muscadine grape were tested for their abilities to affect mutagenesis by the metabolically activated carcinogen 2-aminoanthracene. Each extract was also assayed for antioxidant activity and for its ability to inhibit activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Each of the four extracts showed significant inhibition of 2-aminoanthracene mutagenesis, high antioxidant activity, and the ability to inhibit activities of both metalloproteinases, implying that these extracts could be good inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Two of the extracts showed little activity when tested for their effects on mutagenesis by the direct-acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate.

  13. Influence of the farming system and vine variety on yeast communities associated with grape berries.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Arroyo, Teresa; Serrano, Ana; Tello, Javier; Aporta, Irene; Vélez, María Dolores; Valero, Eva

    2011-01-31

    Wine production in most countries is based on the use of commercial strains leading to the colonisation of the wineries by these strains with the consequent reduction of autochthonous biodiversity. This implies that wine styles could therefore become standardised. The vineyard could be an important source of native yeasts of oenological interest. For this reason the objective of this study was to compare two agronomic conditions with the aim of preserving yeast biodiversity in the vineyard. A three year sampling plan was designed to evaluate the influence of different agronomic parameters on the biodiversity of fermentative grape yeasts. Thus two vineyards, one organic and one conventional, with three different grape varieties (Shiraz, Grenache and Barbera) were chosen. In total, 27 samples were collected from both vineyards. Of these, 1080 colonies were isolated and a total of 9 species were identified. The strains identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae were genotyped by microsatellite analysis obtaining nine different electrophoretic patterns. Classical ecology indexes were used to obtain the richness (S), the biodiversity (H') and the dominance (D) of the species studied. The results indicated a clear influence on grape associated yeast diversity of the phytosanitary treatment used in the vineyard. This is the first time that classical ecology indexes have been used to study the ecology of the spontaneous fermentation of grape musts and the species Candida sorbosa and Pichia toletana have been described in vineyards of the Madrid winegrowing region.

  14. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Phenolic Content of Raisin Grape Varieties and Genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six raisin grape cultivars and ten new raisin grape selections were analyzed for antioxidant activity (ABTS assay) and for total and individual phenolic compounds. Samples were freeze-dried and values are reported on a dry weight basis. Antioxidant activity across the 16 samples ranged from 7.7 to...

  16. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  17. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-11-19

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  18. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Application of a stir bar sorptive extraction method for the determination of volatile compounds in different grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Vasile-Simone, Giuseppe; Castro, Remedios; Natera, Ramón; Masino, Francesca; Barroso, Carmelo G; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) has been employed for the analysis of aroma compounds directly from Spanish and Italian grape extracts. The extraction conditions have been optimized using a statistical approach, obtaining results that improve the current state of the art. The proposed analytical conditions were: sample volume 40 mL, extraction time 80 min, 25% (w/v) NaCl and stirring speed 750 rpm using 20 mm × 0.5 mm stir bars. Performance characteristics of the SBSE procedure were further studied and showed correlation coefficients, detection and quantification limits, linear ranges, recoveries and precision values adequate for analysing these compounds in grapes. Twenty-four grape varieties (aromatic and non-aromatic) were analysed. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) according to geographical origin were found, being derived mainly from the terpenoid content. By principal component analysis it was possible to note that the terpenoids were more effective in the separation of the non-aromatic samples, showing negative and positive scores for Italian and Spanish grapes, respectively. For non-aromatic grape varieties, the factor 'geographic location' was the most significant, thus corroborating the high influence of this parameter on the volatile composition of grapes and therefore on the genuineness of wines. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. 76 FR 3573 - Proposed Addition of New Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... virus-tested cuttings may be obtained from FPS, UC Davis. In addition, TTB is aware of wineries in New...'' to the list of approved grape variety names. The most common commercial use of the Freedom variety is... riparia 89 variety and the Landot 4511 variety. According to the petitioner, the variety is very cold...

  1. Different emergence phenology of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on six varieties of grapes.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-06-01

    The phenology of insect emergence affects reproductive success and is especially critical in short-lived species. An increasing number of studies have documented the effects of thermal and other climatic variations and of unpredictable habitats on the timing of adult insect emergence within and between populations and years. Numerous interacting factors may affect the phenology of adult emergence. Host-plant quality and availability is a key factor that has been largely neglected in studies of the phenology of phytophagous insects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of host plant characteristics on the rate of larval growth and the pattern of emergence in a wild population of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth), a significant pest in European vineyards. The phenology of emergence differed significantly among the six tested varieties of grapes. The percentage of bunches harboring pupae was similar among the different grape varieties, and the total number of pupae collected was similar to the number of emerging adults per bunch. Among the six varieties of grapes, 0-25 pupae were produced on each bunch. Each of the grape varieties had a single wave of emergence, in which males emerged before females, but their emergence phenology differed significantly in Chardonnay, Chasselas, and Pinot grapes. Both genders had extended durations of emergence in Merlot grapes. Together, the present results show that the characteristics of the grape host plant affect the emergence phenology of L. botrana.

  2. Comparative study of two table grape varieties with contrasting texture during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Balic, Iván; Sanhueza, Dayan; Barria, Romina; Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel; Prieto, Humberto; Defilippi, Bruno G; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2015-02-23

    Postharvest softening of grape berries is one of the main problems affecting grape quality during export. Cell wall disassembly, especially of pectin polysaccharides, has been commonly related to fruit softening, but its influence has been poorly studied in grapes during postharvest life. In order to better understand this process, the Thompson seedless (TS) variety, which has significantly decreased berry texture after prolonged cold storage, was compared to NN107, a new table grape variety with higher berry firmness. Biochemical analysis revealed a greater amount of calcium in the cell wall of the NN107 variety and less reduction of uronic acids than TS during cold storage. In addition, the activity of polygalacturonase was higher in TS than NN107 berries; meanwhile pectin methylesterase activity was similar in both varieties. Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) suggests a differential pectin metabolism during prolonged cold storage. Results revealed lower pectin fragments in TS after 60 days of cold storage and shelf life (SL) compared to 30 days of cold storage and 30 + SL, while NN107 maintained the same fragment profile across all time points evaluated. Our results suggest that these important differences in cell wall metabolism during cold storage could be related to the differential berry firmness observed between these contrasting table grape varieties.

  3. Yeasts isolated from three varieties of grapes cultivated in different locations of the Dolenjska vine-growing region, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Raspor, Peter; Milek, Damjana Miklic; Polanc, Julijana; Mozina, Sonja Smole; Cadez, Neza

    2006-05-25

    The number and diversity of yeasts on grape berry surfaces are influenced by several factors, such as grape variety, degree of grape maturity at harvest, climatological conditions, geographic location, physical damage of grapes, the intensity of pest management etc. Cvicek is a typical Slovene wine, which has obtained a special protection under the Slovene Wine Law for its geographical origin. This blended red wine is produced from different grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), mostly from red grapes of Zametovka and Modra frankinja and from white grapes of Kraljevina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of geographical locations in the Dolenjska vine-growing region and to obtain precise information about the influence of different grape varieties on the composition of yeast community on grape berries. The restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified fragments from the rDNA gene cluster (PCR RFLP of rDNA) has been used for the differentiation of yeast species. The standard identification procedure has been performed on representative strains that shared identical RFLP profiles. The number of yeasts and yeast species isolated varied according to different grape varieties, Zametovka, Modra frankinja and Kraljevina (V. vinifera L.) and according to different sampling location. On the surface of grape berries 13 different yeast species have been identified. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has not been found.

  4. Terroir effects on the reflectance spectra of the canopy of four grape varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducati, Jorge; Bombassaro, Magno; Arruda, Diniz; Bortolotto, Virindiana

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the reflectance spectrum of grape leaves is important to the identification of grape varieties in images of vineyards where several cultivars co-exist. As a non-destructive technique, spectroradiometry delivers reflectance spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios. This work reports results from field measurements of reflectance of four grape varieties in the spectral range 450nm to 2500nm, performed in south Brazil. Three viticultural regions were visited and in vivo measurements of Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and Italian Riesling were performed. All spectra were normalized to have unit area and were compared. Due to the small noise level, spectral features from each variety were revealed, with intensities of the order of 10-4 to 10-5 with respect to the normalized reflectance range from 0 to 1.These features were present in several, repeated measurements, and so were considered as real. In a preliminary analysis they were attributed to be due to the presence or absence of pigments as anthocyanins in the measured grape leaves, since the experiments used red and white grapes. It is known that such pigments are present not only in berry skins, but also in vacuoles within cells in leaves. This has an impact in leaf texture and so in infrared reflectance [1]. Spectral differences were present in many wavelengths, including around 552, 577, 662, 884, 1059, 1263, 1981, and 2051 nanometers. A statistical discriminant analysis was made to search for terroir effects which introduce differences between regions. Detailed knowledge of the spectral signatures of grape varieties can be relevant to the development of identification algorithms used to classify remote sensing images of viticultural regions where several cultivars are present, and to in-field inspections using radiometers. [1] Da Silva, P.R.; Ducati, J.R. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 30 (2009), pp. 6085-6098.

  5. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  6. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports.

  7. A banned variety was the mother of several major wine grapes

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Harriet V.; Lawes, Matthew C.; Bower, Mim A.; Haeger, John W.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A number of widely grown varieties of Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa, the grape used for wine production, are known to have resulted from crosses between Pinot noir and Gouais blanc, although it is not known which was the maternal parent in these crosses. We have analysed microsatellites and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in chloroplast DNA from these two varieties and twelve progeny strains, including Chardonnay, Gamay noir and Aligoté. The results demonstrate that Gouais blanc was the maternal parent for nine of these strains, including Chardonnay, Gamay noir and Aligoté. This is a striking conclusion, as Gouais is generally considered a highly inferior variety, and its cultivation was banned for many years in parts of Europe. PMID:20015860

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Different Grape Varieties and Winemaking Regions

    PubMed Central

    Schuller, Dorit; Cardoso, Filipa; Sousa, Susana; Gomes, Paula; Gomes, Ana C.; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Casal, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    We herein evaluate intraspecific genetic diversity of fermentative vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae strains and evaluate relationships between grape varieties and geographical location on populational structures. From the musts obtained from 288 grape samples, collected from two wine regions (16 vineyards, nine grape varieties), 94 spontaneous fermentations were concluded and 2820 yeast isolates were obtained that belonged mainly (92%) to the species S. cerevisiae. Isolates were classified in 321 strains by the use of ten microsatellite markers. A high strain diversity (8–43 strains per fermentation) was associated with high percentage (60–100%) of fermenting samples per vineyard, whereas a lower percentage of spontaneous fermentations (0–40%) corresponded to a rather low strain diversity (1–10 strains per fermentation). For the majority of the populations, observed heterozygosity (Ho) was about two to five times lower than the expected heterozygosity (He). The inferred ancestry showed a very high degree of admixture and divergence was observed between both grape variety and geographical region. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 81–93% of the total genetic variation existed within populations, while significant differentiation within the groups could be detected. Results from AMOVA analysis and clustering of allelic frequencies agree in the distinction of genetically more dispersed populations from the larger wine region compared to the less extended region. Our data show that grape variety is a driver of populational structures, because vineyards with distinct varieties harbor genetically more differentiated S. cerevisiae populations. Conversely, S. cerevisiae strains from vineyards in close proximity (5–10 km) that contain the same grape variety tend to be less divergent. Populational similarities did not correlate with the distance between vineyards of the two wine regions. Globally, our results show that populations of S. cerevisiae in

  9. Grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grapes are grown worldwide, on about 7.9 million ha., and are used to produce wine, raisins, juice, jam, concentrate, and seed oils, as well as fresh fruit. Grapes (Vitis sp.) are members of the Vitaceae. Vitis includes two subgenera, Euvitis (38 chromosomes) and Muscadinia (40 chromosomes), with ...

  10. Pulsed electric field treatment enhanced stilbene content in Graciano, Tempranillo and Grenache grape varieties.

    PubMed

    López-Alfaro, Isabel; González-Arenzana, Lucía; López, Noelia; Santamaría, Pilar; López, Rosa; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the stilbene content of three grape varieties. For this purpose, four different PEF treatments were applied using a continuous system over three varieties, Graciano, Tempranillo and Grenache, destemmed and crushed. In addition, the influence of PEF on their physicochemical composition was studied. PEF treatments did not affect the pH or total acidity of Graciano, however, musts from Tempranillo and Grenache had higher pH values and lower total acidity. In the three varieties, all treatments resulted in an increase of potassium content, deeper colour intensity and total polyphenol index and lower tonality, more pronounced in the treatments with higher time and energy. The stilbene content of the must significantly increased with respect to the control. This increase depended on the variety and the treatment applied. Tempranillo increased up 200% the total stilbene concentration, Grenache 60% and Graciano 50%. For the three varieties, the treatment with the highest time and energy was the most effective on the total stilbene extraction. These results indicate that PEF could be a suitable technology for obtaining musts with deeper colour and higher phenolic content, including resveratrol and piceid.

  11. Antioxidant capacity, radical scavenger activity, lipid oxidation protection analysis and antimicrobial activity of red grape extracts from different varieties cultivated in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Correia, Ana C; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity, radical scavenger activity, lipid oxidation protection and antimicrobial activity of grape extracts from 12 different red grape varieties cultivated in Portugal. The mean values of total phenolic content quantified in grape extracts varied from 833.7 to 2005.6 mg/L gallic acid. Antioxidant capacity results showed different values for each grape variety ranging from 3.96 to 32.96 mm/L Fe(II). The scavenger activity values ranged from 15.99% to 54.82% for the superoxide radical and from 11.79% to 29.67% for the hydroxyl radical. The grape extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity had a positive effect on the lipid oxidation protection and induced low peroxide values in butter samples. Finally, concerning antimicrobial activity, grape extracts from Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz grape varieties had significant antimicrobial activity, especially notable for total mesophilic aerobics.

  12. Wine by-products: phenolic characterization and antioxidant activity evaluation of grapes and grape pomaces from six different French grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Lorrain, Bénédicte; Kolbas, Natallia; Crozier, Alan; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-02

    Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  13. An extensive study of the genetic diversity within seven French wine grape variety collections.

    PubMed

    Pelsy, Frédérique; Hocquigny, Stéphanie; Moncada, Ximena; Barbeau, Gérard; Forget, Dominique; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Merdinoglu, Didier

    2010-04-01

    The process of vegetative propagation used to multiply grapevine varieties produces, in most cases, clones genetically identical to the parental plant. Nevertheless, spontaneous somatic mutations can occur in the regenerative cells that give rise to the clones, leading to consider varieties as populations of clones that conform to a panel of phenotypic traits. Using two sets of nuclear microsatellite markers, the present work aimed at evaluating and comparing the intravarietal genetic diversity within seven wine grape varieties: Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chenin blanc, Grolleau, Pinot noir, Riesling, Savagnin, comprising a total number of 344 accessions of certified clones and introductions preserved in French repositories. Ten accessions resulted in being either self-progeny, possible offspring of the expected variety or misclassified varieties. Out of the 334 remaining accessions, 83 displayed genotypes different from the varietal reference, i.e., the microsatellite profile shared by the larger number of accessions. They showed a similarity value ranging from 0.923 to 0.992, and thus were considered as polymorphic monozygotic clones. The fraction of polymorphic clones ranged from 2 to 75% depending on the variety and the set of markers, the widest clonal diversity being observed within the Savagnin. Among the 83 polymorphic clones, 29 had unique genotype making them distinguishable; others were classified in 21 groups sharing the same genotype. All microsatellite markers were not equally efficient to show diversity within clone collections and a standard set of five microsatellite markers (VMC3a9, VMC5g7, VVS2, VVMD30, and VVMD 32) relevant to reveal clonal polymorphism is proposed.

  14. The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).

    PubMed

    Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P < 0.01). Present investigations indicated that oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol constituents of grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Grape variety affects larval performance and also female reproductive performance of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Moreau, J; Benrey, B; Thiéry, D

    2006-04-01

    For insect herbivores, the quality of the larval host plant is a key determinant of fitness. Therefore, insect populations are supposed to be positively correlated with the nutritional quality of their host plant. This study aimed to determine if and how different varieties of grapes (including the wild grape Lambrusque) affect both larval and adult performance of the polyphagous European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Significant differences were found in larval development time, but not in pupal mass, adult emergence rate, or sex ratio. Although the fecundity of females is not different among varieties, females fed on some varieties produced eggs of different sizes which are correlated to their fertility. Thus, females adapt resource allocation to eggs depending on their diet as larvae. Using a fitness index, the average reproductive output was found to be highest for females reared on cv. Chardonnay. Females reared on wild grape produced a fitness index identical to the cultivated grapes. However, Lambrusque and Gewurztraminer separate themselves from the cultivated varieties according to our discriminant analyses. It is emphasized, through this study, that cultivars fed on by larvae should be considered in the population dynamics of L. botrana and that egg number is insufficient to determine host plant quality.

  16. Effect of harvest time on physico-chemical properties and bioactive compounds of pulp and seeds of grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Gülcü, Mehmet; Uslu, Nurhan; Geçgel, Ümit; Ghafoor, Kashif; Dursun, Nesim

    2017-07-01

    In this study, physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of three grape varieties (Cardinal, Müşküle and Razaki) harvested at the three different harvest times (on time, one and two weeks earlier) were investigated. The highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in Razaki pulp and these were 82.854%, 127.422 mg/100 g, 3.873 mg/g, respectively. The contents of bioactive compounds in grape seeds were found higher than those in pulps. Similarly, seed of Razaki had higher antioxidant activity (91.267%) and total phenolic content (477.500 mg/100 g) when compared to results of other varieties. The key phenolic compounds of all grape variety and seeds were gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, (+)-catechin ve 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. The oil content of grape seeds ranged from 8.50% (Razaki harvested one week ago) to 19.024% (Müşküle harvested one week ago). The main fatty acids of grapeseed oils were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. In addition, the oil of Razaki seeds was rich in tocopherols when compared to the other varieties.

  17. Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Otero-Pareja, María José; Casas, Lourdes; Fernández-Ponce, María Teresa; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2015-05-26

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Serbian red wines produced from international Vitis vinifera grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Jovančićević, Branimir S; Radovanović, Blaga C; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zvezdanović, Jelena B

    2012-08-15

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Serbian red wines produced from different international Vitis vinifera grape varieties and their correlation with contents of phenolic compounds were studied by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The antioxidant activity of red wines was estimated through their ability to scavenge 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(•) ). The red wines, gallic acid, (+)-catechin and quercetin were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains using microdilution and disc diffusion techniques. Excellent correlations between the contents of quercetin-3-glucoside (R(2) = 0.9463) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.9337) and DPPH(•) -scavenging ability of the red wines were found. Serbian red wines exhibited significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Micrococcus flavus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella sonnei strains, which was in correlation with their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The compounds gallic acid, quercetin and (+)-catechin showed high activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. lutea and M. flavus Gram-positive and S. enteritidis and P. aeruginosa Gram-negative strains. The results show that quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin concentrations can be used as markers for the determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of red wines. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Fruit quality, nutraceutical and antimicrobial properties of 58 muscadine grape varieties (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) grown in United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Zhao, Lu; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2017-01-15

    Fifty-eight muscadine grape varieties were evaluated for their fruit quality, nutraceutical, and antimicrobial properties during two growing seasons (2012 vs. 2013). Fruit quality was significantly different among muscadine grape varieties, with weight ranged from 2.93 to 22.32g, pH from 3.01 to 3.84, titratable acidity from 0.27% to 0.83%, and °Brix from 10.92 to 23.91. Total phenols for different muscadine juices varied from 0.26 to 1.28mgGA/mL, skins from 10.13 to 30.02mgGA/g DM, and seeds from 22.47 to 72.01mgGA/g DM. Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of grape juices varied from 0.97 to 6.78mmolTrolox/mL, skins from 83.59 to 221.20μmolTrolox/g DM, and seeds from 178.22 to 619.73μmolTrolox/g DM. Study demonstratedgrape seed polyphenols (MIC 54.8-60.1μg/ml) showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than skin polyphenols (MIC 70.7-80.2μg/ml). This information could be a valuable asset in the research and extension of muscadine grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Xylem structure of four grape varieties and 12 alternative hosts to the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidious

    PubMed Central

    Chatelet, David S.; Wistrom, Christina M.; Purcell, Alexander H.; Rost, Thomas L.; Matthews, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), responsible for Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, colonizes the xylem conduits of vines, ultimately killing the plant. However, Vitis vinifera grapevine varieties differ in their susceptibility to Xf and numerous other plant species tolerate Xf populations without showing symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the xylem structure of grapevines with different susceptibilities to Xf infection, as well as the xylem structure of non-grape plant species that support or limit movement of Xf to determine if anatomical differences might explain some of the differences in susceptibility to Xf. Methods Air and paint were introduced into leaves and stems to examine the connectivity between stem and leaves and the length distribution of their vessels. Leaf petiole and stem anatomies were studied to determine the basis for the free or restricted movement of Xf into the plant. Key Results There were no obvious differences in stem or petiole vascular anatomy among the grape varieties examined, nor among the other plant species that would explain differences in resistance to Xf. Among grape varieties, the more tolerant ‘Sylvaner’ had smaller stem vessel diameters and 20 % more parenchyma rays than the other three varieties. Alternative hosts supporting Xf movement had slightly longer open xylem conduits within leaves, and more connection between stem and leaves, when compared with alternative hosts that limit Xf movement. Conclusions Stem–leaf connectivity via open xylem conduits and vessel length is not responsible for differences in PD tolerance among grape varieties, or for limiting bacterial movement in the tolerant plant species. However, it was found that tolerant host plants had narrower vessels and more parenchyma rays, possibly restricting bacterial movement at the level of the vessels. The implications of xylem structure and connectivity for the means and regulation of bacterial movement are

  1. Screening of variety- and pre-fermentation-related volatile compounds during ripening of white grapes to define their evolution profile.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Elisabete; Rocha, Sílvia M; Barros, António S; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2007-08-06

    The variety- and pre-fermentation-related volatile compounds of 'Fernão-Pires' (FP) white grape berries were analyzed during ripening by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). A preliminary step, in which the grapes were crushed and macerated before HS-SPME analyses, was used. The sampling started at véraison (beginning of berry ripening) and was carried on during 5 weeks in two different vineyards. Sixteen terpenoids, two C13 norisoprenoids, two aromatic alcohols, two C6 aldehydes, and three C6 alcohols were identified. The amount of all volatiles increased since véraison towards day 20. A sharp decrease was observed after this day. The maximum amount of varietal volatile compounds was coincident with the harvesting day for white table wine production defined by the ratio sugar/acid content. The varietal volatile evolution observed for FP grapes shows that the maximum amount of volatiles occurs only in a very short period. As a consequence, the establishment of the optimum moment for harvesting of FP white variety, based on its volatile content, deserves higher accuracy than that necessary for all other already studied grapes. This work also evidences that the analysis of the evolution of the terpenoids with higher GC peak area can represent the evolution of all varietal compounds. For FP grapes, this work shows that the screening of linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol during ripening can be used to define the evolution profile of the varietal volatile compounds.

  2. Bound aroma compounds of Gual and Listán blanco grape varieties and their influence in the elaborated wines.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan J; Cabrera-Valido, Héctor M; Pérez-Trujillo, Juan P; Cacho, Juan

    2011-08-01

    Listán blanco and Gual are two white grape varieties grown in Spain (Canary Islands) and Gual is also grown in Portugal (Madeira Island). Wine quality could be improved by exploiting the varietal characteristics present in grapes as aroma precursors. At the present time, the enologic potential of these varieties has not yet been studied. Aroma precursors in musts and skins, and free volatiles in wines were determined in samples of both varieties. Aroma precursors of must and skins were isolated by absorption on XAD-2 resin and the aglycone liberated by means of acid hydrolysis. Free volatiles from wines and from aroma precursors were extracted with dichloromethane and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the aroma precursors analysed, only α-terpineol, linalool and linalool oxides, 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and benzyl alcohol showed contents in grapes comparable to the levels observed in wine volatile compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of low molecular weight phenolic compounds during the aging of sparkling wines manufactured with red and white grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, M Angeles; Hernández, M Teresa; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Polo, M Carmen

    2003-03-26

    Thirty-two phenolic compounds of low molecular weight were identified in 36 white, blanc de noir, and rosé sparkling wines by using HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. Some of the identified compounds, such as cis- and trans-ethylcaftaric, cis- and trans-ethylcaffeic, and cis- or trans-ethyl-p-coumaric acids, 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin, 2R,3R-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-beta-d-glucoside, and a lignan derivative are described for the first time in sparkling wines manufactured with grapes of red varieties. This is also the first time that cis- or trans-diethylfertaric acids have been identified in wines. When cluster analysis was applied to the data of 19 of the 32 identified compounds, the greatest differences found in the low molecular weight phenolic compounds in sparkling wines were due to the grape variety from which they were manufactured, whereas aging time did not significantly influence phenolic composition. Nine phenolic compounds, that is, trans-p-coumaric and trans-caftaric acids, trans-resveratrol glucoside, cis-coutaric, trans-coutaric, cis-p-coumaric, and cis-caftaric acids, tryptophol, and syringic acid, permit the wines to be classified correctly in accordance with the grape variety from which they were manufactured.

  4. Activity of grape extracts from Greek varieties of Vitis vinifera against mutagenicity induced by bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102.

    PubMed

    Stagos, Demetrios; Kazantzoglou, Georgios; Theofanidou, Demetra; Kakalopoulou, Georgia; Magiatis, Prokopios; Mitaku, Sofia; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2006-10-30

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that grape extracts could prevent certain steps in carcinogenesis and a few mechanisms have been proposed for this activity. In this study, the potential antimutagenic activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from two Greek grape varieties of Vitis vinifera against DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed as a potential novel chemopreventive mechanism, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. The two grape varieties were Assyrtiko (white grapes) and Mandilaria (red grapes), while the oxidant mutagens used were bleomycin (BLM) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Since it has been considered that polyphenols present in grapes are their most potent biologically active compounds, we also tested the effects of polyphenol-rich fractions as well as some of the more common grape polyphenols on the activity of the two test mutagens. These polyphenols were quercetin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid. Almost all extracts showed inhibitory activity against both mutagens. On the other hand, polyphenol-rich fractions as well as individual polyphenols at concentrations found in the extracts either did not diminish or did enhance the activity of the mutagens. These results suggest that the protection of DNA from mutations induced by ROS may be one of the mechanisms accounting for the chemopreventive activity of grape extracts. However, it seems that this protective activity may not be attributed to polyphenols but rather to a synergism of many compounds in the grapes.

  5. Proanthocyanidin composition and antioxidant potential of the stem winemaking byproducts from 10 different grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-12-05

    Stem byproducts from 10 different grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic and total proanthocyanidin contents, flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin profiles, and antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, and ORAC assays, with a view to the recovery of their natural bioactive compounds. Stems from Callet, Syrah, Premsal Blanc, Parellada, and Manto Negro varieties yielded the highest total phenolic and total proanthocyanidin contents and showed the greatest antioxidant capacities, whereas Chardonnay and Merlot stems presented the lowest values. Varieties differed significantly (p<0.05) with regard to both the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of their stems. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were observed when stems from red and white varieties were considered separately. For the 10 grape varieties investigated, this is the first study presenting a detailed description of their stem flavan-3-ol composition determined by HPLC-UV-fluo. All of the analyses confirmed the stem byproducts as a potential polyphenol-rich source, especially promising in the case of the Callet variety.

  6. Relationship between hyperspectral indices, agronomic parameters and phenolic composition of Vitis vinifera cv Tempranillo grapes.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Martínez-Fernández, José; Sánchez, Nilda; Herrero-Jiménez, Carlos M; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2017-09-01

    The phenolic composition of grapes is key when making decisions about harvest date and ensuring the quality of grapes. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the detailed phenolic composition of grapes and the agronomic parameters and hyperspectral indices, with the latter being measured via field radiometry techniques. Good correlations were found between phenolic composition (both anthocyanin and flavanol composition) and some hyperspectral indices related to vigor, such as the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and the SAVI (soil adjusted vegetation index). The strongest correlations were observed between the phenolic composition of grape skin at harvest time and variables measured from grapes at veraison time, as well as variables determined from grapevines at harvest time. The potential usefulness of these hyperspectral indices calculated from measurements performed directly on grapes or grapevines for estimating the anthocyanin and flavanol composition of grape skins was indicated by the high coefficients of determination (R(2 =) 0.7955 and R(2 =) 0.8594, respectively) as obtained by means of principal component regression. According to the results of the present study, hyperspectral indices calculated from measurements performed directly on grapes at veraison time or on grapevines at harvest time may be useful for estimating the anthocyanin and flavanol composition of grape skins. This suggests that field radiometry might provide valuable information for estimating the phenolic composition of grapes, which may prove to be very useful when establishing strategies for harvest planning. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices with pattern recognition algorithms for classification of Argentine white wines according grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Alcaraz, Mirta R; Ugulino de Araújo, Mário C; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the modeling of excitation-emission matrices for classification of Argentinean white wines according to the grape variety employing chemometric tools for pattern recognition. The discriminative power of the data was first investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). The score plots showed strong overlapping between classes. A forty-one samples set was partitioned into training and test sets by the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The algorithms evaluated were SIMCA, N- and U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA. The fit of the implemented models was assessed by mean of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These models were then used to assign the type of grape of the wines corresponding to the twenty samples test set. The best results were obtained for U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA with 76% and 80% accuracy.

  8. The influence of climate change on wine production - the case of the Touriga Nacional grape variety (Quinta dos Termos, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, João

    2017-04-01

    The regional and local climate, heavily influenced by global climate change, has strong implications for agriculture. Wine production which has specific characteristics in terms of climate and soil is undoubtedly one of the economic activities strongly influenced by climate change. Quinta dos Termos located in Beira Interior (Belmonte, Portugal) is the largest wine producer in the DOC Beira Interior region, producing premium to hiper premium wines of excellence, marketed at both national and international levels, and cultivates the vineyards according to the rules of Integrated Crop Management. Moreover, grapes are free from herbicides, pesticides or any other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and health. These factors have contributed to the socio-economic development of the region, creating wealth, favoring employment and promoting tourism. The quality of the wines produced by Quinta dos Termos result from its terroir, given its granite region, the sun exposure, the wind protection, the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the soil water content, the mineralogical/organic composition and soil porosity. These factors favor unique conditions for the cultivation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, which is recognized by its extremely complex color and aroma, which allows the production of wines with great balance and a good ageing potential. Touriga Nacional, a red grape variety of Portuguese origin with high qualitative excellence and reputation and much appreciated worldwide, is versatile to several types of soils and resistant to high thermal amplitudes. Nevertheless, the climatic changes that has been gradually verified, the type of crop management, and in particular the reputation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, may be compromised in the long term, given that these characteristics are strongly influenced by the climate and soil. Aware of that, Quinta dos Termos has been performing a monitoring of the vineyards in terms of pedological treatment

  9. Genetic variability and geographic typicality of Italian former Prosecco grape variety using PCR-derived molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Meneghetti, Stefano; Costacurta, Angelo; Bavaresco, Luigi; Calo', Antonio

    2014-05-01

    This study uses PCR-derived marker systems to investigate the extent and distribution of genetic variability of 80 Italian Prosecco accessions coming from Prosecco DOC area (north-east area of Italy). The studied samples include genotypes from Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia region. In order to verify the varietal identity of the samples, analyses based on 22 SSR loci were performed, and two grape varieties were found: Prosecco tondo and Prosecco lungo. In addition to microsatellite analysis, intra-varietal variability study was performed using AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR, and M-AFLP molecular markers. This molecular approach could discriminate different Prosecco tondo accessions coming from Treviso hills, from Veneto plain, from Friuli Venezia Giulia region, and from Padua hills (Serprina samples). As concerning Prosecco lungo variety, it was possible to discriminate molecularly the accessions from Veneto region and those from Friuli Venezia Giulia region. The molecular analysis allowed a distinction of the Prosecco genotypes on the basis of their geographic origins with plant-specific markers able to differentiate all Prosecco accessions. In this paper, the studied grape variety is termed Prosecco and not Glera (which is the present name) because the sampled vineyards were established many years ago when the name of the variety was Prosecco.

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    PubMed Central

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Mélo, Dângelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonça, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fátima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  11. A Focus on Quality and Safety Traits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Uva di Troia Grape Variety.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Speranza, Barbara; Capozzi, Vittorio; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from vineyards of the autochthonous grape variety "Uva di Troia" located in different geographical areas of Apulian region (Southern Italy). Four hundred isolates were studied in relation to H2 S production, β-glucosidase activity, and pigments adsorption from grape skin. Thus, 81 isolates were selected, identified through the amplification of the interdelta region, and grouped in 19 biotypes (from I to XIX). The enological performances were assessed to determine the content of residual sugars, ethanol, glycerol, and volatile acidity, after a microfermentation in Uva di Troia must for each isolate. The ability to remove ochratoxin A (OTA) was studied as an additional tool to select promising strains. A geographical-dependent technological variability was found for glycerol and volatile acidity, suggesting that the different indigenous yeasts can have a peculiar impact on the final characteristics of the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"). Only 2 biotypes (VI and XVII) were able to remove OTA throughout fermentation, with the highest reduction achieved by the biotype XVII (ca. 30%). © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    PubMed

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  13. 76 FR 66625 - Approval of Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... given names which will lead the public into believing they are Vitis vinifera varieties. This commenter does, however, express approval of the listing of Vitis vinifera variety names such as Auxerrois or Gr..., are popular in areas of the country where the climate makes the cultivation of Vitis vinifera...

  14. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced from new Brazilian varieties planted in the Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos Dos Santos; Silani, Igor de Souza Veras; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2014-10-15

    The phenolic compounds, organic acids and the antioxidant activity were determined for grape juice samples from new Brazilian varieties grown in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley in the Northeast Region of Brazil. The results showed that the Brazilian grape juices have high antioxidant activity, which was significantly correlated with the phenolic compounds catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin B1, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The produced juice samples showed higher concentrations of trans-resveratrol than those observed in juices made from different varieties of grapes from traditional growing regions. Organic acids concentrations were similar to those of juices produced from other classical varieties. It was demonstrated that it is possible to prepare juices from grapes of new varieties grown in the Northeast of Brazil containing a high content of bioactive compounds and typical characteristics of the tropical viticulture practised in the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Biomarkers for Defense Response to Plasmopara viticola in a Resistant Grape Variety.

    PubMed

    Chitarrini, Giulia; Soini, Evelyn; Riccadonna, Samantha; Franceschi, Pietro; Zulini, Luca; Masuero, Domenico; Vecchione, Antonella; Stefanini, Marco; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2017-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is one of the most destructive diseases of the cultivated species Vitis vinifera. The use of resistant varieties, originally derived from backcrosses of North American Vitis spp., is a promising solution to reduce disease damage in the vineyards. To shed light on the type and the timing of pathogen-triggered resistance, this work aimed at discovering biomarkers for the defense response in the resistant variety Bianca, using leaf discs after inoculation with a suspension of P. viticola. We investigated primary and secondary metabolism at 12, 24, 48, and 96 h post-inoculation (hpi). We used methods of identification and quantification for lipids (LC-MS/MS), phenols (LC-MS/MS), primary compounds (GC-MS), and semi-quantification for volatile compounds (GC-MS). We were able to identify and quantify or semi-quantify 176 metabolites, among which 53 were modulated in response to pathogen infection. The earliest changes occurred in primary metabolism at 24-48 hpi and involved lipid compounds, specifically unsaturated fatty acid and ceramide; amino acids, in particular proline; and some acids and sugars. At 48 hpi, we also found changes in volatile compounds and accumulation of benzaldehyde, a promoter of salicylic acid-mediated defense. Secondary metabolism was strongly induced only at later stages. The classes of compounds that increased at 96 hpi included phenylpropanoids, flavonols, stilbenes, and stilbenoids. Among stilbenoids we found an accumulation of ampelopsin H + vaticanol C, pallidol, ampelopsin D + quadrangularin A, Z-miyabenol C, and α-viniferin in inoculated samples. Some of these compounds are known as phytoalexins, while others are novel biomarkers for the defense response in Bianca. This work highlighted some important aspects of the host response to P. viticola in a commercial variety under controlled conditions, providing biomarkers for a better understanding of the mechanism of plant defense and a potential application

  16. Determination of piceid and resveratrol in Spanish wines deriving from Monastrell (Vitis vinifera L.) grape variety.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Labanda, Juan F; Mallavia, Ricardo; Pérez-Fons, Laura; Lizama, Victoria; Saura, Domingo; Micol, Vicente

    2004-08-25

    The presence of stilbenes in wine is becoming an important issue due to their claimed relation to a low incidence in coronary diseases and their increasing implication as cancer chemopreventive and neuroprotective agents. Total resveratrol content, quantified as glucoside and aglycone forms of resveratrol, has been determined in a survey of 45 Monastrell monovarietal Spanish red wine types (around 135 wine samples), belonging to Alicante and Bullas appellations. The average between ratio glucoside/aglycone forms of resveratrol in these wines was considerably high, ranging from 82 to 91% of resveratrol in its glycosidic form. This characteristic was observed in a high percentage of the studied wines, which were made under different winemaking procedures, and from different vintages (1995-2002). In addition, wines made using macerative fermentations with double amount of solid parts ("doble pasta") reached the highest levels of total stilbene content expressed as resveratrol equivalent, i.e., 30 mg/L (average of 18.8 mg/L). It can be concluded that high resveratrol glucoside concentration and low free isomer content can be considered characteristics of the Monastrell variety, as it happens to red wines deriving from other varieties grown at warm climates. This fact, also observed for other French and Portuguese red varieties, might play an important role in food habits involving these types of wines.

  17. An analytical survey of the polyphenols of seeds of varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in Greece: implications for exploitation as a source of value-added phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Guendez, Ramila; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Makris, Dimitris P; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2005-01-01

    Seed samples from 12 white and 25 red international and Hellenic native grape varieties (Vitis vinifera) were screened for their polyphenolic composition. The polyphenols determined were mainly of low molecular weight, including gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and the procyanidins B1 and B2. Average values of total content for white and red varieties (376 and 388 mg/100 g seeds, respectively) were very similar. Comparable results were observed with respect to the individual polyphenol content with seeds from red varieties being, in general, slightly richer. The predominant flavanol monomer in white and red varieties was catechin (which accounted for 50.5 and 49.3%, respectively, of the total content), whilst gallic acid and epigallocatechin were the constituents showing the lowest content, respectively. The data obtained are discussed with regard to the exploitation of grape seeds as a low-cost source of value-added phytochemicals.

  18. Effects of plant phenolics and grape extracts from Greek varieties of Vitis vinifera on Mitomycin C and topoisomerase I-induced nicking of DNA.

    PubMed

    Stagos, Demetrios; Kazantzoglou, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Mitaku, Sofia; Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, a number of reports have shown the anticancer activity of grape extracts and wine against various types of cancer such as breast, lung and gastric cancer. This property is mainly attributed to the plant polyphenols identified in grapes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms by which grape extracts and plant polyphenols found in them exert their chemopreventive and antitumour activities. Thus, aqueous and methanolic extracts from two Greek varieties of Vitis vinifera, fractions enriched in polyphenols of these extracts and polyphenolics (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and rutin) found in grapes were screened using two in vitro assays: i) the topoisomerase I relaxation assay and ii) the mitomycin C-induced DNA strand breakage. The grape extracts, the polyphenol-rich fractions and some of the polyphenolics (caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid) were potent inhibitors of topoisomerase I, indicating that the inhibition of this enzyme may be one of the mechanisms accounting for the anticancer activity of these compounds. Moreover, the grape extracts inhibited the mitomycin C-induced DNA strand breakage suggesting that they could prevent ROS-mediated DNA damage. On the other hand, the polyphenol-rich fractions and the plant polyphenols enhanced the mitomycin C-induced DNA strand breakage indicating prooxidant activity. Thus, it is of interest that whole grape extracts act as chemopreventive agents by inhibiting topo I and mitomycin C-induced DNA damage, while polyphenol enriched fractions and plant polyphenolics exert prooxidant activity leading to enhancement of DNA damage which may account for the cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing properties of plant polyphenols against cancer cells.

  19. Optimisation of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based methodology to establish the global volatile signature in pulp and skin of Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Barros, António S; Rocha, Sílvia M; Câmara, José S

    2011-09-15

    The volatiles (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) responsible for aroma are mainly present in skin of grape varieties. Thus, the present investigation is directed towards the optimisation of a solvent free methodology based on headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) in order to establish the global volatile composition in pulp and skin of Bual and Bastardo Vitis vinifera L. varieties. A deep study on the extraction-influencing parameters was performed, and the best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified compounds and reproducibility, were obtained using 4 g of sample homogenised in 5 mL of ultra-pure Milli-Q water in a 20 mL glass vial with addition of 2g of sodium chloride (NaCl). A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibre was selected for extraction at 60°C for 45 min under continuous stirring at 800 rpm. More than 100 VOCs and SVOCs, including 27 monoterpenoids, 27 sesquiterpenoids, 21 carbonyl compounds, 17 alcohols (from which 2 aromatics), 10 C(13) norisoprenoids and 5 acids were identified. The results showed that, for both grape varieties, the levels and number of volatiles in skin were considerably higher than those observed in pulp. According to the data obtained by principal component analysis (PCA), the establishment of the global volatile signature of grape and the relationship between different part of grapes-pulp and skin, may be an useful tool to winemaker decision to define the vinification procedures that improves the organoleptic characteristics of the corresponding wines and consequently contributed to an economic valorization and consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  1. Plasticity of the Berry Ripening Program in a White Grape Variety

    PubMed Central

    Dal Santo, Silvia; Fasoli, Marianna; Negri, Stefano; D'Incà, Erica; Vicenzi, Nazareno; Guzzo, Flavia; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Pezzotti, Mario; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here, we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture, and composition). These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport, and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation of the corresponding

  2. Global retrieval of ATSR cloud parameters and evaluation (GRAPE): dataset assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Poulsen, C. A.; Arnold, C.; Campmany, E.; Dean, S.; Ewen, G. B. L.; Grainger, R. G.; Lawrence, B. N.; Siddans, R.; Thomas, G. E.; Watts, P. D.

