Science.gov

Sample records for parametri doppler nei

  1. NEIS (NASA Environmental Information System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beth

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) is a tool to support the functions of the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET). The NEIS is designed to provide a central environmental technology resource drawing on all NASA centers' capabilities, and to support program managers who must ultimately deliver hardware compliant with performance specifications and environmental requirements. The NEIS also tracks environmental regulations, usages of materials and processes, and new technology developments. It has proven to be a useful instrument for channeling information throughout the aerospace community, NASA, other federal agencies, educational institutions, and contractors. The associated paper will discuss the dynamic databases within the NEIS, and the usefulness it provides for environmental compliance efforts.

  2. R&D Project Plan SLT/NEI/TRI Phase 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this project is to identify issues and solutions related to consistency of emissions data between SLT/NEI and TRI and to provide guidance to SLT/NEI/TRI programs to enhance data sharing between TRI and SLT/NEI data.

  3. Neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI)-induced paradoxical sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Moe; Fukuda, Satoru; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Takata, Junko; Sawamura, Shigehito

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptideglutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI) as well as melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is cleaved from the 165 amino acid protein, prepro-melanin concentrating hormone (prepro-MCH). Among many physiological roles of MCH, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH induced increases in REM sleep episodes as well as in non REM sleep episodes. However, there are no studies on the effect of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle. As for the sites of action of MCH for induction of REM sleep, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) has been reported to be one of its site of action. Although MCH neurons contain NEI, GABA, MCH, and other neuropeptides, we do not know which transmitter(s) might induce REM sleep by acting on the vlPAG. Thus, we first examined the effect of icv injection of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle, and investigated how microinjection of either NEI, MCH, or GABA into the vlPAG affected REM sleep in rats. Icv injection of NEI (0.61μg/5μl: n=7) significantly increased the time spent in REM episodes compared to control (saline: 5μl; n=6). Microinjection of either NEI (61ng/0.2μl: n=7), MCH (100ng/0.2μl: n=6) or GABA (250mM/0.2μl: n=7) into the vlPAG significantly increased the time spent in REM episodes and the AUC. Precise hourly analysis of REM sleep also revealed that after those microinjections, NEI and MCH increased REM episodes at the latter phase, compared to GABA which increased REM episodes at the earlier phase. This result suggests that NEI and MCH may induce sustained REM sleep, while GABA may initiate REM sleep. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that NEI, a cleaved peptide from the same precursor, prepro-MCH, as MCH, induce REM sleep at least in part through acting on the vlPAG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding ... NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  5. The contribution of Nth and Nei DNA glycosylases to mutagenesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Moolla, Nabiela; Goosens, Vivianne J; Kana, Bavesh D; Gordhan, Bhavna G

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) indicates that significant mutagenesis occurs during tuberculosis disease in humans. DNA damage by host-derived reactive oxygen/nitrogen species is hypothesized to be critical for the mutagenic process in Mtb thus, highlighting an important role for DNA repair enzymes in maintenance of genome fidelity. Formamidopyrimidine (Fpg/MutM/Fapy) and EndonucleaseVIII (Nei) constitute the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases and together with EndonucleaseIII (Nth) are central to the base excision repair pathway in bacteria. In this study we assess the contribution of Nei and Nth DNA repair enzymes in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), which retains a single nth homologue and duplications of the Fpg (fpg1 and fpg2) and Nei (nei1 and nei2) homologues. Using an Escherichia coli nth deletion mutant, we confirm the functionality of the mycobacterial nth gene in the base excision repair pathway. Msm mutants lacking nei1, nei2 and nth individually or in combination did not display aberrant growth in broth culture. Deletion of nth individually results in increased UV-induced mutagenesis and combinatorial deletion with the nei homologues results in reduced survival under oxidative stress conditions and an increase in spontaneous mutagenesis to rifampicin. Deletion of nth together with the fpg homolgues did not result in any growth/survival defects or changes in mutation rate. Furthermore, no differential emergence of the common rifampicin resistance conferring genotypes were noted. Collectively, these data confirm a role for Nth in base excision repair in mycobacteria and further highlight a novel interplay between the Nth and Nei homologues in spontaneous mutagenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NEI is prepared at least every three years by the U.S. EPA based primarily upon emissions estimates and emissions model inputs provided by State, Local and Tribal (SLT) air agencies, and supplemented by data developed by the EPA.

  7. 2017 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2017 NEI Plan is prepared at least every three years by the U.S. EPA based primarily upon emissions estimates and emissions model inputs provided by State, Local and Tribal (SLT) air agencies, and supplemented by data developed by the EPA.

  8. National Emissions Inventory (NEI), County-Level, US, 2008, 2011, 2014, EPA OAR, OAPQS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This US EPA Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Air Quality Assessment Division, Air Quality Analysis Group (OAR, OAQPS, AQAD, AQAG) web service contains the following layers created from the 2008, 2011 and 2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI): Carbon Monoxide (CO), Lead, Ammonia (NH3), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Particulate Matter 10 (PM10), Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Each of these layers conatin county level emissions for 2008, 2011, and 2014. Layers are drawn at all scales. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) is a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of criteria pollutants, criteria precursors, and hazardous air pollutants from air emissions sources. The NEI is released every three years based primarily upon data provided by State, Local, and Tribal air agencies for sources in their jurisdictions and supplemented by data developed by the US EPA. The NEI is built using the Emissions Inventory System (EIS) first to collect the data from State, Local, and Tribal air agencies and then to blend that data with other data sources.NEI point sources include emissions estimates for larger sources that are located at a fixed, stationary location. Point sources in the NEI include large industrial facilities and electric power plants, airports, and smaller industrial, non-industrial and commercial facilities. A small number of portable sources such as s

  9. The Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases: substrates, structures, and search for damage.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Doublié, Sylvie; Wallace, Susan S

    2012-01-01

    During the initial stages of the base excision DNA repair pathway, DNA glycosylases are responsible for locating and removing the majority of endogenous oxidative base lesions. The bifunctional formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) are members of the Fpg/Nei family, one of the two families of glycosylases that recognize oxidized DNA bases, the other being the HhH/GPD (or Nth) superfamily. Structural and biochemical developments over the past decades have led to novel insights into the mechanism of damage recognition by the Fpg/Nei family of enzymes. Despite the overall structural similarity among members of this family, these enzymes exhibit distinct features that make them unique. This review summarizes the current structural knowledge of the Fpg/Nei family members, emphasizes their substrate specificities, and describes how these enzymes search for lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Parametrial infiltration of cervix carcinoma: diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted SE sequences at 1.5 tesla].

    PubMed

    Scheidler, J; Heuck, A; Wencke, K; Kimmig, R; Müller-Lisse, U; Reiser, M

    1997-04-01

    To determine whether contrast-enhanced and fat-suppressed sequences contribute to the MR imaging diagnosis of parametrial invasion. 21 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were prospectively examined with a phased-array coil and a 1.5T MR-scanner using the following sequences: transverse T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2-TSE), T1-weighted spin echo (T1-SE) and fat suppressed T1-weighted SE sequences before and after Gd-DTPA. The sequences were evaluated separately for the presence of parametrial invasion. Image quality and diagnostic confidence were classified on a scale of 0-10 (nondiagnostic-excellent). Findings were compared to the results of the pathohistological examination. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were highest for T2-TSE sequences (100%, 79% and 86%, respectively). Contrast-enhanced T1-SE sequences with fat-suppression (71%, 79%, and 76%) showed no improvement compared to T2-TSE. Unenhanced fat-suppressed T1-SE (100%, 30%, and 56%) and unenhanced T1-SE (100%, 7%, and 38%) as well as contrast-enhanced T1-SE (86%, 20%, and 47%) were significantly worse than T2-TSE. With similar image quality (p < 0.05) diagnostic confidence was higher on T2-TSE than on any of the other sequences (p < 0.001). Considering the cost-effectiveness of the examination, for the MR diagnosis of parametrial invasion the use of fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced sequences can be abandoned in favour of T2-weighted TSE sequences.

  11. High Performance Real-Time Visualization of Voluminous Scientific Data Through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Hackathorn, E. J.; Joyce, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within our community data volume is rapidly expanding. These data have limited value if one cannot interact or visualize the data in a timely manner. The scientific community needs the ability to dynamically visualize, analyze, and interact with these data along with other environmental data in real-time regardless of the physical location or data format. Within the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's), the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is actively developing the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). Previously, the NEIS team investigated methods of data discovery and interoperability. The recent focus shifted to high performance real-time visualization allowing NEIS to bring massive amounts of 4-D data, including output from weather forecast models as well as data from different observations (surface obs, upper air, etc...) in one place. Our server side architecture provides a real-time stream processing system which utilizes server based NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPU's) for data processing, wavelet based compression, and other preparation techniques for visualization, allows NEIS to minimize the bandwidth and latency for data delivery to end-users. Client side, users interact with NEIS services through the visualization application developed at ESRL called TerraViz. Terraviz is developed using the Unity game engine and takes advantage of the GPU's allowing a user to interact with large data sets in real time that might not have been possible before. Through these technologies, the NEIS team has improved accessibility to 'Big Data' along with providing tools allowing novel visualization and seamless integration of data across time and space regardless of data size, physical location, or data format. These capabilities provide the ability to see the global interactions and their importance for weather prediction. Additionally, they allow greater access than currently exists helping to foster scientific collaboration and new

  12. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): NEI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Program dataset. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs

  14. Principles of diet therapy in ancient Chinese medicine: 'Huang Di Nei Jing'.

    PubMed

    Ho, Z C

    1993-06-01

    Huang Di Nei Jing, the first systematic Chinese medical book, was compiled from the observations of imperial herbal doctors in the Qin and Han periods (221 BC - 220 AD). From this classic traditional source may be derived the concept of a balanced and complete diet and probably the world's first dietary guidelines. Basic to the tradition are han, re, wen and bu foods, respectively 'cold', 'hot', 'neutral', 'strengthening'. Basic to Chinese cuisine are jan and tsai- 'cereal' (the rice staple and main meal) and 'dishes' to accompany the rice. Chinese traditional medicine, as in Huang Di Nei Jing, considers the nourishment of body and mind. It also emphasises that herbal medicine and food have the same origin. Diet was essential to the prevention of disease which a glossary of Chinese terms is given at the end of the paper in the Chinese tradition, was superior to treatment.

  15. Doppler Football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Abee, Jeremy

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we present a design for a Doppler football. The classic Doppler ball uses a piezo buzzer and 9-V battery inside a foam ball. In our Doppler football, the sound level is enhanced by directing the 2.8-kHz tone of the buzzer through a hollow cylinder to one end of the football, with an on-off switch placed at the other end. We discuss our device within the historical context of Doppler demonstrations that have evolved over the many decades since Doppler's discovery.

  16. [A Study on the quotations in the Wu xing da yi (The Gist of Five Phases) cited from Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Shan; Zhang, Qi-Cheng

    2013-07-01

    In the Wu xing da yi (The Gist of Five Phases), written by Xiao Ji of the Sui Dynasty, there were 9 quotations cited from Huang di nei jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi). By comparison with current version of Huang di nei jing, most of the descriptions are similar, yet still with some differences, such as yin-yang nature of the five zang visceras, the liver being the root of "pi ji", the spleen being the root of "cang lin" etc. Wu xing da yi epitomizes the books about yin-yang and five phases before the Sui Dynasty, while Xiao Ji's quotations from Huang di nei jing interpreted from the views of yin-yang and five phases, are different from the annotations of later ages.

  17. Reliability and Construct Validity of the NEI VFQ-25 in a Subset of Patients With Geographic Atrophy From the Phase 2 Mahalo Study.

    PubMed

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Tschosik, Elizabeth; Kapre, Audrey; Varma, Rohit; Bressler, Neil M; Kimel, Miriam; Dolan, Chantal; Silverman, David

    2018-06-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by progressive, irreversible visual function loss. This analysis evaluates the psychometric properties of the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) composite, near activity, and distance activity scores in patients with GA. Reliability and validity study. Reliability and validity were tested with NEI VFQ-25 data collected from 100 subjects with GA from United States' sites of the phase 2 Mahalo study of lampalizumab (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01229215). Strong internal consistency and reproducibility were demonstrated for the NEI VFQ-25 composite (Cronbach's α, 0.95; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.86), near activity (Cronbach's α, 0.84; ICC, 0.80), and distance activity (Cronbach's α, 0.84; ICC, 0.84) scores. Convergent validity with the binocular measures, Minnesota Low-Vision Reading Test (MNRead) reading speed and Functional Reading Independence (FRI) index score, was demonstrated for baseline NEI VFQ-25 composite (Pearson correlation [r] = 0.61 and 0.69, respectively), near activities (r = 0.69 and 0.73), and distance activities (r = 0.57 and 0.64) scores. Known-group validity testing for baseline mean NEI VFQ-25 scores (composite, near activities, and distance activities) showed differences between patients with mean maximum MNRead reading speed ≥ 80 vs < 80 words per minute, and between mean FRI index score ≥ 2.5 vs < 2.5 (all P < .0001). Psychometric evidence supports the NEI VFQ-25 as a reliable and valid cross-sectional measure of the impact of GA on patient visual function and vision-related quality of life. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The application of Doppler broadening and Doppler shift to spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Fang, Zi-shen

    2002-08-01

    The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has analyzed, Doppler broadening locally results from the distribution of velocities of the emitting particles, the line width gives the information on temperature of emitting particles. Doppler shift results when the emitting particles have a bulk non random flow velocity in a particular direction, the drift of central wavelength gives the information on flow velocity of emitting particles, and the Doppler shift only drifts the profile of line without changing the width. The difference between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. The distribution of H alpha spectral line shape has been derived from the surface of limiter in HT-6M Tokamak with optical spectroscope multichannel analysis (OSMA), the result by double Gaussian fitting shows that the line shape make up of two port, the emitting of reflect particles with higher energy and the release particle from the limiter surface. Ion temperature and recycling particle flow velocity have been obtained from Doppler broadening and Doppler shift.

  19. Background on Ammonia and EPA methods for key Ammonia (NH3) sectors in the NEI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions Research for the National Emissions Inventory – 2017 NEI and Beyond Objective: Improve science of emissions sources that are associated with natural and physical processes in the environment. Include these improved emissions in the National Emissions Inventory (N...

  20. The following abstracts were presented as posters at the 2016 NEI Psychopharmacology Congress.

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    Congratulations to the scientific poster winners of the 2016 NEI Psychopharmacology Congress! 1 st Place: A Case Report and Literature Review of Clozapine Re-challenge Titration Schedules (page 26) 2 nd Place: Mental Health Statistics and Suicide Prevention at St. Tammany Parish Jail-2015 (page 41) 3 rd Place: Lithium-Induced Neurotoxicity at Therapeutic Range: Illustrative Cases and Literature Review (page 43).

  1. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  2. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sumit; Nagendrareddy, Suma Gundareddy; Raju, Manthena Srinivasa; Krishnojirao, Dayashankara Rao Jingade; Rastogi, Rajul; Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Gupta, Swati

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG) with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas) of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas). There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. Conclusions: USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions. PMID:22223940

  3. Assessment of Parametrial Response by Growth Pattern in Patients With International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIB and IIIB Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Patients From a Prospective, Multicenter Trial (EMBRACE)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenji; Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe; Jastaniyah, Noha

    Purpose: To assess disease response along the parametrial space according to tumor morphology in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB and IIIB cervical cancer at the time of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with FIGO stage IIB and IIIB cervical cancer registered as of November 2013 in the EMBRACE study were evaluated. Tumors were stratified according to morphologic subtype on magnetic resonance imaging (expansive and infiltrative), and the characteristics of those subtypes were analyzed. Parametrial involvement at diagnosis and at brachytherapy was evaluated, and the response to chemo-radiotherapy was classified as good, moderate,more » or poor. The response grade was compared between the 2 groups and analyzed with regard to tumor volumes, and dosimetric parameters. Results: A total of 452 patients were evaluated, of whom 186 had expansive growth type and 266 had infiltrative morphology. Patients with infiltrative tumors had more extensive disease, as indicated by a higher rate of FIGO stage IIIB disease, as well as radiologic evidence of extension into the distal parametrial space and to the pelvic side wall on magnetic resonance imaging. Cervical necrosis was more common in the infiltrative group. Good response was more common in the expansive group (34% vs 24%; P=.02), and poor response was more common in the infiltrative group (11% and 19%; P=.02). Mean gross tumor volume at diagnosis was equal in both groups (51.7 cm{sup 3}). The high-risk clinical target volume was larger in infiltrative tumors (37.9 cm{sup 3} vs 33.3 cm{sup 3}, P=.005). The mean high-risk clinical target volume D{sub 90} was slightly higher in expansive tumors (92.7 Gy and 89.4 Gy, P<.001). Conclusion: Infiltrative tumors are more advanced at presentation and respond less favorably to chemo-radiotherapy when compared with expansive tumors that are more or less equivalent in size. The use of image

  4. Comparison of scoring approaches for the NEI VFQ-25 in low vision.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Bullimore, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different approaches to scoring the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) in patients with low vision including scoring by the standard method, by Rasch analysis, and by use of an algorithm created by Massof to approximate Rasch person measure. Subscale validity and use of a 7-item short form instrument proposed by Ryan et al. were also investigated. NEI VFQ-25 data from 50 patients with low vision were analyzed using the standard method of summing Likert-type scores and calculating an overall average, Rasch analysis using Winsteps software, and the Massof algorithm in Excel. Correlations between scores were calculated. Rasch person separation reliability and other indicators were calculated to determine the validity of the subscales and of the 7-item instrument. Scores calculated using all three methods were highly correlated, but evidence of floor and ceiling effects was found with the standard scoring method. None of the subscales investigated proved valid. The 7-item instrument showed acceptable person separation reliability and good targeting and item performance. Although standard scores and Rasch scores are highly correlated, Rasch analysis has the advantages of eliminating floor and ceiling effects and producing interval-scaled data. The Massof algorithm for approximation of the Rasch person measure performed well in this group of low-vision patients. The validity of the subscales VFQ-25 should be reconsidered.

  5. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  6. Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zahumensky, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia. We summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal circulation in preeclampsia. The present review summarized the results of clinical research on the Doppler flowmetry in the screening of risk of preclampsia, in the diagnosis of preclampsia and in the fetal risk in preclampsia (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  7. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  8. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ewan OConnor

    2015-03-27

    This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated backscatter coefficients,signal strength, and doppler velocities in the cloud and in the boundary level, including uncertainties for all parameters. Using the doppler beam swinging DBS technique, and Vertical Azimuthal Display (VAD) this system also provides vertical profiles of horizontal winds.

  9. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  10. Doppler-corrected differential detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Doppler in a communication system operating with a multiple differential phase-shift-keyed format (MDPSK) creates an adverse phase shift in an incoming signal. An open loop frequency estimation is derived from a Doppler-contaminated incoming signal. Based upon the recognition that, whereas the change in phase of the received signal over a full symbol contains both the differentially encoded data and the Doppler induced phase shift, the same change in phase over half a symbol (within a given symbol interval) contains only the Doppler induced phase shift, and the Doppler effect can be estimated and removed from the incoming signal. Doppler correction occurs prior to the receiver's final output of decoded data. A multiphase system can operate with two samplings per symbol interval at no penalty in signal-to-noise ratio provided that an ideal low pass pre-detection filter is employed, and two samples, at 1/4 and 3/4 of the symbol interval T sub s, are taken and summed together prior to incoming signal data detection.

  11. Laser Doppler Velocimetry Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The potential of laser Doppler velocimetry as a technique for use in mapping flows in the several fluid systems under development for doing research on low-gravity processes, is investigated. Laser Doppler velocimetry techniques, equipment, and applications are summarized.

  12. Doppler color imaging. Principles and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Kremkau, F W

    1992-01-01

    DCI acquires Doppler-shifted echoes from a cross-section of tissue scanned by an ultrasound beam. These echoes are then presented in color and superimposed on the gray-scale anatomic image of non-Doppler-shifted echoes received during the scan. The flow echoes are assigned colors according to the color map chosen. Usually red, yellow, or white indicates positive Doppler shifts (approaching flow) and blue, cyan, or white indicates negative shifts (receding flow). Green is added to indicate variance (disturbed or turbulent flow). Several pulses (the number is called the ensemble length) are needed to generate a color scan line. Linear, convex, phased, and annular arrays are used to acquire the gray-scale and color-flow information. Doppler color-flow instruments are pulsed-Doppler instruments and are subject to the same limitations, such as Doppler angle dependence and aliasing, as other Doppler instruments. Color controls include gain, TGC, map selection, variance on/off, persistence, ensemble length, color/gray priority. Nyquist limit (PRF), baseline shift, wall filter, and color window angle, location, and size. Doppler color-flow instruments generally have output intensities intermediate between those of gray-scale imaging and pulsed-Doppler duplex instruments. Although there is no known risk with the use of color-flow instruments, prudent practice dictates that they be used for medical indications and with the minimum exposure time and instrument output required to obtain the needed diagnostic information.

  13. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  14. Laser Doppler diagnostics for orthodontia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkova, Anastasia V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Kharish, Natalia A.

    2004-06-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of intensity fluctuations of light, scattered from mucous membrane of oral cavity of healthy volunteers and patients, abused by the orthodontic diseases, are presented. Analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, is carried out. New approach to monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of Doppler measuring system on formation of the output signal is studied.

