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Sample records for parameters including cxcl8

  1. Immunological parameters, including CXCL8 (IL-8) characterize cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery diseases.

    PubMed

    Szomjak, E; Der, H; Kerekes, G; Veres, K; Csiba, L; Toth, J; Peter, M; Soltesz, P; Szodoray, P

    2010-04-01

    The most commonly occurring atherosclerotic manifestations are peripheral artery diseases (PAD). Immune-mediated processes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, and affect the diseases outcome. The aim of the present study was to assess various immune-competent cells, cytokines and chemokines in patients with PAD and to evaluate whether the base immunological values reflect the subsequent development of cardio/cerebrovascular symptoms. One hundred sixty patients with PAD were followed-up for 42 months. At the time of enrolment, we determined blood lymphocyte subpopulations, both T-helper (Th)1/Th2-type intracytoplasmic cytokines and soluble cytokines, chemokines. Intracellular cytokines were measured on phorbol-myristate-acetate- and ionomycine- stimulated cells. Lymphocyte subgroups were quantified by flow cytometry, soluble cytokines by ELISA and intracellular cytokine levels were measured by flow cytometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), indicator of atherosclerosis, was also evaluated. The clinical results were correlated with the immune-parameters to assess the input of immune-inflammatory events in the propagation of vascular manifestation. CD4(+) T-cell proportions in patients with PAD with cerebro- cardio-vascular manifestations were decreased, which further reduced in patients with fatal outcome. Of circulating chemokines, IL-8 (CXCL-8) was increased in patients with subsequent cerebro- cardio-vascular manifestations, compared to those without the symptoms, and further raised in patients with fatal outcome. The percentage of interferon (IFN)-gamma positive cells showed clear negative correlation with ABI. We conclude that altered peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokine/chemokine imbalance play important roles in the proinflammatory cascade and reflect disease severity in patients with PAD.

  2. CXCL8 hyper-signaling in the aortic abdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kokje, Vivianne B C; Gäbel, Gabor; Dalman, Ron L; Koole, Dave; Northoff, Bernd H; Holdt, Lesca M; Hamming, Jaap F; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2018-08-01

    There are indications for elevated CXCL8 levels in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA). CXCL8 is concurrently involved in neutrophil-mediated inflammation and angiogenesis, two prominent and distinctive characteristics of AAA. As such we considered an evaluation of a role for CXCL8 in AAA progression relevant. ELISA's, real time PCR and array analysis were used to explore CXCL8 signaling in AAA wall samples. A role for CXCL8 in AAA disease was tested through the oral CXCR1/2 antagonist DF2156A in the elastase model of AAA disease. There is an extreme disparity in aortic wall CXCL8 content between AAA and aortic atherosclerotic disease (median [IQR] aortic wall CXCL8 content: 425 [141-1261] (AAA) vs. 23 [2.8-89] (atherosclerotic aorta) µg/g protein (P < 1 · 10 -14 )), and abundant expression of the CXCR1 and 2 receptors in AAA. Array analysis followed by pathway analysis showed that CXCL8 hyper-expression in AAA is followed increased by IL-8 signaling (Z-score for AAA vs. atherosclerotic control: 2.97, p < 0.0001). Interference with CXCL8 signaling through DF2156A fully abrogated AAA formation and prevented matrix degradation in the murine elastase model of AAA disease (p < 0.001). CXCL8-signaling is a prominent and distinctive feature of AAA, interference with the pathway constitutes a promising target for medical stabilization of AAA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. 99mTc-CXCL8 SPECT to Monitor Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Aarntzen, Erik H J G; Hermsen, Rick; Drenth, Joost P H; Boerman, Otto C; Oyen, Wim J G

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are defined as chronic relapsing immune-mediated disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD exacerbations are characterized by recruitment of mainly CXCL8 receptor-expressing activated neutrophils into the intestinal wall, leading to severe damage. Considering its chronic relapsing character, accurate and timely diagnosis of an exacerbation is pivotal for early adaptation of the treatment and reduction of the disease burden. However, endoscopic evaluation is invasive and associated with an increased risk of perforation. We previously developed a (99m)Tc-labeled CXCL8 preparation in preclinical models including colitis and clinical studies. In this study, we investigate the accuracy of (99m)Tc-CXCL8 SPECT to detect and localize disease activity in a prospective series of patients with IBD. Thirty patients (15 Crohns disease, 15 ulcerative colitis) participated, and 92 segmental pairs of histology and (99m)Tc-CXCL8 scans were studied. Imaging was performed after injection of 400 MBq of (99m)Tc-CXCL8. Planar and SPECT images of the abdomen were acquired at 30 min and 4 h after the injection. The overall sensitivity and specificity on a per-patient basis for the detection of active disease were 95% and 44% for (99m)Tc-CXCL8 scan and 71% and 70% for endoscopy. The degree of (99m)Tc-CXCL8 accumulation correlated to the degree of neutrophilic influx in affected mucosa. Sensitivity and specificity on a per-segment basis, calculated from the 92 segmental pairs, were 82% and 72%, negative predictive value was 81%, and overall positive predictive value was 74%. Specificity could be increased at the expense of sensitivity using different cutoffs. In 74 segmental pairs, overall sensitivity and specificity for endoscopy were 74% and 85%, positive predictive value was 81%, and negative predictive value was 79%. (99m)Tc-CXCL8 SPECT provides a novel imaging technique to target neutrophil recruitment to the intestinal wall, especially in moderate

  4. Human Naive T Cells Express Functional CXCL8 and Promote Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Joel; Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Kryczek, Ilona; Maj, Tomasz; Vatan, Linda; Wei, Shuang; Opipari, Anthony W; Zou, Weiping

    2018-05-25

    Naive T cells are thought to be functionally quiescent. In this study, we studied and compared the phenotype, cytokine profile, and potential function of human naive CD4 + T cells in umbilical cord and peripheral blood. We found that naive CD4 + T cells, but not memory T cells, expressed high levels of chemokine CXCL8. CXCL8 + naive T cells were preferentially enriched CD31 + T cells and did not express T cell activation markers or typical Th effector cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, and IL-22. In addition, upon activation, naive T cells retained high levels of CXCL8 expression. Furthermore, we showed that naive T cell-derived CXCL8 mediated neutrophil migration in the in vitro migration assay, supported tumor sphere formation, and promoted tumor growth in an in vivo human xenograft model. Thus, human naive T cells are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous and can carry out active functions in immune responses. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Regulation of Deoxycholate Induction of CXCL8 by the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Gene in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rial, Nathaniel S; Lazennec, Gwendal; Prasad, Anil R; Krouse, Robert S; Lance, Peter; Gerner, Eugene W

    2009-01-01

    Elevated deoxycholic acid (DCA), mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and chronic inflammation are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). APC status was manipulated to determine whether DCA mediates inflammatory molecules in normal or initiated colonic mucosa. DCA increased steady state mRNA and protein levels of CXCL8 in cells which do not express wild type APC. Steady state CXCL8 mRNA and protein were suppressed when cells with conditional expression of wild type APC were exposed to DCA. Immunostaining did not detect CXCL8 in normal human colonic mucosa. CXCL8 was expressed in adenomatous polyps and adenocarcinomas. CXCL8 expression correlated with nuclear β-catenin localization in epithelial cells of adenomas, but was associated with endothelial cells and neutrophils in the adenocarcinomas. DCA-mediated CXCL8 promoter-reporter activity was elevated in a mutant APC background. Wild type APC suppressed this effect. Mutation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) sites suppressed the activation of the CXCL8 promoter-reporter by DCA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that AP-1 and NF-κB binding to the 5′-promoter of CXCL8 was induced by DCA. The β-catenin transcription factor was bound to the 5′-promoter of CXCL8 in the absence or presence of DCA. Phenotypic assays determined that DCA-mediated invasion was blocked by antibody directed against CXCL8 or wild type-APC. CXCL8 exposure lead to matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) production and increased invasion on laminin coated filters. These data suggest that DCA-mediated CXCL8 occurs in initiated colonic epithelium and neutralizing CXCL8 could reduce the invasive potential of tumors. PMID:19173296

  6. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    SciT

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa; Li, Ying-Yi

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine alsomore » enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization.« less

  7. Epigenetic dysregulation of interleukin 8 (CXCL8) hypersecretion in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    SciT

    Poghosyan, Anna, E-mail: pannagos@yahoo.com; Patel, Jamie K.; Clifford, Rachel L.

    Airway epithelial cells in cystic fibrosis (CF) overexpress Interleukin 8 (CXCL8) through poorly defined mechanisms. CXCL8 transcription is dependent on coordinated binding of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and activator protein (AP)-1 to the promoter. Here we show abnormal epigenetic regulation is responsible for CXCL8 overexpression in CF cells. Under basal conditions CF cells had increased bromodomain (Brd)3 and Brd4 recruitment and enhanced NF-κB and C/EBPβ binding to the CXCL8 promoter compared to non-CF cells due to trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and DNA hypomethylation at CpG6. IL-1β increased NF-κB, C/EBPβ and Brd4 binding. Furthermore, inhibitors ofmore » bromodomain and extra-terminal domain family (BET) proteins reduced CXCL8 production in CF cells suggesting a therapeutic target for the BET pathway. -- Highlights: •A regulatory mechanism of CXCL8 transcriptional control in CF airways is proposed. •There was an increased binding of NF-κB and C/EBPβ transcription factors. •There was enhanced recruitment of BET proteins to the CXCL8 promoter. •Epigenetic modifications are responsible for the aberrant CXCL8 transcription.« less

  8. Glycosaminoglycan-Mediated Downstream Signaling of CXCL8 Binding to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Derler, Rupert; Weber, Corinna; Strutzmann, Elisabeth; Miller, Ingrid; Kungl, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The recruitment of leukocytes, mediated by endothelium bound chemokine gradients, is a vital process in inflammation. The highly negatively charged, unbranched polysaccharide family of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate mediate chemokine immobilization. Specifically the binding of CXCL8 (interleukin 8) to GAGs on endothelial cell surfaces is known to regulate neutrophil recruitment. Currently, it is not clear if binding of CXCL8 to GAGs leads to endothelial downstream signaling in addition to the typical CXCR1/CXCR2 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 and 2)-mediated signaling which activates neutrophils. Here we have investigated the changes in protein expression of human microvascular endothelial cells induced by CXCL8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) stimulation was used to mimic an inflammatory state which allowed us to identify syndecan-4 (SDC4) as the potential proteoglycan co-receptor of CXCL8 by gene array, real-time PCR and flow cytometry experiments. Enzymatic GAG depolymerization via heparinase III and chondroitinase ABC was used to emulate the effect of glycocalyx remodeling on CXCL8-induced endothelial downstream signaling. Proteomic analyses showed changes in the expression pattern of a number of endothelial proteins such as Zyxin and Caldesmon involved in cytoskeletal organization, cell adhesion and cell mobility. These results demonstrate for the first time a potential role of GAG-mediated endothelial downstream signaling in addition to the well-known CXCL8-CXCR1/CXCR2 signaling pathways in neutrophils. PMID:29207576

  9. Rationale and Means to Target Pro-Inflammatory Interleukin-8 (CXCL8) Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Laura M.; Maxwell, Pamela J.; Waugh, David J.J.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that chronic inflammation underpins the development of a number of human cancers, with pro-inflammatory signaling within the tumor microenvironment contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. CXCL8 is an ELR+ pro-inflammatory CXC-chemokine which mediates its effects via signaling through two G protein-coupled receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. Elevated CXCL8-CXCR1/2 signaling within the tumor microenvironment of numerous cancers is known to enhance tumor progression via activation of signaling pathways promoting proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, invasion and cell survival. This review provides an overview of established roles of CXCL8-CXCR1/2 signaling in cancer and subsequently, discusses the possible strategies of targeting CXCL8-CXCR1/2 signaling in cancer, covering indirect strategies (e.g., anti-inflammatories, NFκB inhibitors) and direct CXCL8 or CXCR1/2 inhibition (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, small molecule receptor antagonists, pepducin inhibitors and siRNA strategies). Reports of pre-clinical cancer studies and clinical trials using CXCL8-CXCR1/2-targeting strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diseases will be discussed. The future translational opportunities for use of such agents in oncology will be discussed, with emphasis on exploitation in stratified populations. PMID:24276377

  10. Regulatory mechanisms of betacellulin in CXCL8 production from lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Betacellulin (BTC), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, binds and activates ErbB1 and ErbB4 homodimers. BTC was expressed in tumors and involved in tumor growth progression. CXCL8 (interleukin-8) was involved in tumor cell proliferation via the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Materials and methods The present study was designed to investigate the possible interrelation between BTC and CXCL8 in human lung cancer cells (A549) and demonstrated the mechanisms of intracellular signals in the regulation of both functions. Bio-behaviors of A549 were assessed using Cell-IQ Alive Image Monitoring System. Results We found that BTC significantly increased the production of CXCL8 through the activation of the EGFR-PI3K/Akt-Erk signal pathway. BTC induced the resistance of human lung cancer cells to TNF-α/CHX-induced apoptosis. Treatments with PI3K inhibitors, Erk1/2 inhibitor, or Erlotinib significantly inhibited BTC-induced CXCL8 production and cell proliferation and movement. Conclusion Our data indicated that CXCL8 production from lung cancer cells could be initiated by an autocrine mechanism or external sources of BTC through the EGFR–PI3K–Akt–Erk pathway to the formation of inflammatory microenvironment. BTC may act as a potential target to monitor and improve the development of lung cancer inflammation. PMID:24629040

  11. Potentiation of Inflammatory CXCL8 Signalling Sustains Cell Survival in PTEN-deficient Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Pamela J.; Coulter, Jonathan; Walker, Steven M.; McKechnie, Melanie; Neisen, Jessica; McCabe, Nuala; Kennedy, Richard D.; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Albanese, Chris; Waugh, David J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation and genetic instability are enabling characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PCa). Inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is prevalent in early PCa. The relationship of PTEN deficiency to inflammatory signalling remains to be characterised. Objective: To determine how loss of PTEN functionality modulates expression and efficacy of clinically relevant, proinflammatory chemokines in PCa. Design, setting, and participants: Experiments were performed in established cell-based PCa models, supported by pathologic analysis of chemokine expression in prostate tissue harvested from PTEN heterozygous (Pten+/−) mice harbouring inactivation of one PTEN allele. Interventions: Small interfering RNA (siRNA)–or small hairpin RNA (shRNA)–directed strategies were used to repress PTEN expression and resultant interleukin-8 (CXCL8) signalling, determined under normal and hypoxic culture conditions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Changes in chemokine expression in PCa cells and tissue were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunohistochemistry; effects of chemokine signalling on cell function were assessed by cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, and survival assays. Results and limitations: Transient (siRNA) or prolonged (shRNA) PTEN repression increased expression of CXCL8 and its receptors, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR) 1 and CXCR2, in PCa cells. Hypoxia-induced increases in CXCL8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 expression were greater in magnitude and duration in PTEN-depleted cells. Autocrine CXCL8 signalling was more efficacious in PTEN-depleted cells, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcription and regulating genes involved in survival and angiogenesis. Increased expression of the orthologous chemokine KC was observed in regions

  12. Developmental changes in circulating IL-8/CXCL8 isoforms in neonates.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Akhil; Voitenok, Nikolai N; Akalovich, Svetlana; Shaik, Sadiq S; Randolph, David A; Sims, Brian; Patel, Rakesh P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Fallon, Michael B; Ohls, Robin K

    2009-04-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) is widely expressed in fetal tissues although inflammatory changes are not seen. Circulating IL-8 is comprised of an endothelial-derived [ala-IL-8](77) isoform and another, more potent [ser-IL-8](72) secreted by most other cells; [ala-IL-8](77) can be converted into [ser-IL-8](72) by proteolytic removal of an N-terminal pentapeptide from [ala-IL-8](77). In this study, we show [ala-IL-8](77) is the predominant circulating isoform of IL-8 in premature neonates but not in term neonates/adults, who have [ser-IL-8](72) as the major isoform. This isoform switch from the less potent [ala-IL-8](77) to [ser-IL-8](72) correlates with a maturational increase in the neutrophil chemotactic potency of plasma IL-8. The emergence of [ser-IL-8](72) as the major isoform is likely due to increased plasma [ala-IL-8](77)-convertase activity and/or changes in the cellular sources of IL-8. Developmental changes in IL-8 isoforms may serve to minimize its inflammatory effects in the fetus and also provide a mechanism to restore its full activity after birth.

  13. Pneumolysin-induced CXCL8 production by nasopharyngeal epithelial cells is dependent on calcium flux and MAPK activation via Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Semih; Zhang, Qibo; Pridmore, Alison C; Mitchell, Timothy J; Finn, Adam; Murdoch, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The natural niche of Streptococcus pneumoniae is the nasopharyngeal mucosa and nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci is widely prevalent. Pneumolysin (Ply), a pore-forming protein produced by S. pneumonia, may be important in driving the innate immune response of the nasopharynx. We studied the Ply-induced production of CXCL8 by nasopharyngeal cells and further analysed the mechanism of this induction. Detroit nasopharyngeal cells were stimulated with supernatants derived from bacterial cultures of Ply-deficient, wild-type pneumococci and recombinant Ply, and CXCL8 measured by ELISA. The role of MAP kinase family members in Ply-induced CXCL8 production was analysed using specific inhibitors, NF-κB activity was measured by immunoblot and Ply-mediated TLR4 activation analysed by a CXCL8 promotor luciferase assay. Ply significantly increased production of CXCL8 in Detroit and primary nasal cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that Detroit cells express cell surface TLR4. CXCL8 production was dependent on changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels and also by NF-κB via activation of TLR4, and MAP kinase signalling. Ply induces production of CXCL8 by nasopharyngeal cells using signalling mechanisms involving Ca(2+) mobilisation and activation of MAPK and NF-κB via TLR4. This may be important in regulating nasopharyngeal immunity against pneumococcal colonization. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Constitutive and Treatment-Induced CXCL8-Signalling Selectively Modulates the Efficacy of Anti-Metabolite Therapeutics in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Daniel B.; Wilson, Richard H.; Johnston, Patrick G.; Waugh, David J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to characterize the effect of anti-metabolites on inducing CXCL8 signaling and determining whether the constitutive and/or drug-induced CXCL8 signaling in metastatic prostate cancer (CaP) cells modulates their sensitivity to this class of agent. Methods The response of metastatic CaP cells to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Pemetrexed or Tomudex was determined using cell count assays, flow cytometry and PARP cleavage analysis. Quantitative-PCR, ELISA and immunoblots were employed to determine effects of drugs or CXCL8 administration on target gene/protein expression. Results Administration of 5-FU but not pemetrexed potentiated CXCL8 secretion and increased CXCR1 and CXCR2 gene expression in metastatic PC3 cells. Consistent with this, the inhibition of CXCL8 signaling using a CXCR2 antagonist, AZ10397767, increased the cytotoxicity of 5-FU by 4-fold (P<0.001), and increased 5-FU-induced apoptosis in PC3 cells (P<0.01). In contrast, while administration of AZ10397767 had no effect on the sensitivity of pemetrexed, the CXCR2 antagonist exerted the greatest effect in increasing the sensitivity of PC3 cells to Tomudex, a directed thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor. Subsequent experiments confirmed that administration of recombinant human CXCL8 increased TS expression, a response mediated in part by the CXCR2 receptor. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the CXCL8-target gene Bcl-2 increased the sensitivity of PC3 cells to 5-FU. Conclusions CXCL8 signaling provides a selective resistance of metastatic prostate cancer cells to specific anti-metabolites by promoting a target-associated resistance, in addition to underpinning an evasion of treatment-induced apoptosis. PMID:22590561

  16. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Tumor-derived CXCL8 signaling augments stroma-derived CCL2-promoted proliferation and CXCL12-mediated invasion of PTEN-deficient prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Pamela J.; Neisen, Jessica; Messenger, Johanna; Waugh, David J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired PTEN function is a genetic hallmark of aggressive prostate cancers (CaP) and is associated with increased CXCL8 expression and signaling. The current aim was to further characterize biological responses and mechanisms underpinning CXCL8-promoted progression of PTEN-depleted prostate cancer, focusing on characterizing the potential interplay between CXCL8 and other disease-promoting chemokines resident within the prostate tumor microenvironment. Autocrine CXCL8-stimulation (i) increased expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in PTEN-deficient CaP cells suggesting a self-potentiating signaling axis and (ii) induced expression of CXCR4 and CCR2 in PTEN-wild-type and PTEN-depleted CaP cells. In contrast, paracrine CXCL8 signaling induced expression and secretion of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 from prostate stromal WPMY-1 fibroblasts and monocytic macrophage-like THP-1 cells. In vitro studies demonstrated functional co-operation of tumor-derived CXCL8 with stromal-derived chemokines. CXCL12-induced migration of PC3 cells and CCL2-induced proliferation of prostate cancer cells were dependent upon intrinsic CXCL8 signaling within the prostate cancer cells. For example, in co-culture experiments, CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling but not CCL2/CCR2 signaling supported fibroblast-mediated migration of PC3 cells while CXCL12/CXCR4 and CCL2/CCR2 signaling underpinned monocyte-enhanced migration of PC3 cells. Combined inhibition of both CXCL8 and CXCL12 signaling was more effective in inhibiting fibroblast-promoted cell motility while repression of CXCL8 attenuated CCL2-promoted proliferation of prostate cancer cells. We conclude that tumor-derived CXCL8 signaling from PTEN-deficient tumor cells increases the sensitivity and responsiveness of CaP cells to stromal chemokines by concurrently upregulating receptor expression in cancer cells and inducing stromal chemokine synthesis. Combined chemokine targeting may be required to inhibit their multi-faceted actions in promoting the

  18. CXCR1/2 antagonism with CXCL8/Interleukin-8 analogue CXCL8(3–72)K11R/G31P restricts lung cancer growth by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and suppressing angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Noman; Wang, Bing; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Yingqiu; Li, Qiang; Luan, Xuelin; Cheng, Jya-Wei; Gordon, John R.; Li, Fang; Liu, Han

    2015-01-01

    CXCR1 and CXCR2 together with cognate chemokines are significantly upregulated in a number of cancers, where they act as key regulators of tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. We have previously reported a mutant protein of CXCL8/Interleukin-8, CXCL8(3–72)K11R/G31P (G31P), which can act as a selective antagonist towards CXCR1/2 with therapeutic efficacy in both inflammatory diseases and malignancies. In this study, we investigated the effect of this ELR-CXC chemokine antagonist G31P on human non-small cell lung cancer cells and lung tumor progression in an orthotopic xenograft model. We report increased mRNA levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in human lung cancer tissues compared to normal counterparts. Expression levels of CXCR1/2 cognate ligands was determined by ELISA. CXCR1/2 receptor antagonism via G31P leads to decreased H460 and A549 cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. G31P also enhanced apoptosis in lung cancer cells as determined by elevated levels of cleaved PARP, Caspase-8, and Bax, together with a reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In an in vivo orthotopic xenograft mouse model of human lung cancer, G31P treatment suppressed tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. At the molecular level, G31P treatment was correlated with decreased expression of VEGF and NFкB-p65, in addition to reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. Our results suggest that G31P blockage of CXCR1 and CXCR2 can inhibit human lung cancer cell growth and metastasis, which offers potential therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26087179

  19. Solution NMR characterization of chemokine CXCL8/IL-8 monomer and dimer binding to glycosaminoglycans: structural plasticity mediates differential binding interactions

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Prem Raj B.; Mosier, Philip D.; Desai, Umesh R.; Rajarathnam, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine CXCL8/interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a crucial role in directing neutrophils and oligodendrocytes to combat infection/injury and tumour cells in metastasis development. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers and interaction of both forms with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediate these diverse cellular processes. However, very little is known regarding the structural basis underlying CXCL8–GAG interactions. There are conflicting reports on the affinities, geometry and whether the monomer or dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. To resolve these issues, we characterized the binding of a series of heparin-derived oligosaccharides [heparin disaccharide (dp2), heparin tetrasaccharide (dp4), heparin octasaccharide (dp8) and heparin 14-mer (dp14)] to the wild-type (WT) dimer and a designed monomer using solution NMR spectroscopy. The pattern and extent of binding-induced chemical shift perturbation (CSP) varied between dimer and monomer and between longer and shorter oligosaccharides. NMR-based structural models show that different interaction modes coexist and that the nature of interactions varied between monomer and dimer and oligosaccharide length. MD simulations indicate that the binding interface is structurally plastic and provided residue-specific details of the dynamic nature of the binding interface. Binding studies carried out under conditions at which WT CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers provide unambiguous evidence that the dimer is the high-affinity GAG ligand. Together, our data indicate that a set of core residues function as the major recognition/binding site, a set of peripheral residues define the various binding geometries and that the structural plasticity of the binding interface allows multiplicity of binding interactions. We conclude that structural plasticity most probably regulates in vivo CXCL8 monomer/dimer–GAG interactions and function. PMID:26371375

  20. Haemophilus is overrepresented in the nasopharynx of infants hospitalized with RSV infection and associated with increased viral load and enhanced mucosal CXCL8 responses.

    PubMed

    Ederveen, Thomas H A; Ferwerda, Gerben; Ahout, Inge M; Vissers, Marloes; de Groot, Ronald; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Huynen, Martijn A; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; de Jonge, Marien I

    2018-01-11

    While almost all infants are infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) before the age of 2 years, only a small percentage develops severe disease. Previous studies suggest that the nasopharyngeal microbiome affects disease development. We therefore studied the effect of the nasopharyngeal microbiome on viral load and mucosal cytokine responses, two important factors influencing the pathophysiology of RSV disease. To determine the relation between (i) the microbiome of the upper respiratory tract, (ii) viral load, and (iii) host mucosal inflammation during an RSV infection, nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles of RSV infected infants (< 6 months) with different levels of disease severity and age-matched healthy controls were determined by 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing. The viral load was measured using qPCR. Nasopharyngeal CCL5, CXCL10, MMP9, IL6, and CXCL8 levels were determined with ELISA. Viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates of patients associates significantly to total nasopharyngeal microbiota composition. Healthy infants (n = 21) and RSV patients (n = 54) display very distinct microbial patterns, primarily characterized by a loss in commensals like Veillonella and overrepresentation of opportunistic organisms like Haemophilus and Achromobacter in RSV-infected individuals. Furthermore, nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles are significantly different based on CXCL8 levels. CXCL8 is a chemokine that was previously found to be indicative for disease severity and for which we find Haemophilus abundance as the strongest predictor for CXCL8 levels. The nasopharyngeal microbiota in young infants with RSV infection is marked by an overrepresentation of the genus Haemophilus. We present that this bacterium is associated with viral load and mucosal CXCL8 responses, both which are involved in RSV disease pathogenesis.

  1. Effect of Interferon-γ on the Basal and the TNFα-Stimulated Secretion of CXCL8 in Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Bearing Either the RET/PTC Rearrangement Or the BRAF V600e Mutation.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Mario; Coperchini, Francesca; Awwad, Oriana; Pignatti, Patrizia; Di Buduo, Christian A; Abbonante, Vittorio; Magri, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra; Chiovato, Luca

    2016-01-01

    CXCL8 displays several tumor-promoting effects. Targeting and/or lowering CXCL8 concentrations within the tumor microenvironment would produce a therapeutic benefit. Aim of this study was to test the effect of IFNγ on the basal and TNFα-stimulated secretion of CXCL8 in TCP-1 and BCPAP thyroid cancer cell lines (harboring RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF V600e mutation, resp.). Cells were incubated with IFNγ (1, 10, 100, and 1000 U/mL) alone or in combination with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. CXCL8 and CXCL10 concentrations were measured in the cell supernatants. IFNγ inhibited in a dose-dependent and significant manner both the basal (ANOVA F: 22.759; p < 0.00001) and the TNFα-stimulated (ANOVA F: 15.309; p < 0.00001) CXCL8 secretions in BCPAP but not in TPC-1 cells (NS). On the other hand, IFNγ and IFNγ + TNF-α induced a significant secretion of CXCL10 in both BCPAP (p < 0.05) and TPC-1 (p < 0.05) cells. Transwell migration assay showed that (i) CXCL8 increased cell migration in both TPC-1 and BCPAP cells; (ii) IFNγ significantly reduced the migration only of BCPAP cells; and (iii) CXCL8 reverted the effect of IFNγ. These results constitute the first demonstration that IFNγ inhibits CXCL8 secretion and in turn the migration of a BRAF V600e mutated thyroid cell line.

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Generated COOH-, but Not NH2-Terminal Fragments of Serum Amyloid A1 Retain Potentiating Activity in Neutrophil Migration to CXCL8, With Loss of Direct Chemotactic and Cytokine-Inducing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Gouwy, Mieke; De Buck, Mieke; Abouelasrar Salama, Sara; Vandooren, Jennifer; Knoops, Sofie; Pörtner, Noëmie; Vanbrabant, Lotte; Berghmans, Nele; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Proost, Paul; Van Damme, Jo; Struyf, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is a prototypic acute phase protein, induced to extremely high levels by physical insults, including inflammation and infection. Human SAA and its NH2-terminal part have been studied extensively in the context of amyloidosis. By contrast, little is known about COOH-terminal fragments of SAA. Intact SAA1 chemoattracts leukocytes via the G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor like 1/formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). In addition to direct leukocyte activation, SAA1 induces chemokine production by signaling through toll-like receptor 2. We recently discovered that these induced chemokines synergize with intact SAA1 to chemoattract leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. Gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is also induced by SAA1 during infection and inflammation and processes many substrates in the immune system. We demonstrate here that MMP-9 rapidly cleaves SAA1 at a known consensus sequence that is also present in gelatins. Processing of SAA1 by MMP-9 at an accessible loop between two alpha helices yielded predominantly three COOH-terminal fragments: SAA1(52–104), SAA1(57–104), and SAA1(58–104), with a relative molecular mass of 5,884.4, 5,327.3, and 5,256.3, respectively. To investigate the effect of proteolytic processing on the biological activity of SAA1, we chemically synthesized the COOH-terminal SAA fragments SAA1(52–104) and SAA1(58–104) and the complementary NH2-terminal peptide SAA1(1–51). In contrast to intact SAA1, the synthesized SAA1 peptides did not induce interleukin-8/CXCL8 in monocytes or fibroblasts. Moreover, these fragments possessed no direct chemotactic activity for neutrophils, as observed for intact SAA1. However, comparable to intact SAA1, SAA1(58–104) cooperated with CXCL8 in neutrophil activation and migration, whereas SAA1(1–51) lacked this potentiating activity. This cooperative interaction between the COOH-terminal SAA1 fragment and CXCL8 in neutrophil chemotaxis was mediated

  3. Effect of Interferon-γ on the Basal and the TNFα-Stimulated Secretion of CXCL8 in Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Bearing Either the RET/PTC Rearrangement Or the BRAF V600e Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rotondi, Mario; Coperchini, Francesca; Awwad, Oriana; Di Buduo, Christian A.; Abbonante, Vittorio; Magri, Flavia; Balduini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    CXCL8 displays several tumor-promoting effects. Targeting and/or lowering CXCL8 concentrations within the tumor microenvironment would produce a therapeutic benefit. Aim of this study was to test the effect of IFNγ on the basal and TNFα-stimulated secretion of CXCL8 in TCP-1 and BCPAP thyroid cancer cell lines (harboring RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF V600e mutation, resp.). Cells were incubated with IFNγ (1, 10, 100, and 1000 U/mL) alone or in combination with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. CXCL8 and CXCL10 concentrations were measured in the cell supernatants. IFNγ inhibited in a dose-dependent and significant manner both the basal (ANOVA F: 22.759; p < 0.00001) and the TNFα-stimulated (ANOVA F: 15.309; p < 0.00001) CXCL8 secretions in BCPAP but not in TPC-1 cells (NS). On the other hand, IFNγ and IFNγ + TNF-α induced a significant secretion of CXCL10 in both BCPAP (p < 0.05) and TPC-1 (p < 0.05) cells. Transwell migration assay showed that (i) CXCL8 increased cell migration in both TPC-1 and BCPAP cells; (ii) IFNγ significantly reduced the migration only of BCPAP cells; and (iii) CXCL8 reverted the effect of IFNγ. These results constitute the first demonstration that IFNγ inhibits CXCL8 secretion and in turn the migration of a BRAF V600e mutated thyroid cell line. PMID:27555670

  4. Estimation of nonlinear pilot model parameters including time delay.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.; Roland, V. R.; Wells, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the feasibility of using a Kalman filter estimator for the identification of unknown parameters in nonlinear dynamic systems with a time delay. The problem considered is the application of estimation theory to determine the parameters of a family of pilot models containing delayed states. In particular, the pilot-plant dynamics are described by differential-difference equations of the retarded type. The pilot delay, included as one of the unknown parameters to be determined, is kept in pure form as opposed to the Pade approximations generally used for these systems. Problem areas associated with processing real pilot response data are included in the discussion.

  5. C -parameter distribution at N 3 LL ' including power corrections

    DOE PAGES

    Hoang, André H.; Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Mateu, Vicent; ...

    2015-05-15

    We compute the e⁺e⁻ C-parameter distribution using the soft-collinear effective theory with a resummation to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log prime accuracy of the most singular partonic terms. This includes the known fixed-order QCD results up to O(α 3 s), a numerical determination of the two-loop nonlogarithmic term of the soft function, and all logarithmic terms in the jet and soft functions up to three loops. Our result holds for C in the peak, tail, and far tail regions. Additionally, we treat hadronization effects using a field theoretic nonperturbative soft function, with moments Ω n. To eliminate an O(Λ QCD) renormalon ambiguity in themore » soft function, we switch from the MS¯ to a short distance “Rgap” scheme to define the leading power correction parameter Ω 1. We show how to simultaneously account for running effects in Ω 1 due to renormalon subtractions and hadron-mass effects, enabling power correction universality between C-parameter and thrust to be tested in our setup. We discuss in detail the impact of resummation and renormalon subtractions on the convergence. In the relevant fit region for αs(m Z) and Ω 1, the perturbative uncertainty in our cross section is ≅ 2.5% at Q=m Z.« less

  6. Identification of modal parameters including unmeasured forces and transient effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauberghe, B.; Guillaume, P.; Verboven, P.; Parloo, E.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a frequency-domain method to estimate modal parameters from short data records with known input (measured) forces and unknown input forces is presented. The method can be used for an experimental modal analysis, an operational modal analysis (output-only data) and the combination of both. A traditional experimental and operational modal analysis in the frequency domain starts respectively, from frequency response functions and spectral density functions. To estimate these functions accurately sufficient data have to be available. The technique developed in this paper estimates the modal parameters directly from the Fourier spectra of the outputs and the known input. Instead of using Hanning windows on these short data records the transient effects are estimated simultaneously with the modal parameters. The method is illustrated, tested and validated by Monte Carlo simulations and experiments. The presented method to process short data sequences leads to unbiased estimates with a small variance in comparison to the more traditional approaches.

  7. Power extraction calculation improvement when local parameters are included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Mateos, L. M.; Hartnett, M.

    2016-02-01

    The improvement of the tidal resource assessment will be studied by comparing two approaches in a two-dimensional, finite difference, hydrodynamic model DIVAST-ADI; in a channel of non-varying cross-sectional area that connects two large basins. The first strategy, considers a constant trust coefficient; the second one, use the local field parameters around the turbine. These parameters are obtained after applying the open channel theory in the tidal stream and after considering the turbine as a linear momentum actuator disk. The parameters correspond to the upstream and downstream, with respect to the turbine, speeds and depths; also the blockage ratio, the wake velocity and the bypass coefficients and they have already been incorporated in the model. The figure (a) shows the numerical configuration at high tide developed with DIVAST-ADI. The experiment undertakes two open boundary conditions. The first one is a sinusoidal forcing introduced as a water level located at (I, J=1) and the second one, indicate that a zero velocity and a constant water depth were kept (I, J=362); when the turbine is introduced it is placed in the middle of the channel (I=161, J=181). The influence of the turbine in the velocity and elevation around the turbine region is evident; figure (b) and (c) shows that the turbine produces a discontinuity in the depth and velocity profile, when we plot a transect along the channel. Finally, the configuration implemented reproduced with satisfactory accuracy the quasi-steady flow condition, even without presenting shock-capturing capability. Also, the range of the parameters 0.01<α 4<0.55, $0

  8. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Secreted CXCL1 and CXCL8 Facilitate Breast Tumor Growth By Promoting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Junli; Jiang, Qingyuan; Deng, Jie; Xu, Fen; Chen, Xiaolei; Cheng, Fuyi; Zhang, Yujing; Yao, Yunqi; Xia, Zhemin; Xu, Xia; Su, Xiaolan; Huang, Meijuan; Dai, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Shuang; Yu, Dechao; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Wei, Yuquan; Deng, Hongxin

    2017-09-01

    Autologous adipose tissue or adipose tissue with additive adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) is used in the breast reconstruction of breast cancer patients who undergo mastectomy. ADSCs play an important role in the angiogenesis and adipogenesis, which make it much better than other materials. However, ADSCs may promote residual tumor cells to proliferate or metastasize, and the mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that human ADSCs (hADSCs) could facilitate tumor cells growth after co-injection with MCF7 and ZR-75-30 breast cancer cells (BCCs) by promoting angiogenesis, but hADSCs showed limited effect on the growth of MDA-MB-231 BCCs. Intriguingly, compared with ZR-75-30 tumor cells, MCF7 tumor cells were more potentially promoted by hADSCs in the aspects of angiogenesis and proliferation. Consistent with this, cytokine and angiogenesis array analyses showed that after co-injection with hADSCs, the CXCL1 and CXCL8 concentration were significantly increased in MCF7 tumor, but only moderately increased in ZR-75-30 tumor and did not increase in MDA-MB-231 tumor. Furthermore, we found that CXCL1/8 were mainly derived from hADSCs and could increase the migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by signaling via their receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. A CXCR1/2-specific antagonist (SCH527123) attenuated the angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Our findings suggest that CXCL1/8 secreted by hADSCs could promote breast cancer angiogenesis and therefore provide better understanding of safety concerns regarding the clinical application of hADSCs and suggestion in further novel therapeutic options. Stem Cells 2017;35:2060-2070. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Effect of photobiomodulation therapy on reducing the chemo-induced oral mucositis severity and on salivary levels of CXCL8/interleukin 8, nitrite, and myeloperoxidase in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Daniella Ribeiro Naves; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; de Castro, Eduardo Fernandes; Silva, Geisa Badauy Lauria; E Silva, Larissa Pereira; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Valadares, Marize Campos; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is the most common debilitating complication among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of OM, but few studies have evaluated its biological effects. This study evaluated the effect of PBM on the reduction of OM severity in patients undergoing HSCT and its relation to the modulation of the inflammatory response. Fifty-one patients were randomly assigned to two groups: PBM [submitted to PBM from admission (AD) to D+7] (n = 27) and control (n = 24) [received oral hygiene]. OM severity was assessed daily using the WHO scale. Saliva samples were collected on AD, D+7, and hospital discharge (HD) to measure CXCL8/interleukin 8, using cytometric bead array analysis and nitrite (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) using colorimetric methods. PBM significantly reduced the severity of OM from D+7 to D+11 (p < 0.05). All non-interventional patients (controls) who developed grade 2 or higher OM induced an increase of CXCL8 in saliva (n = 14) on D+7. PBM led to a decrease in CXCL8 on D+7 in 85% of patients, while 70.8% of patients in the control group presented an increase in this chemokine (p = 0.007). NO decreased from AD to D+7 in the PBM group (p > 0.05). MPO significantly decreased on D+7 in both groups (p < 0.05). PBM brought about a reduction in the severity of OM in patients undergoing HSCT, and this reduction was associated with a decrease in CXCL8 salivary levels.