    2011-04-01

    The Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) provide a long time-series of measurements suitable for the retrieval of cloud properties. This work evaluates the freely-available Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE) dataset (version 3) created from the ATSR-2 (1995-2003) and Advanced ATSR (AATSR; 2002 onwards) records. Users are recommended to consider only retrievals flagged as high-quality, where there is a good consistency between the measurements and the retrieved state (corresponding to about 60% of converged retrievals over sea, and more than 80% over land). Cloud properties are found to be generally free of any significant spurious trends relating to satellite zenith angle. Estimates of the random error on retrieved cloud properties are suggested to be generally appropriate for optically-thick clouds, and up to a factor of two too small for optically-thin cases. The correspondence between ATSR-2 and AATSR cloud properties is high, but a relative calibration difference between the sensors of order 5-10% at 660 nm and 870 nm limits the potential of the current version of the dataset for trend analysis. As ATSR-2 is thought to have the better absolute calibration, the discussion focusses on this portion of the record. Cloud-top heights from GRAPE compare well to ground-based data at four sites, particularly for shallow clouds. Clouds forming in boundary-layer inversions are typically around 1 km too high in GRAPE due to poorly-resolved inversions in the modelled temperature profiles used. Global cloud fields are compared to satellite products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements, and a climatology of liquid water content derived from satellite microwave radiometers. In all cases the main reasons for differences are linked to differing sensitivity to, and treatment of, multi-layer cloud systems. The correlation coefficient between

  3. Global retrieval of ATSR cloud parameters and evaluation (GRAPE): dataset assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Poulsen, C. A.; Arnold, C.; Campmany, E.; Dean, S.; Ewen, G. B. L.; Grainger, R. G.; Lawrence, B. N.; Siddans, R.; Thomas, G. E.; Watts, P. D.

    2010-11-01

    The Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) provide a long time-series of measurements suitable for the retrieval of cloud properties. This work evaluates the freely-available Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE) dataset (version 3) created from the ATSR-2 (1995-2003) and Advanced ATSR (AATSR; 2002 onwards) records. Users are recommended to consider only retrievals flagged as high-quality, where there is a good consistency between the measurements and the retrieved state (corresponding to about 60% of converged retrievals over sea, and more than 80% over land). Cloud properties are found to be generally free of any significant spurious trends relating to satellite zenith angle. Estimates of the random error on retrieved cloud properties are suggested to be generally appropriate for optically-thick clouds, and up to a factor of two too small for optically-thin cases. The correspondence between ATSR-2 and AATSR cloud properties is high, but a relative calibration difference between the sensors of order 5-10% at 660 nm and 870 nm limits the potential of the current version of the dataset for trend analysis. As ATSR-2 is thought to have the better absolute calibration, the discussion focusses on this portion of the record. Cloud-top heights from GRAPE compare well to ground-based data at four sites, particularly for shallow clouds. Clouds forming in boundary-layer inversions are typically around 1 km too high in GRAPE due to poorly-resolved inversions in the modelled temperature profiles used. Global cloud fields are compared to satellite products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements, and a climatology of liquid water content derived from satellite microwave radiometers. In all cases the main reasons for differences are linked to differing sensitivity to, and treatment of, multi-layer cloud systems. The correlation coefficient between

  4. Characterization of neural network generalization in the determination of pH and anthocyanin content of wine grape in new vintages and varieties.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Véronique; Fernandes, Armando; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Pereira, Leonor; Mendes Faia, Arlete; Melo-Pinto, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    The generalization ability of hyperspectral imaging combined with neural networks (NN) in estimating pH and anthocyanin content during ripening was evaluated for vintages and varieties not employed in the NN creation. A NN, from a previously published work, trained with grape samples of Touriga Franca (TF) variety harvested in 2012 was tested with TF from 2013 and two new varieties, Touriga Nacional (TN) and Tinta Barroca (TB) from 2013. Each sample contained a small number of whole berries. The present work results suggest that, under certain conditions, it might be possible for the NN to provide for new vintages and varieties results comparable to those of the vintages and varieties employed in the NN training. For pH, the results are state-of-the-art for the new vintage and varieties tested. For anthocyanin, generalization is bad for TB from 2013 but presents state-of-the-art absolute percentage error for TF and TN from 2013.

  5. Statistical correlation between flavanolic composition, colour and sensorial parameters in grape seed during ripening.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this work has been to determine the correlations between sensory analysis, colour and content of main flavanols present in seeds. For this, the flavanic composition of grape seeds with different degrees of maturity was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS and the obtained results were correlated with CIELab colour parameters, perceived colour (C), hardness of the seed (HS), tannic intensity (TI) and astringency (A). Multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) with the variables showing significant correlations (p<0.05) was also performed. Grape seeds undergo important decreases in the content of catechins and procyanidin oligomers during ripening. Epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (B2G) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) are the flavanolic compounds whose contents decrease most. The changes in the phenolic composition accompany changes in TI, A and HS. The total content of flavanols in the seed is not the only factor affecting these attributes, since samples containing higher contents in flavanols can exhibit less astringency and tannic intensity than others with lower ones. The qualitative profile of the seeds is, therefore, also responsible for the sensations elicited in the mouth. A and HS parameters are more affected by the presence of galloylated dimeric procyanidins in the molecule than TI. CIELab colour parameters of seeds have high correlation coefficients with many flavanolic compounds. ECG was the compound most related to these parameters. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in three red grape varieties cultured in the Serranía de Ronda (Spain) vine-growing region.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Almudena; Calderón, Isabel L; Paneque, Patricia

    2010-10-15

    For the first time, an ecological survey of wine yeasts present in grapes growing in two vineyards located in the region of "Serranía de Ronda" (Málaga, southern Spain) has been carried out. During the 2006 and 2007 vintages, grapes from different varieties were aseptically collected and allowed to ferment spontaneously in the laboratory. From a total of 1586 colonies isolated from microvinifications, 1281 were identified according to ITS polymorphisms and their identity confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Most of the isolates (84%) corresponded to thirteen different non-Saccharomyces species with Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Issatchenkia orientalis accounting for 42.7% of the total. Mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates revealed a low diversity since only eleven different profiles were found, nine of them corresponding to local strains and two to commercial ones that had been used in different campaigns and that very likely were disseminated from the winery to the adjacent vineyard. A different distribution of strains was found in the three grape varieties studied.

  7. Effect of feeding grape pomace on selected metabolic parameters associated with high fructose feeding in growing Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Rogers, Theodore J; Wilkes, Samuel E; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Prior, Ronald L

    2011-12-01

    The effect of feeding grape pomace on certain metabolic parameters associated with high fructose (HF) feeding was studied. Forty male growing Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into groups: (1) control; (2) HF; (3) HF with low-level (1.5% of diet) grape pomace (HF+LP), and (4) HF with high-level (5.0% of diet) grape pomace (HF+HP). The HF+LP and HF+HP diets provided 115 and 218 mg of procyanidins/kg, respectively. Compared with the controls, HF-fed animals consumed less and were smaller, whereas animals in the HF+LP and HF+HP groups were in between. A similar trend was observed for abdominal fat and abdominal fat as a percentage of body weight. No change in heart or kidney weight occurred. Liver weight as a percentage of body weight was higher for animals when fructose was included in the diet compared with those on control diet, and inclusion of grape pomace had no effect. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels tended to be higher in animals fed HF diet, and grape pomace reduced their levels to values similar to the control animals. Compared with control animals, HF-fed animals had higher weekly postprandial plasma triglycerides, which were reduced by feeding grape pomace, but no change in plasma cholesterol was observed. Glucose intolerance was observed in animals fed HF diet and was accompanied by a 25% increase in homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance. Inclusion of grape pomace increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. No significant change (P>.1) in HOMA of β-cell function or Quantitative Insulin-Sensitivity Check Index was observed. Overall, HF diet did not produce as strong a response of metabolic syndrome as has been shown in the literature. The inclusion of grape pomace in the diet was effective in modulating some aspects of metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome, and the higher level of grape pomace in the diet produced a slightly better response than the lower level.

  8. Inverse method to estimate kinetic degradation parameters of grape anthocyanins in wheat flour under simultaneously changing temperature and moisture.

    PubMed

    Lai, K P K; Dolan, K D; Ng, P K W

    2009-06-01

    Thermal and moisture effects on grape anthocyanin degradation were investigated using solid media to simulate processing at temperatures above 100 degrees C. Grape pomace (anthocyanin source) mixed with wheat pastry flour (1: 3, w/w dry basis) was used in both isothermal and nonisothermal experiments by heating the same mixture at 43% (db) initial moisture in steel cells in an oil bath at 80, 105, and 145 degrees C. To determine the effect of moisture on anthocyanin degradation, the grape pomace-wheat flour mixture was heated isothermally at 80 degrees C at constant moisture contents of 10%, 20%, and 43% (db). Anthocyanin degradation followed a pseudo first-order reaction with moisture. Anthocyanins degraded more rapidly with increasing temperature and moisture. The effects of temperature and moisture on the rate constant were modeled according to the Arrhenius and an exponential relationship, respectively. The nonisothermal reaction rate constant and activation energy (mean +/- standard error) were k(80 degrees C, 43% (db) moisture) = 2.81 x 10(-4)+/- 1.1 x 10(-6) s(-1) and DeltaE = 75273 +/- 197 J/g mol, respectively. The moisture parameter for the exponential model was 4.28 (dry basis moisture content)(-1). One possible application of this study is as a tool to predict the loss of anthocyanins in nutraceutical products containing grape pomace. For example, if the process temperature history and moisture history in an extruded snack fortified with grape pomace is known, the percentage anthocyanin loss can be predicted.

  9. Variability in the Content of Trans-Resveratrol, Trans-ε-Viniferin and R2-Viniferin in Grape Cane of Seven Vitis vinifera L. Varieties during a Three-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Balík, Josef; Soural, Ivo; Sotolář, Radek

    2017-06-03

    Grape canes are a waste product from viticulture that show potential as an industrially extractable source of stilbenes, which are valuable for medical and other purposes. In this work, grape canes collected in three consecutive years (2014-2016) at six different places in South Moravia, Czech Republic were extracted, and the contents of trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin, and r2-viniferin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The study included three blue grape varieties of Vitis vinifera L. (Cabernet Moravia, Blaufränkisch, and Piwi variety Laurot) and four white grape varieties (Chardonnay, Green Veltliner, Piwi variety Hibernal, and Piwi variety Malverina). From the viewpoint of producing extracts with high stilbenes content, the Hibernal variety is clearly the best. The mean amounts of the stilbenes for this variety at all localities and for all three years were 4.99 g/kg for trans-resveratrol, 3.24 g/kg for trans-ε-viniferin, and 1.73 g/kg for r2-viniferin. The influence of vintage, locality, and variety on the amounts of stilbenes was studied using PCA analysis. In contrast to expectations, there was no strong impact of locality on stilbenes content. The differences were varietal for most varieties, regardless of the area of cultivation. Laurot and Hibernal varieties did differ significantly in that respect, however, as they exhibited clear dependence on location.

  10. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table grapes...

  11. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, F.; Bertussi, R. A.; Agostini, G.; Atti dos Santos, A. C.; Rossato, M.; Vanderlinde, R.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives. PMID:22593706

  12. Effect of high-pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall quality parameters of white grape juice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Wu, Sz-Jie; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP), over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage. HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliform and yeast/mold counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids, and retained less than 50% PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice. This study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Developmental parameters and seasonal phenology of Calepitrimerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) in wine grapes of western Oregon.

    PubMed

    Walton, V M; Dreves, A J; Coop, L B; Jones, G V; Skinkis, P A

    2010-12-01

    Developmental parameters of protogyne Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae) were determined at 12, 15, 17, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34 °C to better understand seasonal activity, population growth, and ultimately more effectively manage pest mites in wine grapes. Net reproductive rate (R(o)) was greater than zero at all temperatures with the maximum R(o) (9.72) at 25 °C. The lowest estimated R(o) (0.001) occurred at 34 °C. There was a gradual decrease in mean generation time (T) as temperatures increased from 17 to 31 °C. The shortest and longest generation time was recorded at 31 °C (T = 5.5 d) and 17 °C (T = 17.5 d). Rates of natural increase were lowest at 17°C (0.035) and increased with increasing temperatures, respectively. The peak rate of natural increase value (0.141) was at 25 °C. Estimations for minimum and maximum developmental thresholds were 10.51 and 39.19 °C, respectively, while the optimum developmental temperature was 26.9 °C. The thermal constant for egg to adult development was estimated at 87.7DD. The highest fecundity was observed at 25 °C. These parameters indicated that mites begin feeding at the onset of shoot growth when tissue is most susceptible in spring. Historical weather data showed that vines are in this susceptible growth stage for longer periods in the cool Willamette Valley compared with warmer Umpqua and Applegate/Rogue Valley regions. Estimation of degree-days indicated when deutogyne mites move to overwintering refuge sites. Degree-day accumulations indicated up to 14 generations per growing season.

  14. Rapid determination of flavonoids and phenolic acids in grape juices and wines by RP-HPLC/DAD: Method validation and characterization of commercial products of the new Brazilian varieties of grape.

    PubMed

    Padilha, Carla Valéria da Silva; Miskinis, Gabriela Aquino; de Souza, Marcelo Eduardo Alves Olinda; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Lima, Marcos Dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    A method for rapid determination of phenolic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), using a new column of faster resolution was validated and used to characterize commercial products produced with new grape Brazilian varieties of Northeast of Brazil. The in vitro antioxidant activity was also measured. The method showed linearity (R>0.9995), good precision (CV%<2.78), recovery (91.8-105.1%) and limits of detection (0.04-0.85mgL(-1)) and quantification (0.04-1.41mgL(-1)) according to other methods previously published with the difference of a run time of only 25min. The results obtained in the characterization of the samples differed for juices and wines from other world regions, mainly because of the high values of (-)-epigallocatechin and trans-caftaric acid. The products analyzed showed high antioxidant activity, especially the wine samples with values higher than those from wines of different regions of the world.

  15. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples.

  16. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  17. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  18. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  19. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  20. Comparative study of the phenolic composition of seeds and skins from Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Obreque-Slier, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio; Zamora-Marín, Fernando; Ricardo-da Silva, Jorge M; Laureano, Olga

    2010-03-24

    The phenolic composition of skins and seeds from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes during ripening was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and spectrophotometric analysis. As compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins, Carménère grape skins presented higher contents of total anthocyanins, monomeric flavan-3-ols, and total flavonoids, a higher mean degree of polymerization, a higher percentage of galloylation, a higher average molecular weight of the flavanol fraction, and a higher color intensity. As compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grape seeds, Carménère grape seeds presented a lower content of monomeric flavan-3-ols, a higher mean degree of polymerization, a higher percentage of galloylation, a higher average molecular weight of the flavanol fraction, a lower content of (+)-catechin, and higher contents of (-)-epicatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, gallic acid, and dimeric procyanidins esterified with gallic acid. Altogether, we conclude that Carménère grapes present a differential composition and evolution of phenolic compounds when compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

  1. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  2. Effect of experimental parameters in the pressurized solvent extraction of polyphenolic compounds from white grape marc.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Casas, Marta; García-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, María; Lores, Marta

    2014-08-15

    A method based on pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) to determine main polyphenolic compounds in the grape marc obtained as a byproduct of the white winemaking process has been developed. As response variables in the optimisation process include main individual polyphenols, as well as spectrophotometric indexes. The optimised PSE procedure implies the use of 1 g of sample, without preliminary clean-up step, sea sand as dispersant, temperature of 105 °C, methanol (63%) in water as solvent, and 5 min of extraction time (2 static cycles). The performance of the proposed method has been assessed in terms of recovery (91-105%), linearity (R(2)>0.995) and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of bagasse samples collected from 12 wineries located in Galicia (NW Spain). Data of the in vitro antioxidant activities of the PSE extracts are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional Leaf Traits and Diurnal Dynamics of Photosynthetic Parameters Predict the Behavior of Grapevine Varieties Towards Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Paolocci, Marco; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Muganu, Massimo; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study on functional leaf treats and the diurnal dynamics of photosynthetic processes was conducted on 2-year-old potted plants of two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties (Aleatico, ALE, and Trebbiano giallo, TRE), exposed under controlled conditions to realistic concentrations of the pollutant gas ozone (80 ppb for 5 h day-1, 8:00–13:00 h, + 40 ppb for 5 h day-1, 13:00–18:00 h). At constitutive levels, the morphological functional traits of TRE improved leaf resistance to gas exchange, suggesting that TRE is characterized by a potential high degree of tolerance to ozone. At the end of the treatment, both varieties showed typical visible injuries on fully expanded leaves and a marked alteration in the diurnal pattern of photosynthetic activity. This was mainly due to a decreased stomatal conductance (-27 and -29% in ALE and TRE, in terms of daily values in comparison to controls) and to a reduced mesophyllic functioning (+33 and +16% of the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration). Although the genotypic variability of grape regulates the response to oxidative stress, similar detoxification processes were activated, such as an increased content of total carotenoids (+64 and +30%, in ALE and TRE), enhanced efficiency of thermal energy dissipation within photosystem II (+32 and +20%) closely correlated with the increased de-epoxidation index (+26 and +22%) and variations in content of some osmolytes. In summary, we can conclude that: the daily photosynthetic performance of grapevine leaves was affected by a realistic exposure to ozone. In addition, the gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements revealed a different quali-quantitative response in the two varieties. The genotypic variability of V. vinifera and the functional leaf traits would seem to regulate the acclimatory response to oxidative stress and the degree of tolerance to ozone. Similar photoprotective mechanisms were activated in the two varieties, though to a different

  4. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  5. Acrylic bone cement and starch: Botanical variety impact on curing parameters and degradability.

    PubMed

    Aubrun-Fillâtre, Céline; Monchau, Francine; Hivart, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Acrylic bone cements are a conventional solution to heal bone defects. Starch is often added to the cement to improve its degradability and resorbability. The most used botanical variety is corn starch; few studies or applications deal with other varieties. This study focuses on classical formulations based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate but incorporating different starches: waxy maize, corn, amylo maize, wheat, pea or potato, with or without enzyme (α-amylase). A thermocouple is used to determine the curing parameters: setting time and maximal temperature. The water uptake depends on the cement immersion time in a biological fluid and it is studied through sample mass variation analysis. The weight loss is determined after immersion (function of the time) and drying. Starch botanical variety and enzyme presence do not impact curing parameters and water uptake but strongly influence degradability. Water uptake involves advantageous swelling in situ filling the defect. This study shows that starch accessibility by the enzyme explains this impact. Grain spatial configuration, specific surface area and starch distribution in cement give a complementary explanation of the well-known influence of the ratio amylopectin/amylose. Acrylic cements incorporating starch can be classified according to their degradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CIEL*a*b* parameters of white dehydrated grapes as quality markers according to chemical composition, volatile profile and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Luca; Giordano, Manuela; Giacosa, Simone; Vincenzi, Simone; Río Segade, Susana; Torchio, Fabrizio; Perrone, Benedetta; Gerbi, Vincenzo

    2012-06-30

    In the oenological sector, the withering process is of particular importance in the production of dry and sweet dessert wines due to the total or partial use of overripe and/or dehydrated grapes. This complex process leads to several changes in the chemical-physical characteristics of white grape berries affecting the wine quality and, at the end of the dehydration period, different visual attributes are usually present in the berry skins. The aim of this work, therefore, was to study the properties of Erbaluce dried grapes of varying external colors, classified into three groups based on reflectance colorimetry (green, gold and blue). The chemical composition, volatile profile and mechanical attributes were investigated, focusing on establishing relationships between CIEL*a*b* parameters of dehydrated grapes and their chemical-physical characteristics. The higher values of the glucose-fructose ratio, together with the higher content of sugars, gluconic acid and glycerol, but lower titratable acidity, suggests the presence of Botrytis cinerea Pers. infection in blue withered berries, which has been microbiologically confirmed. Regarding the instrumental mechanical properties, blue dehydrated grapes were characterized by a lower skin hardness and higher skin thickness in agreement with the higher weight loss experienced. Finally, the determination of free and bound volatile compounds showed that some of them were only found in blue withered berries, δ-lactones being considered the main chemical markers of the noble rot infection that are important for the odor character. C-10 alkyl massoia lactone was the most abundant volatile compound in blue botrytized grapes.

  7. Effect of vitamin e supplementation on biochemical parameters in pesticides sprayers of grape gardens of Western maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Patil, Jyotsna A; Patil, Arun J; Sontakke, Ajit V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to see the biochemical effects of pesticides on sprayers of grape gardens before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementations in Western Maharashtra (India), who were occupationally exposed to various pesticides over a long period of time (about 5 to 15 years). Blood samples were collected from all study group subjects for biochemical parameters assays before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens were given 400 mg of vitamin E tablet/day for 15 days. After 15 days of vitamin E supplementation to sprayers of grape gardens, we observed significantly decreased aspartate transaminase (10.88 %, P < 0.05, r = 0.88), alanine transaminase (25.92 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.46) and total proteins (3.32 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.33), whereas, no statistically significant change was found in serum acetyl cholinesterase, C-reactive proteins, albumin (ALB), globulins and ALB/globulin ratio as compared to before vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens, who received vitamin E supplementation, showed significantly decreased serum lipid peroxide (LP) (18.75 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.63) and significantly increased RBC-superoxide dismutase (SOD) (12.88 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.85), RBC-Catalase (CAT) (24.49 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.70), plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) (4.6 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.80), serum zinc (4.57 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.83) and serum copper (4.37 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.79) as compared to values before vitamin E supplementation. These results showed that vitamin E supplementation has ameliorating effects on these transaminase enzymes, suggesting that it may have a protective effect on liver, from pesticides induced damage. In this study vitamin E supplementation might have decreased LP levels by breaking chain reaction of lipid peroxidation. Present results indicate that vitamin E plays a crucial role in restoring the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and CP, in population exposed to

  8. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  10. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Improved some of Biochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Disturbances of Red Blood Cells in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Zare Moaiedi, Maasoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has a broad spectrum of biologic properties against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GSPE on biochemical factors and antioxidant enzymes of erythrocyte in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced through single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg.Kg-1, i.p). Forty Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four Groups: Group 1, healthy control group; Group 2, healthy group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1); Group 3, diabetic control group; Group 4, diabetic group treated with GSPE (200 mg.Kg-1) for 4 weeks. At the end, the experimental animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected and plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. The results show, treatment with GSPE significantly reduced (P<0.001) urine volume, proteinuria and biochemical factors such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein as well as malondialdehyde. Also GSPE treatment significantly (P<0.005) increased high density lipoprotein, total protein and albumin. Moreover GSPE significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activity such as: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. These results suggest that GSPE can ameliorate biochemical abnormalities and antioxidant system status in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats probably by its potent antioxidant features. PMID:25561939

  11. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  12. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  13. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  14. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  15. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin as...

  16. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  17. Combination Chemoprevention with Grape Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chandra K.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well-studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape-ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart ‘additive synergism’ against cancer. PMID:26829056

  18. Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra K; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Grape Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  20. Grape Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  1. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2014-06-11

    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Phenolic and Technological Maturities of Red Grapes Grown in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; El Darra, Nada; El Kantar, Sally; Hobaika, Zeina; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc) over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011) (642 samples). Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2) and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin) methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity. The ITV method allows the monitoring of phenolic maturity by the quantification of total polyphenol index and anthocyanins, while the Glories method enables the quantitative evolution of extractable anthocyanins and tannins of the grapes. A correlation was shown between the harvest dates obtained by both ITV and Glories (R2 = 0.7 – 0.93). Phenolic maturity of grapes can, therefore, be optimized by the application of both ITV and Glories. Similarly, a correlation was observed between technological and phenolic harvest dates. The effect of climate on the phenolic content of grapes was also studied. The highest temperatures (up to 25 °C) accompanied by the lowest rainfall (null value), induced the maximal concentration of polyphenols in grapes. Thermal and water stresses were also shown to enhance the grapes’ polyphenolic production. PMID:28134785

  3. [The effects of grape seed and coriander oil on biochemical parameters of oral fluid in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvili, M; Gogua, M; Franchuki, Q; Tufinashvili, T; Zurabashvili, D

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical changes that are taking place in patients with periodontitis 1 and 2 the quality of the individuals place in a laqtatdegidrogenazis, alkaline phosphatase activity increase and reduced activity amilazais. Therefore we can conclude that, there is an increase in superoxide substances, which causes an increase in the oral cavity patobakteriebis and quality of periodontitis. The grape seed and coriander oil is of vegetable origin and antioxidant drugs. Their action causes a statistically significant increase in the amilazis, alkaline phosphatase and laqtatdegidrogenazis reduction, while the latter leads pH - rate of return to oral fluid. It should be noted that the positive effect of coriander oil, but less effective.

  4. First Approach to the Analytical Characterization of
Barrel-Aged Grape Marc Distillates Using Phenolic Compounds and Colour Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Salgado, José Manuel; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Phenolic compounds (benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with multiple wavelength detector (HPLC- -MWD) in grape marc distillates aged in Quercus petraea, Quercus robur and Quercus alba wooden barrels. In addition to colour indices and evaluable polyphenols, all samples were described by sensorial analysis. There were significant differences in the mean concentrations of the majority of phenolic compounds among the samples. Gallic and benzoic acids were the most abundant and samples aged in Q. robur from Galicia (NW of Spain) had the highest concentration of most of the determined phenols. Grape marc distillates aged in Q. robur obtained the highest values of all sensorial attributes, whereas samples aged in Q. petraea and Q. alba obtained similar scores. Principal component analysis accounted for 88.32% of total variance, showing a good separation of aged distillates in terms of phenolic compounds and colour characteristics, according to the species and origin of the oak wood used in the ageing process. PMID:27904312

  5. First Approach to the Analytical Characterization of
Barrel-Aged Grape Marc Distillates Using Phenolic Compounds and Colour Parameters.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Salgado, José Manuel; Domínguez, José Manuel; Cortés-Diéguez, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Phenolic compounds (benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with multiple wavelength detector (HPLC- -MWD) in grape marc distillates aged in Quercus petraea, Quercus robur and Quercus alba wooden barrels. In addition to colour indices and evaluable polyphenols, all samples were described by sensorial analysis. There were significant differences in the mean concentrations of the majority of phenolic compounds among the samples. Gallic and benzoic acids were the most abundant and samples aged in Q. robur from Galicia (NW of Spain) had the highest concentration of most of the determined phenols. Grape marc distillates aged in Q. robur obtained the highest values of all sensorial attributes, whereas samples aged in Q. petraea and Q. alba obtained similar scores. Principal component analysis accounted for 88.32% of total variance, showing a good separation of aged distillates in terms of phenolic compounds and colour characteristics, according to the species and origin of the oak wood used in the ageing process.

  6. Investigations into the influence of organic fertilizer on the nitrogen content in the soil and the musts of grapes from the varieties 'Blauburger', 'Pinot noir', 'Blaufränkisch' and 'Riesling'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehofer, Martin; Schmuckenschlager, Bernhard; Hanak, Karel; Vitovec, Norbert; Schober, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    content was recognised in the must of the Grape variety 'Pinot Noir'. In 2009 an increase of Nitrogen content in the must of the Grapes of the 'Pinot Noir', 'Riesling' and 'Blauburger' varieties with both fertilizer variants and in 2010 an increase of Nitrogen content in the must of all four varieties and with both fertilizer variants was found. In 2011 an increase of Nitrogen content in the must of 'Blauburger' and 'Blaufränkisch' with both fertilizer variants and in 2012 an increase of Nitrogen content in the must of the three red wine varieties and with both fertilizer variants was found. Whereas the organic Commercial fertilizer primarily contributed to the Nitrogen supply to the vines, the compost did not only positively influence the Nitrogen supply to the vines, but also contributed to the stabilization of humus or even led to an increase of the humus content.

  7. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the Act... Vinifera species table grapes, except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier varieties, is...

  8. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the Act... Vinifera species table grapes, except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier varieties, is prohibited...

  9. Study of free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in air-dried raisins from three seedless grape varieties using HS-SPME with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wu, Guang-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Chen, Guang; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-15

    Volatile compounds in air-dried raisins from Turpan, China were analysed, with 77 volatiles identified in Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, and Crimson Seedless raisins, 37 of which had never been reported as raisin volatiles. Odour activity values (OAVs) of these volatiles were calculated; 20 compounds had OAVs above 1. The aroma characters of the three varieties were quite similar except for some differences in the intensity of each aroma character. The main free-form volatiles were ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal and geraniol, with β-damascenone, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal making the highest contribution to the aroma. Fruity and floral were the main characteristics of the free-form aromas in raisins. The main bound-form volatiles were benzyl alcohol and acetoin, with β-damascenone contributing most to the bound-form aromas, enhancing the floral, fruity and fatty aroma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioactivity of grape chemicals for human health.

    PubMed

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) products, grape and grape juice, represent a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals, synthesized by three secondary metabolic pathways (phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic routes) and stored in different plant tissues. In the last decades, compelling evidence suggested that regular consumption of these products may contribute to reducing the incidence of chronic illnesses, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders and aging, in a context of the Mediterranean dietary tradition. The health benefits arising from grape product intake can be ascribed to the potpourri of biologically active chemicals occurring in grapes. Among them, the recently discovered presence of melatonin adds a new element to the already complex grape chemistry. Melatonin, and its possible synergistic action with the great variety of polyphenols, contributes to further explaining the observed health benefits associated with regular grape product consumption.

  11. Influence of lactose hydrolysis on galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties.

    PubMed

    Vénica, Claudia I; Wolf, Irma V; Bergamini, Carina V; Perotti, María C

    2016-12-01

    Different types of reduced-lactose yogurt, obtained by lactose hydrolysis using β-galactosidase enzyme, are commercially available. The breakdown of lactose modifies the carbohydrate profile, including the production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), which could affect the survival and activity of starter and probiotic cultures and the parameters of yogurt quality. The extension of these changes is dependent on the yogurt matrix composition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lactose hydrolysis on GOS, lactose, volatile profile and physicochemical parameters of different yogurt varieties during storage. The presence of β-galactosidase enzyme did not affect either the global composition or the survival of cultures. Overall, the hydrolyzed products had lower acidity than traditional ones. GOS were found at similar levels in fresh hydrolyzed yogurts, whereas in traditional yogurts they were not detected. The proportion of ketones, acids and aldehydes seems to be more dependent on yogurt variety than on addition of the enzyme. Likewise, the storage period affected the volatile fraction to different degree; the increase in acid compounds was more pronounced in hydrolyzed than in traditional yogurts. This work shows that it is possible to obtain different varieties of reduced-lactose yogurt, some of them with additional benefits to health such as reduced fat, reduced calories, added with probiotic/inulin and enriched in GOS, with similar characteristics to traditional products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on quality parameters, carotenoids and phenolics of diverse tomato varieties (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Coyago-Cruz, Elena; Corell, Mireia; Stinco, Carla M; Hernanz, Dolores; Moriana, Alfonso; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and of cluster position (CI: first and second cluster; CII: third and fourth cluster; CIII: fifth and sixth cluster) on fruit quality parameters, carotenoids and phenolics in tomatoes. Three common ('Tigerella', 'Palamós' and 'Byelsa') and two cherry varieties ('Lazarino' and 'Summerbrix') were studied. The results showed that the regulated deficit irrigation with reduction of 40 and 50% in the leaf water potential in common and cherry tomatoes did not affect greatly the organoleptic quality of common tomatoes and 'Summerbrix', while cherry varieties were significantly affected with the cluster position. In most case, significant changes in the levels of carotenoids were observed depending on the treatment and the cluster position in all varieties. Significant changes with the treatment and no change with the cluster position were observed in phenolic compounds. Thus, in general, increased total carotenoid levels and reduced the content of phenolic compounds were observed. Considering the significance of changes in the levels of these groups of compounds it was concluded that 'Lazarino' was more susceptible to water deficit, whereas 'Summerbrix' and 'Palamós' were more resistant. On the other hand, the organoleptic and functional quality changed with the variety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term effects of chromium, grape seed extract, and zinc on various metabolic parameters of rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Montamarry, S; Echard, B; Scheckenbach, R; Bagchi, D

    2001-07-01

    Progressive insulin resistance may contribute to both enhanced glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids and augmented free radical damage commonly associated with aging. Accordingly, ingestion of chromium and antioxidants which improve insulin sensitivity and/or lessen free radical formation could theoretically ameliorate these basic disorders and lessen signs and symptoms of chronic age-related disorders. However, this supposition is based primarily upon acute rather than chronic data. Therefore, we divided 104 F344/BN rats into 2 groups: a control group receiving a basic diet and a test group receiving the same diet with added chromium polynicotinate (5 ppm), zinc monomethionine (18 ppm elemental zinc), and a grape seed extract high in flavonoids (250 ppm). Initial mean systolic blood pressures (SBP) of both control and test groups were 122 mm Hg. Over the first 7 months, the SBP of the control animals steadily increased to 140 mm Hg and remained at this level for the next 7-8 months. In contrast, the SBP of the test animals initially decreased over the first 4 months to as low as 110-114 mm Hg. The SBP then increased over the following months, essentially reaching the starting value of 120 mm Hg. This was still significantly lower than control (p < 0.001). In 12 control and 12 test rats, hepatic TBARS formation, an estimate of lipid peroxidation/free radical formation, was significantly lower after 1 year ingesting the test diet (p < 0.04); and HbA1C was also statistically significantly lower in the test group (5.4 vs. 4.8%, p < 0.003). Circulating levels of cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides were similar between the two groups. Body, kidney, and liver weights were not different after 1 year ingesting the different diets; but epididymal fat pad weight was less in the group receiving supplements. We conclude that after prolonged supplementation a combination of agents known to sensitize insulin response and act as antioxidants (chromium polynicotinate, grape

  14. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... grape seed Latin Name: Vitis vinifera Background Since ancient Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and ... 8):1173-1181. Fine AM. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Alternative Medicine Review. 2000; ...

  15. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  16. Microbial biogeography of wine grapes is conditioned by cultivar, vintage, and climate

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Thorngate, John H.; Richardson, Paul M.; Mills, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Wine grapes present a unique biogeography model, wherein microbial biodiversity patterns across viticultural zones not only answer questions of dispersal and community maintenance, they are also an inherent component of the quality, consumer acceptance, and economic appreciation of a culturally important food product. On their journey from the vineyard to the wine bottle, grapes are transformed to wine through microbial activity, with indisputable consequences for wine quality parameters. Wine grapes harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the surrounding environment, many of which are recognized for their role in grapevine health and wine quality. However, determinants of regional wine characteristics have not been identified, but are frequently assumed to stem from viticultural or geological factors alone. This study used a high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing approach to demonstrate that regional, site-specific, and grape-variety factors shape the fungal and bacterial consortia inhabiting wine-grape surfaces. Furthermore, these microbial assemblages are correlated to specific climatic features, suggesting a link between vineyard environmental conditions and microbial inhabitation patterns. Taken together, these factors shape the unique microbial inputs to regional wine fermentations, posing the existence of nonrandom “microbial terroir” as a determining factor in regional variation among wine grapes. PMID:24277822

  17. Aroma Glycosides in Grapes and Wine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Ullah, Niamat; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The major aroma components in grapes and wine include free volatile compounds and glycosidic nonvolatile compounds. The latter group of compounds is more than 10 times abundant of the former, and constitutes a big aroma reserve in grapes and wine. This review summarizes the research results obtained recently for the identification of aroma glycosides in grapes and wine, including grape glycoside structures, differences in aroma glycosides among grape varieties, hydrolysis mechanisms, and the factors that influence them. It also presents the analytical techniques used to identify the glycosidic aroma precursors. The operational strategies, challenges, and improvements of each step encountered in the analysis of glycosidic aroma precursors are described. This review intends to provide a convenient reference for researchers interested in the methods used for the determination of the aroma glucosides composition and the recognition of their chemical structures.

  18. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  19. Anticancer activity of grape and grape skin extracts alone and combined with green tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2006-07-18

    Grapes and grape extracts were compared for inhibition of a growth-related and cancer-specific form of cell surface NADH oxidase with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity designated tNOX from human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells and growth of HeLa and mouse mammary 4T1 cells in culture and transplanted tumors in mice. Grapes and grape extracts of several varieties had activity. With an extracted grape preparation provided by the California Table Grape Commission, an active fraction was eluted with methanol from a Diaion HP-20 column after removal of inactive water-soluble materials. Grape skins were a much more potent source than either grape pulp, juice or seeds. Ethanol extracts of the ground freeze-dried pomace was an excellent source. The grape extracts interacted, often synergistically, with decaffeinated green tea extracts both in the inhibition of tNOX activity and in the inhibition of cancer cell growth. Intratumoral injections of a 25:1 mixture of a green tea extract plus ground freeze-dried pomace was nearly as effective as standard synergistic green tea-Capsicum mixtures in inhibiting growth of 4T1 mammary tumors in situ in mice.

  20. Daily Preharvest UV-C Light Maintains the High Stilbenoid Concentration in Grapes.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Raúl F; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Puertas, Belén; Richard, Tristan

    2016-06-29

    The fact that it is possible to induce stilbenoid synthesis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) by UV-C light allows the possibility of stimulating grapevine phytoalexin production to increase disease resistance and immunity, and subsequently to limit the use of pesticides in vineyards. UV-C light was applied daily during three days before the harvesting of table grape variety Crimson seedless to study the accumulation of stilbenoid compounds during ripeness. The E-resveratrol concentration was monitored during daily preharvest UV-C light application and compared with that after a single application. Daily periodic preharvest UV-C light treatment showed a cumulative effect on grape stilbenoids. An 86-fold stilbenoid level increase (sum of E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, ε-viniferin, E-piceid, isorhapontigenin, ω-viniferin, and Z-piceid) in grapes was achieved. The effects of UV-C light on stilbenoid in grape cane was also addressed for the first time. Stilbenoid oligomers such as hopeaphenol, ampelopsin A, and r-viniferin were quantified in cane samples. Quality grape parameters indicated an acceleration of ripening in UV-C samples.

  1. Grapes, wines, resveratrol, and heart health.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Alberto A A; Das, Dipak K

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that a mild to moderate drinking of wine, particularly red wine, attenuates the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular risk. However, the experimental basis for such health benefits is not fully understood. The cardioprotective effect of wine has been attributed to both components of wine: the alcoholic portion and, more importantly, the alcohol-free portion containing antioxidants. Wines are manufactured from grapes, which also contain a large variety of antioxidants, including resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins. Resveratrol is mainly found in the grape skin, whereas proanthocyanidins are found only in the seeds. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol and proanthocyanidin are the major compounds present in grapes and wines responsible for cardioprotection. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence that grapes, wines, and resveratrol are equally important in reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular complications. Both wines and grapes can attenuate cardiac diseases such as atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Recently, wine was also found to increase life span by inducing longevity genes. It appears that resveratrol and proanthocyanidins, especially resveratrol, present in grapes and wines play a crucial role in cardioprotective abilities of grapes and wines.

  2. Nutritional study of copper and zinc in grapes and commercial grape juices from Spain.

    PubMed

    Olalla, Manuel; Fernández, Javier; Cabrera, Carmen; Navarro, Miguel; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen

    2004-05-05

    This paper presents the levels of copper and zinc determined in a total of 66 samples of the most widely consumed varieties of white and red grapes in Spain, as well as those of 60 samples of grape juice (39 from white varieties and 21 from red ones) chosen from the main commercial brands in the country. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used as analytical technique, with electrothermal atomization after digestion of the sample with HNO(3)-H(2)O(2) for grapes and with HNO(3) for grape juice. The mean Zn contents obtained (0.0462 mg/100 g in grapes and 0.0460 mg/100 mL in grape juice) are lower than those provided by most of the more commonly used food composition tables. The mean Cu contents were 0.0515 mg/100 g in grapes and 0.0063 mg/100 mL in grape juice. On the basis of these data and the official data on consumption of grapes and grape juice in Spain, the contribution of both products to the recommended daily intake of zinc (15 and 12 mg/day for healthy adult men and women, respectively) is estimated to be approximately 0.1%, whereas for Cu, this supply represents rather more than 0.25% of the established ESADDI (1.5-3 mg/day in adults). The growing popularity of these products in recent years, on the basis of its nutritional properties and beneficial effects, requires additional data, and the present findings are of potential use to food composition tables.

  3. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched grape juice from ultrasonication treated grape fruits.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mohidul; Yun, Hae-Keun; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Grape (Vitis spp.) is a major source of resveratrol that can be eaten directly or after making jam, jelly, wine and juice. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has a profound positive influence on human health, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ageing effects and the ability to lower blood sugar. During industrial production of grape juice, resveratrol is lost because of the use of clarifying agents and filtration; therefore, commercial grape juice contains very low amounts of resveratrol. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of resveratrol in grape juice prepared from three varieties of grape, viz. Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A (MBA) and Kyoho, following post-harvest ultrasonication cleaning for 5 min and 6h of incubation in the dark at 25 °C. This process resulted in the amounts of resveratrol increasing by 1.53, 1.15 and 1.24 times in juice prepared from Campbell Early, MBA and Kyoho, respectively, without changing the amounts of total soluble solids. Overall, our results indicate that ultrasonication treatment of post-harvested grape fruits can be an effective method for producing resveratrol-enriched grape juice as well as cleaning grapes thoroughly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... optional unit is located on non-contiguous land or grown and insured under an organic farming practice. (b... optional unit: (1) Is located on non-contiguous land; or (2) Consists of a separate type when separate... marketable grapes are carried out. Type. A category of grapes (one or more varieties) identified as a type...