  15. Doppler-guided retrograde catheterization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazin, Leon J.; Vonesh, Michael J.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Khasho, Fouad; Lanza, George M.; Talano, James V.; McPherson, David D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a Doppler guided catheterization system as an adjunctive or alternative methodology to overcome the disadvantages of left heart catheterization and angiography. These disadvantages include the biological effects of radiation and the toxic and volume effects of iodine contrast. Doppler retrograde guidance uses a 20 MHz circular pulsed Doppler crystal incorporated into the tip of a triple lumen multipurpose catheter and is advanced retrogradely using the directional flow information provided by the Doppler waveform. The velocity detection limits are either 1 m/second or 4 m/second depending upon the instrumentation. In a physiologic flow model of the human aortic arch, multiple data points revealed a positive wave form when flow was traveling toward the catheter tip indicating proper alignment for retrograde advancement. There was a negative wave form when flow was traveling away from the catheter tip if the catheter was in a branch or bent upon itself indicating improper catheter tip position for retrograde advancement. In a series of six dogs, the catheter was able to be accurately advanced from the femoral artery to the left ventricular chamber under Doppler signal guidance without the use of x-ray. The potential applications of a Doppler guided retrograde catheterization system include decreasing time requirements and allowing safer catheter guidance in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and suspected aortic dissection. The Doppler system may allow left ventricular pressure monitoring in the intensive care unit without the need for x-ray and it may allow left sided contrast echocardiography. With pulse velocity detection limits of 4 m/second, this system may allow catheter direction and passage into the aortic root and left ventricle in patients with aortic stenosis. A modification of the Doppler catheter may include transponder technology which would allow precise catheter tip localization once the

  16. The Novel Nonlinear Adaptive Doppler Shift Estimation Technique and the Coherent Doppler Lidar System Validation Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.

    2006-01-01

    The signal processing aspect of a 2-m wavelength coherent Doppler lidar system under development at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia is investigated in this paper. The lidar system is named VALIDAR (validation lidar) and its signal processing program estimates and displays various wind parameters in real-time as data acquisition occurs. The goal is to improve the quality of the current estimates such as power, Doppler shift, wind speed, and wind direction, especially in low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. A novel Nonlinear Adaptive Doppler Shift Estimation Technique (NADSET) is developed on such behalf and its performance is analyzed using the wind data acquired over a long period of time by VALIDAR. The quality of Doppler shift and power estimations by conventional Fourier-transform-based spectrum estimation methods deteriorates rapidly as SNR decreases. NADSET compensates such deterioration in the quality of wind parameter estimates by adaptively utilizing the statistics of Doppler shift estimate in a strong SNR range and identifying sporadic range bins where good Doppler shift estimates are found. The authenticity of NADSET is established by comparing the trend of wind parameters with and without NADSET applied to the long-period lidar return data.

  17. IIP Update: A Packaged Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver. Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  18. Staggered Multiple-PRF Ultrafast Color Doppler.

    PubMed

    Posada, Daniel; Poree, Jonathan; Pellissier, Arnaud; Chayer, Boris; Tournoux, Francois; Cloutier, Guy; Garcia, Damien

    2016-06-01

    Color Doppler imaging is an established pulsed ultrasound technique to visualize blood flow non-invasively. High-frame-rate (ultrafast) color Doppler, by emissions of plane or circular wavefronts, allows severalfold increase in frame rates. Conventional and ultrafast color Doppler are both limited by the range-velocity dilemma, which may result in velocity folding (aliasing) for large depths and/or large velocities. We investigated multiple pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) emissions arranged in a series of staggered intervals to remove aliasing in ultrafast color Doppler. Staggered PRF is an emission process where time delays between successive pulse transmissions change in an alternating way. We tested staggered dual- and triple-PRF ultrafast color Doppler, 1) in vitro in a spinning disc and a free jet flow, and 2) in vivo in a human left ventricle. The in vitro results showed that the Nyquist velocity could be extended to up to 6 times the conventional limit. We found coefficients of determination r(2) ≥ 0.98 between the de-aliased and ground-truth velocities. Consistent de-aliased Doppler images were also obtained in the human left heart. Our results demonstrate that staggered multiple-PRF ultrafast color Doppler is efficient for high-velocity high-frame-rate blood flow imaging. This is particularly relevant for new developments in ultrasound imaging relying on accurate velocity measurements.

  19. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristicsmore » of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.« less

  20. Eyeballing oscillators for pulsed Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, S.

    1985-03-01

    The visibility of small targets to a Doppler radar system in the presence of large targets is limited by phase noise. Such limitations occur when an airborne radar searches the ground for a mobile vehicle. Under these conditions, the performance of the Doppler radar depends greatly on the specifications of its phased-locked oscillator. Goldman (1984) has discussed the steps required to evaluate the noise resulting from a pulsed Doppler radar system. In the present investigation, these techniques are applied in reverse to determine system specifications for oscillator noise. A 95-GHz pulsed Doppler radar system is used as an example of specifying system phase noise.

  1. An audit of a hospital-based Doppler ultrasound quality control protocol using a commercial string Doppler phantom.

    PubMed

    Cournane, S; Fagan, A J; Browne, J E

    2014-05-01

    Results from a four-year audit of a Doppler quality assurance (QA) program using a commercially available Doppler string phantom are presented. The suitability of the phantom was firstly determined and modifications were made to improve the reliability and quality of the measurements. QA of Doppler ultrasound equipment is very important as data obtained from these systems is used in patient management. It was found that if the braided-silk filament of the Doppler phantom was exchanged with an O-ring rubber filament and the velocity range below 50 cm/s was avoided for Doppler quality control (QC) measurements, then the maximum velocity accuracy (MVA) error and intrinsic spectral broadening (ISB) results obtained using this device had a repeatability of 18 ± 3.3% and 19 ± 3.5%, respectively. A consistent overestimation of the MVA of between 12% and 56% was found for each of the tested ultrasound systems. Of more concern was the variation of the overestimation within each respective transducer category: MVA errors of the linear, curvilinear and phased array probes were in the range 12.3-20.8%, 32.3-53.8% and 27-40.7%, respectively. There is a dearth of QA data for Doppler ultrasound; it would be beneficial if a multicentre longitudinal study was carried out using the same Doppler ultrasound test object to evaluate sensitivity to deterioration in performance measurements. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The medical Doppler in hand surgery: its scientific basis, applications, and the history of its namesake, Christian Johann Doppler.

    PubMed

    Ghori, Ahmer K; Chung, Kevin C

    2007-12-01

    The word Doppler is used synonymously in hand surgery for evaluating patency of vascular structures; however, the science and history behind the Doppler effect are not as well-known. We will present the theories behind the Doppler effect and the history of the person who made this discovery.

  3. Noncoherent Doppler tracking: first flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBoy, Christopher C.; Robert Jensen, J.; Asher, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Noncoherent Doppler tracking has been devised as a means to achieve highly accurate, two-way Doppler measurements with a simple, transceiver-based communications system. This technique has been flown as an experiment on the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) spacecraft, (launched 7 December 2001), as the operational technique for Doppler tracking on CONTOUR, and is baselined on several future deep space missions at JHU/APL. This paper reports on initial results from a series of successful tests of this technique between the TIMED spacecraft and NASA ground stations in the Deep Space Network. It also examines the advantages that noncoherent Doppler tracking and a transceiver-based system may offer to small satellite systems, including reduced cost, mass, and power.

  4. Laser Doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oxygen tension measurements and Doppler pressure compared in patients undergoing amputation.

    PubMed

    Lantsberg, L; Goldman, M

    1991-04-01

    The level of amputation continues to present a challenge for surgeons. In view of this, 24 patients who required an amputation of their ischaemic leg were studied prospectively using Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), TcpO2 measurements and Doppler ultrasound to assess the best level for amputation. In all patients gangrene of the leg and rest pain were the indication for an amputation. Skin oxygen tension (TcpO2) and skin blood flow (LDF) measurements were obtained the day before surgery on the proposed anterior and posterior skin flaps for below knee amputation and the maximum Doppler systolic pressure was measured. The level of amputation was chosen at surgery by clinical judgement without reference to the measurements mentioned above. A below knee amputation was performed in 17 patients and an above knee in seven. All amputations healed by primary intention. Doppler pressures showed poor discrimination with a median value of 10 mmHg (0-25) in AK patients and 35 mmHg (0-85) in the BK group (p greater than 0.05). In contrast TcpO2 showed a trend. In the BK group the median value was 20 mmHg (4-50) on the anterior and 22 mmHg (2-60) on the posterior flap compared to above knee amputees with median values of 6 mmHg (2-11) and 8 mmHg (3-38), respectively (p greater than 0.05). Laser Doppler seemed more useful. In BK patients the median LDF values were 36 mV (20-85) on the anterior and 34 mV (20-80) on the posterior flap with median LDF values of 10 mV (10-18) on the anterior and 11 mV (8-38) on the posterior flap in the above knee group (p less than 0.01). Laser Doppler flowmetry is a simple objective test, which is a better discriminator of skin flap perfusion than either TcpO2 or Doppler ankle pressures.

  5. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  6. De-Dopplerization of Acoustic Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-10

    band energy obtained from fractional octave band digital filters generates a de-Dopplerized spectrum without complex resampling algorithms. An...energy obtained from fractional octave band digital filters generates a de-Dopplerized spectrum without complex resampling algorithms. An equation...fractional octave representation and smearing that occurs within the spectrum11, digital filtering techniques were not considered by these earlier

  7. Analysis and prediction of Doppler noise during solar conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.; Rockwell, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of Doppler data noise during solar conjunctions were presented. During the first half of 1975, a sizeable data base of Doppler data noise (estimates) for the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Helios 1 solar conjunctions was accumulated. To analyze this data, certain physical assumptions are made, leading to the development of a geometric parameter ("ISI") which correlates strongly with Doppler data noise under varying sun-earth-spacecraft geometries. Doppler noise models are then constructed from this parameter, resulting in the newfound ability to predict Doppler data noise during solar conjunctions, and hence to additionally be in a position to validate Doppler data acquired during solar conjunctions.

  8. Validation of continuous-wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements of mitral and tricuspid prosthetic valve gradients: a simultaneous Doppler-catheter study.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, G T; Gillam, L D; Kritzer, G L; Levine, R A; Palacios, I F; Weyman, A E

    1986-10-01

    For patients with stenotic native valves, the modified Bernoulli equation (delta P = 4V2) may be applied to Doppler-measured transvalvular velocities to yield an accurate estimate of transvalvular gradients. Although it would be useful if the same approach could be used for those with stenotic prosthetic valves, no previous study has validated the Doppler technique in this setting. We therefore recorded simultaneous continuous-wave Doppler flow profiles and transvalvular manometric gradients in 12 catheterized patients in whom all atrial and ventricular pressures were directly measured (transseptal left atrial catheterization and transthoracic ventricular puncture were performed where necessary). A total of 13 prostheses were studied: 11 mitral (seven porcine, three Starr-Edwards, and one Björk-Shiley) and two tricuspid (one porcine and one Björk-Shiley). The Doppler-determined mean gradient was calculated as the mean of the instantaneous gradients (delta P = 4V2) at 10 msec intervals throughout diastole. The correlation of simultaneous Doppler (DMG) and manometric mean gradients (MG) for the whole group (n = 13) demonstrated a highly significant relationship (MG = 1.07 DMG + 0.28; r = .96, p = .0001). The correlation was equally good for porcine valves alone (n = 8) (MG = 1.06 DMG + 0.55; r = .96, p = .001) and for mechanical valves alone (n = 5) (MG = 1.06 DMG - 0.04; r = .93, p = .02). In a subset of patients without regurgitation (n = 8), prosthetic valve areas were estimated by two Doppler methods originally described by Holen and Hatle, as well as by the invasive Gorlin method. As expected from theoretical considerations, a close correlation was not demonstrated between results of the Gorlin method and those of either Hatle's Doppler method (r = .65, fp = NS) or Holen's method (r = .14, p = NS). Comparison of the results of the two Doppler methods yielded a somewhat closer correlation (r = .73, p less than or equal to .05). These results suggest that in

  9. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317

  10. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  11. Evaluation of joint effusion in rabbits by color Doppler, power Doppler, and contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gye-Yeon; Im, Soo Ah; Jung, Won Sang; Lee, Jae Mun; Lee, Ah Won

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) and contrast-enhanced PDUS (CEPDUS) in the depiction and characterization of experimentally induced arthritis in the rabbit. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups consisting of one control group (saline injection group) and two experimental groups: a suppurative arthritis group and a chemically induced synovitis group. The same amount (1 ml) of each agent was directly injected into the right hip joint. Serial color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), PDUS, and CEPDUS images were obtained before and after injection. We observed that all of the infected knees in the suppurative arthritis group with Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated an increased signal on PDUS after inoculation. A minimal power Doppler signal was presented in the chemically induced synovitis group with talc injection, but none of the control knees demonstrated any increased signals. CEPDUS was the most sensitive imaging modality for evaluating the increase of blood flows in suppurative arthritis and was subsequently followed by PDUS and CDUS. The increased signals obtained with PDUS represent increased local blood flows; therefore, this technique can be used for evaluating the degree of inflammation. Furthermore, using the contrast agent enhances the sensitivity of PDUS, and it can even be useful for differentiating borderline cases. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  12. Doppler term in the galaxy two-point correlation function: Wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Jeong, Donghui; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2018-03-01

    We study the parity-odd part (that we shall call Doppler term) of the linear galaxy two-point correlation function that arises from wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects. As it is important at low redshift and at large angular separations, the Doppler term is usually neglected in the current generation of galaxy surveys. For future wide-angle galaxy surveys, however, we show that the Doppler term must be included. The effect of these terms is dominated by the magnification due to relativistic aberration effects and the slope of the galaxy redshift distribution and it generally mimics the effect of the local type primordial non-Gaussianity with the effective nonlinearity parameter fNLeff of a few; we show that this would affect forecasts on measurements of fNL at low-redshift. Our results show that a survey at low redshift with large number density over a wide area of the sky could detect the Doppler term with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼ 1 - 20, depending on survey specifications.

  13. Micro-Doppler analysis of multiple frequency continuous wave radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Rogers, Robert L.

    2007-04-01

    Micro-Doppler refers to Doppler scattering returns produced by non rigid-body motion. Micro-Doppler gives rise to many detailed radar image features in addition to those associated with bulk target motion. Targets of different classes (for example, humans, animals, and vehicles) produce micro-Doppler images that are often distinguishable even by nonexpert observers. Micro-Doppler features have great potential for use in automatic target classification algorithms. Although the potential benefit of using micro-Doppler in classification algorithms is high, relatively little experimental (non-synthetic) micro-Doppler data exists. Much of the existing experimental data comes from highly cooperative targets (human or vehicle targets directly approaching the radar). This research involved field data collection and analysis of micro-Doppler radar signatures from non-cooperative targets. The data was collected using a low cost Xband multiple frequency continuous wave (MFCW) radar with three transmit frequencies. The collected MFCW radar signatures contain data from humans, vehicles, and animals. The presented data includes micro-Doppler signatures previously unavailable in the literature such as crawling humans and various animal species. The animal micro-Doppler signatures include deer, dog, and goat datasets. This research focuses on the analysis of micro-Doppler from noncooperative targets approaching the radar at various angles, maneuvers, and postures.

  14. [Venous Doppler color echography: importance and inconveniences].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Dauzat, M; Muller, G; Janbon, C

    1993-01-01

    Color Doppler is a technique which performs a real-time opacification of the vascular system with blue indicating reverse flow and red indicating forward flow (directional color coding). In venous pathology, the use of color Doppler improves significantly the anatomical evaluation of the inferior vena cava, the iliac vein, the deep femoral vein, and the sural system. Color Doppler facilitates the study of deep venous thrombosis (providing useful information to differentiate ancient from most recent thrombus) and also the study of post-thrombotic conditions (assessment of reverse flow, repermeation phenomena). Finally, color Doppler produces a better insight for the study of varicose veins, especially with regard to mapping, identification of communicante veins, and study of the external saphenous vein.

  15. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    PubMed

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-12-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: "Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler." Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1) Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2) There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3) Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4) Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  16. Velocity measurement by vibro-acoustic Doppler.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Urban, Matthew W; Kinnick, Randall R; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2012-04-01

    We describe the theoretical principles of a new Doppler method, which uses the acoustic response of a moving object to a highly localized dynamic radiation force of the ultrasound field to calculate the velocity of the moving object according to Doppler frequency shift. This method, named vibro-acoustic Doppler (VAD), employs two ultrasound beams separated by a slight frequency difference, Δf, transmitting in an X-focal configuration. Both ultrasound beams experience a frequency shift because of the moving objects and their interaction at the joint focal zone produces an acoustic frequency shift occurring around the low-frequency (Δf) acoustic emission signal. The acoustic emission field resulting from the vibration of the moving object is detected and used to calculate its velocity. We report the formula that describes the relation between Doppler frequency shift of the emitted acoustic field and the velocity of the moving object. To verify the theory, we used a string phantom. We also tested our method by measuring fluid velocity in a tube. The results show that the error calculated for both string and fluid velocities is less than 9.1%. Our theory shows that in the worst case, the error is 0.54% for a 25° angle variation for the VAD method compared with an error of -82.6% for a 25° angle variation for a conventional continuous wave Doppler method. An advantage of this method is that, unlike conventional Doppler, it is not sensitive to angles between the ultrasound beams and direction of motion.

  17. Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.

  18. Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Hardesty, R. Michael

    1989-01-01

    The signal-processing techniques for obtaining the velocity estimates and the fundamental factors that influence coherent lidar performance are considered. The similarities and distinctions between Doppler lidar and Doppler radars are discussed. The capability of coherent Doppler lidars for mapping wind fields over selected regions in the lower atmosphere and greatly enhancing the capability to visualize flow patterns in real time is discussed, and examples are given. Salient features of a concept for an earth-orbiting Doppler lidar to be launched in the late 1990s are examined.

  19. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  20. L wave in echo Doppler.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipin; Jose, John; Jose, V Jacob

    2014-01-01

    62-year-old female presented with progressive dyspnea NYHA class III for six months. Echocardiography showed normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function, mild biatrial enlargement, an L wave in pulse wave Doppler at mitral inflow and in M mode echocardiography across mitral valve. Tissue Doppler imaging at medial mitral annulus showed an L' wave in mid diastole in addition to E' and A' wave. An L wave in pulse wave Doppler and M mode echocardiography represents continued pulmonary vein mid diastolic flow through the left atrium in to LV across mitral valve after early rapid filling. Presence of an L' wave in these patients associated with higher E/E' is indicative of advance diastolic dysfunction with elevated filling pressures. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular filter based planar Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Gregory S.; Beutner, Thomas J.

    1999-11-01

    Molecular filter based diagnostics are continuing to gain popularity as a research tool for investigations in areas of aerodynamics, fluid mechanics, and combustion. This class of diagnostics has gone by many terms including Filtered Rayleigh Scattering, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Planar Doppler Velocimetry. The majority of this article reviews recent advances in Planar Doppler Velocimetry in measuring up to three velocity components over a planar region in a flowfield. The history of the development of these techniques is given with a description of typical systems, components, and levels of uncertainty in the measurement. Current trends indicate that uncertainties on the order of 1 m/s are possible with these techniques. A comprehensive review is also given on the application of Planar Doppler Velocimetry to laboratory flows, supersonic flows, and large scale subsonic wind tunnels. The article concludes with a description of future trends, which may simplify the technique, followed by a description of techniques which allow multi-property measurements (i.e. velocity, density, temperature, and pressure) simultaneously.

  2. A low cost Doppler system for vascular dialysis access surveillance.

    PubMed

    Molina, P S C; Moraes, R; Baggio, J F R; Tognon, E A

    2004-01-01

    The National Kidney Foundation guidelines for vascular access recommend access surveillance to avoid morbidity among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods to detect access failure based on CW Doppler system are being proposed to implement surveillance programs at lower cost. This work describes a low cost Doppler system implemented in a PC notebook designed to carry out this task. A Doppler board samples the blood flow velocity and delivers demodulated quadrature Doppler signals. These signals are sampled by a notebook sound card. Software for Windows OS (running at the notebook) applies CFFT to consecutive 11.6 ms intervals of Doppler signals. The sonogram is presented on the screen in real time. The software also calculates the maximum and the intensity weighted mean frequency envelopes. Since similar systems employ DSP boards to process the Doppler signals, cost reduction was achieved. The Doppler board electronic circuits and routines to process the Doppler signals are presented.

  3. Spacecraft Doppler Tracking as a Xylophone Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo

    1996-01-01

    We discuss spacecraft Doppler tracking in which Doppler data recorded on the ground are linearly combined with Doppler measurements made on board a spacecraft. By using the four-link radio system first proposed by Vessot and Levine, we derive a new method for removing from the combined data the frequency fluctuations due to the Earth troposphere, ionosphere, and mechanical vibrations of the antenna on the ground. Our method provides also for reducing by several orders of magnitude, at selected Fourier components, the frequency fluctuations due to other noise sources, such as the clock on board the spacecraft or the antenna and buffeting of the probe by non-gravitational forces. In this respect spacecraft Doppler tracking can be regarded as a xylophone detector. Estimates of the sensitivities achievable by this xylophone are presented for two tests of Einstein's theory of relativity: searches for gravitational waves and measurements of the gravitational red shift. This experimental technique could be extended to other tests of the theory of relativity, and to radio science experiments that rely on high-precision Doppler measurements.