  10. Acidic pH stimulates the production of the angiogenic CXC chemokine, CXCL8 (interleukin-8), in human adult mesenchymal stem cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappaB pathways.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, David S; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Makhijani, Nalini S; Yamaguchi, Dean T

    2008-07-01

    Blood vessel injury results in limited oxygen tension and diffusion leading to hypoxia, increased anaerobic metabolism, and elevated production of acidic metabolites that cannot be easily removed due to the reduced blood flow. Therefore, an acidic extracellular pH occurs in the local microenvironment of disrupted bone. The potential role of acidic pH and glu-leu-arg (ELR(+)) CXC chemokines in early events in bone repair was studied in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) treated with medium of decreasing pH (7.4, 7.0, 6.7, and 6.4). The cells showed a reciprocal increase in CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) mRNA levels as extracellular pH decreased. At pH 6.4, CXCL8 mRNA was induced >60x in comparison to levels at pH 7.4. hMSCs treated with osteogenic medium (OGM) also showed an increase in CXCL8 mRNA with decreasing pH; although, at a lower level than that seen in cells grown in non-OGM. CXCL8 protein was secreted into the medium at all pHs with maximal induction at pH 6.7. Inhibition of the G-protein-coupled receptor alpha, G(alphai), suppressed CXCL8 levels in response to acidic pH; whereas phospholipase C inhibition had no effect on CXCL8. The use of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction inhibitors indicated that the pH-dependent increase in CXCL8 mRNA is due to activation of ERK and p38 pathways. The JNK pathway was not involved. NF-kappaB inhibition resulted in a decrease in CXCL8 levels in hMSCs grown in non-OGM. However, OGM-differentiated hMSCs showed an increase in CXCL8 levels when treated with the NF-kappaB inhibitor PDTC, a pyrrolidine derivative of dithiocarbamate. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Induction of IL-8(CXCL8) and MCP-1(CCL2) with oxidative stress and its inhibition with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in cell culture model using HK-2 cell.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avneesh; Shalmanova, Liliana; Hammad, Abdul; Christmas, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    Renal transplantation can often be complicated due to delayed graft function, which is a direct sequel of ischaemia reperfusion injury. The adverse outcome of delayed graft function is not only short term but the long-term function of the graft is also affected. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of ischaemia reperfusion injury. Reactive oxygen species are the key mediators in ischaemia reperfusion injury causing direct cell damage which also initiate inflammation by inducing chemokines. The presence of inflammation is a marker of severe delayed graft function. However, the effect of oxidative stress on the expression of key chemokines has not been fully established yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the oxidative stress response and the secretion of chemokines in a cell culture model that mimics the effects of ischaemia reperfusion injury in immortalised human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, HK-2. Cells were treated with varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and markers of oxidative stress response and chemokine release were measured. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide induced a significant increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and the levels of the chemokines Interleukin-8 (IL-8; CXCL8) and MCP-1 (CCL2). A dose related increase of chemokine secretion was also observed. The cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at 1 ng/ml significantly potentiated the expression of both IL-8 (CXCL8) and MCP-1 (CCL2) which showed synergistic response in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) strongly suppressed the induction of both IL-8 and MCP-1 when stimulated with hydrogen peroxide and IL-1β. This study demonstrates the potential of anti-oxidants like N-acetyl cysteine in ameliorating the effects of ischaemia reperfusion injury thus suggesting a new therapeutic approach in renal transplantation. These findings can have potential

  12. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients produce higher levels of chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1) and CXCL8 (IL-8).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Judith; Chen, Mei; Hogg, Ruth E; Toth, Levente; Silvestri, Giuliana; Chakravarthy, Usha; Xu, Heping

    2017-02-23

    Infiltrating immune cells including monocytes/macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the cytokine and chemokine expression and secretion profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from nAMD patients and the relationship between the cytokine/chemokine expression profile and clinical phenotype of nAMD, including macular fibrosis, macular atrophy or the responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy. One hundred sixty-one nAMD patients and 43 controls were enrolled in this study. nAMD patients were divided into subgroups based on the presence/absence of (1) macular atrophy, (2) macular fibrosis and (3) responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy; 25-30 ml of peripheral blood were obtained from all participants and 5 ml were used for serum collection, and the remaining were used for PBMC isolation using density gradient centrifugation. Intracellular cytokine expressions by PBMCs following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin stimulation were examined using flow cytometry. Cytokine productions in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-or 1% oxygen -treated PBMC were measured using cytometric bead array (CBA) assay. In addition, cytokine and chemokine levels in the serum were also measured by CBA assay. PBMCs from nAMD patients secreted higher levels of IL-8, CCL2 and VEGF, especially following LPS and 1% oxygen stimulation, than those from controls. 60~80% of IL-8 producing cells were CD11b + CD3 - monocytes. The percentage of CD11b + CD3 - IL-8 + was significantly increased in nAMD patients compared to controls. PBMCs from nAMD patients without macular fibrosis produced the highest levels of IL-8 and CCL2, whilst PBMCs from nAMD patients with macular atrophy produced highest levels of VEGF. In addition, PBMCs from patients who partially responded to anti-VEGF produced higher levels of IL-8 compared to the cells from complete responders. Interestingly, serum level

  13. Effects of peritoneal fluid from endometriosis patients on interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (CXCL10) and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) released by neutrophils and CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Joo, Jong-Kil; Jin, Jun-O; Wang, Ji-Won; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kwak, Jong-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2009-09-01

    Intraperitoneal immuno-inflammatory changes may be associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis. We evaluated the effects of peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with endometriosis (ePF) on the release of interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) by neutrophils, CD4(+) T cells, and monocytes. Neutrophils, CD4(+) T cells, and monocytes were cultured with ePF and the chemokine levels in the supernatants were then measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The addition of ePF to cultures of CD4(+) T cells led to a significant increase in the release of IP-10 when compared with control PF without endometriosis (cPF). There was a positive correlation between the levels of IL-8 and IP-10 in ePF (R = 0.89, P = 0.041), but not between the levels of IP-10 and IL-8 released by neutrophils, CD4(+) T cells, and monocytes. The levels of IP-10 in ePF were positively correlated with the release of IP-10 by ePF-treated neutrophils (R = 0.89, P < 0.001), CD4(+) T cells (R = 0.93, P < 0.001), and monocytes (R = 0.70, P = 0.01). Moreover, the addition of ePF significantly enhanced the interferon-gamma-induced release of IP-10 by nuetrophils and CD4(+) T cells. These findings suggest that neutrophils and T cells release differential levels of IP-10 and IL-8 in response to stimulation with ePF, and that these cells are a major source of IP-10 in the PF of endometriosis patients.

  14. Changes in bone mineral metabolism parameters, including FGF23, after discontinuing cinacalcet at kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barros, Xoana; Fuster, David; Paschoalin, Raphael; Oppenheimer, Federico; Rubello, Domenico; Perlaza, Pilar; Pons, Francesca; Torregrosa, Jose V

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of the administration of cinacalcet in dialytic patients who are scheduled for kidney transplantation, and in particular about the changes in FGF23 and other mineral metabolism parameters after surgery compared with recipients not on cinacalcet at kidney transplantation. We performed a prospective observational cohort study with recruitment of consecutive kidney transplant recipients at our institution. Patients were classified according to whether they were under treatment with cinacalcet before transplantation. Bone mineral metabolism parameters, including C-terminal FGF23, were measured at baseline, on day 15, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation. In previously cinacalcet-treated patients, cinacalcet therapy was discontinued on the day of surgery and was not restarted after transplantation. A total of 48 kidney transplant recipients, 20 on cinacalcet at surgery and 28 cinacalcet non-treated patients, completed the follow-up. Serum phosphate declined significantly in the first 15 days after transplantation with no differences between the two groups, whereas cinacalcet-treated patients showed higher FGF23 levels, although not significant. After transplantation, PTH and serum calcium were significantly higher in cinacalcet-treated patients. We conclude that patients receiving cinacalcet on dialysis presented similar serum phosphate levels but higher PTH and serum calcium levels during the initial six months after kidney transplantation than cinacalcet non-treated patients. The group previously treated with cinacalcet before transplantation showed higher FGF23 levels without significant differences, so further studies should investigate its relevance in the management of these patients.

  15. HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

  16. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass traits and visual scores including or not genomic information.

    PubMed

    Gordo, D G M; Espigolan, R; Tonussi, R L; Júnior, G A F; Bresolin, T; Magalhães, A F Braga; Feitosa, F L; Baldi, F; Carvalheiro, R; Tonhati, H; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; de Albuquerque, L G

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether visual scores used as selection criteria in Nellore breeding programs are effective indicators of carcass traits measured after slaughter. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of different structures of the relationship matrix ( and ) on the estimation of genetic parameters and on the prediction accuracy of breeding values. There were 13,524 animals for visual scores of conformation (CS), finishing precocity (FP), and muscling (MS) and 1,753, 1,747, and 1,564 for LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and HCW, respectively. Of these, 1,566 animals were genotyped using a high-density panel containing 777,962 SNP. Six analyses were performed using multitrait animal models, each including the 3 visual scores and 1 carcass trait. For the visual scores, the model included direct additive genetic and residual random effects and the fixed effects of contemporary group (defined by year of birth, management group at yearling, and farm) and the linear effect of age of animal at yearling. The same model was used for the carcass traits, replacing the effect of age of animal at yearling with the linear effect of age of animal at slaughter. The variance and covariance components were estimated by the REML method in analyses using the numerator relationship matrix () or combining the genomic and the numerator relationship matrices (). The heritability estimates for the visual scores obtained with the 2 methods were similar and of moderate magnitude (0.23-0.34), indicating that these traits should response to direct selection. The heritabilities for LMA, BF, and HCW were 0.13, 0.07, and 0.17, respectively, using matrix and 0.29, 0.16, and 0.23, respectively, using matrix . The genetic correlations between the visual scores and carcass traits were positive, and higher correlations were generally obtained when matrix was used. Considering the difficulties and cost of measuring carcass traits postmortem, visual scores of

  17. Parameters of metabolic quantification in clinical practice. Is it now time to include them in reports?

    PubMed

    Mucientes, J; Calles, L; Rodríguez, B; Mitjavila, M

    2018-01-18

    Qualitative techniques have traditionally been the standard for the diagnostic assessment with 18 F-FDG PET studies. Since the introduction of the technique, quantitative parameters have been sought, more accurate and with better diagnostic precision, that may offer relevant information of the behavior, aggressiveness or prognosis of tumors. Nowadays, more and more studies with high quality evidence show the utility of other metabolic parameters different from the SUV maximum, which despite being widely used in clinical practice is controversial and many physicians still do not know its real meaning. The objective of this paper has been to review the key concepts of these metabolic parameters that could be relevant in normal practice in the future. It has been seen that there is more evidence in the complete evaluation of the metabolism of a lesion, through volumetric parameters that more adequately reflect the patient's tumor burden. Basically, these parameters calculate the volume of tumor that fulfills certain characteristics. A software available in the majority of the workstations has been used for this purpose and it has allowed to calculate these volumes using more or less complex criteria. The simplest threshold-based segmentation methods are available in most equipments, they are easy to calculate and they have been shown in many studies to have an important prognostic significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) including a critical cavity size ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquier, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) has been developed to predict the packing density of mixtures constituted by bidisperse spherical particles. The four parameters are: the wall effect and the loosening effect coefficients, the compaction index and a critical cavity size ratio. The two geometrical interactions have been studied theoretically on the basis of a spherical cell centered on a secondary class bead. For the loosening effect, a critical cavity size ratio, below which a fine particle can be inserted into a small cavity created by touching coarser particles, is introduced. This is the only parameter which requires adaptation to extend the model to other types of particles. The 4-parameter CPM demonstrates its efficiency on frictionless glass beads (300 values), spherical particles numerically simulated (20 values), round natural particles (125 values) and crushed particles (335 values) with correlation coefficients equal to respectively 99.0%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 96.4% and mean deviations equal to respectively 0.007, 0.006, 0.007, 0.010.

  19. Characteristic parameters of superconductor-coolant interaction including high Tc current density limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.

    1989-01-01

    In the area of basic mechanisms of helium heat transfer and related influence on super-conducting magnet stability, thermal boundary conditions are important constraints. Characteristic lengths are considered along with other parameters of the superconducting composite-coolant system. Based on helium temperature range developments, limiting critical current densities are assessed at low fields for high transition temperature superconductors.

  20. A concentrated parameter model for the human cardiovascular system including heart valve dynamics and atrioventricular interaction.

    PubMed

    Korakianitis, Theodosios; Shi, Yubing

    2006-09-01

    Numerical modeling of the human cardiovascular system has always been an active research direction since the 19th century. In the past, various simulation models of different complexities were proposed for different research purposes. In this paper, an improved numerical model to study the dynamic function of the human circulation system is proposed. In the development of the mathematical model, the heart chambers are described with a variable elastance model. The systemic and pulmonary loops are described based on the resistance-compliance-inertia concept by considering local effects of flow friction, elasticity of blood vessels and inertia of blood in different segments of the blood vessels. As an advancement from previous models, heart valve dynamics and atrioventricular interaction, including atrial contraction and motion of the annulus fibrosus, are specifically modeled. With these improvements the developed model can predict several important features that were missing in previous numerical models, including regurgitant flow on heart valve closure, the value of E/A velocity ratio in mitral flow, the motion of the annulus fibrosus (called the KG diaphragm pumping action), etc. These features have important clinical meaning and their changes are often related to cardiovascular diseases. Successful simulation of these features enhances the accuracy of simulations of cardiovascular dynamics, and helps in clinical studies of cardiac function.

  1. Systems and methods for measuring a parameter of a landfill including a barrier cap and wireless sensor systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.

    2007-03-06

    A method of measuring a parameter of a landfill including a cap, without passing wires through the cap, includes burying a sensor apparatus in the landfill prior to closing the landfill with the cap; providing a reader capable of communicating with the sensor apparatus via radio frequency (RF); placing an antenna above the barrier, spaced apart from the sensor apparatus; coupling the antenna to the reader either before or after placing the antenna above the barrier; providing power to the sensor apparatus, via the antenna, by generating a field using the reader; accumulating and storing power in the sensor apparatus; sensing a parameter of the landfill using the sensor apparatus while using power; and transmitting the sensed parameter to the reader via a wireless response signal. A system for measuring a parameter of a landfill is also provided.

  2. Estimation of genetic parameters for heat stress, including dominance gene effects, on milk yield in Thai Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2015-03-01

    Heat stress in tropical regions is a major cause that strongly negatively affects to milk production in dairy cattle. Genetic selection for dairy heat tolerance is powerful technique to improve genetic performance. Therefore, the current study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and investigate the threshold point of heat stress for milk yield. Data included 52 701 test-day milk yield records for the first parity from 6247 Thai Holstein dairy cattle, covering the period 1990 to 2007. The random regression test day model with EM-REML was used to estimate variance components, genetic parameters and milk production loss. A decline in milk production was found when temperature and humidity index (THI) exceeded a threshold of 74, also it was associated with the high percentage of Holstein genetics. All variance component estimates increased with THI. The estimate of heritability of test-day milk yield was 0.231. Dominance variance as a proportion to additive variance (0.035) indicated that non-additive effects might not be of concern for milk genetics studies in Thai Holstein cattle. Correlations between genetic and permanent environmental effects, for regular conditions and due to heat stress, were - 0.223 and - 0.521, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlations from this study show that simultaneous selection for milk production and heat tolerance is possible. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Neutrino masses and cosmological parameters from a Euclid-like survey: Markov Chain Monte Carlo forecasts including theoretical errors

    SciT

    Audren, Benjamin; Lesgourgues, Julien; Bird, Simeon

    2013-01-01

    We present forecasts for the accuracy of determining the parameters of a minimal cosmological model and the total neutrino mass based on combined mock data for a future Euclid-like galaxy survey and Planck. We consider two different galaxy surveys: a spectroscopic redshift survey and a cosmic shear survey. We make use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC) technique and assume two sets of theoretical errors. The first error is meant to account for uncertainties in the modelling of the effect of neutrinos on the non-linear galaxy power spectrum and we assume this error to be fully correlated in Fouriermore » space. The second error is meant to parametrize the overall residual uncertainties in modelling the non-linear galaxy power spectrum at small scales, and is conservatively assumed to be uncorrelated and to increase with the ratio of a given scale to the scale of non-linearity. It hence increases with wavenumber and decreases with redshift. With these two assumptions for the errors and assuming further conservatively that the uncorrelated error rises above 2% at k = 0.4 h/Mpc and z = 0.5, we find that a future Euclid-like cosmic shear/galaxy survey achieves a 1-σ error on M{sub ν} close to 32 meV/25 meV, sufficient for detecting the total neutrino mass with good significance. If the residual uncorrelated errors indeed rises rapidly towards smaller scales in the non-linear regime as we have assumed here then the data on non-linear scales does not increase the sensitivity to the total neutrino mass. Assuming instead a ten times smaller theoretical error with the same scale dependence, the error on the total neutrino mass decreases moderately from σ(M{sub ν}) = 18 meV to 14 meV when mildly non-linear scales with 0.1 h/Mpc < k < 0.6 h/Mpc are included in the analysis of the galaxy survey data.« less

  4. Including gauge-group parameters into the theory of interactions: an alternative mass-generating mechanism for gauge fields

    SciT

    Aldaya, V.; Lopez-Ruiz, F. F.; Sanchez-Sastre, E.

    2006-11-03

    We reformulate the gauge theory of interactions by introducing the gauge group parameters into the model. The dynamics of the new 'Goldstone-like' bosons is accomplished through a non-linear {sigma}-model Lagrangian. They are minimally coupled according to a proper prescription which provides mass terms to the intermediate vector bosons without spoiling gauge invariance. The present formalism is explicitly applied to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions.

  5. Migration of antioxidants from polylactic acid films, a parameter estimation approach: Part I - A model including convective mass transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Burgess, Gary; Dolan, Kirk; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    A two-step solution based on the boundary conditions of Crank's equations for mass transfer in a film was developed. Three driving factors, the diffusion (D), partition (K p,f ) and convective mass transfer coefficients (h), govern the sorption and/or desorption kinetics of migrants from polymer films. These three parameters were simultaneously estimated. They provide in-depth insight into the physics of a migration process. The first step was used to find the combination of D, K p,f and h that minimized the sums of squared errors (SSE) between the predicted and actual results. In step 2, an ordinary least square (OLS) estimation was performed by using the proposed analytical solution containing D, K p,f and h. Three selected migration studies of PLA/antioxidant-based films were used to demonstrate the use of this two-step solution. Additional parameter estimation approaches such as sequential and bootstrap were also performed to acquire a better knowledge about the kinetics of migration. The proposed model successfully provided the initial guesses for D, K p,f and h. The h value was determined without performing a specific experiment for it. By determining h together with D, under or overestimation issues pertaining to a migration process can be avoided since these two parameters are correlated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Preload Alterations on Left Ventricular Systolic Parameters Including Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography Radial Strain During General Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ulrike; Base, Eva; Ristl, Robin; Mora, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Frequently used parameters for evaluation of left ventricular systolic function are load-sensitive. However, the impact of preload alterations on speckle-tracking echocardiographic parameters during anesthesia has not been validated. Therefore, two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography radial strain (RS) was assessed during general anesthesia, simulating 3 different preload conditions. Single-center prospective observational study. University hospital. Thirty-three patients with normal left ventricular systolic function undergoing major surgery. Transgastric views of the midpapillary level of the left ventricle were acquired at 3 different positions. Fractional shortening (FS), fractional area change (FAC), and 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography RS were analyzed in the transgastric midpapillary view. Considerable correlation above 0.5 was found for FAC and FS in the zero and Trendelenburg positions (r = 0.629, r = 0.587), and for RS and FAC in the anti-Trendelenburg position (r = 0.518). In the repeated-measures analysis, significant differences among the values measured at the 3 positions were found for FAC and FS. For FAC, there were differences up to 2.8 percentage points between the anti-Trendelenburg position and the other 2 positions. For FS, only the difference between position zero and anti-Trendelenburg was significant, with an observed change of 1.66. Two-dimensional RS was not significantly different at all positions, with observed changes below 1 percentage point. Alterations in preload did not result in clinically relevant changes of RS, FS, or FAC. Observed changes for RS were smallest; however, the variation of RS was larger than that of FS or FAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Antibiotics: Tylvalosin Induces Apoptosis of Porcine Neutrophils and Macrophages, Promotes Efferocytosis, and Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory CXCL-8, IL1α, and LTB4 Production, While Inducing the Release of Pro-Resolving Lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1.

    PubMed

    Moges, Ruth; De Lamache, Dimitri Desmonts; Sajedy, Saman; Renaux, Bernard S; Hollenberg, Morley D; Muench, Gregory; Abbott, Elizabeth M; Buret, Andre G

    2018-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of neutrophils and their uncontrolled death by necrosis at the site of inflammation exacerbates inflammatory responses and leads to self-amplifying tissue injury and loss of organ function, as exemplified in a variety of respiratory diseases. In homeostasis, neutrophils are inactivated by apoptosis, and non phlogistically removed by neighboring macrophages in a process known as efferocytosis, which promotes the resolution of inflammation. The present study assessed the potential anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution benefits of tylvalosin, a recently developed broad-spectrum veterinary macrolide derived from tylosin. Recent findings indicate that tylvalosin may modulate inflammation by suppressing NF-κB activation. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from fresh blood samples obtained from 12- to 22-week-old pigs. Leukocytes exposed to vehicle or to tylvalosin (0.1, 1.0, or 10 µg/mL; 0.096-9.6 µM) were assessed at various time points for apoptosis, necrosis, efferocytosis, and changes in the production of cytokines and lipid mediators. The findings indicate that tylvalosin increases porcine neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, without altering levels of necrosis or reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, tylvalosin increased the release of pro-resolving Lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) and Resolvin D1 (RvD 1 ) while inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory Leukotriene B4 (LTB 4 ) in Ca 2+ ionophore-stimulated porcine neutrophils. Tylvalosin increased neutrophil phospholipase C activity, an enzyme involved in releasing arachidonic acid from membrane stores. Tylvalosin also inhibited pro-inflammatory chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL-8, also known as Interleukin-8) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) protein secretion in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Together, these data illustrate that tylvalosin has potent immunomodulatory effects in porcine

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Antibiotics: Tylvalosin Induces Apoptosis of Porcine Neutrophils and Macrophages, Promotes Efferocytosis, and Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory CXCL-8, IL1α, and LTB4 Production, While Inducing the Release of Pro-Resolving Lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1

    PubMed Central

    Moges, Ruth; De Lamache, Dimitri Desmonts; Sajedy, Saman; Renaux, Bernard S.; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Muench, Gregory; Abbott, Elizabeth M.; Buret, Andre G.

    2018-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of neutrophils and their uncontrolled death by necrosis at the site of inflammation exacerbates inflammatory responses and leads to self-amplifying tissue injury and loss of organ function, as exemplified in a variety of respiratory diseases. In homeostasis, neutrophils are inactivated by apoptosis, and non phlogistically removed by neighboring macrophages in a process known as efferocytosis, which promotes the resolution of inflammation. The present study assessed the potential anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution benefits of tylvalosin, a recently developed broad-spectrum veterinary macrolide derived from tylosin. Recent findings indicate that tylvalosin may modulate inflammation by suppressing NF-κB activation. Neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages were isolated from fresh blood samples obtained from 12- to 22-week-old pigs. Leukocytes exposed to vehicle or to tylvalosin (0.1, 1.0, or 10 µg/mL; 0.096–9.6 µM) were assessed at various time points for apoptosis, necrosis, efferocytosis, and changes in the production of cytokines and lipid mediators. The findings indicate that tylvalosin increases porcine neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, without altering levels of necrosis or reactive oxygen species production. Importantly, tylvalosin increased the release of pro-resolving Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and Resolvin D1 (RvD1) while inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in Ca2+ ionophore-stimulated porcine neutrophils. Tylvalosin increased neutrophil phospholipase C activity, an enzyme involved in releasing arachidonic acid from membrane stores. Tylvalosin also inhibited pro-inflammatory chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL-8, also known as Interleukin-8) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) protein secretion in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Together, these data illustrate that tylvalosin has potent immunomodulatory effects in porcine

  9. Impact of large volume paracentesis on respiratory parameters including transpulmonary pressure and on transpulmonary thermodilution derived hemodynamics: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Ulrich; Karsten, Eugen; Lahmer, Tobias; Rasch, Sebastian; Thies, Philipp; Henschel, Benedikt; Fischer, Gerrit; Schmid, Roland M.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate mechanical ventilation and prevention of alveolar collaps is mainly dependent on transpulmonary pressure TPP. TPP is assessed by measurement of esophageal pressure EP, largely influenced by pleural and intraabdominal pressure IAP. Consecutively, TPP-guided ventilation might be particularly useful in patients with high IAP. This study investigates the impact of large volume paracentesis LVP on TPP, EP, IAP as well as on hemodynamic and respiratory function in patients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites. Material and methods We analysed 23 LVP-procedures in 11 cirrhotic patients ventilated with the AVEA Viasys respirator (CareFusion, USA) which is capable to measure EP via an esophageal tube. Results LVP of a mean volume of 4826±1276 mL of ascites resulted in marked increases in inspiratory (17.9±8.9 vs. 5.4±13.3 cmH2O; p<0.001) as well as expiratory TPP (-3.0±4.7 vs. -15.9±10.9 cmH2O; p<0.001; primary endpoint). In parallel, the inspiratory (2.4±8.7 vs. 14.1±14.5 cmH2O; p<0.001) and expiratory EP (12.4±6.0 vs. 24.9±11.3 cmH2O; p<0.001) significantly decreased. The effects were most pronounced for the release of the first 500 mL of ascites. LVP evoked substantial decreases in IAP and central venous pressure CVP. By contrast, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, global end-diastolic volume index, extravascular lung water index and systemic vascular resistance index did not change. Among the respiratory parameters we observed an increase in paO2/FiO2 (247.7±60.9 vs. 208.3±46.8 mmHg; p<0.001) and a decrease in Oxygenation Index OI (4.8±2.0 vs. 5.8±3.1 cmH2O/mmHg; p = 0.002). Tidal volume (510±100 vs. 452±113 mL; p = 0.008) and dynamic respiratory system compliance Cdyn (46.8±15.9 vs. 35.1±14.6 mL/cmH20; p<0.001) increased, whereas paCO2 (47.3±10.7 vs. 51.2±12.3mmHg; p = 0.046) and the respiratory rate decreased (17.1±7.3 vs. 19.6±7.8 min-1; p = 0.010). Conclusions In mechanically ventilated patients with decompensated

  10. Phase Diagrams and the Non-Linear Dielectric Constant in the Landau-Type Potential Including the Linear-Quadratic Coupling between Order Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Makoto; Orihara, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    1997-04-01

    The phase diagrams in the Landau-type thermodynamic potential including the linear-quadratic coupling between order parameters p and q, i.e., qp2, which is applicable to the phase transition in the benzil, phospholipid bilayers, and the isotropic-nematic phase transition in liquid crystals, are studied. It was found that the phase diagram in the extreme case has one tricritical point c1, one critical end point e1, and two triple points t1 and t2. The linear and nonlinear dielectric constants in the potential are discussed in the case that the order parameter p is the polarization.

  11. Normal- and oblique-shock flow parameters in equilibrium air including attached-shock solutions for surfaces at angles of attack, sweep, and dihedral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Souders, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    Normal- and oblique-shock flow parameters for air in thermochemical equilibrium are tabulated as a function of shock angle for altitudes ranging from 15.24 km to 91.44 km in increments of 7.62 km at selected hypersonic speeds. Post-shock parameters tabulated include flow-deflection angle, velocity, Mach number, compressibility factor, isentropic exponent, viscosity, Reynolds number, entropy difference, and static pressure, temperature, density, and enthalpy ratios across the shock. A procedure is presented for obtaining oblique-shock flow properties in equilibrium air on surfaces at various angles of attack, sweep, and dihedral by use of the two-dimensional tabulations. Plots of the flow parameters against flow-deflection angle are presented at altitudes of 30.48, 60.96, and 91.44 km for various stream velocities.

  12. Parameter extraction of coupling-of-modes equations including coupling between two surface acoustic waves on SiO2/Cu/LiNbO3 structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulin; Bao, Jingfu; Li, Xinyi; Zhang, Benfeng; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2018-07-01

    This paper describes extraction of parameters of an extended coupling-of-modes (COM) model including coupling between Rayleigh and shear-horizontal (SH) surface acoustic waves (SAW) on the SiO2-overlay/Cu-grating/LiNbO3-substrate structure. First, dispersion characteristics of two SAWs are calculated by the finite element method (FEM), and are fitted with those given by the extended COM. Then variation of COM parameters is expressed in polynomials in terms of the SiO2 and Cu thicknesses and the rotation angle Θ of LiNbO3. Then it is shown how the optimal Θ giving the SH SAW suppression changes with the thicknesses. The result agrees well with that obtained directly by FEM. It is also shown the optimal Θ changes abruptly at certain Cu thickness, and is due to decoupling between two SAW modes.

  13. Spectral Line Parameters Including Temperature Dependences of Self- and Air-Broadening in the 2 (left arrow) 0 Band of CO at 2.3 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Predoi-Cross, A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependences of pressure-broadened half-width and pressure-induced shift coefficients along with accurate positions and intensities have been determined for transitions in the 2<--0 band of C-12 O-16 from analyzing high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra recorded with two different Fourier transform spectrometers. A total of 28 spectra, 16 self-broadened and 12 air-broadened, recorded using high- purity (greater than or equal to 99.5% C-12-enriched) CO samples and CO diluted with dry air(research grade) at different temperatures and pressures, were analyzed simultaneously to maximize the accuracy of the retrieved parameters. The sample temperatures ranged from 150 to 298K and the total pressures varied between 5 and 700 Torr. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares spectrum fitting technique was used to adjust the rovibrational constants (G, B, D, etc.) and intensity parameters (including Herman-Wallis coefficients), rather than determining individual line positions and intensities. Self-and air-broadened Lorentz half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents, self- and air-pressure-induced shift coefficients, their temperature dependences, self- and air-line mixing coefficients, their temperature dependences and speed dependence have been retrieved from the analysis. Speed-dependent line shapes with line mixing employing off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism were needed to minimize the fit residuals. This study presents a precise and complete set of spectral line parameters that consistently reproduce the spectrum of carbon monoxide over terrestrial atmospheric conditions.

  14. Prediction of oxidation parameters of purified Kilka fish oil including gallic acid and methyl gallate by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Farahmandfar, Reza

    2016-10-01

    As a result of concerns regarding possible health hazards of synthetic antioxidants, gallic acid and methyl gallate may be introduced as natural antioxidants to improve oxidative stability of marine oil. Since conventional modelling could not predict the oxidative parameters precisely, artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modelling with three inputs, including type of antioxidant (gallic acid and methyl gallate), temperature (35, 45 and 55 °C) and concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg L(-1) ) and four outputs containing induction period (IP), slope of initial stage of oxidation curve (k1 ) and slope of propagation stage of oxidation curve (k2 ) and peroxide value at the IP (PVIP ) were performed to predict the oxidation parameters of Kilka oil triacylglycerols and were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR). The results showed ANFIS was the best model with high coefficient of determination (R(2)  = 0.99, 0.99, 0.92 and 0.77 for IP, k1 , k2 and PVIP , respectively). So, the RMSE and MAE values for IP were 7.49 and 4.92 in ANFIS model. However, they were to be 15.95 and 10.88 and 34.14 and 3.60 for the best MLP structure and MLR, respectively. So, MLR showed the minimum accuracy among the constructed models. Sensitivity analysis based on the ANFIS model suggested a high sensitivity of oxidation parameters, particularly the induction period on concentrations of gallic acid and methyl gallate due to their high antioxidant activity to retard oil oxidation and enhanced Kilka oil shelf life. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The EBLM project. I. Physical and orbital parameters, including spin-orbit angles, of two low-mass eclipsing binaries on opposite sides of the brown dwarf limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Hebb, L.; Anderson, D. R.; Cargile, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of papers aiming to study the dozens of low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBLM), with F, G, K primaries, that have been discovered in the course of the WASP survey. Our objects are mostly single-line binaries whose eclipses have been detected by WASP and were initially followed up as potential planetary transit candidates. These have bright primaries, which facilitates spectroscopic observations during transit and allows the study of the spin-orbit distribution of F, G, K+M eclipsing binaries through the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Here we report on the spin-orbit angle of WASP-30b, a transiting brown dwarf, and improve its orbital parameters. We also present the mass, radius, spin-orbit angle and orbital parameters of a new eclipsing binary, J1219-39b (1SWAPJ121921.03-395125.6, TYC 7760-484-1), which, with a mass of 95 ± 2 Mjup, is close to the limit between brown dwarfs and stars. We find that both objects have projected spin-orbit angles aligned with their primaries' rotation. Neither primaries are synchronous. J1219-39b has a modestly eccentric orbit and is in agreement with the theoretical mass-radius relationship, whereas WASP-30b lies above it. Using WASP-South photometric observations (Sutherland, South Africa) confirmed with radial velocity measurement from the CORALIE spectrograph, photometry from the EulerCam camera (both mounted on the Swiss 1.2 m Euler Telescope), radial velocities from the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO's 3.6 m Telescope (prog ID 085.C-0393), and photometry from the robotic 60 cm TRAPPIST telescope, all located at ESO, La Silla, Chile. The data is publicly available at the CDS Strasbourg and on demand to the main author.Tables A.1-A.3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgPhotometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A18

  16. Evaluation of two new surrogate indices including parameters not using insulin to assess insulin sensitivity/resistance in non-diabetic postmenopausal women: a MONET group study.

    PubMed

    Bastard, J-P; Lavoie, M-E; Messier, V; Prud'homme, D; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2012-06-01

    The study evaluated and compared, with other surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance (IS/R), the relevance of the TyG index, a product of fasting glucose and triglyceride (TG) levels, and the EGIR index, which includes TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and waist circumference in its formula to estimate IS/R, in non-diabetic postmenopausal women. A secondary analysis was performed using the baseline data for 163 non-diabetic postmenopausal women from the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team (MONET) population database. The subjects participated in hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic (HIEG) clamp and oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) tests. Correlations and comparisons between surrogate indices were performed in addition to inter-rater agreement tests. The optimal value of surrogate indices for diagnosis of IS/R was established on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scatter plot. A significant correlation was found between the HIEG clamp and all IS/R surrogate indices tested [r=-0.370 (TyG index) to 0.608 (SIisOGTT index); P<0.001]. On ROC curve analysis, a higher AUROC was found for SIisOGTT (0.791) than for TyG and EGIR (0.706 and 0.675, respectively; P=0.07 and P<0.05, respectively). The TyG and EGIR IS/R indices were only relatively modestly related to the HIEG clamp. In contrast, both fasting- and OGTT-derived IS/R surrogate indices, which include insulin values in their formulae, appeared to be more accurate in estimating IS/R in our study population. Thus, the TyG and EGIR IS/R indices need to be tested and validated more extensively in different populations before being put to large-scale clinical use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. An experimental palladium-103 seed (OptiSeedexp) in a biocompatible polymer without a gold marker: characterization of dosimetric parameters including the interseed effect.

    PubMed

    Abboud, F; Scalliet, P; Vynckier, S

    2008-12-01

    Permanent implantation of 125I (iodine) or 103Pd (palladium) sources is a popular treatment option in the management of early stage prostate cancer. New sources are being developed, some of which are being marketed for different clinical applications. A new technique of adjuvant stereotactic permanent seed breast implant, similar to that used in the treatment of prostate cancer, has been proposed by [N. Jansen et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 67, 1052-1058 (2007)] with encouraging results. The presence of artifacts from the metallic seeds, however, can disturb follow-up imaging. The development of plastic seeds has reduced these artifacts. This paper presents a feasibility study of the advantages of palladium-103 seeds, encapsulated with a biocompatible polymer, for future clinical applications, and on the effect of the gold marker on the dosimetric characteristics of such seeds. Experimental palladium seeds, OptiSeedexp, were manufactured by International Brachytherapy (IBt), Seneffe, Belgium, from a biocompatible polymer, including the marker. Apart from the absence of a gold marker, the studied seed has an identical design to the OptiSeed103 [Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 1493-1504 (2005)]; [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 63, 311-321 (2005)]. Polymer encapsulation was preferred by IBt in order to reduce the quantity of radioactive material needed for a given dose rate and to reduce the anisotropy of the radiation field around the seed. In addition, this design is intended to decrease the interseed effects that can occur as a result of the marker and the encapsulation. Dosimetric measurements were performed using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (1 mm3) in solid water phantoms (WT1). Measured data were compared to Monte Carlo simulated data in solid water using the MCNP code, version 4C. Updated cross sections [Med. Phys. 30, 701-711 (2003)] were used. As the measured and calculated data were in agreement, Monte Carlo calculations were then performed in liquid water to

  18. An experimental palladium-103 seed (OptiSeed{sup exp}) in a biocompatible polymer without a gold marker: Characterization of dosimetric parameters including the interseed effect

    SciT

    Abboud, F.; Scalliet, P.; Vynckier, S.