  5. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... optional unit is located on non-contiguous land or grown and insured under an organic farming practice. (b... optional unit: (1) Is located on non-contiguous land; or (2) Consists of a separate type when separate... marketable grapes are carried out. Type. A category of grapes (one or more varieties) identified as a type...

  6. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... optional unit is located on non-contiguous land or grown and insured under an organic farming practice. (b... optional unit: (1) Is located on non-contiguous land; or (2) Consists of a separate type when separate... marketable grapes are carried out. Type. A category of grapes (one or more varieties) identified as a type...

  7. Antioxidant activity of hybrid grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural antioxidants to inhibit oxidation in edible oils are in high demand. Grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace is an abundant and inexpensive source of polyphenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for numerous health benefits. We examined pomace from eight varieties of Midwestern hybrid grapes for p...

  8. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on menopausal symptoms, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters in middle-aged women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Masakazu; Horiguchi, Noe; Kajiyama, Asuka; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Owa, Yoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Kubota, Toshiro

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of proanthocyanidin-a class of polyphenol antioxidants extracted from grape seeds-on menopausal symptoms, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters in middle-aged women. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 96 women aged 40 to 60 years who had at least one menopausal symptom. The study participants were randomized to receive grape seed extract tablets containing either low-dose (100 mg/d) or high-dose (200 mg/d) proanthocyanidin, or placebo, for 8 weeks. Their menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Menopausal Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Athens Insomnia Scale before and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Body composition and cardiovascular parameters were also measured. A total of 91 women (95%) completed the study. Background characteristics, including age, menopause status, subjective symptom scores, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters, were similar among the groups. The following significant changes were observed during the course of the study: (1) physical symptom score, hot flash score, and (2) Athens Insomnia Scale score decreased in the high-dose group after 8 weeks of treatment; (3) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety score and (4) systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in the low-dose and high-dose groups after 4 weeks; and, (5) lastly, muscle mass increased in the low-dose and high-dose groups after 8 weeks of treatment. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract is effective in improving the physical and psychological symptoms of menopause while increasing muscle mass and reducing blood pressure in middle-aged women.

  10. Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of wine grapes on the incidence of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi in grapes and ochratoxin A in wines.

    PubMed

    Freire, Luísa; Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Thomas, Ariela Betsy; Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; Silva, Lais Mesquita; Paschoal, Fabiano Narciso; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Prado, Guilherme; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2017-01-16

    The incidence of filamentous fungi and toxin levels in grapes and wines varies depending on the variety of grapes, the wine region, agricultural practices, weather conditions, the harvest and the winemaking process. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi isolated from wine grapes of the semi-arid tropical region of Brazil, evaluate the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the experimental wine and verify if there is a correlation between occurrence of these fungi and the physicochemical characteristics of the wine grapes grown in the region. For the isolation of fungi we used the direct plating technique. The presence of OTA in the experimental wine was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The species found were Aspergillus niger, A. carbonarius, A. aculeatus, A. niger Aggregate, A. flavus, A. sojae, Penicillium sclerotiorum, P. citrinum, P. glabrum, P. decumbens, P. solitum and P. implicatum. All isolates of A. carbonarius were OTA producers and all P. citrinum were citrinin producers. The highest concentration of OTA was found in red wine (0.29μg/L). All species identified in this study, except A. flavus, showed a positive correlation with at least one physicochemical parameter assessed, highlighting the pectin content, total sugar, total acidity and phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase.

  12. Fingerprinting of anthocyanins from grapes produced in Brazil using HPLC-DAD-MS and exploratory analysis by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Fraige, Karina; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2014-02-15

    The anthocyanin profile was studied for 11 types of grapes of different varieties and geographical origins, including 10 wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera) and one hybrid variety. Twenty anthocyanins were identified by means of the absorbance spectrum and fragmentation pattern by tandem mass spectrometry. The multivariate method of principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate differences amongst the cultivars. The results show the hybrid grape separated from a cluster represented by viniferas grapes, mainly due to anthocyanin diglucosides. Within this group, it was possible to discriminate the different wine grapes. Clusters discriminating according to geographical origin were not observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advances and uses of grape flavonoids as nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-21

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  14. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  15. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial consortia at different wine fermentation phases of two typical Central European grape varieties: Blaufränkisch (Frankovka modrá) and Grüner Veltliner (Veltlínske zelené).

    PubMed

    Godálová, Zuzana; Kraková, Lucia; Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Kuchta, Tomáš; Piknová, Ľubica; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-01-18

    This is the first study focused to bacterial diversity and dynamic during the vinification of two important Central Europe grape vines: Blaufränkisch and Grüner Veltliner. The investigation strategy included culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Four different agar media were utilized for the isolation of various bacteria occurring in several fermentation stages. The isolates were clustered by fluorescent-ITS PCR and, one or more representatives of each cluster, were identified by 16 rRNA gene sequencing. The culture-independent approach, based on 16S rRNA gene amplification, combined the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method and the construction of bacterial clone library for each wine fermentation step. A complex bacterial community was identified, comprising different lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria, such as Leuconostoc spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Gluconobacter spp. Other OTUs and bacterial isolates embraced the Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria classes. Different taxa already detected by recent studies, such as Sphingomonas, Variovorax, Pantoea, Enterobacter and Tatumella, were detected confirming the continuous occurrence of these kinds of bacteria in wine environment. Moreover, novel genera (Amycolatopsis, Hydrogenophilus, Snodgrassella, Telluria, Gilliamella, Lelliottia, and Lonsdale quercina) never detected before were recognized, too. The role of these, until now anonymous, bacteria during vinification deserves investigation, which could open a new research field in wine technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in sun-dried raisins made from different fragrance intensities grape varieties using a validated HS-SPME with GC-MS method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Javed, Hafiz Umer; Wang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    The conditions of sample pretreatments and HS-SPME for extracting volatile compounds from raisins were optimized, and the method was validated in the study. Free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in three different fragrance intensities raisins were analysed using this method. There were 91 compounds identified, and 72, 26 and 8 of these compounds came from fresh grapes, the auto-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAO) and the Maillard reaction, respectively. The aroma profiles of Thompson Seedless raisins (TSRs) and Centennial Seedless raisins (CSRs) were similar, while the floral, fruity, green and roasted aromas of CSRs were higher than those of TSRs due to the contributions of benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-pentylfuran, (E)-2-nonenal and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine. Decanal, rose oxide, geraniol, linalool and β-damascenone made the floral and fruity aromas of Zixiang Seedless raisins (ZSRs) greater than those in TSRs and CSRs, but the green and roasted aroma intensities of ZSRs were lower. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The diversity of yeasts associated with grapes and musts of the Strekov winegrowing region, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Nemcová, Kornélia; Breierová, Emília; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Many different yeast species have been isolated from grapes and musts worldwide. The diversity and frequency of yeasts depend on a number of factors such as the grape variety, the physical damage of the grapes, the weather conditions and the chemical composition of must. A total of 366 isolates were associated with the three grape cultivars: Blue Frankish, Green Veltliner and Sauvignon blanc over four consecutive years. Yeast cultures were isolated from the grapes and from the fermenting musts after the first and seventh days. The ascomycetous yeasts of the genera Aureobasidium, Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis together with basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Filobasidium, Rhodotorula and Sporidiobolus were associated with the three grape varieties. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii and Sporidiobolus pararoseus were found on the berries in significant amounts. P. kluyveri and P. kudriavzevii were more associated with the damaged grapes, whereas Sp. pararoseus with intact ones. H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima were present on both types of grapes almost equally. The yeast composition and quantitative representation of yeast species varied over the grape varieties and the years examined. Although the basidiomycetous species formed a significant proportion of the yeast population in some individual grape variety/year combinations, the ascomycetous species were dominant.

  19. Characterization of a Grape Class IV Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A chitinase was purified from Vitis vinifera Manzoni Bianco grape juice and characterized. On the basis of proteomic analysis of tryptic peptides, a significant match identified the enzyme as a type IV grape chitinase previously found in juices of other V. vinifera varieties. The optimal pH and temperature for activity toward colloidal chitin were found to be 6 and 30 °C, respectively. The enzyme was found to hydrolyze chitin and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, generating N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine as products, but was inactive toward N,N′-diacetylchitobiose. The enzyme exhibited both endo- and exochitinase activities. Because yeast contains a small amount of chitin in the cell wall, the possibility of growth inhibition was tested. At a concentration and pH expected in ripe grapes, no inhibition of wine yeast growth by the chitinase was observed. PMID:24845689

  20. Anthocyanins in grapes and grape products.

    PubMed

    Mazza, G

    1995-07-01

    The types of anthocyanins occurring in grapes, wines, and juices are described and their distribution documented. Recent work on the evaluation of red wine color during storage and aging is reviewed. Molecular interactions between anthocyanins and some of the other red wine molecules are shown to be associated with development of new pigments whose formation explains the subtle color changes and stabilization occurring on aging of red wines. A detailed description of the recovery of anthocyanins from grape pomace and production of natural red colorants is also given.

  1. 75 FR 17031 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... handling of any grade, size, quality, maturity, or pack of any and all varieties of grapes during the... individual consumer packages known as clamshells. These containers have been most commonly used to pack strawberries in the past but are also being used for other fruit. They are made of a clear, rigid plastic and...

  2. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  3. Chemometric study and optimization of extraction parameters in single-drop microextraction for the determination of multiclass pesticide residues in grapes and apples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G

    2009-11-06

    A simple and rapid single-drop microextraction method coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SDME-GC/MS) for the determination of 20 pesticides with different physicochemical properties in grapes and apples was optimized by the use of a multivariate strategy. Emphasis on the optimization study was given to the role of ionic strength, sugar concentration and pH of the donor sample solution prepared from the fruit samples. Since all three variables were found to affect negatively SDME (a lower extraction efficiency was observed as the values of variables were increased for most of the pesticides studied), donor sample solution was optimized using a central composite design to evaluate the optimum pH value and the optimum dilution of the sample extract. With some exceptions (chlorpyrifos ethyl, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, pyriproxyfen, lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin), the optimum method included the dilution of the analytical sample by 12.5-fold with a buffered acetone/water solution at pH=4 and exhibited good analytical characteristics for the majority of target analytes (pyrimethanil, pirimicarb, metribuzin, vinclozolin, fosthiazate, procymidone, fludioxonil, kresoxim methyl, endosulfan sulfate, fenhexamid, iprodione, phosalone, indoxacarb and azoxystrobin) by providing high enrichment factors (14-328), low limits of detection (0.0003-0.007 microg/g), and good precision (relative standard deviations below 15%).

  4. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  5. Changes in grape polyphenols (V. vinifera L.) as a consequence of post-harvest withering by high-resolution mass spectrometry: Raboso Piave versus Corvina.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Mirko De; Soligo, Stefano; Panighel, Annarita; Carraro, Roberto; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; Maoz, Itay; Tomasi, Diego; Flamini, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    Grape dehydration is an oenological process used for the production of high-quality reinforced and sweet wines. Corvina and Raboso Piave are two red grape varieties used for production of high-quality Italian wines, such as Recioto, Amarone di Valpolicella and Raboso Passito. Changes of polyphenolic composition of the grapes as a consequence of the withering were studied by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF); for identification of compounds a homemade HR-MS database of grape and wine metabolites, was used. Concomitant with trans-resveratrol and viniferins, relevant increases of other stilbenes (piceatannol, resveratrol trimers and tetramers) and antioxidant compounds (quercetin, syringetin and tamarixetin) were observed. These compounds are part of the induced metabolism occurring during the withering process and in general improve the nutraceutical properties of grapes and wines. On the other hand, longer processes showed to decrease flavan-3-ols and glycoside flavonols. Constant increase of E/Z ε-viniferin ratio was observed in all samples, and this parameter can be used to monitor the process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.

    PubMed

    Shi, John; Yu, Jianmel; Pohorly, Joseph E; Kakuda, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    Grape seeds are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8% polyphenols depending on the variety. Polyphenols in grape seeds are mainly flavonoids, including gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-O-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins). Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Extensive research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of health because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers.

  7. Grape seed extract protects IEC-6 cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity and improves parameters of small intestinal mucositis in rats with experimentally-induced mucositis.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Ker Y; Howarth, Gordon S; Yazbeck, Roger; Wright, Tessa H; Whitford, Eleanor J; Payne, Caroline; Butler, Ross N; Bastian, Susan E P

    2009-02-01

    Mucositis is a common side-effect of high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Grape seed extract (GSE) represents a rich source of proanthocyanidins with the potential to decrease oxidative damage and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated GSE for its capacity to decrease the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: GSE was administered to IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells prior to damage induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell viability was determined by neutral red assay. In vivo: Female Dark Agouti rats (130-180 g) were gavaged with 1 ml GSE (400 mg/kg) daily (day 3-11) and received 5-FU (150 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection on day nine to induce mucositis. Rats were sacrificed at day 12 and intestinal tissues collected for myeloperoxidase and sucrase activity assays and histological analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA. GSE prevented the decrease in IEC-6 cell viability induced by 5-FU (p < 0.01). Compared with 5-FU controls, GSE significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity by 86% and 27% in the proximal jejunum (p < 0.001) and distal ileum (p < 0.05) respectively; decreased qualitative histological scores of damage (p < 0.05) in the proximal jejunum; increased villus height in the proximal jejunum (17%; p < 0.05) and distal ileum (50%; p < 0.01), and attenuated the 5-FU-induced reduction of mucosal thickness by 16% in the jejunum (p < 0.05) and 45% in the ileum (p < 0.01). GSE partially protected IEC-6 cells from 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and ameliorated intestinal damage induced by 5-FU in rats. GSE may represent a promising prophylactic adjunct to conventional chemotherapy for preventing intestinal mucositis.

  8. The effect of grape seed extract on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Aysun; Kaynar, Leylagül; Koçyiğit, Ismail; Hacioğlu, Sibel Kabukçu; Saraymen, Recep; Oztürk, Ahmet; Orhan, Okan; Sağdiç, Osman

    2008-06-01

    The tolerance of the liver is considerably low when an effective radiation (RTx) dose needs to be delivered in patients in whom either their liver or whole body area has to be irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of grape seed extract on liver toxicity induced by RTx in the rat liver. We used four groups, each consisting of 12 healthy male Wistar rats. RTx-grape seed extract group: rats were given grape seed extract (100 mg/kg) orally for seven days, following 8 Gy whole body irradiation, and grape seed extract was maintained for four days. RTx group: the same protocol was applied in this group; however, they received distilled water instead of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract group: only grape seed extract solution was administered for 11 consecutive days in the same fashion. only distilled water (orally) was administered in a similar manner. The level of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, two important endogenous antioxidants, were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Grape seed extract was seen to protect the cellular membrane from oxidative damage and consequently from protein and lipid oxidation. In the RTx group, malondialdehyde levels were extremely higher than those of the grape seed extract-RTx group (p<0.001). Grape seed extract administration moderately reserved the malondialdehyde levels. RTx therapy decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver homogenates (p<0.001), and these alterations were significantly reversed by grape seed extract treatment (p<0.001). There were no differences between the grape seed extract- RTx, grape seed extract and control groups with regard to antioxidant activity (p>0.05). The levels of antioxidant parameters on RTx-induced liver toxicity were restored to control values with grape seed extract therapy. Grape seed extract may be promising as a therapeutic option in RTx

  9. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

  10. Flavor of cold-hardy grapes: impact of berry maturity and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Pedneault, Karine; Dorais, Martine; Angers, Paul

    2013-11-06

    Since the arrival on the market of high-quality cold-hardy grape varieties, northern winemaking has been developing tremendously in countries traditionally unsuited for grape and wine production. Cold-hardy grapes are mainly interspecific hybrids of Vitis vinifera with Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia , making their chemical composition distinct from that of V. vinifera varieties traditionally used for winemaking and therefore limiting the use of current knowledge about V. vinifera varieties in the assessment of grape maturity. Consequently, to evaluate the flavor development of cold-hardy grapes in the province of Quebec, Canada, the ripening of Frontenac and Marquette berries in two vineyards located in the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) areas of the province, starting at the beginning of veraison, was studied. Quality attributes, phenolic compounds, and aroma profiles showed significant changes during maturation. Although full maturity was reached for both Frontenac and Marquette in the SW vineyard (1380 accumulated growing degree days, based on 10 °C), the accumulation of 1035 growing degree days was not sufficient to fully ripen Frontenac and Marquette in the NE vineyard. Principal component analysis showed different ripening patterns for the two studied locations. The longer veraison in the SW vineyard resulted in higher quality attributes and higher flavor development for both Frontenac and Marquette. Under the colder conditions in the NE vineyard, metabolite accumulation was driven primarily by berry growth, and flavor development was limited. Besides growing degree days and technological parameters (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity), which provide significant guidelines for maturity assessment in cold climate, phenolic maturity may be followed by the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic esters and flavonoids, although the impact of these compound classes on quality remains to be determined in cold-climate wines. In both Frontenac and Marquette

  11. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    PubMed

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  12. Optimization of NIR Spectral Data Management for Quality Control of Grape Bunches during On-Vine Ripening

    PubMed Central

    González-Caballero, Virginia; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2011-01-01

    NIR spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive technique for the assessment of chemical changes in the main internal quality properties of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) during on-vine ripening and at harvest. A total of 363 samples from 25 white and red grape varieties were used to construct quality-prediction models based on reference data and on NIR spectral data obtained using a commercially-available diode-array spectrophotometer (380–1,700 nm). The feasibility of testing bunches of intact grapes was investigated and compared with the more traditional must-based method. Two regression approaches (MPLS and LOCAL algorithms) were tested for the quantification of changes in soluble solid content (SSC), reducing sugar content, pH-value, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid and potassium content. Cross-validation results indicated that NIRS technology provided excellent precision for sugar-related parameters (r2 = 0.94 for SSC and reducing sugar content) and good precision for acidity-related parameters (r2 ranging between 0.73 and 0.87) for the bunch-analysis mode assayed using MPLS regression. At validation level, comparison of LOCAL and MPLS algorithms showed that the non-linear strategy improved the predictive capacity of the models for all study parameters, with particularly good results for acidity-related parameters and potassium content. PMID:22163944

  13. Optimization of NIR spectral data management for quality control of grape bunches during on-vine ripening.

    PubMed

    González-Caballero, Virginia; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2011-01-01

    NIR spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive technique for the assessment of chemical changes in the main internal quality properties of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) during on-vine ripening and at harvest. A total of 363 samples from 25 white and red grape varieties were used to construct quality-prediction models based on reference data and on NIR spectral data obtained using a commercially-available diode-array spectrophotometer (380-1,700 nm). The feasibility of testing bunches of intact grapes was investigated and compared with the more traditional must-based method. Two regression approaches (MPLS and LOCAL algorithms) were tested for the quantification of changes in soluble solid content (SSC), reducing sugar content, pH-value, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid and potassium content. Cross-validation results indicated that NIRS technology provided excellent precision for sugar-related parameters (r(2) = 0.94 for SSC and reducing sugar content) and good precision for acidity-related parameters (r(2) ranging between 0.73 and 0.87) for the bunch-analysis mode assayed using MPLS regression. At validation level, comparison of LOCAL and MPLS algorithms showed that the non-linear strategy improved the predictive capacity of the models for all study parameters, with particularly good results for acidity-related parameters and potassium content.

  14. Phenolics and antioxidant capacity of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Mariane; Jorquera, Katterin; Cancino, Beatriz; Ruby, Rene; Henriquez, Carolina

    2011-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Juice and skin fractions of 4 varieties of table grapes: Red Globe, Crimson Seedless, Autumn Royal, and Ribier were prepared to determine and compare their total phenolics content, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC), anthocyanins, and specific phenolics (caffeic acid, gallic acid, resveratrol, and catechin) content, since a series of positive health benefits are expected from the intake of any of these fractions. Higher amounts of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were observed in the skin fractions (P < 0.05). Blue grapes (Autumn Royal and Ribier) exhibited higher phenolics content and antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) than red grapes. The most abundant phenolic compound observed was catechin (P < 0.05). Significant correlations between the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics were observed in grape juice and skin fractions. Autumn Royal juice provides a very high amount of phenolics, anthocyanins, and exhibits the highest antioxidant capacity, offering the best health promoting properties compared with the other grape varieties studied. Grapes possess health-promoting effects attributed to their supply of a wide variety of bioactive phenolics. Grape juice made with blue grapes (Autumn Royal, Ribier) exhibit higher phenolics content and antioxidant capacity than juice elaborated with red grapes (Red Globe, Crimson Seedless). The skin is a good source of phenolics and has a high antioxidant capacity. Specific health-promoting phenolics are more abundant in blue grapes, mainly in their skin fraction, which should not be discarded. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Major flavonoids in grape seeds and skins: antioxidant capacity of catechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Yusuf; Toledo, Romeo T

    2004-01-28

    Grape seeds and skins are good sources of phytochemicals such as gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin and are suitable raw materials for the production of antioxidative dietary supplements. The differences in levels of the major monomeric flavanols and phenolic acids in seeds and skins from grapes of Vitis vinifera varieties Merlot and Chardonnay and in seeds from grapes of Vitis rotundifolia variety Muscadine were determined, and the antioxidant activities of these components were assessed. The contribution of the major monomeric flavonols and phenolic acid to the total antioxidant capacity of grape seeds and skins was also determined. Gallic acid, monomeric catechin, and epicatechin concentrations were 99, 12, and 96 mg/100 g of dry matter (dm) in Muscadine seeds, 15, 358, and 421 mg/100 g of dm in Chardonnay seeds, and 10, 127, and 115 mg/100 g of dm in Merlot seeds, respectively. Concentrations of these three compounds were lower in winery byproduct grape skins than in seeds. These three major phenolic constituents of grape seeds contributed <26% to the antioxidant capacity measured as ORAC on the basis of the corrected concentrations of gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin in grape byproducts. Peroxyl radical scavenging activities of phenolics present in grape seeds or skins in decreasing order were resveratrol > catechin > epicatechin = gallocatechin > gallic acid = ellagic acid. The results indicated that dimeric, trimeric, oligomeric, or polymeric procyanidins account for most of the superior antioxidant capacity of grape seeds.

  16. Detection of grapes in natural environment using HOG features in low resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škrabánek, Pavel; Majerík, Filip

    2017-07-01

    Detection of grapes in real-life images has importance in various viticulture applications. A grape detector based on an SVM classifier, in combination with a HOG descriptor, has proven to be very efficient in detection of white varieties in high-resolution images. Nevertheless, the high time complexity of such utilization was not suitable for its real-time applications, even when a detector of a simplified structure was used. Thus, we examined possibilities of the simplified version application on images of lower resolutions. For this purpose, we designed a method aimed at search for a detector’s setting which gives the best time complexity vs. performance ratio. In order to provide precise evaluation results, we formed new extended datasets. We discovered that even applied on low-resolution images, the simplified detector, with an appropriate setting of all tuneable parameters, was competitive with other state of the art solutions. We concluded that the detector is qualified for real-time detection of grapes in real-life images.

  17. Eudora muscadine grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Eudora', a purple fruited muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) intended for the fresh market, has been approved for joint release as a public domain cultivar by the University of Florida Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. ‘Eudora’ ripens in mid-season (late August), is high yielding, and ...

  18. ‘Thomcord’ grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thomcord (Vitis vinifera L. x V. labrusca L.) is a midseason, blue-black seedless table grape that is suitable for farmer’s markets and shipping to domestic markets. It has the aromatic flavor reminiscent of Concord with firmer flesh and skin that adheres to the flesh. It is more suitable to the h...

  19. Methanol content of grappa made from New York grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Hang, Yong D; Woodams, Edward E

    2008-06-01

    This research was undertaken to determine the methanol content of grappa made from the sweet pomace of five grape varieties grown in the Finger Lakes wine region of New York state. The mean concentrations of methanol (N=3) in the distilled spirits made from the pomace samples of Niagara, Cayuga White, Gewurztraminer, Chardonnay, and Riesling grapes were estimated to be 44, 38, 138, 55, and 112 mg/100mL of 40% alcohol, respectively. The results of this work indicate that the sweet pomace of five New York grape varieties could be used in the production of grappa with a methanol level within the United States legal limit of 280 mg/100mL of 40% alcohol.

  20. Origin of (-)-geosmin on grapes: on the complementary action of two fungi, botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    La Guerche, Stéphane; Chamont, Sophie; Blancard, Dominique; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe

    2005-08-01

    One of the consequences of rot on grapes is the development of volatile compounds giving fungal, mouldy or earthy odours. Among these compounds, (-)-geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), a powerful aromatic compound with an earthy smell is a persistent defect in grape juice and wines made with at least partially rotten grapes. A microbiota analysis of rotten grapes containing (-)-geosmin was carried out on sites from four French regions from 1999 to 2002, to clarify the involvement in geosmin appearance of Streptomyces spp. and Penicillium spp., two types of microorganisms present on grape, that are known for their ability to produce geosmin. In earthy grapes, Botrytis cinerea was largely present. Different species of Streptomyces were also isolated, but their pH sensitivity was an extremely limiting parameter for their development on grape juice, grapes or stem, and consequently for their potentiality to generate geosmin in the vineyard. Penicillium expansum, producing geosmin on a model medium, was omnipresent. Penicillium carneum, which is also a geosmin producer, was represented by a single colony during the 4 years of this study. P. expansum alone was able to produce geosmin on a model medium but not on grapes. However, after 7 days' pre-culture of some B. cinerea strains on grape juice, this juice became favourable to geosmin production by P. expansum. We demonstrated the necessary and complementary action of B. cinerea and P. expansum in geosmin production in grape juice and in crushed grape berries.

  1. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  2. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations.

  3. Viticultural and chemical characteristics of Muscat Hamburg preselected clones grown for table grapes.

    PubMed

    Vujović, Dragan; Maletić, Radojka; Popović-Đorđević, Jelena; Pejin, Boris; Ristić, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Clonal selection is one of the tools used for grapevine improvement and therefore is very important for obtaining clones with better characteristics than the variety population. The aim of this study was to select superior grapevines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat Hamburg grown for fresh consumption. The viticultural parameters and fruit composition of 35 selected vines were determined during a 5-year period. The evaluated parameters showed high variability among selected vines. The significant effect of vintage was observed for all descriptors with the exception of the number of seeds per berry and sugar concentration. Additionally, all vines were examined for their tolerance to low temperatures and the results showed 73% and 90% of primary bud injury at -20 and -25 °C, respectively. In relation to berry classification, the percentage of first-class grapes ranged from 60% to 69% for all selected grapevines. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to classify grapevines based on their performance. Fourteen grapevines were identified as the most promising among the 35 vines initially planted, based on high yield, bunch and berry weight, sugar content and percentage of first-grade grapes. Those grapevines were selected for the next phase of the clonal selection. This study highlighted the importance of clonal selection for improvement of the variety population. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Surface Variety

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    Mosaic of high-resolution images of Pluto, sent back from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft from Sept. 5 to 7, 2015. The image is dominated by the informally-named icy plain Sputnik Planum, the smooth, bright region across the center. This image also features a tremendous variety of other landscapes surrounding Sputnik. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size, and the mosaic covers a region roughly 1,000 miles (1600 kilometers) wide. The image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19936

  5. Surface Variety

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    Mosaic of high-resolution images of Pluto, transmitted by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft from Sept. 5 to 7, 2015. The image is dominated by the informally-named icy plain Sputnik Planum, the smooth, bright region across the center. This image also features a tremendous variety of other landscapes surrounding Sputnik. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size, and the mosaic covers a region roughly 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) wide. The image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). The two white rectangles show the locations of the two closeup views by New Horizons, released separately. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19935

  6. Phenolic contents and compositions in skins of red wine grape cultivars among various genetic backgrounds and originations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  7. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition. PMID:22489164

  8. Grape flavonoids and menopausal health.

    PubMed

    Huntley, A L

    2007-12-01

    Grape flavonoids are members of a larger group of plant compounds called polyphenols. Epidemiological evidence relating to the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is high in polyphenols, derived from vegetables and red wine, suggests that dietary polyphenols are of benefit to health and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Overall, the evidence is promising for the benefit of grape flavonoids in the form of red wine, red grape juice and related preparations for cardiovascular risk factors. There are data to suggest a reduction in platelet activation, inflammation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improvement of endothelial function with grape flavonoids. The evidence for grape flavonoids and renal function, cognition and cancer is less clear. However, it is important to note that much of this research has been carried out in animal and cell models; relatively little work has been done in humans and specifically on the health of menopausal women. There are no general safety concerns with ingestion of grape products. Obviously, consumption of red wine should be within recommended limits and it should be noted that grape juice has high sugar content. Grape flavonoids are also available as a supplement. In conclusion, it is likely that grape flavonoids do benefit the menopausal women. Further research is needed on the mode and dosage of application to maximize these benefits.

  9. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulation 6. During the period April 10 through July 10 each year, no person shall pack or repack any... letters at least one-fourth inch in height), the name of the variety of the grapes and the name of the...

  10. Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S

    2008-01-01

    Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the

  11. Comparison of three extraction methods used to evaluate phenolic ripening in red grapes.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Sandra; Mestres, Montserrat; Busto, Olga; Guasch, Josep

    2010-04-14

    Because there is not a single method for carrying out phenolic ripening analysis, it is very difficult to compare the results obtained by different researchers. In this study, the three most widely used extraction methods of polyphenols (Glories, AWRI, and ITV) have been analytically compared by evaluating two of the most important parameters for the wine industry: total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Samples from different grape varieties (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Carinena, Syrah, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon), from three different vintages (2006, 2007, and 2008), and at different ripening states (from the beginning of ripeness until harvest) were analyzed to obtain a wide range of representative phenolic contents. To avoid external interferences on the comparisons, the same grape puree was used to make the maceration assays using the different solvents according to each extraction method. Although every extraction method exhibits a different extraction efficiency, the correlation between the results obtained with each one was very good both for total anthocyanins and for total polyphenols. Thus, after having determined a parameter value of the phenolic ripeness using a specific method, the relationship found can be used to predict the parameter value of the phenolic ripeness provided by the other two methods.

  12. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  13. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M; Aguilar, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca, Yellow Maca and Black Maca). Male rats were treated by gavage with aqueous extract of each variety of maca equivalent to 1 g hypocotyl kg(-1) body weight (BW) for 84 days. At the end of the treatment, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal sperm count (ESC) and sperm count in vas deferens (SCVD) were assessed. In addition, testis DNA quantification was also determined. Any toxic effect was assessed in liver and spleen by histological studies. The results indicate that Yellow Maca and Black Maca improved ESC and that three varieties of maca increased the SCVD without affecting DSP. Moreover, testis DNA levels were not affected by treatment with any of the three varieties of maca. Histological picture of the liver in animals treated with the three varieties of maca was similar to that observed in controls. In conclusion, Yellow and Black Maca increased epididymal sperm count after 84 days of treatment without affecting DSP. Maca seems to act as a modulator of sperm count at the reproductive tract level.

  14. Starting from grape cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  15. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    PubMed

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to present a sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders (GSP). The combined sensory evaluation approach, involving a descriptive and an affective test, respectively, was applied to evaluate the effect of the addition of grape skin powders from 2 grape varieties (Barbera and Chardonnay) at different levels [0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%; weight (wt) powder/wt curd] on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of innovative soft cow milk cheeses. The experimental plan envisaged 7 products, 6 fortified prototypes (at rates of Barbera and Chardonnay of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4%) and a control sample, with 1 wk of ripening. By means of a free choice profile, 21 cheese experts described the sensory properties of prototypes. A central location test with 90 consumers was subsequently conducted to assess the acceptability of samples. The GSP enrichment strongly affected the sensory properties of innovative products, mainly in terms of appearance and texture. Fortified samples were typically described with a marbling aspect (violet or brown as function of the grape variety) and with an increased granularity, sourness, saltiness, and astringency. The fortification also contributed certain vegetable sensations perceived at low intensity (grassy, cereal, nuts), and some potential negative sensations (earthy, animal, winy, varnish). The white color, the homogeneous dough, the compact and elastic texture, and the presence of lactic flavors resulted the positive drivers of preference. On the contrary, the marbling aspect, granularity, sandiness, sourness, saltiness, and astringency negatively affected the cheese acceptability for amounts of powder, exceeding 0.8 and 1.6% for the Barbera and Chardonnay prototypes, respectively. Therefore, the amount of powder resulted a critical parameter for liking of fortified cheeses and a discriminant between the 2 varieties. Reducing the GSP particle size and improving the GSP

  16. Non-Botrytis grape-rotting fungi responsible for earthy and moldy off-flavors and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Sandrine; Diguta, Camelia Filofteia; Radoï-Matei, Florentina; Alexandre, Hervé; Guilloux-Bénatier, Michèle

    2014-04-01

    The grape microflora is complex and includes filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects on wine production. Most studies have focused on the wine microbiota, but a few studies have reported the ecology of grape microorganisms. Some of these organisms - such as non-Botrytis bunch rotting fungi, which greatly influence the safety or sensory quality of wine, due to the production of mycotoxins and off-flavors, respectively - are considered to be spoilage agents. We review here the diversity of filamentous fungi on grapes and the factors influencing their development, such as grape ripening stage, environmental factors (climate, rain and cultivation practices), grape variety and grape health status. We also discuss the pathways by which mycotoxins and off-flavors are produced, the control of the population, the metabolites responsible for wine spoilage and the methods for detecting and characterizing the microorganisms involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical characterization of red wine grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis interspecific hybrids) and pomace phenolic extracts and their biological activity against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Thimothe, Joanne; Bonsi, Illeme A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Koo, Hyun

    2007-12-12

    Grapes are rich sources of potentially bioactive polyphenols. However, the phenolic content is variable depending on grape variety, and may be modified during vinification. In this study, we examined the chemical composition and biological activity of phenolic extracts prepared from several red wine grape varieties and their fermented byproduct of winemaking (pomace) on some of the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans a well-known dental pathogen. Grape phenolic extracts were obtained from Vitis vinifera varieties Cabernet Franc and Pinot Noir and Vitis interspecific hybrid varieties Baco Noir and Noiret. The anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols content were highly variable depending on grape variety and type of extract (whole fruit vs fermented pomace). Nevertheless, all grape phenolic extracts remarkably inhibited glucosyltransferases B and C (70-85% inhibition) at concentrations as low as 62.5 microg/mL (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the glycolytic pH-drop by S. mutans cells was inhibited by the grape extracts without affecting the bacterial viability; an effect that can be attributed to partial inhibition of F-ATPase activity (30-65% inhibition at 125 microg/mL; P < 0.01). The biological activity of fermented pomace was either as effective as or significantly better than whole fruit grape extracts. The results showed that grape phenolic extracts, especially from pomace, are highly effective against specific virulence traits of S. mutans despite major differences in their phenolic content.

  18. Effects of introducing threatened falcons into vineyards on abundance of passeriformes and bird damage to grapes.

    PubMed

    Kross, Sara M; Tylianakis, Jason M; Nelson, Ximena J

    2012-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes are becoming an important focus of animal conservation, although initiatives to conserve predators to date have rarely provided economic benefits to agricultural producers. We examined whether introduction to vineyards of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae), a species listed as threatened by the New Zealand Department of Conservation, affected the abundance of 4 species of Passeriformes that are considered vineyard pests or affected the amount of economic loss due to grape (Vitis vinifera) damage. Three of the species were introduced and remove whole grapes from bunches (Blackbird [Turdus merula], Song Thrush [Turdus philomelos], and Starling [Sturnus vulgaris]), whereas the one native species (Silvereye [Zosterops lateralis]) pecks holes in grapes. The introduction of falcons to vineyards was associated with a significant decrease in the abundance of introduced passerines and with a 95% reduction in the number of grapes removed relative to vineyards without falcons. Falcon presence was not associated with a change in the number of Silvereyes, but there was a 55% reduction in the number of grapes pecked in vineyards with falcons. Our results indicate that, relative to damage in vineyards without falcons, the presence of a falcon could potentially result in savings of US$234/ha for the Sauvignon Blanc variety of grapes and $326/ha for Pinot Noir variety of grapes. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Phenolic concentrations and antioxidant properties of wines made from north american grapes grown in china.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Deng, Jiajin; Li, Huirong; Lu, Jiang

    2012-03-14

    The characteristics of wine phenolics found in several North American and (for comparison) European grape cultivars grown in China were analyzed. This was done to find non-Vitis vinifera wines with prominent features in order to diversify the kinds of wines. The phenolic richness and antioxidant activity decreased in the order: red > rose > white wines. In the red wines, the American grape 'Cynthiana' had the highest total concentrations of phenols, anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids, as well as antioxidant capacity, followed by the French hybrid 'Chambourcin', the lowest were detected in two European grape varieties, 'Merlot' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon', while the total flavon-3-ols levels were reversed among these red grape cultivars. The highest concentration of stilbenes out of all the wines analyzed was found in the 'Merlot' variety. There were significant differences among wine phenolic compositions between North American and European grape cultivars. The antioxidant activities were significantly related to the concentrations of total phenols (r² = 0.996), anthocyanins (r² = 0.984), flavonols (r² = 0.850) and gallic acid (r² = 0.797). The prominent features of wine aroma and nutrition could make the American grape wines attractive to consumers. It is therefore necessary to perform further research on cultural practices and wine making involving these grapes.

  20. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r(2)= 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  1. Polyphenols of Carménère Grapes.

    PubMed

    Huamán-Castilla, Nils Leander; Mariotti-Celis, María Salomé; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo

    2017-06-01

    Carménère is the emblematic grape of Chile. Recent studies indicate that it has a different polyphenolic profile than other commercial varieties of grape among other factors, due to its long maturation period. The grape and wine of Carménère stand out for having high concentrations of anthocyanins (malvidin), flavonols (quercetin and myricetin) and flavanols (catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin). These compounds are related to the distinctive characteristic of Carménère wine regarding astringency and color. In vivo and in vitro models suggest some positive effects of these polyphenols in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Therefore, there is a high level of interest to develop scalable industrial methods in order to obtain and purify Carménère grape polyphenol extracts that could be used to improve the characteristics of wines from other varieties or produce nutraceuticals or functional foods for preventing and treating various chronic diseases.

  2. Polyphenols of Carménère Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Huamán-Castilla, Nils Leander; Mariotti-Celis, María Salomé; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Carménère is the emblematic grape of Chile. Recent studies indicate that it has a different polyphenolic profile than other commercial varieties of grape among other factors, due to its long maturation period. The grape and wine of Carménère stand out for having high concentrations of anthocyanins (malvidin), flavonols (quercetin and myricetin) and flavanols (catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin). These compounds are related to the distinctive characteristic of Carménère wine regarding astringency and color. In vivo and in vitro models suggest some positive effects of these polyphenols in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Therefore, there is a high level of interest to develop scalable industrial methods in order to obtain and purify Carménère grape polyphenol extracts that could be used to improve the characteristics of wines from other varieties or produce nutraceuticals or functional foods for preventing and treating various chronic diseases. PMID:28845147

  3. Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

    2002-01-30

    Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%.

  4. Modeling of the devolatilization kinetics during pyrolysis of grape residues.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Lorenzi, Denis; Fambri, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed on grape seeds, skins, stalks, marc, vine-branches, grape seed oil and grape seeds depleted of their oil. The TGA data was modeled through Gaussian, logistic and Miura-Maki distributed activation energy models (DAEMs) and a simpler two-parameter model. All DAEMs allowed an accurate prediction of the TGA data; however, the Miura-Maki model could not account for the complete range of conversion for some substrates, while the Gaussian and logistic DAEMs suffered from the interrelation between the pre-exponential factor k0 and the mean activation energy E0--an obstacle that can be overcome by fixing the value of k0 a priori. The results confirmed the capabilities of DAEMs but also highlighted some drawbacks in their application to certain thermodegradation experimental data.

  5. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Geana, Elisabeta I.; Dinca, Oana R.; Ionete, Roxana E.; Artem, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans-resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine. PMID:27904334

  6. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Geana, Elisabeta I; Dinca, Oana R; Ionete, Roxana E; Artem, Victoria; Niculescu, Violeta C

    2015-03-01

    Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans-resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine.

  7. Varietal Dependence of GLVs Accumulation and LOX-HPL Pathway Gene Expression in Four Vitis vinifera Wine Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Ke-Ji; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Variety is one of the major factors influencing grape and wine aromatic characteristics. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), derived from lipoxygenase-hydroperoxides lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway, are important components for the aromatic quality of grapes and wines. However, the varietal difference regarding GLVs accumulation and related gene expression are poorly studied. This work exhibited that the accumulation of various GLVs and the expression of LOX-HPL pathway genes in four Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars: Syrah, Muscat Tchervine, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay. The results showed a variety dependence of GLVs profile. Muscat Tchervine harvested grapes contained less C6 aldehydes and the most abundant esters, which corresponded to very low VvLOXA and VvHPL1 expression abundance as well as high VvAAT transcript in this variety. High expression level of both VvLOXA and VvHPL1 paralleled with higher level of C6 aldehydes together with higher alcohols in Syrah grape. Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay grapes had high aldehydes and alcohols as well as low esters, which were resulted from their higher expression level of VvLOXA or VvHPL1 and lower VvAAT. From these above corresponding relations, it is concluded that VvLOXA, VvHPL1 and VvAAT in the LOX-HPL pathway are targets for altering GLVs composition in the grape varieties. PMID:27886056

  8. Varietal Dependence of GLVs Accumulation and LOX-HPL Pathway Gene Expression in Four Vitis vinifera Wine Grapes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Ke-Ji; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-11-23

    Variety is one of the major factors influencing grape and wine aromatic characteristics. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs), derived from lipoxygenase-hydroperoxides lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway, are important components for the aromatic quality of grapes and wines. However, the varietal difference regarding GLVs accumulation and related gene expression are poorly studied. This work exhibited that the accumulation of various GLVs and the expression of LOX-HPL pathway genes in four Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars: Syrah, Muscat Tchervine, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay. The results showed a variety dependence of GLVs profile. Muscat Tchervine harvested grapes contained less C6 aldehydes and the most abundant esters, which corresponded to very low VvLOXA and VvHPL1 expression abundance as well as high VvAAT transcript in this variety. High expression level of both VvLOXA and VvHPL1 paralleled with higher level of C6 aldehydes together with higher alcohols in Syrah grape. Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay grapes had high aldehydes and alcohols as well as low esters, which were resulted from their higher expression level of VvLOXA or VvHPL1 and lower VvAAT. From these above corresponding relations, it is concluded that VvLOXA, VvHPL1 and VvAAT in the LOX-HPL pathway are targets for altering GLVs composition in the grape varieties.