  4. MP3 compression of Doppler ultrasound signals.

    PubMed

    Poepping, Tamie L; Gill, Jeremy; Fenster, Aaron; Holdsworth, David W

    2003-01-01

    The effect of lossy, MP3 compression on spectral parameters derived from Doppler ultrasound (US) signals was investigated. Compression was tested on signals acquired from two sources: 1. phase quadrature and 2. stereo audio directional output. A total of 11, 10-s acquisitions of Doppler US signal were collected from each source at three sites in a flow phantom. Doppler signals were digitized at 44.1 kHz and compressed using four grades of MP3 compression (in kilobits per second, kbps; compression ratios in brackets): 1400 kbps (uncompressed), 128 kbps (11:1), 64 kbps (22:1) and 32 kbps (44:1). Doppler spectra were characterized by peak velocity, mean velocity, spectral width, integrated power and ratio of spectral power between negative and positive velocities. The results suggest that MP3 compression on digital Doppler US signals is feasible at 128 kbps, with a resulting 11:1 compression ratio, without compromising clinically relevant information. Higher compression ratios led to significant differences for both signal sources when compared with the uncompressed signals. Copyright 2003 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology

  5. One way Doppler extractor. Volume 1: Vernier technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasco, R. W.; Klein, S.; Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.; Yanosov, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility analysis, trade-offs, and implementation for a One Way Doppler Extraction system are discussed. A Doppler error analysis shows that quantization error is a primary source of Doppler measurement error. Several competing extraction techniques are compared and a Vernier technique is developed which obtains high Doppler resolution with low speed logic. Parameter trade-offs and sensitivities for the Vernier technique are analyzed, leading to a hardware design configuration. A detailed design, operation, and performance evaluation of the resulting breadboard model is presented which verifies the theoretical performance predictions. Performance tests have verified that the breadboard is capable of extracting Doppler, on an S-band signal, to an accuracy of less than 0.02 Hertz for a one second averaging period. This corresponds to a range rate error of no more than 3 millimeters per second.

  6. Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2007-11-02

    From the flow of a suspension of micrometer-scale carbon particles, the photoacoustic Doppler shift is observed. As predicted theoretically, the observed Doppler shift equals half of that in Doppler ultrasound and does not depend on the direction of laser illumination. This new physical phenomenon provides a basis for developing photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry, which can potentially be used for detecting fluid flow in optically scattering media and especially low-speed blood flow of relatively deep microcirculation in biological tissue.

  7. Complex regression Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elahi, Sahar; Gu, Shi; Thrane, Lars; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a new method to measure Doppler shifts more accurately and extend the dynamic range of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The two-point estimate of the conventional Doppler method is replaced with a regression that is applied to high-density B-scans in polar coordinates. We built a high-speed OCT system using a 1.68-MHz Fourier domain mode locked laser to acquire high-density B-scans (16,000 A-lines) at high enough frame rates (˜100 fps) to accurately capture the dynamics of the beating embryonic heart. Flow phantom experiments confirm that the complex regression lowers the minimum detectable velocity from 12.25 mm / s to 374 μm / s, whereas the maximum velocity of 400 mm / s is measured without phase wrapping. Complex regression Doppler OCT also demonstrates higher accuracy and precision compared with the conventional method, particularly when signal-to-noise ratio is low. The extended dynamic range allows monitoring of blood flow over several stages of development in embryos without adjusting the imaging parameters. In addition, applying complex averaging recovers hidden features in structural images.

  8. New Doppler echocardiographic applications for the study of diastolic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.; Klein, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography is one of the most useful clinical tools for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Doppler indices of LV filling and pulmonary venous (PV) flow are used not only for diagnostic purposes but also for establishing prognosis and evaluating the effect of therapeutic interventions. The utility of these indices is limited, however, by the confounding effects of different physiologic variables such as LV relaxation, compliance and filling pressure. Since alterations in these variables result in changes in Doppler indices of opposite direction, it is often difficult to determine the status of a given variable when a specific Doppler filling pattern is observed. Recently, color M-mode and tissue Doppler have provided useful insights in the study of diastolic function. These new Doppler applications have been shown to provide an accurate estimate of LV relaxation and appear to be relatively insensitive to the effects of preload compensation. This review will focus on the complementary role of color M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography and traditional Doppler indices of LV filling and PV flow in the assessment of diastolic function.

  9. Cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry (CC-DGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadel, Daniel R.; Lowe, K. Todd

    2015-08-01

    A flow velocimetry method, cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry (CC-DGV), is presented as a robust, simplified, and high dynamic range implementation of the Doppler global/planar Doppler velocimetry technique. A sweep of several gigahertz of the vapor absorption spectrum is used for each velocity sample, with signals acquired from both Doppler-shifted scattered light within the flow and a non-Doppler shifted reference beam. Cross-correlation of these signals yields the Doppler shift between them, averaged over the duration of the scan. With presently available equipment, velocities from 0 ms-1 to over 3000 ms-1 can notionally be measured simultaneously, making the technique ideal for high speed flows. The processing routine is shown to be robust against large changes in the vapor pressure of the iodine cell, benefiting performance of the system in facilities where ambient conditions cannot be easily regulated. Validation of the system was performed with measurements of a model wind turbine blade boundary layer made in a 1.83 m by 1.83 m subsonic wind tunnel for which laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements were acquired alongside the CC-DGV results. CC-DGV uncertainties of ±1.30 ms-1, ±0.64 ms-1, and ±1.11 ms-1 were determined for the orthogonal stream-wise, transverse-horizontal, and transverse-vertical velocity components, and root-mean-square deviations of 2.77 ms-1 and 1.34 ms-1 from the LDV validation results were observed for Reynolds numbers of 1.5 million and 2 million, respectively. Volumetric mean velocity measurements are also presented for a supersonic jet, with velocity uncertainties of ±4.48 ms-1, ±16.93 ms-1, and ±0.50 ms-1 for the orthogonal components, and self-validation done by collapsing the data with a physical scaling.

  10. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Martin, David S.; Barratt, Michael R.; Martin, David S.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides review normal physiology of the right ventricle in space, general physiology of the right ventricle; difficulties in imaging the heart in space, imaging methods, tissue Doppler spectrum, right ventricle tissue Doppler, and Rt Tei Index.

  11. Editorial special issue on "Laser Doppler vibrometry"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlanduit, Steve; Dirckx, Joris

    2017-12-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 has opened up many opportunities in the field of measurement science and technology. Just a few years after the invention of the laser, a novel fluid flow measurement technique based on the Doppler effect was introduced: at that moment the laser Doppler anemometer or shortly LDA [1] was born. The technique enabled fluid velocity measurement by using the light of a He-Ne beam which was scattered by very small polystyrene spheres entrained in the fluid. Later on, in the late nineteen seventees it was recognized that the detection of the Doppler frequency shift that occurs when light is scattered by a moving surface can also be used to measure the vibration velocity of an object. The instrument to perform these vibration measurements was called the laser Doppler vibrometer or LDV [2]. In the last decades several technological advances were made in the field of laser Doppler vibrometry. The result is that nowadays, velocity measurements of fluids (using LDA) and vibrating objects (using LDV) are performed in many challenging applications in different fields (microelectronics, civil structures, biomedical engineering, material science, etc.).

  12. Doppler Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, I.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Deacon, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Goldman, Bertr; Kopytova, T.

    2014-03-01

    Doppler Imaging produces 2D global maps. When applied to cool planets or more massive brown dwarfs, it can map atmospheric features and track global weather patterns. The first substellar map, of the 2pc-distant brown dwarf Luhman 16B (Crossfeld et al. 2014), revealed patchy regions of thin & thick clouds. Here, I investigate the feasibility of future Doppler Imaging of additional objects. Searching the literature, I find that all 3 of P, v sin i, and variability are published for 22 brown dwarfs. At least one datum exists for 333 targets. The sample is very incomplete below ~L5; we need more surveys to find the best targets for Doppler Imaging! I estimate limiting magnitudes for Doppler Imaging with various hi-resolution near-infrared spectrographs. Only a handful of objects - at the M/L and L/T transitions - can be mapped with current tools. Large telescopes such as TMT and GMT will allow Doppler Imaging of many dozens of brown dwarfs and the brightest exoplanets. More targets beyond type L5 likely remain to be found. Future observations will let us probe the global atmospheric dynamics of many diverse objects.

  13. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  14. Temporal enhancement of two-dimensional color doppler echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentjev, Alexey B.; Settlemier, Scott H.; Perrin, Douglas P.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Shturts, Igor V.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is widely used for assessing blood flow inside the heart and blood vessels. Currently, frame acquisition time for this method varies from tens to hundreds of milliseconds, depending on Doppler sector parameters. This leads to low frame rates of resulting video sequences equal to tens of Hz, which is insufficient for some diagnostic purposes, especially in pediatrics. In this paper, we present a new approach for reconstruction of 2D color Doppler cardiac images, which results in the frame rate being increased to hundreds of Hz. This approach relies on a modified method of frame reordering originally applied to real-time 3D echocardiography. There are no previous publications describing application of this method to 2D Color Doppler data. The approach has been tested on several in-vivo cardiac 2D color Doppler datasets with approximate duration of 30 sec and native frame rate of 15 Hz. The resulting image sequences had equivalent frame rates to 500Hz.

  15. Causes of Ultrasound Doppler Twinkling Artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, D. V.; Kulberg, N. S.; Gromov, A. I.; Morozov, S. P.; Kim, S. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound Doppler twinkling artifact is analyzed. It usually appears as a frequent color alteration in the region of hyperechoic objects. Its noiselike spectrum can also be seen in spectral Doppler mode. Physicians use twinkling artifact as a clinical sign for kidney-stone and soft-tissue calculi detection. The advantageous peculiarity of this study is that the experiments were conducted utilizing raw signals obtained from a custom ultrasonic machine and a specially developed phantom. The phantom contained specimens with known qualities, allowing for reproducible and predictable results. The experiments revealed evidence for two physical causes of twinkling artifact, which were associated with two unique Doppler signals. The research laid the foundation for the new reflected-signal model introduced and used throughout this paper.

  16. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.; Raptis, A.C.

    1981-11-13

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  17. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  18. Applications of Doppler ultrasound in clinical vascular disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, R. W.; Hokanson, D. E.; Sumner, D. S.; Strandness, D. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound has become the most useful and versatile noninvasive technique for objective evaluation of clinical vascular disease. Commercially available continuous-wave instruments provide qualitative and quantitative assessment of venous and arterial disease. Pulsed Doppler ultrasound was developed to provide longitudinal and transverse cross-sectional images of the arterial lumen with a resolution approaching that of conventional X-ray techniques. Application of Doppler ultrasound in venous, peripheral arterial, and cerebrovascular diseases is reviewed.

  19. Use of global ionospheric maps for HF Doppler measurements interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, I. R.; Bochkarev, V. V.; Latypov, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    The HF Doppler technique, a method of measurement of Doppler frequency shift of ionospheric signal, is one of the well-known and widely used techniques of ionosphere research. It allows investigation of various disturbances in the ionosphere. There are different sources of disturbances in the ionosphere such as geomagnetic storms, solar flashes, meteorological effects and atmospheric waves. The HF Doppler technique allows us to find out the influence of earthquakes, explosions and other processes on the ionosphere, which occurs near the Earth. HF Doppler technique has high sensitivity to small frequency variations and high time resolution but interpretation of results is difficult. In this paper, we attempt to use GPS data for Doppler measurements interpretation. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift variations with use of TEC allows separation of ionosphere disturbances of medium scale.

  20. Corruption of radio metric Doppler due to solar plasma dynamics: S/X dual-frequency Doppler calibration for these effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, F. B.; Reinbold, S. R.; Yip, K. W.; Koch, R. E.; Lubeley, A.

    1975-01-01

    Doppler data from Mariner 6, 7, 9, and 10 and Pioneer 10 and 11 were discussed and the rms noise level for various sun-earth-probe angles were shown. The noise levels of both S- and X-band Doppler data for sun-earth-probe angles smaller than 20 deg were observed to be orders of magnitude greater than nominal. Such solar plasma-related Doppler degradation reduced the Mariner 10-Mercury 11 encounter navigation accuracy by nearly a factor of 10. Furthermore, this degradation was shown to be indirectly related to plasma dynamics and not a direct measure of the dynamics.

  1. Doppler and speckle methods for diagnostics in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Kharish, Natalia A.; Osipova, Yulia; Karpovich, Alexander

    2002-02-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of scattered intensity, obtained from tissues of oral cavity membrane of healthy volunteers, are presented. The dependence of the spectral moments of Doppler signal on cutoff frequency is investigated. Some results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, are presented. New approach for monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of measuring system on formation of speckle-interferometric signal is studied.

  2. Doppler optical coherence tomography of retinal circulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ou; Wang, Yimin; Konduru, Ranjith K; Zhang, Xinbo; Sadda, SriniVas R; Huang, David

    2012-09-18

    Noncontact retinal blood flow measurements are performed with a Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using a circumpapillary double circular scan (CDCS) that scans around the optic nerve head at 3.40 mm and 3.75 mm diameters. The double concentric circles are performed 6 times consecutively over 2 sec. The CDCS scan is saved with Doppler shift information from which flow can be calculated. The standard clinical protocol calls for 3 CDCS scans made with the OCT beam passing through the superonasal edge of the pupil and 3 CDCS scan through the inferonal pupil. This double-angle protocol ensures that acceptable Doppler angle is obtained on each retinal branch vessel in at least 1 scan. The CDCS scan data, a 3-dimensional volumetric OCT scan of the optic disc scan, and a color photograph of the optic disc are used together to obtain retinal blood flow measurement on an eye. We have developed a blood flow measurement software called "Doppler optical coherence tomography of retinal circulation" (DOCTORC). This semi-automated software is used to measure total retinal blood flow, vessel cross section area, and average blood velocity. The flow of each vessel is calculated from the Doppler shift in the vessel cross-sectional area and the Doppler angle between the vessel and the OCT beam. Total retinal blood flow measurement is summed from the veins around the optic disc. The results obtained at our Doppler OCT reading center showed good reproducibility between graders and methods (<10%). Total retinal blood flow could be useful in the management of glaucoma, other retinal diseases, and retinal diseases. In glaucoma patients, OCT retinal blood flow measurement was highly correlated with visual field loss (R(2)>0.57 with visual field pattern deviation). Doppler OCT is a new method to perform rapid, noncontact, and repeatable measurement of total retinal blood flow using widely available Fourier-domain OCT instrumentation. This new technology may improve the

  3. Optimized doppler optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gangjun; Qi, Wenjuan; Yu, Lingfeng; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the retinal and choroidal blood vasculature in the posterior segment of the human eye with optimized color Doppler and Doppler variance optical coherence tomography. Depth-resolved structure, color Doppler and Doppler variance images were compared. Blood vessels down to capillary level were able to be obtained with the optimized optical coherence color Doppler and Doppler variance method. For in-vivo imaging of human eyes, bulkmotion induced bulk phase must be identified and removed before using color Doppler method. It was found that the Doppler variance method is not sensitive to bulk motion and the method can be used without removing the bulk phase. A novel, simple and fast segmentation algorithm to indentify retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was proposed and used to segment the retinal and choroidal layer. The algorithm was based on the detected OCT signal intensity difference between different layers. A spectrometer-based Fourier domain OCT system with a central wavelength of 890 nm and bandwidth of 150nm was used in this study. The 3-dimensional imaging volume contained 120 sequential two dimensional images with 2048 A-lines per image. The total imaging time was 12 seconds and the imaging area was 5x5 mm2.

  4. Power Doppler evaluation of joint effusions: investigation in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Strouse, P J; DiPietro, M A; Teo, E L; Doi, K; Chrisp, C E

    1999-08-01

    To study the power Doppler findings of septic arthritis and noninfectious synovitis in an animal model. The right knees of 10 rabbits were inoculated with an aqueous suspension of Staphylococcus aureus. The right knees of 5 rabbits were injected with talc suspension. The right knees of 5 rabbits were injected with saline. All 20 left knees were injected with saline. Serial power Doppler images were obtained using constant-imaging parameters. Images were reviewed by blinded observers who assessed for increased power Doppler signal. All 10 knees inoculated with S. aureus developed septic arthritis. Each infected rabbit knee demonstrated increased signal on power Doppler on at least one examination, ranging from 1-6 days after inoculation. Only 23 of 45 examinations of infected knees were unequivocally positive by power Doppler on examinations performed 1 to 6 days after inoculation. No knee with talc synovitis demonstrated increased power Doppler signal. No control knee demonstrated increased power Doppler signal. Increased power Doppler signal may be seen with septic arthritis; however, its intensity and timing may vary from subject to subject. A normal power Doppler examination does not exclude septic arthritis.

  5. Psychometric properties of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), Japanese version.

    PubMed

    Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Yuzawa, Mitsuko; Tokuda, Yoshihiro; Tomidokoro, Atsuo; Oki, Kotaro; Mangione, Carol M; Green, Joseph; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2005-10-26

    The importance of evaluating the outcomes of health care from the standpoint of the patient is now widely recognized. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a Japanese version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). A Japanese version was developed with a previously standardized method. The questionnaire and optional items were completed by 245 patients with cataracts, glaucoma, or age-related macular degeneration, by 110 others before and after cataract surgery, and by a reference group (n = 31). We computed rates of missing data, measured reproducibility and internal consistency reliability, and tested for convergent and discriminant validity, concurrent validity, known-groups validity, factor structure, and responsiveness to change. Based on information from the participants, some items were changed to 2-step items (asking if an activity was done, and if it was done, then asking how difficult it was). The near-vision and distance-vision subscales each had 1 item that was endorsed by very few participants, so these items were replaced with items that were optional in the English version. For example, more than 60% of participants did not drive, so the driving question was excluded. Reliability and validity were adequate for all subscales except driving, ocular pain, color vision, and peripheral vision. With cataract surgery, most scores improved by at least 20 points. With minor modifications from the English version, the Japanese NEI VFQ-25 can give reliable, valid, responsive data on vision-related quality of life, for group-level comparisons or for tracking therapeutic outcomes.

  6. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Precision Navigation of Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Petway, Larry; Hines, Glenn; Lockhard, George; Barnes, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar, utilizing an FMCW technique, has been developed and its capabilities demonstrated through two successful helicopter flight test campaigns. This Doppler lidar is expected to play a critical role in future planetary exploration missions because of its ability in providing the necessary data for soft landing on the planetary bodies and for landing missions requiring precision navigation to the designated location on the ground. Compared with radars, the Doppler lidar can provide significantly higher precision velocity and altitude data at a much higher rate without concerns for measurement ambiguity or target clutter. Future work calls for testing the Doppler lidar onboard a rocket-powered free-flyer platform operating in a closed-loop with the vehicle s guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) unit.

  7. [Urodynamics foundations: contractile potency and urethral doppler].

    PubMed

    Benítez Navío, Julio; Caballero Gómez, Pilar; Delgado Elipe, Ildefonso

    2002-12-01

    To calculate the bladder softening factor, elastic constant and contractile potency. For the analysis we considered bladder behavior like that of a spring. See articles 1 and 2 published in this issue. Using flowmetry, Doppler ultrasound and abdominal pressure (Transrectal pressure register catheter) an analytical solution that permits calculation of factors defining bladder behavior was looked for. Doppler ultrasound allows us to know urine velocity through the prostatic urethra and, therefore, to calculate bladder contractile potency. Equations are solved reaching an analytical solution that allows calculating those factors that define bladder behavior: Bladder contractile potency, detrusor elastic constant, considering it behaves like a spring, and calculation of muscle resistance to movement. All thanks to Doppler ultrasound that allows to know urine speed. The bladder voiding phase is defined with the aforementioned factors; storage phase behavior can be indirectly inferred. Only uroflowmetry curves, Doppler ultrasound and abdominal pressure value are used. We comply with the so called non invasive urodynamics although for us it is just another phase in the biomechanical study of the detrusor muscle. Main conclusion is the addition of Doppler ultrasound to the urodynamist armamentarium as an essential instrument for the comprehension of bladder dynamics and calculation of bladder behavior defining factors. It is not a change in the focus but in the methods, gaining knowledge and diminishing invasion.

  8. The EVE Doppler Sensitivity and Flare Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Didkovsky, L.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) obtains continuous EUV spectra of the Sun viewed as a star. Its primary objective is the characterization of solar spectral irradiance, but its sensitivity and stability make it extremely interesting for observations of variability on time scales down to the limit imposed by its basic 10 s sample interval. In this paper we characterize the Doppler sensitivity of the EVE data. We find that the 30.4 nm line of He II has a random Doppler error below 0.001 nm (1 pm, better than 10 km/s as a redshift), with ample stability to detect the orbital motion of its satellite, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Solar flares also displace the spectrum, both because of Doppler shifts and because of EVE's optical layout, which (as with a slitless spectrograph) confuses position and wavelength. As a flare develops, the centroid of the line displays variations that reflect Doppler shifts and therefore flare dynamics. For the impulsive phase of the flare SOL2010-06-12, we find the line centroid to have a redshift of 16.8 +/- 5.9 km/s relative to that of the flare gradual phase (statistical errors only). We find also that high-temperature lines, such as Fe XXIV 19.2 nm, have well-determined Doppler components for major flares, with decreasing apparent blueshifts as expected from chromospheric evaporation flows.

  9. Optimization of cw-QC lasers for Doppler and sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James F.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Richter, Dirk A.; Fried, Alan

    2002-09-01

    Inter-subband (Type I) quantum-cascade (QC) lasers have shown the potential to generate tunable mid-IR radiation with narrow intrinsic linewidths (< 160 KHz in 15 mSec sweeps) and excellent amplitude stability (< 3 ppm averaged over minutes). Our bench-scale efforts to develop the Type I distributed feedback (DFB)-QC lasers for fieldable atmospheric chemistry campaigns, where multipass (Herriot or White) cells are used to enhance path-length, have not yet realized performance to the low intrinsic noise levels seen in these devices. By comparison, many operational systems' levels of noise-equivalent-absorbance (NEA) using Pb-salt lasers can routinely achieve at least one-order of magnitude better cw-performance, and with much lower powers. We have found that instability effets from weak back-scattered laser light -primarily from the Herriot cell- results in feedback-implicated technical noise well above the thermal and shot-noise of standard IR detectors. Of more fundamental concern is the fact that planar-stripe DFB-QC lasers undergo beam steering and transverse spatial-mode competitions during current tuning. It is the development of fully automated sub-ppbV sensitive IR chem-sensors. It is possible to reach low-ppm levels of absorptance change-detection (ΔI/I0) over small wavelength regions with careful alignment to 100 M Herriott cells, but extreme care in spatial filtering is critical. However in the case of optical configurations which preclude significant optical feedback and need for stringent mode coupling alignments, the cw-DFB-QC lasers show great promise to do high resolution sub-Doppler spectroscopy. By serendipitous events, a varient of 'mode- or level-crossing' spectroscopy was probably rediscovered, which may allow very high resolution, sub-Doppler features and/or hyperfine alignments to be probed with 'uni-directional' topologies. We will primarily discuss the basic features of the 'uni-directional' sub-Doppler spectroscopy concept in this report

  10. High-resolution Doppler model of the human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan L.; Greneker, Eugene F., III; Marshall, William S.