    Permanent implantation of {sup 125}I (iodine) or {sup 103}Pd (palladium) sources is a popular treatment option in the management of early stage prostate cancer. New sources are being developed, some of which are being marketed for different clinical applications. A new technique of adjuvant stereotactic permanent seed breast implant, similar to that used in the treatment of prostate cancer, has been proposed by [N. Jansen et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 67, 1052-1058 (2007)] with encouraging results. The presence of artifacts from the metallic seeds, however, can disturb follow-up imaging. The development of plastic seeds has reduced thesemore » artifacts. This paper presents a feasibility study of the advantages of palladium-103 seeds, encapsulated with a biocompatible polymer, for future clinical applications, and on the effect of the gold marker on the dosimetric characteristics of such seeds. Experimental palladium seeds, OptiSeed{sup exp}, were manufactured by International Brachytherapy (IBt), Seneffe, Belgium, from a biocompatible polymer, including the marker. Apart from the absence of a gold marker, the studied seed has an identical design to the OptiSeed{sup 103}[Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 1493-1504 (2005)]; [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 63, 311-321 (2005)]. Polymer encapsulation was preferred by IBt in order to reduce the quantity of radioactive material needed for a given dose rate and to reduce the anisotropy of the radiation field around the seed. In addition, this design is intended to decrease the interseed effects that can occur as a result of the marker and the encapsulation. Dosimetric measurements were performed using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (1 mm{sup 3}) in solid water phantoms (WT1). Measured data were compared to Monte Carlo simulated data in solid water using the MCNP code, version 4C. Updated cross sections [Med. Phys. 30, 701-711 (2003)] were used. As the measured and calculated data were in agreement, Monte Carlo calculations were

  19. Histogram analysis parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can predict histopathological findings including proliferation potential, cellularity, and nucleic areas in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Leifels, Leonard; Höhn, Anne-Kathrin; Richter, Cindy; Winter, Karsten

    2018-04-20

    Our purpose was to analyze possible associations between histogram analysis parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging DCE MRI and histopathological findings like proliferation index, cell count and nucleic areas in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). 30 patients (mean age 57.0 years) with primary HNSCC were included in the study. In every case, histogram analysis parameters of K trans , V e , and K ep were estimated using a mathlab based software. Tumor proliferation index, cell count, and nucleic areas were estimated on Ki 67 antigen stained specimens. Spearman's non-parametric rank sum correlation coefficients were calculated between DCE and different histopathological parameters. KI 67 correlated with K trans min ( p = -0.386, P = 0.043) and s K trans skewness ( p = 0.382, P = 0.045), V e min ( p = -0.473, P = 0.011), Ve entropy ( p = 0.424, P = 0.025), and K ep entropy ( p = 0.464, P = 0.013). Cell count correlated with K trans kurtosis ( p = 0.40, P = 0.034), V e entropy ( p = 0.475, P = 0.011). Total nucleic area correlated with V e max ( p = 0.386, P = 0.042) and V e entropy ( p = 0.411, P = 0.030). In G1/2 tumors, only K trans entropy correlated well with total ( P =0.78, P =0.013) and average nucleic areas ( p = 0.655, P = 0.006). In G3 tumors, KI 67 correlated with Ve min ( p = -0.552, P = 0.022) and V e entropy ( p = 0.524, P = 0.031). Ve max correlated with total nucleic area ( p = 0.483, P = 0.049). Kep max correlated with total area ( p = -0.51, P = 0.037), and K ep entropy with KI 67 ( p = 0.567, P = 0.018). We concluded that histogram-based parameters skewness, kurtosis and entropy of K trans , V e , and K ep can be used as markers for proliferation activity, cellularity and nucleic content in HNSCC. Tumor grading influences significantly associations between perfusion and histopathological parameters.

  20. The dynamics of interleukin-8 and its interaction with human CXC receptor I peptide

    SciT

    Kendrick, Agnieszka; Holliday, Michael; Isern, Nancy G.

    2014-01-20

    Interleukin-8 (CXCL8, IL-8) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine important for the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses via its interaction with G-protein coupled receptors, including CXC receptor 1 (CXCR1). CXCL8 exists as both a monomer and as a dimer at physiological concentrations, yet the molecular basis of CXCL8 interaction with its receptor as well as the importance of CXCL8 dimer formation remain poorly characterized. Although several biological studies have indicated that both the CXCL8 monomer and dimer are active, biophysical studies have reported conflicting results regarding the binding of CXCL8 to CXCR1. To clarify this problem, we expressed and purified amore » peptide (hCXCR1pep) corresponding to the N-terminal region of human CXCR1 (hCXCR1) and utilized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to interrogate the binding of wild-type CXCL8 and a previously reported mutant (CXCL8M) that stabilizes the monomeric form. Our data reveal that CXCL8M engages hCXCR1pep with a slightly higher affinity than CXCL8, and that CXCL8 does not dissociate upon binding hCXCR1pep. These investigations also indicate that CXCL8 exhibits inherent flexibility within its receptor-binding site on multiple timescales, which may help explain the versatility in this interleukin for engaging its target receptors.« less

  1. Effects of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment, after change from ARB at usual dosage, on blood pressure and various metabolic parameters including high-molecular weight adiponectin in Japanese male hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Saito, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has been reported to increase serum level of high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, which has beneficial effects on insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, treatment with diuretics was reported to decrease the adiponectin level. In the present study, we investigated the effects of changing the treatment to losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) on blood pressure (BP) and various metabolic parameters in Japanese male hypertensive subjects. This study included 15 subjects whose therapy was changed from a usual dosage of ARB to losartan 50mg/HCTZ 12.5mg daily, and also 14 subjects who continued losartan treatment (50mg/day). Serum HMW-adiponectin concentration was assayed using a commercially available HMW-specific ELISA kit. In the losartan/HCTZ patient group, systolic/diastolic BP decreased from 146/95 to 130/84 mmHg (P = 0.0012 for both). The HbA1c level tended to increase from 5.44 ± 0.39 to 5.55 ± 0.44% (P = 0.0554) and serum creatinine level slightly increased from 0.82 ± 0.12 to 0.87 ± 0.12 mg/dl (P = 0.0015). In contrast, serum TG (125 ± 77 to 149 ± 112 mg/dl), uric acid, and HMW-adiponectin levels (3.24 ± 2.97 to 3.36 ± 2.43 μg/ml) were unchanged. In the 14 patients who continued losartan treatment, systolic/diastolic BP was unchanged from 134/86 to 129/80 mmHg. The HbA1c level tended to increase from 5.26 ± 0.63 to 5.39 ± 0.71% (P = 0.0880), serum creatinine and uric acid levels were unchanged, serum lipids tended to improve, and serum HMW-adiponectin levels increased from 3.03 ± 1.06 to 3.46 ± 1.28 μg/ml (P = 0.0105). In summary, changing treatment to losartan/HCTZ, when changed from a usual dosage of ARB, exerted good BP control, while the HMW-adiponectin level was unchanged in male hypertensive subjects.

  2. Variable anelastic attenuation and site effect in estimating source parameters of various major earthquakes including M w 7.8 Nepal and M w 7.5 Hindu kush earthquake by using far-field strong-motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kumar, Parveen; Chauhan, Vishal; Hazarika, Devajit

    2017-10-01

    Strong-motion records of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake ( M w 7.8), its strong aftershocks and seismic events of Hindu kush region have been analysed for estimation of source parameters. The M w 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 and its six aftershocks of magnitude range 5.3-7.3 are recorded at Multi-Parametric Geophysical Observatory, Ghuttu, Garhwal Himalaya (India) >600 km west from the epicentre of main shock of Gorkha earthquake. The acceleration data of eight earthquakes occurred in the Hindu kush region also recorded at this observatory which is located >1000 km east from the epicentre of M w 7.5 Hindu kush earthquake on 26 October 2015. The shear wave spectra of acceleration record are corrected for the possible effects of anelastic attenuation at both source and recording site as well as for site amplification. The strong-motion data of six local earthquakes are used to estimate the site amplification and the shear wave quality factor ( Q β) at recording site. The frequency-dependent Q β( f) = 124 f 0.98 is computed at Ghuttu station by using inversion technique. The corrected spectrum is compared with theoretical spectrum obtained from Brune's circular model for the horizontal components using grid search algorithm. Computed seismic moment, stress drop and source radius of the earthquakes used in this work range 8.20 × 1016-5.72 × 1020 Nm, 7.1-50.6 bars and 3.55-36.70 km, respectively. The results match with the available values obtained by other agencies.

  3. A meta-analysis of the associations between common variation in the PDE8B gene and thyroid hormone parameters, including assessment of longitudinal stability of associations over time and effect of thyroid hormone replacement

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N; Panicker, Vijay; Sayers, Adrian; Shields, Beverley; Iqbal, Ahmed; Bremner, Alexandra P; Beilby, John P; Leedman, Peter J; Hattersley, Andrew T; Vaidya, Bijay; Frayling, Timothy; Evans, Jonathan; Tobias, Jonathan H; Timpson, Nicholas J; Walsh, John P; Dayan, Colin M

    2011-01-01

    Objective Common variants in PDE8B are associated with TSH but apparently without any effect on thyroid hormone levels that is difficult to explain. Furthermore, the stability of the association has not been examined in longitudinal studies or in patients on levothyroxine (l-T4). Design Totally, four cohorts were used (n=2557): the Busselton Health Study (thyroid function measured on two occasions), DEPTH, EFSOCH (selective cohorts), and WATTS (individuals on l-T4). Methods Meta-analysis to clarify associations between the rs4704397 single nucleotide polymorphism in PDE8B on TSH, tri-iodothyronine (T3), and T4 levels. Results Meta-analysis confirmed that genetic variation in PDE8B was associated with TSH (P=1.64×10−10 0.20 s.d./allele, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.142, 0.267) and identified a possible new association with free T4 (P=0.023, −0.07 s.d./allele, 95% CI −0.137, −0.01), no association was seen with free T3 (P=0.218). The association between PDE8B and TSH was similar in 1981 (0.14 s.d./allele, 95% CI 0.04, 0.238) and 1994 (0.20 s.d./allele, 95% CI 0.102, 0.300) and even more consistent between PDE8B and free T4 in 1981 (−0.068 s.d./allele, 95% CI −0.167, 0.031) and 1994 (−0.07 s.d./allele, 95% CI −0.170, 0.030). No associations were seen between PDE8B and thyroid hormone parameters in individuals on l-T4. Conclusion Common genetic variation in PDE8B is associated with reciprocal changes in TSH and free T4 levels that are consistent over time and lost in individuals on l-T4. These findings identify a possible genetic marker reflecting variation in thyroid hormone output that will be of value in epidemiological studies and provides additional evidence that PDE8B is involved in TSH signaling in the thyroid. PMID:21317282

  4. Comparing changes in haematologic parameters occurring in patients included in randomized controlled trials of artesunate-amodiaquine vs single and combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Zwang, Julien; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Djimdé, Abdoulaye; Dorsey, Grant; Mårtensson, Andreas; Karema, Corine; Olliaro, Piero

    2012-01-25

    Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS&AQ) is a widely used artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for falciparum malaria. A comprehensive appreciation of its effects on haematology vs other anti-malarials is needed in view of potential safety liabilities. Individual-patient data analysis conducted on a database from seven randomized controlled trials conducted in sub-Saharan African comparing AS&AQ to reference treatments in uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients of all ages. Haematologic values (white cells total and neutrophil counts, haemoglobin/haematocrit, platelets) were analysed as both continuous and categorical variables for their occurrence, (severity grade 1-4) and changes during follow-up. Risks and trends were calculated using multivariate logistic random effect models. 4,502 patients (72% < 5 years old), from 13 sites in nine countries with 28-day follow-up were treated with AS&AQ (45%) or a comparator (other forms of ACT accounted for 27%, other combination 12%, mono-therapies 16%). Pre-treatment leucopaenia (3%) and neutropaenia (6%) were infrequent; anaemia was common (39%). The treatment-emergent adverse events incidence (TEAE = condition not present or less severe pre-treatment) was 11% for neutropaenia, 6% for thrombocytopaenia with AS&AQ and not different from treatment groups; anaemia was higher with AS&AQ (20%) or other forms of ACT (22%) than in non-artemisinin groups (4%, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, and leucopaenia decreased with follow-up time, while neutropaenia increased; the risk of anaemia and thrombocytopaenia increased with higher baseline parasitaemia and parasitological reappearance. White cells total count was not a good surrogate for neutropaenia. No systematic significant difference between treatments was detected. Older patients were at lower risks. The effects of AS&AQ on haematologic parameters were not different from those of other anti-malarial treatments used in sub

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  8. Application of the Akinfiev-Diamond equation of state to neutral hydroxides of metalloids (B(OH)3, Si(OH)4, As(OH)3) at infinite dilution in water over a wide range of the state parameters, including steam conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Plyasunov, Andrey V.

    2014-02-01

    The Akinfiev and Diamond (2003) equation of state (EoS) for aqueous nonelectrolytes was employed to describe hydroxides of metalloids (B(OH)3, Si(OH)4, As(OH)3) over a wide temperature and pressure ranges, including steam conditions. The EoS is based on the accurate knowledge of solvent (H2O) properties and requires only three empirical parameters to be fitted to experimental data, and these are independent of temperature and pressure. For nonvolatile components thermodynamic properties of species in the ideal gas state were evaluated using quantum chemical computations. The proposed approach has been tested to predict the whole set of thermodynamic properties of solutes (the chemical potential, entropy, molar volume, and molar heat capacity) over a wide range of temperatures (273-1200 K) and pressures (0.1-1000 MPa), including the near-critical region and both low and high density regions of the solvent. Thus it can be used for modeling various geochemical processes over a whole range of solvent densities, including processes in boiling fluids and a vapor phase as well. solubility data in a low density aqueous fluid (ρ1∗ < 0.2 g cm-3); data with very high solubility values (mSi(OH)4 > 1 mol kg-1) where polymerization effects may take place (Newton and Manning, 2003); the rest of data, containing the majority of quartz solubility points at 293-1273 K, 0.1-1000 MPa. Only the 3rd part of experimental quartz solubility data has been used in the fitting procedure. Thermodynamic properties of Si(OH)4 in the ideal gas state were recently determined by the analysis of the relevant experimental data in Plyasunov (2011b). The temperature dependence of heat capacity of the molecule was adopted from comprehensive study of Rutz and Bockhorn (2005)where DFT calculations at different levels of theory including CBS-QBS and G3MP2 methods, as well as corrections for hindered rotations and scaling for vibration frequencies were employed. The adopted Cpo (T = 300-1500 K) values

  9. Urine chemokines indicate pathogenic association of obesity with BPH/LUTS.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Motley, Saundra S; Kashyap, Mahendra; Pore, Subrata; Gingrich, Jeffrey; Wang, Zhou; Yoshimura, Naoki; Fowke, Jay H

    2015-07-01

    High prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consistent with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is associated with obesity and prostatic inflammation. Here, we investigated whether chemokines associated with obesity and prostatic inflammation can be measured in normally voided urine of BPH/LUTS patients to demonstrate the mechanistic association between obesity and BPH/LUTS. Frozen urine specimens of BPH/LUTS patients enrolled in the Nashville Men's Health Study were sent for blinded analysis to University of Pittsburgh. Thirty patients were blocked by their AUA-SI (>7 or ≤7) and prostatic enlargement (<40, 40-60, >60 cc). Clinical parameters including age, prostate size, and medications were derived from chart review. CXC chemokines (CXCL-1, CXCL-8, and CXCL-10), CC chemokines (CCL2 and CCL3), and sIL-1ra were measured in thawed urine using Luminex™ xMAP(®) technology and ELISA for NGF. Urinary CCL2 levels were several fold higher compared with the other six proteins, of which CCL3 was detectable in less than one-fourth of patients. Urine levels of sIL-1ra and CXCL-8 were significantly associated with increasing BMI and waist circumference in BPH patients. CXCL-8 showed a marginal association with overall AUA-SI scores, as well as obstructive (p = 0.08) symptom subscores. Prostate volume was inversely and marginally associated with urinary CXCL-10 (p = 0.09). Urine levels of CXCL-8, CXCL-10, and sIL-1ra were associated with varying degrees with LUTS severity, prostate size, and obesity, respectively. These findings in urine are consistent with past studies of chemokine levels from expressed prostatic secretions and demonstrate the potential of noninvasively measured chemokine in urine to objectively classify BPH/LUTS patients.

  10. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  11. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  12. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  13. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  14. Sherborne Missile Fire Frequency with Unconstraint Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shaquan

    2018-01-01

    For the modeling problem of shipborne missile fire frequency, the fire frequency models with unconstant parameters were proposed, including maximum fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, and actual fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, which can be used to calculate the missile fire frequency with unconstant parameters.

  15. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    SciT

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values formore » motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.« less

  16. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  17. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  18. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  19. AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) Dive Control System Development Including Sensor Bias Compensation and Parameter Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    equations, x(k+l) = A*x(k) + B*u(k) + Ko *[y(k)-C*x(k)] in which y(k) is the previous time sensor output signals. In this case, two outputs were...available to the observer, the pitch rate, and the water depth. The observer gains, Ko , may be selected by using the dual of the controller pole placement...becomes, 15 y(k) = [l;l]*ye(k) so that the gains for the two-input system become Ko = [l;l]*ke where Ke are found via pole placement using ye(k). The

  20. Display Parameters and Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  1. Parameters of Technological Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Chauncey; Rudman, Richard

    1973-01-01

    Examines the factors involved in technological growth and identifies the key parameters as societal resources and societal expectations. Concludes that quality of life can only be maintained by reducing population growth, since this parameter is the product of material levels, overcrowding, food, and pollution. (JR)

  2. Parameter screening: the use of a dummy parameter to identify non-influential parameters in a global sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Parameter estimation is a major concern in hydrological modeling, which may limit the use of complex simulators with a large number of parameters. To support the selection of parameters to include in or exclude from the calibration process, Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is widely applied in modeling practices. Based on the results of GSA, the influential and the non-influential parameters are identified (i.e. parameters screening). Nevertheless, the choice of the screening threshold below which parameters are considered non-influential is a critical issue, which has recently received more attention in GSA literature. In theory, the sensitivity index of a non-influential parameter has a value of zero. However, since numerical approximations, rather than analytical solutions, are utilized in GSA methods to calculate the sensitivity indices, small but non-zero indices may be obtained for the indices of non-influential parameters. In order to assess the threshold that identifies non-influential parameters in GSA methods, we propose to calculate the sensitivity index of a "dummy parameter". This dummy parameter has no influence on the model output, but will have a non-zero sensitivity index, representing the error due to the numerical approximation. Hence, the parameters whose indices are above the sensitivity index of the dummy parameter can be classified as influential, whereas the parameters whose indices are below this index are within the range of the numerical error and should be considered as non-influential. To demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed "dummy parameter approach", 26 parameters of a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are selected to be analyzed and screened, using the variance-based Sobol' and moment-independent PAWN methods. The sensitivity index of the dummy parameter is calculated from sampled data, without changing the model equations. Moreover, the calculation does not even require additional model evaluations for the Sobol

  3. Calibrating binary lumped parameter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater at its discharge point is a mixture of water from short and long flowlines, and therefore has a distribution of ages rather than a single age. Various transfer functions describe the distribution of ages within the water sample. Lumped parameter models (LPMs), which are mathematical models of water transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configuration can account for such mixing of groundwater of different age, usually representing the age distribution with two parameters, the mean residence time, and the mixing parameter. Simple lumped parameter models can often match well the measured time varying age tracer concentrations, and therefore are a good representation of the groundwater mixing at these sites. Usually a few tracer data (time series and/or multi-tracer) can constrain both parameters. With the building of larger data sets of age tracer data throughout New Zealand, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, and recently Halon-1301, and time series of these tracers, we realised that for a number of wells the groundwater ages using a simple lumped parameter model were inconsistent between the different tracer methods. Contamination or degradation of individual tracers is unlikely because the different tracers show consistent trends over years and decades. This points toward a more complex mixing of groundwaters with different ages for such wells than represented by the simple lumped parameter models. Binary (or compound) mixing models are able to represent a more complex mixing, with mixing of water of two different age distributions. The problem related to these models is that they usually have 5 parameters which makes them data-hungry and therefore difficult to constrain all parameters. Two or more age tracers with different input functions, with multiple measurements over time, can provide the required information to constrain the parameters of the binary mixing model. We obtained excellent results using tritium time series encompassing

  4. Zγ production at NNLO including anomalous couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John M.; Neumann, Tobias; Williams, Ciaran

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD calculation of the processes pp → l + l -γ and pp\\to ν \\overline{ν}γ that we have implemented in MCFM. Our calculation includes QCD corrections at NNLO both for the Standard Model (SM) and additionally in the presence of Zγγ and ZZγ anomalous couplings. We compare our implementation, obtained using the jettiness slicing approach, with a previous SM calculation and find broad agreement. Focusing on the sensitivity of our results to the slicing parameter, we show that using our setup we are able to compute NNLO cross sections with numerical uncertainties of about 0.1%, which is small compared to residual scale uncertainties of a few percent. We study potential improvements using two different jettiness definitions and the inclusion of power corrections. At √{s}=13 TeV we present phenomenological results and consider Zγ as a background to H → Zγ production. We find that, with typical cuts, the inclusion of NNLO corrections represents a small effect and loosens the extraction of limits on anomalous couplings by about 10%.

  5. Parameter estimating state reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Parameter estimation is considered for systems whose entire state cannot be measured. Linear observers are designed to recover the unmeasured states to a sufficient accuracy to permit the estimation process. There are three distinct dynamics that must be accommodated in the system design: the dynamics of the plant, the dynamics of the observer, and the system updating of the parameter estimation. The latter two are designed to minimize interaction of the involved systems. These techniques are extended to weakly nonlinear systems. The application to a simulation of a space shuttle POGO system test is of particular interest. A nonlinear simulation of the system is developed, observers designed, and the parameters estimated.

  6. The ADA's practice parameters.

    PubMed

    Ellek, Donalda M

    2005-01-01

    The ADA parameters of care have served the needs of practicing dentists for fifteen years. Their purpose is to describe a range of treatment options that dentists will want to consider, in combination with particular clinical conditions and patient preferences. These options have been developed based on available evidence and a consensus of professional judgment. The ADA has exercised concern that parameters not be used, out of the context of individual professional judgment, for policy purposes.

  7. Parameters of care for craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Joseph G; Warren, Stephen M; Bernstein, Joseph; Burnett, Whitney; Cunningham, Michael L; Edmond, Jane C; Figueroa, Alvaro A; Kapp-Simon, Kathleen A; Labow, Brian I; Peterson-Falzone, Sally J; Proctor, Mark R; Rubin, Marcie S; Sze, Raymond W; Yemen, Terrance A

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary meeting was held from March 4 to 6, 2010, in Atlanta, Georgia, entitled "Craniosynostosis: Developing Parameters for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management." The goal of this meeting was to create parameters of care for individuals with craniosynostosis. Fifty-two conference attendees represented a broad range of expertise, including anesthesiology, craniofacial surgery, dentistry, genetics, hand surgery, neurosurgery, nursing, ophthalmology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, otolaryngology, pediatrics, psychology, public health, radiology, and speech-language pathology. These attendees also represented 16 professional societies and peer-reviewed journals. The current state of knowledge related to each discipline was reviewed. Based on areas of expertise, four breakout groups were created to reach a consensus and draft specialty-specific parameters of care based on the literature or, in the absence of literature, broad clinical experience. In an iterative manner, the specialty-specific draft recommendations were presented to all conference attendees. Participants discussed the recommendations in multidisciplinary groups to facilitate exchange and consensus across disciplines. After the conference, a pediatric intensivist and social worker reviewed the recommendations. Consensus was reached among the 52 conference attendees and two post hoc reviewers. Longitudinal parameters of care were developed for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of craniosynostosis in each of the 18 specialty areas of care from prenatal evaluation to adulthood. To our knowledge, this is the first multidisciplinary effort to develop parameters of care for craniosynostosis. These parameters were designed to help facilitate the development of educational programs for the patient, families, and health-care professionals; stimulate the creation of a national database and registry to promote research, especially in the area of outcome studies; improve

  8. New fundamental parameters for attitude representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patera, Russell P.

    2017-08-01

    A new attitude parameter set is developed to clarify the geometry of combining finite rotations in a rotational sequence and in combining infinitesimal angular increments generated by angular rate. The resulting parameter set of six Pivot Parameters represents a rotation as a great circle arc on a unit sphere that can be located at any clocking location in the rotation plane. Two rotations are combined by linking their arcs at either of the two intersection points of the respective rotation planes. In a similar fashion, linking rotational increments produced by angular rate is used to derive the associated kinematical equations, which are linear and have no singularities. Included in this paper is the derivation of twelve Pivot Parameter elements that represent all twelve Euler Angle sequences, which enables efficient conversions between Pivot Parameters and any Euler Angle sequence. Applications of this new parameter set include the derivation of quaternions and the quaternion composition rule, as well as, the derivation of the analytical solution to time dependent coning motion. The relationships between Pivot Parameters and traditional parameter sets are included in this work. Pivot Parameters are well suited for a variety of aerospace applications due to their effective composition rule, singularity free kinematic equations, efficient conversion to and from Euler Angle sequences and clarity of their geometrical foundation.

  9. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  10. Target parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocking, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of any radar experiment is to determine as much as possible about the entities which scatter the radiation. This review discusses many of the various parameters which can be deduced in a radar experiment, and also critically examines the procedures used to deduce them. Methods for determining the mean wind velocity, the RMS fluctuating velocities, turbulence parameters, and the shapes of the scatterers are considered. Complications with these determinations are discussed. It is seen throughout that a detailed understanding of the shape and cause of the scatterers is important in order to make better determinations of these various quantities. Finally, some other parameters, which are less easily acquired, are considered. For example, it is noted that momentum fluxes due to buoyancy waves and turbulence can be determined, and on occasions radars can be used to determine stratospheric diffusion coefficients and even temperature profiles in the atmosphere.

  11. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  12. Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKellip, Rodney D.; Ross, Kenton W.; Spruce, Joseph P.; Smoot, James C.; Ryan, Robert E.; Gasser, Gerald E.; Prados, Donald L.; Vaughan, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    The Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool (PPET) is a set of algorithms implemented in MATLAB that estimates key vegetative phenological parameters. For a given year, the PPET software package takes in temporally processed vegetation index data (3D spatio-temporal arrays) generated by the time series product tool (TSPT) and outputs spatial grids (2D arrays) of vegetation phenological parameters. As a precursor to PPET, the TSPT uses quality information for each pixel of each date to remove bad or suspect data, and then interpolates and digitally fills data voids in the time series to produce a continuous, smoothed vegetation index product. During processing, the TSPT displays NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) time series plots and images from the temporally processed pixels. Both the TSPT and PPET currently use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite multispectral data as a default, but each software package is modifiable and could be used with any high-temporal-rate remote sensing data collection system that is capable of producing vegetation indices. Raw MODIS data from the Aqua and Terra satellites is processed using the TSPT to generate a filtered time series data product. The PPET then uses the TSPT output to generate phenological parameters for desired locations. PPET output data tiles are mosaicked into a Conterminous United States (CONUS) data layer using ERDAS IMAGINE, or equivalent software package. Mosaics of the vegetation phenology data products are then reprojected to the desired map projection using ERDAS IMAGINE

  13. Games with fuzzy parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoud, Deghdak

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of equilibrium in non-cooperative game with fuzzy parameters. We generalize te results of Larbani and Kacher(2008, 2009) in infinite dimentional spaces. The proof is based on the Browder-Fan fixed point theorem.

  14. A comparison between two powder compaction parameters of plasticity: the effective medium A parameter and the Heckel 1/K parameter.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Foad; Klevan, Ingvild; Nordström, Josefina; Alderborn, Göran; Frenning, Göran

    2013-09-10

    The purpose of the research was to introduce a procedure to derive a powder compression parameter (EM A) representing particle yield stress using an effective medium equation and to compare the EM A parameter with the Heckel compression parameter (1/K). 16 pharmaceutical powders, including drugs and excipients, were compressed in a materials testing instrument and powder compression profiles were derived using the EM and Heckel equations. The compression profiles thus obtained could be sub-divided into regions among which one region was approximately linear and from this region, the compression parameters EM A and 1/K were calculated. A linear relationship between the EM A parameter and the 1/K parameter was obtained with a strong correlation. The slope of the plot was close to 1 (0.84) and the intercept of the plot was small in comparison to the range of parameter values obtained. The relationship between the theoretical EM A parameter and the 1/K parameter supports the interpretation of the empirical Heckel parameter as being a measure of yield stress. It is concluded that the combination of Heckel and EM equations represents a suitable procedure to derive a value of particle plasticity from powder compression data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PAR -- Interface to the ADAM Parameter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Chipperfield, Alan J.

    PAR is a library of Fortran subroutines that provides convenient mechanisms for applications to exchange information with the outside world, through input-output channels called parameters. Parameters enable a user to control an application's behaviour. PAR supports numeric, character, and logical parameters, and is currently implemented only on top of the ADAM parameter system. The PAR library permits parameter values to be obtained, without or with a variety of constraints. Results may be put into parameters to be passed onto other applications. Other facilities include setting a prompt string, and suggested defaults. This document also introduces a preliminary C interface for the PAR library -- this may be subject to change in the light of experience.

  16. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  17. Failure probability under parameter uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, R; Tsanakas, A

    2011-05-01

    In many problems of risk analysis, failure is equivalent to the event of a random risk factor exceeding a given threshold. Failure probabilities can be controlled if a decisionmaker is able to set the threshold at an appropriate level. This abstract situation applies, for example, to environmental risks with infrastructure controls; to supply chain risks with inventory controls; and to insurance solvency risks with capital controls. However, uncertainty around the distribution of the risk factor implies that parameter error will be present and the measures taken to control failure probabilities may not be effective. We show that parameter uncertainty increases the probability (understood as expected frequency) of failures. For a large class of loss distributions, arising from increasing transformations of location-scale families (including the log-normal, Weibull, and Pareto distributions), the article shows that failure probabilities can be exactly calculated, as they are independent of the true (but unknown) parameters. Hence it is possible to obtain an explicit measure of the effect of parameter uncertainty on failure probability. Failure probability can be controlled in two different ways: (1) by reducing the nominal required failure probability, depending on the size of the available data set, and (2) by modifying of the distribution itself that is used to calculate the risk control. Approach (1) corresponds to a frequentist/regulatory view of probability, while approach (2) is consistent with a Bayesian/personalistic view. We furthermore show that the two approaches are consistent in achieving the required failure probability. Finally, we briefly discuss the effects of data pooling and its systemic risk implications. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  19. A design methodology for nonlinear systems containing parameter uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. E.; Auslander, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    In the present design methodology for nonlinear systems containing parameter uncertainty, a generalized sensitivity analysis is incorporated which employs parameter space sampling and statistical inference. For the case of a system with j adjustable and k nonadjustable parameters, this methodology (which includes an adaptive random search strategy) is used to determine the combination of j adjustable parameter values which maximize the probability of those performance indices which simultaneously satisfy design criteria in spite of the uncertainty due to k nonadjustable parameters.

  20. Precision cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, William Ashton, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    methods. These techniques will help in the understanding of new physics contained in current and future data sets as well as benefit the research efforts of the cosmology community. Our idea is to shift the computationally intensive pieces of the parameter estimation framework to a parallel training step. We then provide a machine learning code that uses this training set to learn the relationship between the underlying cosmological parameters and the function we wish to compute. This code is very accurate and simple to evaluate. It can provide incredible speed- ups of parameter estimation codes. For some applications this provides the convenience of obtaining results faster, while in other cases this allows the use of codes that would be impossible to apply in the brute force setting. In this thesis we provide several examples where our method allows more accurate computation of functions important for data analysis than is currently possible. As the techniques developed in this work are very general, there are no doubt a wide array of applications both inside and outside of cosmology. We have already seen this interest as other scientists have presented ideas for using our algorithm to improve their computational work, indicating its importance as modern experiments push forward. In fact, our algorithm will play an important role in the parameter analysis of Planck, the next generation CMB space mission.

  1. Multicomponent Arcjet plasma Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunkov, V.; Kositsin, V. V.; Ruban, V. I.; Shalay, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the plasma arc parameters of an arcjet thruster, the kinetic theory of gases is used. We can find a well-known statement about the adiabatic character of the compression process due to the growth of the gas temperature in a change in its spectral composition and in the Doppler effect. The use of tungsten in the nozzle design details explains the appearance of atoms of this element in the plasma volume. The emission spectra of tungsten allow us to indirectly judge the temperature of the arc discharge and its character. Absorption of the long-wavelength wing of the line contour at λ = 465.987 nm substantiates our conclusion about the consumption of the anode material in the process of operating the arcjet. The Doppler shift of the emission lines of argon allows us to determine the rate of the gas jet escape. The results of the study can be useful in the design of aircraft.

  2. Ceramic Life Prediction Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    preferential. A standard creep testing Satec machine with a modified load train assembly was used for tensile stress-rupture testing. The specimen is...to the standard Satec machine head which includes crossed (90°) knife edges. The assembly procedure includes hanging the load train parts from...the Satec head as influenced by gravity. At this point the lower Satec crossarm is lowered to snub the train in this position. The load train

  3. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  4. Impact of Including Higher Actinides in Fast Reactor Transmutation Analyses

    SciT

    B. Forget; M. Asgari; R. Ferrer

    2007-09-01

    Previous fast reactor transmutation studies generally disregarded higher mass minor actinides beyond Cm-246 due to various considerations including deficiencies in nuclear cross-section data. Although omission of these higher mass actinides does not significantly impact the neutronic calculations and fuel cycle performance parameters follow-on neutron dose calculations related to fuel recycling, transportation and handling are significantly impacted. This report shows that including the minor actinides in the equilibrium fast reactor calculations will increase the predicted neutron emission by about 30%. In addition a sensitivity study was initiated by comparing the impact of different cross-section evaluation file for representing these minor actinides.

  5. Suspension Parameter Measurements of Wheeled Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    suspension through the wheel pads. The SPIdER was designed so that in the future, with a modest amount of modification , it can be upgraded to include the...AND MOBILITY (P&M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 14-16, MICHIGAN SUSPENSION PARAMETER MEASUREMENTS OF WHEELED MILITARY VEHICLES Dale Andreatta Gary...was built to measure the suspension parameters of any military wheeled vehicle. This is part of an ongoing effort to model and predict vehicle

  6. Anti-Inflammatory benefits of antibiotic-induced neutrophil apoptosis: tulathromycin induces caspase-3-dependent neutrophil programmed cell death and inhibits NF-kappaB signaling and CXCL8 transcription.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carrie D; Beatty, Jennifer K; Zvaigzne, Cheryl G; Morck, Douglas W; Lucas, Merlyn J; Buret, A G

    2011-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils is a central feature of the resolution of inflammation. Findings indicate that immuno-modulation and induction of neutrophil apoptosis by macrolide antibiotics generate anti-inflammatory benefits via mechanisms that remain obscure. Tulathromycin (TUL), a new antimicrobial agent for bovine respiratory disease, offers superior clinical efficacy for reasons not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify the immuno-modulating effects of tulathromycin and, in this process, to establish tulathromycin as a new model for characterizing the novel anti-inflammatory properties of antibiotics. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from Holstein calves 3 and 24 h postinfection, challenged intratracheally with live Mannheimia haemolytica (2 × 10(7) CFU), and treated with vehicle or tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that tulathromycin treatment significantly increased leukocyte apoptosis and reduced levels of proinflammatory leukotriene B(4) in M. haemolytica-challenged calves. In vitro, tulathromycin concentration dependently induced apoptosis in freshly isolated bovine neutrophils from healthy steers in a capase-3-dependent manner but failed to induce apoptosis in bovine fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, as well as freshly isolated bovine blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. The proapoptotic effects of TUL were also, in part, drug specific; equimolar concentrations of penicillin G, oxytetracycline, and ceftiofur failed to cause apoptosis in bovine neutrophils. In addition, tulathromycin significantly reduced levels of phosphorylated IκBα, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and mRNA levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bovine neutrophils. The findings illustrate novel mechanisms through which tulathromycin confers anti-inflammatory benefits.

  7. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  8. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  9. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  10. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  11. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  12. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exclusivity and those channels below 470 MHz, including those licensed pursuant to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Included services. 1.9005 Section 1.9005... Radiotelephone Service (part 22 of this chapter); (b) The Rural Radiotelephone Service (part 22 of this chapter...

  13. Server-Side Includes Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes server-side include (SSI) codes which allow Webmasters to insert content into Web pages without programming knowledge. Explains how to enable the codes on a Web server, provides a step-by-step process for implementing them, discusses tags and syntax errors, and includes examples of their use on the Web site for Southern Illinois…

  14. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  15. Parameterisation of clastic sediments including benthic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobertz, B.; Harff, J.; Bohling, B.

    2009-02-01

    The sediment transport processes in the south-western Baltic Sea are predicted by means of a numerical model in the project DYNAS. There are two sediment parameters that influence the results of modelling remarkably: critical shear stress velocity and bottom roughness. This paper presents the way how to parameterise these factors and extrapolate them into the investigation area. The critical shear stress velocity is parameterised basing on grain size data, combining approximations after Hjulström [Hjulström, F., 1935: Studies in the morphological activity of rivers as illustrated by the river Fyris. Geological Institution of University of Uppsala: Bulletin (25): 221-528.], Shields [Shields, A., 1936: Anwendung der Ähnlichkeits-Mechanik und der Turbulenzforschung auf die Geschiebebewegung. Mitteilungen der Preussischen Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau und Schiffahrt (26): 26 pp.] and Bohling [Bohling, B., 2003: Untersuchungen zur Mobilität natürlicher und anthropogener Sedimente in der Mecklenburger Bucht. unpublished doctoral thesis, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald/Germany, 156 pp.]. The roughness length, in the case of absence of macro zoo-benthos and their structures, is parameterised basing on grain size too employing Soulsby [Soulsby, R.L., 1997: Dynamics of Marine Sands: a Manual for Practical Applications. London, Thomas Telford Publications. 249 pp.], Nielsen [Nielsen, P., 1983: Analytical determination of nearshore wave height variation due to refraction shoaling and friction. Coastal Engineering 7, 233-251.] and Yalin [Yalin, M.S., 1977: Mechanics of Sediment Transport. Pergamon Press, New York. 298 pp.]. No equivalent simple parameterisations for biologically caused bed roughness exist. Here, findings of Friedrichs [Friedrichs, M., 2004: Flow-induced effects of macro zoo-benthic structures on the near-bed sediment transport. Dissertation, Universität Rostock, 80 S.] and estimations by the DYNAS

  16. Stochastic control system parameter identifiability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. H.; Herget, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The parameter identification problem of general discrete time, nonlinear, multiple input/multiple output dynamic systems with Gaussian white distributed measurement errors is considered. The knowledge of the system parameterization was assumed to be known. Concepts of local parameter identifiability and local constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability were established. A set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a region of parameter identifiability was derived. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic was provided for finding the regions of parameter identifiability. If the vector of the true parameters is locally constrained maximum likelihood (CML) identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the constrained maximum likelihood estimation sequence will converge to the vector of true parameters.

  17. Relativistic parameters of senescence.

    PubMed

    Stathatos, Marios A

    2005-01-01

    The laws of biochemistry and biology are governed by parameters whose description in mathematical formulas is based on the three-dimensional space. It is a fact, however, that the life span of a cell and its specific functions, though limited, can be extended or diminished depending on the genetic code but also, on the natural pressure of the environment. The plasticity exhibited by a cellular system has been attributed to the change of the three-dimensional structure of the cell, with time being a simple measure of this change. The model of biological relativity proposed here, considers time as a flexible fourth dimension that corresponds directly to the inertial status of the cells. Two types of clocks are defined: the relativistic biological clock (RBC) and the mechanical clock (MC). In contrast to the MCs that show the astrological reference time, the time shown by the RBCs delay because it depends on cellular activity. The maximum and the expected life span of the cells and/or the organisms can be therefore relied on time transformation. One of the most important factors that can affect time flow is the energy that is produced during metabolic work. Based on this observation, RBCs can be constructed following series of theoretical experiments in order to assess biological time and life span changes.

  18. [Acoustical parameters of toys].