  9. Mass Density as Basis Parameter on Mechanical Properties under Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared in Wide Range of Conditions Using Variety of Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Satoru; Horiuchi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tanaka, Satomi; Kato, Chihiro; Kano, Makoto; Kumagai, Masao; Tanoue, Hideto; Kamiya, Masao; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on steel substrates by eleven suppliers using different types of equipment utilized in each company's own coating formation process. The deposition methods include sputtering, electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), arc ion plating (Arc), filtered arc deposition (FAD), and plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). Some correlation of mechanical properties seems to be valid in a narrow range of parameters produced by a particular deposition method. In order to investigate general correlations in a wide range of parameters, various DLC films were prepared by different suppliers on the same substrate, and were evaluated in exactly the same manner. Independent of deposition methods, there existed correlations of the hardness, elastic modulus and Raman shift with a wide range of mass density.

  10. Extraction of polyphenols from white distilled grape pomace: optimization and modelling.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M Sánchez; Torres, J Sineiro; Nuñez, María José

    2008-03-01

    Both ethanolic and aqueous extraction were carried out in a laboratory-scale vertical extractor to obtain polyphenols from distilled grape pomace of Vitis vinifera var. "Albariño". An experimental design was performed to analyse the effects of flow (2 ml/min and 4 ml/min) and temperature (40 degrees C and 50 degrees C). Yields of polyphenolics from aqueous extraction were much higher (up to 30-fold) than those of ethanolic extraction, in contrast with previous results obtained by us from batch extraction of different grape varieties. Polyphenols extraction was modelled by application of second Fick's law to spherical particles of 0.5 mm diameter, so obtaining the effective diffusion coefficient as parameter. The mass transfer coefficients were also estimated, giving as result that the external mass transfer resistance was negligible. Correlation coefficients ranged 0.989-0.9999. Effective diffusivity values in water extraction assays were between 0.6x10(-11) m(2)/s and 2.1x10(-11) m(2)/s. Using ethanol as solvent, the effective diffusivity was lower, between 0.1x10(-11) m(2)/s and 0.76x10(-11) m(2)/s.

  11. Protective roles of Cimin grape tissues on oxidative stress markers in the cellular system model.

    PubMed

    Uydu, Hüseyin Avni; Ekinci, Arife Pinar; Atak, Mehtap; Demir, Adem

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the phenolic composition of the Cimin grape, which is 1 of 2 grape varieties with a protected geographical indication in Turkey and is used locally to treat the symptoms of some disorders such as impotence and cardiovascular diseases, and to investigate its antioxidant potency against oxidant mediators in the models of intra- and extracellular surroundings. Cimin grape samples were classified into 5 groups according to the grape's tissues and the extraction solvents used. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) and antilipid peroxidation product [thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated diene (CD)] levels of the grape tissues were extrapolated from the measurement of total phenolic and individual monomeric flavanol contents in each extract. The seed methanolic extract had the highest total amount of flavanols, with the amount of catechin at 4.034 mM. The DPPH activities of the seed extracts were 2- to 10-fold higher than those of the other samples. The seed extract-treated erythrocyte and unfractionated human plasma also showed lower TBARS and CD values. In addition, regeneration of glutathione was more obvious in grape seed extracts than in the rest of the tissues. The underlying mechanism of these changes can be related mainly to increased antioxidant status. Cimin grape consumption may have beneficial effects on health maintenance.

  12. Fungal diversity in grape must and wine fermentation assessed by massive sequencing, quantitative PCR and DGGE

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxiao; García-Fernández, David; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of fungi in grape must and during wine fermentation was investigated in this study by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Carignan and Grenache grapes were harvested from three vineyards in the Priorat region (Spain) in 2012, and nine samples were selected from the grape must after crushing and during wine fermentation. From culture-dependent techniques, 362 isolates were randomly selected and identified by 5.8S-ITS-RFLP and 26S-D1/D2 sequencing. Meanwhile, genomic DNA was extracted directly from the nine samples and analyzed by qPCR, DGGE and massive sequencing. The results indicated that grape must after crushing harbored a high species richness of fungi with Aspergillus tubingensis, Aureobasidium pullulans, or Starmerella bacillaris as the dominant species. As fermentation proceeded, the species richness decreased, and yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae successively occupied the must samples. The “terroir” characteristics of the fungus population are more related to the location of the vineyard than to grape variety. Sulfur dioxide treatment caused a low effect on yeast diversity by similarity analysis. Because of the existence of large population of fungi on grape berries, massive sequencing was more appropriate to understand the fungal community in grape must after crushing than the other techniques used in this study. Suitable target sequences and databases were necessary for accurate evaluation of the community and the identification of species by the 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons. PMID:26557110

  13. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D; Ashford, David A; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  14. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  15. Grape seeds: ripe for cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    A wide variety of phytochemicals, mostly flavonoids or polyphenolics, have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic activities. Among these are the grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs), which are the active ingredients of grape seed extract (GSE). Substantial in vitro and preclinical in vivo studies have shown the chemopreventive efficacy of GSPs against various forms of cancers in different tumor models. In this issue of the journal, Derry and colleagues show that administration of GSE in the diet reduces azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in an A/J mouse model. The results of this innovative and comprehensive study indicate that inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by dietary GSE is mediated through the induction of apoptosis that is associated with alterations in microRNA (miRNA) and cytokine expression profiles as well as β-catenin signaling. Notably, the demonstration that miRNA expression is affected by dietary GSE suggests a novel underlying mechanism for the chemopreventive action of GSE in colon cancer and, potentially, other cancers. ©2013 AACR.

  16. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grapes are rich in health-protecting antioxidants, including resveratrol and flavonoids. These antioxidants are found mainly in ... grapes. Likewise, the level of antioxidants, such as resveratrol found in wine, varies with higher levels in ...

  17. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    PubMed

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Elicitors used as a tool to increase stilbenes in grapes and wines.

    PubMed

    Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Fernández-Fernández, José Ignacio; Crespo-Villegas, Oscar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2017-08-01

    Two preharvest treatments (methyl jasmonate or cell wall yeast) of grapevines (Monastrell and Tempranillo) were applied during two vintages (2014 and 2015) to check whether these elicitors enhanced stilbene accumulation in berries at the moment of harvest and in the corresponding wines elaborated with them. The main objective was checking the effect of treatment, variety and year on stilbene composition due to the interesting health-related properties of these compounds in both grapes and wines. The results pointed to inter-varietal and inter-annual differences, and that the treatments generally enhanced the stilbene composition of grapes and, particularly, of wines. The increase was more evident in Monastrell variety than in Tempranillo variety and in their wines more than their grapes during 2014 vintage but not during 2015 vintage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  20. The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Marchi, Patrícia; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Pazine, Vanessa Lima; Noguti, Juliana; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-09-28

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2% grape juice control group; 1% grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2% grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1% grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group. Rats that received 1% grape juice, on day 7 after colitis induction, presented reduced intensity of macroscopic and histological scores. Statistically significant differences (P,0·05) of TNF-a and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were detected in the groups treated with grape juice at the 1% dose after inducing experimental colitis when compared with the TNBS group. Grape juice reduced the noxious effects induced by colitis caused by TNBS, especially at the 1% dose.

  1. Chromium and nickel in roadside grapes.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi Marletta, G; Gabrielli Favretto, L; Favretto, L

    1989-01-01

    Chromium and nickel concentration in roadside unwashed wine grapes and leaves is considered as a function of the distance from the suspected source, an isolated straight road. The analyses were performed with electrothermal atomization in a graphite furnace. The decrease in the concentration of the element can be described by means of a three-parameter exponential function c = A + (B - A)exp(-Cd), which allows the determination of the asymptotic level far from the emitting source (C infinity) and the pollution level (C0) at the edge of the road (d = 0). Least-squares nonlinear regression gives the estimation of the parameters A, B, and C. The results indicate that an effect is detectable up to a distance of about 50 m.

  2. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Ilker; Cetin, Recep; Candir, Ozden; Devrim, Erdinç; Kiliçoğlu, Bülent; Avci, Aslihan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the natural antioxidant foods, dried black grape and garlic, protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were given Cyclosporine A (CsA) orally for 10 days, with the antioxidant food supplementation begun 3 days before CsA treatment and continued during the study period (totaling 13 days). In each group (control, CsA alone, CsA plus black grape, CsA plus aqueous garlic extract, aqueous garlic extract alone and black grape alone), there were 7 animals. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed; their kidneys were removed and prepared for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Oxidant (xanthine oxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzymes) parameters were measured in the kidney tissues of the groups. Histopathological examinations of the tissues were also performed. It has been found that CsA creates oxidant load to the kidneys through both xanthine oxidase activation and impaired antioxidant defense system, which accelerates oxidation reactions in the kidney tissue. Supplementation with either dried black grape or aqueous garlic extract led to reduced malondialdehyde level in the kidney tissue possibly, by preventing oxidant reactions. In conclusion, the results suggest that impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance may play part in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity, and some foods with high antioxidant power may ameliorate this toxicity, in agreement with studies with antioxidant vitamins.

  4. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which...

  5. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  6. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which...

  7. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  8. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for the...

  9. Trans-resveratrol concentrations and antimutagenic potential of juice from the grape cultivars Vênus, BRS Violeta and Isabel.

    PubMed

    Polonio, N C V; Rocha, C L M S C; Clemente, E

    2014-02-25

    Grape juice, in addition to being an energetic food, due to its high sugar content, has several compounds that can prevent or treat various types of diseases. Resveratrol is a compound present in grapes that has attracted a lot of interest; in addition to preventing cardiovascular disease linked to lipid metabolism, it has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. We evaluated the antimutagenic activity and determined the trans-resveratrol content in grape juice from the varieties Vênus, BRS Violeta and Isabel. The grape juices from the three cultivars and the resveratrol solution were tested in the methG1 system in Aspergillus nidulans. The conidia from the biA1methG1 strain were treated for 4 h in 10% grape juice (v/v). After washing, the conidia were placed in selective media to analyze survival and mutations. The standard resveratrol solution and the grape juice of the cultivar Isabel, both with a trans-resveratrol content of 1 mg/mL, presented antimutagenic potential in this test system because the frequency of mutation of the treatments was significantly lower than the frequency of spontaneous mutation. However, grape juice from the varieties Vênus and BRS Violeta, both with a lower quantity of trans-resveratrol, gave weak antimutagenic activity in this test system because the frequency of mutation of the treatments was significantly higher than the frequency of spontaneous mutation.

  10. Determination of technological maturity of grapes and total phenolic compounds of grape skins in red and white cultivars during ripening by near infrared hyperspectral image: a preliminary approach.

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes during ripening were recorded using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with grape skin total phenolic concentration, sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pre-treatments and different sets of calibration. The obtained results (RSQ and SEP, respectively) for the global model of red and white grape samples were: 0.89 and 1.23 mg g(-1) of grape skin for total phenolic concentration, 0.99 and 1.37 °Brix for sugar concentration, 0.98 and 3.88 g L(-1) for titratable acidity and for pH 0.94 and 0.12. Moreover, separate calibration models for red and white grape samples were also developed. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of these parameters in intact grapes and therefore, for a fast control of technological and phenolic maturity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro embryo rescue culture of F1 progenies from crosses between different ploidy grapes.

    PubMed

    Ji, W; Li, G R; Luo, Y X; Ma, X H; Wang, M; Ren, R

    2015-12-29

    Crossing different ploidy grapes is an effective way to obtain new seedless cultivars. Although embryo rescue has been extensively applied in breeding seedless and triploid grapes, only a few improved cultivars have been developed. Based on preliminary studies, we set five crosses between tetraploid and diploid grape varieties to obtain new hybrid triploid germplasms. Additionally, we compared two different methods of performing in vitro embryo rescue and sowing in the development of hybrid triploid grape plants. The results showed that the germination rate of hybrid seeds was much lower (0-22.8%) than that of the self-pollinated seeds (50.9-61.2%) obtained though the same method of in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the seed germination rates of all crosses obtain through in vitro culture (0-61.2%) were higher than those obtained through sowing (0-42.0%). Identification of ploidy level confirmed that three lines obtained from the crosses of 'Ruby Seedless (2x) x Black Olympia (4x)' and 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' were triploid, and one line from the cross of 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' was haploid, and the others were diploid, tetraploid, or aneuploidy plants. Moreover, 4 haploid and 42 triploid surviving grape seedlings were planted in a vineyard after propagation. Therefore, an efficient system of breeding triploid seedless grapes using embryo rescue was established and 42 hybrid triploid germplasms were obtained for use in future studies.

  12. Influence of Lobesia botrana field control on black aspergilli rot and ochratoxin A contamination in grapes.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, G; Haidukowski, M; Perrone, G; Visconti, A; Logrieco, A

    2009-04-01

    The grape berry moth Lobesia botrana is a key pest in vineyards in southern Europe. Damage caused by L. botrana larvae may encourage growth of black aspergilli, leading to ochratoxin A (OTA) accumulation in grapes. Field trials were conducted during three grape growing seasons (2005 through 2007) in Apulia, Italy, to evaluate an insecticide control strategy for L. botrana in the vineyard as an indirect method of reducing OTA contamination by reducing black aspergilli on the grapes. In the 2005 field trials, the insecticide treatment controlled attacks by L. botrana larvae and reduced OTA concentrations by up to 66% in the must samples of Negroamaro and Primitivo grape varieties. Significant differences (P < or = 0.05) also were observed in the incidence of black aspergilli. Environmental conditions in 2006 and 2007 resulted in a natural low level of infestation by L. botrana, low levels of OTA in both treated and untreated samples, and no significant differences between treated and nontreated samples. The results of our field study confirm previous reports that L. botrana is an important risk factor for OTA accumulation and are consistent with the hypothesis that controlling L. botrana in vineyards reduces OTA concentrations in grapes.

  13. Clinically relevant interaction between warfarin and scuppernongs, a quercetin containing muscadine grape: continued questions surrounding flavonoid-induced warfarin interactions

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Christopher J; Deyo, Zachariah M; Donahue, Katrina E; Deal, Allison M; Hawes, Emily M

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of clinically relevant and probable interaction between warfarin and scuppernongs in a 73-year-old woman where ingestion of scuppernongs, a variety of quercetin-containing muscadine grapes, over a period of 2 months was associated with elevations in the International Normalised Ratio to supratherapeutic levels. While muscadine grapes and specifically scuppernongs are found primarily in Southeastern USA, the flavonoid in questionand quercetin is found worldwide as a dietary supplement. PMID:24966255

  14. Clinically relevant interaction between warfarin and scuppernongs, a quercetin containing muscadine grape: continued questions surrounding flavonoid-induced warfarin interactions.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Christopher J; Deyo, Zachariah M; Donahue, Katrina E; Deal, Allison M; Hawes, Emily M

    2014-06-25

    We present a case of clinically relevant and probable interaction between warfarin and scuppernongs in a 73-year-old woman where ingestion of scuppernongs, a variety of quercetin-containing muscadine grapes, over a period of 2 months was associated with elevations in the International Normalised Ratio to supratherapeutic levels. While muscadine grapes and specifically scuppernongs are found primarily in Southeastern USA, the flavonoid in questionand quercetin is found worldwide as a dietary supplement. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Managing ochratoxin A risk in the grape-wine food chain.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Angelo; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    The main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the wine food chain is the infection of grapes by "black aspergilli" in the field. OTA-producing black aspergilli include principally Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and possibly A. tubingensis. They are opportunistic fungi that develop particularly on damaged berries at ripening, although they may occur and form OTA on grapes from veraison to harvest. Climatic conditions (high humidity and temperature) and geographical location are important factors favouring OTA accumulation in grape berries. The severity of aspergillus rot is influenced by excessive irrigation and rainfall prior to harvest, which causes berry splitting. In addition, berry wounds caused by insect attack provide preferential entries for black aspergilli. High OTA levels occur in grapes severely damaged by the grape moth, Lobesia botrana, particularly in Mediterranean areas. Some grape varieties display greater susceptibility to aspergillus rot due to intrinsic genetic characteristics and bunch conformation (i.e. compact>sparse). Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. Proper fungicidal and insecticidal treatments can reduce OTA contamination. Nevertheless, knowledge about the fate of OTA and its distribution in wine and winery by-products is important to manage OTA risk in contaminated stock. In our wine-making experiments, only 4% of the OTA present in grapes remained in the wine--the majority is retained in pressed grape pomaces. OTA concentration remained unchanged in wine after a 1-year aging as well as in all liquid fractions collected during vinification (i.e. must, free run wine, and wine after first and second decantation). Activated carbon can reduce OTA levels in wine but negatively affects wine quality.

  16. Characterization of Titratable Acids, Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activities of Wines Made from Eight Mississippi-Grown Muscadine Varieties during Fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscadine grape (vitis rotundifolia) Michx.) and its wine products are becoming more acceptable due to potential health benefits associated with high concentrations of phenolic compounds. In this research, wines made from eight high-yielding muscadine grape varieties grown in Mississippi were compa...

  17. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I

    2015-04-30

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  18. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle. PMID:25942487

  19. [The quality specification of grape seed extract].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun-Dong; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Su, Yan-Fang; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2005-09-01

    This paper reiviewed the current situation of quality control of grape seed extract in domestic and international market. Considering the fact that there is no national or industrial technical specifications established for the extract product, the authors suggested that two sets of quality specifications should be established for the grape seed extract. The two sets of specifications are: the high purity grape seed extract should contain polyphenol NLT 95%, monomer NLT 10%; and the grape seed extract with ordinary quality should have a procyanidolic value NLT 95, and monomer NLT 6%.

  20. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (P< .001) and serum total antioxidant capacity (P< .05) and increased activity of catalase (P< .001), superoxide dismutase (P< .001), and glutathione peroxidase (P< .05) compared with the control intervention, with no significant differences between grape juices (P< .05). The intake of juices did not affect significantly the concentrations of glucose or uric acid. Grape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans.

  1. Mapping of photoperiod induced growth cessation in the wild grape vitis riparia michx. using microsatellite markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In grapevines, the timing of growth cessation in the fall is an important aspect of adaptation and a key objective in breeding new grape varieties suitable for continental climates. Growth cessation is a complex biological process that is initiated by environmental cues such as day length and temper...

  2. VitisExpDB: A Database Resource for Grape Functional Genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    VitisExpDB is an online MySQL-PHP driven relational database that houses annotated EST and gene expression data for Vitis vinifera and non-vinifera grape varieties. Currently, the database stores ~320,000 EST sequences derived from 8 species/hybrids, their annotation details and gene ontology based...

  3. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  4. Effects of the origins of Botrytis cinerea on earthy aromas from grape broth media further inoculated with Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

    2011-08-01

    Earthy "off" aromas from wine and grape juice are highly detrimental to the production of quality grape products. These volatile compounds are produced on grapes by Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and/or a combination of P. expansum and B. cinerea strains. B. cinerea strains were isolated from different (a) vineyards in Spain and Portugal, (b) grape varieties (c) bunches (i.e., sound and botrytized) and (d) positions in the botrytized bunch (i.e., interior or exterior). A novel Headspace-Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by Gas Chromatrography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) dedicated to analyze geosmin, methylisoborneol (MIB), 1-octen-3-ol, fenchone and fenchol in grape broth medium was used. Approximately 50% of the B. cinerea strains induced detectable geosmin. One strain accumulated significant amounts of anisoles, demonstrating that this contamination might already occur in the vineyard. Strains from the interior of Cainho grape bunches induced more geosmin and hence it may be possible to reduce this volatile in wine by avoiding using these grapes in case of B. cinerea attack. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  6. A Grape's Eye View of the World: Environmental Biophysics and Microclimate in the Vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    The systematic application of environmental biophysics -- the macroclimate-mesoclimate-topoclimate-microclimate continuum -- to viticulture promises to meld art and science in a glass of wine. Few enterprises are as sensitive to microclimate as is fine-wine viticulture. Small variations in temperature can make the difference between quality wines commanding high prices and ordinary wines selling for considerably less. Excessive heat damages grapes, while insufficient heat slows ripening, and phenological variability creates challenges for the viticulturalist and winemaker. Vineyard site selection considers a mix of macroclimatic, mesoclimatic, and topoclimatic factors, along with soils. Once a site is chosen, vineyard design considers varietal, row direction, trellis design, and canopy management. Hemispherical, or fisheye photography creates a grape's eye view of the world, and allows for detailed solar exposure modeling at the level of individual grape clusters. Grape cluster exposure varies greatly among the numerous available trellis designs, from one side of the trellis to another, and according to row direction. Parameters extracted from fisheye photography provide the basis for energy balance modeling of grape clusters and prediction of grape temperatures from above-canopy weather. This presentation illustrates how vineyard decisions can be made using these principles. Vineyards may be viewed as model systems for integrating multi-scale climate modeling, fine-scale environmental biophysics, plant physiology, canopy structure, and phenology in an enjoyable research arena.

  7. New grape stems-based liqueur: Physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana; Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Pinto, Joana; Cunha, Maria; Rosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A number of traditional liqueurs are obtained by maceration of red fruits in aqueous ethanol liquor, namely sloe berries or sour cherry. On the other hand, the exploration of residual plant material derived from the winery industry (grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems), which has been regarded as an interesting source of colored and uncolored (poly)phenols, could lead to an industrial alternative to the traditional distilled spirits produced, with valuable physicochemical and phytochemical properties. In the present work, vinification residues (grape stems) were used to produce a new beverage. The evaluation of the physic-chemical characteristics and phytochemical composition as well as the evolution of the determined parameters during maceration (90 and 180 days) allowed a number of interesting bioactive compounds to be identified. This new beverage is a liqueur with a high retention of phenolic compounds (ortho-diphenols, flavanols, flavonols, and anthocyanins), with interesting physic-chemical characteristics, that revealed significant antioxidant activity.

  8. Changes in polyphenol and polysaccharide content of grape seed extract and grape pomace after enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Alvarez, I; Vega, E; Brenes, A

    2012-07-15

    Grape seed extract and grape pomace are rich sources of polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of polyphenols, the solubilisation of carbohydrate, and the antioxidant capacity of these grape by-products after enzymatic reaction with carbohydrases (cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities) and tannase for 24h. The use of tannase in these by-products, and pectinase in grape pomace changed the galloylated form of catechin to its free form, releasing gallic acid and increasing the antioxidant activity. In grape pomace, cellulase treatment was not efficient for phenolic release and antioxidant activity improvement. The addition of carbohydrases to grape pomace, either alone or in combination, degraded the cell wall polysaccharides, increasing the content of monosaccharides. These results provide relevant data about the potential of pectinase, tannase and combinations of enzymes on the release of polyphenols and monosaccharides from grape by-products, improving the antioxidant capacity and the nutritional value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ontology-oriented retrieval of putative microRNAs in Vitis vinifera via GrapeMiRNA: a web database of de novo predicted grape microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Barbara; Caprera, Andrea; Cestaro, Alessandro; Merelli, Ivan; Del Corvo, Marcello; Fontana, Paolo; Milanesi, Luciano; Velasco, Riccardo; Stella, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Background Two complete genome sequences are available for Vitis vinifera Pinot noir. Based on the sequence and gene predictions produced by the IASMA, we performed an in silico detection of putative microRNA genes and of their targets, and collected the most reliable microRNA predictions in a web database. The application is available at . Description The program FindMiRNA was used to detect putative microRNA genes in the grape genome. A very high number of predictions was retrieved, calling for validation. Nine parameters were calculated and, based on the grape microRNAs dataset available at miRBase, thresholds were defined and applied to FindMiRNA predictions having targets in gene exons. In the resulting subset, predictions were ranked according to precursor positions and sequence similarity, and to target identity. To further validate FindMiRNA predictions, comparisons to the Arabidopsis genome, to the grape Genoscope genome, and to the grape EST collection were performed. Results were stored in a MySQL database and a web interface was prepared to query the database and retrieve predictions of interest. Conclusion The GrapeMiRNA database encompasses 5,778 microRNA predictions spanning the whole grape genome. Predictions are integrated with information that can be of use in selection procedures. Tools added in the web interface also allow to inspect predictions according to gene ontology classes and metabolic pathways of targets. The GrapeMiRNA database can be of help in selecting candidate microRNA genes to be validated. PMID:19563653

  10. Potential effects of sulfur pollutants on grape production in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, D.A.; Viessman, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a prototype analysis of sulfur pollutants on graph production in New York State. Principal grape production areas for the state are defined and predictions of sulfur dioxide concentrations associated with present and projected sources are computed. Sulfur dioxide concentrations are based on the results of a multi-source dispersion model, whereas concentrations for other pollutants are derived from observations. This information is used in conjunction with results from experiments conducted to identify threshold levels of damage and/or injury to a variety of grape species to pollutants. Determination is then made whether the subject crop is at risk from present and projected concentrations of pollutants.

  11. In-field spectrophotometric measurement to estimate maturity stage of wine grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.

    2007-09-01

    High quality standards in modern wine production strictly depend of the choice of optimal maturity stage of grapes for the wine-making. Different chemical parameters of grape juice and peel were usually analysed in order to establish the optimal time of harvest. Aim of the study was to test the capability of a spectrophotometric visible and near-infrared (VIS-Nir) portable non-destructive system, to estimate chemical parameters to establish the optimal harvesting period. Spectral acquisition on wine grapes were made at three times before harvesting (18, 15, 9 days) and at the harvest for three different cultivars: Cabernet Sauvignon, San Giovese, Merlot. Trials were conducted in a vineyard located in South Tuscany, typical production area of Morellino di Scansano wine (Marchesi de' Frescobaldi producer). A VIS-Nir spectrometer - wavelength range 400 - 1000 nm, 3 nm bandwidth - equipped with a reflectance optical fiber probe (4 mm diameter) was used to estimate reductant sugars, total acidity, pH, potential anthocyanins and maturity index (sugar/acidity ratio) in whole wine grapes. A partial least square regression was performed for the different sampling times, including more than 3000 spectral measurements. Estimation of chemical parameters were performed with different standard error of prevision (SEP) and correlation coefficient (R): near to SEP=10% in respect to the average of the observed value and R=70%. Results showed that VIS-NIR reflectance was a suitable non-destructive method for monitoring the wine grapes maturity stage.

  12. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in wine and ochratoxigenic mycoflora in grapes and dried vine fruits in South America.

    PubMed

    Chulze, S N; Magnoli, C E; Dalcero, A M

    2006-09-01

    Grape and wine production in South America represents about 6.6% and 10% respectively of the world grape and wine production. The available information on the ochratoxigenic mycoflora and ochratoxin A (OTA) presence in wine grapes, wines, grape juices and dried vine fruits is limited. Surveys have been carried out in Argentina and Brazil which showed that Aspergillus niger aggregate are predominant in the Argentinean varieties while from the Brazilian varieties the species A. niger, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius were isolated. A mycobiota survey from wine grapes in Argentina showed that while Alternaria alternata was predominant, Aspergillus section Nigri species were isolated from 60% of samples. About 41% of black Aspergilli isolates produced OTA with levels ranging from 2 to 24.5 ng mL(-1). In another study, about 83% of A. carbonarius isolates from dried vine fruits produced OTA, with levels ranging from 2 to 5200 ng mL(-1). A survey of grape juices and wines of Brazilian, Argentinean and Chilean origin were found to contain very low levels of OTA. Studies are in progress in Latin America on the ecophysiology of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA occurrence to reduce the impact of this toxin in the food chain.

  13. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  14. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque w...

  15. Establishment and Production of Muscadine Grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia, Michx.) are adapted to the warm humid climate of the Southeastern U.S., and have been produced commercially in this region for over 300 years. Recent discoveries of the health benefits associated with muscadine grape consumption involve phenolic compounds inclu...

  16. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  17. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  18. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  19. Effect of pre-bloom leaf removal on grape aroma composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Battista, Fabrizio; Panighel, Annarita; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-08-26

    Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids. Metabolites of linalool were the most responsive to leaf removal. Wine produced from defoliated vines was preferred in tasting trials for its more intense fruity notes and mouthfeel attributes. Pre-bloom leaf removal is a powerful technique for modifying canopy microclimate, vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The increase of glycoside aroma compounds in treated grapes has potential positive effect in improving the sensory profile of the resulting wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  1. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  2. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  3. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  4. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  5. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  6. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.

    PubMed

    Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

    2015-08-01

    The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of vitisins and anthocyanin-flavanol adducts during red grape drying.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Ana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Serratosa, María P; Merida, Julieta

    2012-07-11

    This study evaluated the formation of anthocyanin-derived compounds during the production of sweet red wines from Merlot and Syrah grapes previously chamber-dried under controlled-temperature conditions. The musts from both grape varieties were found to contain pelargonidin-3-glucoside throughout the vinification process. Besides, HPLC-DAD-MS revealed the presence of pyranoanthocyanins in unfermented musts from the raisins. These compounds are adducts resulting from the cycloaddition of pyruvic acid (type A vitisins) and acetaldehyde (type B vitisins) to anthocyanin molecules. The analyses additionally revealed the presence of products of the condensation via a methylmethine bridge between anthocyanins and (epi)catechin, which requires the presence of acetaldehyde. The absence of pyruvic acid, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in the musts from fresh grapes and their presence in those from dried grapes support the idea that these compounds result from enzymatic transformations because the vinification of the musts involves no alcoholic fermentation. The drying process alters the permeability of grape membranes by the lipoxygenase activation effect (LOX), a switch to an anaerobic metabolism and the resulting triggering of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (ADH). The activation of these and several other enzymes confirmed the occurrence of enzymatic transformations and the formation of vitisin A, acetylvitisin A, and the B vitisins of malvidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-acetylglucoside, and malvidin-3-acetylglucoside, as well as the adducts Pn-3-glc-methylmethine(epi)catechin, Mv-3-glc-methylmethine(epi) catechin, and Mv-3-acetylmethylmethine(epi)catechin.

  8. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity.

  9. Pathways of glucose regulation of monosaccharide transport in grape cells.

    PubMed

    Conde, Carlos; Agasse, Alice; Glissant, David; Tavares, Rui; Gerós, Hernâni; Delrot, Serge

    2006-08-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) heterotrophic suspension-cultured cells were used as a model system to study glucose (Glc) transport and its regulation. Cells transported D-[14C]Glc according to simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics superimposed on first-order kinetics. The saturating component is a high-affinity, broad-specificity H+ -dependent transport system (Km = 0.05 mm). Glc concentration in the medium tightly regulated the transcription of VvHT1 (Vitis vinifera hexose transporter 1), a monosaccharide transporter previously characterized in grape berry, as well as VvHT1 protein amount and monosaccharide transport activity. All the remaining putative monosaccharide transporters identified so far in grape were poorly expressed and responded weakly to Glc. VvHT1 transcription was strongly repressed by Glc and 2-deoxy-D-Glc, but not by 3-O-methyl-D-Glc or Glc plus mannoheptulose, indicating the involvement of a hexokinase-dependent repression. 3-O-Methyl-D-Glc, which cannot be phosphorylated, and Glc plus mannoheptulose induced a decrease of transport activity caused by the reduction of VvHT1 protein in the plasma membrane without affecting VvHT1 transcript levels. This demonstrates hexokinase-independent posttranscriptional regulation. High Glc down-regulated VvHT1 transcription and Glc uptake, whereas low Glc increased those parameters. Present data provide an example showing control of plant sugar transporters by their own substrate both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. VvHT1 protein has an important role in the massive import of monosaccharides into mesocarp cells of young grape berries because it was localized in plasma membranes of the early developing fruit. Protein amount decreased abruptly throughout fruit development as sugar content increases, consistent with the regulating role of Glc on VvHT1 expression found in suspension-cultured cells.

  10. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  11. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach.

    PubMed

    Paola, Battilani; Marco, Camardo Leggieri

    2015-08-06

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  12. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Battilani, Paola; Camardo Leggieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes. PMID:26258791

  13. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kequan; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted. PMID:22919383

  14. Evaluation of Grenache, Graciano and Tempranillo grape stilbene content after field applications of elicitors and nitrogen compounds.

    PubMed

    Portu, J; López, R; Ewald, P; Santamaría, P; Winterhalter, P; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-08

    Stilbenes have a significant biological activity and are one of the most important non-flavonoid contributors to grape and wine health-related properties. The accumulation of this class of compounds could be favored by viticultural practices like the application of biostimulants. However, stilbenes concentration also depends on several factors, including e.g. grape variety. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar treatments carried out with elicitors (methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and a commercial foliar spray (YD)) and nitrogen compounds (phenylalanine and urea) on the grape stilbene composition of three varieties: Grenache, Graciano and Tempranillo. An UHPLC methodology was validated for stilbenes determination. Results showed that, despite the huge influence of the grape variety, YD significantly improved stilbene composition in Grenache and Graciano while MeJ increased the stilbene content in Graciano and Tempranillo. As for the nitrogen treatments, phenylalanine significantly increased the stilbenes concentration in Graciano, while urea treatment increased it in Tempranillo. However, the application of elicitors had a greater effect than the nitrogen compounds. Overall, the foliar application of the elicitors could be a suitable practice for increasing the amount of stilbenes in grape and therefore, its nutraceutical properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on antioxidant effects of the red grapes seed extract from Vitis vinifera, Burgund Mare, Recaş in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Mureşan, Adriana; Alb, C; Suciu, S; Clichici, S; Filip, A; Login, C; Decea, N; Mocan, T

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the effects of hydroethanolic red grapes seeds extract obtained from Vitis vinifera, Burgund Mare variety, Recaş , Romania (BMR) on oxidant-antioxidant ballance, as compared to ascorbic acid, during pregnancy in rats. Thirty Wistar female rats were assigned to three groups (n=10) which were administered by gavage: Group I, 3 x 100 mg/kg body weight saline, Group II - BMR 3 x 30 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight; Group III - vitamin C 3 x 100 mg/kg body weight on days 1, 7 and 14 of pregnancy. On day 21 blood samples were collected. Malon dyaldehyde, lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide (as oxidative stress parameters) and hydrogen donor ability and total thiol groups (as antioxidant parameters) serum concentrations were measured. Vitamin C significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity of plasma (hydrogen donor ability, p=0.0001; thiol groups, p=0.0001), as well as nitric oxide levels (p=0.001). The extract increased the plasma antioxidant capacity (hydrogen donor ability, p=0.001; thiol groups p=0.001) and did not elevate the nitric oxide plasma levels in pregnant rats.In conclusion, in the chosen dose, the red grapes seed extract enhanced the plasma antioxidant capacity and did not influence the nitric oxide levels in pregnant rats.

  16. Simultaneous allergy to vine pollen and grape.

    PubMed

    Mur, P; Feo Brito, F; Bartolomé, B; Galindo, P A; Gómez, E; Borja, J; Alonso, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female student suffering from seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis with sensitization to pollens from vine and also from grass, olive, and Chenopodiaceae plants who had recently developed episodes of itching, maculopapular rash, and facial angioedema after eating grapes. Testing revealed positive reactions to vine pollen and grapes, and specific IgE were found for both allergens. Immunoblotting and inhibition assays revealed cross-reactivity between the allergenic structures of vine pollen and grape fruit and also among botanically unrelated pollens.

  17. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  18. Peanut variety tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  19. Peanut Variety Tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  20. Peanut variety tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 12 runner types, 4 Spanish types and 8 Virginia types...

  1. Peanut variety tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  2. Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  3. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  4. Own Variety Bias

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-01-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn’t claim a different variety as their own. PMID:27648211

  5. Free-radical scavenging properties and reducing power of grape cane extracts from 11 selected grape cultivars widely grown in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ang; Fang, Yulin; Wang, Hua; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2011-12-06

    Total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), related antioxidative and antiradical capabilities of grape cane extracts from 11 varieties (five V. vinifera cultivars and six Chinese wild grapes) widely grown in China were evaluated. Antioxidant properties were determined as DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging abilities, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays, as well as reducing power. Phenolic profiles of the extracts were characterized by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. All extracts exhibited strong antioxidant and effective free radical inhibition activities (EC(50) values), which generally correlated negatively with TPC (r = -0.804 to -0.918) and TFC (r = -0.749 to -0.888). In comparison with gallic acid, Trolox and tert-butylhydroquinone (positive controls), most grape cane extracts showed more efficient scavenging effects toward different reactive oxygen species. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and trans-resveratrol as major phenolic components in the extracts. These results suggest that grape cane extracts may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical application.

  6. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers.

    PubMed

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Jug Novšak, Katja; Raspor, Peter; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-11-01

    During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. FDSS extracts from winery by-products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Detection thresholds for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in Concord and Niagara grape juice.

    PubMed

    Pickering, G J; Karthik, A; Inglis, D; Sears, M; Ker, K

    2008-08-01

    2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) is the compound responsible for the off-flavor known as ladybug taint, which occurs when Harmnonia axyridis beetles become incorporated with the grapes during juice processing. It is also an important grape-derived component of juice flavor in some varieties. The main objective of this study was to determine the orthonasal (ON) and retronasal (RN) detection thresholds for IPMP in juice. The ASTM E679 ascending forced choice method of limits was used to determine detection thresholds for 26 individuals in Concord and Niagara juices. Group best estimate thresholds (BETs) averaged 0.93 ng/L and were 50% and 21% higher in Concord than in Niagara juices for ON and RN evaluation, respectively. Group BETs for IPMP (ng/L) for Concord were ON: 1.11; RN: 1.02 and for Niagara were ON: 0.74; RN: 0.84. Variation in individual detection thresholds was observed, although familiarity with ladybug taint was not associated with individual threshold values. We conclude that humans are very sensitive to IPMP in juice, and that detection thresholds are more strongly influenced by grape variety than evaluation mode. These results may assist juice producers in establishing tolerance levels for IPMP in juice affected by ladybug taint or derived from grapes of suboptimal ripeness.

  8. Comparative study on the use of anthocyanin profile, color image analysis and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging as tools to discriminate between four autochthonous red grape cultivars from La Rioja (Spain).

    PubMed

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Three independent methodologies were investigated to achieve the differentiation of red grapes from different grape varieties (Garnacha, Graciano, Mazuelo and Tempranillo) collected from five vineyards located in the D.O.Ca. Rioja. Anthocyanin chromatographic analysis, color image analysis and near infrared hyperspectral imaging were carried out for the grapes. Then, a Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis (SLDA) was developed for each data set in order to discriminate grapes according to their grape variety. As a result, using anthocyanin profile, color image analysis and near infrared hyperspectral imaging respectively, 88%, 54% and 100% of the samples were correctly classified in the internal validation process and 86%, 52% and 86% were correctly classified in the leave-one-out cross-validation process.

  9. Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to the onset of ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood which is further complicated in grapes due to seasonal and cultivar specific variation. The Portuguese wine variety Trincadeira gives rise to high quality wines but presents extremely irregular berry ripening among seasons probably due to high susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses. Results Ripening of Trincadeira grapes was studied taking into account the transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data. The mRNA expression profiles of four time points spanning developmental stages from pea size green berries, through véraison and mature berries (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35 and EL 36) and in two seasons (2007 and 2008) were compared using the Affymetrix GrapeGen® genome array containing 23096 probesets corresponding to 18726 unique sequences. Over 50% of these probesets were significantly differentially expressed (1.5 fold) between at least two developmental stages. A common set of modulated transcripts corresponding to 5877 unigenes indicates the activation of common pathways between years despite the irregular development of Trincadeira grapes. These unigenes were assigned to the functional categories of "metabolism", "development", "cellular process", "diverse/miscellanenous functions", "regulation overview", "response to stimulus, stress", "signaling", "transport overview", "xenoprotein, transposable element" and "unknown". Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for eight selected genes and five developmental stages (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35, EL 36 and EL 38). Metabolic profiling using 1H NMR spectroscopy associated to two-dimensional techniques showed the importance of metabolites related to oxidative stress response, amino acid and sugar metabolism as well as secondary

  10. A Modern Ampelography: A Genetic Basis for Leaf Shape and Venation Patterning in Grape1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.; Ranjan, Aashish; Martinez, Ciera C.; Headland, Lauren R.; Thiem, Thinh; Kumar, Ravi; Covington, Michael F.; Hatcher, Tommy; Naylor, Daniel T.; Zimmerman, Sharon; Downs, Nora; Raymundo, Nataly; Buckler, Edward S.; Maloof, Julin N.; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Prins, Bernard; Li, Lin; Myles, Sean; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2014-01-01

    Terroir, the unique interaction between genotype, environment, and culture, is highly refined in domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera). Toward cultivating terroir, the science of ampelography tried to distinguish thousands of grape cultivars without the aid of genetics. This led to sophisticated phenotypic analyses of natural variation in grape leaves, which within a palmate-lobed framework exhibit diverse patterns of blade outgrowth, hirsuteness, and venation patterning. Here, we provide a morphometric analysis of more than 1,200 grape accessions. Elliptical Fourier descriptors provide a global analysis of leaf outlines and lobe positioning, while a Procrustes analysis quantitatively describes venation patterning. Correlation with previous ampelography suggests an important genetic component, which we confirm with estimates of heritability. We further use RNA-Seq of mutant varieties and perform a genome-wide association study to explore the genetic basis of leaf shape. Meta-analysis reveals a relationship between leaf morphology and hirsuteness, traits known to correlate with climate in the fossil record and extant species. Together, our data demonstrate a genetic basis for the intricate diversity present in grape leaves. We discuss the possibility of using grape leaves as a breeding target to preserve terroir in the face of anticipated climate change, a major problem facing viticulture. PMID:24285849

  11. Bacterial diversity of Grenache and Carignan grape surface from different vineyards at Priorat wine region (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Portillo, Maria del Carmen; Franquès, Judit; Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2016-02-16

    Epiphytic bacteria on grape berries play a critical role in grape health and quality, which decisively influence the winemaking process. Despite their importance, the bacteria related with grape berry surface remain understudied and most previous work has been based on culture-dependent methods, which offer a limited view of the actual diversity. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial diversity on the surface from two grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, and compared them across five vineyards included within the Priorat region (Spain). We could detect up to 14 bacterial phyla with Firmicutes (37.6% Bacillales and 14% Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (16.8% Pseudomonadales and 11.6% Enterobacteriales) and Actinobacteria (3.4% Actinomycetales) being the most abundant. Bacterial community was different at each vineyard being grape varietal, geographical situation and orientation related with changes in bacterial populations. The most abundant bacterial taxa and those driving differences between the vineyards and grape varietals were identified. This study indicates that bacterial community heterogeneities can be influenced by geographic factors like orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NMR metabolite profiling of Greek grape marc spirits.