    2002-07-01

    A high resolution Doppler model of the walking human was developed for analyzing the continuous wave (CW) radar gait signature. Data for twenty subjects were collected simultaneously using an infrared motion capture system along with a two channel 10.525 GHz CW radar. The motion capture system recorded three-dimensional coordinates of infrared markers placed on the body. These body marker coordinates were used as inputs to create the theoretical Doppler output using a model constructed in MATLAB. The outputs of the model are the simulated Doppler signals due to each of the major limbs and the thorax. An estimated radar cross section for each part of the body was assigned using the Lund & Browder chart of estimated body surface area. The resultant Doppler model was then compared with the actual recorded Doppler gait signature in the frequency domain using the spectrogram. Comparison of the two sets of data has revealed several identifiable biomechanical features in the radar gait signature due to leg and body motion. The result of the research shows that a wealth of information can be unlocked from the radar gait signature, which may be useful in security and biometric applications.

  11. Temporal Doppler Effect and Future Orientation: Adaptive Function and Moderating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yiqun; Miao, Miao; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Haihua

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether the temporal Doppler effect exists in different time intervals and whether certain individual and environmental factors act as moderators of the effect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the existence of the temporal Doppler effect and the moderating effect of future orientation among 139 university students (Study 1), and then the moderating conditions of the temporal Doppler effect using two independent samples of 143 and 147 university students (Studies 2 and 3). Results indicated that the temporal Doppler effect existed in all of our studies, and that future orientation moderated the temporal Doppler effect. Further, time interval perception mediated the relationship between future orientation and the motivation to cope at long time intervals. Finally, positive affect was found to enhance the temporal Doppler effect, whereas control deprivation did not influence the effect. The temporal Doppler effect is moderated by the personality trait of future orientation and by the situational variable of experimentally manipulated positive affect. We have identified personality and environmental processes that could enhance the temporal Doppler effect, which could be valuable in cases where attention to a future task is necessary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Coherent Doppler lidar signal covariance including wind shear and wind turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of coherent Doppler lidar is determined by the statistics of the coherent Doppler signal. The derivation and calculation of the covariance of the Doppler lidar signal is presented for random atmospheric wind fields with wind shear. The random component is described by a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum. The signal parameters are clarified for a general coherent Doppler lidar system. There are two distinct physical regimes: one where the transmitted pulse determines the signal statistics and the other where the wind field dominates the signal statistics. The Doppler shift of the signal is identified in terms of the wind field and system parameters.

  13. Doppler Feature Based Classification of Wind Profiler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Swati; Chandrasekhar Sarma, T. V.; Lourde. R, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Wind Profilers (WP) are coherent pulsed Doppler radars in UHF and VHF bands. They are used for vertical profiling of wind velocity and direction. This information is very useful for weather modeling, study of climatic patterns and weather prediction. Observations at different height and different wind velocities are possible by changing the operating parameters of WP. A set of Doppler power spectra is the standard form of WP data. Wind velocity, direction and wind velocity turbulence at different heights can be derived from it. Modern wind profilers operate for long duration and generate approximately 4 megabytes of data per hour. The radar data stream contains Doppler power spectra from different radar configurations with echoes from different atmospheric targets. In order to facilitate systematic study, this data needs to be segregated according the type of target. A reliable automated target classification technique is required to do this job. Classical techniques of radar target identification use pattern matching and minimization of mean squared error, Euclidean distance etc. These techniques are not effective for the classification of WP echoes, as these targets do not have well-defined signature in Doppler power spectra. This paper presents an effective target classification technique based on range-Doppler features.

  14. Doppler effect of subluminal and superluminal sources in eight dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandola, H. C.; Rajput, B. S.

    1984-06-01

    The study of the relativistic Doppler effect of subliminal and superluminal sources has been undertaken in the eight-dimensional space. It has been shown that correct Doppler shifts are obtained in the external spaces of these sources and the conformal correspondence between Doppler effect curves holds in case of approaching and receeding sources but not in the transverse case.

  15. MicroV Technology to Improve Transcranial Color Coded Doppler Examinations.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, Giovanni; Pulito, Giuseppe; Pizzini, Attilia Maria; Carraro, Nicola; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Sanzaro, Enzo; Prati, Patrizio; Siniscalchi, Antonio; Monaco, Daniela

    2018-05-04

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update on technology related to Transcranial Color Coded Doppler Examinations. Microvascularization (MicroV) is an emerging Power Doppler technology which can allow visualization of low and weak blood flows even at high depths, thus providing a suitable technique for transcranial ultrasound analysis. With MicroV, reconstruction of the vessel shape can be improved, without any overestimation. Furthermore, by analyzing the Doppler signal, MicroV allows a global image of the Circle of Willis. Transcranial Doppler was originally developed for the velocimetric analysis of intracranial vessels, in particular to detect stenoses and the assessment of collateral circulation. Doppler velocimetric analysis was then compared to other neuroimaging techniques, thus providing a cut-off threshold. Transcranial Color Coded Doppler sonography allowed the characterization of vessel morphology. In both Color Doppler and Power Doppler, the signal overestimated the shape of the intracranial vessels, mostly in the presence of thin vessels and high depths of study. In further neurosonology technology development efforts, attempts have been made to address morphology issues and overcome technical limitations. The use of contrast agents has helped in this regard by introducing harmonics and subtraction software, which allowed better morphological studies of vessels, due to their increased signal-to-noise ratio. Having no limitations in the learning curve, in time and contrast agent techniques, and due to its high signal-to-noise ratio, MicroV has shown great potential to obtain the best morphological definition. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Laser Doppler measurement techniques for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for using laser links to measure the relative radial velocity of two spacecraft. The first technique determines the relative radial velocity from a measurement of the two-way Doppler shift on a transponded radio-frequency subcarrier. The subcarrier intensity-modulates reciprocating laser beams. The second technique determines the relative radial velocity from a measurement of the two-way Doppler shift on an optical frequency carrier which is transponded between spacecraft using optical Costas loops. The first technique might be used in conjunction with noncoherent optical communications, while the second technique is compatible with coherent optical communications. The first technique simultaneously exploits the diffraction advantage of laser beams and the maturity of radio-frequency phase-locked loop technology. The second technique exploits both the diffraction advantage of laser beams and the large Doppler effect at optical frequencies. The second technique has the potential for greater accuracy; unfortunately, it is more difficult to implement since it involves optical Costas loops.

  17. Millimeter-wave micro-Doppler measurements of small UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Samiur; Robertson, Duncan A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the micro-Doppler signatures of small UAVs obtained from a millimeter-wave radar system. At first, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the theoretical concept. It is illustrated that whilst the propeller rotation rate of the small UAVs is quite high, millimeter-wave radar systems are capable of capturing the full micro-Doppler spread. Measurements of small UAVs have been performed with both CW and FMCW radars operating at 94 GHz. The CW radar was used for obtaining micro-Doppler signatures of individual propellers. The field test data of a flying small UAV was collected with the FMCW radar and was processed to extract micro-Doppler signatures. The high fidelity results clearly reveal features such as blade flashes and propeller rotation modulation lines which can be used to classify targets. This work confirms that millimeter-wave radar is suitable for the detection and classification of small UAVs at usefully long ranges.

  18. Hyperemia in plantar fasciitis determined by power Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Andrew M; Landorf, Karl B; Gregg, Julie M; De Luca, Jason; Cotchett, Matthew P; Menz, Hylton B

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional observational study. To investigate the presence of soft tissue hyperemia in plantar fasciitis with power Doppler ultrasound. Localized hyperemia is an established feature of tendinopathy, suggesting that neurovascular in-growth may contribute to tendon-associated pain in some patients. The presence of abnormal soft tissue vascularity can be assessed with Doppler ultrasound, and a positive finding can assist with targeted treatment plans. However, very little is known regarding the presence of hyperemia in plantar fasciitis and the ability of routine Doppler ultrasound to identify vascular in-growth in the plantar fascia near its proximal insertion. This observational study included 30 participants with plantar fasciitis unrelated to systemic disease and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Ultrasound examination was performed with a 13- to 5-MHz linear transducer, and power Doppler images were assessed by 2 blinded investigators. Hyperemia of the plantar fascia was present in 8 of 30 participants with plantar fasciitis and in 2 of 30 controls. The between-group difference for hyperemia, using a 4-point scale, was statistically significant, with participants with plantar fasciitis showing increased Doppler ultrasound signal compared to controls (Mann-Whitney U, P = .03). However, the majority of participants with plantar fasciitis with evidence of hyperemia demonstrated very mild color changes, and only 3 were found to have moderate or marked hyperemia. Mild hyperemia can occur with plantar fasciitis, but most individuals will not exhibit greater soft tissue vascularity when assessed with routine Doppler ultrasound. Clinicians treating plantar fasciitis should not consider a positive Doppler signal as essential for diagnosis of the condition but, rather, as a feature that may help to refine the treatment plan for an individual patient.

  19. Orbit determination singularities in the Doppler tracking of a planetary orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    On a number of occasions, spacecraft launched by the U.S. have been placed into orbit about the moon, Venus, or Mars. It is pointed out that, in particular, in planetary orbiter missions two-way coherent Doppler data have provided the principal data type for orbit determination applications. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of orbit determination on the basis of Doppler tracking data in the case of a spacecraft in orbit about a natural body other than the earth or the sun. Attention is given to Doppler shift associated with a planetary orbiter, orbit determination using a zeroth-order model for the Doppler shift, and orbit determination using a first-order model for the Doppler shift.

  20. Is Doppler tissue velocity during early left ventricular filling preload independent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Kaftan, A.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Korkmaz, M. E.; Flachskampf, F.; Garcia, M.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmitral Doppler flow indices are used to evaluate diastolic function. Recently, velocities measured by Doppler tissue imaging have been used as an index of left ventricular relaxation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Doppler tissue velocities are influenced by alterations in preload. METHODS: Left ventricular preload was altered in 17 patients (all men, mean (SD) age, 49 (8) years) during echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end diastolic volume, maximum left atrial area, peak early Doppler filling velocity, and left ventricular myocardial velocities during early filling. Preload altering manoeuvres included Trendelenberg (stage 1), reverse Trendelenberg (stage 2), and amyl nitrate (stage 3). Systolic blood pressure was measured at each stage. RESULTS: In comparison with baseline, left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.001), left atrial area (p = 0.003), peak early mitral Doppler filling velocity (p = 0.01), and systolic blood pressures (p = 0.001) were all changed by preload altering manoeuvres. Only left ventricular myocardial velocity during early filling remained unchanged by these manoeuvres. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to standard transmitral Doppler filling indices, Doppler tissue early diastolic velocities are not significantly affected by physiological manoeuvres that alter preload. Thus Doppler tissue velocities during early left ventricular diastole may provide a better index of diastolic function in cardiac patients by providing a preload independent assessment of left ventricular filling.

  1. Laser Doppler technology applied to atmospheric environmental operating problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E. A.; Bilbro, J. W.; Dunkin, J. A.; Jeffreys, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser Doppler ground wind data were very favorably compared with data from standard anemometers. As a result of these measurements, two breadboard systems were developed for taking research data: a continuous wave velocimeter and a pulsed Doppler system. The scanning continuous wave laser Doppler velocimeter developed for detecting, tracking and measuring aircraft wake vortices was successfully tested at an airport where it located vortices to an accuracy of 3 meters at a range of 150 meters. The airborne pulsed laser Doppler system was developed to detect and measure clear air turbulence (CAT). This system was tested aboard an aircraft, but jet stream CAT was not encountered. However, low altitude turbulence in cumulus clouds near a mountain range was detected by the system and encountered by the aircraft at the predicted time.

  2. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xiaodong; Bao, Jing; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-03-01

    Medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging is one of the most important domains of modern medical imaging technology. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system has the potential of higher SNR and deeper penetration depth than conventional pulse-echo imaging system, it also improves the image quality, and enhances the sensitivity of feeble signal, furthermore, proper coded excitation is beneficial to received spectrum of Doppler signal. Firstly, this paper analyzes the application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system abstractly, showing the advantage and bright future of coded excitation technology, then introduces the principle and the theory of coded excitation. Secondly, we compare some coded serials (including Chirp and fake Chirp signal, Barker codes, Golay's complementary serial, M-sequence, etc). Considering Mainlobe Width, Range Sidelobe Level, Signal-to-Noise Ratio and sensitivity of Doppler signal, we choose Barker codes as coded serial. At last, we design the coded excitation circuit. The result in B-mode imaging and Doppler flow measurement coincided with our expectation, which incarnated the advantage of application of coded excitation technology in Digital Medical Ultrasonic Doppler Endoscope Imaging System.

  3. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    DOEpatents

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  4. Ultrasonic Doppler measurement of renal artery blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, W. R.; Beaver, W. L.; Meindl, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made of (1) blood flow redistribution during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), (2) the profile of blood flow across the mitral annulus of the heart (both perpendicular and parallel to the commissures), (3) testing and evaluation of a number of pulsed Doppler systems, (4) acute calibration of perivascular Doppler transducers, (5) redesign of the mitral flow transducers to improve reliability and ease of construction, and (6) a frequency offset generator designed for use in distinguishing forward and reverse components of blood flow by producing frequencies above and below the offset frequency. Finally methodology was developed and initial results were obtained from a computer analysis of time-varying Doppler spectra.

  5. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal death and affects 5 to 8% of pregnant women. PE is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Doppler Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been considered a useful method for prediction of PE; however, there is no complete data about the most frequently altered US parameters in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uterine, umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries using Doppler US parameters [resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), notch (N), systolic peak (SP) and their combinations] in pregnant women, in order to make a global evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion caused by the established PE. Results A total of 102 pregnant Mexican women (65 PE women and 37 normotensive women) were recruited in a cases and controls study. Blood velocity waveforms from uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, in pregnancies from 24 to 37 weeks of gestation were recorded by trans-abdominal examination with a Toshiba Ultrasound Power Vision 6000 SSA-370A, with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Abnormal general Doppler US profile showed a positive association with PE [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2 - 7.3, P = 0.021)], and a specificity and predictive positive value of 89.2% and 88.6%, respectively. Other parameters like N presence, RI and PI of umbilical artery, as well as the PI of middle cerebral artery, showed differences between groups (P values < 0.05). Conclusion General Doppler US result, as well as N from uterine vessel, RI from umbilical artery, and PI from umbilical and middle cerebral arteries in their individual form, may be considered as tools to determine hemodynamic repercussion caused by PE. PMID:24252303

  6. Doppler imaging using spectrally-encoded endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yelin, Dvir; Bouma, B. E.; Rosowsky, J. J.; Tearney, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The capability to image tissue motion such as blood flow through an endoscope could have many applications in medicine. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a recently introduced technique that utilizes a single optical fiber and miniature diffractive optics to obtain endoscopic images through small diameter probes. Using spectral-domain interferometry, SEE is furthermore capable of three-dimensional volume imaging at video rates. Here we show that by measuring relative spectral phases, this technology can additionally measure Doppler shifts. Doppler SEE is demonstrated in flowing Intralipid phantoms and vibrating middle ear ossicles. PMID:18795020

  7. An interactive Doppler velocity dealiasing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiawen; Chen, Qi; Wei, Ming; Gao, Li

    2009-10-01

    Doppler weather radars are capable of providing high quality wind data at a high spatial and temporal resolution. However, operational application of Doppler velocity data from weather radars is hampered by the infamous limitation of the velocity ambiguity. This paper reviews the cause of velocity folding and presents the unfolding method recently implemented for the CINRAD systems. A simple interactive method for velocity data, which corrects de-aliasing errors, has been developed and tested. It is concluded that the algorithm is very efficient and produces high quality velocity data.

  8. Oil and Gas 101: An Overview of Oil and Gas Upstream Activities and Using EPA's Nonpoint Oil and Gas Emission Estimation Tool for the 2014 NEI (2015 EIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    provide a general overview of the upstream oil and gas exploration and production processes and emissions covered by the tool; a discussion of EPA’s plans for the 2014 NEI pertaining to oil and gas; use of the tool to compile emissions estimates

  9. Transesophageal color Doppler evaluation of obstructive lesions using the new "Quasar" technology.

    PubMed

    Fan, P; Nanda, N C; Gatewood, R P; Cape, E G; Yoganathan, A P

    1995-01-01

    Due to the unavoidable problem of aliasing, color flow signals from high blood flow velocities cannot be measured directly by conventional color Doppler. A new technology termed Quantitative Un-Aliased Speed Algorithm Recognition (Quasar) has been developed to overcome this limitation. Employing this technology, we used transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography to investigate whether the velocities detected by the Quasar would correlate with those obtained by continuous-wave Doppler both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, a 5.0 MHz transesophageal transducer of a Kontron Sigma 44 color Doppler flow system was used. Fourteen different peak velocities calculated and recorded by color Doppler-guided continuous-wave Doppler were randomly selected. In the clinical study, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was performed using the same transducer 18 adults (13 aortic valve stenosis, 2 aortic and 2 mitral stenosis, 2 hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and 1 mitral valve stenosis). Following each continuous-wave Doppler measurement, the Quasar was activated, and a small Quasar marker was placed in the brightest area of the color flow jet to obtain the maximum mean velocity readout. The maximum mean velocities measured by Quasar closely correlated with maximum peak velocities obtained by color flow guided continuous-wave Doppler in both in vitro (0.53 to 1.65 m/s, r = 0.99) and in vivo studies (1.50 to 6.01 m/s, r = 0.97). We conclude that the new Quasar technology can accurately measure high blood flow velocities during transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography. This technique has the potential of obviating the need for continuous-wave Doppler.

  10. Accuracy of three-dimensional multislice view Doppler in diagnosis of morbid adherent placenta

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Moniem, Alaa M.; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Akl, Sherif A.; Aboul-Enen, Loay; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect the accuracy of the three-dimensional multislice view (3D MSV) Doppler in the diagnosis of morbid adherent placenta (MAP). Material and Methods Fifty pregnant women at ≥28 weeks gestation with suspected MAP were included in this prospective study. Two dimensional (2D) trans-abdominal gray-scale ultrasound scan was performed for the subjects to confirm the gestational age, placental location, and findings suggestive of MAP, followed by the 3D power Doppler and then the 3D MSV Doppler to confirm the diagnosis of MAP. Intraoperative findings and histopathology results of removed uteri in cases managed by emergency hysterectomy were compared with preoperative sonographic findings to detect the accuracy of the 3D MSV Doppler in the diagnosis of MAP. Results The 3D MSV Doppler increased the accuracy and predictive values of the diagnostic criteria of MAP compared with the 3D power Doppler. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) (79.6% and 82.2%, respectively) of crowded vessels over the peripheral sub-placental zone to detect difficult placental separation and considerable intraoperative blood loss in cases of MAP using the 3D power Doppler was increased to 82.6% and 84%, respectively, using the 3D MSV Doppler. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) (90.9%, 68.8%, and 47%, respectively) of the disruption of the uterine serosa-bladder interface for the detection of emergency hysterectomy in cases of MAP using the 3D power Doppler was increased to 100%, 71.8%, and 50%, respectively, using the 3D MSV Doppler. Conclusion The 3D MSV Doppler is a useful adjunctive tool to the 3D power Doppler or color Doppler to refine the diagnosis of MAP. PMID:26401104

  11. DOPPLER SIGNATURES OF THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION ON HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation-and Doppler signature-of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows towardmore » Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blueshifted and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps these waves and inhibits jet formation. As a result, this second regime exhibits a circulation dominated by high-altitude, day-to-night airflow, leading to a predominantly blueshifted Doppler signature during transit. We present state-of-the-art circulation models including non-gray radiative transfer to quantify this regime shift and the resulting Doppler signatures; these models suggest that cool planets like GJ 436b lie in the first regime, HD 189733b is transitional, while planets hotter than HD 209458b lie in the second regime. Moreover, we show how the amplitude of the Doppler shifts constrains the strength of frictional drag in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. If due to winds, the {approx}2 km s{sup -1} blueshift inferred on HD 209458b may require drag time constants as short as 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} s, possibly the result of Lorentz-force braking on this planet's hot dayside.« less

  12. Spectroscopic Doppler analysis for visible-light optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-12-01

    Retinal oxygen metabolic rate can be effectively measured by visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), which simultaneously quantifies oxygen saturation and blood flow rate in retinal vessels through spectroscopic analysis and Doppler measurement, respectively. Doppler OCT relates phase variation between sequential A-lines to the axial flow velocity of the scattering medium. The detectable phase shift is between -π and π due to its periodicity, which limits the maximum measurable unambiguous velocity without phase unwrapping. Using shorter wavelengths, vis-OCT is more vulnerable to phase ambiguity since flow induced phase variation is linearly related to the center wavenumber of the probing light. We eliminated the need for phase unwrapping using spectroscopic Doppler analysis. We split the whole vis-OCT spectrum into a series of narrow subbands and reconstructed vis-OCT images to extract corresponding Doppler phase shifts in all the subbands. Then, we quantified flow velocity by analyzing subband-dependent phase shift using linear regression. In the phantom experiment, we showed that spectroscopic Doppler analysis extended the measurable absolute phase shift range without conducting phase unwrapping. We also tested this method to quantify retinal blood flow in rodents in vivo.