    PubMed

    Harazin, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.

  19. Universal MOSFET parameter analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klekachev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Pikulev, V. B.; Gurtov, V. A.

    2006-05-01

    MOSFET analyzer is developed to extract most important parameters of transistors. Instead of routine DC transfer and output characteristics, analyzer provides an evaluation of interface states density by applying charge pumping technique. There are two features that outperform the analyzer among similar products of other vendors. It is compact (100 × 80 × 50 mm 3 in dimensions) and lightweight (< 200 gram) instrument with ultra low power supply (< 2.5 W). The analyzer operates under control of IBM PC by means of USB interface that simultaneously provides power supply. Owing to the USB-compatible microcontroller as the basic element, designed analyzer offers cost-effective solution for diverse applications. The enclosed software runs under Windows 98/2000/XP operating systems, it has convenient graphical interface simplifying measurements for untrained user. Operational characteristics of analyzer are as follows: gate and drain output voltage within limits of +/-10V measuring current range of 1pA ÷ 10 mA; lowest limit of interface states density characterization of ~10 9 cm -2 • eV -1. The instrument was designed on the base of component parts from CYPRESS and ANALOG DEVICES (USA).

  20. Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins

    SciT

    Ren, Huiying; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi

    The Community Land Model (CLM) represents physical, chemical, and biological processes of the terrestrial ecosystems that interact with climate across a range of spatial and temporal scales. As CLM includes numerous sub-models and associated parameters, the high-dimensional parameter space presents a formidable challenge for quantifying uncertainty and improving Earth system predictions needed to assess environmental changes and risks. This study aims to evaluate the potential of transferring hydrologic model parameters in CLM through sensitivity analyses and classification across watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) in the United States. The sensitivity of CLM-simulated water and energy fluxes to hydrologicalmore » parameters across 431 MOPEX basins are first examined using an efficient stochastic sampling-based sensitivity analysis approach. Linear, interaction, and high-order nonlinear impacts are all identified via statistical tests and stepwise backward removal parameter screening. The basins are then classified accordingly to their parameter sensitivity patterns (internal attributes), as well as their hydrologic indices/attributes (external hydrologic factors) separately, using a Principal component analyses (PCA) and expectation-maximization (EM) –based clustering approach. Similarities and differences among the parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class), the hydrologic indices-based classification (H-Class), and the Koppen climate classification systems (K-Class) are discussed. Within each S-class with similar parameter sensitivity characteristics, similar inversion modeling setups can be used for parameter calibration, and the parameters and their contribution or significance to water and energy cycling may also be more transferrable. This classification study provides guidance on identifiable parameters, and on parameterization and inverse model design for CLM but the methodology is applicable to other

  1. Practice parameter on disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Shaw, Jon A

    2013-11-01

    This Practice Parameter identifies best approaches to the assessment and management of children and adolescents across all phases of a disaster. Delivered within a disaster system of care, many interventions are appropriate for implementation in the weeks and months after a disaster. These include psychological first aid, family outreach, psychoeducation, social support, screening, and anxiety reduction techniques. The clinician should assess and monitor risk and protective factors across all phases of a disaster. Schools are a natural site for conducting assessments and delivering services to children. Multimodal approaches using social support, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral techniques have the strongest evidence base. Psychopharmacologic interventions are not generally used but may be necessary as an adjunct to other interventions for children with severe reactions or coexisting psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...

  3. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...

  4. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...

  5. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine-Preventable Adult Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... are hospitalized, and some even die. People with asthma or COPD are at higher risk for serious ...

  6. A study of parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herget, C. J.; Patterson, R. E., III

    1978-01-01

    A set of definitions for deterministic parameter identification ability were proposed. Deterministic parameter identificability properties are presented based on four system characteristics: direct parameter recoverability, properties of the system transfer function, properties of output distinguishability, and uniqueness properties of a quadratic cost functional. Stochastic parameter identifiability was defined in terms of the existence of an estimation sequence for the unknown parameters which is consistent in probability. Stochastic parameter identifiability properties are presented based on the following characteristics: convergence properties of the maximum likelihood estimate, properties of the joint probability density functions of the observations, and properties of the information matrix.

  7. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  8. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  9. Analysis of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae-Young; Suh, Seung-Woo; Modi, Hitesh N; Park, Jong-Woong; Park, Jung-Ho

    2011-08-15

    Prospective radiological analysis of patients with achondroplasia. To analyze sagittal spinal alignment and pelvic orientation in achondroplasia patients. Knowledge of sagittal spinopelvic parameters is important for the treatment of achondroplasia, because they differ from those of the normal population and can induce pain. The study and control groups were composed of 32 achondroplasia patients and 24 healthy volunteers, respectively. All underwent lateral radiography of the whole spine including hip joints. The radiographic parameters examined were sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence (PI), S1 overhang, thoracic kyphosis, T10-L2 kyphosis, lumbar lordosis (LL1, LL2), and sagittal balance. Statistical analysis was performed to identify significant differences between the two groups. In addition, correlations between parameters and symptoms were sought. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters, namely, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, S1 overhang, thoracic kyphosis, T10-L2 kyphosis, lumbar lordosis 1 and sagittal balance were found to be significantly different in the patient and control groups (P < 0.05). In addition, sagittal parameters were found to be related to each other in the patient group (P < 0.05), that is, PI was related to SS and pelvic tilt, and LL was related to thoracic kyphosis. Furthermore, in terms of relations between spinal and pelvic parameters, LL was related to SS and PI, and sagittal balance was related to SS and PI. Furthermore, LL and T10-L2 kyphosis were found to be related to pain (P < 0.05), whereas no other parameter was found to be related to VAS scores. Sagittal parameters and possible relationships between sagittal parameters and symptoms were found to be significantly different in achondroplasia patients and normal healthy controls. The present study shows that sagittal spinal and pelvic parameters can assist the treatment of spinal disorders in achondroplasia patients.

  10. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  11. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciT

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  12. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  13. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  14. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Included services. 441.520 Section 441.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... the following services: (1) Assistance with ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks through hands-on...

  15. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Included services. 441.520 Section 441.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... the following services: (1) Assistance with ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks through hands-on...

  16. 42 CFR 441.520 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Included services. 441.520 Section 441.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... the following services: (1) Assistance with ADLs, IADLs, and health-related tasks through hands-on...

  17. 34 CFR 300.20 - Include.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Include. 300.20 Section 300.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES...

  18. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  19. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  20. 34 CFR 300.20 - Include.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include. 300.20 Section 300.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES...

  1. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Included services. 410.100 Section 410.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF) Services...

  2. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this subpart apply to the following services, which include Wireless Radio Services in which commercial... chapter); (h) The Broadband Radio Service (part 27 of this chapter); (i) The Educational Broadband Service (part 27 of this chapter); (j) The Wireless Communications Service in the 698-746 MHz band (part 27 of...

  3. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following services, which include Wireless Radio Services in which commercial or private licensees hold...) The broadband Personal Communications Service (part 24 of this chapter); (h) The Broadband Radio...) The Wireless Communications Service in the 698-746 MHz band (part 27 of this chapter); (k) The...

  4. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this subpart apply to the following services, which include Wireless Radio Services in which commercial... chapter); (h) The Broadband Radio Service (part 27 of this chapter); (i) The Educational Broadband Service (part 27 of this chapter); (j) The Wireless Communications Service in the 698-746 MHz band (part 27 of...

  5. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  6. Geneva mechanism. [including star wheel and driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. H.; Kenney, R. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved Geneva mechanism is characterized by a driven star-wheel having a segmented cam-follower surface. Star-wheel driver includes a restraining cam having a segmented cam surface for engaging the cam-follower surface of the star-wheel and antifriction rollers pinned to the restraining cam for engaging the cam-follower surface.

  7. PV cells electrical parameters measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibira, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    When measuring optical parameters of a photovoltaic silicon cell, precise results bring good electrical parameters estimation, applying well-known physical-mathematical models. Nevertheless, considerable re-combination phenomena might occur in both surface and intrinsic thin layers within novel materials. Moreover, rear contact surface parameters may influence close-area re-combination phenomena, too. Therefore, the only precise electrical measurement approach is to prove assumed cell electrical parameters. Based on theoretical approach with respect to experiments, this paper analyses problems within measurement procedures and equipment used for electrical parameters acquisition within a photovoltaic silicon cell, as a case study. Statistical appraisal quality is contributed.

  8. Dynamic Analyses Including Joints Of Truss Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1991-01-01

    Method for mathematically modeling joints to assess influences of joints on dynamic response of truss structures developed in study. Only structures with low-frequency oscillations considered; only Coulomb friction and viscous damping included in analysis. Focus of effort to obtain finite-element mathematical models of joints exhibiting load-vs.-deflection behavior similar to measured load-vs.-deflection behavior of real joints. Experiments performed to determine stiffness and damping nonlinearities typical of joint hardware. Algorithm for computing coefficients of analytical joint models based on test data developed to enable study of linear and nonlinear effects of joints on global structural response. Besides intended application to large space structures, applications in nonaerospace community include ground-based antennas and earthquake-resistant steel-framed buildings.

  9. Combustor arrangement including flow control vanes

    SciT

    Rodriguez, Jose L.

    A combustor assembly (17) including guide vanes (44) located between an inner cylinder (24) and a flow sleeve (25). Each guide vane (44) includes a circumferentially angled flow directing portion (60) adjacent to a leading edge (46). The leading edge (46) of at least one guide vane (44) can be located radially inward along the longitudinal axis (54) relative to the leading edge (46) of at least one other of the guide vanes (44). The length of the guide vanes (44) may vary, and the circumferential spacing between a first pair of the guide vanes (44) can be different frommore » a spacing between a second pair of the guide vanes (44).« less

  10. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    SciT

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths,more » increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.« less

  11. Helicopter gust response characteristics including unsteady aerodynamic stall effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcidiacono, P. J.; Bergquist, R. R.; Alexander, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an analytical study to evaluate the general response characteristics of a helicopter subjected to various types of discrete gust encounters are presented. The analysis employed was a nonlinear coupled, multi-blade rotorfuselage analysis including the effects of blade flexibility and unsteady aerodynamic stall. Only the controls-fixed response of the basic aircraft without any aircraft stability augmentation was considered. A discussion of the basic differences between gust sensitivity of fixed and rotary wing aircraft is presented. The effects of several rotor configuration and aircraft operating parameters on initial gust-induced load factor and blade vibratory stress and pushrod loads are discussed.

  12. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Filinov, A.; Piel, A.; Bonitz, M.

    2007-09-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile [Henning , Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006)]. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, the LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principles simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals, we demonstrate that the two approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.

  13. Temporary agency contracts: what should they include?

    PubMed

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board committed to provide some tools to help our members with agency contracts. This article provides the sections for a contract and what they should include. Of course, the language will have to comply with your organization's requirements. To comply with HIPAA regulations for contracts, I've also included language for business associates. JCAHO requires that the following documentation be on file for all contracted personnel: 1. Hospital job description or formal contract outlining the job responsibilities. 2. All licenses, certifications and registrations are reviewed and a process is developed to ensure that they remain current. 3. Competency is evaluated and maintained. 4. Evidence that personnel received a general orientation. 5. Evidence that personnel received a departmental orientation. 6. Safety and infection control standards must be met. In order to aid with compliance when utilizing contracted personnel, my organization developed a Contractor Personnel Administrative Compliance Checklist, which identifies requirements for compliance, a reference for assistance, and places to record that the requirement has been met for each of the areas listed in the previous item. Our standard contract includes sections on general definition of engagement, credentials and work experience; health, including immunization and drug testing; corporation; JCAHO; terms of the contract; and, non-disclosure of information. A business associate agreement may be necessary to comply with HIPAA regulations. Using the template has made my job much easier than trying to read each contract that crosses my desk. If an agency refuses to sign our contract, then we do not conduct business with that company. If an agency requests changes to the contract, depending on the language, we may or may not agree to it. This information is not intended to be legal advice, but rather an educational overview. As with any contract, the reader should consult with legal counsel at his or her

  14. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  15. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  16. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Snitchler, Gregory L.; Gamble, Bruce B.; Voccio, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1991. [Glossary included

    SciT

    Not Available

    1991-04-29

    Data presented in the PSM (Petroleum Supply Monthly) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated,more » the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 14 figs., 65 tabs.« less

  18. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  19. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    SciT

    Miller, C W

    1984-01-01

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  20. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    PubMed

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  1. Fuel delivery system including heat exchanger means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel delivery system is presented wherein first and second heat exchanger means are each adapted to provide the transfer of heat between the fuel and a second fluid such as lubricating oil associated with the gas turbine engine. Valve means are included which are operative in a first mode to provide for flow of the second fluid through both first and second heat exchange means and further operative in a second mode for bypassing the second fluid around the second heat exchanger means.

  2. Ocean management plan includes array of recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    When U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore appeared in Monterey, California in June 1998 for a National Oceans Conference, some of the salt water spray from the Pacific Ocean must have clung to them.As a follow-up to the conference, the Clinton Administration on September 2 issued an interagency report to help guide federal efforts in establishing a comprehensive ocean policy.The report, which touches upon a number of global issues including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, contains nearly 150 recommendations.

  3. Apparatus for microbiological sampling. [including automatic swabbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automatic apparatus is described for microbiologically sampling surface using a cotton swab which eliminates human error. The apparatus includes a self-powered transport device, such as a motor-driven wheeled cart, which mounts a swabbing motor drive for a crank arm which supports a swab in the free end thereof. The swabbing motor is pivotably mounted and an actuator rod movable responsive to the cart traveling a predetermined distance provides lifting of the swab from the surface being sampled and reversal of the direction of travel of the cart.

  4. 76 FR 35026 - Hutchinson Technology, Inc., Including On-Site Workers Leased From Doherty, Including Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Technology, Inc., Including On-Site Workers Leased From Doherty, Including Workers Whose Unemployment... Technology, Inc., Including On-Site Workers Leased From Doherty, Including Workers Whose Unemployment..., Minnesota locations of the subject firm had their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI...

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1991. [Glossary included

    SciT

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated,more » the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 12 figs., 54 tabs.« less

  6. Inlet Guide Vane Wakes Including Rotor Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, R. T.; Fleeter, S.

    2001-02-01

    Fundamental experiments are described directed at the investigation of forcing functions generated by an inlet guide vane (IGV) row, including interactions with the downstream rotor, for application to turbomachine forced response design systems. The experiments are performed in a high-speed research fan facility comprised of an IGV row upstream of a rotor. IGV-rotor axial spacing is variable, with the IGV row able to be indexed circumferentially, thereby allowing measurements to be made across several IGV wakes. With an IGV relative Mach number of 0.29, measurements include the IGV wake pressure and velocity fields for three IGV-rotor axial spacings. The decay characteristics of the IGV wakes are compared to the Majjigi and Gliebe empirical correlations. After Fourier decomposition, a vortical-potential gust splitting analysis is implemented to determine the vortical and potential harmonic wake gust forcing functions both upstream and downstream of the rotor. Higher harmonics of the vortical gust component of the IGV wakes are found to decay at a uniform rate due to viscous diffusion.

  7. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  8. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    SciT

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactionsmore » may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs.« less

  9. Addressing Stillbirth in India Must Include Men.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa; Montgomery, Susanne; Ganesh, Gayatri; Kaur, Harinder Pal; Singh, Ratan

    2017-07-01

    Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important. Key informant interviews (n = 5) were analyzed and 28 structured interviews were conducted using a survey based on qualitative themes. Qualitative themes included men's dual burden and right to medical and reproductive decision making power. Wives were discouraged from expressing grief and pushed to conceive again. If not successful, particularly if a son was not conceived, a second wife was considered a solution. Quantitative data revealed that men with a history of stillbirths had greater anxiety and depression, perceived less social support, but had more egalitarian views towards women than men without stillbirth experience. At the same time fathers of stillbirths were more likely to be emotionally or physically abusive. Predictors of mental health, attitudes towards women, and perceived support are discussed. Patriarchal societal values, son preference, deficient women's autonomy, and sex-selective abortion perpetuate the risk for future poor infant outcomes, including stillbirth, and compounds the already higher risk of stillbirth for males. Grief interventions should explore and take into account men's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards reproductive decision making.

  10. Regional estimation of response routine parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøfte, Lena S.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing the number of calibration parameters is of a considerable advantage when area distributed hydrological models are to be calibrated, both due to equifinality and over-parameterization of the model in general, and for making the calibration process more efficient. A simple non-threshold response model for drainage in natural catchments based on among others Kirchner's article in WRR 2009 is implemented in the gridded hydrological model in the ENKI framework. This response model takes only the hydrogram into account; it has one state and two parameters, and is adapted to catchments that are dominated by terrain drainage. In former analyses of natural discharge series from a large number of catchments in different regions of Norway, we found that these response model parameters can be calculated from some known catchment characteristics, as catchment area and lake percentage, found in maps or data bases, meaning that the parameters can easily be found also for ungauged catchments. In the presented work from the EU project COMPLEX a large region in Mid-Norway containing 27 simulated catchments of different sizes and characteristics is calibrated. Results from two different calibration strategies are compared: 1) removing the response parameters from the calibration by calculating them in advance, based on the results from our former studies, and 2) including the response parameters in the calibration, both as maps with different values for each catchment, and as a constant number for the total region. The resulting simulation performances are compared and discussed.

  11. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  12. Corporations now included under Section 189

    SciT

    Arlinghaus, B.P.; Anderson, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This article examines some of the issues, including the ''real property'' question, that corporations may encounter in implementing the provisions of Code Section 189 and its regulations. The extension of 189 to regular corporations represents a significant change in congressional intent, since it was originally enacted as a reform measure and is now primarily a provision to raise revenue at a time when Congress is facing a large dificit. Code Section 189 was conceived and enacted in haste, however, and this expansion will undoubtedly have an adverse impact on capital investment at a time when stimulation is needed for themore » economy as a whole. The workload of the courts and the Internal Revenue Service will certainly increase. Careful drafting of the regulations could anticipate potential issues and clarify them in the drafting stage. The meaning of real property, capitalization rate, capitalization period, and self-constructed assets all need to be carefully addressed. 18 references.« less

  13. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    SciT

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, whereinmore » each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.« less

  14. Drapery assembly including insulated drapery liner

    DOEpatents

    Cukierski, Gwendolyn

    1983-01-01

    A drapery assembly is disclosed for covering a framed wall opening, the assembly including drapery panels hung on a horizontal traverse rod, the rod having a pair of master slides and means for displacing the master slides between open and closed positions. A pair of insulating liner panels are positioned behind the drapery, the remote side edges of the liner panels being connected with the side portions of the opening frame, and the adjacent side edges of the liner panels being connected with a pair of vertically arranged center support members adapted for sliding movement longitudinally of a horizontal track member secured to the upper horizontal portion of the opening frame. Pivotally arranged brackets connect the center support members with the master slides of the traverse rod whereby movement of the master slides to effect opening and closing of the drapery panels effects simultaneous opening and closing of the liner panels.

  15. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  16. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOEpatents

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  17. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOEpatents

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  18. Including eddies in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semtner, Albert J.; Chervin, Robert M.

    The ocean is a turbulent fluid that is driven by winds and by surface exchanges of heat and moisture. It is as important as the atmosphere in governing climate through heat distribution, but so little is known about the ocean that it remains a “final frontier” on the face of the Earth. Many ocean currents are truly global in extent, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the “conveyor belt” that connects the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans by flows around the southern tips of Africa and South America. It has long been a dream of some oceanographers to supplement the very limited observational knowledge by reconstructing the currents of the world ocean from the first principles of physics on a computer. However, until very recently, the prospect of doing this was thwarted by the fact that fluctuating currents known as “mesoscale eddies” could not be explicitly included in the calculation.

  19. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  20. Cosmological Parameters and Hyper-Parameters: The Hubble Constant from Boomerang and Maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahav, Ofer

    Recently several studies have jointly analysed data from different cosmological probes with the motivation of estimating cosmological parameters. Here we generalise this procedure to allow freedom in the relative weights of various probes. This is done by including in the joint likelihood function a set of `Hyper-Parameters', which are dealt with using Bayesian considerations. The resulting algorithm, which assumes uniform priors on the log of the Hyper-Parameters, is very simple to implement. We illustrate the method by estimating the Hubble constant H0 from different sets of recent CMB experiments (including Saskatoon, Python V, MSAM1, TOCO, Boomerang and Maxima). The approach can be generalised for a combination of cosmic probes, and for other priors on the Hyper-Parameters. Reference: Lahav, Bridle, Hobson, Lasenby & Sodre, 2000, MNRAS, in press (astro-ph/9912105)

  1. Real Gas Scale Effects on Hypersonic Laminar Boundary-Layer Parameters Including Effects of Entropy-Layer Swallowing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    crossed the essentially normal portion of the bow shock is swallowed by the boundary layer. The flow along the edge of the boundary layer on the aft...portions hf the body will then have passed through an oblique part of the bow shock and will be in a different state than had it passed through a normal...determination of the local edge flow conditions may be improvedby taking into con- sideration the inclination of the bow shock where the local flow stream- line

  2. Improved Estimates of Thermodynamic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques refined for estimating heat of vaporization and other parameters from molecular structure. Using parabolic equation with three adjustable parameters, heat of vaporization can be used to estimate boiling point, and vice versa. Boiling points and vapor pressures for some nonpolar liquids were estimated by improved method and compared with previously reported values. Technique for estimating thermodynamic parameters should make it easier for engineers to choose among candidate heat-exchange fluids for thermochemical cycles.

  3. Parameter estimation of qubit states with unknown phase parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    We discuss a problem of parameter estimation for quantum two-level system, qubit system, in presence of unknown phase parameter. We analyze trade-off relations for mean square errors (MSEs) when estimating relevant parameters with separable measurements based on known precision bounds; the symmetric logarithmic derivative (SLD) Cramér-Rao (CR) bound and Hayashi-Gill-Massar (HGM) bound. We investigate the optimal measurement which attains the HGM bound and discuss its properties. We show that the HGM bound for relevant parameters can be attained asymptotically by using some fraction of given n quantum states to estimate the phase parameter. We also discuss the Holevo bound which can be attained asymptotically by a collective measurement.

  4. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  5. Rainfall-Runoff Parameters Uncertainity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A.; Saghafian, B.; Maknoon, R.

    2003-04-01

    Karkheh river basin, located in southwest of Iran, drains an area of over 40000 km2 and is considered a flood active basin. A flood forecasting system is under development for the basin, which consists of a rainfall-runoff model, a river routing model, a reservior simulation model, and a real time data gathering and processing module. SCS, Clark synthetic unit hydrograph, and Modclark methods are the main subbasin rainfall-runoff transformation options included in the rainfall-runoff model. Infiltration schemes, such as exponentioal and SCS-CN methods, account for infiltration losses. Simulation of snow melt is based on degree day approach. River flood routing is performed by FLDWAV model based on one-dimensional full dynamic equation. Calibration and validation of the rainfall-runoff model on Karkheh subbasins are ongoing while the river routing model awaits cross section surveys.Real time hydrometeological data are collected by a telemetry network. The telemetry network is equipped with automatic sensors and INMARSAT-C comunication system. A geographic information system (GIS) stores and manages the spatial data while a database holds the hydroclimatological historical and updated time series. Rainfall runoff parameters uncertainty is analyzed by Monte Carlo and GLUE approaches.

  6. Articles including thin film monolayers and multilayers

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    Articles of manufacture including: (a) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, and a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, (b) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, and a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, (c) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, and a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and (d) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and a second metal species attached to the multifunctional organic ligand, are provided, such articles useful in detecting the presence of a selected target species, as nonliear optical materials, or as scavengers for selected target species.

  7. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  8. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOEpatents

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  9. 40 CFR 1037.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the... basic parameters of the vehicle's design and emission controls. List the fuel type on which your vehicles are designed to operate (for example, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel). (b) Explain how the emission...

  10. 40 CFR 1037.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the... basic parameters of the vehicle's design and emission controls. List the fuel type on which your vehicles are designed to operate (for example, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel). (b) Explain how the emission...

  11. Improved parameter inference in catchment models: 1. Evaluating parameter uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczera, George

    1983-10-01

    A Bayesian methodology is developed to evaluate parameter uncertainty in catchment models fitted to a hydrologic response such as runoff, the goal being to improve the chance of successful regionalization. The catchment model is posed as a nonlinear regression model with stochastic errors possibly being both autocorrelated and heteroscedastic. The end result of this methodology, which may use Box-Cox power transformations and ARMA error models, is the posterior distribution, which summarizes what is known about the catchment model parameters. This can be simplified to a multivariate normal provided a linearization in parameter space is acceptable; means of checking and improving this assumption are discussed. The posterior standard deviations give a direct measure of parameter uncertainty, and study of the posterior correlation matrix can indicate what kinds of data are required to improve the precision of poorly determined parameters. Finally, a case study involving a nine-parameter catchment model fitted to monthly runoff and soil moisture data is presented. It is shown that use of ordinary least squares when its underlying error assumptions are violated gives an erroneous description of parameter uncertainty.

  12. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  13. Dynamic model including piping acoustics of a centrifugal compression system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helvoirt, Jan; de Jager, Bram

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with low-frequency pulsation phenomena in full-scale centrifugal compression systems associated with compressor surge. The Greitzer lumped parameter model is applied to describe the dynamic behavior of an industrial compressor test rig and experimental evidence is provided for the presence of acoustic pulsations in the compression system under study. It is argued that these acoustic phenomena are common for full-scale compression systems where pipe system dynamics have a significant influence on the overall system behavior. The main objective of this paper is to extend the basic compressor model in order to include the relevant pipe system dynamics. For this purpose a pipeline model is proposed, based on previous developments for fluid transmission lines. The connection of this model to the lumped parameter model is accomplished via the selection of appropriate boundary conditions. Validation results will be presented, showing a good agreement between simulation and measurement data. The results indicate that the damping of piping transients depends on the nominal, time-varying pressure and flow velocity. Therefore, model parameters are made dependent on the momentary pressure and a switching nonlinearity is introduced into the model to vary the acoustic damping as a function of flow velocity. These modifications have limited success and the results indicate that a more sophisticated model is required to fully describe all (nonlinear) acoustic effects. However, the very good qualitative results show that the model adequately combines compressor and pipe system dynamics. Therefore, the proposed model forms a step forward in the analysis and modeling of surge in full-scale centrifugal compression systems and opens the path for further developments in this field.

  14. Determining wave direction using curvature parameters.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Eduardo Vitarelli; de Carvalho, João Luiz Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The curvature of the sea wave was tested as a parameter for estimating wave direction in the search for better results in estimates of wave direction in shallow waters, where waves of different sizes, frequencies and directions intersect and it is difficult to characterize. We used numerical simulations of the sea surface to determine wave direction calculated from the curvature of the waves. Using 1000 numerical simulations, the statistical variability of the wave direction was determined. The results showed good performance by the curvature parameter for estimating wave direction. Accuracy in the estimates was improved by including wave slope parameters in addition to curvature. The results indicate that the curvature is a promising technique to estimate wave directions.•In this study, the accuracy and precision of curvature parameters to measure wave direction are analyzed using a model simulation that generates 1000 wave records with directional resolution.•The model allows the simultaneous simulation of time-series wave properties such as sea surface elevation, slope and curvature and they were used to analyze the variability of estimated directions.•The simultaneous acquisition of slope and curvature parameters can contribute to estimates wave direction, thus increasing accuracy and precision of results.

  15. Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal

    2018-05-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.

  16. Advances in parameter estimation techniques applied to flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maben, Egbert; Zimmerman, David C.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, various parameter estimation techniques are investigated in the context of structural system identification utilizing distributed parameter models and 'measured' time-domain data. Distributed parameter models are formulated using the PDEMOD software developed by Taylor. Enhancements made to PDEMOD for this work include the following: (1) a Wittrick-Williams based root solving algorithm; (2) a time simulation capability; and (3) various parameter estimation algorithms. The parameter estimations schemes will be contrasted using the NASA Mini-Mast as the focus structure.

  17. Regionalization of response routine parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Sultan, Yisak A.

    2013-04-01

    When area distributed hydrological models are to be calibrated or updated, fewer calibration parameters is of a considerable advantage. Based on, among others, Kirchner, we have developed a simple non-threshold response model for drainage in natural catchments, to be used in the gridded hydrological model ENKI. The new response model takes only the hydrogram into account, it has one state and two parameters, and is adapted to catchments that are dominated by terrain drainage. The method is based on the assumption that in catchments where precipitation, evaporation and snowmelt is neglect able, the discharge is entirely determined by the amount of stored water. It can then be characterized as a simple first-order nonlinear dynamical system, where the governing equations can be found directly from measured stream flow fluctuations. This means that the response in the catchment can be modelled by using hydrogram data where all data from periods with rain, snowmelt or evaporation is left out, and adjust these series to a two or three parameter equation. A large number of discharge series from catchments in different regions in Norway are analyzed, and parameters found for all the series. By combining the computed parameters and known catchments characteristics, we try to regionalize the parameters. Then the parameters in the response routine can easily be found also for ungauged catchments, from maps or data bases.

  18. The multi-parameter remote measurement of rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.; Ulbrich, C. W.; Meneghini, R.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of rainfall by remote sensors is investigated. One parameter radar rainfall measurement is limited because both reflectivity and rain rate are dependent on at least two parameters of the drop size distribution (DSD), i.e., representative raindrop size and number concentration. A generalized rain parameter diagram is developed which includes a third distribution parameter, the breadth of the DSD, to better specify rain rate and all possible remote variables. Simulations show the improvement in accuracy attainable through the use of combinations of two and three remote measurables. The spectrum of remote measurables is reviewed. These include path integrated techniques of radiometry and of microwave and optical attenuation.

  19. A model for including thermal conduction in molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yue; Friauf, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is introduced for including thermal conduction in molecular dynamics simulations for solids. A model is developed to allow energy flow between the computational cell and the bulk of the solid when periodic boundary conditions cannot be used. Thermal conduction is achieved by scaling the velocities of atoms in a transitional boundary layer. The scaling factor is obtained from the thermal diffusivity, and the results show good agreement with the solution for a continuous medium at long times. The effects of different temperature and size of the system, and of variations in strength parameter, atomic mass, and thermal diffusivity were investigated. In all cases, no significant change in simulation results has been found.

  20. A comparison of models for supernova remnants including cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Drury, L. O'C.

    1992-11-01

    A simplified model which can follow the dynamical evolution of a supernova remnant including the acceleration of cosmic rays without carrying out full numerical simulations has been proposed by Drury, Markiewicz, & Voelk in 1989. To explore the accuracy and the merits of using such a model, we have recalculated with the simplified code the evolution of the supernova remnants considered in Jones & Kang, in which more detailed and accurate numerical simulations were done using a full hydrodynamic code based on the two-fluid approximation. For the total energy transferred to cosmic rays the two codes are in good agreement, the acceleration efficiency being the same within a factor of 2 or so. The dependence of the results of the two codes on the closure parameters for the two-fluid approximation is also qualitatively similar. The agreement is somewhat degraded in those cases where the shock is smoothed out by the cosmic rays.

  1. Electron Impact Ionization of Heavier Ions including relativistic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B. C.; Haque, A. K. F.; Uddin, M. A.; Basak, A. K.

    2006-11-01

    The demands of the electron impact ionization cross sections in diverse fields are enormous. And this is hard to fulfill either by experimental or ab initio calculations. So various analytical and semi-classical models are applied for a rapid generation of ionization cross sections accurately. We have applied a modified version [1] of the Bell et. al. equations [2] including both the ionic and relativistic corrections. In this report we show how to generalize the MBELL parameters for treating the orbital quantum numbers nl dependency; the accuracy of the procedure is tested by evaluating cross sections for various species and energies. Detail results will be presented at the meeting. [1] A. K. F. Haque, M. A. Uddin, A. K. Basak, K. R. Karim and B. C. Saha, Phys. Rev. A73, 052703 (2006). [2] K. L. Bell, H. B. Gilbody, J. G. Hughes, A. E. Kingston, and F. J. Smith, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 12, 891 (1983).

  2. LTPP Computed Parameter: Moisture Content

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compute in situ soil parameters based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) traces obtained from Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) test sections instrumented for the seasonal monitoring program (SMP). Ten TDR sensors were in...

  3. Parameter learning for performance adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peek, Mark D.; Antsaklis, Panos J.

    1990-01-01

    A parameter learning method is introduced and used to broaden the region of operability of the adaptive control system of a flexible space antenna. The learning system guides the selection of control parameters in a process leading to optimal system performance. A grid search procedure is used to estimate an initial set of parameter values. The optimization search procedure uses a variation of the Hooke and Jeeves multidimensional search algorithm. The method is applicable to any system where performance depends on a number of adjustable parameters. A mathematical model is not necessary, as the learning system can be used whenever the performance can be measured via simulation or experiment. The results of two experiments, the transient regulation and the command following experiment, are presented.

  4. Automated Optimization of Potential Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Michele, Di Pierro; Ron, Elber

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm and software to refine parameters of empirical energy functions according to condensed phase experimental measurements are discussed. The algorithm is based on sensitivity analysis and local minimization of the differences between experiment and simulation as a function of potential parameters. It is illustrated for a toy problem of alanine dipeptide and is applied to folding of the peptide WAAAH. The helix fraction is highly sensitive to the potential parameters while the slope of the melting curve is not. The sensitivity variations make it difficult to satisfy both observations simultaneously. We conjecture that there is no set of parameters that reproduces experimental melting curves of short peptides that are modeled with the usual functional form of a force field. PMID:24015115

  5. Control of Distributed Parameter Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    vari- ant of the general Lotka - Volterra model for interspecific competition. The variant described the emergence of one subpopulation from another as a...distribut ion unlimited. I&. ARSTRACT (MAUMUnw2O1 A unified arioroximation framework for Parameter estimation In general linear POE models has been completed...unified approximation framework for parameter estimation in general linear PDE models. This framework has provided the theoretical basis for a number of

  6. Telemetry methods for monitoring physiological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The use of telemetry to monitor various physiological functions is discussed. The advantages of the technique and the parameters that it can monitor are assessed, and the main telemetry systems, including pressure telemetry, flow telemetry, and multichannel telemetry, are detailed. Human applications of implanted flow transducers, total implant versus backpack telemetry, the use of power sources and integrated circuits in telemetry, and the future prospects of the technique in hypertension treatment and research are discussed.

  7. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, Andrew M.; Gross, Kenny C.; Kubic, William L.; Wigeland, Roald A.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions.

  8. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, A.M.; Gross, K.C.; Kubic, W.L.; Wigeland, R.A.

    1996-12-17

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process are disclosed. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions. 10 figs.

  9. Identifying parameter regions for multistationarity

    PubMed Central

    Conradi, Carsten; Mincheva, Maya; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical modelling has become an established tool for studying the dynamics of biological systems. Current applications range from building models that reproduce quantitative data to identifying systems with predefined qualitative features, such as switching behaviour, bistability or oscillations. Mathematically, the latter question amounts to identifying parameter values associated with a given qualitative feature. We introduce a procedure to partition the parameter space of a parameterized system of ordinary differential equations into regions for which the system has a unique or multiple equilibria. The procedure is based on the computation of the Brouwer degree, and it creates a multivariate polynomial with parameter depending coefficients. The signs of the coefficients determine parameter regions with and without multistationarity. A particular strength of the procedure is the avoidance of numerical analysis and parameter sampling. The procedure consists of a number of steps. Each of these steps might be addressed algorithmically using various computer programs and available software, or manually. We demonstrate our procedure on several models of gene transcription and cell signalling, and show that in many cases we obtain a complete partitioning of the parameter space with respect to multistationarity. PMID:28972969

  10. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciT

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  11. Application of Statistically Derived CPAS Parachute Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Ray, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) Analysis Team is responsible for determining parachute inflation parameters and dispersions that are ultimately used in verifying system requirements. A model memo is internally released semi-annually documenting parachute inflation and other key parameters reconstructed from flight test data. Dispersion probability distributions published in previous versions of the model memo were uniform because insufficient data were available for determination of statistical based distributions. Uniform distributions do not accurately represent the expected distributions since extreme parameter values are just as likely to occur as the nominal value. CPAS has taken incremental steps to move away from uniform distributions. Model Memo version 9 (MMv9) made the first use of non-uniform dispersions, but only for the reefing cutter timing, for which a large number of sample was available. In order to maximize the utility of the available flight test data, clusters of parachutes were reconstructed individually starting with Model Memo version 10. This allowed for statistical assessment for steady-state drag area (CDS) and parachute inflation parameters such as the canopy fill distance (n), profile shape exponent (expopen), over-inflation factor (C(sub k)), and ramp-down time (t(sub k)) distributions. Built-in MATLAB distributions were applied to the histograms, and parameters such as scale (sigma) and location (mu) were output. Engineering judgment was used to determine the "best fit" distribution based on the test data. Results include normal, log normal, and uniform (where available data remains insufficient) fits of nominal and failure (loss of parachute and skipped stage) cases for all CPAS parachutes. This paper discusses the uniform methodology that was previously used, the process and result of the statistical assessment, how the dispersions were incorporated into Monte Carlo analyses, and the application of the distributions in

  12. Estimating system parameters for solvent-water and plant cuticle-water using quantum chemically estimated Abraham solute parameters.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuzhen; Torralba-Sanchez, Tifany L; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2018-04-18

    Polyparameter Linear Free Energy Relationships (pp-LFERs) using Abraham system parameters have many useful applications. However, developing the Abraham system parameters depends on the availability and quality of the Abraham solute parameters. Using Quantum Chemically estimated Abraham solute Parameters (QCAP) is shown to produce pp-LFERs that have lower root mean square errors (RMSEs) of predictions for solvent-water partition coefficients than parameters that are estimated using other presently available methods. pp-LFERs system parameters are estimated for solvent-water, plant cuticle-water systems, and for novel compounds using QCAP solute parameters and experimental partition coefficients. Refitting the system parameter improves the calculation accuracy and eliminates the bias. Refitted models for solvent-water partition coefficients using QCAP solute parameters give better results (RMSE = 0.278 to 0.506 log units for 24 systems) than those based on ABSOLV (0.326 to 0.618) and QSPR (0.294 to 0.700) solute parameters. For munition constituents and munition-like compounds not included in the calibration of the refitted model, QCAP solute parameters produce pp-LFER models with much lower RMSEs for solvent-water partition coefficients (RMSE = 0.734 and 0.664 for original and refitted model, respectively) than ABSOLV (4.46 and 5.98) and QSPR (2.838 and 2.723). Refitting plant cuticle-water pp-LFER including munition constituents using QCAP solute parameters also results in lower RMSE (RMSE = 0.386) than that using ABSOLV (0.778) and QSPR (0.512) solute parameters. Therefore, for fitting a model in situations for which experimental data exist and system parameters can be re-estimated, or for which system parameters do not exist and need to be developed, QCAP is the quantum chemical method of choice.