    PubMed

    Fotakis, Charalambos; Christodouleas, Dionysis; Kokkotou, Katerina; Zervou, Maria; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Moulos, Panagiotis; Liouni, Maria; Calokerinos, Antony

    2013-06-01

    This (1)H NMR based study profiles metabolites in Greek grape marc distillates, tsipouro and tsikoudia. Eightysix samples of indigenous and international varieties, stemming from major vine growing regions of Greece were investigated. The monitoring protocol addressed the global metabolic profile of untreated samples and accomplished the unambiguous assignment of 35 metabolites. NMR spectra were acquired by applying the robust, sensitive and rapid WET1D NMR pulse sequence, which succeeded to unveil the presence of minor compounds in a high ethanol matrix. PCA classified the samples according to their provenance, incorporating also information related to the variety, vintage year and production process within each formed regional assembly. Metabolites such as fusel alcohols, polyols, ethyl esters, mono- and di-saccharides were associated with the classification of samples. OPLS-DA ascribed to samples of common regional entity characteristic genotypic metabolites and probed to the potential influence of the vintage effect. Finally, metabolite profiling underlined the influence of the fermentation and distillation procedures.

  13. Toxicity of sulcotrione and grape marc on Vicia faba cells.

    PubMed

    Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-12-10

    The cell toxicity of sulcotrione, a selective triketone herbicide, was evaluated on Vicia faba. Sulcotrione, trademark Mikado, grape marc, and mixtures of sulcotrione or Mikado with grape marc induced cell death. Addition of grape marc to either sulcotrione or Mikado enhanced cell death, especially with Mikado. Addition of grape marc to herbicides, sulcotrione, or Mikado resulted in different expression of genes usually associated with cell stress. Mixtures of grape marc and herbicides enhanced transcript accumulation for ubiquitin, hsp 70, and cytosolic superoxide dismutase, but did not change ascorbate peroxidase transcript accumulation. The results thus provide evidence that sulcotrione, Mikado, and mixtures with grape marc can trigger cell death and specific gene expressions. Cocktails of products with sulcotrione, such as commercial additives and grape marc, can modify biological features of pesticide. Moreover, grape marc differently enhanced cell toxicity of sulcotrione and Mikado, suggesting a synergy between pesticide products and grape marc.

  14. Grape seed and skin extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced renal lipotoxicity and prevents copper depletion in rat.

    PubMed

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases.

  15. Overview of Chinese GRAPES Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The development of data assimilation system of Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES in short) which is Chinese new generation operational numerical weather prediction system completed in recent years is reviewed in this paper, including the design scheme and main characteristics. GRAPES adopts the variational approach with stresses at application of various remote sensing observational data. Its development path is from three dimensional to four dimensional assimilation. It may be implemented with limited area or global configurations. The three dimensional variational data assimilation systems have been operational in the national and a few of regional meteorological centers. The global four dimensional assimilation system is in pre-operational experiments, and will be upgraded. After a brief introduction to the GRAPES data assimilation system, results of a series of validations of GRAPES analyses against the observation data and analyses derived from other operational NWP center to assess its performance are presented.

  16. trans-Resveratrol and Grape Disease Resistance. A Dynamical Study by High-Resolution Laser-Based Techniques1

    PubMed Central

    Montero, C.; Cristescu, S.M.; Jiménez, J.B.; Orea, J.M.; te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Harren, F.J.M.; González Ureña, A.

    2003-01-01

    Two modern laser-based techniques were synchronously applied to study the dynamics of the trans-resveratrol activity in Botrytis cinerea-infected grapes. Direct analysis of trans-resveratrol in both infected and noninfected grapes (Vitis vinifera, Aledo variety) was performed by using an analytical technique incorporating laser desorption coupled with laser resonant ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. On the other hand, one of the most sensitive on-line methods for trace gas detection, laser photoacoustic spectroscopy, was used to investigate the involvement of the plant hormone ethylene (C2H4) in the B. cinerea grapes interaction and its temporal relationship with the trans-resveratrol content upon infection. The trans-resveratrol content and the ethylene released by noninfected grapes showed an opposite behavior. In this case, a high trans-resveratrol content corresponds to a low ethylene emission. For the B. cinerea-infected grapes, ethylene emission rises up after 48 h when the analogous content of trans-resveratrol started to decrease irreversibly. Moreover, the activity of trans-resveratrol as natural pesticide has been investigated by exogenous application on grapes. A short submerge (5 s) of the grapes in 1.6 × 10−4 m solution of trans-resveratrol delays the increase of C2H4 emission with about 48 h and produces a decrease of the C2H4 concentration and its emission rate. The treatment has positive effects on fruit conservation during storage; it doubled the normal shelf-life of grapes at room temperature, maintaining their post-harvest quality within 10 d. PMID:12529521

  17. GRAPE: a graphical pipeline environment for image analysis in adaptive magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Refaat E; Tefera, Getaneh B; Allen, William J; Pednekar, Amol S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2017-03-01

    We present a platform, GRAphical Pipeline Environment (GRAPE), to facilitate the development of patient-adaptive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols. GRAPE is an open-source project implemented in the Qt C++ framework to enable graphical creation, execution, and debugging of real-time image analysis algorithms integrated with the MRI scanner. The platform provides the tools and infrastructure to design new algorithms, and build and execute an array of image analysis routines, and provides a mechanism to include existing analysis libraries, all within a graphical environment. The application of GRAPE is demonstrated in multiple MRI applications, and the software is described in detail for both the user and the developer. GRAPE was successfully used to implement and execute three applications in MRI of the brain, performed on a 3.0-T MRI scanner: (i) a multi-parametric pipeline for segmenting the brain tissue and detecting lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), (ii) patient-specific optimization of the 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI scan parameters to enhance the contrast of brain lesions in MS, and (iii) an algebraic image method for combining two MR images for improved lesion contrast. GRAPE allows graphical development and execution of image analysis algorithms for inline, real-time, and adaptive MRI applications.

  18. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  19. Vineyard zonal management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard zonal management strategy.

  20. Potential of Muscadine Grapes as a Viable Host of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Blueberry-Producing Regions of the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Grant, Joshua A; Sial, Ashfaq A

    2016-02-25

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an economically important invasive pest of many soft- and thin-skinned fruits in the United States. This pest has recently threatened blueberry production, a multimillion dollar industry in the southeastern United States. Muscadine grapes are often planted in mixed-crop production systems with blueberries. Although D. suzukii can oviposit in intact soft-skinned grapes, it has yet to be investigated whether muscadine grapes, having thicker-skinned berries, can be a viable host. The goal of this study was to assess the potential of muscadine grapes as a viable host of D. suzukii. Choice and no-choice assays were conducted with two muscadine grape varieties to determine the effect of ripeness and wounding of berries on their susceptibility to D. suzukii infestation. Results from the ripeness assays indicate that D. suzukii was unable to complete development to adulthood in unripe muscadine grapes. D. suzukii was able to complete their development in ripe and overripe grapes, although their success rate was significantly lower than in ripe blueberries. In both choice and no-choice wounding assays, wounded grapes had significantly more oviposition and subsequent development to adulthood than intact grapes. Moreover, wounded muscadines were similar to intact blueberries in D. suzukii oviposition, pupation, and adult eclosion. These data suggest that ripe and overripe muscadine grapes, especially when split and wounded by other pests such as birds, can support D. suzukii development and possibly sustain their populations around berry orchards for a longer period of time after blueberry harvest. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Grape

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure. However, in men with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for heart ... the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for heart ...

  2. The Efficacy of Chinese Medicinal Herbs towards Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junping; Liu, Weiwei; Hussain Dhiloo, Khalid; Guo, Yuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bio-insecticidal effects of seven Chinese medicinal herbs on mortality, fecundity, developmental periods and life table parameters of the grape phylloxera were investigated. In an excised root bioassay experiment aqueous extracts from seven Chinese medicinal herbs increased grape phylloxera first instar mortality (26.00–38.50%) compared to other instars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), fecundity rate and net reproductive rate (R0) were significantly reduced by A. bidentata, A. tataricus, O. basilicum, P. frutescens and N. cataria. In a glasshouse pot trial, eggs, nymphs, adults and total population were significantly reduced before population establishment compared to those after its population established, by A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum. Overall, A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum can be used to suppress all life-stages of grape phylloxera. PMID:26186216

  3. Influence of carvacrol on survival of Botrytis cinerea inoculated in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Bailén, Gloria; Zapata, Pedro; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador; Valero, Daniel

    2007-04-10

    In this paper, the role of carvacrol vapour atmosphere on Botrytis cinerea inoculated in PDA or in grape berries was studied. Four concentrations inside packages were assayed (0.05, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 ml l(-1)). All concentrations inhibited totally the growth of B. cinerea in PDA, while in berries the reduction of decayed fruits was significantly greater as carvacrol concentration increased. In addition, the fungal growth (area and volume of infection) was also reduced and dependent on carvacrol concentration. Ethylene and respiration rate (berry physiological parameters) increased drastically in control inoculated-grapes, while these increases were lower as higher were the carvacrol applied doses. The data presented in this work suggest that carvacrol could be used as an innovative tool to control fungal decay during table grape storage, as alternative to the use of synthetic fungicides such as SO2.

  4. The Efficacy of Chinese Medicinal Herbs towards Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Zhongyue; Su, Junping; Liu, Weiwei; Hussain Dhiloo, Khalid; Guo, Yuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bio-insecticidal effects of seven Chinese medicinal herbs on mortality, fecundity, developmental periods and life table parameters of the grape phylloxera were investigated. In an excised root bioassay experiment aqueous extracts from seven Chinese medicinal herbs increased grape phylloxera first instar mortality (26.00-38.50%) compared to other instars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), fecundity rate and net reproductive rate (R0) were significantly reduced by A. bidentata, A. tataricus, O. basilicum, P. frutescens and N. cataria. In a glasshouse pot trial, eggs, nymphs, adults and total population were significantly reduced before population establishment compared to those after its population established, by A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum. Overall, A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum can be used to suppress all life-stages of grape phylloxera.

  5. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  6. Whole genome comparison between table and wine grapes reveals a comprehensive catalog of structural variants.

    PubMed

    Di Genova, Alex; Almeida, Andrea Miyasaka; Muñoz-Espinoza, Claudia; Vizoso, Paula; Travisany, Dante; Moraga, Carol; Pinto, Manuel; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Orellana, Ariel; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-01-07

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most important Mediterranean fruit crop, used to produce both wine and spirits as well as table grape and raisins. Wine and table grape cultivars represent two divergent germplasm pools with different origins and domestication history, as well as differential characteristics for berry size, cluster architecture and berry chemical profile, among others. 'Sultanina' plays a pivotal role in modern table grape breeding providing the main source of seedlessness. This cultivar is also one of the most planted for fresh consumption and raisins production. Given its importance, we sequenced it and implemented a novel strategy for the de novo assembly of its highly heterozygous genome. Our approach produced a draft genome of 466 Mb, recovering 82% of the genes present in the grapevine reference genome; in addition, we identified 240 novel genes. A large number of structural variants and SNPs were identified. Among them, 45 (21 SNPs and 24 INDELs) were experimentally confirmed in 'Sultanina' and six SNPs in other 23 table grape varieties. Transposable elements corresponded to ca. 80% of the repetitive sequences involved in structural variants and more than 2,000 genes were affected in their structure by these variants. Some of these genes are likely involved in embryo development, suggesting that they may contribute to seedlessness, a key trait for table grapes. This work produced the first structural variants and SNPs catalog for grapevine, constituting a novel and very powerful tool for genomic studies in this key fruit crop, particularly useful to support marker assisted breeding in table grapes.

  7. Whole genome comparison between table and wine grapes reveals a comprehensive catalog of structural variants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most important Mediterranean fruit crop, used to produce both wine and spirits as well as table grape and raisins. Wine and table grape cultivars represent two divergent germplasm pools with different origins and domestication history, as well as differential characteristics for berry size, cluster architecture and berry chemical profile, among others. ‘Sultanina’ plays a pivotal role in modern table grape breeding providing the main source of seedlessness. This cultivar is also one of the most planted for fresh consumption and raisins production. Given its importance, we sequenced it and implemented a novel strategy for the de novo assembly of its highly heterozygous genome. Results Our approach produced a draft genome of 466 Mb, recovering 82% of the genes present in the grapevine reference genome; in addition, we identified 240 novel genes. A large number of structural variants and SNPs were identified. Among them, 45 (21 SNPs and 24 INDELs) were experimentally confirmed in ‘Sultanina’ and six SNPs in other 23 table grape varieties. Transposable elements corresponded to ca. 80% of the repetitive sequences involved in structural variants and more than 2,000 genes were affected in their structure by these variants. Some of these genes are likely involved in embryo development, suggesting that they may contribute to seedlessness, a key trait for table grapes. Conclusions This work produced the first structural variants and SNPs catalog for grapevine, constituting a novel and very powerful tool for genomic studies in this key fruit crop, particularly useful to support marker assisted breeding in table grapes. PMID:24397443

  8. Synthetic grape volatiles attract mated Lobesia botrana females in laboratory and field bioassays.

    PubMed

    Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    In laboratory experiments, we identified and quantified volatiles emitted by inflorescences and berries of two grape varieties (Trebbiano and Sangiovese) and examined the effects of the volatiles on oviposition by the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana. Compared to Trebbiano, Sangiovese is relatively more susceptible to L. botrana infestations under natural conditions. Chemical and electrophysiological analysis indicated only quantitative differences between the volatiles released by the two varieties. In a dual-choice oviposition bioassay based only on volatile cues, females did not show any preference between the two varieties. The six major components of the odor profiles that were GC-EAD-active to female antennae included: limonene, 4,8-dimethyl-1,(E)-3,7-nonatriene, (+/-)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and methyl salicylate. At the beginning of the berry touch phenological stage, their proportions were about 10:0.6:0.4:0.5:0.9:0.6 in Trebbiano and 10:1:0.4:1.5:0.4:0.3 in Sangiovese. A six-component synthetic lure (with the proportion 10:1:1:1:1:1, which approximated the ratio of components released by both varieties) was used in further laboratory oviposition bioassays. Depending on its dosage, the synthetic lure either attracted or repelled oviposition. L. botrana females laid significantly more eggs in the presence of either the grape bunches or the synthetic lure at the attractive dosage. In a release-capture experiment conducted in a field cage that covered two grapevine rows, the synthetic lure was more attractive than a grape cluster or a blank control, and it stimulated oviposition on the vegetation near the lure. The results indicate that L. botrana uses olfactory cues to select oviposition sites and that an artificial lure, containing the major volatiles released by two grape varieties, may be useful in monitoring female activity in the field.

  9. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    PubMed Central

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  10. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    PubMed

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  11. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  12. Identification and field evaluation of grape shoot volatiles attractive to female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from shoots of riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) acting as behavioral attractants for female grape berry moth (GBM, Paralobesia viteana). Consistent...

  13. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  14. Characterization of Non-Anthocyanic Flavonoids in Some Hybrid Red Grape Extracts Potentially Interesting for Industrial Uses.

    PubMed

    De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; Gardiman, Massimo; Flamini, Riccardo

    2015-10-02

    Previous studies showed that hybrid grapes often have qualitatively and quantitatively higher polyphenolic contents than the common V. vinifera grape varieties. In general, these compounds are studied for grape chemotaxonomy and for nutraceutical purposes due to their relevant antioxidant activity. Non-anthocyanic flavonoid composition of five red hybrid grape varieties produced by crossing of V. vinifera, V. aestivalis, V. cinerea, V. berlandieri, V. labrusca, V. lincecumii, and V. rupestris were studied by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Thirty-one compounds were identified, including methylnaringenin, a tetrahydroxy-dimethoxyflavanone-hexoside, two flavonols (quercetin and a pentahydroxyflavone isomer), 20 glycoside flavonols (four quercetin, two myricetin, two kaempferol, three isorhamnetin, one laricitrin, two syringetin, one kaempferide and two dihydroflavonol derivatives; myricetin-glucoside-glucuronide; myricetin-diglucoside; syringetin-dihexoside), three flavan-3-ols (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate) and four proantocyanidins (procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B3 or B4/B5, procyanidin T2 or T3/T4/C1). Seibel 19881, Seyve Villard 12-347 and Seyve Villard 29-399 were particularly rich in polyphenols. These findings emphasize that these grapes are especially interesting for the production of antioxidant extracts for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical uses.

  15. Behavioral response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to grape root volatiles.

    PubMed

    Rijal, J P; Zhang, A; Bergh, J C

    2013-12-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is an oligophagous and potentially destructive pest of grape in commercial vineyards throughout much of the eastern United States. Larvae feed on vine roots, although little is known about their below-ground interactions with host plants. The behavioral response of groups of grape root borer neonates to stimuli from host and nonhost roots was evaluated in single and paired stimuli bioassays in which stimuli were presented in opposing wells attached to the bottom of petri dish arenas. Stimulus sources included root pieces and root headspace volatiles from 3309 and 420-A grape rootstocks (host) and apple (nonhost) and ethanol-based extracts of 3309 and 420-A roots. In single stimulus assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape roots, apple roots, grape extracts, and grape root volatiles than from control wells, but there was no significant response to volatiles collected from the headspace of apple roots. In paired stimuli assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape than apple roots. There was no difference in larval distribution between wells when 420-A and 3309 roots were presented simultaneously, although a significantly greater response to 3309 than 420-A root extract was recorded. When soil was added to the assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape roots than from those containing only soil, but this response was not detected in assays using buried apple roots. These results are discussed in relation to the plant-insect interactions between grape root borer larvae and their Vitaceae hosts.

  16. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from must of grape grown in experimental vineyard.

    PubMed

    Cappello, M S; Bleve, G; Grieco, F; Dellaglio, F; Zacheo, G

    2004-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from 12 grape varieties grown in an experimental vineyard of Apulia. Thirty to 40 colonies from each of the 12 fermentations were obtained at the end stage of spontaneous fermentation. By using morphological and physiological methods and by the PCR analysis of internal transcribed ITS1-5,8S-ITS2, the isolates belonging to Saccharomyces genus were identified. These isolates were further characterized by amplification with S. cerevisiae species- and delta element-specific primers, thus allowing the identification of S. cerevisiae strains selected from each of the 12 fermentations. By means of RFLP analysis of mtDNA, each S. cerevisiae population isolated from a single fermentation appeared to constitute a genetically homogenous group. The comparison of the 12 cultivar-specific mtDNA RFLP patterns, allowed classifying the 12 S. cerevisiae populations into three genetically homogenous groups. The isolated strains fermented vigorously in synthetic and grape juice medium and showed high alcohol and sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) resistance and low hydrogen sulphite (H(2)S) production. The molecular analysis, in conjunction with the traditional morphological and physiological methods, was useful in discriminating at strain level the indigenous population of S. cerevisiae present in a vineyard of Apulia. The dominant S. cerevisiae strains identified in the 12 fermented musts showed potentially important oenological characteristics. The characterization of natural S. cerevisiae strains from several typical Italian grapes grown in a restricted experimental vineyard is an important step towards the preservation and exploitation of yeast biodiversity of Apulia, a relevant wine-producing region. The close relationship between the S. cerevisiae strains from different grapes grown in the same vineyard indicated that the occurrence of native strains is representative of the area rather than of the variety of

  17. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-08-01

    High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties.

  18. Grape Composition under Abiotic Constrains: Water Stress and Salinity.

    PubMed

    Mirás-Avalos, José M; Intrigliolo, Diego S

    2017-01-01

    Water stress and increasing soil salt concentration represent the most common abiotic constrains that exert a negative impact on Mediterranean vineyards performance. However, several studies have proven that deficit irrigation strategies are able to improve grape composition. In contrast, irrigation with saline waters negatively affected yield and grape composition, although the magnitude of these effects depended on the cultivar, rootstock, phenological stage when water was applied, as well as on the salt concentration in the irrigation water. In this context, agronomic practices that minimize these effects on berry composition and, consequently, on wine quality must be achieved. In this paper, we briefly reviewed the main findings obtained regarding the effects of deficit irrigation strategies, as well as irrigation with saline water, on the berry composition of both red and white cultivars, as well as on the final wine. A meta-analysis was performed using published data for red and white varieties; a general liner model accounting for the effects of cultivar, rootstock, and midday stem water potential was able to explain up to 90% of the variability in the dataset, depending on the selected variable. In both red and white cultivars, berry weight, must titratable acidity and pH were fairly well simulated, whereas the goodness-of-fit for wine attributes was better for white cultivars.

  19. Algebraic Legendrian Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczyński, Jarosław

    2008-05-01

    Real Legendrian subvarieties are classical objects of differential geometry and classical mechanics and they have been studied since antiquity. However, complex Legendrian subvarieties are much more rigid and have more exceptional properties. The most remarkable case is the Legendrian subvarieties of projective space and prior to the author's research only few smooth examples of these were known. The first series of results of this thesis is related to the automorphism group of any Legendrian subvariety in any projective contact manifold. The connected component of this group (under suitable minor assumptions) is completely determined by the sections of the distinguished line bundle on the contact manifold vanishing on the Legendrian variety. Moreover its action preserves the contact structure. The second series of results is devoted to finding new examples of smooth Legendrian subvarieties of projective space. The contribution of this thesis is in three steps: First we find an example of a smooth toric surface. Next we find a smooth quasihomogeneous Fano 8-fold that admits a Legendrian embedding. Finally, we realise that both of these are special cases of a very general construction: a general hyperplane section of a smooth Legendrian variety, after a suitable projection, is a smooth Legendrian variety of smaller dimension. By applying this result to known examples and decomposable Legendrian varieties, we construct infinitely many new examples in every dimension, with various Picard rank, canonical degree, Kodaira dimension and other invariants.

  20. Procyanidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2009-10-14

    Fruits and fruit byproducts are rich sources of polyphenols, including procyanidins, which are known to have numerous potential health benefits. This study investigated if varietal differences existed in the procyanidin composition of grape seed and if soaking in extraction solvent overnight prior to extraction improved the recovery of procyanidins from grape seed, grape pomace, and blueberry and cranberry powders. Riesling contained the highest amount of procyanidins, including the lower molecular weight monomers and dimers, followed by Chardonnay (60%), whereas Merlot contained much lower levels (14%) of individual and total procyanidins. A modified method of extraction whereby selected fruits and fruit byproducts were soaked in the extraction solvent overnight before the extraction process was begun increased procyanidins extracted by 24-100% from grape seeds and by 0-30% with berry procyanidin sources. The results indicate a wide variation in the procyanidin contents among different varieties of grape seeds that could have implications in the selection of procyanidin-rich germplasm. Soaking samples in the extraction solvent for 16 h resulted in increased procyanidins extracted and thus higher calculated concentrations in the food samples tested.

  1. Assessment of multi-mycotoxin adsorption efficacy of grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Avantaggiato, Giuseppina; Greco, Donato; Damascelli, Anna; Solfrizzo, Michele; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-15

    Grape pomace (pulp and skins) was investigated as a new biosorbent for removing mycotoxins from liquid media. In vitro adsorption experiments showed that the pomace obtained from Primitivo grapes is able to sequester rapidly and simultaneously different mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the most adsorbed mycotoxin followed by zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), whereas the adsorption of deoxynivalenol (DON) was negligible. AFB1 and ZEA adsorptions were not affected by changing pH values in the pH 3-8 range, whereas OTA and FB1 adsorptions were significantly affected by pH. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms obtained at different temperatures (5-70 °C) and pH values (3 and 7) were modeled and evaluated using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Sips, and Hill models. The goodness of the fits and the parameters involved in the adsorption mechanism were calculated by the nonlinear regression analysis method. The best-fitting models to describe AFB1, ZEA, and OTA adsorption by grape pomace were the Sips, Langmuir, and Freundlich models, respectively. The Langmuir and Sips models were the best models for FB1 adsorption at pH 7 and 3, respectively. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacities (mmol/kg dried pomace) calculated at pH 7 and 3 decreased in the following order: AFB1 (15.0 and 15.1) > ZEA (8.6 and 8.3) > OTA (6.3-6.9) > FB1 (2.2 and 0.4). Single- and multi-mycotoxin adsorption isotherms showed that toxin adsorption is not affected by the simultaneous presence of different mycotoxins in the liquid medium. The profiles of adsorption isotherms obtained at different temperatures and pH and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°) suggest that mycotoxin adsorption is an exothermic and spontaneous process, which involves physisorption weak associations. Hydrophobic interactions may be associated with AFB1 and ZEA adsorption, whereas polar noncovalent interactions may be associated with OTA and FB1 adsorption. In conclusion, this study

  2. Impact of Clonal Variability on Phenolics and Radical Scavenging Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Study on the Recently Developed Merlot and Cabernet Franc Clones (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana; Natić, Maja; Gašić, Uroš; Jović, Sonja; Vujović, Dragan; Djordjević, Jelena Popović

    2016-01-01

    In this study, grapes and corresponding wines of Merlot /No 022, 025 and 029/ and Cabernet Franc /No 02, 010 and 012/ clones (recently developed) were evaluated regarding the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity, aiming to better understand their quality and market potential. The nineteen individual polyphenols were quantified in studied grape samples using UHPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mother grapes and wines were used as the relevant standards. In the grape, studied characteristics were monitored at three stages of berry development: green berry, véraison and mature berry. The mature grape of clones presented high values of total phenolics (3.81-10.89 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 frozen weight), anthocyanin content (359.00-1668.18 mg malvidin-3-O-glucoside kg-1 frozen weight) and the radical scavenging activity (41.37-80.48 mmol trolox equivalent kg-1 frozen weight) depending on the clone. Grapes and wines of Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 stood out with the highest values of all three parameters. Generally, the high correlation was observed between TPC and RSA values for green berries and mature grapes, as well as for wine samples. The most abundant phenolics in both Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes were gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, and rutin. Catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin gallate, typical for the ripe grape of Merlot and Cabernet Franc clones, showed significant correlation with RSA values. Concentrations of individual polyphenols varied depending on the sample being studied and berry development stages. Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 grapes showed particularly interesting attributes for the production of high quality wines.

  3. Impact of Clonal Variability on Phenolics and Radical Scavenging Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Study on the Recently Developed Merlot and Cabernet Franc Clones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana; Natić, Maja; Gašić, Uroš; Jović, Sonja; Vujović, Dragan; Djordjević, Jelena Popović

    2016-01-01

    In this study, grapes and corresponding wines of Merlot /No 022, 025 and 029/ and Cabernet Franc /No 02, 010 and 012/ clones (recently developed) were evaluated regarding the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity, aiming to better understand their quality and market potential. The nineteen individual polyphenols were quantified in studied grape samples using UHPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mother grapes and wines were used as the relevant standards. In the grape, studied characteristics were monitored at three stages of berry development: green berry, véraison and mature berry. The mature grape of clones presented high values of total phenolics (3.81–10.89 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 frozen weight), anthocyanin content (359.00–1668.18 mg malvidin-3-O-glucoside kg-1 frozen weight) and the radical scavenging activity (41.37–80.48 mmol trolox equivalent kg-1 frozen weight) depending on the clone. Grapes and wines of Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 stood out with the highest values of all three parameters. Generally, the high correlation was observed between TPC and RSA values for green berries and mature grapes, as well as for wine samples. The most abundant phenolics in both Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes were gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, and rutin. Catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin gallate, typical for the ripe grape of Merlot and Cabernet Franc clones, showed significant correlation with RSA values. Concentrations of individual polyphenols varied depending on the sample being studied and berry development stages. Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 grapes showed particularly interesting attributes for the production of high quality wines. PMID:27732619

  4. Assimilation of grape phytosterols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their impact on enological fermentations.

    PubMed

    Luparia, V; Soubeyrand, V; Berges, T; Julien, A; Salmon, J-M

    2004-07-01

    Although yeasts are known to be able to incorporate a wide variety of exogenous sterols under strict anaerobiosis, no data are available on the assimilation of grapevine phytosterols under enological conditions and the eventual impact on fermentation kinetics. We used therefore a mixture of pure phytosterols, in a proportion representative of the different grape skins phytosterols, to supplement a synthetic fermentation medium simulating a grape must. Under anaerobiosis, normal biomass formation was achieved with 5 mg phytosterols l(-1). Similar results were obtained in comparison with the observed maximal fermentation rates. These results clearly indicated that grape phytosterols may efficiently act as a substitute for ergosterol in the yeast membrane for promoting yeast growth and initial fermentative activity. Analysis of total yeast sterols indicated that phytosterols are accumulated without further modification, mainly in their esterified form. However, all the fermentations performed with synthetic media supplemented with phytosterols led to stuck fermentations, linked to a correlative strong decrease in cell viability during the stationary phase. Therefore, grape phytosterols are easily incorporated by yeast cells under enological conditions for promoting initial growth and fermentative activity, but rapidly perturb the yeast membrane properties by being the predominant sterols.

  5. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  6. Current status of the GRAPE balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Mark L.; Bloser, Peter F.; Ertley, Camden; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James M.; Wasti, Sambid K.

    2014-07-01

    The Gamma RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) was first own on a 26-hour balloon flight in the fall of 2011. GRAPE consists of an array of Compton polarimeter modules (based on traditional scintillation technologies) designed to operate in the energy range from 50 keV up to 500 keV. The ultimate goal of our program is to operate GRAPE in a wide FoV configuration for the study of gamma-ray bursts. For the first balloon flight, GRAPE was configured in a collimated mode to facilitate observations of known point sources. The Crab nebula/pulsar, the active Sun, and Cygnus X{1 were the primary targets for the first flight. Polarization results from this flight are summarized. Plans for the next GRAPE balloon flight, which is scheduled to take place in the fall of 2014 from Ft. Sumner, NM, will also be presented. These plans involve modifications designed to improve the polarization sensitivity, including an expansion of the array of polarimeter modules from 16 to 24 and improvements to the instrument shielding. These improvements to the instrument will significantly improve the polarization sensitivity, enabling a measurement of the Crab Nebula polarization to be made during the 2014 balloon flight.

  7. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...

  8. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...

  9. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...

  10. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by...

  11. Antibacterial effects of grape extracts on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph C; Huang, Guohui; Haley-Zitlin, Vivian; Jiang, Xiuping

    2009-02-01

    Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities were determined by agar dilution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell proliferation assays following treatment with various grape extracts. Muscadine grape skin possessed the strongest activity, followed by grape synergy (skin and seed) and seed, suggesting that higher phenolic levels do not necessarily determine overall anti-H. pylori efficacy.

  12. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  13. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by the...

  14. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false California Desert Grape Regulation 6. 925.304 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 925.304 California Desert Grape...

  15. Antibacterial Effects of Grape Extracts on Helicobacter pylori▿

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joseph C.; Huang, Guohui; Haley-Zitlin, Vivian; Jiang, Xiuping

    2009-01-01

    Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities were determined by agar dilution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell proliferation assays following treatment with various grape extracts. Muscadine grape skin possessed the strongest activity, followed by grape synergy (skin and seed) and seed, suggesting that higher phenolic levels do not necessarily determine overall anti-H. pylori efficacy. PMID:19047390

  16. Grapes on Steroids. Brassinosteroids Are Involved in Grape Berry Ripening1

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Gregory M.; Davies, Christopher; Shavrukov, Yuri; Dry, Ian B.; Reid, James B.; Thomas, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a unique plant developmental process with direct implications for our food supply, nutrition, and health. In contrast to climacteric fruit, where ethylene is pivotal, the hormonal control of ripening in nonclimacteric fruit, such as grape (Vitis vinifera), is poorly understood. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones, essential for normal plant growth and development but not previously implicated in the ripening of nonclimacteric fruit. Here we show that increases in endogenous BR levels, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or GA levels, are associated with ripening in grapes. Putative grape homologs of genes encoding BR biosynthesis enzymes (BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1) and the BR receptor (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1) were isolated, and the function of the grape BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE gene was confirmed by transgenic complementation of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) extreme dwarf (dx/dx) mutant. Expression analysis of these genes during berry development revealed transcript accumulation patterns that were consistent with a dramatic increase in endogenous BR levels observed at the onset of fruit ripening. Furthermore, we show that application of BRs to grape berries significantly promoted ripening, while brassinazole, an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, significantly delayed fruit ripening. These results provide evidence that changes in endogenous BR levels influence this key developmental process. This may provide a significant insight into the mechanism controlling ripening in grapes, which has direct implications for the logistics of grape production and down-stream processing. PMID:16361521

  17. Phytochemicals, Monosaccharides and Elemental Composition of the Non-Pomace Constituent of Organic and Conventional Grape Juices (Vitis labrusca L.): Effect of Drying on the Bioactive Content.

    PubMed

    Haas, Isabel Cristina da Silva; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-12-01

    Grape and grape derivatives contain a variety of antioxidants that have gain increasing interest for functional foods applications. The chemical composition of grapes is mainly related to grape variety and cultivation factors, and each grape constituent exhib its unique characteristics regarding its bioactive properties. This study investigated the chemical composition and the effect of drying on the bioactive content of the non-pomace constituent obtained in the processing of organic and conventional grape juices from V. labrusca L. The non-pomace samples were analyzed for polyphenols, monosaccharides, antioxidant activity and elemental composition and the effect of drying on the bioactive composition was evaluated in samples subjected to lyophilization and drying with air circulation. The analyses revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins, flavanols and anthocyanins, and high antioxidant capacity of the organic and conventional samples. The drying processes reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the total phenolic content that ranged from 13.23 to 36.36 g/kg. Glucose, xylose, and mannose were the predominant monosaccharides, whereas K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant minerals. Variations in the chemical composition of organic and conventional samples were associated with cultivation factors. Nevertheless, this non-pomace constituent is a promising source of nutrients and polyphenols with bioactive potential.

  18. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Wahby, Mayssaa M

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140-145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  19. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  20. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures.

  1. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  2. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by red wine polyphenols: impact of grape cultivars, growing area and the vinification process.

    PubMed

    Räthel, Thomas R; Samtleben, Rainer; Vollmar, Angelika M; Dirsch, Verena M

    2007-03-01

    Accumulating data document protective effects of red wine in cardiovascular disease by improved nitric oxide bioavailability. Not all wines, however, seem to be equally effective. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the impact of grape cultivars, growing area and the vinification/fermentation process on the ability of red wine polyphenol extracts to increase human endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) promotor and enzyme activity. We produced polyphenol extracts from a variety of red wines from all over the world and tested their influence on eNOS promotor activity by a luciferase reporter gene assay. Selected extracts were subjected to the L-arginine-L-citrulline conversion assay to confirm that enhanced eNOS transcription results in enhanced enzyme activity. We show that polyphenol extracts from wines of specific origin and grape cultivars vary strongly in their individual activity. However, when averaged, the activity could not be attributed to a specific grape cultivar or growing area. Resveratrol alone significantly enhanced eNOS promotor and enzyme activity, although at concentrations higher than those available in effective concentrations of red wine polyphenol extracts. Extracts of grape juice showed activity as well. The biological activity of red wines on eNOS transcription depends neither on grape cultivars nor on growing area in general. Resveratrol may be the most promising ingredient in red wine polyphenol extracts, but does not account for the complete effect. A large part of the active components are genuine grape compounds, since extracts of grape juice that did not undergo a fermentation process also showed activity.

  3. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  4. Calorific evaluation and energy potential of grape pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burg, Patrik; Ludín, David; Rutkowski, Kazimierz; Krakowiak-Bal, Anna; Trávníček, Petr; Zemánek, Pavel; Turan, Jan; Višacki, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This article deals with energetic evaluation and potential of pomace - a waste product originating during production of grape wine. Calorimetric analysis of 19 grapevine varieties was performed in 2013 and 2014. The aim was to specify their combustible limit and the gross calorific value. The evaluations were performed on pristine pomace, pomace without seeds, and only on seeds themselves. The results obtained imply that pomace is an interesting energetic resource with a gross calorific value of 16.07-18.97 MJ kg-1. Lower calorific values were detected in pomace after seed separation ie 14.60-17.75 MJ kg-1; on the contrary, seeds alone had the highest calorific values of 19.78-21.13 MJ kg-1. It can be assumed from the results of energetic evaluation of pomace in Czech Republic conditions that, by purposeful and efficient usage of pomace, 6.4 GWh of electric energy and 28 GWh of thermal energy can be generated.

  5. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attachment of Agrobacteria to Grape Cells †

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xin-An; Goodman, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of the Ti plasmid favorably influences the attachment of agrobacteria to grape callus cells, especially during the early stages of a 2-h incubation. Agrobacterium strains attached to a similar extent to both the crown gall-resistant cultivar (Catawba), Vitis labruscana, and the crown gall-susceptible cultivar (Chancellor), Vitis sp. Attachment of the virulent strain to grape callus cells is blocked by the avirulent strain HLB-2 in both the tissue culture cell suspension and the seedling root systems. PMID:16349016

  7. Ochratoxin A in grape juice and wine.

    PubMed

    Woese, K

    2000-03-01

    37 different grape juices and 21 red wines were analyzed for their contents of ochratoxin A at the State's Veterinary and Food Research Institute of Saxony-Anhalt in Halle in 1999 and the 1(st) quarter of 2000. Ochratoxin A was found in 78 % of the grape juices and 100 % of the wines. 27 % or 33 % respectively exceeded the EC Commission's lately intended proposal for an ochratoxin A maximum permissible level which is 0.5 ppb. A higher contamination rate for wines originating from southern growing regions of the EC was noticeable.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of grape pomace: Biochemical characterization of the fractions and methane production in batch and continuous digesters.

    PubMed

    El Achkar, Jean H; Lendormi, Thomas; Hobaika, Zeina; Salameh, Dominique; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G; Lanoisellé, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have estimated the biogas and methane production from grape pomace (variety Cabernet Franc). The physical and chemical characteristics of the raw material were determined, and the structural polysaccharides were identified and analyzed by the Van Soest method. Batch anaerobic digestions were carried out to assess the methane production of the grape pomace, pulp and seeds. The obtained cumulative methane productions are 0.125, 0.165 and 0.052 Nm(3) kg COD(-1) for grape pomace, pulps and seeds, respectively. The effect of grinding on the methane potential of the substrates, as a mechanical pretreatment, was evaluated. We found that it increased the anaerobic biodegradability for grape pomace, pulp and seeds by 13.1%, 4.8% and 22.2%, respectively. On the other hand, the methane potential of the grape pomace was determined in a laboratory pilot plant (12L) continuously mixed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The corresponding biogas production was 6.43 × 10(-3) Nm(3) d(-1), with a methane content of 62.3%. Thus, the pilot plant's efficiency compared to that achieved in the batch process was 81.2%. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the biochemical content and methane production.

  9. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species in Argentinean wine grapes cultivated under organic and non-organic systems.

    PubMed

    Ponsone, Ma Lorena; Combina, Mariana; Dalcero, Ana; Chulze, Sofía

    2007-03-10

    The evolution of contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri and ochratoxin A occurrence was evaluated in four vineyards located at Mendoza province, Argentina during 2003-2004. The survey included two grape varieties, one of late maturation (Bonarda) and the other of early maturation (Tempranillo). The vineyards were set under non-organic and organic cropping systems. Bunches of grapes at different growth stages were collected, and berries (50 by sample) were plated on Petri dishes containing Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18) and Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. After an incubation period of 7 days at 25 degrees C+/-1 degrees C, the mycoflora belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri was identified. The ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) by the potential ochratoxigenic species was evaluated on YES (2% yeast extract, 15% sucrose) medium. The cultures were incubated at 30 degrees C+/-1 degrees C for 10 days in darkness. The OTA content of the grapes was determined by HPLC. Through the different growth stages, from setting to harvest, grape contamination by the Aspergillus species, section Nigri increased. The main species isolated belonged to the A. niger aggregate. From 246 strains evaluated 24% was ochratoxigenic. OTA was not detected in grapes during the survey.