  13. Trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system aided by fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Yutaka; Nakamura, Masato; Yagi, Naomi; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system for measuring the blood flow direction in brain under skull. In this system, we use an ultrasonic array probe with the center frequency of 1.0 MHz. The system determines the fuzzy degree of blood flow by Doppler Effect, thereby it locates blood vessel. This Doppler Effect is examined by the center of gravity shift of the frequency magnitudes. In in-vitro experiment, a cow bone was employed as the skull, and three silicon tubes were done as blood vessels, and bubble in water as blood. We received the ultrasonic waves through a protein, the skull and silicon tubes in order. In the system, fuzzy degrees are determined with respect to the Doppler shift, amplitude of the waves and attenuation of the tissues. The fuzzy degrees of bone and blood direction are calculated by them. The experimental results showed that the system successfully visualized the skull and flow direction, compared with the location and flow direction of the phantom. Thus, it detected the flow direction by Doppler Effect under skull, and automatically extracted the region of skull and blood vessel.

  14. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  15. Comments on Doppler radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, E.

    1969-01-01

    The application of Doppler methods to theoretical or meteorological problems is discussed. Research for using radar to study and monitor severe thunderstorms, turbulence, and tornadoes is recommended.

  16. Clinical Tests Combined with Color Doppler Versus Color Doppler Alone in Identifying Incompetent Perforator Veins of the Lower Limb: A Prospective Analytical Study.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Vignesh, Narayan; Venkatachalam, J; Vijayakumar, Chellappa; Sudharsanan, Sundaramurthi

    2018-01-05

    Background The color Doppler, a better investigation to identify the perforators objectively has replaced the clinical examination for the same. However, this has led to a significant number of negative explorations and cosmetic disfigurement. Objective To compare the efficacy of the clinical tests combined with the color Doppler versus color Doppler alone to identify the perforator incompetence during the surgery for primary varicose veins of the lower limb. Methods This was a prospective analytical study, including 61 lower limb varicose vein patients who belonged to the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) class four-six, planned for the surgical treatment for perforator incompetence, excluding those requiring additional vascular or nonvascular procedure, recurrent varicose veins and those who had injection sclerotherapy prior to the surgery. The clinical tests, including Trendelenburg's test, multiple tourniquet tests and, the Fegan's tests were performed and incompetent perforators were marked on a template as 'C' to indicate the clinically positive perforator incompetence. The patients were then examined with the color Doppler ultrasound and the pathological incompetent perforators were marked as 'D'. The surgical management of the perforator incompetence was done by stab ligation. The incision was made in the color Doppler 'D' marked sites as it has been the standard protocol. The number of incompetent perforators identified during the surgical exploration were categorized as 'D' positive or 'C' and 'D' positive and were recorded in the specified proforma. Results It was found that the mean number of the perforator incompetence identified by the color Doppler alone was 8.2 whereas during the surgery, only a mean of six perforators was identified, leading to 20 unnecessary explorations per 10 patients (8.2 vs. 6; mean difference 2.229; P <0.001). The mean number of the perforator incompetence identified by the color Doppler combined with the

  17. Clinical Tests Combined with Color Doppler Versus Color Doppler Alone in Identifying Incompetent Perforator Veins of the Lower Limb: A Prospective Analytical Study

    PubMed Central

    Vignesh, Narayan; Venkatachalam, J; Vijayakumar, Chellappa; Sudharsanan, Sundaramurthi

    2018-01-01

    Background The color Doppler, a better investigation to identify the perforators objectively has replaced the clinical examination for the same. However, this has led to a significant number of negative explorations and cosmetic disfigurement. Objective To compare the efficacy of the clinical tests combined with the color Doppler versus color Doppler alone to identify the perforator incompetence during the surgery for primary varicose veins of the lower limb. Methods This was a prospective analytical study, including 61 lower limb varicose vein patients who belonged to the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) class four-six, planned for the surgical treatment for perforator incompetence, excluding those requiring additional vascular or nonvascular procedure, recurrent varicose veins and those who had injection sclerotherapy prior to the surgery. The clinical tests, including Trendelenburg’s test, multiple tourniquet tests and, the Fegan’s tests were performed and incompetent perforators were marked on a template as ‘C’ to indicate the clinically positive perforator incompetence. The patients were then examined with the color Doppler ultrasound and the pathological incompetent perforators were marked as ‘D’. The surgical management of the perforator incompetence was done by stab ligation. The incision was made in the color Doppler ‘D’ marked sites as it has been the standard protocol. The number of incompetent perforators identified during the surgical exploration were categorized as ‘D’ positive or ’C’ and ‘D’ positive and were recorded in the specified proforma. Results It was found that the mean number of the perforator incompetence identified by the color Doppler alone was 8.2 whereas during the surgery, only a mean of six perforators was identified, leading to 20 unnecessary explorations per 10 patients (8.2 vs. 6; mean difference 2.229; P <0.001). The mean number of the perforator incompetence identified by the color

  18. Doppler ultrasonography and single-fiber laser Doppler flowmetry for measurement of hind limb blood flow in anesthetized horses.

    PubMed

    Raisis, A L; Young, L E; Taylor, P M; Walsh, K P; Lekeux, P

    2000-03-01

    To use Doppler ultrasonography and single-fiber laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to evaluate blood flow in the dependent and nondependent hind limbs of anesthetized horses and to evaluate changes in femoral arterial blood flow and microvascular skeletal muscle perfusion in response to administration of phenylephrine hydrochloride or dobutamine hydrochloride. 6 healthy adult horses. Horses were anesthetized and positioned in left lateral recumbency. Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure velocity and volumetric flow in the femoral vessels. Single-fiber LDF was used to measure relative microvascular perfusion at a single site in the semimembranosus muscles. Phenylephrine or dobutamine was then administered to decrease or increase femoral arterial blood flow, and changes in blood flow and microvascular perfusion were recorded. Administration of phenylephrine resulted in significant decreases in femoral arterial and venous blood flows and cardiac output and significant increases in mean aortic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and PCV. Administration of dobutamine resulted in significant increases in femoral arterial blood flow, mean aortic blood pressure, and PCV. Significant changes in microvascular perfusion were not detected. Results suggest that Doppler ultrasonography and single-fiber LDF can be used to study blood flows in the hind limbs of anesthetized horses. However, further studies are required to determine why changes in femoral arterial blood flows were not associated with changes in microvascular perfusion.

  19. Non-intrusive Shock Measurements Using Laser Doppler Vibrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, Shannon M.; Kolaini, Ali R.

    2012-01-01

    Stud mount accelerometers are widely used by the aerospace industry to measure shock environments during hardware qualification. The commonly used contact-based sensors, however, interfere with the shock waves and distort the acquired signature, which is a concern not actively discussed in the community. To alleviate these interference issues, engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are investigating the use of non-intrusive sensors, specifically Laser Doppler Vibrometers, as alternatives to the stud mounted accelerometers. This paper will describe shock simulation tests completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, compare the measurements from stud mounted accelerometers and Laser Doppler Vibrometers, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of introducing Laser Doppler Vibrometers as alternative sensors for measuring shock environments.

  20. Laser Doppler systems in pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. R.; Sonnenschein, C. M.; Herget, W. F.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports on a program undertaken to determine the feasibility of using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) to measure smoke-stack gas exit velocity, particulate concentration, and mass flow. Measurements made with a CO2 laser Doppler radar system at a coal-burning power plant are compared with in-stack measurements made by a pitot tube. The operational principles of a LDV are briefly described along with the system employed in the present study. Data discussed include typical Doppler spectra from smoke-stack effluents at various laser elevation angles, the measured velocity profile across the stack exit, and the LDV-measured exit velocity as a function of the exit velocity measured by the in-stack instrument. The in-stack velocity is found to be about 14% higher than the LDV velocity, but this discrepancy is regarded as a systematic error. In general, linear relationships are observed between the laser data, the exit velocity, and the particulate concentration. It is concluded that an LDV has the capability of determining both the mass concentration and the mass flow from a power-plant smoke stack.

  1. Evaluation of transcatheter arterial embolization therapy on hepatocellular carcinomas using contrast-enhanced harmonic power Doppler sonography: comparison with CT, power Doppler sonography, and dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Shima, Toshihide; Mizuno, Masayuki; Otsuji, Hideaki; Mizuno, Chiemi; Obata, Hirozumi; Park, Hyohun; Nakajo, Shinobu; Okanoue, Takeshi

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the sensitivity of power Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced sonography, plain computed tomography (CT), and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules incompletely treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). A total of 63 unresectable HCC nodules were examined in this study. The HCCs were treated with TAE. All patients underwent plain CT, power Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced harmonic power Doppler sonography, and dynamic MRI 1 week after TAE. The sensitivity of each modality to incompletely treated HCC nodules was compared. Detection of the residual viable HCC on angiography or tumor biopsy was regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of incomplete treatment. Twenty-four nodules (38%) were diagnosed as incompletely treated. The sensitivities of plain CT, power Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced harmonic power Doppler sonography, and dynamic MRI to these incompletely treated nodules were 42% (10/24), 46% (11/24), 88% (21/24), and 79% (19/24), respectively. Eighty percent (19 nodules) of the 24 incompletely treated nodules were located within a depth of less than 8 cm. The sensitivities of plain CT, power Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced harmonic power Doppler sonography, and dynamic MRI to these superficial incompletely treated nodules were 37% (7/19), 53% (10/19), 100% (19/19), and 74% (14/19), respectively. In contrast, the sensitivities of each modality to deeply located nodules were 60% (3/5), 20% (1/5), 40% (2/5), and 100% (5/5), respectively. Plain CT and power Doppler sonography had a low sensitivity to HCC nodules incompletely treated with TAE. Except for those that were deeply located, contrast-enhanced harmonic sonography showed the highest sensitivity in detecting incompletely treated HCC nodules.

  2. The Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop, November 1979.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, R. E.; Harris, F. I.; Hildebrand, P. H.; Kropfli, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Moninger, W.; Strauch, R. G.; Doviak, R. J.; Johnson, K. W.; Nelson, S. P.; Ray, P. S.; Gilet, M.

    1980-10-01

    The findings of the Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop are summarized by a series of six papers. Part I of this series briefly reviews the history of multiple Doppler experimentation, fundamental concepts of Doppler signal theory, and organization and objectives of the Workshop. Invited presentations by dynamicists and cloud physicists are also summarized.Experimental design and procedures (Part II) are shown to be of critical importance. Well-defined and limited experimental objectives are necessary in view of technological limitations. Specified radar scanning procedures that balance temporal and spatial resolution considerations are discussed in detail. Improved siting for suppression of ground clutter as well as scanning procedures to minimize errors at echo boundaries are discussed. The need for accelerated research using numerically simulated proxy data sets is emphasized.New technology to eliminate various sampling limitations is cited as an eventual solution to many current problems in Part III. Ground clutter contamination may be curtailed by means of full spectral processing, digital filters in real time, and/or variable pulse repetition frequency. Range and velocity ambiguities also may be minimized by various pulsing options as well as random phase transmission. Sidelobe contamination can be reduced through improvements in radomes, illumination patterns, and antenna feed types. Radar volume-scan time can be sharply reduced by means of wideband transmission, phased array antennas, multiple beam antennas, and frequency agility.Part IV deals with synthesis of data from several radars in the context of scientific requirements in cumulus clouds, widespread precipitation, and severe convective storms. The important temporal and spatial scales are examined together with the accuracy required for vertical air motion in each phenomenon. Factors that introduce errors in the vertical velocity field are identified and synthesis techniques are discussed separately for

  3. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography in screening for carotid artery disease.

    PubMed

    Keberle, M; Jenett, M; Beissert, M; Jahns, R; Haerten, R; Hahn, D

    2000-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography has gained considerable recognition as a noninvasive method to detect carotid artery disease and to assess the degree of carotid artery stenosis. However, results are highly operator-dependent and cannot be presented as survey images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate real-time 3-dimensional (3D) power Doppler sonography as a method for screening for atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. We prospectively screened 75 patients for carotid artery disease using both conventional color Doppler sonography and 3D power Doppler sonography, and the results from the 2 modalities were compared. A total of 150 common carotid arteries, 150 internal carotid arteries, and 150 external carotid arteries were examined utilizing a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer combined with tissue harmonic imaging. Color Doppler sonography detected 297 normal or atherosclerotic arteries without stenosis, 57 arteries with mild (1-49%) stenosis, 41 with moderate (50-69%) stenosis, 32 with severe (70-99%) stenosis, and 9 with occlusions. The degree of stenosis determined by color Doppler sonography correlated with that determined by 3D power Doppler sonography (r = 0.982-0.998). Moreover, there was a good correlation between the measurements for both the length of the lesion and its distance from the bulb as determined by the 3D volume surveys and by color Doppler sonography (r = 0.986). The interobserver variability rate was 3.7% +/- 0.5%. Generally, the acquisition and reconstruction of the 3D data took less than 5 minutes. 3D power Doppler sonography is easy to perform and is an accurate method in screening for atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. Moreover, it provides excellent 3D volume surveys that may be helpful in the planning of surgical treatment. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos Flyby. II. Doppler tracking: Formulation of observed and computed values, and noise budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocanegra-Bahamón, T. M.; Molera Calvés, G.; Gurvits, L. I.; Duev, D. A.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Cimò, G.; Dirkx, D.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Closed-loop Doppler data obtained by deep space tracking networks, such as the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and the ESA tracking station network (Estrack), are routinely used for navigation and science applications. By shadow tracking the spacecraft signal, Earth-based radio telescopes involved in the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) can provide open-loop Doppler tracking data only when the dedicated deep space tracking facilities are operating in closed-loop mode. Aims: We explain the data processing pipeline in detail and discuss the capabilities of the technique and its potential applications in planetary science. Methods: We provide the formulation of the observed and computed values of the Doppler data in PRIDE tracking of spacecraft and demonstrate the quality of the results using an experiment with the ESA Mars Express spacecraft as a test case. Results: We find that the Doppler residuals and the corresponding noise budget of the open-loop Doppler detections obtained with the PRIDE stations compare to the closed-loop Doppler detections obtained with dedicated deep space tracking facilities.

  5. Color doppler in clinical cardiology

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    A presentation of color doppler, which enables physicians to pinpoint problems and develop effective treatment. State-of-the-art illustrations and layout, with color images and explanatory text are included.

  6. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  7. Long-range, noncoherent laser Doppler velocimeter.

    PubMed

    Bloom, S H; Kremer, R; Searcy, P A; Rivers, M; Menders, J; Korevaar, E

    1991-11-15

    An experimental demonstration of a long-range, noncoherent laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) is presented. The LDV detects incoming Doppler-shifted signal photons by using the sharp spectral absorption features in atomic or molecular vapors. The edge of the absorption feature is used to convert changes in frequency to large changes in transmission. Preliminary measurements of wind velocity using seeded aerosols showed that the LDV results agreed with mechanical anemometer measurements to within the accuracy of the LDV measurements. With optimization the LDV will provide accurate range-resolved and vibration-tolerant wind-speed measurements at large distances.

  8. Software For Clear-Air Doppler-Radar Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    System of software developed to present plan-position-indicator scans of clear-air Doppler radar station on color graphical cathode-ray-tube display. Designed to incorporate latest accepted standards for equipment, computer programs, and meteorological data bases. Includes use of Ada programming language, of "Graphical-Kernel-System-like" graphics interface, and of Common Doppler Radar Exchange Format. Features include portability and maintainability. Use of Ada software packages produced number of software modules reused on other related projects.

  9. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  10. Multigigahertz range-Doppler correlative processing in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Todd L.; Babbitt, Wm. R.; Merkel, Kristian D.; Mohan, R. Krishna; Cole, Zachary; Olson, Andy

    2004-06-01

    Spectral-spatial holographic crystals have the unique ability to resolve fine spectral features (down to kilohertz) in an optical waveform over a broad bandwidth (over 10 gigahertz). This ability allows these crystals to record the spectral interference between spread spectrum waveforms that are temporally separated by up to several microseconds. Such crystals can be used for performing radar range-Doppler processing with fine temporal resolution. An added feature of these crystals is the long upper state lifetime of the absorbing rare earth ions, which allows the coherent integration of multiple recorded spectra, yielding integration gain and significant processing gain enhancement for selected code sets, as well as high resolution Doppler processing. Parallel processing of over 10,000 beams could be achieved with a crystal the size of a sugar cube. Spectral-spatial holographic processing and coherent integration of up to 2.5 Gigabit per second coded waveforms and of lengths up to 2047 bits has previously been reported. In this paper, we present the first demonstration of Doppler processing with these crystals. Doppler resolution down to a few hundred Hz for broadband radar signals can be achieved. The processing can be performed directly on signals modulated onto IF carriers (up to several gigahertz) without having to mix the signals down to baseband and without having to employ broadband analog to digital conversion.

  11. Comparison of the Diagnostic Performance of Power Doppler Ultrasound and a New Microvascular Doppler Ultrasound Technique (AngioPLUS) for Differentiating Benign and Malignant Breast Masses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Park, Ah Young; Ko, Kyung Hee; Koh, Jieun

    2018-03-12

    This study was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of power Doppler ultrasound (US) and a new microvascular Doppler US technique (AngioPLUS; SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses. Power Doppler US and AngioPLUS findings were available in 124 breast masses with confirmed pathologic results (benign, 80 [64.5%]; malignant, 44 [35.5%]). The diagnostic performance of each tool was calculated to distinguish benign from malignant masses using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and compared. The area under the curve showed that AngioPLUS was superior to power Doppler US in differentiating benign from malignant breast masses, but the difference was not statistically significant. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Doppler electron velocimetry : notes on creating a practical tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Milster, Tom

    2008-11-01

    The Doppler electron velocimeter (DEV) has been shown to be theoretically possible. This report attempts to answer the next logical question: Is it a practical instrument? The answer hinges upon whether enough electrons are available to create a time-varying Doppler current to be measured by a detector with enough sensitivity and bandwidth. The answer to both of these questions is a qualified yes. A target Doppler frequency of 1 MHz was set as a minimum rate of interest. At this target a theoretical beam current signal-to-noise ratio of 25-to-1 is shown for existing electron holography equipment. A detector is alsomore » demonstrated with a bandwidth of 1-MHz at a current of 10 pA. Additionally, a Linnik-type interferometer that would increase the available beam current is shown that would offer a more flexible arrangement for Doppler electron measurements over the traditional biprism.« less

  13. Space-based detection of spoofing AIS signals using Doppler frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanzeng

    2014-05-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a self-reporting system based on VHF radio to transmit a vessel's identity, position, speed, heading and other parameters to improve maritime domain awareness. However, AIS information can be programmatically spoofed by terrorists or other criminals, who often choose to masquerade as innocent civilians and exploit the vulnerabilities of military and civilian infrastructures for their purposes. Therefore, detecting and localizing a spoofing AIS ship become a critical and challenging issue for maritime security. This paper presents an algorithm to detect and geolocalize a spoofing AIS emitter using space-based AIS signals with its Doppler frequency. With an AIS signal sensor on a fast orbiting satellite, the measured AIS Doppler frequency of an AIS emitter can be used to define a double-napped cone of which the satellite is at its vertex and satellite velocity coincides with its axis, such that the theoretical Doppler frequency derived from the radial velocity to the AIS emitter matches the measured Doppler frequency. All such matches can only lie on either cone extending out from the satellite, which cuts the Earth's surface in two curves, so we know that the AIS emitter must lie somewhere on these curves. Two such AIS Doppler frequency measurements for the same stationary AIS emitter produce two valid curves which intersect at the position of the AIS emitter. Multiple Doppler frequency measurements can be used to better estimate the position fix of an AIS emitter, hence determine the spoofing AIS ship if the estimated position fix unreasonably differs from the position carried in its AIS message. A set of formulas are derived which relate an AIS emitter position to its Doppler frequency measurements.

  14. Doppler and range determination for deep space vehicles using active optical transponders.

    PubMed

    Kinman, P W; Gagliardi, R M

    1988-11-01

    This paper describes and analyzes two types of laser system employing active transponders that could accurately determine Doppler and range to deep space vehicles from earth-orbiting satellites. The first is a noncoherent optical system in which the Doppler effect on an intensity-modulating subcarrier is measured. The second is a coherent optical system in which the Doppler effect of the optical carrier itself is measured. Doppler and range measurement errors are mathematically modeled and, for three example systems, numerically evaluated.

  15. Doppler and range determination for deep space vehicles using active optical transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes two types of laser system employing active transponders that could accurately determine Doppler and range to deep space vehicles from earth-orbiting satellites. The first is a noncoherent optical system in which the Doppler effect on an intensity-modulating subcarrier is measured. The second is a coherent optical system in which the Doppler effect of the optical carrier itself is measured. Doppler and range measurement errors are mathematically modeled and, for three example systems, numerically evaluated.