  13. Coherence parameter measurements for neon and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Robert; Hargreaves, Leigh; Khakoo, Murtadha; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Stauffer, Al

    2015-09-01

    We present recent coherence parameter measurements for excitation of neon and hydrogen by 50 eV electrons. The measurements were made using a crossed electron/gas beam spectrometer, featuring a hemispherically selected electron energy analyzer for detecting scattered electrons and double-reflection VUV polarization analyzer to register fluorescence photons. Time-coincidence counting methods on the electron and photon signals were employed to determine Stokes Parameters at each scattering angle, with data measured at angles between 20 - 115 degrees. The data are compared with calculated results using the B-Spline R-Matrix (BSR) and Relativistic Distorted Wave (RDW) approaches. Measurements were made of both the linear (Plin and γ) and circular (Lperp) parameters for the lowest lying excited states in these two targets. We particularly focus on results in the Lperp parameter, which shows unusual behavior in these particular targets, including strong sign changes implying reversal of the angular momentum transfer. In the case of neon, the unusual behavior is well captured by the BSR, but not by other models.

  14. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  15. Catalogue of HI PArameters (CHIPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, J.; Benaglia, P.; Koribalski, B.; Andruchow, I.

    2015-08-01

    The catalogue of HI parameters of galaxies HI (CHIPA) is the natural continuation of the compilation by M.C. Martin in 1998. CHIPA provides the most important parameters of nearby galaxies derived from observations of the neutral Hydrogen line. The catalogue contains information of 1400 galaxies across the sky and different morphological types. Parameters like the optical diameter of the galaxy, the blue magnitude, the distance, morphological type, HI extension are listed among others. Maps of the HI distribution, velocity and velocity dispersion can also be display for some cases. The main objective of this catalogue is to facilitate the bibliographic queries, through searching in a database accessible from the internet that will be available in 2015 (the website is under construction). The database was built using the open source `` mysql (SQL, Structured Query Language, management system relational database) '', while the website was built with ''HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)'' and ''PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)''.

  16. Julia Sets in Parameter Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buff, X.; Henriksen, C.

    Given a complex number λ of modulus 1, we show that the bifurcation locus of the one parameter family {fb(z)=λz+bz2+z3}b∈ contains quasi-conformal copies of the quadratic Julia set J(λz+z2). As a corollary, we show that when the Julia set J(λz+z2) is not locally connected (for example when z|-->λz+z2 has a Cremer point at 0), the bifurcation locus is not locally connected. To our knowledge, this is the first example of complex analytic parameter space of dimension 1, with connected but non-locally connected bifurcation locus. We also show that the set of complex numbers λ of modulus 1, for which at least one of the parameter rays has a non-trivial accumulation set, contains a dense Gδ subset of S1.

  17. Nondimensional parameter for conformal grinding: combining machine and process parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funkenbusch, Paul D.; Takahashi, Toshio; Gracewski, Sheryl M.; Ruckman, Jeffrey L.

    1999-11-01

    Conformal grinding of optical materials with CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining equipment can be used to achieve precise control over complex part configurations. However complications can arise due to the need to fabricate complex geometrical shapes at reasonable production rates. For example high machine stiffness is essential, but the need to grind 'inside' small or highly concave surfaces may require use of tooling with less than ideal stiffness characteristics. If grinding generates loads sufficient for significant tool deflection, the programmed removal depth will not be achieved. Moreover since grinding load is a function of the volumetric removal rate the amount of load deflection can vary with location on the part, potentially producing complex figure errors. In addition to machine/tool stiffness and removal rate, load generation is a function of the process parameters. For example by reducing the feed rate of the tool into the part, both the load and resultant deflection/removal error can be decreased. However this must be balanced against the need for part through put. In this paper a simple model which permits combination of machine stiffness and process parameters into a single non-dimensional parameter is adapted for a conformal grinding geometry. Errors in removal can be minimized by maintaining this parameter above a critical value. Moreover, since the value of this parameter depends on the local part geometry, it can be used to optimize process settings during grinding. For example it may be used to guide adjustment of the feed rate as a function of location on the part to eliminate figure errors while minimizing the total grinding time required.

  18. Relationship between the erosion properties of soils and other parameters

    Soil parameters are essential for erosion process prediction and ultimately improved model development, especially as they relate to dam and levee failure. Soil parameters including soil texture and structure, soil classification, soil compaction, moisture content, and degree of saturation can play...

  19. Estimating winter wheat phenological parameters: Implications for crop modeling

    Crop parameters, such as the timing of developmental events, are critical for accurate simulation results in crop simulation models, yet uncertainty often exists in determining the parameters. Factors contributing to the uncertainty include: a) sources of variation within a plant (i.e., within diffe...

  20. Important parameters for smoke plume rise simulation with Daysmoke

    L. Liu; G.L. Achtemeier; S.L. Goodrick; W. Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Daysmoke is a local smoke transport model and has been used to provide smoke plume rise information. It includes a large number of parameters describing the dynamic and stochastic processes of particle upward movement, fallout, fluctuation, and burn emissions. This study identifies the important parameters for Daysmoke simulations of plume rise and seeks to understand...

  1. Parameter extraction and transistor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rykken, Charles; Meiser, Verena; Turner, Greg; Wang, QI

    1985-01-01

    Using specified mathematical models of the MOSFET device, the optimal values of the model-dependent parameters were extracted from data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three MOSFET models, all one-dimensional were used. One of the models took into account diffusion (as well as convection) currents. The sensitivity of the models was assessed for variations of the parameters from their optimal values. Lines of future inquiry are suggested on the basis of the behavior of the devices, of the limitations of the proposed models, and of the complexity of the required numerical investigations.

  2. On selecting satellite conjunction filter parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore; Finkleman, David

    2014-06-01

    This paper extends concepts of signal detection theory to predict the performance of conjunction screening techniques and guiding the selection of keepout and screening thresholds. The most efficient way to identify satellites likely to collide is to employ filters to identify orbiting pairs that should not come close enough over a prescribed time period to be considered hazardous. Such pairings can then be eliminated from further computation to accelerate overall processing time. Approximations inherent in filtering techniques include screening using only unperturbed Newtonian two body astrodynamics and uncertainties in orbit elements. Therefore, every filtering process is vulnerable to including objects that are not threats and excluding some that are threats, Type I and Type II errors. The approach in this paper guides selection of the best operating point for the filters suited to a user's tolerance for false alarms and unwarned threats. We demonstrate the approach using three archetypal filters with an initial three-day span, select filter parameters based on performance, and then test those parameters using eight historical snapshots of the space catalog. This work provides a mechanism for selecting filter parameters but the choices depend on the circumstances.

  3. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  4. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    DOE PAGES

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; ...

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmicmore » shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis« less

  5. Interrelationships Between 3 Keratoconic Cone Parameters.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kyaw L; Tourkmani, Abdo K; Srinivas, Singaram

    2017-09-01

    To find out the interrelationships between 3 parameters of the keratoconic cone. A total of 101 keratoconic eyes of 58 patients were included in this retrospective case series study. A complete eye examination was performed. Kmax (K) and pachymetry at the thinnest point (T) were obtained from the Pentacam tomographer. The vertex to thinnest pachymetry distance (D for decentration) was calculated using trigonometry. Pearson correlation coefficients between T and D, between T and K, and between D and K were calculated. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between thinnest point pachymetry and decentration (R = 0.366, P = 0.0002) and also statistically significant negative correlation between thinnest point pachymetry and Kmax (R = -0.719, P < 0.00001) and decentration and Kmax (R = -0.281, P = 0.0044). The interrelationships between the 3 keratoconic cone parameters suggest that the thinner cones are largely central, that is, decenter less, but show greater steepening.

  6. Attaining insight into interactions between hydrologic model parameters and geophysical attributes for national-scale model parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.; Newman, A. J.; Wood, A.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating spatially distributed model parameters is a grand challenge for large domain hydrologic modeling, especially in the context of hydrologic model applications such as streamflow forecasting. Multi-scale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) is a promising technique that accounts for the effects of fine-scale geophysical attributes (e.g., soil texture, land cover, topography, climate) on model parameters and nonlinear scaling effects on model parameters. MPR computes model parameters with transfer functions (TFs) that relate geophysical attributes to model parameters at the native input data resolution and then scales them using scaling functions to the spatial resolution of the model implementation. One of the biggest challenges in the use of MPR is identification of TFs for each model parameter: both functional forms and geophysical predictors. TFs used to estimate the parameters of hydrologic models typically rely on previous studies or were derived in an ad-hoc, heuristic manner, potentially not utilizing maximum information content contained in the geophysical attributes for optimal parameter identification. Thus, it is necessary to first uncover relationships among geophysical attributes, model parameters, and hydrologic processes (i.e., hydrologic signatures) to obtain insight into which and to what extent geophysical attributes are related to model parameters. We perform multivariate statistical analysis on a large-sample catchment data set including various geophysical attributes as well as constrained VIC model parameters at 671 unimpaired basins over the CONUS. We first calibrate VIC model at each catchment to obtain constrained parameter sets. Additionally, parameter sets sampled during the calibration process are used for sensitivity analysis using various hydrologic signatures as objectives to understand the relationships among geophysical attributes, parameters, and hydrologic processes.

  7. Methods for Linking Item Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    within and across data sets; all proportion-correct distributions were quite platykurtic . Biserial item-total correlations had relatively consistent...would produce a distribution of a parameters which had a larger mean and standard deviation, was more positively skewed, and was somewhat more platykurtic

  8. [Parameters of phoniatric examination of solo vocalists].

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Slobodan; Jović, Rajko; Aleksić, Vesna; Cvejić, Biserka

    2002-01-01

    A phoniatrist analyzes the professional's voice at the beginning of his vocal studies or career but also later, in cases of voice disorder. Phoniatric examination of professional singers must be done according to "all inclusive" protocols of examination. Such protocols must establish the status of basic elements of phonatory system: activator, generator and resonator of voice and articulatory space. All patients requiring phoniatric examination no matter if they are candidates for professional singers, need to provide anamnestic data about their previous problems regarding voice or singing. This examination is necessary and it must include: examination of nose, cavum oris, pharynx, ears and larynx. This analysis is based on evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological manifestations of voice. Determination of musical voice range during phoniatric examination does not intend to make any classification of voice, nor to suggest to vocal teacher what he should count upon from future singers. Musical range can be determined only by a phoniatrist skilled in music or with musical training, but first of all vocal teacher. These methods are used for examination of phonatory function, or laryngeal pathology. They are not invasive and give objective and quantitative information. They include: laryngostroboscopy, spectral analysis of voice (sonography) and fundamental parameters of voice signal (computer program). Articulation is very important for solo singers, because good articulation contributes to qualitative emission of sound and expression of emotions. Tonal-threshold audiometry is performed as a hearing test. They include rhinomanometry, vital capacity measurements, maximal phonation time and phonation quotient. Phoniatric examination is a necessary proceeding which must be performed before admission to the academy of solo singing, and then during singers' education and career. The phoniatric protocol must include a minimal number of parameters, which can be

  9. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    SciT

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  10. Attitude determination and parameter estimation using vector observations - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for attitude determination based on Wahba's loss function are generalized to include the estimation of parameters other than the attitude, such as sensor biases. Optimization with respect to the attitude is carried out using the q-method, which does not require an a priori estimate of the attitude. Optimization with respect to the other parameters employs an iterative approach, which does require an a priori estimate of these parameters. Conventional state estimation methods require a priori estimates of both the parameters and the attitude, while the algorithm presented in this paper always computes the exact optimal attitude for given values of the parameters. Expressions for the covariance of the attitude and parameter estimates are derived.

  11. Presupernova Evolution of Differentially Rotating Massive Stars Including Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, A.; Woosley, S. E.; Spruit, H. C.

    2005-06-01

    As a massive star evolves through multiple stages of nuclear burning on its way to becoming a supernova, a complex, differentially rotating structure is set up. Angular momentum is transported by a variety of classic instabilities and also by magnetic torques from fields generated by the differential rotation. We present the first stellar evolution calculations to follow the evolution of rotating massive stars including, at least approximately, all these effects, magnetic and nonmagnetic, from the zero-age main sequence until the onset of iron-core collapse. The evolution and action of the magnetic fields is as described by Spruit in 2002, and a range of uncertain parameters is explored. In general, we find that magnetic torques decrease the final rotation rate of the collapsing iron core by about a factor of 30-50 when compared with the nonmagnetic counterparts. Angular momentum in that part of the presupernova star destined to become a neutron star is an increasing function of main-sequence mass. That is, pulsars derived from more massive stars rotate faster and rotation plays a more important role in the star's explosion. The final angular momentum of the core has been determined-to within a factor of 2-by the time the star ignites carbon burning. For the lighter stars studied, around 15 Msolar, we predict pulsar periods at birth near 15 ms, though a factor of 2 range is easily tolerated by the uncertainties. Several mechanisms for additional braking in a young neutron star, especially by fallback, are explored.

  12. GRAVSAT/GEOPAUSE covariance analysis including geopotential aliasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    A conventional covariance analysis for the GRAVSAT/GEOPAUSE mission is described in which the uncertainties of approximately 200 parameters, including the geopotential coefficients to degree and order 12, are estimated over three different tracking intervals. The estimated orbital uncertainties for both GRAVSAT and GEOPAUSE reach levels more accurate than presently available. The adjusted measurement bias errors approach the mission goal. Survey errors in the low centimeter range are achieved after ten days of tracking. The ability of the mission to obtain accuracies of geopotential terms to (12, 12) one to two orders of magnitude superior to present accuracy levels is clearly shown. A unique feature of this report is that the aliasing structure of this (12, 12) field is examined. It is shown that uncertainties for unadjusted terms to (12, 12) still exert a degrading effect upon the adjusted error of an arbitrarily selected term of lower degree and order. Finally, the distribution of the aliasing from the unestimated uncertainty of a particular high degree and order geopotential term upon the errors of all remaining adjusted terms is listed in detail.

  13. Generalization of Equivalent Crystal Theory to Include Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-01-01

    In the original Equivalent Crystal Theory, each atomic site in the real crystal is assigned an equivalent lattice constant, in general different from the ground state one. This parameter corresponds to a local compression or expansion of the lattice. The basic method considers these volumetric transformations and, in addition, introduces the possibility that the reference lattice is anisotropically distorted. These distortions however, were introduced ad-hoc. In this work, we generalize the original Equivalent Crystal Theory by systematically introducing site-dependent directional distortions of the lattice, whose corresponding distortions account for the dependence of the energy on anisotropic local density variations. This is done in the spirit of the original framework, but including a gradient term in the density. This approach is introduced to correct a deficiency in the original Equivalent Crystal Theory and other semiempirical methods in quantitatively obtaining the correct ratios of the surface energies of low index planes of cubic metals (100), (110), and (111). We develop here the basic framework, and apply it to the calculation of Fe (110) and Fe (111) surface energy formation. The results, compared with first principles calculations, show an improvement over previous semiempirical approaches.

  14. Effect of correlated observation error on parameters, predictions, and uncertainty

    Tiedeman, Claire; Green, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Correlations among observation errors are typically omitted when calculating observation weights for model calibration by inverse methods. We explore the effects of omitting these correlations on estimates of parameters, predictions, and uncertainties. First, we develop a new analytical expression for the difference in parameter variance estimated with and without error correlations for a simple one-parameter two-observation inverse model. Results indicate that omitting error correlations from both the weight matrix and the variance calculation can either increase or decrease the parameter variance, depending on the values of error correlation (ρ) and the ratio of dimensionless scaled sensitivities (rdss). For small ρ, the difference in variance is always small, but for large ρ, the difference varies widely depending on the sign and magnitude of rdss. Next, we consider a groundwater reactive transport model of denitrification with four parameters and correlated geochemical observation errors that are computed by an error-propagation approach that is new for hydrogeologic studies. We compare parameter estimates, predictions, and uncertainties obtained with and without the error correlations. Omitting the correlations modestly to substantially changes parameter estimates, and causes both increases and decreases of parameter variances, consistent with the analytical expression. Differences in predictions for the models calibrated with and without error correlations can be greater than parameter differences when both are considered relative to their respective confidence intervals. These results indicate that including observation error correlations in weighting for nonlinear regression can have important effects on parameter estimates, predictions, and their respective uncertainties.

  15. Angiodrastic Chemokines in Colorectal Cancer: Clinicopathological Correlations.

    PubMed

    Emmanouil, George; Ayiomamitis, George; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Tzardi, Maria; Moursellas, Andrew; Voumvouraki, Argyro; Kouroumalis, Elias

    2018-01-01

    To study the expression of angiodrastic chemokines in colorectal tumors and correlate findings with clinicopathological parameters and survival. The proangiogenic factor VEGF, the angiogenic chemokines CXCL8 and CXCL6, and the angiostatic chemokine CXCL4 were measured by ELISA in tumor and normal tissue of 35 stage II and III patients and correlated with the histopathology markers Ki67, p53, p21, bcl2, EGFR, and MLH1 and 5-year survival. The Wilcoxon and chi-square tests were used for statistical comparisons. There was a significant increase of CXCL6 ( p = 0.005) and VEGF ( p = 0.003) in cancerous tissue compared to normal. Patients with lower levels of CXCL8 and CXCL4 lived significantly longer. Patients with loss of EGFR expression had higher levels of CXCL8 while p21 loss was associated with higher levels of CXCL6. Chemokine levels were not correlated with TNM or Dukes classification. Strong expression of p53 was accompanied by decreased survival. (1) The angiogenic factors CXCL6 and VEGF are increased in colorectal cancer tissue with no association with the clinical stage of the disease or survival. (2) However, increased levels of tissue CXCL8 and CXCL4 are associated with poor survival. (3) Strong expression of p53 is found in patients with poor survival.

  16. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken IL-8

    Limited information on chicken cytokines and chemokines hinders progress in understaidng the role of cell-mediated immunity in infections. Interleukin-8/CXCL8 (IL-8) is a CXC-family chemokine produced by fibroblasts and other cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils, a...

  17. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with chicken IL-8

    Interleukin-8/CXCL8 (IL-8) is a CXC-family chemokine produced by fibroblasts and other cell types including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils and macrophages. Since IL-8 has functions to attract lymphocytes to sites of tissue damage, it plays a role in inflammatory responses and wound...

  18. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken IL-8

    Interleukin-8/CXCL8 (IL-8) is a CXC-family chemokine produced by fibroblasts and other cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Given that IL-8 attracts lymphocytes to the sites of tissue damage, IL-8 plays a role in the inflammatory response and woun...

  19. Parameter estimation in plasmonic QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahromi, H. Rangani

    2018-03-01

    We address the problem of parameter estimation in the presence of plasmonic modes manipulating emitted light via the localized surface plasmons in a plasmonic waveguide at the nanoscale. The emitter that we discuss is the nitrogen vacancy centre (NVC) in diamond modelled as a qubit. Our goal is to estimate the β factor measuring the fraction of emitted energy captured by waveguide surface plasmons. The best strategy to obtain the most accurate estimation of the parameter, in terms of the initial state of the probes and different control parameters, is investigated. In particular, for two-qubit estimation, it is found although we may achieve the best estimation at initial instants by using the maximally entangled initial states, at long times, the optimal estimation occurs when the initial state of the probes is a product one. We also find that decreasing the interqubit distance or increasing the propagation length of the plasmons improve the precision of the estimation. Moreover, decrease of spontaneous emission rate of the NVCs retards the quantum Fisher information (QFI) reduction and therefore the vanishing of the QFI, measuring the precision of the estimation, is delayed. In addition, if the phase parameter of the initial state of the two NVCs is equal to πrad, the best estimation with the two-qubit system is achieved when initially the NVCs are maximally entangled. Besides, the one-qubit estimation has been also analysed in detail. Especially, we show that, using a two-qubit probe, at any arbitrary time, enhances considerably the precision of estimation in comparison with one-qubit estimation.

  20. Comment on Modified Stokes Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.M.; Utku, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in passive microwave remote sensing (microwave radiometry) to express observables as temperatures and in the case of polarimetric radiometry to use what are called "Modified Stokes Parameters in Brightness Temperature" to describe the scene. However, definitions with slightly different normalization (with and without division by bandwidth) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an analysis to clarify the meaning of terms in the definition and resolve the question of the proper normalization.

  1. A parameter estimation subroutine package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierman, G. J.; Nead, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Linear least squares estimation and regression analyses continue to play a major role in orbit determination and related areas. FORTRAN subroutines have been developed to facilitate analyses of a variety of parameter estimation problems. Easy to use multipurpose sets of algorithms are reported that are reasonably efficient and which use a minimal amount of computer storage. Subroutine inputs, outputs, usage and listings are given, along with examples of how these routines can be used.

  2. [Comparison among three translucency parameters].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiong; Hui, Xia

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to compare the three commonly used translucency parameters in prosthodontics: transmittance (T), contrast ratio (CR), and translucency parameter (TP). Six platelet specimens were composed of Vita enamel and dental porcelain. The initial thickness was 1.2 mm. The specimens were gradually ground to 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.2 mm. T, color parameters, and reflection were measured by a spectrocolorimeter for each corresponding thickness. T, CR and TP were calculated and compared. TP increased, whereas CR decreased, with decreasing thickness. Moreover, 
T increased with decreasing thickness, and exponential relationships were found. Two-way ANOVA showed statistical significance between T and thickness, except between T and the 1.2 mm and 1.0 mm enamel porcelain groups. No difference was found among the coefficient variations (CV) of T, CR and TP. Curve fitting indicated the existence of exponential relationships between T and CR and between T and TP. The values for goodness of fit with statistical significance were 0.951 and 0.939, respectively (P<0.05). Under the experimental conditions, T, TP and CR achieved the same CV. T and TP, as well as T and CR, were found with exponential relationships. The value of CR and TP could not represent the translucency precisely, especially when comparing the changing ratios.

  3. GRCop-84 Rolling Parameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a section of the final report on the GRCop-84 task of the Constellation Program and incorporates the results obtained between October 2000 and September 2005, when the program ended. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a new copper alloy, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), for rocket engine main combustion chamber components that will improve rocket engine life and performance. This work examines the sensitivity of GRCop-84 mechanical properties to rolling parameters as a means to better define rolling parameters for commercial warm rolling. Experiment variables studied were total reduction, rolling temperature, rolling speed, and post rolling annealing heat treatment. The responses were tensile properties measured at 23 and 500 C, hardness, and creep at three stress-temperature combinations. Understanding these relationships will better define boundaries for a robust commercial warm rolling process. The four processing parameters were varied within limits consistent with typical commercial production processes. Testing revealed that the rolling-related variables selected have a minimal influence on tensile, hardness, and creep properties over the range of values tested. Annealing had the expected result of lowering room temperature hardness and strength while increasing room temperature elongations with 600 C (1112 F) having the most effect. These results indicate that the process conditions to warm roll plate and sheet for these variables can range over wide levels without negatively impacting mechanical properties. Incorporating broader process ranges in future rolling campaigns should lower commercial rolling costs through increased productivity.

  4. IVS Pilot Project - Tropospheric Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.; Schuh, H.; Engelhardt, G.; MacMillan, D.; Lanotte, R.; Tomasi, P.; Vereshchagina, I.; Haas, R.; Negusini, M.; Gubanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    In April 2002 the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry) set up the IVS Pilot Project - Tropospheric Parameters and the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG), Vienna, was asked to coordinate the project. After a call for participation six IVS Analysis Centers have joined the project and submitted their estimates of tropospheric parameters (wet and total zenith delays, horizontal gradients) for all IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions since January 1st, 2002, on a regular basis. Using a two-step procedure the individual submissions are combined to stable and robust tropospheric parameters with 1h resolution and high accuracy. The zenith delays derived by VLBI are also compared with those provided by IGS (International GPS Service). At collocated sites (VLBI and GPS antennas at the same station) rather constant biases are found between the GPS and VLBI derived zenith delays, although both techniques are subject to the same tropospheric delays. Possible reasons for these biases are discussed.

  5. Neutron cross sections. Volume I. Resonance parameters

    SciT

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Garber, D.I.

    1973-06-01

    In contrast to earlier editions, which presented in compact form a summary of the complete store of the neutron data files, this edition aims to provide those portions of neutron data considered to be of prime importance and best suited for inclusion in ready reference form. This volume contains thermal cross sections, resonance properties, resonance parameters, and bibliography for nuclides from H to /sup 257/Fm. Notation and nomenclature, considerations involved in the recommendations, and a table of energyordered resonances are also included. (RWR)

  6. Plasma Parameters From Reentry Signal Attenuation

    DOE PAGES

    Statom, T. K.

    2018-02-27

    This study presents the application of a theoretically developed method that provides plasma parameter solution space information from measured RF attenuation that occurs during reentry. The purpose is to provide reentry plasma parameter information from the communication signal attenuation. The theoretical development centers around the attenuation and the complex index of refraction. The methodology uses an imaginary index of the refraction matching algorithm with a tolerance to find suitable solutions that satisfy the theory. The imaginary matching terms are then used to determine the real index of refraction resulting in the complex index of refraction. Then a filter is usedmore » to reject nonphysical solutions. Signal attenuation-based plasma parameter properties investigated include the complex index of refraction, plasma frequency, electron density, collision frequency, propagation constant, attenuation constant, phase constant, complex plasma conductivity, and electron mobility. RF plasma thickness attenuation is investigated and compared to the literature. Finally, similar plasma thickness for a specific signal attenuation can have different plasma properties.« less

  7. Parameter Estimation of Spacecraft Fuel Slosh Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marlowe, Andrea; Njengam Charles

    2004-01-01

    Fuel slosh in the upper stages of a spinning spacecraft during launch has been a long standing concern for the success of a space mission. Energy loss through the movement of the liquid fuel in the fuel tank affects the gyroscopic stability of the spacecraft and leads to nutation (wobble) which can cause devastating control issues. The rate at which nutation develops (defined by Nutation Time Constant (NTC can be tedious to calculate and largely inaccurate if done during the early stages of spacecraft design. Pure analytical means of predicting the influence of onboard liquids have generally failed. A strong need exists to identify and model the conditions of resonance between nutation motion and liquid modes and to understand the general characteristics of the liquid motion that causes the problem in spinning spacecraft. A 3-D computerized model of the fuel slosh that accounts for any resonant modes found in the experimental testing will allow for increased accuracy in the overall modeling process. Development of a more accurate model of the fuel slosh currently lies in a more generalized 3-D computerized model incorporating masses, springs and dampers. Parameters describing the model include the inertia tensor of the fuel, spring constants, and damper coefficients. Refinement and understanding the effects of these parameters allow for a more accurate simulation of fuel slosh. The current research will focus on developing models of different complexity and estimating the model parameters that will ultimately provide a more realistic prediction of Nutation Time Constant obtained through simulation.

  8. Plasma Parameters From Reentry Signal Attenuation

    SciT

    Statom, T. K.

    This study presents the application of a theoretically developed method that provides plasma parameter solution space information from measured RF attenuation that occurs during reentry. The purpose is to provide reentry plasma parameter information from the communication signal attenuation. The theoretical development centers around the attenuation and the complex index of refraction. The methodology uses an imaginary index of the refraction matching algorithm with a tolerance to find suitable solutions that satisfy the theory. The imaginary matching terms are then used to determine the real index of refraction resulting in the complex index of refraction. Then a filter is usedmore » to reject nonphysical solutions. Signal attenuation-based plasma parameter properties investigated include the complex index of refraction, plasma frequency, electron density, collision frequency, propagation constant, attenuation constant, phase constant, complex plasma conductivity, and electron mobility. RF plasma thickness attenuation is investigated and compared to the literature. Finally, similar plasma thickness for a specific signal attenuation can have different plasma properties.« less

  9. Parameter extraction with neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

    1998-06-01

    In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs

  10. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  11. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (ℓ ≳ 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be θ∗ = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, Ωbh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, Ωch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, Ωm = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ΛCDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to

  12. Preliminary Estimation of Kappa Parameter in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Davor; Markušić, Snježana; Ivančić, Ines; Mario, Gazdek; Gülerce, Zeynep

    2017-12-01

    Spectral parameter kappa κ is used to describe spectral amplitude decay “crash syndrome” at high frequencies. The purpose of this research is to estimate spectral parameter kappa for the first time in Croatia based on small and moderate earthquakes. Recordings of local earthquakes with magnitudes higher than 3, epicentre distances less than 150 km, and focal depths less than 30 km from seismological stations in Croatia are used. The value of kappa was estimated from the acceleration amplitude spectrum of shear waves from the slope of the high-frequency part where the spectrum starts to decay rapidly to a noise floor. Kappa models as a function of a site and distance were derived from a standard linear regression of kappa-distance dependence. Site kappa was determined from the extrapolation of the regression line to a zero distance. The preliminary results of site kappa across Croatia are promising. In this research, these results are compared with local site condition parameters for each station, e.g. shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m from geophysical measurements and with existing global shear wave velocity - site kappa values. Spatial distribution of individual kappa’s is compared with the azimuthal distribution of earthquake epicentres. These results are significant for a couple of reasons: to extend the knowledge of the attenuation of near-surface crust layers of the Dinarides and to provide additional information on the local earthquake parameters for updating seismic hazard maps of studied area. Site kappa can be used in the re-creation, and re-calibration of attenuation of peak horizontal and/or vertical acceleration in the Dinarides area since information on the local site conditions were not included in the previous studies.

  13. Beyond six parameters: Extending Λ CDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a six-parameter Λ CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to 12 cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational wave background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization), we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard Λ CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, Alens , which is larger than the expected value at more than 2 standard deviations, even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external data sets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis constrains the value of the rms density fluctuation parameter to σ8=0.781-0.063+0.065 at 95 % C.L., helping to relieve the possible tensions with the CFHTlenS cosmic shear survey. We also find a lower value for the reionization optical depth τ =0.058-0.043+0.040 at 95 % C.L. with respect to the one derived under the assumption of Λ CDM . The scalar spectral index nS is now compatible with a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum to within 2.5 standard deviations. Combining the Planck data set with the Hubble Space Telescope prior on the Hubble constant provides a value for the equation of state w <-1 at more than 2 standard deviations, while the neutrino effective number is fully compatible with the expectations of the standard three neutrino framework.

  14. Observation model and parameter partials for the JPL VLBI parameter estimation software MASTERFIT-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Fanselow, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a revision of the document of the same title (1986), dated August 1, which it supersedes. Model changes during 1986 and 1987 included corrections for antenna feed rotation, refraction in modelling antenna axis offsets, and an option to employ improved values of the semiannual and annual nutation amplitudes. Partial derivatives of the observables with respect to an additional parameter (surface temperature) are now available. New versions of two figures representing the geometric delay are incorporated. The expressions for the partial derivatives with respect to the nutation parameters have been corrected to include contributions from the dependence of UTI on nutation. The authors hope to publish revisions of this document in the future, as modeling improvements warrant.

  15. Observation model and parameter partials for the JPL VLBI parameter estimation software MASTERFIT-1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Fanselow, J. L.

    1987-12-01

    This report is a revision of the document of the same title (1986), dated August 1, which it supersedes. Model changes during 1986 and 1987 included corrections for antenna feed rotation, refraction in modelling antenna axis offsets, and an option to employ improved values of the semiannual and annual nutation amplitudes. Partial derivatives of the observables with respect to an additional parameter (surface temperature) are now available. New versions of two figures representing the geometric delay are incorporated. The expressions for the partial derivatives with respect to the nutation parameters have been corrected to include contributions from the dependence of UTI on nutation. The authors hope to publish revisions of this document in the future, as modeling improvements warrant.

  16. [Parameter fitting for cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Banda González, Rosa Isela; Castillo Castillo, Salvador; Roque Lee, Graciela

    Programming a patient with cochlear impant follows a standardized and individualized protocol, although there is a percentage of users in which, for some reason, it is not possible to establish appropriate levels of stimulation. In these patients, the audiologist has to make adjustments in some special parameters such as a change in the strategy, stimulation rate, pulse width, among others, in order to obtain an auditory performance as expected. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuning Parameters in Heuristics by Using Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith; Unal, Resit

    2010-01-01

    With the growing complexity of today's large scale problems, it has become more difficult to find optimal solutions by using exact mathematical methods. The need to find near-optimal solutions in an acceptable time frame requires heuristic approaches. In many cases, however, most heuristics have several parameters that need to be "tuned" before they can reach good results. The problem then turns into "finding best parameter setting" for the heuristics to solve the problems efficiently and timely. One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT) approach for parameter tuning neglects the interactions between parameters. Design of Experiments (DOE) tools can be instead employed to tune the parameters more effectively. In this paper, we seek the best parameter setting for a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem in which n jobs must be scheduled on a single machine without preemption, and the objective is to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Benchmark instances for the problem are available in the literature. To fine tune the GA parameters in the most efficient way, we compare multiple DOE models including 2-level (2k ) full factorial design, orthogonal array design, central composite design, D-optimal design and signal-to-noise (SIN) ratios. In each DOE method, a mathematical model is created using regression analysis, and solved to obtain the best parameter setting. After verification runs using the tuned parameter setting, the preliminary results for optimal solutions of multiple instances were found efficiently.

  18. Four new massive pulsating white dwarfs including an ultramassive DAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curd, Brandon; Gianninas, A.; Bell, Keaton J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Romero, A. D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of four massive (M > 0.8 M⊙) ZZ Ceti white dwarfs, including an ultramassive 1.16 M⊙ star. We obtained ground-based, time series photometry for 13 white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and Data Release 10 whose atmospheric parameters place them within the ZZ Ceti instability strip. We detect monoperiodic pulsations in three of our targets (J1015, J1554 and J2038) and identify three periods of pulsation in J0840 (173, 327 and 797 s). Fourier analysis of the remaining nine objects does not indicate variability above the 4 detection threshold. Our preliminary asteroseismic analysis of J0840 yields a stellar mass M = 1.14 ± 0.01 M⊙, hydrogen and helium envelope masses of MH = 5.8 × 10-7 M⊙ and MHe = 4.5 × 10-4 M⊙ and an expected core crystallized mass ratio of 50-70 per cent. J1015, J1554 and J2038 have masses in the range 0.84-0.91 M⊙ and are expected to have a CO core; however, the core of J0840 could consist of highly crystallized CO or ONeMg given its high mass. These newly discovered massive pulsators represent a significant increase in the number of known ZZ Ceti white dwarfs with mass M > 0.85 M⊙, and detailed asteroseismic modelling of J0840 will allow for significant tests of crystallization theory in CO and ONeMg core white dwarfs.

  19. Volume-energy parameters for heat transfer to supercritical fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumakawa, A.; Niino, M.; Hendricks, R. C.; Giarratano, P. J.; Arp, V. D.

    1986-01-01

    Reduced Nusselt numbers of supercritical fluids from different sources were grouped by several volume-energy parameters. A modified bulk expansion parameter was introduced based on a comparative analysis of data scatter. Heat transfer experiments on liquefied methane were conducted under near-critical conditions in order to confirm the usefulness of the parameters. It was experimentally revealed that heat transfer characteristics of near-critical methane are similar to those of hydrogen. It was shown that the modified bulk expansion parameter and the Gibbs-energy parameter grouped the heat transfer data of hydrogen, oxygen and methane including the present data on near-critical methane. It was also indicated that the effects of surface roughness on heat transfer were very important in grouping the data of high Reynolds numbers.

  20. Wearable vital parameters monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caramaliu, Radu Vadim; Vasile, Alexandru; Bacis, Irina

    2015-02-01

    The system we propose monitors body temperature, heart rate and beside this, it tracks if the person who wears it suffers a faint. It uses a digital temperature sensor, a pulse sensor and a gravitational acceleration sensor to monitor the eventual faint or small heights free falls. The system continuously tracks the GPS position when available and stores the last valid data. So, when measuring abnormal vital parameters the module will send an SMS, using the GSM cellular network , with the person's social security number, the last valid GPS position for that person, the heart rate, the body temperature and, where applicable, a valid fall alert or non-valid fall alert. Even though such systems exist, they contain only faint detection or heart rate detection. Usually there is a strong correlation between low/high heart rate and an eventual faint. Combining both features into one system results in a more reliable detection device.

  1. Stellar Parameters for Trappist-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fernandes, Catarina S.; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Scuflaire, Richard; Burgasser, Adam J.; Barkaoui, Khalid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Demory, Brice-Olivier; de Wit, Julien; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2018-01-01

    TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star transited by seven Earth-sized planets, for which thorough characterization of atmospheric properties, surface conditions encompassing habitability, and internal compositions is possible with current and next-generation telescopes. Accurate modeling of the star is essential to achieve this goal. We aim to obtain updated stellar parameters for TRAPPIST-1 based on new measurements and evolutionary models, compared to those used in discovery studies. We present a new measurement for the parallax of TRAPPIST-1, 82.4 ± 0.8 mas, based on 188 epochs of observations with the TRAPPIST and Liverpool Telescopes from 2013 to 2016. This revised parallax yields an updated luminosity of {L}* =(5.22+/- 0.19)× {10}-4 {L}ȯ , which is very close to the previous estimate but almost two times more precise. We next present an updated estimate for TRAPPIST-1 stellar mass, based on two approaches: mass from stellar evolution modeling, and empirical mass derived from dynamical masses of equivalently classified ultracool dwarfs in astrometric binaries. We combine them using a Monte-Carlo approach to derive a semi-empirical estimate for the mass of TRAPPIST-1. We also derive estimate for the radius by combining this mass with stellar density inferred from transits, as well as an estimate for the effective temperature from our revised luminosity and radius. Our final results are {M}* =0.089+/- 0.006 {M}ȯ , {R}* =0.121+/- 0.003 {R}ȯ , and {T}{eff} = 2516 ± 41 K. Considering the degree to which the TRAPPIST-1 system will be scrutinized in coming years, these revised and more precise stellar parameters should be considered when assessing the properties of TRAPPIST-1 planets.

  2. Generalized Grueneisen tensor from solid nonlinearity parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Anharmonic effects in solids are often described in terms of generalized Grueneisen parameters which measure the strain dependence of the lattice vibrational frequencies. The relationship between these parameters and the solid nonlinearity parameters measured directly in ultrasonic harmonic generation experiments is derived using an approach valid for normal-mode elastic wave propagation in any crystalline direction. The resulting generalized Grueneisen parameters are purely isentropic in contrast to the Brugger-Grueneisen parameters which are of a mixed thermodynamic state. Experimental data comparing the isentropic generalized Grueneisen parameters and the Brugger-Grueneisen parameters are presented.

  3. LTPP Computed Parameter: Dynamic Modulus

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-01

    The dynamic modulus, |E*|, is a fundamental property that defines the stiffness characteristics of hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures as a function of loading rate and temperature. In spite of the demonstrated significance of |E*|, it is not included in ...

  4. 40 CFR 1060.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures you used (see § 1060.501). (d) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls... the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the... certification for gasoline or some other fuel type. List each distinguishable configuration in the emission...

  5. 40 CFR 59.623 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls within the required ranges specified in... application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the requirements... PRODUCTS Control of Evaporative Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission...

  6. 40 CFR 59.623 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls within the required ranges specified in... application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the requirements... PRODUCTS Control of Evaporative Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission...

  7. 40 CFR 1060.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures you used (see § 1060.501). (d) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls... the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the... certification for gasoline or some other fuel type. List each distinguishable configuration in the emission...