  10. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer”) with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes. PMID:25470020

  11. Evidence of salicylic acid pathway with EDS1 and PAD4 proteins by molecular dynamics simulation for grape improvement.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Gitanjali; Jaiswal, Sarika; Iquebal, M A; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Sukhdeep; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Biotic stress is a major cause of heavy loss in grape productivity. In order to develop biotic stress-resistant grape varieties, the key defense genes along with its pathway have to be deciphered. In angiosperm plants, lipase-like protein phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) is well known to be essential for systemic resistance against biotic stress. PAD4 functions together with its interacting partner protein enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) to promote salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and SA-independent defense pathway. Existence and structure of key protein of systemic resistance EDS1 and PAD4 are not known in grapes. Before SA pathway studies are taken in grape, molecular evidence of EDS1: PAD4 complex is to be established. To establish this, EDS1 protein sequence was retrieved from NCBI and homologous PAD4 protein was generated using Arabidopsis thaliana as template and conserved domains were confirmed. In this study, computational methods were used to model EDS1 and PAD4 and simulated the interactions of EDS1 and PAD4. Since no structural details of the proteins were available, homology modeling was employed to construct three-dimensional structures. Further, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to study the dynamic behavior of the EDS1 and PAD4. The modeled proteins were validated and subjected to molecular docking analysis. Molecular evidence of stable complex of EDS1:PAD4 in grape supporting SA defense pathway in response to biotic stress is reported in this study. If SA defense pathway genes are explored, then markers of genes involved can play pivotal role in grape variety development especially against biotic stress leading to higher productivity.

  12. Persistence of Azoxystrobin in/on Grapes and Soil in Different Grapes Growing Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Gajbhiye, Vijay Tularam; Gupta, Suman; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Shashi Bala; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Yogesh

    2010-01-01

    Persistence of azoxystrobin was studied in/on grapes when applied @ 150 g ai ha−1 (recommended dose) and 300 g ai ha−1 (double the recommended dose) in three grapes growing states of India, namely Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in the year 2006–2007. A total of five sprays were given at an interval of about 15 days. Grapes and soil samples were collected after 5th spray, extracted and analysed by gas chromatography using electron capture detector. Half life of azoxystrobin on grapes varied from 5.4 to 11.2 days. Residues of azoxystrobin were much below the prescribed MRL (0.5 mg kg−1) after 21 days. The dissipation of azoxystrobin in soil followed first order rate kinetics with an average half life of 8.1 days at the recommended dose of application. PMID:21153804

  13. Anticarcinogenic activity of polyphenolic extracts from grape stems against breast, colon, renal and thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sahpazidou, Despina; Geromichalos, George D; Stagos, Dimitrios; Apostolou, Anna; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Tzanakakis, George N; Hayes, A Wallace; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-10-15

    A major part of the wineries' wastes is composed of grape stems which are discarded mainly in open fields and cause environmental problems due mainly to their high polyphenolic content. The grape stem extracts' use as a source of high added value polyphenols presents great interest because this combines a profitable venture with environmental protection close to wine-producing zones. In the present study, at first, the Total Polyphenolic Content (TPC) and the polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts from four different Greek Vitis vinifera varieties were determined by HPLC methods. Afterwards, the grape stem extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit growth of colon (HT29), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-23), renal (786-0 and Caki-1) and thyroid (K1) cancer cells. The cancer cells were exposed to the extracts for 72 h and the effects on cell growth were evaluated using the SRB assay. The results indicated that all extracts inhibited cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of 121-230 μg/ml (MCF-7), 121-184 μg/ml (MDA-MD-23), 175-309 μg/ml (HT29), 159-314 μg/ml (K1), 180-225 μg/ml (786-0) and 134->400 μg/ml (Caki-1). This is the first study presenting the inhibitory activity of grape stem extracts against growth of colon, breast, renal and thyroid cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pomegranate juice adulteration by addition of grape or peach juices.

    PubMed

    Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Hernández, Francisca; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2014-03-15

    Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, owing to the limited production and high price of fresh pomegranates, adulteration of pomegranate juice seems to be happening. Hence it is imperative to establish criteria for detecting adulteration. Addition of grape juice significantly increased the contents of Ca, Mg and Fe and especially tartaric acid and proline and simultaneously decreased the content of K. Addition of peach juice up to 10% (v/v) only resulted in a significant increase in sucrose content. Regarding the volatile composition, adulteration of pomegranate juice with grape juice resulted in significant increases in acetic acid, isoamyl butyrate and especially 1-hexanol and linalool, while adulteration with peach juice resulted in significant increases in butyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, benzyl acetate and especially isoamyl butyrate. The control protocols used in this study can serve as a basis for identification of pomegranate juice adulteration. It is important to highlight that it is necessary to simultaneously analyze and have results from several parameters to conclude that a particular pomegranate juice has been adulterated by mixing with another fruit juice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Organic grape juice intake improves functional capillary density and postocclusive reactive hyperemia in triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Mariana Correa; Bezerra, Flavia Fioruci; de Araujo Eleutherio, Elis Cristina; Bouskela, Eliete; Koury, Josely

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic grape juice intake on biochemical variables and microcirculatory parameters in triathlon athletes. INTRODUCTION: The physiological stress that is imposed by a strenuous sport, such as a triathlon, together with an insufficient amount of antioxidants in the diet may cause oxidative imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Ten adult male triathletes participated in this study. A venous blood sample was drawn before (baseline) and after 20 days of organic grape juice intake (300 ml/day). Serum insulin, plasma glucose and uric acid levels, the total content of polyphenols, and the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were determined. The functional microcirculatory parameters (the functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity at baseline and peak levels, and time required to reach the peak red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia after a one-min arterial occlusion) were evaluated using nailfold videocapillaroscopy. RESULTS: Compared with baseline levels, the peak levels of serum insulin (p = 0.02), plasma uric acid (p = 0.04), the functional capillary density (p = 0.003), and the red blood cell velocity (p<0.001) increased, whereas the plasma glucose level (p<0.001), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity (p = 0.04), and time required to reach red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia (p = 0.04) decreased after organic grape juice intake. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that organic grape juice intake improved glucose homeostasis, antioxidant capacity, and microvascular function, which may be due to its high concentration of polyphenols. These results indicate that organic grape juice has a positive effect in endurance athletes. PMID:22179155

  16. Organic grape juice intake improves functional capillary density and postocclusive reactive hyperemia in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Mariana Correa; Bezerra, Flavia Fioruci; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina de Araujo; Bouskela, Eliete; Koury, Josely

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic grape juice intake on biochemical variables and microcirculatory parameters in triathlon athletes. The physiological stress that is imposed by a strenuous sport, such as a triathlon, together with an insufficient amount of antioxidants in the diet may cause oxidative imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. Ten adult male triathletes participated in this study. A venous blood sample was drawn before (baseline) and after 20 days of organic grape juice intake (300 ml/day). Serum insulin, plasma glucose and uric acid levels, the total content of polyphenols, and the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were determined. The functional microcirculatory parameters (the functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity at baseline and peak levels, and time required to reach the peak red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia after a one-min arterial occlusion) were evaluated using nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Compared with baseline levels, the peak levels of serum insulin ( p = 0.02), plasma uric acid ( p = 0.04), the functional capillary density ( p = 0.003), and the red blood cell velocity (p < 0.001) increased, whereas the plasma glucose level (p,0.001), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity ( p = 0.04), and time required to reach red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia ( p = 0.04) decreased after organic grape juice intake. Our data showed that organic grape juice intake improved glucose homeostasis, antioxidant capacity, and microvascular function, which may be due to its high concentration of polyphenols. These results indicate that organic grape juice has a positive effect in endurance athletes.

  17. Type 2 diabetes and glycemic response to grapes or grape products.

    PubMed

    Zunino, Susanj

    2009-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 7% of the population in the United States and is characterized by decreased disposal of glucose in peripheral tissues due to insulin resistance and overproduction of glucose by the liver, defects in pancreatic beta-cell function, and decreased beta-cell mass. Obesity, decreased physical exercise, and consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) and load are major predisposing factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. The GI is used to evaluate the rise in blood glucose levels in response to food. The GI provides an indication of the quality of carbohydrate in a food. The glycemic load (GL) is used to provide information about the quantity of carbohydrates in a food and the insulin demand. Individuals with diabetes are advised to maintain a diet of low-GL foods, because low-GL diets improve diabetes symptoms. Grapes have a mean GI and GL in the low range. Little research has been performed with grapes and/or grape products to determine the glycemic response either alone or with a meal. Grapes and other fruits contain numerous polyphenols, including the stilbene resveratrol, the flavanol quercetin, catechins, and anthocyanins that have shown potential for reducing hyperglycemia, improving beta-cell function, and protecting against beta-cell loss. Therefore, with a low mean GI and GL, grapes or grape products may provide health benefits to type 2 diabetics.

  18. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-09-01

    With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population.

  19. Variety in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turatto, Massimo; Benetti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico

    Detailed observations of a growing number of supernovae have determined a bloom of new peculiar events. In this paper we take a short tour through the SN diversity and discuss some important, physical issues related to it. Because of the role of SN Ia in determining the cosmological parameters, it is crucial to understand the physical origin of even subtle, observed differences. An important issue is also the reddening correction. We believe that the measure of interstellar lines on medium resolution spectra of SNe can be used to derive lower limits on the interstellar extinction. A few physical parameters of the progenitor, namely radius, mass, density structure and angular momentum, may explain most of the diversity of core-collapse events. In addition, if the ejecta expand into a dense circumstellar medium the ejecta-CSM interaction may dominate the observed outcome and provide a mean to probe the mass loss history of the SN progenitor in the last stages of its evolution.

  20. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qian; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Yali

    2017-04-26

    Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  1. Inoculum detection for managing grape powdery mildew

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grape powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe necator) often develops explosively and can result in significant yield and quality losses, despite your best efforts. The threat of quality losses often leads to a low risk prophylactic regimen rather than a higher risk IPM approach. Gary Grove and I have co...

  2. Characterization of polyphenolic metabolites in grape hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the berries of 48 hybrid grapes (Vitis) were characterized for two consecutive years. A total of 48 polyphenolic compounds including 28 anthocyanins, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 6 hydroxycinnamic derivatives, 6 flavonols and 6 flavanols were ident...

  3. VitisGen: accelerating grape cultivar improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    VitisGen is a multiple institute collaborative project funded by the USDA SCRI program, with a long term goal to accelerate grape cultivar improvement by using cutting-edge molecular marker technologies, rigorous centralized facilities to characterize traits, and molecular breeding expertise. The ge...

  4. Genomics Assisted Ancestry Deconvolution in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Sawler, Jason; Reisch, Bruce; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Schwaninger, Heidi; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars. PMID:24244717

  5. Grape colour phenotyping: development of a method based on the reflectance spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; Basilico, Roberto; Fiori, Simone; Leoni, Alessandra; Maghradze, David; Failla, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    The colour of fruit is an important quality factor for cultivar classification and phenotyping techniques. Besides the subjective visual evaluation, new instruments and techniques can be used. This work aims at developping an objective, fast, easy and non-destructive method as a useful support for evaluating grapes' colour under different cultural and environmental conditions, as well as for breeding process and germplasm evaluation, supporting the plant characterization and the biodiversity preservation. Colours of 120 grape varieties were studied using reflectance spectra. The classification was realized using cluster and discriminant analysis. Reflectance of the whole berries surface was also compared with absorption properties of single skin extracts. A phenotyping method based on the reflectance spectra was developed, producing reliable colour classifications. A cultivar-independent index for pigment content evaluation has also been obtained. This work allowed the classification of the berry colour using an objective method. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of Lobesia botrana damages on black aspergilli rot and ochratoxin A content in grapes.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, G; Pascale, M; Perrone, G; Visconti, A; Logrieco, A

    2006-09-01

    Sixty-nine wine grape samples of two varieties (Bombino Nero and Uva di Troia) were collected from four vineyards in a high ochratoxin A (OTA) incidence grape-growing area in Apulia, southern Italy, during the 2001 and 2002 crop harvests. The levels of toxin, measured in the two year harvests, ranged from 0.02 to 681 ng/g of fresh berries. In both surveys, higher levels of contamination by black aspergilli and OTA were found in both intact and rotten berries originating from bunches damaged by Lobesia botrana larvae as compared to bunches without L. botrana attacks. All berry samples with an OTA level >1 ng/g were contaminated by black aspergilli with a CFU>10(6), and all but one of these samples belonged to the Lobesia damaged berries group. This is the first evidence of an interaction between L. botrana damaged berries and OTA contamination, in field.

  7. Effect of grape procyanidins on tumor angiogenesis in liver cancer xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Li; Liu, Bing-Xia; Zhong, Jin-Yi; Sun, Li-Bin; Yu, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a wide variety of flavonoids or polyphenolic substances have been reported to possess substantial anti-carcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. Grape proanthocyanidins (GPC) are considered as good examples for which there is evidence of potential roles as anti-carcinogenic agents. A xenograft model was established using H22 cells subcutaneously injected into mice and used to assess different concentrations of grape proanthocyanidins (GPC) and Endostar. Treatments were maintained for 10 days, then levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density (MVD) were examined by immunohistochemistry, while VEGF mRNA was determined by real-time PCR in tumor tissue. The expression of MVD and VEGF decreased gradually as the concentration of GPC increased.There was a significant positive correlation between MVD and VEGF. These results suggest that GPC restrains the growth of tumor, possibly by inhibiting tumour angiogenesis.

  8. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, Jesse H; Waggoner, Paul E

    2008-09-02

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006.

  9. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Ausubel, Jesse H.; Waggoner, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006. PMID:18728190

  10. Skin extracts from 2 Italian table grapes (Italia and Palieri) inhibit tissue factor expression by human blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Milella, Rosa Anna; Antonacci, Donato; Crupi, Pasquale; Incampo, Francesca; Carrieri, Cosimo; Semeraro, Nicola; Colucci, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Grape and its products such as red wine and grape juice have well-known antithrombotic properties, which have been attributed to their high content in polyphenolic compounds. Most studies on the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects, among which the suppression of tissue factor (TF) synthesis in blood mononuclear cells (MNC) and vascular endothelium is a prominent one, have been performed with purified polyphenols, while little is known about the effect of fresh grapes which contain a multitude of phytochemicals whose interaction may lead to different cell responses. In this study, we investigated the effect of grape skin extracts (GSEs) on TF expression in isolated blood MNC and in whole blood. Alcoholic extracts from skins of 2 grape varieties (Palieri and Italia) inhibited TF expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated MNC in a concentration-dependent manner with ≥90% inhibition of TF activity and antigen at 6 μg/mL of gallic acid equivalents. Noteworthy, GSEs were also able to inhibit the appearance of TF in whole blood challenged with LPS. The 2 grape varieties displayed a fairly similar TF-inhibiting capacity despite marked differences in phenolic profile. When selected purified polyphenols were tested, their ability to inhibit TF expression was markedly lower as compared to grape extracts, whereas a mixture of some representative polyphenols was much more efficient, supporting the occurrence of a synergistic effect. Given the key role of cell TF in thrombotic diseases, the inhibition of MNC-mediated clotting activation, if confirmed by in vivo studies, might represent an important antithrombotic mechanism. Our data indicate that the combination of different polyphenols, as in grape extracts, is much more efficient than the single constituents, a finding that might be useful as starting point for the development of new antithrombotic nutraceutics. In addition, our study validated a simple, inexpensive, and physiologically relevant in vitro

  11. Phenolic composition of the edible parts (flesh and skin) of Bordô grape (Vitis labrusca) using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-12-28

    The aim of this study was the detailed characterization of the phenolic composition and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Bordô grape (Vitis labrusca) cultivated in South Brazil. The edible parts of Bordô grapes (flesh and skin) contained 1130 mg/kg of total phenolic compounds (as gallic acid), mainly located in the skins. Anthocyanin content in the skins was high, largely as 3,5-diglucosides (1359 mg/kg, as malvidin 3,5-diglucoside). Total flavonols accounted for 154 μmol/kg, mainly located in the skins and with myricetin 3-glucoside as the principal flavonol in both grape parts. Very low amounts of flavan-3-ol monomers and dimers and low amounts of polymeric proanthocyanidins, with a composition similar to that reported for V. vinifera grape varieties, were found in Bordô grape skins. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives mainly derived from caffeic acid and were found in the skins in high amounts, ten times higher than in the flesh (total amount: 483 μmol/kg). Finally, the Bordô grape cultivar can be considered a high resveratrol producer (10.91 mg/kg) and also exhibited a high value of total antioxidant capacity (37.6 ± 1.0 mmol/kg, as Trolox).

  12. Impact of Temperature Anomalies Associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole Events on Wine Grape Maturity in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual grapevine growth and development are intimately linked with growing season weather conditions. Shifts in circulation patterns resulting from atmospheric teleconnections to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events can alter seasonal weather across Australia. Both ENSO and IOD events tend to peak in austral spring, when vine and berry development is especially critical and susceptible to damage. To investigate the impacts of ENSO and IOD events on the Australian wine grape growing sector, historical gridded climate data and annual vineyard grape maturity data from a variety of wine growing regions was collected and analysed. The greatest impacts on grape maturity were found when La Niña and IOD positive events occurred in tandem. During these events, significantly dry and hot conditions persist throughout the wine grape growing season, suggesting that the IOD overrides the ENSO signal. These conditions lead to a rapid, compressed growing season, which can cause logistical complications during harvest and impact grape and wine quality. Warming of equatorial SSTs in the Indian Ocean are likely to enhance the amplitude of IOD positive events, which has serious implications for wine grape production in Australia, highlighting the importance of this research.

  13. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Bonilla, Eduardo; Akoh, Casimir C; Sellappan, Subramani; Krewer, Gerard

    2003-08-27

    Fruits of 10 cultivars of muscadine grapes (five bronze skin and five purple skin) grown in southern Georgia were separated into skin, seed, and pulp. Each fruit part and the leaves from the corresponding varieties were extracted for HPLC analysis of major phenolics. Total phenolics were determined colorimetrically using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Total anthocyanins were determined according to a pH-differential method, using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, and epicatechin were the major phenolics in seeds, with average values of 6.9, 558.4, and 1299.4 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW), respectively. In the skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol were the major phenolics, with respective average values of 16.5, 8.4, 1.8, 0.6, and 0.1 mg/100 g of FW. Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol was the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. The HPLC solvent system used coupled with fluorescence detection allowed separation of ellagic acid from resveratrol and detection of resveratrol. Reported here for the first time are the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine leaves. Major phenolics in muscadine leaves were myricetin, ellagic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and gallic acid, with average concentrations of 157.6, 66.7, 8.9, 9.8, and 8.6, respectively. Average total phenolics were 2178.8, 374.6, 23.8, and 351.6 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in seed, skin, pulp, and leaves, respectively. Total anthocyanin contents were 2.1 and 132.1 mg/100 g of FW in the skins of bronze and purple grapes, respectively, and 4.3 and 4.6 mg/100 g of FW in seeds and pulps, in that order. Antioxidant capacity values were, on average, 2.4, 12.8, 281.3, and 236.1 microM TEAC/g of FW for pulps, skins, seeds, and leaves, respectively.

  14. Comparison of fortified, sfursat, and passito wines produced from fresh and dehydrated grapes of aromatic black cv. Moscato nero (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ossola, Carolina; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Río Segade, Susana; Caudana, Alberto; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Moscato nero d'Acqui is an Italian aromatic black winegrape variety characterized by a low content of anthocyanins (mostly tri-substituted), a satisfactory content of high molecular mass tannins, and a fair amount of terpenes. The grapes were subjected to a postharvest dehydration process under controlled thermohygrometric conditions (16-18°C, 55-70 RH%, 0.6m/s air speed) with the aim to produce three different special wine types (fortified, sfursat, and passito) from fresh, partially dehydrated (27°Brix), and withered (36°Brix) grapes, respectively. Chemical traits of produced grapes and wines were then evaluated through spectrophotometric, HPLC, and GC-MS methods. Increased contents of skin phenolic compounds and reduced extractable contents of seed phenolic compounds were observed as dehydration progressed. Few significant differences were found in the anthocyanin profile of grapes, although the relative abundance of coumaroylated anthocyanins was higher in dehydrated grapes. The predominant free volatile compound found in grapes was geraniol, which decreased with increasing water loss, whereas the contents of major glycosylated volatile compounds increased even above the concentration effect. The changes in the phenolic composition among wines agreed with those among grape skins. Fortified wines were chromatically unsatisfactory probably due to the low content of total anthocyanins, whereas sfursat and passito wines meet good chromatic characteristics as a result of the concentration effect during grape dehydration. Fortified and sfursat wines had free aroma profiles richer in 2-phenylethanol and citronellol, whereas passito wines were mainly composed of 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate, citronellol being the predominant terpenol in all the wine types studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative study to distinguish the vineyard of origin by NIRS using entire grapes, skins and seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2013-03-15

    Interest in high-quality products with a clear geographical origin is increasing. For the wine industry and market sector, identity preservation is of fundamental importance owing to the large number of geographical classifications. Nowadays, there is a growing demand for analytical methods for tracing grapes and wines. In the oenological sector, infrared spectroscopy is becoming an attractive tool allowing simultaneous measurement of several analytical parameters and enabling real-time decision making. Discriminant partial least squares, a supervised pattern recognition technique, was employed to discriminate between vineyards of origin using the near-infrared spectra of intact grapes, skins or seeds. In order to compare the three sample presentations, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used. The best results were obtained using intact grape seeds, with prediction rates of samples correctly classified of about 95%, although the good results obtained with entire grapes (about 93% of samples correctly classified) and the simplicity of use of the fibre optic probe could advise using entire grape presentation for comprehensive studies. The procedure reported here seems to have excellent potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive analysis of the origin of samples. It is noted that such classification can be made at any time of ripening. This paper provides information of interest to develop new and extensive models in the future. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Chemical Changes in Grape Stem and Their Relationship to Stem Color throughout Berry Ripening in Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yudan; Kravchuk, Olena; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-01-22

    Little attention has been paid to the color change or chemical compositional changes that occur in grape stems and how this correlates with the berry ripening process. Recently we have found that the change in grape peduncle color of Shiraz (Vitis vinifera) from green at veraison to predominantly brown at harvest occurs in parallel with berry ripening and as such may represent a new way of assisting in the prediction of grape maturity and harvest date. We have now investigated further the link between certain key chemical compositional changes that occur in the grape stem (peduncle and rachis) from veraison to harvest and how these attributes correlate with the observed color change in the vineyard. We report that peduncle moisture content has an excellent linear correlation with the color hue value and is negatively correlated in a strong fashion with the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment ratio (Ca+b/Cx+c) within the peduncles. Significant differences in the moisture content, total chlorophylls (including chlorophyll a and b levels), total carotenoids, total phenolics, and the antioxidant capacity (DPPH) levels between the peduncles and rachises were found as they evolve from veraison to harvest. Finally, we have demonstrated for the first time that peduncle moisture content codevelops with the prototypical berry ripeness parameters ((o)Brix, pH, TA), which provides for the development of a new approach for viticulturists and winemakers to evaluate grape ripeness through peduncle moisture levels and therefore assist in harvest decision making.

  17. Seasonal capacity of attached and detached vineyard roots to support grape phylloxera (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae).

    PubMed

    Granett, J; Omer, A D; Walker, M A

    2001-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate population densities and survival, developmental rate, and fecundity of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), as influenced by root attachment or detachment from mature, field-grown, Vitis vinifera L. grapevines through the growing season. Experiments were performed using artificial infestations of California biotype A grape phylloxera. Thirty-day bioassays on attached- and detached-roots were repeated monthly from May to September in 1997 (cultivar 'Carignane') and April to September in 1998 (cultivar 'Thompson Seedless'). The bioassays showed that attached roots had lower population densities than detached roots in all months of both years. Densities varied by month, tending to be higher in spring than in summer. Of the population parameters studied, survival was most influenced by attachment condition, being higher on detached than on attached roots by up to 25-fold. These results imply the importance of vine-related mortality factors to grape phylloxera population density. Influence of root attachment condition on developmental rate and fecundity was not uniform across bioassay months for either year; however, in the four out of 21 assays where there was a significant difference it favored detached roots by twofold. Fruit harvest resulted in higher survival in the July assay but not for assays in August and September; however, neither developmental rate nor fecundity was affected by harvest in any ofthe assays. We conclude that mortality rather than nutritional factors are most limiting for field populations on susceptible vines. This work suggests that detachment of roots as occurs with root girdling by root pathogens may increase grape phylloxera populations on infested, susceptible vines. These results imply that excised root bioassays over-estimate grape phylloxera virulence and underestimate rootstock resistance.

  18. Effects of different fungicide treatments on grape, must and wine quality.

    PubMed

    Lo Scalzo, R; Fibiani, M; Pietromarchi, P; Mandalà, C; La Torre, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural products and low-rate copper formulations against grapevine downy mildew, in order to reduce or replace copper use in organic farming, and to assess the effects on the qualitative parameters of grape, must and wine of the different treatments. The trial was carried out in an organic vineyard in accordance with the EPPO/OEPP guidelines. Plots were prepared, each containing 12 vine-plants and repeated four times in randomized blocks. At harvest, representative grape samples were picked off from the plots treated with the different products: for each treatment, a random sub-sample was kept for analyses, the remaining part was processed to produce wine. Grapes, musts and wines were characterized for their food quality indices, as well as for their nutraceutical profiles and antioxidant activity. On must and wine, sugars, acidity and pH were determined according to official methods. On grape and wine, total polyphenol, flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents were determined by spectrophotometric analysis, as well as antioxidant activity tests. Organic acids and single polyphenols were also determined by HPLC. The results of the trial, characterized by moderate infection pressure, indicate that all tested products guaranteed a satisfactory control of Plasmopara viticola although the alternatives to copper were not as effective as copper. Data evidence that grape quality and its oenological potential were not significantly influenced by applied treatments and that they did not significantly differ in comparison with the untreated control, only with an interesting significant negative correlation between proanthocyanidins level and the severity of disease on ripe berries. The uniformity of data seems to evidence a general adaptation of plants to different treatment stresses, probably due both to low input of active ingredients and to moderate downy mildew infection.

  19. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-08-31

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL{sub 2}-varieties are considered.

  20. Changes in analytical and volatile compositions of red wines induced by pre-fermentation heat treatment of grapes.

    PubMed

    Geffroy, Olivier; Lopez, Ricardo; Serrano, Eric; Dufourcq, Thierry; Gracia-Moreno, Elisa; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2015-11-15

    Experiments were carried out on Grenache, Carignan and Fer grapes in order to characterize the changes in nitrogen content of the musts, conventional enological parameters and aroma compounds of the wines induced by pre-fermentation heating of the grapes followed by alcoholic fermentation in liquid phase or in solid phase. In comparison to a standard vinification, we showed that a two-hour heat treatment at 70 °C induced a significant loss in several grape-derived aroma compounds (terpenols, norisoprenoids and some phenols) associated with an increase in α-terpineol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, which suggests thermal degradation. A significant increase in most of the ethyl esters, in acetates and in fatty acids were observed in wines fermented in liquid phase, together with a decrease in fusel alcohols. The substantial modification in the amino acid composition of the must seems to be a crucial element for the understanding of these changes.

  1. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region Oussama Broutou1, Nuray Baser1, Francesco Porcelli2, Vincenzo Verrastro1, Flutura Lamaj1 1International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM)- Institute of Bari (IAMB), Italy 2Dept. of Soil, Plant and Food Science (Di.S.S.P.A.), University of Bari, Bari, Italy D. suzukii (Diptera Drosophilidae family, sub-genus Sophophora); is a vinegar fly, known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in USA. This insect gained an increasing attention for its heavy infestations on strawberry, blueberry and raspberry in the U.S.A, occurred in 2008 and 2009. D. suzukii has been reported also in Europe, (Spain October 2008), and later on in Italy and France. The first captures occurred in Italy, in Trento province, in 2009. By 2010-2012, other captures were done in Italy, involving other regions, such as: Piemonte, Val d'Aosta, Lombardia, Liguria, Marche Campania and Sicilia. D. suzukii has been indicated by EPPO, as a possible threat for Mediterranean fruit production. An advanced study was carried out in order to find out the potential phytosanitary risk for Mediterranean grapes producing areas, considering that there are only few reports for damages on this crop. By the way Italy is at the third place in the world for grapes production (2011) and at the first place for grapes economical value (2011). The first identification of D. suzukii in Apulia was made in October 2012 and reported to the regional plant protection service in January 2013 by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (IAMB) and by Bari University (UNIBA). The aim of this study is to estimate the susceptibility of different grapes varieties to such a pest. Ten varieties of table grapes from nine different localities of Bari and Taranto province were used in this study. We tested 23 samples cultivated with organic agriculture method and 16 samples cultivated by conventional agriculture. Thirty berries were collected from

  2. Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: almond hulls and grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, Mónica; Pinelo, Manuel; Shene, Carolina; Sineiro, Jorge; Nuñez, María José

    2007-12-12

    Almond hulls and grape pomace are residues abundantly generated by agricultural industries, which could be processed to obtain bioactive products. To this purpose, crude ethanol extracts from both agricultural byproducts were attained and subsequently fractionated in order to obtain an organic/water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG), whereas the FOW fraction offered the additional presence of epicatechin (EC) and glycosylated flavonols. In the composition for extracts of white and red grape pomace several of these compounds were also detected but basically consisted of glycosylated flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol). As a difference between both grape pomaces, myricetin glycosyde was found in that from the red variety, whereas flavan-3-ols (EC, afzelechin) were only identified in white pomace. When their FOW fractions were analyzed, gallic acid and some hydroxybenzoic acids were additionally detected. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH. Even appearing as two quite different vegetal matrixes, the composition of phenolics in grape pomace and almond hulls is quite similar, the main difference being the major occurrence of flavonols in grape pomace. This fact could presumably explain the lower antiradical activity of hull extracts.

  3. Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Boespflug, Erin L; Fleck, David E; Stein, Amanda L; Wightman, Jolynne D; Shidler, Marcelle D; Sadat-Hossieny, Sara

    2012-06-13

    Polyphenol compounds found in berry fruits, in particular flavonoids, have been associated with health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging. Concord grape juice contains polyphenols, including anthocyanins and flavanols, and previous research has shown improvement in a number of human health conditions with grape juice supplementation. In the current study, older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16 weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and postintervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. Relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline.

  4. Rationalization of pesticide treatments against powdery mildew of grape.

    PubMed

    Spera, G; La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Bugliosi, R

    2007-01-01

    The powdery mildew represents one of the diseases which affect the grape, it is diffused in all agricultural regions with variable intensity and epidemic course in operation of many microclimatic factors. The powdery mildew of grape is caused from Uncinala necator (Schw.) Burr. (nowadays named Erysiphe necator Schwein.); it is controlled with systemic therapy and contact chemicaL products. In some vineyards located in Latium (central Italy), different field trials have been carried out purposely to rationalize the treatments against E. necator. We have studied the powdery mildew infections through monitoring a set of environmental parameters, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics. We have analysed the following environmental parameters monitoring every 15 minutes: precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. Besides, we have used Artificial Intelligence analysis techniques to try to forecast U. necator infections. Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/4 (4) has been used. The trials were conducted in conventional and organic farms. In 2 conventional farms and in organic farm we have considered 1 untreated control thesis, in order to follow the course of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 thesis where the treatments were carried out according to examining the environmental data. In another conventional vineyard, we have considered only 1 untreated control thesis and 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard) to study disease trend. The achieved results have underlined the possibility (through the knowledge of data pedoclimatic and cultural) to position the treatments against the powdery mildew so that to reduce their number. The lower number of treatments that

  5. Ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species on grapes from Chilean vineyards and Aspergillus threshold levels on grapes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gonzalo A; Torres, René; Vega, Mario; Latorre, Bernardo A

    2009-07-31

    This study reports the incidence of ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus on Chilean grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wineries, and production of OTA levels in wines with grapes having different levels of contamination with OTA-producing Aspergillus carbonarius was studied. A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. niveus, A. paradoxus, A. versicolor, A. wentii, and A. westerdijkiae were identified on apparently healthy clusters of red and white grape cultivars. However, A. carbonarius and A. niger were the most frequently identified species, more abundant on red than white grape cultivars. Aspergillus spp. populations increased between veraison and harvest, but the isolation frequencies were relatively low over the entire growing season. At the winery, A. carbonarius, A. niger and A. westerdijkiae were occasionally found in the air, exclusively during winemaking. OTA-producing strains were only found among isolates of A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. wenti, and A. westerdijkiae, producing 2 to 17 microg/L of OTA in liquid medium; however, A. westerdijkiae produced the highest OTA concentration in vitro. Red wines elaborated with 0.5% of grapes infected with an OTA-producing strain of A. carbonarius (Aspuc-SB36) exceeded the 2 microg/L of OTA tolerance established for wines by the European Community. Therefore, a threshold below 0.5% infected berries is proposed for red wines. ELISA tests proved to be useful for detecting OTA in broth culture as in wine samples.

  6. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  7. Mechanical properties, phenolic composition and extractability indices of Barbera grapes of different soluble solids contents from several growing areas.

    PubMed

    Torchio, Fabrizio; Cagnasso, Enzo; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca

    2010-02-15

    Phenolic compounds, extractable from grape skins and seeds, have a notable influence on the quality of red wines. Many studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between the phenolic composition of the grape at harvest time and its influence on the phenolic composition of the red wine produced. In many previous works the evolution of phenolic composition and relative extractability was normally studied on grapes sampled at different times during ripening, but at the same date the physiological characteristics of grape berries in a vineyard are often very heterogeneous. Therefore, the main goal of the study is to investigate the differences among mechanical properties, phenolic composition and relative extractability of Vitis vinifera L. cv Barbera grape berries, harvested at the same date from several vineyards, and calibrated according to their density at three levels of soluble solids (A=235+/-8, B=252+/-8 and C=269+/-8 g L(-1) sugar) with the aim of studying the influence of ripeness stages and growing locations on these parameters. Results on mechanical properties showed that the thickness of the berry skin (Sp(sk)) was the parameter most affected by the different level of sugars in the pulp, while different skin hardnesses, evaluated by the break skin force (F(sk)), were related to the cultivation sites. The latter were also observed to influence the mechanical characteristics of seeds. Generally, the anthocyanin content increased with the level of soluble solids, while the increase in the tannin content of the berry skin and seeds was less marked. However, significant changes in flavanols reactive to vanillin in the seeds were found. The cellular maturity index (EA%) was little influenced by the soluble solids content of grapes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prime and subprime vintage years: a climatological study looking at 500 years of grape harvest dates and grape quality records as well as at early instrumental temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Christian; Hammerl, Christa; Koch, Elisabeth; Hammerl, Teresa; Pokorny, Elfriede

    2010-05-01

    Detection and quantification of extreme weather conditions in the past is important for correctly assessing the significance of today's extremes. We defined a list of 40 extreme years (1540-2007), where two or more of several parameters (phenological records or mean temperatures) available at that time exceed the double standard deviation with regard to a 105-years lasting reference period. As vine flowering, grape mellowness and grape harvest dates are on hand, the term "extreme" adverts to anomalous temperature conditions during spring and early summer time, i.e. to mean temperatures which correlate highly significantly to these phenological records. By analyzing the phenological data of the region of Vienna, Burgundy and the Swiss Plateau Region on one hand as well as the temperature series of Vienna, Basel, Geneva and Strasbourg on the other, we tried to extend extreme events to an inter-regional scale. Apart from these data we used independent descriptive sources from the municipal archive of the town Retz in Lower Austria for affirming and amending these results. For instance in Western Europe 1542, 1718, 1811, 1821, 1822, 2003 and 2007 did have extreme spring to early summer temperatures and/or exceptional phenological dates; four out of only seven cold extremes cluster between 1816 and 1879. Not a single mean temperature extreme at Vienna (according to our definition of double standard deviation) is present between 1874 and 1983 and no extreme positive grape harvest date anomalies arise after 1980.

  9. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    PubMed

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  10. Thermal degradation of grape marc polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Sólyom, Katalin; Solá, Ruth; Cocero, María José; Mato, Rafael B

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds of wine making by-products are of interest in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Extraction of antioxidants under mild conditions is time-consuming, giving ground to the development of intensification processes where the operation at high temperature may deteriorate extract quality. This study examined thermal degradation of grape marc and its filtered extract (80, 100 and 150°C). The decrease in anthocyanin content was modelled under non-isothermal conditions by first order kinetics, using the Arrhenius equation. Simulated degradation under isothermal heating showed that the grape marc is more sensitive by one order of magnitude to heat than the filtered extract. This tendency was also confirmed by analyses of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It is suggested that an optimal combination of temperature, treatment time and also raw material environment could be found in process intensification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Copper transport and compartmentation in grape cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Hanana, Mohsen; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2012-11-01

    Copper-based fungicides have been widely used against several grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases since the late 1800s when the Bordeaux mixture was developed, but their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches were combined to investigate the impacts of copper in grape cells and how it is transported and compartmented intracellularly. Copper reduced the growth and viability of grape cells (CSB, Cabernet Sauvignon Berry) in a dose-dependent manner above 100 µM and was accumulated in specific metal ion sinks. The copper-sensitive probe Phen Green SK was used to characterize copper transport across the plasma membrane of CSB cells. The transport system (K(m) = 583 µM; V(max) = 177 × 10(-6) %ΔF min(-1) protoplast(-1)) was regulated by copper availability in the culture medium, stimulated by Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+). The pH-sensitive fluorescent probe ACMA (9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxyacridine) was used to evaluate the involvement of proton-dependent copper transport across the tonoplast. Cu(2+) compartmentation in the vacuole was dependent on the transmembrane pH gradient generated by both V-H(+)-ATPase and V-H(+)-pyrophosphatase (PPase). High copper levels in the growth medium did not affect the activity of V-H(+)-PPase but decreased the magnitude of the H(+) gradient generated by V-H(+)-ATPase. Expression studies of VvCTr genes showed that VvCTr1 and VvCTr8 were distinctly affected by CuSO(4) availability in grape cell cultures and that both genes were highly expressed in the green stage of grape berries.

  12. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanidis, Ypatios; Liosi, Maria; Apostolou, Anna; Priftis, Alexandros; Haroutounian, Serko; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of polyphenolic extracts derived from the stems of three Greek grape varieties (Moshomayro, Mavrotragano and Mandilaria) in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells. We also investigated the effects of the polyphenolic composition on the antioxidant effects of the grape stem extracts. For this purpose, the endothelial and muscle cells were treated with low non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts for 24 h in order to assess the effects of the extracts on cellular redox status using oxidative stress biomarkers. The oxidative stress markers were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (CARB) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels. The results revealed that treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 14.8% and the CARB levels by 25.9 %, while it increased the GSH levels by 15.8% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mavrotragano extract significantly increased the GSH levels by 20.2%, while it significantly decreased the TBARS and CARB levels by 12.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 47.3 %, the CARB levels by 39.0 % and the ROS levels by 21.8%, while it increased the GSH levels by 22.6% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mavrotragano significantly decreased the TBARS, CARB and ROS levels by 36.2%, 35.9% and 16.5%, respectively. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledgel, our results demonstrate for the first time that treatment with grape stem extracts at low concentrations improves the redox status of endothelial and muscle cells. Thus, grape stem extracts may be used for developing antioxidant food supplements or biofunctional foods. However, it was also found that the polyphenolic composition of grape stem

  13. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    GOUTZOURELAS, NIKOLAOS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; SPANIDIS, YPATIOS; LIOSI, MARIA; APOSTOLOU, ANNA; PRIFTIS, ALEXANDROS; HAROUTOUNIAN, SERKO; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of polyphenolic extracts derived from the stems of three Greek grape varieties (Moshomayro, Mavrotragano and Mandilaria) in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells. We also investigated the effects of the polyphenolic composition on the antioxidant effects of the grape stem extracts. For this purpose, the endothelial and muscle cells were treated with low non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts for 24 h in order to assess the effects of the extracts on cellular redox status using oxidative stress biomarkers. The oxidative stress markers were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (CARB) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels. The results revealed that treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 14.8% and the CARB levels by 25.9 %, while it increased the GSH levels by 15.8% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mavrotragano extract significantly increased the GSH levels by 20.2%, while it significantly decreased the TBARS and CARB levels by 12.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 47.3 %, the CARB levels by 39.0 % and the ROS levels by 21.8%, while it increased the GSH levels by 22.6% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mavrotragano significantly decreased the TBARS, CARB and ROS levels by 36.2%, 35.9% and 16.5%, respectively. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledgel, our results demonstrate for the first time that treatment with grape stem extracts at low concentrations improves the redox status of endothelial and muscle cells. Thus, grape stem extracts may be used for developing antioxidant food supplements or biofunctional foods. However, it was also found that the polyphenolic composition of grape stem

  14. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2017-02-01

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures; temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and light intensity were measured continually. All 15 'Merlot' grape anthocyanins accrued in both groups, indicating no accumulations were terminated from light-exclusion during ripening. Light-excluded clusters had an overall lower anthocyanin concentration (98.1 mg/100 g of berries) than that of control clusters (162.0 mg/100 g of berries), but it was not significantly different. Light-excluded clusters showed altered concentrations of nine individual anthocyanins that were significantly higher in control-shaded clusters. Although the changes in anthocyanin composition could not be attributed solely to the elimination of light, as there were also deviations in berry temperature and vapor pressure deficit concurrent with preventing light from reaching the treatment clusters.

  15. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of perillaldehyde in control of Aspergillus niger causing grape decay.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Zeng, Hong; Li, Zongyun; Zhang, Peng; Tessema, Akalate; Peng, Xue

    2015-06-02

    A variety of plant products have been recognized for their antifungal activity and recently have attracted food industry attention for their efficacy in controlling postharvest fungal decay of fruits. The antifungal activity of perillaldehyde (PAE) was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, a known cause of grape spoilage, and possible mechanisms were explored. PAE showed notable antifungal activity against A. niger, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 0.25 and 1 μl/ml, respectively. The accumulation of mycelial biomass was also inhibited by PAE in a dose-dependent manner, completely inhibiting mycelial growth at 1 μl/ml. In vivo data confirmed that the vapour treatment of grapes with various concentrations of PAE markedly improved control of A. niger and suppressed natural decay. Concentrations of PAE of 0.075 μl/ml air showed the greatest inhibition of fungal growth compared to the controls. Further experiments indicated that PAE activated a membrane-active mechanism that inhibits ergosterol synthesis, increases membrane permeability (as evidenced by extracellular pH and conductivity measurements), and disrupts membrane integrity, leading to cell death. Our findings suggest that this membrane-active mechanism makes PAE a promising potential antifungal agent for postharvest control of grape spoilage.