  16. Christian Andreas Doppler--the man and his legacy.

    PubMed

    Coman, I M

    2005-01-01

    Reminding the life and legacy of the Austrian Scientist who discovered the famous 'Doppler Effect'. C.A. Doppler was born the 29th of November 1803 in Salzburg. After studies in Linz and Vienna, he graduated in mathematics, became assistant at the University and later worked as a professor in Prague. Back to Vienna, he was appointed as professor at the Polytechnic School and --in 1850--as first director of the new Institute of Physics. C.A. Doppler did publish on magnetism, electricity, optics, and astronomy. He remains in the history of science due to the discovery presented (May 25, 1842) at the Royal Bohemian Society of Science entitled "On the colored light of the double stars and certain other stars of the heavens"; the paper described (applied to light) the shift of frequency which bears nowadays his name. The theory was later experimentally proven and--extended for any electromagnetic and acoustic waves--got myriads if applications in astronomy, physics, aviation, meteorology, and health science. Satomura in Japan (1955) published it's first ultrasound vascular application--with successive achievements in the next decades. Doppler ultrasonagraphy became the main noninvasive instrument for functional assesment of heart and vessels.

  17. Wavelet analysis of the Laser Doppler signal to assess skin perfusion.

    PubMed

    Bagno, Andrea; Martini, Romeo

    2015-01-01

    The hemodynamics of skin microcirculation can be clinically assessed by means of Laser Doppler Fluxmetry. Laser Doppler signals show periodic oscillations because of fluctuations of microvascular perfusion (flowmotion), which are sustained by contractions and relaxations of arteriolar walls rhythmically changing vessels diameter (vasomotion). The wavelet analysis applied to Laser Doppler signals displays six characteristic frequency intervals, from 0.005 to 2 Hz. Each interval is assigned to a specific structure of the cardiovascular system: heart, respiration, vascular myocites, sympathetic terminations, and endothelial cells (dependent and independent on nitric oxide). Therefore, mechanisms of skin perfusion can be investigated through wavelet analysis. In the present work, examples of methods and results of wavelet analysis applied to Laser Doppler signals are reported. Laser Doppler signals were acquired in two groups of patients to check possible changes in vascular activities, before and after occlusive reactive hyperaemia, and before and after revascularization.

  18. Applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    A major development in biomedical imaging in the last decade has been optical coherence tomography (OCT). This technique enables microscale resolution, depth resolved imaging of the detailed morphology of transparent and nontransparent biological tissue in a noncontact and quasi-noninvasive way. In the first part of this dissertation, we will describe the development and the performance of our home-made OCT systems working with different wavelength regions based on free-space and optical fiber Michelson interferometers. The second part will focus on Doppler OCT (DOCT), an important extension of OCT, which enables the simultaneous evaluation of the structural information and of the fluid flow distribution at a localized position beneath the sample surface. Much effort has been spent during the past few years in our laboratory aimed at providing more accurate velocity measurements with an extended dynamic range. We also applied our technique in different research areas such as microfluidics and hemodynamics. Investigations on the optical properties of the biological tissues (such as absorption and scattering) corresponding to different center wavelengths, have been performed in our laboratory. We used a 10 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser centered at about 810 nm associated with a free-space Michelson interferometer. The infrared sources were centered at about 1310 and 1560 nm with all-fiber interferometers. Comparative studies using three different sources for several in vitro biological tissues based on a graphical method illustrated how the optical properties affect the quality of the OCT images in terms of the penetration depth and backscattering intensity. We have shown the advantage of working with 810-nm emission wavelength for good backscattering amplitude and contrast, while sources emitting at 1570 nm give good penetration depth. The 1330-nm sources provide a good compromise between the two. Therefore, the choice of the source will ultimately determine the

  19. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines the... determine stationary body tissue characteristics, such as depth or location of tissue interfaces or dynamic...

  20. Estimation of physiological sub-millimeter displacement with CW Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Jia Xu; Xiaomeng Gao; Padasdao, Bryson E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar physiological sensing has been studied for non-contact detection of vital signs including respiratory and heartbeat rates. This paper presents the first micrometer resolution Wi-Fi band Doppler radar for sub-millimeter physiological displacement measurement. A continuous-wave Doppler radar working at 2.4GHz is used for the measurement. It is intended for estimating small displacements on the body surface resulting from physiological activity. A mechanical mover was used as target, and programmed to conduct sinusoidal motions to simulate pulse motions. Measured displacements were compared with a reference system, which indicates a superior performance in accuracy for having absolute errors less than 10μm, and relative errors below 4%. It indicates the feasibility of highly accurate non-contact monitoring of physiological movements using Doppler radar.

  1. A New Active Cavitation Mapping Technique for Pulsed HIFU Applications – Bubble Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Khokhlova, Tatiana; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; Hwang, Joo Ha; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new active cavitation mapping technique for pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) applications termed bubble Doppler is proposed and its feasibility tested in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. pHIFU therapy uses short pulses, delivered at low pulse repetition frequency, to cause transient bubble activity that has been shown to enhance drug and gene delivery to tissues. The current gold standard for detecting and monitoring cavitation activity during pHIFU treatments is passive cavitation detection (PCD), which provides minimal information on the spatial distribution of the bubbles. B-mode imaging can detect hyperecho formation, but has very limited sensitivity, especially to small, transient microbubbles. The bubble Doppler method proposed here is based on a fusion of the adaptations of three Doppler techniques that had been previously developed for imaging of ultrasound contrast agents – color Doppler, pulse inversion Doppler, and decorrelation Doppler. Doppler ensemble pulses were interleaved with therapeutic pHIFU pulses using three different pulse sequences and standard Doppler processing was applied to the received echoes. The information yielded by each of the techniques on the distribution and characteristics of pHIFU-induced cavitation bubbles was evaluated separately, and found to be complementary. The unified approach - bubble Doppler – was then proposed to both spatially map the presence of transient bubbles and to estimate their sizes and the degree of nonlinearity. PMID:25265178

  2. An elementary approach to the gravitational Doppler shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörner, C. H.; Rojas, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    In college physics courses, treatment of the Doppler effect is usually done far from the first introduction to kinematics. This paper aims to apply a graphical treatment to describe the gravitational redshift, by considering the Doppler effect in two accelerated reference frames and exercising the equivalence principle. This approach seems appropriate to discuss with beginner students and could serve to enrich the didactic processes.

  3. Doppler Processing with Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Radar Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-01

    grating lobes as compared to the conventional Doppler processing counterpart. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Doppler radar, UWB radar, matched filter , ambiguity...maps by the matched filter method, illustrating the radar data support in (a) the frequency-slow time domain and (b) the ρ-u domain. The samples...example, obtained by the matched filter method, for a 1.2-s CPI centered at t = 1.5 s

  4. Automatic extraction of disease-specific features from Doppler images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Mehdi; Parajuli, Nripesh; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2017-03-01

    Flow Doppler imaging is widely used by clinicians to detect diseases of the valves. In particular, continuous wave (CW) Doppler mode scan is routinely done during echocardiography and shows Doppler signal traces over multiple heart cycles. Traditionally, echocardiographers have manually traced such velocity envelopes to extract measurements such as decay time and pressure gradient which are then matched to normal and abnormal values based on clinical guidelines. In this paper, we present a fully automatic approach to deriving these measurements for aortic stenosis retrospectively from echocardiography videos. Comparison of our method with measurements made by echocardiographers shows large agreement as well as identification of new cases missed by echocardiographers.

  5. Velocity precision measurements using laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopheide, D.; Taux, G.; Narjes, L.

    1985-07-01

    A Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) was calibrated to determine its applicability to high pressure measurements (up to 10 bars) for industrial purposes. The measurement procedure with LDA and the experimental computerized layouts are presented. The calibration procedure is based on absolute accuracy of Doppler frequency and calibration of interference strip intervals. A four-quadrant detector allows comparison of the interference strip distance measurements and computer profiles. Further development of LDA is recommended to increase accuracy (0.1% inaccuracy) and to apply the method industrially.

  6. Superharmonic microbubble Doppler effect in ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliopoulos, Antonios N.; Choi, James J.

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of microbubbles in focused ultrasound therapies has enabled a diverse range of non-invasive technologies: sonoporation to deliver drugs into cells, sonothrombolysis to dissolve blood clots, and blood-brain barrier opening to deliver drugs into the brain. Current methods for passively monitoring the microbubble dynamics responsible for these therapeutic effects can identify the cavitation position by passive acoustic mapping and cavitation mode by spectral analysis. Here, we introduce a new feature that can be monitored: microbubble effective velocity. Previous studies have shown that echoes from short imaging pulses had a Doppler shift that was produced by the movement of microbubbles. Therapeutic pulses are longer (>1 000 cycles) and thus produce a larger alteration of microbubble distribution due to primary and secondary acoustic radiation force effects which cannot be monitored using pulse-echo techniques. In our experiments, we captured and analyzed the Doppler shift during long therapeutic pulses using a passive cavitation detector. A population of microbubbles (5  ×  104-5  ×  107 microbubbles ml-1) was embedded in a vessel (inner diameter: 4 mm) and sonicated using a 0.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (peak-rarefactional pressure: 75-366 kPa, pulse length: 50 000 cycles or 100 ms) within a water tank. Microbubble acoustic emissions were captured with a coaxially aligned 7.5 MHz passive cavitation detector and spectrally analyzed to measure the Doppler shift for multiple harmonics above the 10th harmonic (i.e. superharmonics). A Doppler shift was observed on the order of tens of kHz with respect to the primary superharmonic peak and is due to the axial movement of the microbubbles. The position, amplitude and width of the Doppler peaks depended on the acoustic pressure and the microbubble concentration. Higher pressures increased the effective velocity of the microbubbles up to 3 m s-1, prior to the onset of

  7. Superharmonic microbubble Doppler effect in ultrasound therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pouliopoulos, Antonios N; Choi, James J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of microbubbles in focused ultrasound therapies has enabled a diverse range of non-invasive technologies: sonoporation to deliver drugs into cells, sonothrombolysis to dissolve blood clots, and blood-brain barrier opening to deliver drugs into the brain. Current methods for passively monitoring the microbubble dynamics responsible for these therapeutic effects can identify the cavitation position by passive acoustic mapping and cavitation mode by spectral analysis. Here, we introduce a new feature that can be monitored: microbubble effective velocity. Previous studies have shown that echoes from short imaging pulses had a Doppler shift that was produced by the movement of microbubbles. Therapeutic pulses are longer (>1 000 cycles) and thus produce a larger alteration of microbubble distribution due to primary and secondary acoustic radiation force effects which cannot be monitored using pulse-echo techniques. In our experiments, we captured and analyzed the Doppler shift during long therapeutic pulses using a passive cavitation detector. A population of microbubbles (5  ×  104–5  ×  107 microbubbles ml−1) was embedded in a vessel (inner diameter: 4 mm) and sonicated using a 0.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (peak-rarefactional pressure: 75–366 kPa, pulse length: 50 000 cycles or 100 ms) within a water tank. Microbubble acoustic emissions were captured with a coaxially aligned 7.5 MHz passive cavitation detector and spectrally analyzed to measure the Doppler shift for multiple harmonics above the 10th harmonic (i.e. superharmonics). A Doppler shift was observed on the order of tens of kHz with respect to the primary superharmonic peak and is due to the axial movement of the microbubbles. The position, amplitude and width of the Doppler peaks depended on the acoustic pressure and the microbubble concentration. Higher pressures increased the effective velocity of the microbubbles up to 3 m s−1, prior to

  8. Technical Note: A new phantom design for routine testing of Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Grice, J V; Pickens, D R; Price, R R

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the principle and operation for a simple, inexpensive, and highly portable Doppler ultrasound quality assurance (QA) phantom intended for routine QA testing. A prototype phantom has been designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The phantom described here is powered by gravity alone, requires no external equipment for operation, and produces a stable fluid velocity useful for quality assurance. Many commercially available Doppler ultrasound testing systems can suffer from issues such as a lengthy setup, prohibitive cost, nonportable size, or difficulty in use. This new phantom design aims to address some of these problems and create a phantom appropriate for assessing Doppler ultrasound stability. The phantom was fabricated using a 3D printer. The basic design of the phantom is to provide gravity-powered flow of a Doppler fluid between two reservoirs. The printed components were connected with latex tubing and then seated in a tissue mimicking gel. Spectral Doppler waveforms were sampled to evaluate variations in the data, and the phantom was evaluated using high frame rate video to find an alternate measure of mean fluid velocity flowing in the phantom. The current system design maintains stable flow from one reservoir to the other for approximately 7 s. Color Doppler imaging of the phantom was found to be qualitatively consistent with laminar flow. Using pulsed spectral Doppler, the average fluid velocity from a sample volume approximately centered in the synthetic vessel was measured to be 56 cm/s with a standard deviation of 3.2 cm/s across 118 measurements. An independent measure of the average fluid velocity was measured to be 51.9 cm/s with a standard deviation of 0.7 cm/s over 4 measurements. The developed phantom provides stable fluid flow useful for frequent clinical Doppler ultrasound testing and attempts to address several obstacles facing Doppler phantom testing. Such an ultrasound phantom can make routine

  9. Doppler synthetic aperture radar interferometry: a novel SAR interferometry for height mapping using ultra-narrowband waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazıcı, Birsen; Son, Il-Young; Cagri Yanik, H.

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces a new and novel radar interferometry based on Doppler synthetic aperture radar (Doppler-SAR) paradigm. Conventional SAR interferometry relies on wideband transmitted waveforms to obtain high range resolution. Topography of a surface is directly related to the range difference between two antennas configured at different positions. Doppler-SAR is a novel imaging modality that uses ultra-narrowband continuous waves (UNCW). It takes advantage of high resolution Doppler information provided by UNCWs to form high resolution SAR images. We introduce the theory of Doppler-SAR interferometry. We derive an interferometric phase model and develop the equations of height mapping. Unlike conventional SAR interferometry, we show that the topography of a scene is related to the difference in Doppler frequency between two antennas configured at different velocities. While the conventional SAR interferometry uses range, Doppler and Doppler due to interferometric phase in height mapping; Doppler-SAR interferometry uses Doppler, Doppler-rate and Doppler-rate due to interferometric phase in height mapping. We demonstrate our theory in numerical simulations. Doppler-SAR interferometry offers the advantages of long-range, robust, environmentally friendly operations; low-power, low-cost, lightweight systems suitable for low-payload platforms, such as micro-satellites; and passive applications using sources of opportunity transmitting UNCW.

  10. A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.

  11. Assessment of ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter by urinary stone with color Doppler and duplex Doppler examinations.

    PubMed

    Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Falahatkar, Siavash; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin; Shekarchi, Babak; Zirak, Amin Keshavarz; Esmaeili, Samaneh

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate ureterovesical jet dynamics in obstructed ureter and to compare it with those of contralateral unobstructed side. Forty-six patients with diagnosis of ureteral stone, based on imaging findings in computed tomography were enrolled in this study. The gray-scale ultrasound exam from both kidneys and urinary bladder was performed. Then, ureterovesical jet characteristics including ureteral jet frequency, duration and peak velocity were assessed by color Doppler and duplex Doppler studies in both obstructed and unobstructed ureters by a radiologist, 15-30 min after oral hydration with 750-1,000 mL of water. When compared with contralateral normal side, the ureterovesical jet in obstructed ureter showed less frequency (0.59 vs. 3.04 jets/min; P < 0.05), shorter duration (1.24 vs. 5.26 s; P < 0.05) and lower peak velocity (5.41 vs. 32.09 cm/s; P < 0.05). The cut-off points of 1.5 jets/min, 2.5 s and 19.5 cm/s for difference of ureteral jet frequency, duration and peak velocity between obstructed and contralateral normal ureters yielded sensitivities of 97.8, 95.6 and 100 % and specificities of 87, 87.9 and 97.8 %, respectively for diagnosis of ureteral obstruction. Given the safety of Doppler study and significant differences in flow dynamics of obstructed versus unobstructed ureters, our findings demonstrated the utility of Doppler ultrasound examination as a useful adjunct to gray-scale ultrasound by improving the accuracy of ultrasound exam in diagnosis of ureteral obstruction.

  12. Spread-Spectrum Beamforming and Clutter Filtering for Plane-Wave Color Doppler Imaging.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Omar; Poepping, Tamie L; Lacefield, James C

    2016-07-21

    Plane-wave imaging is desirable for its ability to achieve high frame rates, allowing the capture of fast dynamic events and continuous Doppler data. In most implementations of plane-wave imaging, multiple low-resolution images from different plane wave tilt angles are compounded to form a single high-resolution image, thereby reducing the frame rate. Compounding improves the lateral beam profile in the high-resolution image, but it also acts as a low-pass filter in slow time that causes attenuation and aliasing of signals with high Doppler shifts. This paper introduces a spread-spectrum color Doppler imaging method that produces high-resolution images without the use of compounding, thereby eliminating the tradeoff between beam quality, maximum unaliased Doppler frequency, and frame rate. The method uses a long, random sequence of transmit angles rather than a linear sweep of plane wave directions. The random angle sequence randomizes the phase of off-focus (clutter) signals, thereby spreading the clutter power in the Doppler spectrum, while keeping the spectrum of the in-focus signal intact. The ensemble of randomly tilted low-resolution frames also acts as the Doppler ensemble, so it can be much longer than a conventional linear sweep, thereby improving beam formation while also making the slow-time Doppler sampling frequency equal to the pulse repetition frequency. Experiments performed using a carotid artery phantom with constant flow demonstrate that the spread-spectrum method more accurately measures the parabolic flow profile of the vessel and outperforms conventional plane-wave Doppler in both contrast resolution and estimation of high flow velocities. The spread-spectrum method is expected to be valuable for Doppler applications that require measurement of high velocities at high frame rates.

  13. A visual demo of the Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papacosta, Pangratios

    2010-09-01

    Most physics teachers are familiar with the standard classroom demonstration of the Doppler effect. We invite students to explain the periodic variation of the pitch produced when we swirl a sounding buzzer over our heads. Students are quick to connect this phenomenon to everyday life experiences such as listening to the sound of the siren of a fast-approaching police car or the bell of an approaching train. In addition to these aural experiences, our understanding of the Doppler effect can be strengthened with a useful visual metaphor.

  14. Real-time high-velocity resolution color Doppler OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2001-05-01

    Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT), also called Optical Doppler Tomography) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique, which allows for micron-scale physiological flow mapping simultaneous with morphological OCT imaging. Current systems for real-time endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) would be enhanced by the capability to visualize sub-surface blood flow for applications in early cancer diagnosis and the management of bleeding ulcers. Unfortunately, previous implementations of CDOCT have either been sufficiently computationally expensive (employing Fourier or Hilbert transform techniques) to rule out real-time imaging of flow, or have been restricted to imaging of excessively high flow velocities when used in real time. We have developed a novel Doppler OCT signal-processing strategy capable of imaging physiological flow rates in real time. This strategy employs cross-correlation processing of sequential A-scans in an EOCT image, as opposed to autocorrelation processing as described previously. To measure Doppler shifts in the kHz range using this technique, it was necessary to stabilize the EOCT interferometer center frequency, eliminate parasitic phase noise, and to construct a digital cross correlation unit able to correlate signals of megahertz bandwidth by a fixed lag of up to a few ms. The performance of the color Doppler OCT system was demonstrated in a flow phantom, demonstrating a minimum detectable flow velocity of ~0.8 mm/s at a data acquisition rate of 8 images/second (with 480 A-scans/image) using a handheld probe. Dynamic flow as well as using it freehanded was shown. Flow was also detectable in a phantom in combination with a clinical usable endoscopic probe.

  15. [Contrast enhanced power Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound in breast masses: Efficiency in diagnosis and contributions to differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Algül, Ali; Balci, Pinar; Seçil, Mustafa; Canda, Tülay

    2003-06-01

    To compare ability of detection of vascular structures by utilizing ultrasonographic contrast agent (Levovist) prior to and following power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) and colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and to determine useful parameters in the differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses by means of verified data. Vascularisation characteristics of 38 breast masses (22 malignant, 16 benign) which were confirmed by mammography and B-mode sonography were evaluated by both CDUS and PDUS following and prior to intravenous contrast application. In addition, Vmax and RI values of vascular structures were calculated by Doppler spectral evaluation. Malignant lesions showed more vascularity than benign lesions both with and without contrast enhancement. With both methods, by utilizing contrast agent, central, penetrating and tortuous vascular structures became more significant in malignant lesions when compared with benign lesions. PDUS was able to detect vascular structures better than CDUS; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Presence of peripheral vascularity was not useful in differentiating malignant from benign lesions. Vmax and RI values were higher in malignant lesions and the difference was statistically significant. In both methods, Vmax > 15 cm/sec and RI > 0.80 (CDUS), and RI > 0.70 (PDUS) were accepted as malignancy parameters. Vascular patterns of breast masses as determined with PDUS and CDUS with contrast enhancement and Doppler spectral examinations enabled differentiation of malignant and benign breast lesions. Thus, it is possible to decrease the number of unnecessary surgical interventions.

  16. Three-dimensional laser cooling at the Doppler limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, R.; Hoendervanger, A. L.; Bouton, Q.; Fang, Y.; Klafka, T.; Audo, K.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Clément, D.

    2014-12-01

    Many predictions of Doppler-cooling theory of two-level atoms have never been verified in a three-dimensional geometry, including the celebrated minimum achievable temperature ℏ Γ /2 kB , where Γ is the transition linewidth. Here we show that, despite their degenerate level structure, we can use helium-4 atoms to achieve a situation in which these predictions can be verified. We make measurements of atomic temperatures, magneto-optical trap sizes, and the sensitivity of optical molasses to a power imbalance in the laser beams, finding excellent agreement with Doppler theory. We show that the special properties of helium, particularly its small mass and narrow transition linewidth, prevent effective sub-Doppler cooling with red-detuned optical molasses. This discussion can be generalized to identify when a given species is likely to be subject to the same limitation.

  17. Doppler Acoustic Vortex Sensing System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-10-01

    This is the final report on the Doppler Acoustic Vortex Sensing System, (DAVSS) program carried out by Avco Corporation's Systems Division for the U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center. The objective of the program was the ...