  8. 40 CFR 1060.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures you used (see § 1060.501). (d) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls... the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the... certification for gasoline or some other fuel type. List each distinguishable configuration in the emission...

  9. 40 CFR 1060.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures you used (see § 1060.501). (d) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls... the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the... certification for gasoline or some other fuel type. List each distinguishable configuration in the emission...

  10. 40 CFR 59.623 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls within the required ranges specified in... application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the requirements... PRODUCTS Control of Evaporative Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission...

  11. 40 CFR 59.623 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls within the required ranges specified in... application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the requirements... PRODUCTS Control of Evaporative Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission...

  12. 40 CFR 1060.205 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures you used (see § 1060.501). (d) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls... the application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the... certification for gasoline or some other fuel type. List each distinguishable configuration in the emission...

  13. 40 CFR 59.623 - What must I include in my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) List the specifications of the test fuel to show that it falls within the required ranges specified in... application (including the test procedures, test parameters, and test fuels) to show you meet the requirements... PRODUCTS Control of Evaporative Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1400 - What must I include in my initial report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... parameters (use appropriate units as specified in table 2 of this subpart): (1) Dioxins/furans. (2) Cadmium... stack test for dioxins/furans emissions and include supporting calculations. (f) If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, the average carbon feed...

  15. MontePython 3: Parameter inference code for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Thejs; Lesgourgues, Julien; Audren, Benjamin; Benabed, Karim; Prunet, Simon

    2018-05-01

    MontePython 3 provides numerous ways to explore parameter space using Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) sampling, including Metropolis-Hastings, Nested Sampling, Cosmo Hammer, and a Fisher sampling method. This improved version of the Monte Python (ascl:1307.002) parameter inference code for cosmology offers new ingredients that improve the performance of Metropolis-Hastings sampling, speeding up convergence and offering significant time improvement in difficult runs. Additional likelihoods and plotting options are available, as are post-processing algorithms such as Importance Sampling and Adding Derived Parameter.

  16. CCFpams: Atmospheric stellar parameters from cross-correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavolta, Luca; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Sneden, Christopher; Udry, Stephane

    2017-07-01

    CCFpams allows the measurement of stellar temperature, metallicity and gravity within a few seconds and in a completely automated fashion. Rather than performing comparisons with spectral libraries, the technique is based on the determination of several cross-correlation functions (CCFs) obtained by including spectral features with different sensitivity to the photospheric parameters. Literature stellar parameters of high signal-to-noise (SNR) and high-resolution HARPS spectra of FGK Main Sequence stars are used to calibrate the stellar parameters as a function of CCF areas.

  17. Environment parameters and basic functions for floating-point computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A language-independent proposal for environment parameters and basic functions for floating-point computation is presented. Basic functions are proposed to analyze, synthesize, and scale floating-point numbers. The model provides a small set of parameters and a small set of axioms along with sharp measures of roundoff error. The parameters and functions can be used to write portable and robust codes that deal intimately with the floating-point representation. Subject to underflow and overflow constraints, a number can be scaled by a power of the floating-point radix inexpensively and without loss of precision. A specific representation for FORTRAN is included.

  18. Parameter Transient Behavior Analysis on Fault Tolerant Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor); Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2003-01-01

    In a fault tolerant control (FTC) system, a parameter varying FTC law is reconfigured based on fault parameters estimated by fault detection and isolation (FDI) modules. FDI modules require some time to detect fault occurrences in aero-vehicle dynamics. This paper illustrates analysis of a FTC system based on estimated fault parameter transient behavior which may include false fault detections during a short time interval. Using Lyapunov function analysis, the upper bound of an induced-L2 norm of the FTC system performance is calculated as a function of a fault detection time and the exponential decay rate of the Lyapunov function.

  19. Filter performance parameters for vectorial high-aperture wave fields.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Colin J R; Martinez-Corral, M

    2008-03-01

    Performance parameters have been presented that can be used to compare the focusing performance of different optical systems, including the effect of pupil filters. These were originally given for the paraxial case and recently extended to the high-aperture scalar regime. We generalize these parameters to the full vectorial case for an aplanatic optical system illuminated by a plane-polarized wave. The behavior of different optical systems is compared.

  20. Hydrogen isotopes transport parameters in fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, E.; Benamati, G.; Ogorodnikova, O. V.

    1998-06-01

    This work presents a review of hydrogen isotopes-materials interactions in various materials of interest for fusion reactors. The relevant parameters cover mainly diffusivity, solubility, trap concentration and energy difference between trap and solution sites. The list of materials includes the martensitic steels (MANET, Batman and F82H-mod.), beryllium, aluminium, beryllium oxide, aluminium oxide, copper, tungsten and molybdenum. Some experimental work on the parameters that describe the surface effects is also mentioned.

  1. Influence of meteorological parameters on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, Adriana; Ventura, Luciana; Lima, Igor; Luna, Aderval

    2013-04-01

    The physical characterization representative of ambient air particle concentrations is becoming a topic of great interest for urban air quality monitoring and human exposure assessment. Human exposure to particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) can result in a variety of adverse health impacts, including reduced lung function and premature mortality. Numerous studies have shown that fine airborne inhalable particulate matter particles (PM2.5) are more dangerous to human health than coarse particles, e.g. PM10. This study investigates meteorological parameter impacts on PM2.5 concentrations in the atmosphere of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected during 24 h every six days using a high-volume sampler from six sites in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro from January to December 2011. The particles mass was determined by Gravimetry. Meteorological parameters were obtained from automatic stations near the sampling sites. The average PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 9 to 32 µg/m3 for all sites, exceeding the suggested annual limit of WHO (10 µg/m3). The relationship between the effects of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction and particle concentration was examined using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the different sites and seasons. The results for each sampling point and season presented different principal component numbers, varying from 2 to 4, and extremely different relationships with the parameters. This clearly shows that changes in meteorological conditions exert a marked influence on air quality.

  2. Stokes' Parameters Compared to Astrophysical Magnetic Turbulence Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Miriam; Wicks, Robert; Oughton, Sean; Horbury, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Since the divergence of a magnetic field is zero, the Fourier transform of fluctuations δB(k) must be perpendicular to k, so δB(k) has components only in the plane perpendicular to k. When there is also a mean field B, the obvious choice of coordinates to describe δB(k) are the unit vectors tin the directionB x k and p in the direction (Bxk) x k, called the ``toroidal'' and ``poloidal'' directions, respectively. Oughton, et al. (1997) as elucidated by Wicks et al. (2012) showed that the power spectral tensor Pij(k) of magnetic fluctuations is described by four scalar functions of k, multiplying the tensors t:t, p:p, t:p +p:t, and t:p-p:t so that the Hermitian Pij(k) = Tor(k) t:t + Pol(k) p:p + C(k) [t:p +p:t] + i kH(k) [t:p-p:t]. Since the electromagnetic fluctuations δB(k) and δE(k) in a beam of light are also perpendicular to their k, the four scalar functions of magnetic turbulence in astrophysics which scatters cosmic rays and allows their acceleration, are analogs of the Stokes' parameters. Using Chandrasekhar's (1960) notation [I,Q,U,V]: I = Tor + Pol = Tr(Pij(k); Q = Tor-Pol; U = C; we speculate that V corresponds to magnetic helicity kH in turbulence. We are studying projections of Pij(k) observed by spacecraft in the solar wind.

  3. Serum iron parameters in liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, G. A.; Maail, W.

    2018-03-01

    The liver plays a fundamental role in iron homeostasis. Iron parameters change, especially ferritin, need to be evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum ferritin could predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis since it reflects immunemediated and infectious stimuli. Ferritin could express the severity of liver disease and possible subsequent complications. Finally, it might reflect an iron overload condition resulting in significant morbidity and early mortality. 70 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis divided into three Child-Pugh subgroups. Serum iron parameters include serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin was measured in these groups. From these 70 patients, 30 (42.9%) with HbsAg positive, 26 (37.1%) with anti-HCV positive and 14 (20%) with both HbsAg and anti-HCV positive. Of the 70 patients, 14 (20%) had CTP Class A cirrhosis, 17 (24.3%) had CTP Class B cirrhosis, and 39 (55.7%) had CTP C cirrhosis. The median (range) value of serum iron was 36 (10-345) μg/dl, TIBC was 160 (59-520) μg/dl, Ferritin was 253.5 (8-6078) ng/ml and the transferrin saturation was 22.9 (3.65-216.98) %.We found a significant difference in serum ferritin level with CTP score. Ferritin levels increased as Child-Pugh class progressed (p<0.001).

  4. Evaluation of Anterior Segment Parameters in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Feyzahan; Karaca, Emine Esra; Kalaycı, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate anterior segment parameters in obese patients in comparison to healthy individuals. Methods Thirty-four obese subjects and 34 age-sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Ophthalmological examinations including intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and axial length (AL) measurements were performed on each subject. Height and weight of all subjects were recorded and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results IOP was significantly higher in the obese group (p = 0.003). The mean ACD in obese subjects was significantly lower than that in control subjects (p = 0.036). AL, ACV, ACA and CCT were not significantly different between the groups. There was a positive correlation between BMI and IOP (r = 0.404, p < 0.001). ACD and ACA were negatively correlated with BMI. Conclusions IOP was significantly higher and ACD was significantly lower in obese subjects. AL, ACV, ACA and CCT were not significantly different between the groups. The impact of obesity on anterior chamber parameters should be further investigated. PMID:26240505

  5. A portable foot-parameter-extracting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, MingKai; Liang, Jin; Li, Wenpan; Liu, Shifan

    2016-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of automatic foot measurement in garment customization, a new automatic footparameter- extracting system based on stereo vision, photogrammetry and heterodyne multiple frequency phase shift technology is proposed and implemented. The key technologies applied in the system are studied, including calibration of projector, alignment of point clouds, and foot measurement. Firstly, a new projector calibration algorithm based on plane model has been put forward to get the initial calibration parameters and a feature point detection scheme of calibration board image is developed. Then, an almost perfect match of two clouds is achieved by performing a first alignment using the Sampled Consensus - Initial Alignment algorithm (SAC-IA) and refining the alignment using the Iterative Closest Point algorithm (ICP). Finally, the approaches used for foot-parameterextracting and the system scheme are presented in detail. Experimental results show that the RMS error of the calibration result is 0.03 pixel and the foot parameter extracting experiment shows the feasibility of the extracting algorithm. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the system can be more portable, accurate and robust.

  6. The assessment of body sway and the choice of the stability parameter(s).

    PubMed

    Raymakers, J A; Samson, M M; Verhaar, H J J

    2005-01-01

    This methodological study aims at comparison of the practical usefulness of several parameters of body sway derived from recordings of the center of pressure (CoP) with the aid of a static force platform as proposed in the literature. These included: mean displacement velocity, maximal range of movement along x- and y-co-ordinates, movement area, planar deviation, phase plane parameter of Riley and the parameters of the diffusion stabilogram according to Collins. They were compared in over 850 experiments in a group of young healthy subjects (n = 10, age 21-45 years), a group of elderly healthy (n = 38, age 61-78 years) and two groups of elderly subjects (n = 10 and n = 21, age 65-89 years) with stability problems under different conditions known to interfere with stability as compared to standing with open eyes fixing a visual anchoring point: closing the eyes, standing on plastic foam in stead of a firm surface and performing a cognitive task: the modified stroop test. A force platform (Kistler) was used and co-ordinates of the body's center of pressure were recorded during 60 s of quiet barefoot standing with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz. In general, the results show important overlapping among groups and test conditions. Mean displacement velocity shows the most consistent differences between test situations, health conditions and age ranges, but is not affected by an extra cognitive task in healthy old people. Mean maximal sideways sway range is different among groups and test conditions except for the cognitive task in young and elderly subjects. Standardised displacement parameters such as standard deviations of displacements and planar deviation discriminate less well than the actual range of motion or the velocity. The critical time interval derived from the diffusion stabilogram according to Collins et al. seems to add a specific type of information since it shows significant influence from addition of a cognitive task in old subjects standing on a firm

  7. Synergistic inhibition in vivo of bone marrow myeloid progenitors by myelosuppressive chemokines and chemokine-accelerated recovery of progenitors after treatment of mice with Ara-C.

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, Hal E; Pelus, Louis M; Kim, Chang H; Hangoc, Giao; Cooper, Scott; Hromas, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Selected chemokines suppress proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) in vitro; some of these have demonstrated inhibition of myelopoiesis in vivo. Because myelosuppressive chemokines synergize in vitro with other myelosuppressive chemokines, we sought to determine whether additional chemokines active in vitro were myelosuppressive in vivo and whether combinations of myelosuppressive chemokines synergized in vivo to dampen myelopoiesis. We also evaluated three chemokines in vivo for myeloprotection against Ara-C-induced decreases in HPCs. C3H/HeJ mice were used for analysis of in vivo influence of chemokines, with the end points being effects on absolute numbers and cycling status of HPCs. When used alone, CCL2, CCL3, CCL19, CCL20, CXCL4, CXCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9, and XCL1 caused dose-dependent significant decreases in absolute numbers and cycling status of HPCs in vivo. The following combinations of two chemokines resulted in in vivo myelosuppression at concentrations much lower than that induced by each chemokine alone: CCL3 plus either CXCL8 or CXCL4, CXCL8 plus CXCL4, CCL2 plus either CCL20 or CXCL9, CCL20 plus CXCL9, CXCL5 plus either XCL1 or CCL19, XCL1 plus CCL19, and CCL3 plus CCL19. Also, mice injected with CXCL8, CXCL4, or the chimeric CXCL8/CXCL4 protein CXCL8M1 manifested accelerated recovery of absolute numbers of HPCs in response to the toxic effects of Ara-C administration. A number of chemokines shown previously to manifest inhibitory effects in vitro for proliferation of HPCs are now demonstrated to also induce myelosuppression in vivo. Moreover, combinations of low dosages of two myelosuppressive chemokines when administered together demonstrate synergistic suppression in vivo. Additionally, chemokines, including a CXCL8M1 chimeric protein previously shown to manifest enhanced suppression of HPC proliferation in vitro and in vivo, accelerate HPC recovery after treatment of mice with Ara-C. These results may be of use for future clinical

  8. Polymorphisms of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and the risk for acute suppurative or chronic nonsuppurative apical periodontitis in a Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Amaya, M P; Criado, L; Blanco, B; Gómez, M; Torres, O; Flórez, L; González, C I; Flórez, O

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and interleukin-12B with the development of two clinical forms of apical periodontitis (AP): acute suppurative and chronic nonsuppurative. The study included 120 patients from Bucaramanga City, Colombia, 63 diagnosed with acute suppurative AP (ASAP) and 57 diagnosed with chronic nonsuppurative AP (CNAP). Genotyping for IL1B +3954 (rs1143634), IL8 / CXCL8 -251 (rs4073), IL12B +1188 (rs3212227) and TNFA -308 (rs1800629) was performed by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms method. The statistical analysis was performed using STATA 10.0 and PLINK V1.07 software. Significant differences in the distribution of IL8 / CXCL8 -251 A allele (P adjusted = 0.041; OR adjusted = 0.41, CI adjusted = 0.31-0.97) and IL8 / CXCL -251 TT genotype (P adjusted = 0.04; OR adjusted = 2.24, CI adjusted = 1.04-4.84) were observed comparing patients diagnosed with ASAP and CNAP. No association was observed in genotype and allele distribution for other genetic polymorphisms analysed. This study provides molecular epidemiological evidence that suggests in the present cohort that IL8 / CXCL8 -251 T allele, which is associated with higher production of IL8/CXCL8, is also associated with a higher risk of developing acute suppurative form of AP, whereas IL8 / CXCL8 -251 A allele, which is associated with lower production of IL8/CXCL8, is associated with chronic nonsuppurative form of AP. This suggests a pivotal role for IL-8/CXCL8 in periapical disease because of its ability to induce chemotaxis and modulating the directed migration of neutrophils to the site of inflammation in response to microbial infection of pulp. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  9. Structural Design Parameters for Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon; Rogers, Richard; Baker, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters of germanium supplied as single crystal beams and coarse grain disks were measured. Although germanium is anisotropic (A* 1.7), it is not as anisotropic as SiC, NiAl, or Cu. Thus the fracture toughness was similar on the 100, 110, and 111 planes, however, measurements associated with randomly oriented grinding cracks were 6 to 30 higher. Crack extension in ring loaded disks occurred on the 111 planes due to both the lower fracture energy and the higher stresses on stiff 111 planes. Germanium exhibits a Weibull scale effect, but does not exhibit significant slow crack growth in distilled water. (n 100), implying that design for quasi static loading can be performed with scaled strength statistics. Practical values for engineering design are a fracture toughness of 0.69 0.02 MPam (megapascals per square root meter) and a Weibull modulus of m 6 2. For well ground and reasonable handled coupons, average fracture strength should be greater than 40 megapascals. Aggregate, polycrystalline elastic constants are Epoly 131 gigapascals, vpoly 0.22.

  10. Kinematic parameters of signed verbs.

    PubMed

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production ( Malaia & Wilbur, 2012a) and process these distinctions as part of the phonological structure of these verb classes in comprehension ( Malaia, Ranaweera, Wilbur, & Talavage, 2012). These studies are driven by the event visibility hypothesis by Wilbur (2003), who proposed that such use of kinematic features should be universal to sign language (SL) by the grammaticalization of physics and geometry for linguistic purposes. In a prior motion capture study, Malaia and Wilbur (2012a) lent support for the event visibility hypothesis in ASL, but there has not been quantitative data from other SLs to test the generalization to other languages. The authors investigated the kinematic parameters of predicates in Croatian Sign Language ( Hrvatskom Znakovnom Jeziku [HZJ]). Kinematic features of verb signs were affected both by event structure of the predicate (semantics) and phrase position within the sentence (prosody). The data demonstrate that kinematic features of motion in HZJ verb signs are recruited to convey morphological and prosodic information. This is the first crosslinguistic motion capture confirmation that specific kinematic properties of articulator motion are grammaticalized in other SLs to express linguistic features.

  11. Parameter monitoring compensation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Edwin F.; DeMint, Paul D.; Hebble, Thomas L.; Igou, Richard E.; Williams, Richard R.; Klages, Edward J.; Rasnick, William H.

    1995-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes sensors for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to an actual condition. The controller compares the actual condition to a condition which the program presumes to exist at the preselected stage and alters the program in accordance with detected variations between the actual condition and the assumed condition. Such conditions may be related to process parameters, such as a position, dimension or shape of the cutting tool or workpiece or an environmental temperature associated with the machining operation, and such sensors may be a contact or a non-contact type of sensor or a temperature transducer.

  12. Parameter monitoring compensation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F.; DeMint, P.D.; Hebble, T.L.; Igou, R.E.; Williams, R.R.; Klages, E.J.; Rasnick, W.H.

    1995-02-07

    A compensation system is described for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation. It utilizes sensors for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to an actual condition. The controller compares the actual condition to a condition which the program presumes to exist at the preselected stage and alters the program in accordance with detected variations between the actual condition and the assumed condition. Such conditions may be related to process parameters, such as a position, dimension or shape of the cutting tool or workpiece or an environmental temperature associated with the machining operation, and such sensors may be a contact or a non-contact type of sensor or a temperature transducer. 7 figs.

  13. Upper bounds on sequential decoding performance parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinek, F.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the best obtainable random coding and expurgated upper bounds on the probabilities of undetectable error, of t-order failure (advance to depth t into an incorrect subset), and of likelihood rise in the incorrect subset, applicable to sequential decoding when the metric bias G is arbitrary. Upper bounds on the Pareto exponent are also presented. The G-values optimizing each of the parameters of interest are determined, and are shown to lie in intervals that in general have nonzero widths. The G-optimal expurgated bound on undetectable error is shown to agree with that for maximum likelihood decoding of convolutional codes, and that on failure agrees with the block code expurgated bound. Included are curves evaluating the bounds for interesting choices of G and SNR for a binary-input quantized-output Gaussian additive noise channel.

  14. Advanced rotorcraft control using parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1991-01-01

    A reliable algorithm for the evaluation of a quadratic performance index and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters is presented. The algorithm is part of a design algorithm for an optimal linear dynamic output feedback controller that minimizes a finite time quadratic performance index. The numerical scheme is particularly robust when it is applied to the control law synthesis for systems with densely packed modes and where there is a high likelihood of encountering degeneracies in the closed loop eigensystem. This approach through the use of a accurate Pade series approximation does not require the closed loop system matrix to be diagonalizable. The algorithm has been included in a control design package for optimal robust low order controllers. Usefulness of the proposed numerical algorithm has been demonstrated using numerous practical design cases where degeneracies occur frequently in the closed loop system under an arbitrary controller design initialization and during the numerical search.

  15. Stabilometric parameters are affected by anthropometry and foot placement.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Lorenzo; Rocchi, Laura; Cappello, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    To recognize and quantify the influence of biomechanical factors, namely anthropometry and foot placement, on the more common measures of stabilometric performance, including new-generation stochastic parameters. Fifty normal-bodied young adults were selected in order to cover a sufficiently wide range of anthropometric properties. They were allowed to choose their preferred side-by-side foot position and their quiet stance was recorded with eyes open and closed by a force platform. biomechanical factors are known to influence postural stability but their impact on stabilometric parameters has not been extensively explored yet. Principal component analysis was used for feature selection among several biomechanical factors. A collection of 55 stabilometric parameters from the literature was estimated from the center-of-pressure time series. Linear relations between stabilometric parameters and selected biomechanical factors were investigated by robust regression techniques. The feature selection process returned height, weight, maximum foot width, base-of-support area, and foot opening angle as the relevant biomechanical variables. Only eleven out of the 55 stabilometric parameters were completely immune from a linear dependence on these variables. The remaining parameters showed a moderate to high dependence that was strengthened upon eye closure. For these parameters, a normalization procedure was proposed, to remove what can well be considered, in clinical investigations, a spurious source of between-subject variability. Care should be taken when quantifying postural sway through stabilometric parameters. It is suggested as a good practice to include some anthropometric measurements in the experimental protocol, and to standardize or trace foot position. Although the role of anthropometry and foot placement has been investigated in specific studies, there are no studies in the literature that systematically explore the relationship between such BF and

  16. Global geodynamic models constrained by tectonic reconstructions including plate deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    and buoyancy based on the tectonothermal age of the continents: Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. In the fourth isostatic column, the oceans, the thickness of the thermal lithosphere is assimilated using the half-space cooling model. We also use this capacity to define the thickness of the thermal lithosphere for different continental types, with the exception of the deforming areas that are fully dynamic. Finally, we introduce a new slab assimilation method in which the thermal structure of the slab, derived analytically, is progressively assimilated in the upper mantle into the dynamic models. This method not only improves the continuity of slabs in our models, but it also allows us to model flat slab segments that are particularly relevant for dynamic topography. This new generation of models allows us to analyse the contributions of continental deformation and of mantle flow to surface topography. We compare our results to geological and geophysical data, including stratigraphy, paleo-altimetry, paleo-environment and mantle tomography. This allows us to place constraints on key model parameters and to refine our knowledge of plate-mantle interactions during continental deformation.

  17. On Markov parameters in system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Minh; Juang, Jer-Nan; Longman, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed discussion of Markov parameters in system identification is given. Different forms of input-output representation of linear discrete-time systems are reviewed and discussed. Interpretation of sampled response data as Markov parameters is presented. Relations between the state-space model and particular linear difference models via the Markov parameters are formulated. A generalization of Markov parameters to observer and Kalman filter Markov parameters for system identification is explained. These extended Markov parameters play an important role in providing not only a state-space realization, but also an observer/Kalman filter for the system of interest.

  18. Identification of hydrological model parameter variation using ensemble Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chao; Liu, Pan; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Zejun; Wang, Dingbao

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological model parameters play an important role in the ability of model prediction. In a stationary context, parameters of hydrological models are treated as constants; however, model parameters may vary with time under climate change and anthropogenic activities. The technique of ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed to identify the temporal variation of parameters for a two-parameter monthly water balance model (TWBM) by assimilating the runoff observations. Through a synthetic experiment, the proposed method is evaluated with time-invariant (i.e., constant) parameters and different types of parameter variations, including trend, abrupt change and periodicity. Various levels of observation uncertainty are designed to examine the performance of the EnKF. The results show that the EnKF can successfully capture the temporal variations of the model parameters. The application to the Wudinghe basin shows that the water storage capacity (SC) of the TWBM model has an apparent increasing trend during the period from 1958 to 2000. The identified temporal variation of SC is explained by land use and land cover changes due to soil and water conservation measures. In contrast, the application to the Tongtianhe basin shows that the estimated SC has no significant variation during the simulation period of 1982-2013, corresponding to the relatively stationary catchment properties. The evapotranspiration parameter (C) has temporal variations while no obvious change patterns exist. The proposed method provides an effective tool for quantifying the temporal variations of the model parameters, thereby improving the accuracy and reliability of model simulations and forecasts.

  19. Inelastic deformation and phenomenological modeling of aluminum including transient effect

    SciT

    Cho, C.W.

    A review was made of several phenomenological theories which have recently been proposed to describe the inelastic deformation of crystalline solids. Hart's deformation theory has many advantages, but there are disagreements with experimental deformation at stress levels below yield. A new inelastic deformation theory was proposed, introducing the concept of microplasticity. The new model consists of five deformation elements: a friction element representing a deformation element controlled by dislocation glide, a nonrecoverable plastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the strong dislocation barriers, a microplastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the weak barriers, a short range anelasticmore » spring element representing the recoverable anelastic strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the weak barriers, and a long range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the strong barriers. Load relaxation and tensile testing in the plastic range were used to determine the material parameters for the plastic friction elements. The short range and long range anelastic moduli and the material parameters for the kinetics of microplasticity were determined by the measurement of anelastic loops and by performing load relaxation tests in the microplastic region. Experimental results were compared with a computer simulation of the transient deformation behavior of commercial purity aluminum. An attempt was made to correlate the material parameters and the microstructure from TEM. Stability of material parameters during inelastic deformation was discussed and effect of metallurgical variables was examined experimentally. 71 figures, 5 tables.« less

  20. Parameters. Volume 20, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    early German defense proposal including the use of barriers and blocking forces--the so-called " Bonin -Plan" from 1955-was rejected partly out of concern...over the lack of involvement of non-German NATO troops. See Bogislaw von Bonin , Opposition gegen Adenauers Sicher- heitspolitik, Eine Dokumentation...USN, 25, Arlington, Mass., Naval Special Warfare Group Two, Little Creek, Va. Private First Class Jerry S. Daves , 20, Hope Mills, N.C., B Co., 1st Bn

  1. Relationship between Testicular Volume and Conventional or Nonconventional Sperm Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita; Calogero, Aldo E.; La Vignera, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background. Reduced testicular volume (TV) (<12 cm3) is associated with lower testicular function. Several studies explored the conventional sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphology) and the endocrine function (gonadotropins and testosterone serum concentrations) in the patients with reduction of TV. No other parameters have been examined. Aim. This study aims at evaluating some biofunctional sperm parameters by flow cytometry in the semen of men with reduced TV compared with that of subjects with normal TV. Methods. 78 patients without primary scrotal disease were submitted to ultrasound evaluation of the testis. They were divided into two groups according to testicular volume: A Group, including 40 patients with normal testicular volume (TV > 15 cm3) and B Group, including 38 patients with reduced testicular volume (TV ≤ 12 cm3). All patients underwent serum hormone concentration, conventional and biofunctional (flow cytometry) sperm parameters evaluation. Results. With regard to biofunctional sperm parameters, all values (mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation) were strongly negatively correlated with testicular volume (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. This study for the first time in the literature states that the biofunctional sperm parameters worsen and with near linear correlation, with decreasing testicular volume. PMID:24089610

  2. Finding optimal vaccination strategies under parameter uncertainty using stochastic programming.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Matthew W; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2008-10-01

    We present a stochastic programming framework for finding the optimal vaccination policy for controlling infectious disease epidemics under parameter uncertainty. Stochastic programming is a popular framework for including the effects of parameter uncertainty in a mathematical optimization model. The problem is initially formulated to find the minimum cost vaccination policy under a chance-constraint. The chance-constraint requires that the probability that R(*) parameter alpha, where R(*) is the post-vaccination reproduction number. We also show how to formulate the problem in two additional cases: (a) finding the optimal vaccination policy when vaccine supply is limited and (b) a cost-benefit scenario. The class of epidemic models for which this method can be used is described and we present an example formulation for which the resulting problem is a mixed-integer program. A short numerical example based on plausible parameter values and distributions is given to illustrate how including parameter uncertainty improves the robustness of the optimal strategy at the cost of higher coverage of the population. Results derived from a stochastic programming analysis can also help to guide decisions about how much effort and resources to focus on collecting data needed to provide better estimates of key parameters.

  3. On the Accuracy of Atmospheric Parameter Determination in BAFGK Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Shulyak, D.

    2015-04-01

    During the past few years, many papers determining the atmospheric parameters in FGK stars appeared in the literature where the accuracy of effective temperatures is given as 20-40 K. For main sequence stars within the 5 000-13 000 K temperature range, we have performed a comparative analysis of the parameters derived from the spectra by using the SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy) package and those found in the literature. Our sample includes standard stars Sirius, Procyon, δ Eri, and the Sun. Combining different spectral regions in the fitting procedure, we investigated an effect different atomic species have on the derived atmospheric parameters. The temperature difference may exceed 100 K depending on the spectral regions used in the SME procedure. It is shown that the atmospheric parameters derived with the SME procedure which includes wings of hydrogen lines in fitting agrees better with the results derived by the other methods and tools across a large part of the main sequence. For three stars—π Cet, 21 Peg, and Procyon—the atmospheric parameters were also derived by fitting a calculated energy distribution to the observed one. We found a substantial difference in the parameters inferred from different sets and combinations of spectrophotometric observations. An intercomparison of our results and literature data shows that the average accuracy of effective temperature determination for cool stars and for the early B-stars is 70-85 K and 170-200 K, respectively.

  4. Observational constraints on Hubble parameter in viscous generalized Chaplygin gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, P.

    2018-04-01

    Cosmological model with viscous generalized Chaplygin gas (in short, VGCG) is considered here to determine observational constraints on its equation of state parameters (in short, EoS) from background data. These data consists of H(z)-z (OHD) data, Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations peak parameter, CMB shift parameter and SN Ia data (Union 2.1). Best-fit values of the EoS parameters including present Hubble parameter (H0) and their acceptable range at different confidence limits are determined. In this model the permitted range for the present Hubble parameter and the transition redshift (zt) at 1σ confidence limits are H0= 70.24^{+0.34}_{-0.36} and zt=0.76^{+0.07}_{-0.07} respectively. These EoS parameters are then compared with those of other models. Present age of the Universe (t0) have also been determined here. Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion for the model selection have been adopted for comparison with other models. It is noted that VGCG model satisfactorily accommodates the present accelerating phase of the Universe.

  5. SPOTting Model Parameters Using a Ready-Made Python Package.

    PubMed

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Chamorro-Chavez, Alejandro; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The choice for specific parameter estimation methods is often more dependent on its availability than its performance. We developed SPOTPY (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of methods typically used to calibrate, analyze and optimize parameters for a wide range of ecological models. SPOTPY currently contains eight widely used algorithms, 11 objective functions, and can sample from eight parameter distributions. SPOTPY has a model-independent structure and can be run in parallel from the workstation to large computation clusters using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). We tested SPOTPY in five different case studies to parameterize the Rosenbrock, Griewank and Ackley functions, a one-dimensional physically based soil moisture routine, where we searched for parameters of the van Genuchten-Mualem function and a calibration of a biogeochemistry model with different objective functions. The case studies reveal that the implemented SPOTPY methods can be used for any model with just a minimal amount of code for maximal power of parameter optimization. They further show the benefit of having one package at hand that includes number of well performing parameter search methods, since not every case study can be solved sufficiently with every algorithm or every objective function.

  6. SPOTting Model Parameters Using a Ready-Made Python Package

    PubMed Central

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Chamorro-Chavez, Alejandro; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The choice for specific parameter estimation methods is often more dependent on its availability than its performance. We developed SPOTPY (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of methods typically used to calibrate, analyze and optimize parameters for a wide range of ecological models. SPOTPY currently contains eight widely used algorithms, 11 objective functions, and can sample from eight parameter distributions. SPOTPY has a model-independent structure and can be run in parallel from the workstation to large computation clusters using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). We tested SPOTPY in five different case studies to parameterize the Rosenbrock, Griewank and Ackley functions, a one-dimensional physically based soil moisture routine, where we searched for parameters of the van Genuchten-Mualem function and a calibration of a biogeochemistry model with different objective functions. The case studies reveal that the implemented SPOTPY methods can be used for any model with just a minimal amount of code for maximal power of parameter optimization. They further show the benefit of having one package at hand that includes number of well performing parameter search methods, since not every case study can be solved sufficiently with every algorithm or every objective function. PMID:26680783

  7. SPOTting Model Parameters Using a Ready-Made Python Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Chamorro-Chavez, Alejandro; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    The choice for specific parameter estimation methods is often more dependent on its availability than its performance. We developed SPOTPY (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of methods typically used to calibrate, analyze and optimize parameters for a wide range of ecological models. SPOTPY currently contains eight widely used algorithms, 11 objective functions, and can sample from eight parameter distributions. SPOTPY has a model-independent structure and can be run in parallel from the workstation to large computation clusters using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). We tested SPOTPY in five different case studies to parameterize the Rosenbrock, Griewank and Ackley functions, a one-dimensional physically based soil moisture routine, where we searched for parameters of the van Genuchten-Mualem function and a calibration of a biogeochemistry model with different objective functions. The case studies reveal that the implemented SPOTPY methods can be used for any model with just a minimal amount of code for maximal power of parameter optimization. They further show the benefit of having one package at hand that includes number of well performing parameter search methods, since not every case study can be solved sufficiently with every algorithm or every objective function.

  8. A new method for parameter estimation in nonlinear dynamical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liu; He, Wen-Ping; Liao, Le-Jian; Wan, Shi-Quan; He, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Parameter estimation is an important scientific problem in various fields such as chaos control, chaos synchronization and other mathematical models. In this paper, a new method for parameter estimation in nonlinear dynamical equations is proposed based on evolutionary modelling (EM). This will be achieved by utilizing the following characteristics of EM which includes self-organizing, adaptive and self-learning features which are inspired by biological natural selection, and mutation and genetic inheritance. The performance of the new method is demonstrated by using various numerical tests on the classic chaos model—Lorenz equation (Lorenz 1963). The results indicate that the new method can be used for fast and effective parameter estimation irrespective of whether partial parameters or all parameters are unknown in the Lorenz equation. Moreover, the new method has a good convergence rate. Noises are inevitable in observational data. The influence of observational noises on the performance of the presented method has been investigated. The results indicate that the strong noises, such as signal noise ratio (SNR) of 10 dB, have a larger influence on parameter estimation than the relatively weak noises. However, it is found that the precision of the parameter estimation remains acceptable for the relatively weak noises, e.g. SNR is 20 or 30 dB. It indicates that the presented method also has some anti-noise performance.

  9. Standard and goodness-of-fit parameter estimation methods for the three-parameter lognormal distribution

    SciT

    Kane, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    A class of goodness-of-fit estimators is found to provide a useful alternative in certain situations to the standard maximum likelihood method which has some undesirable estimation characteristics for estimation from the three-parameter lognormal distribution. The class of goodness-of-fit tests considered include the Shapiro-Wilk and Filliben tests which reduce to a weighted linear combination of the order statistics that can be maximized in estimation problems. The weighted order statistic estimators are compared to the standard procedures in Monte Carlo simulations. Robustness of the procedures are examined and example data sets analyzed.

  10. Determining "small parameters" for quasi-steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2015-08-01

    For a parameter-dependent system of ordinary differential equations we present a systematic approach to the determination of parameter values near which singular perturbation scenarios (in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel) arise. We call these special values Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values. The principal application we intend is to equations that describe chemical reactions, in the context of quasi-steady state (or partial equilibrium) settings. Such equations have rational (or even polynomial) right-hand side. We determine the structure of the set of Tikhonov-Fenichel parameter values as a semi-algebraic set, and present an algorithmic approach to their explicit determination, using Groebner bases. Examples and applications (which include the irreversible and reversible Michaelis-Menten systems) illustrate that the approach is rather easy to implement.

  11. DEPOT: A Database of Environmental Parameters, Organizations and Tools

    SciT

    CARSON,SUSAN D.; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; MALCZYNSKI,LEONARD A.

    2000-12-19

    The Database of Environmental Parameters, Organizations, and Tools (DEPOT) has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a central warehouse for access to data essential for environmental risk assessment analyses. Initial efforts have concentrated on groundwater and vadose zone transport data and bioaccumulation factors. DEPOT seeks to provide a source of referenced data that, wherever possible, includes the level of uncertainty associated with these parameters. Based on the amount of data available for a particular parameter, uncertainty is expressed as a standard deviation or a distribution function. DEPOT also provides DOE site-specific performance assessment data, pathway-specific transport data,more » and links to environmental regulations, disposal site waste acceptance criteria, other environmental parameter databases, and environmental risk assessment models.« less

  12. Recovering Parameters of Johnson's SB Distribution

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    A new parameter recovery model for Johnson's SB distribution is developed. This latest alternative approach permits recovery of the range and both shape parameters. Previous models recovered only the two shape parameters. Also, a simple procedure for estimating the distribution minimum from sample values is presented. The new methodology...

  13. Optimal Linking Design for Response Model Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Michelle D.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2017-01-01

    Linking functions adjust for differences between identifiability restrictions used in different instances of the estimation of item response model parameters. These adjustments are necessary when results from those instances are to be compared. As linking functions are derived from estimated item response model parameters, parameter estimation…

  14. Line Narrowing Parameter Measurement by Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharamsi, Amin N.

    1998-01-01

    that the measurement was yielded a very sensitive technique for obtaining the narrowing parameter that describes the deviation of Oxygen A-band lines from the Voigt profile. In particular, it was seen that the best fits were obtained consistently when the narrowing parameter value used was 0.022 1/cm, 1/Atm, Previous work, upon which the current work was based has resulted in several accurate measurements of properties of particular lines of the Oxygen A band. For example, this work has resulted in the measurement of the collision cross sections of several lines including the RQ(13,14) and the RR(15,15) lines. A major achievement of achievement of the work was also the demonstration that the technique we have developed can accurately probe the structure of the absorption lineshape function. In particular, the method we have developed is very well suited for experimentally probing the characteristics of lines in their wings. This work was accepted for publication in the Journal of Applied Physics, and is scheduled to appear in the December 15, 1998 issue.

  15. Inversion of scattered radiance horizon profiles for gaseous concentrations and aerosol parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malchow, H. L.; Whitney, C. K.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques have been developed and used to invert limb scan measurements for vertical profiles of atmospheric state parameters. The parameters which can be found are concentrations of Rayleigh scatters, ozone, NO2, and aerosols, and aerosol physical properties including a Junge-size distribution parameter and real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction.