  16. Characterization of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berry Sunburn Symptoms by Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Rustioni, Laura; Rocchi, Letizia; Guffanti, Eugenio; Cola, Gabriele; Failla, Osvaldo

    2014-03-27

    Sunburn can affect grape quality both for chemical modifications and by visual impact of the browning. Optical properties of 17 white grape accessions were investigated in the visible region using a noninvasive instrument. Reflectance spectra were obtained using a Jaz System spectrometer. Browning was induced by exposing grape bunches to direct sunlight at 12:30 p.m. for 5 h. During the experiment, the global solar radiation ranged from 2.6 to 2.7 MJ m(-2) h(-1) and the air temperature from 24.3 to 29.2 °C; the exposed berries reached a temperature of 34.2 °C in comparison to the 30.4 °C of the shaded ones. Differences between the spectra of controlled and exposed berries mainly emphasized the loss in chlorophyll and the formation of brown compounds. A positive correlation between the chlorophyll concentration and berry browning was proposed. Developing rapid, noninvasive, and low-cost methods based on reflectance spectroscopy could support grapevine variety characterization with respect to sunburn susceptibility as well as study of the physiological processes involved in the symptoms' appearance.

  17. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  19. Controlling grape must fermentation in early winemaking phases: the role of electrochemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Lustrato, G; Alfano, G; Belli, C; Grazia, L; Iorizzo, M; Maiuro, L; Massarella, F; Zanardini, E; Ranalli, G

    2003-01-01

    To contribute to an understanding of the phenomena related to the effect of low electric current (LEC) in grape must fermentation during laboratory and pilot plant scale winemaking, with selected co-culture yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 404 and Hanseniaspora guilliermodii strain 465). LEC (10, 30, 50 and 100 mA) was applied to fresh grape must as an alternative method to the usual addition of SO2. Parameters such as polarity, treatment duration (24-96 h) and type of inoculum yeast were varied one at a time. LEC decreased the survival time and increased the death rate of H. guilliermondii strain 465 in co-cultures, whereas it did not affect the growth and survival of S. cerevisiae strain 40. A final comparison was made of the main physico-chemical parameters on wine obtained after the different tests. The results have demonstrated that the low voltage treatment using a pair of graphite electrodes had a positive effect on grape juice fermentation (yeast microflora) during the early stages of winemaking, even with the potential of being an alternative method to the usual addition of SO2. These results could be of significant importance in developing new winemaking technologies for an innovative yeast fermentation control process for 'biological wine'.

  20. Targeted and untargeted high resolution mass approach for a putative profiling of glycosylated simple phenols in hybrid grapes.

    PubMed

    Barnaba, Chiara; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Nicolini, Giorgio; Giacomelli, Mattia; Roman Villegas, Tomas; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widespread grapevines around the world representing the raw material for high quality wine production. The availability of more resistant interspecific hybrid vine varieties, developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and other Vitis species, has generated much interest, also due to the low environmental effect of production. However, hybrid grape wine composition and varietal differences between interspecific hybrids have not been well defined, particularly for the simple phenols profile. The dynamic of these phenols in wines, where the glycosylated forms can be transformed into the free ones during winemaking, also raises an increasing health interest by their role as antoxidants in wine consumers. In this work an on-line SPE clean-up device, to reduce matrix interference, was combined with ultra-high liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in order to increase understanding of the phenolic composition of hybrid grape varieties. Specifically, the phenolic composition of 4 hybrid grape varieties (red, Cabernet Cantor and Prior; white, Muscaris and Solaris) and 2 European grape varieties (red, Merlot; white, Chardonnay) was investigated, focusing on free and glycosidically bound simple phenols and considering compound distribution in pulp, skin, seeds and wine. Using a targeted approach 53 free simple phenols and 7 glycosidic precursors were quantified with quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 2mgKg(-1) and calibration R(2) of 0.99 for over 86% of compounds. The untargeted approach made it possible to tentatively identify 79 glycosylated precursors of selected free simple phenols in the form of -hexoside (N=30), -pentoside (21), -hexoside-hexoside (17), -hexoside-pentoside (4), -pentoside-hexoside (5) and -pentoside-pentoside (2) derivatives on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The development of global GRAPES 4DVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongzhu

    2017-04-01

    Four-dimensional variation data assimilation (4DVAR) has given a great contribution to the improvement of NWP system over the past twenty years. Therefore, our strategy is to develop an operational global 4D-Var system from the outset. The aim at the paper is to introduce the development of the global GRAPES four-dimensional variation data assimilation (4DVAR) using incremental analysis schemes and to presents results of a comparison between 4DVAR using 6-hour assimilation window and simplified physics during the minimization with three-dimensional variation data assimilation (3DVAR). The dynamical cores of the tangent-linear and adjoint models are developed directly based on the non-hydrostatic forecast model. In addition, the standard correctness checks have been performed. As well as the development adjoint codes, most of our work is focused on improving the computational efficiency since the bulk of the computational cost of 4D-Var is in the integration of the tangent-linear and adjoint models. In terms of tangent-linear model, the wall-clock time is reduced to about 1.2 times as much as one of nonlinear model through the optimizing of the software framework. The significant computational cost savings on adjoint model result from the removing the redundant recompilations of model trajectories. It is encouraging that the wall-clock time of adjoint model is less than 1.5 times as much as one of nonlinear model. The current difficulty is that the numerical scheme used within the linear model is based on strategically on the numeric of the corresponding nonlinear model. Further computational acceleration should be expected from the improvement on nonlinear numerical algorithm. A series of linearized physical parameterization schemes has been developed to improve the representation of perturbed fields in the linear model. It consists of horizontal and vertical diffusion, sub-grid scale orographic gravity wave drag, large-scale condensation and cumulus convection

  2. Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast isolated from grapes and wine fermentation in Lanzarote, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    González, Sara S; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Laich, Federico

    2013-01-01

    During the characterization of the microbiota biodiversity associated with grapes and wineries in different bioclimatic conditions of the Canary Islands (Spain), a novel yeast species was isolated from Lanzarote, the driest wine-producing region of the archipelago. Seven strains isolated from grapes, microvinifications and wineries are described. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically a member of the genus Lachancea and are closely related to Lachancea meyersii NRRL Y-27269(T) and Lachancea nothofagi NRRL Y-48670(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analysis, a novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Lachancea lanzarotensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is L2C-15(T) ( = CBS 12615(T) = CECT 13066(T)) which was isolated from grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Listán Negro red grape variety in Tinajo, Lanzarote. The MycoBank no. is MB 801390.

  3. Use of Visible and Short-Wave Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging To Fingerprint Anthocyanins in Intact Grape Berries.

    PubMed

    Diago, Maria P; Fernández-Novales, Juan; Fernandes, Armando M; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Tardaguila, Javier

    2016-10-12

    In red grape berries, anthocyanins account for about 50% of the skin phenols and are responsible for the final wine color. Individual anthocyanin levels and compositional profiles vary with cultivar, maturity, season, region, and yield and have been proposed as chemical markers to differentiate wines and to provide valuable information regarding the adulteration of musts and wines. A fast, easy, solvent-free, nondestructive method based on visible, short-wave, and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in intact grape berries to fingerprint the color pigments in eight different grape varieties was developed and tested against HPLC. Predictive models based on modified partial least-squares (MPLS) were built for 14 individual anthocyanins with coefficients of determination of cross-validation (R(2)CV) ranging from 0.70 to 0.93. For the grouping of total and nonacylated anthocyanins, external validation was conducted with coefficient of determination of prediction (R(2)P) of 0.86. HSI could potentially become an alternative to HPLC with reduced analysis time and labor costs while providing reliable and robust information on the anthocyanin composition of grape berries.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Yin, Xiangjing; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping

    2014-01-01

    Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD) genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD) in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity. PMID:24705465

  5. Study of Grape Polyphenols by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF) and Suspect Screening Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flamini, Riccardo; De Rosso, Mirko; Bavaresco, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Suspect screening analysis is a targeted metabolomics method in which the identification of compounds relies on specific available information, such as their molecular formula and isotopic pattern. This method, coupled to liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry, is effective in the study of grape metabolomics, in particular for characterization of flavonols, stilbene derivatives, and anthocyanins. For identification of compounds expected in the samples, a new database of putative compounds was expressly constructed by using the molecular information on potential metabolites of grape and wine from the literature and other electronic databases. Currently, this database contains around 1,100 compounds. The method allows identification of several hundred grape metabolites with two analyses (positive and negative ionization modes), and performing of data reprocessing using “untargeted” algorithms also provided the identification of some flavonols and resveratrol trimers and tetramers in grape for the first time. This approach can be potentially used in the study of metabolomics of varieties of other plant species. PMID:25734021

  6. Genome-wide identification, evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) zinc finger-homeodomain gene family.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yin, Xiangjing; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-03

    Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD) genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD) in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity.

  7. Stilbene levels in grape cane of different cultivars in southern Chile: determination by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Carola; von Baer, Dietrich; Mardones, Claudia; Wilkens, Andrea; Wernekinck, Katerina; Damm, Anika; Macke, Sebastian; Gorena, Tamara; Winterhalter, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Health benefits of trans-resveratrol and other stilbenes in grapes, must, and wine have been pointed out by numerous authors. Less attention has been paid to the presence of stilbene derivatives in viticultural residues, such as grape canes. The present work reports the first results of a systematic study of stilbene levels in different grape varieties and cultivation areas in Chile, to evaluate their potential as an alternative source of bioactive stilbenes. In all cane samples, the predominant stilbene is trans-resveratrol, followed by ε-viniferin and piceatannol. In canes of Pinot noir up to 5590 ± 172 mg kg(-1) of trans-resveratrol and up to 6915 ± 175 mg kg(-1) of total stilbenes were detected. The observed concentrations of stilbenes in canes of Pinot noir from southern Chile until now are higher than those reported previously for this red variety. However, the highest concentration of total stilbenes observed in the analyzed samples was in the canes of white variety Gewürztraminer with 7857 ± 498 mg kg(-1). Preliminary results indicate that these levels can evolve if canes are left for some months on the vineyard after pruning, observing an increase during the first 2 months and a decrease after this period.

  8. Effectiveness of insecticides in controlling the first and second generations of the Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-04-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of table and wine grape (Vitis spp.) varieties in Cyprus. Many different insecticide combinations were applied for three consecutive years (2006-2008) in a Sultana seedless table grape vineyard, aimed at controlling the first and second generations of this pest under warm and dry Mediterranean climatic conditions. In Cyprus, Sultana is the main early maturing table grape variety grown in the country. L. botrana has two generations and a partial third on this export variety, of which the first two generations are the most destructive. Applications were made according to pheromone trap captures of males. One application was used against the first and two applications against the second generation of L. botrana. A high rate of bunch damage was observed in the untreated rows during all years, reaching 56.7, 62.5, and 69.2% in 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Differences between insecticide treatments and the untreated control were statistically significant. The treatment combination of lufenuron, spinosad, and indoxacarb as well as the combination of chlorpyrifos, spinosa and indoxacarb, used against the first and second generations of L. botrana, were the most effective compared with the untreated control. Satisfactory control of the pest also was observed with other combinations such as lufenuron, cypermethrin, and Bacillus thuringiensis; chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and B. thuringiensis; and lufenuron, deltamethrin, and azadirachtin.

  9. Aroma potential of Brancellao grapes from different cluster positions.

    PubMed

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Santiago, J L; Martínez, M C; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-05-01

    In this study the presence of aroma compounds in grapes of Brancellao (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated in order to obtain its aroma potential fingerprint. It is well known that differences exist in aromatic compounds amongst grapevine varieties at ripening stages. Within the framework of an increasingly competitive market, the chance of obtaining different wines from vines of the same variety grown at the same vineyard is becoming of increasing importance. This can be done through the managing of the vineyard, but also some wineries have assayed the separation of the tip and shoulder berries of the clusters of a specific variety with this objective. In this work it is evaluated that, in the final stages of maturation, differences exist in the probable alcoholic degree, total acidity of the must, as well as in the aromatic composition of skin and flesh of berries coming from the tips and shoulders of the clusters. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the aromatic composition, in the skin and flesh of each sample, either tip or shoulder berries from the clusters. The obtained results showed that there was not variability for the probable alcoholic degree and total acidity between the shoulders and tips, whereas there was variability for their aromatic composition. For the berries from the tips of the clusters most of volatiles were found in the flesh (except aldehydes) and spicy and floral nuances (with the only exception of β-ionone) were in higher proportions. For the berries from the shoulders of the clusters, most of volatiles were found in the skin (monoterpenes, norisoprenoids, aldehydes, and C6 alcohols), where the flesh was slightly richer in aromatic alcohols, volatile phenols and pantolactone; β-ionone and herbaceous nuances were in higher proportions. These results are promising for those wineries that are considering the chance of separating berries from tips and shoulders of the clusters for the elaboration

  10. Reduced-molecular-weight derivatives of frost grape polysaccharide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wild frost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). Native frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), with an estimated molecular weight of 1.6 ± 0.1 x 107 Da, was progressively and irreversibly modified by heat treatment to r...

  11. SNP Validation and Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Tomatoes and Grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated grapes and tomatoes have very different reproductive systems. While grapes are often outcrossed and grafted, tomatoes are generally selfed and propogated by seed. Large-scale public EST datasets were used in both crops to predict SNPs and PCR primers flanking these SNPs. Genomic DNA was a...

  12. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. We characterized genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera, and its wild relative, Vitis sy...

  13. The USDA/ARS Grape Breeding Program at Parlier, CA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The California table grape industry needs a series of seedless table grapes that ripen from early to late, having high quality red, black or white fruit that store and ship well. The raisin industry needs new seedless cultivars adapted to mechanical harvest without supplemental drying. Buyers and ...

  14. Child Deaths Highlight Choking Dangers Posed by Grapes

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162679.html Child Deaths Highlight Choking Dangers Posed by Grapes Deaths of 5-year-old and toddler cited in ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young children can choke to death on whole grapes, warn the authors of a ...

  15. Performance of Muscadine Grape Cultivars in South Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscadines are grapes are indigenous to the Southeastern United States and are highly prized for their unique flavor for both fresh market fruit and for processing for juice, jelly, and wine. Skin color varies among muscadine grape cultivars from bronze to purple and berry also quality varies, maki...

  16. Association between Grape Yeast Communities and the Vineyard Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Drumonde-Neves, João; Lima, Teresa; Schuller, Dorit; Pais, Célia

    2017-01-01

    The grape yeast biota from several wine-producing areas, with distinct soil types and grapevine training systems, was assessed on five islands of Azores Archipelago, and differences in yeast communities composition associated with the geographic origin of the grapes were explored. Fifty-seven grape samples belonging to the Vitis vinifera grapevine cultivars Verdelho dos Açores (Verdelho), Arinto da Terceira (Arinto) and Terrantez do Pico (Terrantez) were collected in two consecutive years and 40 spontaneous fermentations were achieved. A total of 1710 yeast isolates were obtained from freshly crushed grapes and 1200 from final stage of fermentations. Twenty-eight species were identified, Hanseniaspura uvarum, Pichia terricola and Metschnikowia pulcherrima being the three most representative species isolated. Candida carpophila was encountered for the first time as an inhabitant of grape or wine-associated environments. In both sampling years, a higher proportion of H. uvarum in fresh grapes from Verdelho cultivar was observed, in comparison with Arinto cultivar. Qualitatively significant differences were found among yeast communities from several locations on five islands of the Archipelago, particularly in locations with distinctive agro-ecological compositions. Our results are in agreement with the statement that grape-associated microbial biogeography is non-randomly associated with interactions of climate, soil, cultivar, and vine training systems in vineyard ecosystems. Our observations strongly support a possible linkage between grape yeast and wine typicality, reinforcing the statement that different viticultural terroirs harbor distinctive yeast biota, in particular in vineyards with very distinctive environmental conditions. PMID:28085916

  17. QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

  18. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  19. Association between Grape Yeast Communities and the Vineyard Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Drumonde-Neves, João; Franco-Duarte, Ricardo; Lima, Teresa; Schuller, Dorit; Pais, Célia

    2017-01-01

    The grape yeast biota from several wine-producing areas, with distinct soil types and grapevine training systems, was assessed on five islands of Azores Archipelago, and differences in yeast communities composition associated with the geographic origin of the grapes were explored. Fifty-seven grape samples belonging to the Vitis vinifera grapevine cultivars Verdelho dos Açores (Verdelho), Arinto da Terceira (Arinto) and Terrantez do Pico (Terrantez) were collected in two consecutive years and 40 spontaneous fermentations were achieved. A total of 1710 yeast isolates were obtained from freshly crushed grapes and 1200 from final stage of fermentations. Twenty-eight species were identified, Hanseniaspura uvarum, Pichia terricola and Metschnikowia pulcherrima being the three most representative species isolated. Candida carpophila was encountered for the first time as an inhabitant of grape or wine-associated environments. In both sampling years, a higher proportion of H. uvarum in fresh grapes from Verdelho cultivar was observed, in comparison with Arinto cultivar. Qualitatively significant differences were found among yeast communities from several locations on five islands of the Archipelago, particularly in locations with distinctive agro-ecological compositions. Our results are in agreement with the statement that grape-associated microbial biogeography is non-randomly associated with interactions of climate, soil, cultivar, and vine training systems in vineyard ecosystems. Our observations strongly support a possible linkage between grape yeast and wine typicality, reinforcing the statement that different viticultural terroirs harbor distinctive yeast biota, in particular in vineyards with very distinctive environmental conditions.

  20. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established if each optional unit is located on non-contiguous land or grown and insured under an organic... if each optional unit: (1) Is located on non-contiguous land; or (2) Consists of a separate type when... to produce fresh marketable grapes are carried out. Type. A category of grapes (one or more...

  1. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established if each optional unit is located on non-contiguous land or grown and insured under an organic... if each optional unit: (1) Is located on non-contiguous land; or (2) Consists of a separate type when... to produce fresh marketable grapes are carried out. Type. A category of grapes (one or more...

  2. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  3. Super-parameterization in GRAPES: The construction of SP-GRAPES and associated preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Wang, Yuhong

    2015-04-01

    Super-parameterization (SP) aims to explicitly represent deep convection within a coarse resolution global model by embedding a cloud resolving model (CRM) in each column of the mother model. For the first time, we implemented the SP in a mesoscale regional weather model, the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES). The constructed SP-GRAPES uses a two-dimensional (2D) CRM in each grid column. A control and two SP simulations are conducted for the Beijing "7.21" heavy rainfall event to evaluate improvements in GRAPES using SP. The SP-run-I is a basic SP run delivering microphysics feedback only, whereas the SP-run-II delivers both microphysical and cloud fraction feedbacks. A comparison of the runs indicates that the SP-run-I has a slightly positive impact on the precipitation forecast than the control run. However, the inclusion of cloud fraction feedback leads to an evident overall improvement, particularly in terms of cloud fraction and 24-h cumulative precipitation. Although this is only a preliminary study using SP-GRAPES, we believe that it will provide considerable guidance for follow-up studies using SP in China.

  4. Identification of indigenous yeast flora isolated from the five winegrape varieties harvested in Xiangning, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Guo, Jingjing; Liu, Fubing; Liu, Yanlin

    2014-03-01

    Inoculated fermentation by selected indigenous yeast strains from a specific location could provide the wine with unique regional sensory characteristics. The identification and differentiation of local yeasts are the first step to understand the function of yeasts and develop a better strain-selection program for winemaking. The indigenous yeasts in five grape varieties, Chardonnay, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Marselan, and Merlot cultivated in Xiangning, Shanxi, China were investigated. Eight species of seven genera including Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida zemplinina, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora occidentalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified using Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient medium with sequencing of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae were the predominant species, while most non-Saccharomyces species were present in the whole fermentation process at different levels among the grape varieties. The genotypes of S. cerevisiae from each microvinification were determined by using interdelta sequence analysis. The 102 isolates showed eight different genotypes, and genotype III was the predominant genotype found. The distribution of S. cerevisiae strains during the fermentation of Marselan was also studied. Six genotypes were observed among the 92 strains with different genotypes of competitiveness at different sampling stages. Genotype V demonstrated the potential for organizing starter strains and avoiding inefficient fermentation. In general, this study explored the yeast species in the grapes grown in Xiangning County and provided important information of relationship of local yeast diversity and its regional wine sensory characteristics.

  5. Acetic acid treatments to keep postharvest quality of "Regina" and "Taloppo" table grapes.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Fiori, P; Angiolino, C; Agabbio, M

    2008-01-01

    The most important postharvest pathogen for table grape is Botrytis cinerea (gray mold), which cause a rapid deterioration of fruit. An effective control of the disease during storage is difficult and remains an unsolved problem since no pesticide treatments are allowed by European legislation. GRAS compounds, employed with no restriction as preservatives in Europe and North America, are possible candidates to fulfil this gap. The aim of this work is to study the efficacy of Acetic Acid (AAC), used as postharvest treatment to control Botrytis cinerea on "Regina" and "Taloppo" table grapes, by Laboratory and storage tests. The activity of this compound was first assessed with laboratory tests, treating at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75 and 100 microl/L) of AAC vapors, for 15 minutes, single berries inoculated with B. cinerea. After treatments fruit was incubated at 20 degrees C for one week. The in vivo experiment took place by using the most promising AAC concentrations (50, 75 and 100 microl/L) followed by eight weeks of storage at 5 degrees C and 95% of relative humidity (RH) and four days at 20 degrees C and 85% RH (simulated shelf-life conditions). At the end of the in vivo experiment decay, weight loss and visual assessment were evaluated. Almost all treatments, after eight weeks of storage, reduced the incidence of gray mould. The best results were achieved by using 50 ppm of AAC, gaining a reduction of decay, compared to untreated "Taloppo" and "Regina" grapes of 61.0% and 41.4%, respectively. Following the simulated shelf-life period differences between treated and untreated (control) became no significant for "Taloppo" grape, while the lowest decay percentage was reached with 50 microl/L of AAC for "Regina" grape (52% of reduction if compared to control). Regarding fruit weight loss all treatments did not affect significantly this parameter that ranged between 8.2% and 11.5% after eight weeks of storage and 13.5% and 18.2% after shelf

  6. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  7. 7 CFR 906.13 - Variety or varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variety or varieties. 906.13 Section 906.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... oranges; (d) white seeded grapefruit; (e) white seedless grapefruit; (f) pink and red seeded...

  8. 7 CFR 906.13 - Variety or varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variety or varieties. 906.13 Section 906.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... oranges; (d) white seeded grapefruit; (e) white seedless grapefruit; (f) pink and red seeded grapefruit...

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  10. Solid phase microextraction as a reliable alternative to conventional extraction techniques to evaluate the pattern of hydrolytically released components in Vitis vinifera L. grapes.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2012-06-15

    In present research, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS), was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the commonly used liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique for the establishment of the pattern of hydrolytically released components of 7 Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties, commonly used to produce the world-famous Madeira wine. Since there is no data available on their glycosidic fractions, at a first step, two hydrolyse procedures, acid and enzymatic, were carried out using Boal grapes as matrix. Several parameters susceptible of influencing the hydrolytic process were studied. The best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified components and reproducibility, were obtained using ProZym M with b-glucosidase activity at 35°C for 42h. For the extraction of hydrolytically released components, HS-SPME technique was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the conventional extraction technique, LLE (ethyl acetate). HS-SPME using DVB/CAR/PDMS as coating fiber displayed an extraction capacity two fold higher than LLE (ethyl acetate). The hydrolyzed fraction was mainly characterized by the occurrence of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, followed by acids, esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, and volatile phenols. Concerning to terpenoids its contribution to the total hydrolyzed fraction is highest for Malvasia Cândida (23%) and Malvasia Roxa (13%), and their presence according previous studies, even at low concentration, is important from a sensorial point of view (can impart floral notes to the wines), due to their low odor threshold (μg/L). According to the obtained data by principal component analysis (PCA), the sensorial properties of Madeira wines produced by Malvasia Cândida and Malvasia Roxa could be improved by hydrolysis procedure, since their hydrolyzed fraction is mainly characterized by terpenoids (e.g. linalool, geraniol) which are responsible

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the growing...

  16. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape.

    PubMed

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R; Owens, Christopher L; Brown, Patrick J; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D; Buckler, Edward S

    2011-03-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity.

  17. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R.; Owens, Christopher L.; Brown, Patrick J.; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  18. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; Zhang, Xian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared with those in the C and HF groups. The hepatic level of lipid peroxides decreased significantly in the grape seed groups compared with that in the C and HF groups. Superoxide dismutase activity in the G group increased significantly compared with that in the C group. Catalase activity tended to be higher by feeding grape seeds. The grape seed diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the C group. Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased significantly in the G group compared with that in the C group. Hepatic content of total glutathione increased significantly in the HG group but decreased significantly in the HF group. The ratio of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione increased by feeding the grape seed diet. Total vitamin A concentration was significantly higher in HG group than in other groups. Liver tocopherol content of the G and HG groups was significantly higher than that of the control groups. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with grape seeds is beneficial for suppressing lipid peroxidation in high fat-fed rats. PMID:22413034

  19. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  20. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grape juice processing by-products, namely grape seed and pomace, are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monom...

  1. Vitigene: A database for grape genomics and genetic resources delivery that benefits grape growers and scientific communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new grape genomic database was established for ‘Native American Grape Species’ as a genomic resource (http://vitigene.famu.edu:9082/eclient/ IDMLogon2.jsp). The new database hosts genetic information collected from disease tolerant/resistant grapevine endemic to North America, and is a valuable re...

  2. Comparison of biogenic amine and polyphenol profiles of grape berries and wines obtained following conventional, organic and biodynamic agricultural and oenological practices.

    PubMed

    Tassoni, Annalisa; Tango, Nunzio; Ferri, Maura

    2013-08-15

    The bio-active compounds present in food and beverages have a high potential influence on the future health of humans. The levels of biogenic amines, anthocyanins, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were measured in white (Pignoletto) and red (Sangiovese) grape berries and wines from the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) obtained following conventional, organic and biodynamic agricultural and oenological practices. No significant difference was shown among the samples coming from different agricultural and winemaking practices. Principal Component Analysis was also performed. Biogenic amine amounts were higher in red than in white berries, while in the wines an opposite trend was observed, with histamine, tyramine and putrescine being the most abundant in Pignoletto wines. Red grapes and wines were richer in anthocyanins and showed higher antioxidant activity than white ones. The total level of polyphenols was similar in red and white berries, but with different metabolite profiles depending on the grape variety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Observed changes in SAT and GDD and the climatological suitability of the Poland-Germany-Czech Republic transboundary region for wine grapes cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Błaś, Marek; Migała, Krzysztof; Werner, Małgorzata; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we show how the climatological suitability of wine grapes cultivation of the transboundary region of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic has changed over the 1971-2010 period. Strong, positive and statistically significant trend in sum of active temperatures (SAT) and growing degree days (GDD) is observed. The trend is more pronounced in the lowland areas of the study region. The total acreage suitable for more demanding, in terms of SAT and GDD, varieties of wine grapes is increasing, while the opposite trend is observed for less demanding classes. The observed trends reduce the risk for wine grapes cultivation in terms of accumulative SAT and GDD indices. This shows that the transboundary area of Poland, Germany and Czech Republic shifts towards the climate more suitable for viticulture.

  4. Confidence intervals for modeling anthocyanin retention in grape pomace during nonisothermal heating.

    PubMed

    Mishra, D K; Dolan, K D; Yang, L

    2008-01-01

    Degradation of nutraceuticals in low- and intermediate-moisture foods heated at high temperature (>100 degrees C) is difficult to model because of the nonisothermal condition. Isothermal experiments above 100 degrees C are difficult to design because they require high pressure and small sample size in sealed containers. Therefore, a nonisothermal method was developed to estimate the thermal degradation kinetic parameter of nutraceuticals and determine the confidence intervals for the parameters and the predicted Y (concentration). Grape pomace at 42% moisture content (wb) was heated in sealed 202 x 214 steel cans in a steam retort at 126.7 degrees C for > 30 min. Can center temperature was measured by thermocouple and predicted using Comsol software. Thermal conductivity (k) and specific heat (C(p)) were estimated as quadratic functions of temperature using Comsol and nonlinear regression. The k and C(p) functions were then used to predict temperature inside the grape pomace during retorting. Similar heating experiments were run at different time-temperature treatments from 8 to 25 min for kinetic parameter estimation. Anthocyanin concentration in the grape pomace was measured using HPLC. Degradation rate constant (k(110 degrees C)) and activation energy (E(a)) were estimated using nonlinear regression. The thermophysical properties estimates at 100 degrees C were k = 0.501 W/m degrees C, Cp= 3600 J/kg and the kinetic parameters were k(110 degrees C)= 0.0607/min and E(a)= 65.32 kJ/mol. The 95% confidence intervals for the parameters and the confidence bands and prediction bands for anthocyanin retention were plotted. These methods are useful for thermal processing design for nutraceutical products.

  5. New precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol in grape juice: thiol-forming potential and kinetics during early stages of must fermentation.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Michael J; Benkwitz, Frank; Frost, Andy; Colonna-Ceccaldi, Benoît; Gardner, Richard C; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2013-04-17

    Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA), are key aroma impact compounds in many young white wines, especially of the variety Sauvignon blanc (SB). Although great effort has been invested to identify their precursors in recent years, the origin of the majority of 3MH and 3MHA generated during wine fermentation still cannot be explained. Here we demonstrate that supplying an external source of hydrogen sulfide to grape juice hugely increases its thiol-forming potential. We further describe the discovery of (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as an additional new thiol precursor and demonstrate that it possesses, together with (E)-2-hexenal, an immense thiol-forming potential during fermentation. Both C6-compounds are extremely rapidly metabolized by yeast during the first hours after inoculation, even under commercial conditions, and can be interconverted during this phase depending on their initial concentration in the grape juice. Spiking grape juice with additional acetaldehyde greatly enhanced the (E)-2-hexen-1-ol to (E)-2-hexenal conversion rate. Delaying the metabolization of the two unsaturated C6-thiol precursors by yeast, at the same time as increasing hydrogen sulfide production early in fermentation, opens up a great opportunity to tap into this enormous potential 3MH and 3MHA source in grape juice and extends the possibility of thiol production to other non-grape-based alcoholic beverages as well.

  6. Characterization of phenolic composition in Carignan noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from six wine-growing sites in Maule Valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko

    2017-06-05

    Among Chilean varieties, Carignan noir has had a major resurgence due to its rediscovered wine quality potential. For this, the aim of this study was to characterize phenolic composition of grapes grown in six sites from the Maule Valley. The data showed that myricetin-3-glc and catechin were the most important flavonol and flavanol, respectively. Anthocyanin and flavonol composition was correlated with biologically effective degree days, exhibiting a relationship with grape maturity. Flavanol and hydroxycinnamic acid composition was inversely correlated to the average maximum temperature of the warmest month, showing that their synthesis is favored by cooler temperatures during the warmest month. These results have enological and viticultural interest for grape growers as vineyard site selection for this cultivar can confer differentiable attributes in terms of grape composition and quality. On the other hand, understanding the effects of climate on the synthesis of phenolic compounds may be useful for managing the vineyards with the aim of improving grape quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Influence of processing and storage of integral grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on its physical and chemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Pinto, E P; Lucchetta, L; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-05-31

    Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process. The organic grapes were subjected to ultraviolet-type C radiation (UV-C). Experiments were performed after production and after 6 months in storage. Physicochemical analyses revealed that UV-C irradiation of organic grapes, the juice production process, and storage resulted in nutraceutical alterations. However, none of the juice concentrations were cytotoxic to HTC cells by the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index results or were mutagenic, because the formation of micronucleated cells was not induced. In general, juice induced cell proliferation, possibly due to the presence of vitamins and sugar content (total soluble solid). The data increased the understanding of food technology and confirmed the quality and safety consumption of these juices.

  8. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    PubMed

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Scavenging effect of Indian grape polyphenols on 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical by electron spin resonance spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, Shrirang S; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Ramchandani, Asha G; Bhushan, Brij; Sharma, Arun

    2007-11-01

    Antioxidant potency of Indian grape cultivars varying in their skin color, seed and polyphenol content (Bangalore blue, Pandhari sahebi, Sharad seedless and Thompson seedless) and their components (whole grapes, pulp with skin and seeds) was examined as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity using electron spin resonance spectrometry. The total polyphenols in Indian grapes ranged between 3-51%. Extracted polyphenols caused a concentration dependent and significant loss in DPPH radical signal, similar to known antioxidants-Vitamin C, catechin and procyanidin B3 used as references. Among seedless cultivars, polyphenols from Sharad was more potent as antioxidant than Thompson, showing IC50 values of 1250 +/- 30 and 2650 +/- 125 microg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of polyphenols from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of seeded variety. The results indicate that polyphenols extracted from Indian grapes/ components (with /without seeds) exhibited free radical scavenging activity and their chemopreventive properties need to be exploited by in vivo model system.

  10. Technological properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from grape must fermentation.

    PubMed

    Berbegal, Carmen; Peña, Nuria; Russo, Pasquale; Grieco, Francesco; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a secondary fermentation in wine that usually takes place during or at the end of alcoholic fermentation. Lactobacillus plantarum is able to conduct MLF (particularly under high pH conditions and in co-inoculation with yeasts), and some strains are commercially used as MLF starter cultures. Recent evidences suggest a further use of selected L. plantarum strains for the pre-alcoholic acidification of grape must. In this study, we have carried out an integrated (molecular, technological, and biotechnological) characterization of L. plantarum strains isolated from Apulian wines in order to combine the two protechnological features (MLF performances and must acidification aptitudes). Several parameters such as sugar, pH and ethanol tolerance, resistance to lyophilisation and behaviour in grape must were evaluated. Moreover, the expression of stress gene markers was investigated and was linked to the ability of L. plantarum strains to grow and perform MLF. Co-inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L. plantarum in grape must improves the bacterial adaptation to harsh conditions of wine and reduced total fermentation time. For the first time, we applied a polyphasic approach for the characterization of L. plantarum in reason of the MLF performances. The proposed procedure can be generalized as a standard method for the selection of bacterial resources for the design of MLF starter cultures tailored for high pH must.

  11. Use of dehydrated waste grape skins as a natural additive for producing rosé wines: study of extraction conditions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Miguel Angel; Carmona, Manuel; Salinas, Maria Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya

    2011-10-26

    Dehydrated waste grape skins from the juice industry were used as an additive to produce rosé wines. Maceration time, particle size, dosage, alcoholic content, and maceration temperature were first studied in model wine solutions using two different dehydrated waste grape skins. Full factorial experimental designs together with Factor Analysis and Multifactor ANOVA allowed for the evaluation of each parameter according to the composition of color and phenolic and aroma compounds. Higher maceration time favored the extraction of anthocyanins; phenolic compound release was influenced by dosage independent from other factors studied. Rosé wines were produced by direct addition of dehydrated waste grape skins, according to selected parameters in two different white wines, achieving characteristics equivalent to commercial rosé wines. After three months of storage, rosé wine composition was stable.

  12. What Is a Varieties Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durmuller, Urs

    A varieties grammar (VG) attempts to provide a unifying apparatus for various kinds of language varieties: diatopic, diastratic, and diatypic. The notion of "family grammar" appears to be especially useful in that process since it permits the postulation of a supergrammar for the whole family as well as that of subgrammars for the individual…

  13. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  14. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  15. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  16. Color and polyphenolic stability in extracts produced from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) pomace.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Jorge A; Lee, Joon-Hee; Talcott, Stephen T

    2009-09-23

    The muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) industry of the southern United States is largely devoid of value-added processes that capture the phytochemical content of wine and juice byproducts. Methods to recover and stabilize polyphenolics from muscadine grape pomace following juice manufacture were evaluated in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials. In laboratory-scale trials using osmotic equilibration, water-based extracts from juice pomace initially extracted 31-42% of total polyphenolics, 26-32% of total ellagic acid, and 36-62% of total anthocyanins. When adsorbed onto Amberlite XAD-4 resin to concentrate polyphenolics, these extracts lost 10.5% of their total ellagic acid from inefficient adsorption to the solid phase support. Subsequent pilot-scale trials were evaluated using hot water extracts from grape juice pomace followed by aerobic yeast fermentation to remove sugars and comparison to reversed phase C(18) and Amberlite XAD-4. Extracts were also concentrated using spray-drying and vacuum evaporation. Fermentation had a minor impact on the retention of most polyphenolic compounds evaluated, yet resulted in a 16.3% decrease in antioxidant capacity. Spray-drying resulted in a 30.3% loss in total anthocyanins, a 21.5% loss in total phenolics, and a 23.3% decrease in antioxidant activity, whereas vacuum evaporation had no deleterious impact on these parameters. The physiology of the muscadine grape and its unique phytochemical composition has limited utilization of pomace from wine and juice manufacture. However, these studies demonstrated the potential to extract and concentrate polyphenolic-rich extracts for use in value-added applications.

  17. The effect of boiling on qualitative properties of grape juice produced by the traditional method.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Alpar, Şerife; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2015-09-01

    In this study, grape molasses produced by using the traditional methods from the from Taşkent town of Konya were analysed for their some quality values. Depending on the type of grape molasses and boiling periods, some differences were found in physico-chemical properties. Protein, pH, total acid, hydroximetil furfural, soluble dry matter, total phenol and viscosity values were found between 0.260 % and 0.421 %, 7.82 and 8.35 %, 0.477 % and 0.585 %, 3.312 mg/kg and 6.336 mg/kg, 20.447 mg/L and 25.813 mg/L, 61.5 and 67.0 % and 65.60 mPa.s to 91.75 mPa.s, respectively. Antioxidant activity values were determined between % 86.437 and % 93.395. L* values were established between 20.41 and 55.29, while a* values are found between 8.11 and 18.69 and b* values are between 34.94 and 47.47. The K, Mg, Na, P, Ca contents of all the molasses samples has been detected at high levels. At some quality parameters such as protein, total acid and L* values have been decreased towards to end of the boiling period. As a result, antioxidant activity and anthocyanin in the red grape molasses were superior to compared with other types of grape molasses.

  18. Effect of GA3 Treatment on Seed Development and Seed-Related Gene Expression in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chenxia; Xu, Xiaozhao; Singer, Stacy D.; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongjing; Gao, Min; Wang, Li; Song, Junyang; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Background The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3) is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. Methodology/Principal Findings In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars (‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’), along with a seedless cultivar (‘Thompson Seedless’), following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF), both ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’ seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. Conclusion Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development. PMID:24224035

  19. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    PubMed

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  20. Phytonutrients for controlling starch digestion: evaluation of grape skin extract.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Huan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Cui, Steve W; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the structure-function relationship between grape skin extract and human α-amylase. The grape skin extract was characterised as resveratrol-3-O-glucoside by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, which showed strong inhibition towards α-amylase and the IC50 value was 1.35 mg/ml. The kinetic results demonstrated grape skin extract obeyed the non-competitive mode against amylase. Fluorescence data revealed the ability of grape skin binding to amylase belonged to static quenching mechanism with a complex formation and there was only one binding site in α-amylase for grape skin extract. Docking study showed a best pose with total energy value of -118.3 kJ/mol and grape skin extract interacted with side chain of Asp300 with hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. This preliminary observation provides the basis for further evaluation of the suitability of grape skin extract as natural inhibitor with potential health benefits. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Grape Juice at Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ravika; Jain, Ritu; Sharma, Krishna S.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity of fresh juice of two cultivars of grapes, Sultania (green grapes) and Black Monukka (black grapes) was measured in terms of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over the frequency range from 1 to 50 GHz and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, by using the PNA network analyzer model E8364C and open ended coaxial probe 85070E. The Cole-Cole plots and dielectric constant vs. (angular frequency) dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant vs. dielectric loss factor/(angular frequency) regression lines at different temperatures were used in Debye approximation to predict relaxation frequency of molecules for the two cultivars of grapes in the low frequency and high frequency limits, respectively. It was observed that the acidic character of green grapes is responsible for the large amplitude vibrational peaks in dielectric loss factor - frequency curves, in the high frequency region at higher temperatures. On the other hand, excess of sugar in black grapes suppresses the activity of water molecules, thereby suppressing the vibrational peaks at higher frequencies. Different relaxation frequencies found for the two cultivars of grapes suggest that they have different molecular structure.

  2. Changes in grape phylloxera abundance in ungrafted vineyards.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Karen S; Hoffmann, Ary A; Powell, Kevin S

    2006-10-01

    To examine seasonal changes in the abundance of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), several sampling methods were tested at vineyards in Victoria, Australia. At a recently infested site, changes detected by root assessment, trunk trapping, and emergence trapping were closely correlated, although the largest numbers of grape phylloxera were obtained using traps that collected phylloxera emerging from soil. This trapping technique was further used to investigate changes in grape phylloxera numbers across three different sites from southeastern Australia as well as in three consecutive seasons at the same vineyard. Grape phylloxera numbers decreased as vines deteriorated; a single peak of emergence occurred in every summer. Size and timing of emergence peaks varied between sites and also between vine blocks within a site. The number of grape phylloxera trapped was correlated with degree-days. Monitoring soil temperature may provide a way of timing control options against grape phylloxera and a way of identifying peak periods when phylloxera detection surveys should be completed or when grape phylloxera are at the highest risk of spreading among vineyards.