  18. Zero Autocorrelation Waveforms: A Doppler Statistic and Multifunction Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    by ANSI Std Z39-18 It is natural to refer to A as the ambiguity function of u, since in the usual setting on the real line R, the analogue ambiguity...Doppler statistic |Cu,uek(j)| is excellent and provable for detecting deodorized Doppler frequency shift [11] (see Fig. 2). Also, if one graphs only

  19. Analysing Simple Motions Using the Doppler Effect--"Seeing" Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonawski, Tamás; Gálik, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    The Doppler effect has seen widespread use in the past hundred years. It is used for medical imaging, for measuring speed, temperature, direction, etc, and it makes the spatial relations of motion easy to map. The Doppler effect also allows GPS receivers to measure the speed of a vehicle significantly more accurately than dashboard speedometers.…

  20. Apparatus and method for noninvasive particle detection using doppler spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively detecting the presence of solid particulate matter suspended in a fluid flowing through a pipe or an oil and gas wellbore are described. Fluid flowing through a conduit containing the particulate solids is exposed to a fixed frequency (>1 MHz) of ultrasonic vibrations from a transducer attached to the outside of the pipe. The returning Doppler frequency shifted signal derived from the scattering of sound from the moving solid particles is detected by an adjacent transducer. The transmitted signal and the Doppler signal are combined to provide sensitive particulate detection. The magnitude of the signal and the Doppler frequency shift are used to determine the particle size distribution and the velocity of the particles. Measurement of the phase shift between the applied frequency and the detected Doppler shifted may be used to determine the direction of motion of the particles.

  1. Doppler ultrasound of the central retinal artery in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Sirek, Adam S; Garcia, Kathleen; Foy, Millennia; Ebert, Doug; Sargsyan, Ashot; Wu, Jimmy H; Dulchavsky, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Ocular changes have been noted during long-duration spaceflight; we studied central retinal artery (CRA) blood flow using Doppler before, during, and after long-term microgravity exposure in astronauts compared with data from a control group of nonastronauts subjected to head-down tilt (HDT). Available Doppler spectra of International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers were obtained from the NASA Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health database, along with 2D ultrasound-derived measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). CRA Doppler spectra and optic nerve sheath images were also obtained from healthy test subjects in an acute HDT experiment at 20 min of exposure (the ground-based analogue). HDT CRA peak systolic velocity in the ground-based analogue group increased by an average of 3 cm -s(-1) (33%) relative to seated values. ONSD at 300 of HDT increased by 0.5 mm relative to supine values. CRA Doppler spectra obtained on orbit were of excellent quality and demonstrated in-flight changes of +5 cm x s(-1) (50%) compared to preflight. ONSD increased in ISS crewmembers during flight relative to before flight, with some reversal postflight. A significant ONSD response to acute postural change and to spaceflight was demonstrated in this preliminary study. Increases in Doppler peak flow velocities correlated with increases in ONSD. Further investigations are warranted to corroborate the relationship between ONSD, intracranial pressure, and central retinal blood flow for occupational surveillance and research purposes.

  2. A new Doppler-echo method to quantify regurgitant volume.

    PubMed

    Wang, S S; Rubenstein, J J; Goldman, M; Sidd, J J

    1992-01-01

    An in vitro technique using color flow imaging and continuous wave Doppler was developed to measure the initial regurgitant flow jet diameter and velocity integral to yield the parameters for a volume calculation. Jets were produced by volume-controlled injection through tubes of various diameters (1.3, 1.9, 2.8, and 3.5 mm) to deliver volumes from 1 to 7 ml over 100 to 300 msec at pressures from 40 to 200 mm Hg. One hundred forty-five samples were obtained. Flow jet diameter consistently overestimated tube diameter by 2 mm when injected volume was 1.5 to 7 ml and by 1.5 mm when injected volume was less than 1.5 ml. This offset was stable with various transducers (2.5, 3.5, 5.0 MHz) at normal gain setting (just under noise). Therefore, corrected flow jet diameter (FJD) = FJD - 2 mm, and Doppler volume = corrected flow jet area x velocity integral. A range of injectates from 1.1 to 7 ml generated Doppler volume of 1.0 to 8.2 ml. The relation between Doppler volume (DV) and injected volume (IV) was DV = 1.079 IV - 0.22, r2 = 0.945, p less than 0.01. This relation was not altered by tube diameter. Thus a method combining color flow imaging and continuous wave Doppler provides a reliable and accurate measure of in vitro flow volume.

  3. Acute Effects of Lateral Thigh Foam Rolling on Arterial Tissue Perfusion Determined by Spectral Doppler and Power Doppler Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hotfiel, Thilo; Swoboda, Bernd; Krinner, Sebastian; Grim, Casper; Engelhardt, Martin; Uder, Michael; Heiss, Rafael U

    2017-04-01

    Hotfiel, T, Swoboda, B, Krinner, S, Grim, C, Engelhardt, M, Uder, M, and Heiss, R. Acute effects of lateral thigh foam rolling on arterial tissue perfusion determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 893-900, 2017-Foam rolling has been developed as a popular intervention in training and rehabilitation. However, evidence on its effects on the cellular and physiological level is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foam rolling on arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh. Twenty-one healthy participants (age, 25 ± 2 years; height, 177 ± 9 cm; body weight, 74 ± 9 kg) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. Arterial tissue perfusion was determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound, represented as peak flow (Vmax), time average velocity maximum (TAMx), time average velocity mean (TAMn), and resistive index (RI), and with semiquantitative grading that was assessed by 4 blindfolded investigators. Measurement values were assessed under resting conditions and twice after foam rolling exercises of the lateral thigh (0 and 30 minutes after intervention). The trochanteric region, mid portion, and distal tibial insertion of the lateral thigh were representative for data analysis. Arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh increased significantly after foam rolling exercises compared with baseline (p ≤ 0.05). We detected a relative increase in Vmax of 73.6% (0 minutes) and 52.7% (30 minutes) (p < 0.001), in TAMx of 53.2% (p < 0.001) and 38.3% (p = 0.002), and in TAMn of 84.4% (p < 0.001) and 68.2% (p < 0.001). Semiquantitative power Doppler scores at all portions revealed increased average grading of 1.96 after intervention and 2.04 after 30 minutes compared with 0.75 at baseline. Our results may contribute to the understanding of local physiological reactions to self-myofascial release.

  4. Doppler velocity measurements from large and small arteries of mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Madala, Sridhar; Entman, Mark L.; Michael, Lloyd H.; Taffet, George E.

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of genetic engineering, mice have become increasingly common as models of human diseases, and this has stimulated the development of techniques to assess the murine cardiovascular system. Our group has developed nonimaging and dedicated Doppler techniques for measuring blood velocity in the large and small peripheral arteries of anesthetized mice. We translated technology originally designed for human vessels for use in smaller mouse vessels at higher heart rates by using higher ultrasonic frequencies, smaller transducers, and higher-speed signal processing. With these methods one can measure cardiac filling and ejection velocities, velocity pulse arrival times for determining pulse wave velocity, peripheral blood velocity and vessel wall motion waveforms, jet velocities for the calculation of the pressure drop across stenoses, and left main coronary velocity for the estimation of coronary flow reserve. These noninvasive methods are convenient and easy to apply, but care must be taken in interpreting measurements due to Doppler sample volume size and angle of incidence. Doppler methods have been used to characterize and evaluate numerous cardiovascular phenotypes in mice and have been particularly useful in evaluating the cardiac and vascular remodeling that occur following transverse aortic constriction. Although duplex ultrasonic echo-Doppler instruments are being applied to mice, dedicated Doppler systems are more suitable for some applications. The magnitudes and waveforms of blood velocities from both cardiac and peripheral sites are similar in mice and humans, such that much of what is learned using Doppler technology in mice may be translated back to humans. PMID:21572013

  5. Analysis of Doppler Lidar Data Acquired During the Pentagon Shield Field Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    two coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to characterize the...Observations from two coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to... coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to characterize the overall

  6. [Color Doppler ultrasonography--a new imaging procedure in maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Reinert, S; Lentrodt, J

    1991-01-01

    Colour Doppler ultrasonography shows blood flow in real time and colour by combining the features of real time B mode ultrasound and Doppler. At each point in the image the returning signal is interrogated for both amplitude and frequency information. The resulting image shows all non-moving structures in shades of gray and moving structures in shades of red or blue depending on direction and velocity. The technique of colour Doppler ultrasonography and our experiences in 63 examinations are described. The clinical application of this new simple non-invasive method in maxillo-facial surgery is discussed.

  7. Uterine Artery Doppler in Screening for Preeclampsia and Fetal Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Marianna Amaral; Palmer, Kirsten Rebecca; Hodges, Ryan James; Costa, Fabricio da Silva; Rolnik, Daniel Lorber

    2018-05-01

     To perform a comprehensive review of the current evidence on the role of uterine artery Doppler, isolated or in combination with other markers, in screening for preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the general population. The review included recently published large cohort studies and randomized trials.  A search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PubMed, MeSH and ScienceDirect. Combinations of the search terms "preeclampsia," "screening," "prediction," "Doppler," "Doppler velocimetry," "fetal growth restriction," "small for gestational age" and "uterine artery" were used. Articles in English (excluding reviews) reporting the use of uterine artery Doppler in screening for PE and FGR were included.  Thirty articles were included. As a single predictor, uterine artery Doppler detects less than 50% of the cases of PE and no more than 40% of the pregnancies affected by FGR. Logistic regression-based models that allow calculation of individual risk based on the combination of multiple markers, in turn, is able to detect ∼ 75% of the cases of preterm PE and 55% of the pregnancies resulting in small for gestational age infants.  The use of uterine artery Doppler as a single predictive test for PE and FGR has poor accuracy. However, its combined use in predictive models is promising, being more accurate in detecting preterm PE than FGR. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  8. [Per partum acidosis: Interest and feasibility of cerebral Doppler during labor].

    PubMed

    Barrois, M; Chartier, M; Lecarpentier, E; Goffinet, F; Tsatsaris, V

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate feasibility and interest of fetal cerebral Doppler during labor and the link with fetal pH to predict perinatal fetal asphyxia. Our prospective study in a university perinatal center, included patients during labor. There were no risk factors during pregnancy and patients were included after 37 weeks of pregnancy. For each patient an ultrasound with cerebral Doppler was done concomitant to a fetal scalp blood sample. We collected maternal and fetal characteristics as well as cervix dilatation, fetal heart rate analysis and fetal presentation. Among 49 patients included over a period of 4 months, cerebral Doppler failed in 7 cases (11%). Majority of failure occurred at 10cm of dilatation (P=0.007, OR=14.1 [1.483; 709.1275]). Others factors like: maternal age, body mass index, parity, history of C-Section were not associated with higher rate of failure. We did not found either significant correlation between cerebral fetal Doppler and pH on fetal scalp blood sample (r=0.15) nor pH at cord blood sample (r=0.13). No threshold of cerebral Doppler is significant for fetal asphyxia prediction. Fetal cerebral Doppler is feasible during labor with a low rate of failure but not a good exam to predict fetal acidosis and asphyxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Separation of Doppler radar-based respiratory signatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Siong; Pathirana, Pubudu N; Evans, Robin J; Steinfort, Christopher L

    2016-08-01

    Respiration detection using microwave Doppler radar has attracted significant interest primarily due to its unobtrusive form of measurement. With less preparation in comparison with attaching physical sensors on the body or wearing special clothing, Doppler radar for respiration detection and monitoring is particularly useful for long-term monitoring applications such as sleep studies (i.e. sleep apnoea, SIDS). However, motion artefacts and interference from multiple sources limit the widespread use and the scope of potential applications of this technique. Utilising the recent advances in independent component analysis (ICA) and multiple antenna configuration schemes, this work investigates the feasibility of decomposing respiratory signatures into each subject from the Doppler-based measurements. Experimental results demonstrated that FastICA is capable of separating two distinct respiratory signatures from two subjects adjacent to each other even in the presence of apnoea. In each test scenario, the separated respiratory patterns correlate closely to the reference respiration strap readings. The effectiveness of FastICA in dealing with the mixed Doppler radar respiration signals confirms its applicability in healthcare applications, especially in long-term home-based monitoring as it usually involves at least two people in the same environment (i.e. two people sleeping next to each other). Further, the use of FastICA to separate involuntary movements such as the arm swing from the respiratory signatures of a single subject was explored in a multiple antenna environment. The separated respiratory signal indeed demonstrated a high correlation with the measurements made by a respiratory strap used currently in clinical settings.

  10. Power M-mode Doppler (PMD) for observing cerebral blood flow and tracking emboli.

    PubMed

    Moehring, Mark A; Spencer, Merrill P

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in location of transcranial ultrasound (US) windows and blood flow in cerebral vessels, and unambiguous detection of microemboli, have limited expansion of transcranial Doppler US. We developed a new transcranial Doppler modality, power M-mode Doppler (PMD), for addressing these issues. A 2-MHz digital Doppler (Spencer Technologies TCD100M) having 33 sample gates placed with 2-mm spacing was configured to display Doppler signal power, colored red and blue for directionality, in an M-mode format. The spectrogram from a user-selected depth was displayed simultaneously. This system was then explored on healthy subjects and patients presenting with varying cerebrovascular pathology. PMD facilitated window location and alignment of the US beam to view blood flow from multiple vessels simultaneously, without sound or spectral clues. Microemboli appeared as characteristic sloping high-power tracks in the PMD image. Power M-mode Doppler is a new paradigm facilitating vessel location, diagnosis, monitoring and microembolus detection.

  11. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  12. Fixed Delay Interferometry for Doppler Extrasolar Planet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian

    2002-06-01

    We present a new technique based on fixed delay interferometry for high-throughput, high-precision, and multiobject Doppler radial velocity (RV) surveys for extrasolar planets. The Doppler measurements are conducted by monitoring the stellar fringe phase shifts of the interferometer instead of absorption-line centroid shifts as in state-of-the-art echelle spectroscopy. High Doppler sensitivity is achieved through optimizing the optical delay in the interferometer and reducing photon noise by measuring multiple fringes over a broad band. This broadband operation is performed by coupling the interferometer with a low- to medium-resolution postdisperser. The resulting fringing spectra over the bandpass are recorded on a two-dimensional detector, with fringes sampled in the slit spatial direction and the spectrum sampled in the dispersion direction. The resulting total Doppler sensitivity is, in theory, independent of the dispersing power of the postdisperser, which allows for the development of new-generation RV machines with much reduced size, high stability, and low cost compared to echelles. This technique has the potential to improve RV survey efficiency by 2-3 orders of magnitude over the cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy approach, which would allow a full-sky RV survey of hundreds of thousands of stars for planets, brown dwarfs, and stellar companions once the instrument is operated as a multiobject instrument and is optimized for high throughput. The simple interferometer response potentially allows this technique to be operated at other wavelengths independent of popular iodine reference sources, being actively used in most of the current echelles for Doppler planet searches, to search for planets around early-type stars, white dwarfs, and M, L, and T dwarfs for the first time. The high throughput of this instrument could also allow investigation of extragalactic objects for RV variations at high precision.

  13. One way Doppler Extractor. Volume 2: Digital VCO technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility analysis and trade-offs for a one-way Doppler extractor using digital VCO techniques is presented. The method of Doppler measurement involves the use of a digital phase lock loop; once this loop is locked to the incoming signal, the precise frequency and hence the Doppler component can be determined directly from the contents of the digital control register. The only serious error source is due to internally generated noise. Techniques are presented for minimizing this error source and achieving an accuracy of 0.01 Hz in a one second averaging period. A number of digitally controlled oscillators were analyzed from a performance and complexity point of view. The most promising technique uses an arithmetic synthesizer as a digital waveform generator.

  14. Wave Field Characterization Using Dual-Polarized Pulse-Doppler X-Band Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    spectrum (frequencies higher than that associated with the wind wave peak) are similar for the buoy and Doppler, and likewise for the ultrasound array and...values of the RCS and ultrasound array relative to the buoy and Doppler are due to the formers’ larger energy levels at high frequencies. NSWCCD-50-TR...pp. 199- 203, 2008. [II] W. J. Plant, W. C. Keller, A. B. Reeves, E. A. Uliana, and J. W. Johnson, " Airborne microwave Doppler measurements of

  15. Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of midventricular obstruction in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    MacLea, H B; Boon, J A; Bright, J M

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is heterogeneous in both people and cats, with variability in the distribution of hypertrophy, hemodynamic characteristics, and Doppler echocardiographic findings. To document the Doppler echocardiographic characteristics of midventricular obstruction in some cats with HCM. Eight cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Retrospective case series. The medical records of cats presenting to the cardiology service at Colorado State University between February 2009 and January 2012 were reviewed. All cats had a physical examination; Doppler systolic blood pressure measurement; and transthoracic two-dimensional (2D), M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography were performed. A more thorough evaluation of the echocardiographic images and measurements was performed. Cats included in this study had echocardiograms of adequate quality to confirm the diagnosis of midventricular obstruction by documentation of left midventricular concentric hypertrophy; a midventricular turbulent Doppler color flow pattern; and high velocity, late-peaking flow at the area of turbulence. Cats with evidence of systemic hypertension defined as a systolic Doppler blood pressure of greater than 170 mmHg were excluded. All 8 cats had left ventricular hypertrophy at the level of the papillary muscles; left, midventricular hypertrophy; and in 4/8 cats there was apical hypertrophy or basilar hypertrophy of the interventricular septum. Color flow Doppler revealed turbulent flow in 8/8 cats and spectral Doppler (continuous and pulsed wave) revealed increased flow velocities and late-peaking flow profiles at the level of the left midventricle. Two of 8 cats had a bifid midventricular flow profile in which there was a midsystolic decline in left ventricular velocities with elevated velocities extending into early diastole. The peak left ventricular outflow velocity in all 8 cats was normal. A variant of HCM characterized by hypertrophy at the level of the papillary muscles with

  16. The Martian rotation from Doppler measurements: Simulations of future radioscience experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péters, Marie-Julie; Yseboodt, Marie; Dehant, Véronique; Le Maistre, Sebastien; Marty, Jean-Charles

    2016-10-01

    The radioscience experiment onboard the future InSight and ExoMars missions consists in two-way Doppler shift measurement from a X-band radio link between a lander on Mars and the ground stations on Earth. The Doppler effect on the radio signal is related to the revolution of the planets around the Sun and to the variations of the orientation and the rotation of Mars. The variations of the orientation of the rotation axis are the precession and nutations, related to the deep interior of Mars and the variations of the rotation rate are the length-of-day variation, related to the dynamic of the atmosphere.We perform numerical simulations of the Doppler measurements in order to quantify the precision that can be achieved on the determination of the Mars rotation and orientation parameters (MOP). For this purpose, we use the GINS (Géodésie par Intégrations Numériques Simultanées) software developed by the CNES and further adapted at the Royal Observatory of Belgium for planetary geodesy applications. This software enables to simulate the relative motion of the lander at the surface of Mars relative to the ground stations and to compute the MOP signature on the Doppler shift. The signature is the difference between the Doppler observable estimated taking into account a MOP and the Doppler estimated without this parameter.The objective is to build a strategy to be applied to future data processing in order to improve our estimation of the MOP. We study the effect of the elevation of the Earth in the sky of the lander, of the tracking duration and number of pass per week, of the tracking time, of the lander position and of Doppler geometry on the signatures. Indeed, due to the geometry, the Doppler data are highly sensitive to the position variations along the line of sight.

  17. Clutter attenuation using the Doppler effect in standoff electromagnetic quantum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In the context of traditional radar systems, the Doppler effect is crucial to detect and track moving targets in the presence of clutter. In the quantum radar context, however, most theoretical performance analyses to date have assumed static targets. In this paper we consider the Doppler effect at the single photon level. In particular, we describe how the Doppler effect produced by clutter and moving targets modifies the quantum distinguishability and the quantum radar error detection probability equations. Furthermore, we show that Doppler-based delayline cancelers can reduce the effects of clutter in the context of quantum radar, but only in the low-brightness regime. Thus, quantum radar may prove to be an important technology if the electronic battlefield requires stealthy tracking and detection of moving targets in the presence of clutter.

  18. Clinical diagnosis by transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Wyse, R. K. H.

    1982-01-01

    Transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound represents a convenient, reliable technique for the non-invasive diagnosis and assessment of a rapidly increasing number of diverse circulatory disorders. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:7050948

  19. A Doppler centroid estimation algorithm for SAR systems optimized for the quasi-homogeneous source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1989-01-01

    Radar signal processing applications frequently require an estimate of the Doppler centroid of a received signal. The Doppler centroid estimate is required for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing. It is also required for some applications involving target motion estimation and antenna pointing direction estimation. In some cases, the Doppler centroid can be accurately estimated based on available information regarding the terrain topography, the relative motion between the sensor and the terrain, and the antenna pointing direction. Often, the accuracy of the Doppler centroid estimate can be improved by analyzing the characteristics of the received SAR signal. This kind of signal processing is also referred to as clutterlock processing. A Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) algorithm is described which contains a linear estimator optimized for the type of terrain surface that can be modeled by a quasi-homogeneous source (QHS). Information on the following topics is presented: (1) an introduction to the theory of Doppler centroid estimation; (2) analysis of the performance characteristics of previously reported DCE algorithms; (3) comparison of these analysis results with experimental results; (4) a description and performance analysis of a Doppler centroid estimator which is optimized for a QHS; and (5) comparison of the performance of the optimal QHS Doppler centroid estimator with that of previously reported methods.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of B-mode USG and Doppler Scan for Ovarian Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vinish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasonography (USG) is considered as the primary imaging modality for confirmation of ovarian mass and to differentiate them in to benign or malignant. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate accuracy of B- mode USG and Doppler scan (Colour Doppler + Spectral Doppler) for ovarian lesions. Materials and Methods The patients included in the study were from those referred with either palpable adnexal mass or incidentally detected adnexal masses. Total 250 women were evaluated by USG, Doppler scan. Only fifty patients who had true ovarian mass intraoperatively and on histopathology were included in study, rest masses were excluded. Study parameters were morphological indexing on B- Mode USG, flow study, vessel arrangement, and vessel morphology and vessel location in Colour Doppler and resistive index and pulsatility index in spectral Doppler. Results Total 50 women were included in present study. Out of these 46% were pre-menopausal while 54% were menopaused women, 66.7% of post-menopausal women had malignant ovarian masses compared to 8.7% of premenopausal. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of B-Mode USG for ovarian masses were 94.44%, 48.15%, 54.84% and 92.86% respectively, with p-value = 0.007, while sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler scan were 85%, 90%, 85% and 90% respectively, with p-value = 0.0001. Conclusion USG and its different techniques are accepted as the primary imaging modality for early stage diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy. Statistical analysis suggests that Doppler Scan (Colour + Spectral) was more accurate (88%) than B-Mode USG (67%), but author is in view that both of these modalities should be used in conjunction to screen the ovarian lesions. PMID:27790544

  1. [Doppler echocardiography of tricuspid insufficiency. Methods of quantification].