  16. Observational constraint on the interacting dark energy models including the Sandage-Loeb test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2014-05-01

    Two types of interacting dark energy models are investigated using the type Ia supernova (SNIa), observational data (OHD), cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and the secular Sandage-Loeb (SL) test. In the investigation, we have used two sets of parameter priors including WMAP-9 and Planck 2013. They have shown some interesting differences. We find that the inclusion of SL test can obviously provide a more stringent constraint on the parameters in both models. For the constant coupling model, the interaction term has been improved to be only a half of the original scale on corresponding errors. Comparing with only SNIa and OHD, we find that the inclusion of the SL test almost reduces the best-fit interaction to zero, which indicates that the higher-redshift observation including the SL test is necessary to track the evolution of the interaction. For the varying coupling model, data with the inclusion of the SL test show that the parameter at C.L. in Planck priors is , where the constant is characteristic for the severity of the coincidence problem. This indicates that the coincidence problem will be less severe. We then reconstruct the interaction , and we find that the best-fit interaction is also negative, similar to the constant coupling model. However, for a high redshift, the interaction generally vanishes at infinity. We also find that the phantom-like dark energy with is favored over the CDM model.

  17. Uncertainty quantification for optical model parameters

    DOE PAGES

    Lovell, A. E.; Nunes, F. M.; Sarich, J.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Although uncertainty quantification has been making its way into nuclear theory, these methods have yet to be explored in the context of reaction theory. For example, it is well known that different parameterizations of the optical potential can result in different cross sections, but these differences have not been systematically studied and quantified. The purpose of our work is to investigate the uncertainties in nuclear reactions that result from fitting a given model to elastic-scattering data, as well as to study how these uncertainties propagate to the inelastic and transfer channels. We use statistical methods to determine a best fitmore » and create corresponding 95% confidence bands. A simple model of the process is fit to elastic-scattering data and used to predict either inelastic or transfer cross sections. In this initial work, we assume that our model is correct, and the only uncertainties come from the variation of the fit parameters. Here, we study a number of reactions involving neutron and deuteron projectiles with energies in the range of 5–25 MeV/u, on targets with mass A=12–208. We investigate the correlations between the parameters in the fit. The case of deuterons on 12C is discussed in detail: the elastic-scattering fit and the prediction of 12C(d,p) 13C transfer angular distributions, using both uncorrelated and correlated χ 2 minimization functions. The general features for all cases are compiled in a systematic manner to identify trends. This work shows that, in many cases, the correlated χ 2 functions (in comparison to the uncorrelated χ 2 functions) provide a more natural parameterization of the process. These correlated functions do, however, produce broader confidence bands. Further optimization may require improvement in the models themselves and/or more information included in the fit.« less

  18. Chemical freezeout parameters within generic nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Abdel; Yassin, Hayam; Abo Elyazeed, Eman R.

    2018-06-01

    The particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions seems to be created in a dynamically disordered system which can be best described by an extended exponential entropy. In distinguishing between the applicability of this and Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) in generating various particle-ratios, generic (non)extensive statistics is introduced to the hadron resonance gas model. Accordingly, the degree of (non)extensivity is determined by the possible modifications in the phase space. Both BG extensivity and Tsallis nonextensivity are included as very special cases defined by specific values of the equivalence classes (c, d). We found that the particle ratios at energies ranging between 3.8 and 2760 GeV are best reproduced by nonextensive statistics, where c and d range between ˜ 0.9 and ˜ 1 . The present work aims at illustrating that the proposed approach is well capable to manifest the statistical nature of the system on interest. We don't aim at highlighting deeper physical insights. In other words, while the resulting nonextensivity is neither BG nor Tsallis, the freezeout parameters are found very compatible with BG and accordingly with the well-known freezeout phase-diagram, which is in an excellent agreement with recent lattice calculations. We conclude that the particle production is nonextensive but should not necessarily be accompanied by a radical change in the intensive or extensive thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and temperature. Only, the two critical exponents defining the equivalence classes (c, d) are the physical parameters characterizing the (non)extensivity.

  19. Relativity Parameters Determined from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Newhall, X. X.; Dickey, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 24 years of lunar laser ranging data is used to test the principle of equivalence, geodetic precession, the PPN parameters beta and gamma, and G/G. Recent data can be fitted with a rms scatter of 3 cm. (a) Using the Nordtvedt effect to test the principle of equivalence, it is found that the Moon and Earth accelerate alike in the Sun's field. The relative accelerations match to within 5 x 10(exp -13) . This limit, combined with an independent determination of y from planetary time delay, gives beta. Including the uncertainty due to compositional differences, the parameter beta differs from unity by no more than 0.0014; and, if the weak equivalence principle is satisfied, the difference is no more than 0.0006. (b) Geodetic precession matches its expected 19.2 marc sec/yr rate within 0.7%. This corresponds to a 1% test of gamma. (c) Apart from the Nordtvedt effect, beta and gamma can be tested from their influence on the lunar orbit. It is argued theoretically that the linear combination 0.8(beta) + 1.4(gamma) can be tested at the 1% level of accuracy. For solutions using numerically derived partial derivatives, higher sensitivity is found. Both 6 and y match the values of general relativity to within 0.005, and the linear combination beta+ gamma matches to within 0,003, but caution is advised due to the lack of theoretical understanding of these sensitivities. (d) No evidence for a changing gravitational constant is found, with absolute value of G/G less than or equal to 8 x lO(exp -12)/yr. There is significant sensitivity to G/G through solar perturbations on the lunar orbit.

  20. Fundamental parameters of BE UMa revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimanskii, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Pozdnyakova, S. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Vlasyuk, V. V.; Sakhibullin, N. A.; Spiridonova, O. I.

    2008-07-01

    We have determined a complete set of parameters for the young pre-cataclysmic variable BE UMa from a comprehensive photometric and spectroscopic analysis using model atmospheres. Our precise photometry and spectroscopy were acquired with the 6-m telescope and Zeiss-1000 telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory and the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope at a wide range of orbital phases, including times of primary eclipses.We performed a detailed identification of emission lines of ten elements. At phases of minimum brightness, the spectra reveal absorption lines and molecular bands formed in the secondary’s atmosphere, whose effective temperature was determined to be T {/eff (2)} = 4750 ± 150 K. We have studied the radial-velocity curves of the cool star using lines of various elements. All the curves exhibit the previously predicted distortions due to reflection effects in the close binary. The derived component-mass ratio is q = 0.43 ± 0.09, and the component masses are M 1 = 0.59 ± 0.07 M ⊙ and M 2 = 0.25 ± 0.08 M ⊙. We analyzed the light curves using model atmospheres for irradiated stars; all the parameters of BE UMa were refined. We demonstrate the validity of our modeling of the binary’s spectra at phases of brightness maximum, which provides a good description of the observed intensities of most lines of heavy elements. The abundances of helium and several light elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg) in the atmosphere of the cool star are probably higher than the solar values. We conclude that the physical characteristics of the primary are in good agreement with evolutionary tracks for planetary-nebula nuclei, and that the secondary is overluminous by a factor of 30 compared to main-sequence stars of the same mass.

  1. Wnt signalling pathway parameters for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chin Wee; Gardiner, Bruce S; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Layton, Meredith J; Smith, David W; Burgess, Antony W

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates cell fate, survival, proliferation and differentiation at many stages of mammalian development and pathology. Mutations of two key proteins in the pathway, APC and β-catenin, have been implicated in a range of cancers, including colorectal cancer. Activation of Wnt signalling has been associated with the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and consequential up-regulation of β-catenin/TCF gene transcription. In 2003, Lee et al. constructed a computational model of Wnt signalling supported by experimental data from analysis of time-dependent concentration of Wnt signalling proteins in Xenopus egg extracts. Subsequent studies have used the Xenopus quantitative data to infer Wnt pathway dynamics in other systems. As a basis for understanding Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, a confocal live cell imaging measurement technique is developed to measure the cell and nuclear volumes of MDCK, HEK293T cells and 3 human colorectal cancer cell lines and the concentrations of Wnt signalling proteins β-catenin, Axin, APC, GSK3β and E-cadherin. These parameters provide the basis for formulating Wnt signalling models for kidney/intestinal epithelial mammalian cells. There are significant differences in concentrations of key proteins between Xenopus extracts and mammalian whole cell lysates. Higher concentrations of Axin and lower concentrations of APC are present in mammalian cells. Axin concentrations are greater than APC in kidney epithelial cells, whereas in intestinal epithelial cells the APC concentration is higher than Axin. Computational simulations based on Lee's model, with this new data, suggest a need for a recalibration of the model.A quantitative understanding of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, in particular human colorectal cancers requires a detailed understanding of the concentrations of key protein complexes over time. Simulations of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells can be initiated with the parameters

  2. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    SciT

    Krishnan, M.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  3. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  4. Radar altimeter waveform modeled parameter recovery. [SEASAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Satellite-borne radar altimeters include waveform sampling gates providing point samples of the transmitted radar pulse after its scattering from the ocean's surface. Averages of the waveform sampler data can be fitted by varying parameters in a model mean return waveform. The theoretical waveform model used is described as well as a general iterative nonlinear least squares procedures used to obtain estimates of parameters characterizing the modeled waveform for SEASAT-1 data. The six waveform parameters recovered by the fitting procedure are: (1) amplitude; (2) time origin, or track point; (3) ocean surface rms roughness; (4) noise baseline; (5) ocean surface skewness; and (6) altitude or off-nadir angle. Additional practical processing considerations are addressed and FORTRAN source listing for subroutines used in the waveform fitting are included. While the description is for the Seasat-1 altimeter waveform data analysis, the work can easily be generalized and extended to other radar altimeter systems.

  5. Cosmological parameter estimation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, J.; Souradeep, T.

    2014-03-01

    Constraining parameters of a theoretical model from observational data is an important exercise in cosmology. There are many theoretically motivated models, which demand greater number of cosmological parameters than the standard model of cosmology uses, and make the problem of parameter estimation challenging. It is a common practice to employ Bayesian formalism for parameter estimation for which, in general, likelihood surface is probed. For the standard cosmological model with six parameters, likelihood surface is quite smooth and does not have local maxima, and sampling based methods like Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method are quite successful. However, when there are a large number of parameters or the likelihood surface is not smooth, other methods may be more effective. In this paper, we have demonstrated application of another method inspired from artificial intelligence, called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for estimating cosmological parameters from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data taken from the WMAP satellite.

  6. 30 CFR 250.211 - What must the EP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must the EP include? 250.211 Section 250.211 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.211 What must the EP include? Your EP must include the...

  7. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  8. 48 CFR 536.213-371 - Bids that include options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bids that include options... Contracting for Construction 536.213-371 Bids that include options. (a) Subject to the limitations in paragraph (c) of this section, you may include options in contracts if it is in the Government's interest...

  9. To include or not to include: Evaluations and reasoning about the failure to include peers with autism spectrum disorder in elementary students.

    PubMed

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Turiel, Elliot; DeWitt, Mila N; Wolfberg, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    Given the significant role that typically developing children play in the social lives of children with autism spectrum disorder, it is important to understand how they evaluate and reason about the inclusion/exclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder in social situations. The objective of this study is to determine elementary students' evaluations, reasoning patterns, and reasoning complexity regarding the failure to include children with autism spectrum disorder in social activities. Forty-four elementary-aged students participated in interviews, which included vignettes describing four contexts in which a child with autism spectrum disorder is not invited to a social event. Responses were analyzed according to social domain theory, an approach emphasizing that children identify and coordinate different domains of social knowledge, including the moral, personal, societal, and prudential. Results showed that regardless of grade and context, most children judge that failure to include on the basis of disability status is not acceptable. However, the complexity of children's reasoning (i.e. the extent to which they drew upon and coordinated multiple domains) was higher in older children. Mean complexity scores were also higher in a birthday party context as compared to a playdate context. We offer implications for future research and practice regarding the social inclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Comparison of lunar red spots including the crater copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Kaydash, V.; Rohacheva, L.; Korokhin, V.; Ivanov, M.; Velikodsky, Y.; Videen, G.

    2016-07-01

    The lunar red spots, Helmet, Hansteen Alpha, and the NW quadrant of the crater Copernicus, were selected for a complex comparative investigation of their characteristics measured by the spacecraft Clementine, LRO, and Chandrayaan-1. For the analysis we used the following parameters: the reflectance A(750 nm), color-ratio A(750 nm)/A(415 nm), parameter of optical micro-roughness (LRO WAC), parameters deduced from LRO Diviner data, optical maturity OMAT, abundance of FeO and TiO2 (Clementine UVVIS and LRO WAC data), oxygen content determined using Lunar Prospector data, and parameters characterizing the 0.95-μm and 2.2-μm bands of Fe2+ ions (crystal field bands), and 2.8-μm band of H2O/OH and/or Fe2+ ions. The red spots Helmet and Hansteen Alpha are considered to be extrusions of rhyolite composition, which can be attributed to the Nectarian period; we did not find contradictions of this assumption. As for the Copernicus red spot, this, perhaps, is a similar formation that has been destroyed by the impact. We demonstrate that the material of the Copernicus red spot probably has the same composition as the classical red spots Helmet and Hansteen Alpha. The distributions of the parameter of optical micro-roughness and optical maturity OMAT show that the Copernicus red anomaly was not formed during the long evolution of the lunar surface, but results from crater formation. We find several confirmations of the hypothesis that the Copernicus red spot can be a residual of a red material (possibly rhyolite) extrusion that was involved in the impact process. The red material could have been partially melted, crushed, and ejected to the crater's north-western vicinity. The described red asymmetry of the Copernicus ejecta can be related to the eccentricity, relative to the extrusion, of the impact and/or to the inclination of the impactor trajectory. The latter also is confirmed by an analysis of the region, which is based on the geological map shown in this paper.

  11. Observation model and parameter partials for the JPL VLBI parameter estimation software MODEST, 19 94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovers, O. J.; Jacobs, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of the document Observation Model and Parameter Partials for the JPL VLBI Parameter Estimation Software 'MODEST'---1991, dated August 1, 1991. It supersedes that document and its four previous versions (1983, 1985, 1986, and 1987). A number of aspects of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) model were improved from 1991 to 1994. Treatment of tidal effects is extended to model the effects of ocean tides on universal time and polar motion (UTPM), including a default model for nearly diurnal and semidiurnal ocean tidal UTPM variations, and partial derivatives for all (solid and ocean) tidal UTPM amplitudes. The time-honored 'K(sub 1) correction' for solid earth tides has been extended to include analogous frequency-dependent response of five tidal components. Partials of ocean loading amplitudes are now supplied. The Zhu-Mathews-Oceans-Anisotropy (ZMOA) 1990-2 and Kinoshita-Souchay models of nutation are now two of the modeling choices to replace the increasingly inadequate 1980 International Astronomical Union (IAU) nutation series. A rudimentary model of antenna thermal expansion is provided. Two more troposphere mapping functions have been added to the repertoire. Finally, corrections among VLBI observations via the model of Treuhaft and lanyi improve modeling of the dynamic troposphere. A number of minor misprints in Rev. 4 have been corrected.

  12. Surveillance and Control of Malaria Transmission Using Remotely Sensed Meteorological and Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, R.; Adimi, F.; Nigro, J.

    2007-01-01

    Meteorological and environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters can most conveniently be obtained using remote sensing. Selected provinces and districts in Thailand and Indonesia are used to illustrate how remotely sensed meteorological and environmental parameters may enhance the capabilities for malaria surveillance and control. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  13. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling: Incorporating Parameter Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carrie E.; Cribbie, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    When structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses are conducted, significance tests for all important model relationships (parameters including factor loadings, covariances, etc.) are typically conducted at a specified nominal Type I error rate ([alpha]). Despite the fact that many significance tests are often conducted in SEM, rarely is…

  14. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  15. Review of spectroscopic parameters for upper atmospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The workshop included communication of spectroscopic data requirements for the planned upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS) mission, review of the status of currently available spectroscopic parameters, and recommendation of additional studies. The objectives were accomplished and resulted in a series of general and specific recommendations for laboratory spectroscopy research to meet the needs of UARS and other atmospheric remote sensing programs.

  16. Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric…

  17. Land surface hydrology parameterization for atmospheric general circulation models including subgrid scale spatial variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1989-01-01

    Parameterizations are developed for the representation of subgrid hydrologic processes in atmospheric general circulation models. Reasonable a priori probability density functions of the spatial variability of soil moisture and of precipitation are introduced. These are used in conjunction with the deterministic equations describing basic soil moisture physics to derive expressions for the hydrologic processes that include subgrid scale variation in parameters. The major model sensitivities to soil type and to climatic forcing are explored.

  18. Fundamental Parameters Line Profile Fitting in Laboratory Diffractometers

    PubMed Central

    Cheary, R. W.; Coelho, A. A.; Cline, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental parameters approach to line profile fitting uses physically based models to generate the line profile shapes. Fundamental parameters profile fitting (FPPF) has been used to synthesize and fit data from both parallel beam and divergent beam diffractometers. The refined parameters are determined by the diffractometer configuration. In a divergent beam diffractometer these include the angular aperture of the divergence slit, the width and axial length of the receiving slit, the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits, the length and projected width of the x-ray source, the absorption coefficient and axial length of the sample. In a parallel beam system the principal parameters are the angular aperture of the equatorial analyser/Soller slits and the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits. The presence of a monochromator in the beam path is normally accommodated by modifying the wavelength spectrum and/or by changing one or more of the axial divergence parameters. Flat analyzer crystals have been incorporated into FPPF as a Lorentzian shaped angular acceptance function. One of the intrinsic benefits of the fundamental parameters approach is its adaptability any laboratory diffractometer. Good fits can normally be obtained over the whole 20 range without refinement using the known properties of the diffractometer, such as the slit sizes and diffractometer radius, and emission profile. PMID:27366594

  19. A variational approach to parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations.

    PubMed

    Kaschek, Daniel; Timmer, Jens

    2012-08-14

    Ordinary differential equations are widely-used in the field of systems biology and chemical engineering to model chemical reaction networks. Numerous techniques have been developed to estimate parameters like rate constants, initial conditions or steady state concentrations from time-resolved data. In contrast to this countable set of parameters, the estimation of entire courses of network components corresponds to an innumerable set of parameters. The approach presented in this work is able to deal with course estimation for extrinsic system inputs or intrinsic reactants, both not being constrained by the reaction network itself. Our method is based on variational calculus which is carried out analytically to derive an augmented system of differential equations including the unconstrained components as ordinary state variables. Finally, conventional parameter estimation is applied to the augmented system resulting in a combined estimation of courses and parameters. The combined estimation approach takes the uncertainty in input courses correctly into account. This leads to precise parameter estimates and correct confidence intervals. In particular this implies that small motifs of large reaction networks can be analysed independently of the rest. By the use of variational methods, elements from control theory and statistics are combined allowing for future transfer of methods between the two fields.

  20. Spillover effects in epidemiology: parameters, study designs and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Arnold, Benjamin F; Berger, David; Luby, Stephen P; Miguel, Edward; Colford Jr, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many public health interventions provide benefits that extend beyond their direct recipients and impact people in close physical or social proximity who did not directly receive the intervention themselves. A classic example of this phenomenon is the herd protection provided by many vaccines. If these ‘spillover effects’ (i.e. ‘herd effects’) are present in the same direction as the effects on the intended recipients, studies that only estimate direct effects on recipients will likely underestimate the full public health benefits of the intervention. Causal inference assumptions for spillover parameters have been articulated in the vaccine literature, but many studies measuring spillovers of other types of public health interventions have not drawn upon that literature. In conjunction with a systematic review we conducted of spillovers of public health interventions delivered in low- and middle-income countries, we classified the most widely used spillover parameters reported in the empirical literature into a standard notation. General classes of spillover parameters include: cluster-level spillovers; spillovers conditional on treatment or outcome density, distance or the number of treated social network links; and vaccine efficacy parameters related to spillovers. We draw on high quality empirical examples to illustrate each of these parameters. We describe study designs to estimate spillovers and assumptions required to make causal inferences about spillovers. We aim to advance and encourage methods for spillover estimation and reporting by standardizing spillover parameter nomenclature and articulating the causal inference assumptions required to estimate spillovers. PMID:29106568

  1. Determination of Solubility Parameters of Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen Lysinate.

    PubMed

    Kitak, Teja; Dumičić, Aleksandra; Planinšek, Odon; Šibanc, Rok; Srčič, Stanko

    2015-12-03

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in formulating solid dispersions, which purposes mainly include solubility enhancement, sustained drug release and taste masking. The most notable problem by these dispersions is drug-carrier (in)solubility. Here we focus on solubility parameters as a tool for predicting the solubility of a drug in certain carriers. Solubility parameters were determined in two different ways: solely by using calculation methods, and by experimental approaches. Six different calculation methods were applied in order to calculate the solubility parameters of the drug ibuprofen and several excipients. However, we were not able to do so in the case of ibuprofen lysinate, as calculation models for salts are still not defined. Therefore, the extended Hansen's approach and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) were used for evaluating of solubility parameters for ibuprofen lysinate. The obtained values of the total solubility parameter did not differ much between the two methods: by the extended Hansen's approach it was δt = 31.15 MPa(0.5) and with IGC it was δt = 35.17 MPa(0.5). However, the values of partial solubility parameters, i.e., δd, δp and δh, did differ from each other, what might be due to the complex behaviour of a salt in the presence of various solvents.

  2. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J. David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A.; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-01-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PMID:23938214

  3. SAW parameters on Y-cut langasite structured materials.

    PubMed

    Puccio, Derek; Malocha, Donald C; Saldanha, Nancy; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents results and investigations of several new, man-made piezoelectric single crystal, Czochralski-grown substrate materials for surface acoustic waves (SAW) applications. These materials, langanite (LGN), langatate (LGT), Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (STGS), Sr3NbGa3Si2O14 (SNGS), Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS), and Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 (CNGS), have the same structure as langasite (LGS) and are of the same crystal class as quartz. These compounds are denser than quartz, resulting in lower phase velocities. They also have higher coupling. Unlike quartz and lithium niobate, there is no degradation of material properties below the material melting points resulting in the possibility of extreme high-temperature operation (> 1000 degrees C). This paper gives a summary of extracted SAW material parameters for various propagation angles on Y-cut substrates of the six materials. Parameters included are electromechanical coupling, phase velocity, transducer capacitance, metal strip reflectivity, and temperature coefficient of frequency. Using previously published fundamental material constants, extracted parameters are compared with predictions for LGT and LGN. In addition, power flow angle and fractional frequency curvature data are reported for propagation angles on CTGS and CNGS Y-cut substrates that exhibit temperature compensation near room temperature. Detailed descriptions of the SAW parameter extraction techniques are given. A discussion of the results is provided, including a comparison of extracted parameters and an overview of possible SAW applications.

  4. A Parameter Subset Selection Algorithm for Mixed-Effects Models

    DOE PAGES

    Schmidt, Kathleen L.; Smith, Ralph C.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-effects models are commonly used to statistically model phenomena that include attributes associated with a population or general underlying mechanism as well as effects specific to individuals or components of the general mechanism. This can include individual effects associated with data from multiple experiments. However, the parameterizations used to incorporate the population and individual effects are often unidentifiable in the sense that parameters are not uniquely specified by the data. As a result, the current literature focuses on model selection, by which insensitive parameters are fixed or removed from the model. Model selection methods that employ information criteria are applicablemore » to both linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models, but such techniques are limited in that they are computationally prohibitive for large problems due to the number of possible models that must be tested. To limit the scope of possible models for model selection via information criteria, we introduce a parameter subset selection (PSS) algorithm for mixed-effects models, which orders the parameters by their significance. In conclusion, we provide examples to verify the effectiveness of the PSS algorithm and to test the performance of mixed-effects model selection that makes use of parameter subset selection.« less

  5. 77 FR 9969 - Clow Water Systems Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Carol Harris Stafffing Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Carol Harris Stafffing Including Workers Whose Unemployment... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name McWane, Inc. Accordingly, the Department is amending this certification to include workers of the subject firm whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are...

  6. Io's Heat Flow: A Model Including "Warm" Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Davies, A. G.; Blaney, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Some 90 percent of Io's surface is thermally "passive" material. It is separate from the sites of active volcanic eruptions. Though "passive", its thermal behavior continues to be a challenge for modelers. The usual approach is to take albedo, average daytime temperature, temperature as a function of time of day, etc., and attempt to match these constraints with a uniform surface with a single value of thermal inertia. Io is a case where even globally averaged observations are inconsistent with a single-thermal-inertia model approach. The Veeder et al. (1994) model for "passive" thermal emission addressed seven constraints derived from a decade of ground-based, global observations - average albedo plus infrared fluxes at three separate wavelengths (4.8, 8.7, and 20 microns) for both daytime and eclipsed conditions. This model has only two components - a unit of infinite thermal inertia and a unit of zero thermal inertia. The free parameters are the areal coverage ratio of the two units and their relative albedos (constrained to match the known average albedo). This two-parameter model agreed with the global radiometric data and also predicted significantly higher non-volcanic nighttime temperatures than traditional ("lunar-like") single thermal inertia models. Recent observations from the Galileo infrared radiometer show relatively uniform minimum-night-time temperatures. In particular, they show little variation with either latitude or time of night (Spencer et al., 2000; Rathbun et al., 2002). Additionally, detailed analyses of Io's scattering properties and reflectance variations have led to the interesting conclusion that Io's albedo at regional scales varies little with latitude (Simonelli, et al., 2001). This effectively adds four new observational constraints - lack of albedo variation with latitude, average minimum nighttime temperature and lack of variation of temperature with either latitude or longitude. We have made the fewest modifications necessary

  7. 40 CFR 62.14442 - What must my inspection include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; (15) Inspect bypass stack components; (16) Ensure proper calibration of thermocouples, sorbent feed... calibration of thermocouples, sorbent feed systems and any other monitoring equipment; and (3) Include...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14442 - What must my inspection include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; (15) Inspect bypass stack components; (16) Ensure proper calibration of thermocouples, sorbent feed... calibration of thermocouples, sorbent feed systems and any other monitoring equipment; and (3) Include...

  9. Looking Northwest at Office Building Boiler Room, Including Cinderblock Walls, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Office Building Boiler Room, Including Cinderblock Walls, Fuel Tank and Scale Weights - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  10. 10. PHOTOCOPY OF 1875 WOODCUT OF THE BRIDGE INCLUDING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PHOTOCOPY OF 1875 WOODCUT OF THE BRIDGE INCLUDING THE MANUFACTURERS ADVERTISING - Callowhill Street Bridge, Schuylkill River at Spring Garden & Callowhill Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION CHANNEL AND COLLECTION BOX, CENTER FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  12. On Interpreting the Model Parameters for the Three Parameter Logistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses two problems relating to the interpretability of the model parameters in the three parameter logistic model. First, it is shown that if the values of the discrimination parameters are all the same, the remaining parameters are nonidentifiable in a nontrivial way that involves not only ability and item difficulty, but also the…

  13. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  14. Effect of processing parameters on FDM process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chari, V. Srinivasa; Venkatesh, P. R.; Krupashankar, Dinesh, Veena

    2018-04-01

    This paper focused on the process parameters on fused deposition modeling (FDM). Infill, resolution, temperature are the process variables considered for experimental studies. Compression strength, Hardness test microstructure are the outcome parameters, this experimental study done based on the taguchi's L9 orthogonal array is used. Taguchi array used to build the 9 different models and also to get the effective output results on the under taken parameters. The material used for this experimental study is Polylactic Acid (PLA).

  15. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

  16. Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Xun, Xiaolei; Cao, Jiguo; Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J; Maity, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown, and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the present of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE, and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from LIDAR data.

  17. Natural parameter values for generalized gene adjacency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Sankoff, David

    2010-09-01

    Given the gene orders in two modern genomes, it may be difficult to decide if some genes are close enough in both genomes to infer some ancestral proximity or some functional relationship. Current methods all depend on arbitrary parameters. We explore a class of gene proximity criteria and find two kinds of natural values for their parameters. One kind has to do with the parameter value where the expected information contained in two genomes about each other is maximized. The other kind of natural value has to do with parameter values beyond which all genes are clustered. We analyze these using combinatorial and probabilistic arguments as well as simulations.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory are...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and risers; pressure-regulating devices (including back-pressure regulators); sensing devices with.... (ii) If you propose to use one or more pipeline risers for a tension leg platform or other floating platform, your application must include: (A) The design fatigue life of the riser, with calculations, and...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and risers; pressure-regulating devices (including back-pressure regulators); sensing devices with.... (ii) If you propose to use one or more pipeline risers for a tension leg platform or other floating platform, your application must include: (A) The design fatigue life of the riser, with calculations, and...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1007 - What to include in applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and risers; pressure-regulating devices (including back-pressure regulators); sensing devices with.... (ii) If you propose to use one or more pipeline risers for a tension leg platform or other floating platform, your application must include: (A) The design fatigue life of the riser, with calculations, and...

  2. 142. ARAIII General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. ARA-III General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution plan for power and lighting. Includes detail of floodlight and security lighting poles and fixtures. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-406-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0406-00-013-102539. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  4. 42 CFR 436.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individuals included in optional groups. 436.201... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy § 436.201 Individuals included in optional groups. (a) The...

  5. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  6. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  7. 42 CFR 435.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individuals included in optional groups. 435.201... Individuals included in optional groups. (a) The agency may choose to cover as optional categorically needy any group or groups of the following individuals who are not receiving cash assistance and who meet...

  8. 20 CFR 408.710 - What must your report include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must your report include? 408.710 Section 408.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Reporting Requirements § 408.710 What must your report include? When you make a report...

  9. 20 CFR 408.710 - What must your report include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must your report include? 408.710 Section 408.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Reporting Requirements § 408.710 What must your report include? When you make a report...

  10. 20 CFR 408.710 - What must your report include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must your report include? 408.710 Section 408.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Reporting Requirements § 408.710 What must your report include? When you make a report...

  11. 20 CFR 408.710 - What must your report include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What must your report include? 408.710 Section 408.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Reporting Requirements § 408.710 What must your report include? When you make a report...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312 Section 404.1312 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service include...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions included. Designated fire zones are— (a) For reciprocating engines— (1) The power section; (2) The accessory section; (3) Any...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed by...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed by...

  20. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciT

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-2 - Deductions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deductions included. 1.642(g)-2 Section 1.642(g... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(g)-2 Deductions included. It...(g) is applicable be treated in the same way. One deduction or portion of a deduction may be allowed...

  2. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-2 - Deductions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deductions included. 1.642(g)-2 Section 1.642(g... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(g)-2 Deductions included. It...(g) is applicable be treated in the same way. One deduction or portion of a deduction may be allowed...

  3. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-2 - Deductions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deductions included. 1.642(g)-2 Section 1.642(g... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(g)-2 Deductions included. It...(g) is applicable be treated in the same way. One deduction or portion of a deduction may be allowed...

  4. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-2 - Deductions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deductions included. 1.642(g)-2 Section 1.642(g... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(g)-2 Deductions included. It...(g) is applicable be treated in the same way. One deduction or portion of a deduction may be allowed...

  5. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-2 - Deductions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions included. 1.642(g)-2 Section 1.642(g... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(g)-2 Deductions included. It is not required that the total deductions, or the total amount of any deduction, to which section 642(g) is...

  6. 20 CFR 422.201 - Material included in this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Material included in this subpart. 422.201 Section 422.201 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Procedures of the Office of Hearings and Appeals § 422.201 Material included in this subpart. This subpart...

  7. 2 CFR 200.470 - Taxes (including Value Added Tax).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxes (including Value Added Tax). 200.470... Cost § 200.470 Taxes (including Value Added Tax). (a) For states, local governments and Indian tribes... Federal government for the taxes, interest, and penalties. (c) Value Added Tax (VAT) Foreign taxes charged...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  9. 20 CFR 416.710 - What reports must include.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What reports must include. 416.710 Section 416.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Reports Required Report Provisions § 416.710 What reports must include. When you...

  10. 20 CFR 416.710 - What reports must include.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What reports must include. 416.710 Section 416.710 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Reports Required Report Provisions § 416.710 What reports must include. When you...

  11. Virtual Acoustics: Evaluation of Psychoacoustic Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current virtual acoustic displays for teleconferencing and virtual reality are usually limited to very simple or non-existent renderings of reverberation, a fundamental part of the acoustic environmental context that is encountered in day-to-day hearing. Several research efforts have produced results that suggest that environmental cues dramatically improve perceptual performance within virtual acoustic displays, and that is possible to manipulate signal processing parameters to effectively reproduce important aspects of virtual acoustic perception in real-time. However, the computational resources for rendering reverberation remain formidable. Our efforts at NASA Ames have been focused using a several perceptual threshold metrics, to determine how various "trade-offs" might be made in real-time acoustic rendering. This includes both original work and confirmation of existing data that was obtained in real rather than virtual environments. The talk will consider the importance of using individualized versus generalized pinnae cues (the "Head-Related Transfer Function"); the use of head movement cues; threshold data for early reflections and late reverberation; and consideration of the necessary accuracy for measuring and rendering octave-band absorption characteristics of various wall surfaces. In addition, a consideration of the analysis-synthesis of the reverberation within "everyday spaces" (offices, conference rooms) will be contrasted to the commonly used paradigm of concert hall spaces.

  12. Fundamental Parameters of Nearby Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Kyle; Wilhelm, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    We present high resolution (R ~ 60,000) spectroscopic data of F and G members of the nearby, young associations AB Doradus and β Pictoris obtained with the Cross-Dispersed Echelle Spectrograph on the 2.7 meter telescope at the McDonald Observatory. Effective temperatures, log(g), [Fe/H], and microturbulent velocities are first estimated using the TGVIT code, then finely tuned using MOOG. Equivalent width (EW) measurements were made using TAME alongside a self-produced IDL routine to constrain EW accuracy and improve computed fundamental parameters. MOOG is also used to derive the chemical abundance of several elements including Mn which is known to be over abundant in planet hosting stars. Vsin(i) are also computed using a χ2 analysis of our observed data to Atlas9 model atmospheres passed through the SPECTRUM spectral synthesis code on lines which do not depend strongly on surface gravity. Due to the limited number of Fe II lines which govern the surface gravity fit in both TGVIT and MOOG, we implement another χ2 analysis of strongly log(g) dependent lines to ensure the values are correct. Coupling the surface gravities and temperatures derived in this study with the luminosities found in the Tycho-2 catalog, we estimate masses for each star and compare these masses to several evolutionary models to begin the process of constraining pre-main sequence evolutionary models.

  13. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF STANDARD AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciT

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina

    2013-10-10

    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adoptmore » spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event.« less

  14. Transparency Parameters from Relativistically Expanding Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, D.; Iyyani, S.

    2014-09-01

    In many gamma-ray bursts a distinct blackbody spectral component is present, which is attributed to the emission from the photosphere of a relativistically expanding plasma. The properties of this component (temperature and flux) can be linked to the properties of the outflow and have been presented in the case where there is no sub-photospheric dissipation and the photosphere is in coasting phase. First, we present the derivation of the properties of the outflow for finite winds, including when the photosphere is in the accelerating phase. Second, we study the effect of localized sub-photospheric dissipation on the estimation of the parameters. Finally, we apply our results to GRB 090902B. We find that during the first epoch of this burst the photosphere is most likely to be in the accelerating phase, leading to smaller values of the Lorentz factor than the ones previously estimated. For the second epoch, we find that the photosphere is likely to be in the coasting phase.

  15. Estimation of octanol/water partition coefficients using LSER parameters

    Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.; Godbole, Kalpana A.; Rogers, Tony N.

    1998-01-01

    The logarithms of octanol/water partition coefficients, logKow, were regressed against the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters for a training set of 981 diverse organic chemicals. The standard deviation for logKow was 0.49. The regression equation was then used to estimate logKow for a test of 146 chemicals which included pesticides and other diverse polyfunctional compounds. Thus the octanol/water partition coefficient may be estimated by LSER parameters without elaborate software but only moderate accuracy should be expected.

  16. Isochrones of M67 with an Expanded Set of Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Lucas; Basu, Sarbani

    2017-10-01

    We create isochrones of M67 using the Yale Rotating Stellar Evolution Code. In addition to metallicity, parameters that are traditionally held fixed, such as the mixing length parameter and initial helium abundance, also vary. The amount of convective overshoot is also changed in different sets of isochrones. Models are constructed both with and without diffusion. From the resulting isochrones that fit the cluster, the age range is between 3.6 and 4.8 Gyr and the distance is between 755 and 868 pc. We also confirm Michaud et al. (2004) claim that M67 can be fit without overshoot if diffusion is included.

  17. Performance parameters of TiN electrodes for AMTEC cells

    SciT

    Ryan, Margaret A.; Williams, Roger M.; Homer, Margie L.

    1999-01-22

    In order to model the lifetime of the electrochemical cell in an Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC), studies of TiN electrodes on beta'-alumina solid electrolytes (BASE) have been made to determine the performance parameters over time. Performance parameters include, G, the morphology factor, and B, the temperature independent exchange current. The results of several experiments, both AMTEC cells and Sodium Exposure Test Cells, in which TiN electrodes have been studied at 1120-1200 K are described here.

  18. Scaling of hydrologic and erosion parameters derived from rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Noske, Philip; Sherwin, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments conducted at the temporal scale of minutes and the spatial scale of meters are often used to derive parameters for erosion and water quality models that operate at much larger temporal and spatial scales. While such parameterization is convenient, there has been little effort to validate this approach via nested experiments across these scales. In this paper we first review the literature relevant to some of these long acknowledged issues. We then present rainfall simulation and erosion plot data from a range of sources, including mining, roading, and forestry, to explore the issues associated with the scaling of parameters such as infiltration properties and erodibility coefficients.

  19. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    SciT

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having amore » common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.« less

  20. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    SciT

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  1. Thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger

    DOEpatents

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2017-03-07

    A thermal swing reactor including a multi-flight auger and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. The reactor includes a multi-flight auger having different helix portions having different pitch. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor portions between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between portions during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat.

  2. High performance, durable polymers including poly(phenylene)

    DOEpatents

    Fujimoto, Cy; Pratt, Harry; Anderson, Travis Mark

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to functionalized polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. In some embodiments, the polymers and copolymers of the invention include a highly localized concentration of acidic moieties, which facilitate proton transport and conduction through networks formed from these polymers. In addition, the polymers can include functional moieties, such as electron-withdrawing moieties, to protect the polymeric backbone, thereby extending its durability. Such enhanced proton transport and durability can be beneficial for any high performance platform that employs proton exchange polymeric membranes, such as in fuel cells or flow batteries.