  3. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  4. Agronomic use of biotechnologically processed grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, J; Páez, G; Mármol, Z; Ramones, E; Chandler, C; Marín, M; Ferrer, A

    2001-01-01

    Grape waste was composted by biodegradation and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer for 20 day-corn. Combinations of recently compressed grape waste and hen droppings (10% w/w) were prepared to study the activating effect of hen droppings and the effect of aeration on the composting process. The final hydrogen potential (pH), %C, %N and C/N ratio, indicated an adequate development of the bioprocess. Satisfactory results were observed when the products were applied at several doses (1,000-4,000 kg/ ha) as a soil conditioner for corn seed germination in greenhouses. Only the addition of hen droppings had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on corn dry matter (14% increase). A dose of 3000 kg/ha was considered as optimal and was used supplemented with triple superphosphate (TSP) in agronomic trials. All the treatments produced greater corn dry matter (P < 0.05) than the chemical industrial fertilizer used as a control (0.52-0.71 g/pot for the organic fertilizers vs 0.45 g/pot for the control). Anaerobic conditions and hen droppings addition significantly produced (P < 0.05) higher corn dry matter.

  5. Control of ochratoxin A production in grapes.

    PubMed

    Ponsone, María Lorena; Chiotta, María Laura; Palazzini, Juan Manuel; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía

    2012-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  6. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Ponsone, María Lorena; Chiotta, María Laura; Palazzini, Juan Manuel; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation. PMID:22778906

  7. [Nixtamalization cooking characteristics of 11 maize varieties].

    PubMed

    Billeb de Sinibaldi, A C; Bressani, R

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, 11 maize varieties were analyzed for their nixtamalization cooking quality. The 11 varieties were grown in the same locality and in the same year. The samples were evaluated for their physical characteristics, such as moisture content averaging 13.3%, average 1000 kernel weight (312.5 g), grain hardness through density (1.28 g/ml) and percent floaters (9.5%). These data indicated that all maize varieties had a hard endosperm which is recommended for the nixtamalization cooking process. The 11 varieties were formed on the average by 5.7% seed coat, 11.5% germ and 82.8% endosperm. The low seed coat content suggest a low solids loss during processing. Cooking quality evaluation was done by applying a standard lime cooking procedure to all varieties. An average solid loss of 3.2% was measured, with 0.8% of seed coat still attached to the endosperm. Water absorption at the end of cooking was 40.8% without soaking and 46.9% at the end of soaking. Nixtamal moisture was 47.9% after soaking and only 41.5% at the end of cooking. Cooking time with soaking for 50% moisture in the grain varied from 69 to 122 minutes at 1500 meters over sea level. The cooked grain was dried with hot air and ground however, the particle size obtained was not as that in commercial nixtamalized maize flour. However, the cooking quality parameters to make dough and tortillas were acceptable, with a penetration index of hydrated flour of 178.6 mm, pH 7.97, water absorption index (WAI) of 3.23 g gel/g flour and 4.11% water solubility index (WSI). All flours from the 11 varieties of maize gave acceptable tortillas as evaluated by physical characteristics and sensory quality. However of the 11 varieties 7 including the control were superior for nixtamalization cooking quality.

  8. Profile of Polyphenol Compounds of Five Muscadine Grapes Cultivated in the United States and in Newly Adapted Locations in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zheng; Luo, Jianming; Huang, Yu; Guo, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yali; Guan, Huan; Xu, Changmou; Lu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenol compositions and concentrations in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes (cv. “Noble”, “Alachua”, “Carlos”, “Fry”, and “Granny Val”) cultivated in the United States (Tallahassee-Florida, TA-FL) and South China (Nanning-Guangxi, NN-GX and Pu’er-Yunnan, PE-YN) were investigated, using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Triple TOF MS/MS). Fourteen ellagitannins were newly identified in these muscadine grapes. The grapes grown in NN-GX accumulated higher levels of ellagic acid, methyl brevifolin carboxylate, and ellagic acid glucoside in skins, and penta-O-galloyl-glucose in seeds. In PE-YN, more flavonols were detected in skins, and higher contents of flavan-3-ols, ellagic acid, and methyl gallate were identified in seeds. Abundant seed gallic acid and flavonols were found among the grapes grown in TA-FL. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of 54 evaluation parameters, various cultivars grown in different locations could be grouped together and vice versa for the same cultivar cultivated in different regions. This is the result of the interaction between genotype and environmental conditions, which apparently influences the polyphenol synthesis and accumulation. PMID:28335440

  9. Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for improved analysis of geosmin and other fungal "off" volatiles in grape juice.

    PubMed

    Morales-Valle, H; Silva, L C; Paterson, R R M; Oliveira, J M; Venâncio, A; Lima, N

    2010-10-01

    Geosmin is a volatile fungal metabolite with an earthy aroma produced in grape products from rotten grapes. The accumulation of geosmin in grapes is caused by the interaction of Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) has great utility for collecting volatile compounds in wine. However, contamination with earthy odours may have occurred previously in the must and novel methods are required for this commodity. In the present report, several parameters of the SPME were evaluated to optimize geosmin extraction. The method permitted quantification of geosmin and other fungal volatiles by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) at very low concentrations. Limits of detection and quantification (L(D) and L(Q)) for geosmin were 4.7 ng L(-1) and 15.6 ng L(-1) respectively. The RSD was 4.1% and the recovery rates ranged from 115% to 134%. Uniquely, haloanisoles were analyzed by using only one internal standard (2,3,6-trichloroanisole) thus avoiding the synthesis of deuterated anisole analogues that are used as internal standard in other methods. The method was used for the analysis of grape juice samples inoculated with B. cinerea and P. expansum. Geosmin and methylisoborneol were the compounds that appeared to contribute most to earthy odours, although other fungal compounds which are claimed to cause earthy or mouldy off-odours were detected (e.g. 1-octen-3-ol and fenchol).

  10. Characterization of conventional, biodynamic, and organic purple grape juices by chemical markers, antioxidant capacity, and instrumental taste profile.

    PubMed

    Granato, Daniel; Margraf, Tiago; Brotzakis, Ioannis; Capuano, Edoardo; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and try to classify the samples from the 3 different crop systems. Results were subjected to ANOVA, correlation, and regression analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). No statistical significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed among juices from the 3 crop systems. Using PCA and HCA, no clear separation among crop systems was observed, corroborating the ANOVA data. However, PCA showed that the producing region highly affects the chemical composition, electronic tongue parameters, and bioactivity of grape juices. In this sense, when organic and biodynamic were grouped as "nonconventional" juices, SIMCA model was able to discriminate 12 out of 13 organic/biodynamic juices and 17 out of 18 conventional juices, presenting an efficiency of 93.5%, while 11 out of 13 non-conventional and 100% conventional grape juices were correctly classified using PLSDA. The use of electronic tongue and the determination of antioxidant properties and major phenolic compounds have shown to be a quick and accurate analytical approach to assess the quality of grape juices. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Profile of Polyphenol Compounds of Five Muscadine Grapes Cultivated in the United States and in Newly Adapted Locations in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Luo, Jianming; Huang, Yu; Guo, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yali; Guan, Huan; Xu, Changmou; Lu, Jiang

    2017-03-14

    Polyphenol compositions and concentrations in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes (cv. "Noble", "Alachua", "Carlos", "Fry", and "Granny Val") cultivated in the United States (Tallahassee-Florida, TA-FL) and South China (Nanning-Guangxi, NN-GX and Pu'er-Yunnan, PE-YN) were investigated, using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Triple TOF MS/MS). Fourteen ellagitannins were newly identified in these muscadine grapes. The grapes grown in NN-GX accumulated higher levels of ellagic acid, methyl brevifolin carboxylate, and ellagic acid glucoside in skins, and penta-O-galloyl-glucose in seeds. In PE-YN, more flavonols were detected in skins, and higher contents of flavan-3-ols, ellagic acid, and methyl gallate were identified in seeds. Abundant seed gallic acid and flavonols were found among the grapes grown in TA-FL. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of 54 evaluation parameters, various cultivars grown in different locations could be grouped together and vice versa for the same cultivar cultivated in different regions. This is the result of the interaction between genotype and environmental conditions, which apparently influences the polyphenol synthesis and accumulation.

  12. Monoterpenyl Glycosyltransferases Differentially Contribute to Production of Monoterpenyl Glycosides in Two Aromatic Vitis vinifera Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Wen, Ya-Qin; Meng, Nan; Qian, Xu; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS A similar trend on accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes was observed in both varietiesTwo VvGT7 alleles mutations occurred at key sites in Muscat blanc à PetitVvGT14 exerted a major role in production of monoterpenyl glycosides in both varieties Terpenoids are the major aroma components and generally exist as both free and glycosidically-bound forms, of which nonvolatile glycosides account for a large fraction in grape berries. Our previous study has indicated that differential accumulation of monoterpenyl glycosides in Vitis vinifera “Muscat blanc à Petit” between two regions is closely correlated to monoterpenyl glucosyltransferase (VvGT14, XM_002285734.2) transcript abundance. However, it has not been determined yet whether this correlation also exists in other Vitis vinifera varieties. This study investigated the evolution of free and glycosidically bound monoterpenes in two Vitis vinifera variety “Muscat blanc à Petit” and “Gewurztraminer” under two vintages, and further assessed the relation between the accumulation of bound monoterpenes and two monoterpenyl glycosyltransferase transcript levels. Results showed that free monoterpenes exhibited three evolution patterns in both varieties during berry development of two vintages, whereas glycosidically bound monoterpenes showed a concentration elevation with berry maturation. The Cis-rose oxide and geraniol were major components contributing to the aroma odors of “Gewürztraminer” grapes while linalool was major aroma contributor to the “Muscat blanc à Petit grain” grapes. The accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes in both varieties was accompanied with the high expression of VvGT7 (XM_002276510.2) and VvGT14. Only one allele of VvGT7 was found in the variety “Gewürztraminer” and no mutation was observed in its enzyme active sites. XB-VvGT7-4 and XB-VvGT7-5 were two alleles of VvGT7 detected in “Muscat blanc à Petit grain.” The mutation on its

  13. Monoterpenyl Glycosyltransferases Differentially Contribute to Production of Monoterpenyl Glycosides in Two Aromatic Vitis vinifera Varieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Wen, Ya-Qin; Meng, Nan; Qian, Xu; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS A similar trend on accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes was observed in both varietiesTwo VvGT7 alleles mutations occurred at key sites in Muscat blanc à PetitVvGT14 exerted a major role in production of monoterpenyl glycosides in both varieties Terpenoids are the major aroma components and generally exist as both free and glycosidically-bound forms, of which nonvolatile glycosides account for a large fraction in grape berries. Our previous study has indicated that differential accumulation of monoterpenyl glycosides in Vitis vinifera "Muscat blanc à Petit" between two regions is closely correlated to monoterpenyl glucosyltransferase (VvGT14, XM_002285734.2) transcript abundance. However, it has not been determined yet whether this correlation also exists in other Vitis vinifera varieties. This study investigated the evolution of free and glycosidically bound monoterpenes in two Vitis vinifera variety "Muscat blanc à Petit" and "Gewurztraminer" under two vintages, and further assessed the relation between the accumulation of bound monoterpenes and two monoterpenyl glycosyltransferase transcript levels. Results showed that free monoterpenes exhibited three evolution patterns in both varieties during berry development of two vintages, whereas glycosidically bound monoterpenes showed a concentration elevation with berry maturation. The Cis-rose oxide and geraniol were major components contributing to the aroma odors of "Gewürztraminer" grapes while linalool was major aroma contributor to the "Muscat blanc à Petit grain" grapes. The accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes in both varieties was accompanied with the high expression of VvGT7 (XM_002276510.2) and VvGT14. Only one allele of VvGT7 was found in the variety "Gewürztraminer" and no mutation was observed in its enzyme active sites. XB-VvGT7-4 and XB-VvGT7-5 were two alleles of VvGT7 detected in "Muscat blanc à Petit grain." The mutation on its enzyme active site inhibited

  14. Application of thermoluminescence measurements to detect low dose gamma-irradiated table grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillano, O.; Román, A.; Deza, A.; Rubio, T.; Espinoza, J.

    1994-06-01

    A major factor hampering the introduction of ionizing radiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to chemical fumigation for fruit and vegetables is the lack of reliable, simple and inexpensive post-treatment methods to confirm this low dose irradiation treatment. Considering this purpose, thermoluminescence (TL) measurements of the wind blown dust naturally adhered to the surface of table grapes, was surveyed. Two doses, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy, were studied, applied to the main Chilean table grape export varieties: Thompson Seedless and Flame Seedless. TL measurements were carried out over 78 days for Thompson Seedless and 62 days for Flame Seedless varieties, both stored at 1 ± 1°C (usual handling of this fruit). TL response fading of dust samples stored at room temperature was also followed over 125 days. The TL response values obtained from the irradiated samples exceeded at least 3 times the highest ones obtained from the unirradiated counterparts. The treatment, even for the lower γ-radiation dose applied, could be properly detected well above the shipping and marketing time for this Chilean export fruit (2-8 weeks). This method also has the advantage of using relatively inexpensive equipment.

  15. Application of statistical downscaling technique for the production of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitán Fernández, E.; García Moreno, R.; Pino Otín, M. R.; Ribalaygua Batalla, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and soil are two of the most important limiting factors for agricultural production. Nowadays climate change has been documented in many geographical locations affecting different cropping systems. The General Circulation Models (GCM) has become important tools to simulate the more relevant aspects of the climate expected for the XXI century in the frame of climatic change. These models are able to reproduce the general features of the atmospheric dynamic but their low resolution (about 200 Km) avoids a proper simulation of lower scale meteorological effects. Downscaling techniques allow overcoming this problem by adapting the model outcomes to local scale. In this context, FIC (Fundación para la Investigación del Clima) has developed a statistical downscaling technique based on a two step analogue methods. This methodology has been broadly tested on national and international environments leading to excellent results on future climate models. In a collaboration project, this statistical downscaling technique was applied to predict future scenarios for the grape growing systems in Spain. The application of such model is very important to predict expected climate for the different growing crops, mainly for grape, where the success of different varieties are highly related to climate and soil. The model allowed the implementation of agricultural conservation practices in the crop production, detecting highly sensible areas to negative impacts produced by any modification of climate in the different regions, mainly those protected with protected designation of origin, and the definition of new production areas with optimal edaphoclimatic conditions for the different varieties.

  16. [The use of dried grape press cake in pig fattening].

    PubMed

    Herzig, I; Tomová, M; Holub, A; Pleskac, Z

    1979-12-01

    In dried grape press cake the content of crude nutrients and ash, overall sugar, amino acids, alpha-tocopherol and gross energy was determined. In biological experiments with pigs (total of 109 animals) 10% of mixture A1 or SOL was replaced by the same amount of dried crushed grape press cake, without affecting negatively the weight gains and consumption of mixtures per unit of weight gain. Nutritional effects of grape press cake are a subject of discussion and comprise three factors: higher content of enrgy (fat and sugars) in mixtures containing press cake, anti-oxidation effect of press cake and the effect of tocopherols on the metabolism of basic nutrients.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthesis and transport in berries of black and white spine grapes (Vitis davidii).

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Fan, Xiucai; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Sun, Haisheng; Liu, Chonghuai

    2016-01-01

    The color of berry skin is an important economic trait for grape and is essentially determined by the components and content of anthocyanins. The fruit color of Chinese wild grapes is generally black, and the profile of anthocyanins in Chinese wild grapes is significantly different from that of Vitis vinifera. However, V. davidii is the only species that possesses white berry varieties among Chinese wild grape species. Thus, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to compare the difference of transcriptional level in black and white V. davidii, in order to find some key genes that are related to anthocyanins accumulation in V. davidii. The results of anthocyanins detection revealed that 3,5-O-diglucoside anthocyanins is the predominant anthocyanins in V. davidii. It showed obvious differences from V. vinifera in the profile of the composition of anthocyanins. The transcriptome sequencing by Illumina mRNA-Seq technology generated an average of 57 million 100-base pair clean reads from each sample. Differential gene expression analysis revealed thousands of differential expression genes (DEGs) in the pairwise comparison of different fruit developmental stages between and within black and white V. davidii. After the analysis of functional category enrichment and differential expression patterns of DEGs, 46 genes were selected as the candidate genes. Some genes have been reported as being related to anthocyanins accumulation, and some genes were newly found in our study as probably being related to anthocyanins accumulation. We inferred that 3AT (VIT_03s0017g00870) played an important role in anthocyanin acylation, GST4 (VIT_04s0079g00690) and AM2 (VIT_16s0050g00910) played important roles in anthocyanins transport in V. davidii. The expression of some selected DEGs was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study investigated the transcriptomic profiles of berry skin from black and white spine grapes at three fruit developmental stages

  18. Effects of grape pomace on the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang-Sook; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Choi, Mi-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grape seeds extract and grape peels extract prepared from grape pomace on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, degree of lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue were investigated in rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet. New Zealand white rabbits were divided as follows ; 1) NOR (normal group); 2) CHOL (cholesterol group); 3) GSH (cholesterol + grape seed extract group); 4) GPE (cholesterol + grape peel extract); 5) GSP (cholesterol + grape seed powder); 6) GPP (cholesterol + grape peel powder); 7) GE (cholesterol + grape seed and peel extract); 8) GP (cholesterol + grape seed and peel powder). Eight groups of rabbits were studied for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, rabbits were sacrificed and the liver tissue were removed. Then, GSH, GPx, GST, CAT and MDA in the liver were measured. In liver tissues, total glutathione contents (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity, which was significantly higher by grape seed extract supplementation. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the serum of rabbits fed grape seed extract or grape peel powder plus cholesterol than in the serum of rabbits fed cholesterol alone. It is therefore likely that grape seed extract prepared from grape pomace functioned as antioxidants in vivo, negating the effects of the oxidative stress induced by 1% cholesterol diet. The grape seed extract was found effective in converting the oxidized glutathione into reduced glutathione, and in removing H2O2 that is created by oxidative stress. The grape peel powder was found to have small influence on reduced glutathione content, CAT and GPX activity, but it increased GST activity in liver tissues, resulting in promoting the combination of lipid peroxide and glutathione (GSH), and further, lowering the formation of lipid peroxide in the serum. Therefore, grape pomace (grape seed extract and grape peel powder) supplementation is considered to activate the antioxidant enzyme system and

  19. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  20. Identification and field evaluation of grape shoot volatiles attractive to female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana).

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong H; Nojima, Satoshi; Hesler, Stephen P; Zhang, Aijun; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Loeb, Gregory M

    2008-09-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from shoots of riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) that attract the female grape berry moth (GBM, Paralobesia viteana). Consistent EAD activity was obtained for 11 chemicals: (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (E)-linalool oxide, (Z)-linalool oxide, nonanal, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, beta-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, and alpha-farnesene. In flight-tunnel tests that involved female GBM and rubber septa loaded with subsets of these 11 compounds, we found that both the 11-component blend and a seven-component blend, composed of (E)-linalool oxide, (Z)-linalool oxide, nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, decanal, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene-D, elicited equivalent levels of upwind flight as freshly cut grape shoots. The removal of any of the seven compounds from the seven-component blend resulted in a significant decrease in female upwind flight responses. In a field trial with these two synthetic blends, traps equipped with either blend captured more female GBM compared to traps baited with hexane only (control), although the number of females caught was generally low. There were no differences in the number of males captured among treatments. Although in flight-tunnel trials, moths readily flew upwind to both grape shoots and rubber septa loaded with the best lures, they landed on shoots but not on rubber septa. Coupled with relatively low field catches, this suggests that additional host finding cues need to be identified to improve trap efficacy.

  1. Spontaneous variation regarding grape berry skin color: A comprehensive study of berry development by means of biochemical and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Carrasco, David; Hernandez, Marivel Gonzalez; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Castro, Isaura

    2017-07-01

    Understanding grape berry development and the metabolism of different classes of compounds responsible for traits like berry's color is imperative to control and improve quality aspects of grapes. A colorimetric, biochemical and molecular characterization allowed the comprehensive description of the pigment-related characteristics of nine berry skin color somatic variants, belonging to four different varieties. Although the observed berry skin color variability was not fully explained by MybA locus, the phenolic profiles allowed inferring about specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways. Data were consistent concerning that grapes showing cyanidin-3-O-glucoside as the major anthocyanin and flavonols with two substituent groups in the lateral B-ring are generally originated by a white ancestor. After retro-mutation, these grapes seem to keep the dysfunction on flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes, which negatively affect the synthesis of both flavonols and anthocyanins with three substituent groups in the lateral B-ring. Overall, the obtained results indicate that the color differences observed between somatic variants are not solely the result of the total amount of compounds synthesized, but rather reflect a different dynamics of the phenolic pathway among the different color variants of the same variety. Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370); Caftaric acid (PubChem CID: 6,440,397); Catechin (PubChem CID: 73,160); Epigallocatechin gallate (PubChem CID: 65,064); Quercetin-3-O-galactoside (PubChem CID: 5,281,643); Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 25,203,368); Malvidin-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 443,652); Peonidin-3-O-p-coumaroylglucoside (PubChem CID: 44,256,849); Malvidin-3-O-p-coumaroylglucoside (PubChem CID: 44,256,988); Resveratrol-3-O-glucoside (PubChem CID: 25,579,167). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unstemmed clusters of such grapes. For the purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, the names of such..., preceded by the words “unstemmed clusters” where applicable. (c) Packing media. (1) The optional...

  3. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unstemmed clusters of such grapes. For the purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, the names of such..., preceded by the words “unstemmed clusters” where applicable. (c) Packing media. (1) The optional...

  4. Methane production from grape skins. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yunghans, W.N.

    1981-10-09

    Methane production from grape pomace was measured for a 50-day digestion period. Gas production was calculated to be 2400 ft/sup 3//10 d/ton at 53% methane content. Microorganisms particularly a fungus which grows on grape pomace and lignin was isolated. Lignin content of pomace was measured at approximately 60%. Lignin is slowly digested and may represent a residue which requires long term digestion. Research is continuing on isolation of anaerobic methane bacteria and codigestion of pomace with enzymes as cellulase and pectinase. The sewage sludge functioned adequately as a mixed source of organisms capable of digesting grape pomace. A sediment from stored grape juice produced significant amounts of methane and represents a nutrient substrate for additional studies on continuous flow methane production. 3 figs.

  5. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  6. Identification of potential protein markers of noble rot infected grapes.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Millioni, Renato; Franchin, Cinzia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Simonato, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    The evaluation of Botrytis cinerea as noble rot on withered grapes is of great importance to predict the wine sensory/organoleptic properties and to manage the winemaking process of Amarone, a passito dry red wine. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of grapes infected by noble rot under withering conditions to identify possible markers of fungal infection. 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed that protein profiles of infected and not infected grape samples are significantly different in terms of number of spots and relative abundance. Protein identification by MS analysis allowed to identify only in infected berries proteins of B. cinerea that represent potential markers of the presence of the fungus in the withered grapes.

  7. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  8. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  9. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  10. 7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  11. Influence of extraction methodology on grape composition values

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work demonstrated similarities and differences in quantifying many grape quality components (> 45 compounds) that were extracted from berries by three distinct preparations, and analyzed by eight spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. All sample extraction methods were appropriate for qualitative...

  12. A summary of recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. K.

    2017-06-01

    The GRAPES-3 experiment is a combination of a high density extensive air shower (EAS) array of nearly 400 plastic scintillator detectors, and a large 560 m2 area tracking muon telescope with an energy threshold Eμ >1 GeV. GRAPES-3 has been operating continuously in Ooty, India since 2000. By accurately correcting for the effects of atmospheric pressure and temperature, the muon telescope provides a high precision directional survey of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity. This telescope has been used to observe the acceleration of muons during thunderstorm events. The recent discovery of a transient weakening of the Earth's magnetic shield through the detection of a GCR burst was the highlight of the GRAPES-3 results. We have an ongoing major expansion activity to further enhance the capability of the GRAPES-3 muon telescope by doubling its area.

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-06-16

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  14. Improvement of grape and wine phenolic content by foliar application to grapevine of three different elicitors: Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Baroja, Elisa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in grape and wine organoleptic properties, being therefore a key parameter in wine quality. Elicitor application constitutes an interesting field of research since it is indirectly involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of three different elicitors on both grape and wine phenolic content. Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and a commercial yeast extract were applied to the canopy at veraison and one week later. Results showed that foliar treatments carried out with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract achieved the best results, increasing grape and wine anthocyanin content when compared to the control. Moreover, the application of the yeast elicitor also enhanced grape stilbene content. In contrast, the chitosan treatment did not have a substantial impact on the phenolic compounds. The results of this study indicate that methyl jasmonate and yeast extract applications could be a simple practice to increase grape and wine phenolic content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the measured parameters were observed among the different varieties. However, the results depict that date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively.

  16. Proteome Biomarkers in Xylem Reveal Pierce's Disease Tolerance in Grape.

    PubMed

    Katam, Ramesh; Chibanguza, Kundai; Latinwo, Lekan M; Smith, Danyel

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a significant threat to grape cultivation and industry. The disease caused by bacterium Xylella fastidiosa clogs xylem vessels resulting in wilting of the plant. PD-tolerant grape genotypes are believed to produce certain novel components in xylem tissue that help them to combat invading pathogens. Research has been aimed at characterizing the uniquely expressed xylem proteins by PD-tolerant genotypes. The objectives were to i) compare and characterize Vitis xylem proteins differentially expressed in PD-tolerant and PD-susceptible cultivars and, ii) identify xylem proteins uniquely expressed in PD-tolerant genotypes. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem proteins from three Vitis species identified more than 200 proteins with pls 3.0 to 9.0 and molecular weights of 20 to 75 kDa. The differentially expressed proteins were then excised and analyzed with MALDI/TOF mass spectrometer. The mass spectra were collected and protein identification was performed against the Viridiplantae database using Matrix Science algorithm. Proteins were mapped to the universal protein resource to study gene ontology. Comparative analysis of the xylem proteome of three species indicated the highest number of proteins in muscadine grape, followed by Florida hybrid bunch and bunch grape. These proteins were all associated with disease resistance, energy metabolism, protein processing and degradation, biosynthesis, stress related functions, cell wall biogenesis, signal transduction, and ROS detoxification. Furthermore, β-1, 3-glucanase, 10-deacetyl baccatin III-10-O-acetyl transferase-like, COP9, and aspartyl protease nepenthesin precursor proteins were found to be uniquely expressed in PD-tolerant muscadine grape, while they are absent in PD-susceptible bunch grape. Data suggests that muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes express novel proteins in xylem to overcome pathogen attack while bunch grape lacks this capability, making them

  17. Consumer Acceptability of Fresh-Market Muscadine Grapes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelly; Sims, Charles; Odabasi, Asli; Bartoshuk, Linda; Conner, Patrick; Gray, Dennis

    2016-10-14

    The objective of this research was to investigate the acceptability of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) genotypes (cultivars and selections) and to correlate overall liking to other quality measurements to determine the main drivers of liking. Twenty-two genotypes grown at the Univ. of Georgia-Tifton Campus were evaluated. Four retail commercial grape genotypes (Vitis vinifera and "Concord") were also evaluated for comparison. Panelists familiar with muscadine grapes used the hedonic general labeled magnitude scale (HgLMS, -100 = strongest disliking of any kind ever experienced, +100 = strongest liking of any kind ever experienced) to rate overall liking and the liking of appearance, flavor, pulp texture, and skin texture. Puncture testing was done to assess grape berry texture, and compositional attributes soluble solids and pH were also measured. The sensory results indicated that the grapes were variable with overall liking scores from 12.2 to 39.6. The factors highly correlated with overall liking scores were muscadine flavor, pulp and skin liking, while a significant negative correlation was found between skin liking and skin texture and mechanical texture measures. The muscadine grapes with the highest overall liking scores were Ga. 5-1-34 and Ga. 2-8-21. Principal component analysis confirmed that grapes with a thinner skin and a higher pH tended to group around overall liking and flavor points. These results indicate that even among panelists familiar with muscadine grapes, skin thickness is a negative characteristic. Breeding for thinner skins may be a positive step in muscadines gaining a more widespread appeal in the fresh fruit market. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Development of glial cells cultured from prenatally alcohol treated rat brain: effect of supplementation of the maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract.

    PubMed

    Ledig, M; Holownia, A; Copin, J C; Tholey, G; Anokhina, I

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of supplementation of a maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract on glial cell development. Glial cells were cultured during 4 weeks from cortical brain cells of the new born offspring in DMEM medium supplemented with fetal calf serum. Enzymatic markers of nerve cell development were measured (enolase isoenzymes and glutamine synthetase). Since alcohol consumption produces free radicals the antioxidant system superoxide dismutase was also investigated. Compared to the decrease found in only alcohol treated animals, all parameters except neuron-specific enolase were antagonized and even stimulated after grape extract supplementation. The effect was more important after only 1 month than 3 months of treatment. Also in the total brain an alcohol antagonizing effect and a glutamine synthetase activation were found. Our data demonstrate that addition of a grape extract to the maternal alcohol diet may partially or completely overcome the alcohol induced retardation of glial cell development.

  19. Bioactive compounds of juices from two Brazilian grape cultivars.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Kelly; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Furlan, Cibele Priscila Busch; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Grape juice consumption may prevent several chronic diseases owing to the presence of phenolic compounds, which have an important role in the reduction of oxidative stress. This study investigated the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of grape juices from two cultivars: BRS-Cora and Isabella. Total polyphenol content (TPC), anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and phenolic profile (high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection--HPLC-DAD-FLD) were determined. BRS-Cora grape juice showed higher concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant potential, than those of Isabella grape juice. A significant positive correlation was found in TPC or anthocyanin contents when correlated with the remaining antioxidant assays. In addition, HPLC-DAD-FLD showed a higher total phenolic content in BRS-Cora grape juice compared to Isabella. The present results show BRS-Cora as a promising cultivar for grape juice production with an improved functional potential. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Grape berry yeast communities: influence of fungicide treatments.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Vesna; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2013-02-15

    The yeast communities colonising grape berry surfaces were evaluated for the influence of fungicide treatments in an organic vineyard (copper/sulphur-based products) and a conventional vineyard (commonly used fungicides). Analysis of yeast abundance and diversity was carried out on grape berries and juice during fermentation, using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Yeast abundance was as generally reported for mature grapes and it was slight higher from grapes treated with conventional fungicides. Initial grape samples showed less yeast species diversity in the organic vineyard compared with the conventional one. In both vineyards, the dominant yeast were Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora uvarum (>50%), respectively, typical species that colonise surfaces of mature grape berries. Metschnikowia pulcherrima was widely found in the conventional samples while it was only occasionally found in organic ones. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only at the end of natural fermentation (conducted in sterile condition), with lower levels in the organic samples. S. cerevisiae strains showed less intraspecies diversity in the organic samples (two genotypes), in comparison with the conventional samples (six genotypes). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-02

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples.

  2. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  3. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  4. Effect of chronic treatment with conventional and organic purple grape juices (Vitis labrusca) on rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Marcia Gilceane; Medeiros, Niara; Lacerda, Denise dos Santos; de Almeida, Daniela Campos; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Cláudia

    2013-11-01

    Serra Gaucha is described as the most important wine region of Brazil. Regarding cultivars widespread in the Serra Gaucha, about 90 % of the area is occupied by vines of Vitis labrusca that is the most important specie used in grape juice production. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of chronic intake of purple grape juice (organic and conventional) from Bordo variety (V. labrusca) on oxidative stress in different brain regions of rats supplemented with high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. A total of 40 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 received a standard diet and water, group 2 HFD and water, group 3 HFD and conventional grape juice (CGJ), and group 4 HFD and organic grape juice (OGJ). All groups had free access to food and drink and after 3 months of treatment the rats were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum isolated and homogenized on ice for oxidative stress analysis. We observed that the consumption of calories in HFD and control groups, were higher than the groups supplemented with HFD and grape juices and that HFD diet group gain more weight than the other animals. Our results also demonstrated that HDF enhanced lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein damage (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, reduced the non-enzymatic antioxidants defenses (sulfhydryl) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, reduced catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in all brain tissues and enhanced nitric oxide production in all cerebral tissues. CGJ and OGJ were able to ameliorate these oxidative alterations, being OGJ more effective in this protection. Therefore, grape juices could be useful in the treatment of some neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative damage.

  5. [Effects of canopy shapes of grape on canopy microenvironment, leaf and fruit quality in greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang-bin; Liu, Feng-zhi; Cheng, Cun-gang; Wang, Xiao-di; Wang, Bao-liang; Zheng, Xiao-cui; Wang, Hai-bo

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three canopy shapes, i.e., vertical canopy, V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy, on canopy microenvironment, quality of leaves and fruits were studied in the 3-year-old grape 'Jingmi' grafted on ' Beta' in greenhouse. The results showed that gap fraction and openness of vertical canopy were significantly higher than that of V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy, and leaf area index, light interception rate and canopy temperature difference between day and night were significantly lower than those of V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy. There was no significant difference between the latter two treatments. The palisade thickness of V-shaped canopy was significantly greater than that of vertical canopy, and horizontal canopy was in the middle. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of V-shaped canopy were significantly higher than those of vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, and those in the latter two treatments had no significant difference. The fruit quality of V-shaped canopy was the best, and that of horizontal canopy was the worst. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that 29 types of volatile aroma compounds were detected in V-shaped canopy, but just 17 and 16 in vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, respectively. In V-shaped canopy, the characteristic aroma in grape 'Jingmi' was higher, except ethanol, trans-2- hexene-1-alcohol, 2-octyl ketone and formic acid ester. The linalool content in vertical canopy and V-shaped canopy was higher than that in horizontal canopy. The nerol content in V-shaped canopy was higher than that in vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, and the leaf alcohol content in V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy was higher than that in vertical canopy. The citronellol was de-tected only in V-shaped canopy. In greenhouse, the fruit aroma of V-shaped canopy grape was stronger, and well reflected the variety characteristics.

  6. Mould and yeast flora in fresh berries, grapes and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Katsoudas, Eugenia

    2005-11-15

    Fresh fruits are prone to fungal contamination in the field, during harvest, transport, marketing, and with the consumer. It is important to identify fungal contaminants in fresh fruits because some moulds can grow and produce mycotoxins on these commodities while certain yeasts and moulds can cause infections or allergies. In this study, 251 fresh fruit samples including several varieties of grapes, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, and various citrus fruits were surface-disinfected, incubated at room temperature for up to 14 days without supplemental media, and subsequently examined for mould and yeast growth. The level of contamination (percent of contaminated items/sample) varied depending on the type of fruit. All raspberry and blackberry samples were contaminated at levels ranging from 33% to 100%, whereas 95% of the blueberry samples supported mould growth at levels between 10% and 100% of the tested berries, and 97% of strawberry samples showed fungal growth on 33-100% of tested berries. The most common moulds isolated from these commodities were Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus (in strawberries), Alternaria, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium followed by yeasts, Trichoderma and Aureobasidium. Thirty-five percent of the grape samples tested were contaminated and supported fungal growth; the levels of contamination ranged from 9% to 80%. The most common fungi spoiling grapes were Alternaria, B. cinerea and Cladosporium. Eighty-three percent of the citrus fruit samples showed fungal growth at levels ranging from 25% to 100% of tested fruits. The most common fungi in citrus fruits were Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium and yeasts. Less common were Trichoderma, Geotrichum and Rhizopus.

  7. Comparative in vitro toxicity of grape- and citrus-farm dusts.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, Val; Pack, Donna; Leonard, Steve; Lawson, Robert; Schenker, Marc; Castranova, Vince

    2007-01-15

    Agricultural workers are exposed to a variety of airborne dusts, including crystalline silica and other inorganic minerals. This study was designed to characterize the organic and inorganic components of agricultural dusts in California grape- and citrus-farm fields and to compare their cytotoxicity using in vitro toxicity bioassays as predictors of pathogenicity. Aerosolized dusts collected from farm fields were characterized by scanning-electron-microscopic energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, trace metal analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. As indicators of cytotoxicity, cell viability, release of alveolar enzymes activities (lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as H2O2 and hydroxyl radical (OH), and lipid peroxidation were monitored after exposure of cells to grape- and citrus-farm dusts or inorganic components of these dusts. In addition, activation of nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein-1 were evaluated at the peak time for response of 36 h postexposure. All toxicity studies were done in comparison with crystalline silica of similar particle size and diameter using the same mass concentrations as farm dusts. The results showed that inorganic minerals in the aerosolized farm dust fractions were mostly composed of aluminum silicates, crystalline silica, and free iron. Crystalline silica used in these studies was more cytotoxic than grape- and citrus-farm dusts. However, in general, citrus farm dust exhibited the greatest ability to generate ROS and induce lipid peroxidation. These results support human epidemiologic studies, reporting an increased incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in farm workers, by documenting the potential of farm dusts to induce oxidative stress and initiate disease development.

  8. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  9. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  10. Brunei English: A Developing Variety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara-Davies, Breda

    2010-01-01

    A considerable amount of time has elapsed since the existence of a distinct variety of English, Brunei English (BNE), was mooted in the early 1990s. A subsequent study conducted by Svalberg in 1998 suggested that BNE was then in its infancy and that its speakers were largely unaware of the differences between it and Standard British English (STE).…

  11. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  12. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  13. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  14. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  15. Anticancer and Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Grape Seed Extract and Other Grape-Based Products1–3

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population. PMID:19640973

  16. Phenolics from purple grape, apple, purple grape juice and apple juice prevent early atherosclerosis induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Décordé, Kelly; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Auger, Cyril; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2008-04-01

    Knowledge of the effects of processing on the antioxidant properties of fruits is limited. We investigated the processing of apple (A) and purple grape (PG) and their juices (AJ and PGJ) in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Five groups of eight hamsters each were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 wk. They received daily by gavage either 7.14 mL/(kg x day) of mashed A or PG, or the same volume of AJ or PGJ, or water as control. Plasma cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, liver superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were efficiently reduced by the fruits and their juices compared with controls, whereas plasma antioxidant capacity was increased and aortic fatty streak area was decreased from 48 to 93%. For each of these parameters, the efficacy was PGJ > PG > AJ > A. The results show for the first time that long-term consumption of antioxidants supplied by apple and purple grape, especially phenolic compounds, prevents the development of atherosclerosis in hamsters, and that processing can have a major impact on the potential health benefits of a product. The underlying mechanism is related mainly to increased antioxidant status and improved serum lipid profile.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of cv. Tempranillo phenology and grape quality within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) and relationships with climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. C.; Jones, G. V.; Yuste, J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze spatial phenology and grape quality variability related to the climatic characteristics within the Ribera del Duero Designation of Origin (DO). Twenty plots planted with cv. Tempranillo and distributed within the DO were analyzed for phenology from 2004 to 2013. Grape quality parameters at ripening (berry weight, sugar content, acidity and pH, and anthocyanins) were analyzed in 26 plots for the period 2003-2013. The relationships between phenology and grape parameters with different climatic variables were confirmed with a multivariate analysis. On average, bud break was April 27th, bloom June 17th, and veraison August 12th. However, phenology during the time period showed high variability, with differences between years of up to 21 days for a phenology stage. The earliest dates were observed in dry years (2005, 2006, and to a lesser degree in 2009) while the later phenology dates occurred in the wettest year of the period (2008). High correlations were found between veraison date and temperature variables as well as with precipitation-evapotranspiration recorded during the bloom-veraison period. These effects tended to be higher in the central part of the DO. Grape quality parameters also showed high variability among the dry and the wet years, and the influence of extreme temperatures on color development as well as the effect of available water on acidity were observed.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of cv. Tempranillo phenology and grape quality within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) and relationships with climate.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M C; Jones, G V; Yuste, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze spatial phenology and grape quality variability related to the climatic characteristics within the Ribera del Duero Designation of Origin (DO). Twenty plots planted with cv. Tempranillo and distributed within the DO were analyzed for phenology from 2004 to 2013. Grape quality parameters at ripening (berry weight, sugar content, acidity and pH, and anthocyanins) were analyzed in 26 plots for the period 2003-2013. The relationships between phenology and grape parameters with different climatic variables were confirmed with a multivariate analysis. On average, bud break was April 27(th), bloom June 17(th), and veraison August 12th. However, phenology during the time period showed high variability, with differences between years of up to 21 days for a phenology stage. The earliest dates were observed in dry years (2005, 2006, and to a lesser degree in 2009) while the later phenology dates occurred in the wettest year of the period (2008). High correlations were found between veraison date and temperature variables as well as with precipitation-evapotranspiration recorded during the bloom-veraison period. These effects tended to be higher in the central part of the DO. Grape quality parameters also showed high variability among the dry and the wet years, and the influence of extreme temperatures on color development as well as the effect of available water on acidity were observed.

  19. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  20. Isolation and purification of two antioxidant isomers of resveratrol dimer from the wine grape by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingjun; Ren, Xueyan; Hu, Ruilin; Yin, Xuefeng; Jiang, Guoshan; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Resveratrol dimers belong to a group of compounds called stilbenes, which along with proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, catechins, and flavonols are natural phenolic compounds found in grapes and red wine. Stilbenes have a variety of structural isomers, all of which exhibit various biological properties. Counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:5:4:5, v/v/v/v) was applied to isolate and purify stilbene from the stems of wine grape. Two isomers of resveratrol dimers trans-ε-viniferin and trans-δ-viniferin were obtained from the crude sample in a one-step separation, with purities of 93.2 and 97.5%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of these two compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. In addition, their antioxidant activities were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant activities of trans-δ-viniferin were higher than that of trans-ε-viniferin in this model. This work demonstrated that counter-current chromatography is a powerful and effective method for the isolation and purification of polyphenols from wine grape. Additionally, the DPPH radical assay showed that the isolated component trans-δ-viniferin exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than trans-ε-viniferin and a little bit weaker than vitamin E at the same concentration.