  3. Birth weight and optic nerve head parameters.

    PubMed

    Samarawickrama, Chameen; Huynh, Son C; Liew, Gerald; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2009-06-01

    To assess the relationship of birth weight, birth length, and head circumference as proxy markers of intrauterine growth, cup/disc ratio, and other optic disc parameters measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Population-based cross sectional analysis. The Sydney Childhood Eye Study examined 2353 primarily 12-year-old children from 21 randomly selected secondary schools during 2003 to 2005. Of 2353 children examined, 2134 (90.7%) had OCT scans (Zeiss Stratus OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and are included in this study. The "fast" optic disc scan protocol was used. Birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were ascertained from health records. Height and weight were measured using standardized protocols, body mass index (BMI) was defined as weight (kilograms)/ height squared (meters), and sociodemographic information was collected in a questionnaire completed by parents. Low birth weight was defined as birth weight

  4. Hypersonic blunt body computations including real gas effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Klopfer, G. H.; Vinokur, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various second-order explicit and implicit TVD shock-capturing methods, a generalization of Roe's approximate Riemann solver, and a generalized flux-vector splitting scheme are used to study two-dimensional hypersonic real-gas flows. Special attention is given to the identification of some of the elements and parameters which can affect the convergence rate for high Mach numbers or real gases, but have negligible effect for low Mach numbers, for cases involving steady-state inviscid blunt flows. Blunt body calculations at Mach numbers of greater than 15 are performed to treat real-gas effects, and impinging shock results are obtained to test the treatment of slip surfaces and complex structures. Even with the addition of improvements, the convergence rate of algorithms in the hypersonic flow regime is found to be generally slower for a real gas than for a perfect gas.

  5. Failure analysis of composite laminates including biaxial compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a continued effort on the development and application of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to the design, construction and testing of a cross-beam laminate configuration to obtain "pure' biaxial compression failure. The purpose of this test case was to provide to permit "closure' of the cubic form of the failure surface in the 1-2 compression-compression quadrant. This resulted in a revised set of interaction strength parameters and the construction of a failure surface which can be used with confidence for strength predictions, assuming a plane stress state exists. Furthermore, the problem of complex conjugate roots which can occur in some failure regions is addressed and an "engineering' interpretation is provided. Results are presented illustrating this behavior and the methodology for overcoming this problem is discussed.

  6. Radiation-driven winds of hot stars. VI - Analytical solutions for wind models including the finite cone angle effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudritzki, R. P.; Pauldrach, A.; Puls, J.; Abbott, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical solutions for radiation-driven winds of hot stars including the important finite cone angle effect (see Pauldrach et al., 1986; Friend and Abbott, 1986) are derived which approximate the detailed numerical solutions of the exact wind equation of motion very well. They allow a detailed discussion of the finite cone angle effect and provide for given line force parameters k, alpha, delta definite formulas for mass-loss rate M and terminal velocity v-alpha as function of stellar parameters.

  7. Influence parameters of impact grinding mills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoeffl, K.; Husemann, K.; Goldacker, H.

    1984-01-01

    Significant parameters for impact grinding mills were investigated. Final particle size was used to evaluate grinding results. Adjustment of the parameters toward increased charge load results in improved efficiency; however, it was not possible to define a single, unified set to optimum grinding conditions.

  8. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  9. Useful surface parameters for biomaterial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Marina; Escuin, Tomas; Vinas, Miquel; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Topographical features of biomaterials' surfaces are determinant when addressing their application site. Unfortunately up to date there has not been an agreement regarding which surface parameters are more representative in discriminating between materials. Discs (n = 16) of different currently used materials for implant prostheses fabrication, such as cast cobalt-chrome, direct laser metal soldered (DLMS) cobalt-chrome, titanium grade V, zirconia (Y-TZP), E-glass fiber-reinforced composite and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) were manufactured. Nanoscale topographical surface roughness parameters generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), microscale surface roughness parameters obtained by white light interferometry (WLI) and water angle values obtained by the sessile-water-drop method were analyzed in order to assess which parameter provides the best optimum surface characterization method. Correlations between nanoroughness, microroughness, and hydrophobicity data were performed to achieve the best parameters giving the highest discriminatory power. A subset of six parameters for surface characterization were proposed. AFM and WLI techniques gave complementary information. Wettability did not correlate with any of the nanoroughness parameters while it however showed a weak correlation with microroughness parameters. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Linking Item Parameters to a Base Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Taehoon; Petersen, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares three methods of item calibration--concurrent calibration, separate calibration with linking, and fixed item parameter calibration--that are frequently used for linking item parameters to a base scale. Concurrent and separate calibrations were implemented using BILOG-MG. The Stocking and Lord in "Appl Psychol Measure"…

  11. Ecophysiological parameters for Pacific Northwest trees.

    Amy E. Hessl; Cristina Milesi; Michael A. White; David L. Peterson; Robert E. Keane

    2004-01-01

    We developed a species- and location-specific database of published ecophysiological variables typically used as input parameters for biogeochemical models of coniferous and deciduous forested ecosystems in the Western United States. Parameters are based on the requirements of Biome-BGC, a widely used biogeochemical model that was originally parameterized for the...

  12. Comparison of Dam Breach Parameter Estimators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    of the methods, when used in the HEC - RAS simulation model , produced comparable results. The methods tested suggest use of ...characteristics of a dam breach, use of those parameters within the unsteady flow routing model HEC - RAS , and the computation and display of the resulting...implementation of these breach parameters in

  13. 13. EQUIPMENT USED IN CLEAN ROOM (102), INCLUDING ROYCO PARTICLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. EQUIPMENT USED IN CLEAN ROOM (102), INCLUDING ROYCO PARTICLE COUNTER (LEFT) AND STEREOSCOPE FOR MANUAL PARTICLE COUNTING (RIGHT) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes nutrition: Including sweets in your meal plan Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods, but sweets aren't necessarily ... your meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods. But you can eat ...

  15. Crane 55 at Drydock No. 2. View includes entire bone. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Crane 55 at Drydock No. 2. View includes entire bone. Building 43 is in background - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 55, Central Industrial Area, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curtain Fabric Detail and Designed Furniture including Dining Table, Dining Chair, Coffee Table, End Table, and Ottoman - Cedric & Patricia Boulter House, 1 Rawson Woods Circle, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, OH

  17. 42 CFR 436.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individual who is determined to be dependent) as specified in § 436.510; (6) Pregnant women; and (7... for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women ...

  18. 42 CFR 436.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual who is determined to be dependent) as specified in § 436.510; (6) Pregnant women; and (7... for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women ...

  19. 42 CFR 436.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... individual who is determined to be dependent) as specified in § 436.510; (6) Pregnant women; and (7... for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women ...

  20. 42 CFR 436.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... individual who is determined to be dependent) as specified in § 436.510; (6) Pregnant women; and (7... for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women ...

  1. 41. OPERATING CORRIDOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, INCLUDING SOME ISOMETRIC DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OPERATING CORRIDOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, INCLUDING SOME ISOMETRIC DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106455. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-P-60 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  3. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  4. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  5. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime; and (B) In the intended use is subject to... bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product includes...

  6. Guidance on including ITS elements in transportation projects

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for including ITS equipment and technologies as part of traditional transportation construction or maintenance projects. This document is not intended to simplify the planning process, rather it is ...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... impacts of the proposal and the alternatives in comparative form, thus sharply defining the issues and... action so that reviewers may evaluate their comparative merits. (c) Include reasonable alternatives not...

  8. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impacts of the proposal and the alternatives in comparative form, thus sharply defining the issues and... action so that reviewers may evaluate their comparative merits. (c) Include reasonable alternatives not...

  9. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... impacts of the proposal and the alternatives in comparative form, thus sharply defining the issues and... action so that reviewers may evaluate their comparative merits. (c) Include reasonable alternatives not...

  10. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impacts of the proposal and the alternatives in comparative form, thus sharply defining the issues and... action so that reviewers may evaluate their comparative merits. (c) Include reasonable alternatives not...

  11. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... impacts of the proposal and the alternatives in comparative form, thus sharply defining the issues and... action so that reviewers may evaluate their comparative merits. (c) Include reasonable alternatives not...

  12. 8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND BETA BACKSCATTERING. (7/13/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    SciT

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materialsmore » include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.« less

  14. Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS INCLUDING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS INCLUDING THE MESS HALL BUILDING 220 IN THE FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Mess Hall, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  16. Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes portion of creamery on left and main barn on right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  17. Modeling Emergent Macrophyte Distributions: Including Sub-dominant Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed stands of emergent vegetation are often present following drawdowns but models of wetland plant distributions fail to include subdominant species when predicting distributions. Three variations of a spatial plant distribution cellular automaton model were developed to explo...

  18. Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber for Incinerator within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  19. Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking West From rear (East) End of Office Building Including Recycle Storage Area, Loading Docks, and Decontamination Zone - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Office, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  20. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  1. View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof and Wall Juncture and Crane Trolley - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  2. Initiatives to Develop Web Sites Including Information about Brownfields Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web site was created to assist in planning, designing, and operating web sites that include information about individual brownfields properties. The report is of value to parties designing or managing such sites.

  3. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  4. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  5. View looking south from sidewalk includes halfthrough west girder on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from sidewalk includes half-through west girder on left and raging river (upstream) on right. - Raging River Bridge No. 234A, Preston-Fall City Road & Southeast Forty-fourth Place, Fall City, King County, WA

  6. View of west end of Childs Powerhouse, including transformer station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west end of Childs Powerhouse, including transformer station and associated sheds. Looking downstream (east) - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  7. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO RIGHT) BETHLEHEM RAIL MILL, GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING, MACHINE SHOP, BAR MILL, BLOOMING MILL & OPEN HEARTH PLANT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  10. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  12. 15. General view of complex from the north, (includes Roeder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. General view of complex from the north, (includes Roeder House to the right and to the left (east), at end of street, John Brown's fort). - Roeder Store, Potomac Street, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  13. 2. Perspective view showing most of east facade including steps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Perspective view showing most of east facade including steps and door at north end. Camera pointed NW. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. Optimization of Parameter Ranges for Composite Tape Winding Process Based on Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Shi, Yaoyao; He, Xiaodong; Kang, Chao; Deng, Bo; Song, Shibo

    2017-08-01

    This study is focus on the parameters sensitivity of winding process for composite prepreg tape. The methods of multi-parameter relative sensitivity analysis and single-parameter sensitivity analysis are proposed. The polynomial empirical model of interlaminar shear strength is established by response surface experimental method. Using this model, the relative sensitivity of key process parameters including temperature, tension, pressure and velocity is calculated, while the single-parameter sensitivity curves are obtained. According to the analysis of sensitivity curves, the stability and instability range of each parameter are recognized. Finally, the optimization method of winding process parameters is developed. The analysis results show that the optimized ranges of the process parameters for interlaminar shear strength are: temperature within [100 °C, 150 °C], tension within [275 N, 387 N], pressure within [800 N, 1500 N], and velocity within [0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s], respectively.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Two-season spectrum and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlozek, Renée; Louis, Thibaut; Grace, Emily; Hasselfield, Matthew; Lungu, Marius; Maurin, Loic; Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    2017-01-01

    We present the temperature and polarization angular power spectra measured by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope polarimeter (ACTPol) over 548 deg^2 of sky on the celestial Equator, from nighttime data collected during 2013-14 using two kilo-detector arrays at 146 GHz. We use these spectra, and the spectra measured with the MBAC camera on ACT from 2008-10, in combination with Planck and WMAP satellite data to estimate cosmological parameters from the temperature, polarization, and temperature-polarization cross-correlations. We find the new ACTPol data to be consistent with the ΛCDM model. The ACTPol temperature-polarization cross-spectrum now provides stronger constraints on multiple parameters than the ACTPol temperature power spectrum, including the baryon density and the acoustic peak position angle, and the derived Hubble constant. Adding the new data to Planck temperature data tightens the limits on damping tail parameters, which we present here.

  16. Aerodynamic parameter estimation via Fourier modulating function techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Parameter estimation algorithms are developed in the frequency domain for systems modeled by input/output ordinary differential equations. The approach is based on Shinbrot's method of moment functionals utilizing Fourier based modulating functions. Assuming white measurement noises for linear multivariable system models, an adaptive weighted least squares algorithm is developed which approximates a maximum likelihood estimate and cannot be biased by unknown initial or boundary conditions in the data owing to a special property attending Shinbrot-type modulating functions. Application is made to perturbation equation modeling of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a high performance aircraft using flight-test data. Comparative studies are included which demonstrate potential advantages of the algorithm relative to some well established techniques for parameter identification. Deterministic least squares extensions of the approach are made to the frequency transfer function identification problem for linear systems and to the parameter identification problem for a class of nonlinear-time-varying differential system models.

  17. Scale Control and Quality Management of Printed Image Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselskaya, O. A.; Kolesnikov, V. L.; Solov'eva, T. V.; Nagornova, I. V.; Babluyk, E. B.; Trapeznikova, O. V.

    2017-06-01

    The article provides a comparison of the main valuation techniques for a regulated parameter of printability of the offset paper by current standards GOST 24356 and ISO 3783: 2006. The results of development and implementation of a complex test scale for management and control the quality of printed production are represented. The estimation scale is introduced. It includes normalized parameters of print optical density, print uniformity, picking out speed, the value of dot gain, print contrast with the added criteria of minimizing microtexts, a paper slip, resolution threshold and effusing ability of paper surface. The results of analysis allow directionally form surface properties of the substrate to facilitate achieving the required quality of the printed image parameters, i. e. optical density of a print at a predetermined level not less than 1.3, the print uniformity with minimal deviation of dot gain about the order of 10 per cents.

  18. Kalman filter estimation of human pilot-model parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.; Roland, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    The parameters of a human pilot-model transfer function are estimated by applying the extended Kalman filter to the corresponding retarded differential-difference equations in the time domain. Use of computer-generated data indicates that most of the parameters, including the implicit time delay, may be reasonably estimated in this way. When applied to two sets of experimental data obtained from a closed-loop tracking task performed by a human, the Kalman filter generated diverging residuals for one of the measurement types, apparently because of model assumption errors. Application of a modified adaptive technique was found to overcome the divergence and to produce reasonable estimates of most of the parameters.

  19. Lumped-parameters equivalent circuit for condenser microphones modeling.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Josué; Rufer, Libor; Ekeom, Didace; Basrour, Skandar

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a lumped parameters equivalent model of condenser microphone based on analogies between acoustic, mechanical, fluidic, and electrical domains. Parameters of the model were determined mainly through analytical relations and/or finite element method (FEM) simulations. Special attention was paid to the air gap modeling and to the use of proper boundary condition. Corresponding lumped-parameters were obtained as results of FEM simulations. Because of its simplicity, the model allows a fast simulation and is readily usable for microphone design. This work shows the validation of the equivalent circuit on three real cases of capacitive microphones, including both traditional and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems structures. In all cases, it has been demonstrated that the sensitivity and other related data obtained from the equivalent circuit are in very good agreement with available measurement data.

  20. Characterization of hot dense plasma with plasma parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Narendra; Goyal, Arun; Chaurasia, S.

    2018-05-01

    Characterization of hot dense plasma (HDP) with its parameters temperature, electron density, skin depth, plasma frequency is demonstrated in this work. The dependence of HDP parameters on temperature and electron density is discussed. The ratio of the intensities of spectral lines within HDP is calculated as a function of electron temperature. The condition of weakly coupled for HDP is verified by calculating coupling constant. Additionally, atomic data such as transition wavelength, excitation energies, line strength, etc. are obtained for Be-like ions on the basis of MCDHF method. In atomic data calculations configuration interaction and relativistic effects QED and Breit corrections are newly included for HDP characterization and this is first result of HDP parameters from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations.

  1. A six-parameter Iwan model and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yikun; Hao, Zhiming

    2016-02-01

    Iwan model is a practical tool to describe the constitutive behaviors of joints. In this paper, a six-parameter Iwan model based on a truncated power-law distribution with two Dirac delta functions is proposed, which gives a more comprehensive description of joints than the previous Iwan models. Its analytical expressions including backbone curve, unloading curves and energy dissipation are deduced. Parameter identification procedures and the discretization method are also provided. A model application based on Segalman et al.'s experiment works with bolted joints is carried out. Simulation effects of different numbers of Jenkins elements are discussed. The results indicate that the six-parameter Iwan model can be used to accurately reproduce the experimental phenomena of joints.

  2. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  3. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  4. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services, Inc., Barberton, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Department of Labor issued a Certification of Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on...

  5. Coordinate transformation by minimizing correlations between parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, M.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation was to determine the transformation parameters (three rotations, three translations and a scale factor) between two Cartesian coordinate systems from sets of coordinates given in both systems. The objective was the determination of well separated transformation parameters with reduced correlations between each other, a problem especially relevant when the sets of coordinates are not well distributed. The above objective is achieved by preliminarily determining the three rotational parameters and the scale factor from the respective direction cosines and chord distances (these being independent of the translation parameters) between the common points, and then computing all the seven parameters from a solution in which the rotations and the scale factor are entered as weighted constraints according to their variances and covariances obtained in the preliminary solutions. Numerical tests involving two geodetic reference systems were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach.

  6. Calculation of Optical Parameters of Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2007-12-01

    Validation of a modified four-parameter model describing temperature effect on liquid crystal refractive indices is being reported in the present article. This model is based upon the Vuks equation. Experimental data of ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for two liquid crystal samples MLC-9200-000 and MLC-6608 are used to validate the above-mentioned theoretical model. Using these experimental data, birefringence, order parameter, normalized polarizabilities, and the temperature gradient of refractive indices are determined. Two methods: directly using birefringence measurements and using Haller's extrapolation procedure are adopted for the determination of order parameter. Both approches of order parameter calculation are compared. The temperature dependences of all these parameters are discussed. A close agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  7. The microwave properties of composites including lightweight core-shell ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liming; Xu, Yonggang; Dai, Fei; Liao, Yi; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the microwave properties of suspensions including lightweight core-shell ellipsoids, the calculation formula was obtained by substituting an equivalent ellipsoid for the original core-shell ellipsoid. Simulations for Fe-coated diatomite/paraffin suspensions were performed. Results reveal that the calculated results fitted the measured results very well when the inclusion concentration was no more than 15 vol%, but there was an obvious deviation when the inclusion concentration reached 24 vol%. By comparisons, the formula for less diluted suspensions was more suitable for calculating the electromagnetic parameter of suspensions especially when the ratio was smaller between the electromagnetic parameter of the inclusion and that of the host medium.

  8. Dispersion in a thermal plasma including arbitrary degeneracy and quantum recoil.

    PubMed

    Melrose, D B; Mushtaq, A

    2010-11-01

    The longitudinal response function for a thermal electron gas is calculated including two quantum effects exactly, degeneracy, and the quantum recoil. The Fermi-Dirac distribution is expanded in powers of a parameter that is small in the nondegenerate limit and the response function is evaluated in terms of the conventional plasma dispersion function to arbitrary order in this parameter. The infinite sum is performed in terms of polylogarithms in the long-wavelength and quasistatic limits, giving results that apply for arbitrary degeneracy. The results are applied to the dispersion relations for Langmuir waves and to screening, reproducing known results in the nondegenerate and completely degenerate limits, and generalizing them to arbitrary degeneracy.

  9. Two statistics for evaluating parameter identifiability and error reduction

    Doherty, John; Hunt, Randall J.

    2009-01-01

    Two statistics are presented that can be used to rank input parameters utilized by a model in terms of their relative identifiability based on a given or possible future calibration dataset. Identifiability is defined here as the capability of model calibration to constrain parameters used by a model. Both statistics require that the sensitivity of each model parameter be calculated for each model output for which there are actual or presumed field measurements. Singular value decomposition (SVD) of the weighted sensitivity matrix is then undertaken to quantify the relation between the parameters and observations that, in turn, allows selection of calibration solution and null spaces spanned by unit orthogonal vectors. The first statistic presented, "parameter identifiability", is quantitatively defined as the direction cosine between a parameter and its projection onto the calibration solution space. This varies between zero and one, with zero indicating complete non-identifiability and one indicating complete identifiability. The second statistic, "relative error reduction", indicates the extent to which the calibration process reduces error in estimation of a parameter from its pre-calibration level where its value must be assigned purely on the basis of prior expert knowledge. This is more sophisticated than identifiability, in that it takes greater account of the noise associated with the calibration dataset. Like identifiability, it has a maximum value of one (which can only be achieved if there is no measurement noise). Conceptually it can fall to zero; and even below zero if a calibration problem is poorly posed. An example, based on a coupled groundwater/surface-water model, is included that demonstrates the utility of the statistics. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted "base ΛCDM" in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of z_re=8.8+1.7-1.4. These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base

  11. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; ...

    2016-09-20

    single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r 0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ 2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Finally, apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.« less

  12. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters

    SciT

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r 0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r 0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ 2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = -1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Finally, apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.« less

  13. pypet: A Python Toolkit for Data Management of Parameter Explorations

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Robert; Obermayer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    pypet (Python parameter exploration toolkit) is a new multi-platform Python toolkit for managing numerical simulations. Sampling the space of model parameters is a key aspect of simulations and numerical experiments. pypet is designed to allow easy and arbitrary sampling of trajectories through a parameter space beyond simple grid searches. pypet collects and stores both simulation parameters and results in a single HDF5 file. This collective storage allows fast and convenient loading of data for further analyses. pypet provides various additional features such as multiprocessing and parallelization of simulations, dynamic loading of data, integration of git version control, and supervision of experiments via the electronic lab notebook Sumatra. pypet supports a rich set of data formats, including native Python types, Numpy and Scipy data, Pandas DataFrames, and BRIAN(2) quantities. Besides these formats, users can easily extend the toolkit to allow customized data types. pypet is a flexible tool suited for both short Python scripts and large scale projects. pypet's various features, especially the tight link between parameters and results, promote reproducible research in computational neuroscience and simulation-based disciplines. PMID:27610080

  14. Problems of low-parameter equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, G. G.

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on the system approach to problems of low-parametric equations of state (EOS). It is a continuation of the investigations in the field of substantiated prognosis of properties on two levels, molecular and thermodynamic. Two sets of low-parameter EOS have been considered based on two very simple molecular-level models. The first one consists of EOS of van der Waals type (a modification of van der Waals EOS proposed for spheres). The main problem of these EOS is a weak connection with the micro-level, which raise many uncertainties. The second group of EOS has been derived by the author independently of the ideas of van der Waals based on the model of interacting point centers (IPC). All the parameters of the EOS have a meaning and are associated with the manifestation of attractive and repulsive forces. The relationship between them is found to be the control parameter of the thermodynamic level. In this case, EOS IPC passes into a one-parameter family. It is shown that many EOS of vdW-type can be included in the framework of the PC model. Simultaneously, all their parameters acquire a physical meaning.

  15. Nondestructive prediction of pork freshness parameters using multispectral scattering images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Wang, Mingwu

    2012-05-01

    Optical technology is an important and immerging technology for non-destructive and rapid detection of pork freshness. This paper studied on the possibility of using multispectral imaging technique and scattering characteristics to predict the freshness parameters of pork meat. The pork freshness parameters selected for prediction included total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), color parameters (L *, a *, b *), and pH value. Multispectral scattering images were obtained from pork sample surface by a multispectral imaging system developed by ourselves; they were acquired at the selected narrow wavebands whose center wavelengths were 517,550, 560, 580, 600, 760, 810 and 910nm. In order to extract scattering characteristics from multispectral images at multiple wavelengths, a Lorentzian distribution (LD) function with four parameters (a: scattering asymptotic value; b: scattering peak; c: scattering width; d: scattering slope) was used to fit the scattering curves at the selected wavelengths. The results show that the multispectral imaging technique combined with scattering characteristics is promising for predicting the freshness parameters of pork meat.

  16. GRID-BASED EXPLORATION OF COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER SPACE WITH SNAKE

    SciT

    Mikkelsen, K.; Næss, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K., E-mail: kristin.mikkelsen@astro.uio.no

    2013-11-10

    We present a fully parallelized grid-based parameter estimation algorithm for investigating multidimensional likelihoods called Snake, and apply it to cosmological parameter estimation. The basic idea is to map out the likelihood grid-cell by grid-cell according to decreasing likelihood, and stop when a certain threshold has been reached. This approach improves vastly on the 'curse of dimensionality' problem plaguing standard grid-based parameter estimation simply by disregarding grid cells with negligible likelihood. The main advantages of this method compared to standard Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods include (1) trivial extraction of arbitrary conditional distributions; (2) direct access to Bayesian evidences; (3)more » better sampling of the tails of the distribution; and (4) nearly perfect parallelization scaling. The main disadvantage is, as in the case of brute-force grid-based evaluation, a dependency on the number of parameters, N{sub par}. One of the main goals of the present paper is to determine how large N{sub par} can be, while still maintaining reasonable computational efficiency; we find that N{sub par} = 12 is well within the capabilities of the method. The performance of the code is tested by comparing cosmological parameters estimated using Snake and the WMAP-7 data with those obtained using CosmoMC, the current standard code in the field. We find fully consistent results, with similar computational expenses, but shorter wall time due to the perfect parallelization scheme.« less

  17. The Impact of Uncertain Physical Parameters on HVAC Demand Response

    SciT

    Sun, Yannan; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai

    HVAC units are currently one of the major resources providing demand response (DR) in residential buildings. Models of HVAC with DR function can improve understanding of its impact on power system operations and facilitate the deployment of DR technologies. This paper investigates the importance of various physical parameters and their distributions to the HVAC response to DR signals, which is a key step to the construction of HVAC models for a population of units with insufficient data. These parameters include the size of floors, insulation efficiency, the amount of solid mass in the house, and efficiency of the HVAC units.more » These parameters are usually assumed to follow Gaussian or Uniform distributions. We study the effect of uncertainty in the chosen parameter distributions on the aggregate HVAC response to DR signals, during transient phase and in steady state. We use a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method with linear regression and Prony analysis to evaluate sensitivity of DR output to the uncertainty in the distribution parameters. The significance ranking on the uncertainty sources is given for future guidance in the modeling of HVAC demand response.« less

  18. Submental Ultrasonographic Parameters among Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Suat; Engin, Acioglu; Ozgur, Yigit; Ozlem Onerci, Celebi; Ahmet Gorkem, Yasak; Aytul Hande, Yardimci

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the value of submental ultrasonography (US) parameters for diagnostic workup among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to determine whether there is a correlation between US findings and the severity of OSA. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Tertiary education hospital. Subjects and Methods The study included 147 patients with suspected OSA who underwent submental US to evaluate various parameters following overnight polysomnography. US findings were compared with the apnea-hypopnea index and other parameters. Results All US parameters, except for subcutaneous tissue thickness, were significantly different among patients with OSA. Of note, distance between lingual arteries (DLA), geniohyoid muscle thickness (GMT), and lateral parapharyngeal wall thickness (LPWT) were significantly greater in the patients with severe OSA than those with mild and moderate OSA ( P < .001). GMT had the strongest correlation with OSA ( r = 0.419, P < .001); LPWT and DLA also had high correlation coefficient values ( r = 0.343, P < .001, and r = 0.342, P < .001, respectively). Stepwise regression analysis showed that GMT (beta = 0.243, P = 0.004), LPWT (beta = 0.236, P = 0.004), and DLA (beta = 0.204, P = 0.008) were the most significant factors for predicting the severity of OSA according to the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusion Submental US can be used to determine whether there is a correlation between US findings and severity of OSA. GMT could be considered a novel parameter for determining the severity of OSA.

  19. EXOFIT: orbital parameters of extrasolar planets from radial velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Sreekumar T.; Lahav, Ofer

    2009-04-01

    Retrieval of orbital parameters of extrasolar planets poses considerable statistical challenges. Due to sparse sampling, measurement errors, parameters degeneracy and modelling limitations, there are no unique values of basic parameters, such as period and eccentricity. Here, we estimate the orbital parameters from radial velocity data in a Bayesian framework by utilizing Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations with the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We follow a methodology recently proposed by Gregory and Ford. Our implementation of MCMC is based on the object-oriented approach outlined by Graves. We make our resulting code, EXOFIT, publicly available with this paper. It can search for either one or two planets as illustrated on mock data. As an example we re-analysed the orbital solution of companions to HD 187085 and HD 159868 from the published radial velocity data. We confirm the degeneracy reported for orbital parameters of the companion to HD 187085, and show that a low-eccentricity orbit is more probable for this planet. For HD 159868, we obtained slightly different orbital solution and a relatively high `noise' factor indicating the presence of an unaccounted signal in the radial velocity data. EXOFIT is designed in such a way that it can be extended for a variety of probability models, including different Bayesian priors.

  20. pypet: A Python Toolkit for Data Management of Parameter Explorations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Robert; Obermayer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    pypet (Python parameter exploration toolkit) is a new multi-platform Python toolkit for managing numerical simulations. Sampling the space of model parameters is a key aspect of simulations and numerical experiments. pypet is designed to allow easy and arbitrary sampling of trajectories through a parameter space beyond simple grid searches. pypet collects and stores both simulation parameters and results in a single HDF5 file. This collective storage allows fast and convenient loading of data for further analyses. pypet provides various additional features such as multiprocessing and parallelization of simulations, dynamic loading of data, integration of git version control, and supervision of experiments via the electronic lab notebook Sumatra. pypet supports a rich set of data formats, including native Python types, Numpy and Scipy data, Pandas DataFrames, and BRIAN(2) quantities. Besides these formats, users can easily extend the toolkit to allow customized data types. pypet is a flexible tool suited for both short Python scripts and large scale projects. pypet's various features, especially the tight link between parameters and results, promote reproducible research in computational neuroscience and simulation-based disciplines.

  1. Adaptive firefly algorithm: parameter analysis and its application.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ngaam J; Ding, Xue-Ming; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2014-01-01

    As a nature-inspired search algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA) has several control parameters, which may have great effects on its performance. In this study, we investigate the parameter selection and adaptation strategies in a modified firefly algorithm - adaptive firefly algorithm (AdaFa). There are three strategies in AdaFa including (1) a distance-based light absorption coefficient; (2) a gray coefficient enhancing fireflies to share difference information from attractive ones efficiently; and (3) five different dynamic strategies for the randomization parameter. Promising selections of parameters in the strategies are analyzed to guarantee the efficient performance of AdaFa. AdaFa is validated over widely used benchmark functions, and the numerical experiments and statistical tests yield useful conclusions on the strategies and the parameter selections affecting the performance of AdaFa. When applied to the real-world problem - protein tertiary structure prediction, the results demonstrated improved variants can rebuild the tertiary structure with the average root mean square deviation less than 0.4Å and 1.5Å from the native constrains with noise free and 10% Gaussian white noise.

  2. Adaptive Firefly Algorithm: Parameter Analysis and its Application

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hong-Bin

    2014-01-01

    As a nature-inspired search algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA) has several control parameters, which may have great effects on its performance. In this study, we investigate the parameter selection and adaptation strategies in a modified firefly algorithm — adaptive firefly algorithm (AdaFa). There are three strategies in AdaFa including (1) a distance-based light absorption coefficient; (2) a gray coefficient enhancing fireflies to share difference information from attractive ones efficiently; and (3) five different dynamic strategies for the randomization parameter. Promising selections of parameters in the strategies are analyzed to guarantee the efficient performance of AdaFa. AdaFa is validated over widely used benchmark functions, and the numerical experiments and statistical tests yield useful conclusions on the strategies and the parameter selections affecting the performance of AdaFa. When applied to the real-world problem — protein tertiary structure prediction, the results demonstrated improved variants can rebuild the tertiary structure with the average root mean square deviation less than 0.4Å and 1.5Å from the native constrains with noise free and 10% Gaussian white noise. PMID:25397812

  3. Probabilistic parameter estimation of activated sludge processes using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Soroosh; Murthy, Sudhir; Takács, Imre; Massoudieh, Arash

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important challenges in making activated sludge models (ASMs) applicable to design problems is identifying the values of its many stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. When wastewater characteristics data from full-scale biological treatment systems are used for parameter estimation, several sources of uncertainty, including uncertainty in measured data, external forcing (e.g. influent characteristics), and model structural errors influence the value of the estimated parameters. This paper presents a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework for the probabilistic estimation of activated sludge process parameters. The method provides the joint probability density functions (JPDFs) of stoichiometric and kinetic parameters by updating prior information regarding the parameters obtained from expert knowledge and literature. The method also provides the posterior correlations between the parameters, as well as a measure of sensitivity of the different constituents with respect to the parameters. This information can be used to design experiments to provide higher information content regarding certain parameters. The method is illustrated using the ASM1 model to describe synthetically generated data from a hypothetical biological treatment system. The results indicate that data from full-scale systems can narrow down the ranges of some parameters substantially whereas the amount of information they provide regarding other parameters is small, due to either large correlations between some of the parameters or a lack of sensitivity with respect to the parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  5. EVALUATING THE SENSITIVITY OF A SUBSURFACE MULTICOMPONENT REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODEL WITH RESPECT TO TRANSPORT AND REACTION PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The input variables for a numerical model of reactive solute transport in groundwater include both transport parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity and infiltration, and reaction parameters that describe the important chemical and biological processes in the system. These pa...

  6. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    PubMed

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  7. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    SciT

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on anmore » upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.« less

  8. Model dielectric function for 2D semiconductors including substrate screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolle, Mads L.; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Véniard, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric screening of excitons in 2D semiconductors is known to be a highly non-local effect, which in reciprocal space translates to a strong dependence on momentum transfer q. We present an analytical model dielectric function, including the full non-linear q-dependency, which may be used as an alternative to more numerically taxing ab initio screening functions. By verifying the good agreement between excitonic optical properties calculated using our model dielectric function, and those derived from ab initio methods, we demonstrate the versatility of this approach. Our test systems include: Monolayer hBN, monolayer MoS2, and the surface exciton of a 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(111) surface. Additionally, using our model, we easily take substrate screening effects into account. Hence, we include also a systematic study of the effects of substrate media on the excitonic optical properties of MoS2 and hBN.

  9. Global parameter estimation for thermodynamic models of transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Suleimenov, Yerzhan; Ay, Ahmet; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Sinha, Saurabh; Arnosti, David N

    2013-07-15

    Deciphering the mechanisms involved in gene regulation holds the key to understanding the control of central biological processes, including human disease, population variation, and the evolution of morphological innovations. New experimental techniques including whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis have enabled comprehensive modeling approaches to study gene regulation. In many cases, it is useful to be able to assign biological significance to the inferred model parameters, but such interpretation should take into account features that affect these parameters, including model construction and sensitivity, the type of fitness calculation, and the effectiveness of parameter estimation. This last point is often neglected, as estimation methods are often selected for historical reasons or for computational ease. Here, we compare the performance of two parameter estimation techniques broadly representative of local and global approaches, namely, a quasi-Newton/Nelder-Mead simplex (QN/NMS) method and a covariance matrix adaptation-evolutionary strategy (CMA-ES) method. The estimation methods were applied to a set of thermodynamic models of gene transcription applied to regulatory elements active in the Drosophila embryo. Measuring overall fit, the global CMA-ES method performed significantly better than the local QN/NMS method on high quality data sets, but this difference was negligible on lower quality data sets with increased noise or on data sets simplified by stringent thresholding. Our results suggest that the choice of parameter estimation technique for evaluation of gene expression models depends both on quality of data, the nature of the models [again, remains to be established] and the aims of the modeling effort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical characteristics and resistance parameters of typical urban cyclists.

    PubMed

    Tengattini, Simone; Bigazzi, Alexander York

    2018-03-30

    This study investigates the rolling and drag resistance parameters and bicycle and cargo masses of typical urban cyclists. These factors are important for modelling of cyclist speed, power and energy expenditure, with applications including exercise performance, health and safety assessments and transportation network analysis. However, representative values for diverse urban travellers have not been established. Resistance parameters were measured utilizing a field coast-down test for 557 intercepted cyclists in Vancouver, Canada. Masses were also measured, along with other bicycle attributes such as tire pressure and size. The average (standard deviation) of coefficient of rolling resistance, effective frontal area, bicycle plus cargo mass, and bicycle-only mass were 0.0077 (0.0036), 0.559 (0.170) m 2 , 18.3 (4.1) kg, and 13.7 (3.3) kg, respectively. The range of measured values is wider and higher than suggested in existing literature, which focusses on sport cyclists. Significant correlations are identified between resistance parameters and rider and bicycle attributes, indicating higher resistance parameters for less sport-oriented cyclists. The findings of this study are important for appropriately characterising the full range of urban cyclists, including commuters and casual riders.

  11. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOEpatents

    Ault, Earl R.; Alger, Terry W.

    1995-01-01

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  12. Meta-structure and tunable optical device including the same

    DOEpatents

    Han, Seunghoon; Papadakis, Georgia Theano; Atwater, Harry

    2017-12-26

    A meta-structure and a tunable optical device including the same are provided. The meta-structure includes a plurality of metal layers spaced apart from one another, an active layer spaced apart from the plurality of metal layers and having a carrier concentration that is tuned according to an electric signal applied to the active layer and the plurality of metal layers, and a plurality of dielectric layers spaced apart from one another and each having one surface contacting a metal layer among the plurality of metal layers and another surface contacting the active layer.

  13. Including electromagnetism in K → ππ decay calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, Norman; Feng, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Because of the small size of the ratio A2/A0 of the I = 2 to I = 0 K → ππ decay amplitudes (the ΔI = 1/2 rule) the effects of electromagnetism on A2 may be a factor of 20 larger than given by a naive O(±EM) estimate. Thus, if future calculations of A2 and epsilon'/epsilon are to achieve 10% accuracy, these effects need to be included. Here we present the first steps toward including electromagnetism in a calculation of the standard model K → ππ decay amplitudes using lattice QCD.

  14. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi-Chung; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciT

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  16. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  17. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOEpatents

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  18. Global linear gyrokinetic simulations for LHD including collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, K.; Kleiber, R.; Hatzky, R.; Borchardt, M.

    2010-11-01

    The code EUTERPE uses a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method to solve the gyrokinetic equation globally (full radius, full flux surface) for three-dimensional equilibria calculated with VMEC. Recently this code has been extended to include multiple kinetic species and electromagnetic effects. Additionally, a pitch-angle scattering operator has been implemented in order to include collisional effects in the simulation of instabilities and to be able to simulate neoclassical transport. As a first application of this extended code we study the effects of collisions on electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instabilities in LHD.

  19. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    SciT

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  20. HEALTH SURVEY INCLUDING SELECTED BLOOD PARAMETERS IN THE AFRICAN SLENDER SNOUTED CROCODILE (MECISTOPS CATAPHRACTUS) AT THE ABIDJAN ZOO IN CÔTE D'IVOIRE.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol; Eschenbrenner, Matt

    2017-06-01

    The Zoo National d'Abidjan (Abidjan Zoo) in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, holds the world's largest captive population of African slender-snouted crocodiles (Mecistops cataphractus, formerly Crocodylus cataphractus), at 36 adults, 16 yearlings, and 23 hatchlings. Twelve yearling and 12 adult slender-snouted crocodiles at the Abidjan Zoo were restrained for physical exam, body condition scoring, and venipuncture in September 2015. Blood samples collected from the supravertebral venous sinus were analyzed using a handheld blood analyzer (Abaxis® I-stat, Abaxis, Inc., Union City, California 94587, USA) with Chem8+ cartridges (CLIAwaived, Inc., San Diego, California 92130, USA). The adult crocodiles appeared in good general health and demonstrated blood values similar to those of other reptiles. The yearlings had low, ionized calcium values and low hematocrit and hemoglobin levels compared with the adult crocodiles and to other crocodile reference ranges. These findings may dramatically improve the health of the crocodiles and help to ensure a thriving captive population of this critically endangered species.