    PubMed

    Loubeyre, C; Tribouilloy, C; Adam, M C; Mirode, A; Trojette, F; Lesbre, J P

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of tricuspid incompetence has benefitted considerably from the development of Doppler ultrasound. In addition to direct analysis of the valves, which provides information about the mechanism involved, this method is able to provide an accurate evaluation, mainly through use of the Doppler mode. In addition to new criteria being evaluated (mainly the convergence zone of the regurgitant jet), some indices are recognised as good quantitative parameters: extension of the regurgitant jet into the right atrium, anterograde tricuspid flow, laminar nature of the regurgitant flow, analysis of the flow in the supra-hepatic veins, this is only semi-quantitative, since the calculation of the regurgitation fraction from the pulsed Doppler does not seem to be reliable; This accurate semi-quantitative evaluation is made possible by careful and consistent use of all the criteria available. The authors set out to discuss the value of the various evaluation criteria mentioned in the literature and try to define a practical approach.

  2. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution for Wideband Terahertz Radar Using Intra-Pulse Interference

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Qin, Yuliang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; You, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Micro-Doppler, induced by micro-motion of targets, is an important characteristic of target recognition once extracted via parameter estimation methods. However, micro-Doppler is usually too significant to result in ambiguity in the terahertz band because of its relatively high carrier frequency. Thus, a micro-Doppler ambiguity resolution method for wideband terahertz radar using intra-pulse interference is proposed in this paper. The micro-Doppler can be reduced several dozen times its true value to avoid ambiguity through intra-pulse interference processing. The effectiveness of this method is proved by experiments based on a 0.22 THz wideband radar system, and its high estimation precision and excellent noise immunity are verified by Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:28468257

  3. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution for Wideband Terahertz Radar Using Intra-Pulse Interference.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Qin, Yuliang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; You, Peng

    2017-04-29

    Micro-Doppler, induced by micro-motion of targets, is an important characteristic of target recognition once extracted via parameter estimation methods. However, micro-Doppler is usually too significant to result in ambiguity in the terahertz band because of its relatively high carrier frequency. Thus, a micro-Doppler ambiguity resolution method for wideband terahertz radar using intra-pulse interference is proposed in this paper. The micro-Doppler can be reduced several dozen times its true value to avoid ambiguity through intra-pulse interference processing. The effectiveness of this method is proved by experiments based on a 0.22 THz wideband radar system, and its high estimation precision and excellent noise immunity are verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Junghwan; Milner, Thomas E; Nelson, J Stuart

    2007-01-24

    We introduce a novel approach for imaging solutions of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography (MM-ODT). MM-ODT combines an externally applied temporally oscillating high-strength magnetic field with ODT to detect nanoparticles flowing through a microfluidic channel. A solenoid with a cone-shaped ferrite core extensively increased the magnetic field strength (B(max) = 1 T, [Formula: see text]) at the tip of the core and also focused the magnetic field in microfluidic channels containing nanoparticle solutions. Nanoparticle contrast was demonstrated in a microfluidic channel filled with an SPIO solution by imaging the Doppler frequency shift which was observed independently of the nanoparticle flow rate and direction. Results suggest that MM-ODT may be applied to image Doppler shift of SPIO nanoparticles in microfluidic flows with high contrast.

  5. Application of non-coherent Doppler data types for deep space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam

    1995-01-01

    Recent improvements in computational capability and Deep Space Network technology have renewed interest in examining the possibility of using one-way Doppler data alone to navigate interplanetary spacecraft. The one-way data can be formulated as the standard differenced-count Doppler or as phase measurements, and the data can be received at a single station or differenced if obtained simultaneously at two stations. A covariance analysis is performed which analyzes the accuracy obtainable by combinations of one-way Doppler data and compared with similar results using standard two-way Doppler and range. The sample interplanetary trajectory used was that of the Mars Pathfinder mission to Mars. It is shown that differenced one-way data is capable of determining the angular position of the spacecraft to fairly high accuracy, but has relatively poor sensitivity to the range. When combined with single station data, the position dispersions are roughly an order of magnitude larger in range and comparable in angular position as compared to dispersions obtained with standard data two-way types. It was also found that the phase formulation is less sensitive to data weight variations and data coverage than the differenced-count Doppler formulation.

  6. The application of noncoherent Doppler data types for Deep Space Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, S.

    1995-01-01

    Recent improvements in computational capability and DSN technology have renewed interest in examining the possibility of using one-way Doppler data alone to navigate interplanetary spacecraft. The one-way data can be formulated as the standard differenced-count Doppler or as phase measurements, and the data can be received at a single station or differenced if obtained simultaneously at two stations. A covariance analysis, which analyzes the accuracy obtainable by combinations of one-way Doppler data, is performed and compared with similar results using standard two-way Doppler and range. The sample interplanetary trajectory used was that of the Mars Pathfinder mission to Mars. It is shown that differenced one-way data are capable of determining the angular position of the spacecraft to fairly high accuracy, but have relatively poor sensitivity to the range. When combined with single-station data, the position dispersions are roughly an order of magnitude larger in range and comparable in angular position as compared to dispersions obtained with standard two-way data types. It was also found that the phase formulation is less sensitive to data weight variations and data coverage than the differenced-count Doppler formulation.

  7. A Comprehensive Radial Velocity Error Budget for Next Generation Doppler Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Samuel; Ryan, Terrien; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Roy, Arpita; Bender, Chad; Stefansson, Guomundur Kari; Monson, Andrew; Levi, Eric; Hearty, Fred; Blake, Cullen; hide

    2016-01-01

    We describe a detailed radial velocity error budget for the NASA-NSF Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrometer instrument concept NEID (NN-explore Exoplanet Investigations with Doppler spectroscopy). Such an instrument performance budget is a necessity for both identifying the variety of noise sources currently limiting Doppler measurements, and estimating the achievable performance of next generation exoplanet hunting Doppler spectrometers. For these instruments, no single source of instrumental error is expected to set the overall measurement floor. Rather, the overall instrumental measurement precision is set by the contribution of many individual error sources. We use a combination of numerical simulations, educated estimates based on published materials, extrapolations of physical models, results from laboratory measurements of spectroscopic subsystems, and informed upper limits for a variety of error sources to identify likely sources of systematic error and construct our global instrument performance error budget. While natively focused on the performance of the NEID instrument, this modular performance budget is immediately adaptable to a number of current and future instruments. Such an approach is an important step in charting a path towards improving Doppler measurement precisions to the levels necessary for discovering Earth-like planets.

  8. Carotid Doppler ultrasound findings in patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Cervini, Patrick; Park, Soon J; Shah, Dipesh K; Penev, Irina E; Lewis, Bradley D

    2010-12-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been used to treat advanced heart failure refractory to medical management, as bridge therapy to myocardial recovery, as bridge therapy to cardiac transplantation, or as destination therapy for patients with unfavorable transplant candidacy. Neurologic complications are some of the most common and devastating complications in these patients. Preoperative carotid ultrasound is, therefore, a standard evaluation in patients at risk for cerebrovascular disease. Postoperative carotid artery Doppler sonography is performed in those patients with neurologic symptoms. It is likely, therefore, that sonographers, radiologists, and other physicians working in a center where LVADs are implanted will likely encounter a carotid artery Doppler study in this patient group. To our knowledge, the carotid Doppler findings in these patients have never been published. We review the Doppler ultrasound findings in 6 patients after LVAD insertion.

  9. Applications of Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy for edge physics studies (invited).

    PubMed

    Martin, E H; Zafar, A; Caughman, J B O; Isler, R C; Bell, G L

    2016-11-01

    Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy provides a very powerful method to obtain detailed information about the electronic structure of the atom through measurement of the spectral line profile. This is achieved through a significant decrease in the Doppler broadening and essentially an elimination of the instrument broadening inherent to passive spectroscopic techniques. In this paper we present the technique and associated physics of Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy in addition to how one selects the appropriate transition. Simulations of H δ spectra are presented to illustrate the increased sensitivity to both electric field and electron density measurements.

  10. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    DOEpatents

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  11. Doppler-multipath tolerant voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. M.

    Line of sight communication between high performance aircraft has been found to be subject to a peculiar form of multipath radio wave propagation - Doppler multipath. It degrades analogue voice reception on the standard fit ultrahigh frequency radio, producing low frequency random noise and warbling. Various modifications were carried out on the aircraft's communications system, but the problem remained. All the evidence points to a natural phenomenon. The reported observations are corroborated by theoretical studies and laboratory simulations of multipath radio wave propagation between two points moving relative to a diffusely scattering reflector. Theoretical predictions of Rician fading have explained the disruption of speech transmitted using conventional dsb(am) modulation. This also indicated suppressing the carrier as a radical cure. Double sideband suppressed carrier radios have been developed for airborne evaluation in comparison with standard dsb(am). The air to air flying trials proved the superior performance of the suppressed carrier system under conditions of Doppler multipath.

  12. Turbulence as observed by concurrent measurements made at NSSL using weather radar, Doppler radar, Doppler lidar and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jean T.

    1987-01-01

    As air traffic increases and aircraft capability increases in range and operating altitude, the exposure to weather hazards increases. Turbulence and wind shears are two of the most important of these hazards that must be taken into account if safe flight operations are to be accomplished. Beginning in the early 1960's, Project Rough Rider began thunderstorm investigations. Past and present efforts at the National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) to measure these flight safety hazards and to describe the use of Doppler radar to detect and qualify these hazards are summarized. In particular, the evolution of the Doppler-measured radial velocity spectrum width and its applicability to the problem of safe flight is presented.

  13. High-definition flow Doppler ultrasonographic technique to assess hepatic vasculature compared with color or power Doppler ultrasonography: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a new high-definition flow (HDF) Doppler technique and to compare its performance with those of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) for assessment of hepatic vasculature in native and transplanted livers. High-definition flow was invented as a high-resolution bidirectional PDU technique. We obtained CDU, PDU, and HDF images of the hepatic artery (HA), portal vein (PV), and hepatic vein from 60 patients. They were divided into 2 groups: a liver transplantation group (group 1, n = 10) and a native liver group (group 2, n = 50). Two radiologists independently reviewed the cine images and graded them using a 4-point scale in terms of the clarity of the vessel margin and degree of depiction of the HA, flow filling, and flash artifacts. The degree of differentiation between the HA and PV was also evaluated. Flow directionality was recorded, and interobserver agreement was finally analyzed. Moderate to almost perfect agreement was achieved between radiologists for all parameters of each ultrasonographic technique. High-definition flow was significantly superior to both CDU and PDU with respect to all analyzed items except the degree of flash artifacts (P < .05). With regard to flash artifacts, CDU was significantly better than either PDU or HDF. High-definition flow provided directional information, as did CDU. The HDF technique provides better resolution for depicting hepatic vessels as well as their margins with less blooming compared with conventional Doppler ultrasonography in both native and transplanted liver. It also provides solid directional flow information. One point of concern, however, is the frequency of flash artifacts compared with that on CDU.

  14. Development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar for measuring middle atmosphere winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, K.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    Interpretation of most of the middle and upper atmospheric dynamical and chemical data relies on the climatological description of the wind field Rayleigh Doppler lidar is one instrument which monitors wind profiles continuously though continuity is limited to clear meteorological conditions in the middle atmosphere A Doppler wind lidar operating in incoherent mode gives excellent wind and temperature information at these altitudes with necessary spectral sensitivity It observes atmospheric winds by measuring the spectral shift of the scattered light due to the motions of atmospheric molecules with background winds and temperature by spectral broadening The presentation is about the design and development of Incoherent Doppler lidar to obtain wind information in the height regions of 30-65 km The paper analyses and describes various types of techniques that can be adopted viz Edge technique and Fringe Imaging technique The paper brings out the scientific objectives configuration simulations error sources and technical challenges involved in the development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar The presentation also gives a novel technique for calibrating the lidar

  15. Laser Doppler anemometer signal processing for blood flow velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdova, M A; Fedosov, I V; Tuchin, V V

    A new method for analysing the signal in a laser Doppler anemometer based on the differential scheme is proposed, which provides the flow velocity measurement in strongly scattering liquids, particularly, blood. A laser Doppler anemometer intended for measuring the absolute blood flow velocity in animal and human near-surface arterioles and venules is developed. The laser Doppler anemometer signal structure is experimentally studied for measuring the flow velocity in optically inhomogeneous media, such as blood and suspensions of scattering particles. The results of measuring the whole and diluted blood flow velocity in channels with a rectangular cross section are presented. (lasermore » applications and other topics in quantum electronics)« less

  16. Arterial and Venous Doppler in Evaluation of the "At-Risk" Fetus.

    PubMed

    Turan, Sifa; Turan, Ozhan M

    2017-09-01

    Our practice utilizes Doppler ultrasound as one of the most objective and effective methods to assess at-risk pregnancies. This review will discuss the application of arterial and venous Doppler techniques in assessing and managing various diseases and conditions for high-risk fetuses.

  17. Dual-Doppler lidar observation of horizontal convective rolls and near-surface streaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Hironori; Ishii, Shoken; Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Mizutani, Kohei; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Itabe, Toshikazu; Yamada, Izumi; Matayoshi, Naoki; Matsushima, Dai; Weiming, Sha; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2008-07-01

    Dual-Doppler lidar and heliborne sensors were used to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the wind field over Sendai Airport in June 2007. The 3D structures of several-hundred-meter-scale horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) in the sea-breeze layer were observed by the dual-Doppler lidar. The scale of the HCRs determined by the heliborne sensors roughly agreed with that determined by the dual-Doppler lidar. Analysis of the dual-Doppler lidar data showed that the region of upward flow in the HCRs originated in near-surface low-speed streaks. This structure is consistent with the results of large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer. The aspect ratios of the HCRs were close to those predicted by linear theories.

  18. African Doppler Surveys (ADOS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    UP TO 31 MARCH 1983 MAILING DATE: 11 APRIL 1983 SURVEY STATUS DATA STATUSDOPPLER STATION L1 OR1ATION - ______(hte 1,(Whether data dis- GEOD . TIES...SURVEY STATUS DTA STATUS DOPPLER STATION INFORMATION (Whet~her data dia- GEOD . TIES patched to...data dis- GEOD . TIES patched to COUNThY STATION NAME APPROXIMAT OPPLER designated CODE AND ADOS NO. SZION ()outh Comp. Center) COORDINATES fin- Yes

  19. Applications of Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy for edge physics studies (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E. H., E-mail: martineh@ornl.gov; Caughman, J. B. O.; Isler, R. C.

    Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy provides a very powerful method to obtain detailed information about the electronic structure of the atom through measurement of the spectral line profile. This is achieved through a significant decrease in the Doppler broadening and essentially an elimination of the instrument broadening inherent to passive spectroscopic techniques. In this paper we present the technique and associated physics of Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy in addition to how one selects the appropriate transition. Simulations of H{sub δ} spectra are presented to illustrate the increased sensitivity to both electric field and electron density measurements.

  20. Reversal of orbital angular momentum arising from an extreme Doppler shift

    PubMed Central

    Toninelli, Ermes; Horsley, Simon A. R.; Hendry, Euan; Phillips, David B.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2018-01-01

    The linear Doppler shift is familiar as the rise and fall in pitch of a siren as it passes by. Less well known is the rotational Doppler shift, proportional to the rotation rate between source and receiver, multiplied by the angular momentum carried by the beam. In extreme cases the Doppler shift can be larger than the rest-frame frequency and for a red shift, the observed frequency then becomes “negative.” In the linear case, this effect is associated with the time reversal of the received signal, but it can be observed only with supersonic relative motion between the source and receiver. However, the rotational case is different; if the radius of rotation is smaller than the wavelength, then the velocities required to observe negative frequencies are subsonic. Using an acoustic source at ≈100 Hz we create a rotational Doppler shift larger than the laboratory-frame frequency. We observe that once the red-shifted wave passes into the “negative frequency” regime, the angular momentum associated with the sound is reversed in sign compared with that of the laboratory frame. These low-velocity laboratory realizations of extreme Doppler shifts have relevance to superoscillatory fields and offer unique opportunities to probe interactions with rotating bodies and aspects of pseudorelativistic frame translation. PMID:29581257

  1. Prostate: techniques, results, and potential applications of color Doppler US scanning.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, M D; Sudakoff, G S; Alexander, A A

    1993-02-01

    Color Doppler ultrasound (US) scanning and conventional endorectal gray-scale US of the prostate were performed in 619 patients. Pathologic correlation was available in all cases after US-guided transrectal biopsy. There were 132 cancers in 121 men, 13 foci of atypia in 10 men, 33 foci of inflammation in 31 men, and 469 benign lesions in 457 men. Two hundred seventy patients with abnormal areas of flow identified at color Doppler scanning also underwent spectral waveform analysis of the area of potential concern. No statistical difference in the mean resistive indexes was identified in any patient (P = .25; Scheffe F test, analysis of variance). All malignant lesions had abnormalities demonstrated at gray-scale US and/or focal or diffuse abnormal flow demonstrated at color Doppler scanning. Of the 132 cancers, 123 (93%) had corresponding gray-scale abnormalities and 114 (86%) demonstrated abnormal flow at color Doppler imaging. Nine of the 132 cancers (7%) had no obviously identifiable abnormality at gray-scale scanning but had distinctly abnormal flow at color Doppler scanning. Abnormal findings at color scanning without abnormal findings at gray-scale scanning occurred in eight of the 33 cases of inflammatory foci (24%) and in 24 of the 469 (5%) benign lesions.

  2. Doppler sonography characteristics of vertebrobasilar circulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Mirjana; Sinanović, Osman; Smajlović, Dzevdet; Burina, Adnan; Hudić, Josip

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the doppler sonography findings of vertebrobasilar circulation (VB) in patients with Parkinson's disease. 40 patients were analyzed (25 men's and 15 women) with Parkinson's disease, average age was 61.9 years (SD=11.43), treated at the Clinic for Neurology in Tuzla. Device for doppler sonography was Multidop x 4. Doppler sonography findings of VB circulation were analyzed in order to computerized tomography (CT) findings of the brain (with or without ischemic lacunar lesions) and in order to presence of postural disturbances as one of dominant Parkinson's disease symptoms during actual hospitalization. Our results suggest that vertebrobasilar insufficiency is more frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease (no matter of type) and postural disturbances as a dominant symptom comparing to group of Parkinson's disease patients without postural disturbances. These results implicate the importance of doppler sonography findings of vertebrobasilar circulation in patients with Parkinson's disease and possibility of considering role of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in development of postural disturbances.

  3. Doppler-corrected Balmer spectroscopy of Rydberg positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. C. L.; Hisakado, T. H.; Goldman, H. J.; Tom, H. W. K.; Mills, A. P.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2014-07-01

    The production of long-lived Rydberg positronium (Ps) and correction for Doppler shifts in the excitation laser frequencies are crucial elements of proposed measurements of the gravitational freefall of antimatter and for precision measurements of the optical spectrum of Ps. Using a two-step optical transition via 2P levels, we have prepared Ps atoms in Rydberg states up to the term limit. The spectra are corrected for the first-order Doppler shift using measured velocities, and the Balmer transitions are resolved for 15≤n≤31. The excitation signal amplitude begins to decrease for n >50, consistent with the onset of motional electric field ionization in the 3.5-mT magnetic field at the Ps formation target.

  4. Analysis of placenta vascularization in patients with uterine altered artery Doppler flow velocity exams.

    PubMed

    Gilio, Daniel Bruno; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa; Souza de Oliveira Guimarães, Camila; Peres, Luiz Cesar; Marques Salge, Ana Karina; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Costa da Cunha Castro, Eumenia

    2009-08-01

    One of the frequent questions in obstetric practice is to determine placental vascular changes that may account for abnormal Doppler flow velocity alterations in maternal uterine vessels from women and fetuses without pregnancy pathology. A retrospective morphometric study was realized using 27 placentas from patients submitted for Doppler flow velocity exam during pregnancy. The placentas were morphologically examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Measurements of villi were made with the use of a video camera coupled to a common light microscope and a computer with automatic image analyzing software. Of the 27 placentas, 13 (48%) were of patients showing unaltered Doppler and 14 (52%) showing altered Doppler. The number of stem villi vessels was significantly larger in the placentas of patients with Doppler exam alterations (P = 0.003). This group also presented greater stem villi vessel thickness, although without significant difference. The number of intermediary and terminal villi vessels was greater in the placentas of patients with altered Doppler exams (P < 0.001), and a greater terminal villi area was observed in these cases (P < 0.001). The morphological proof that uterine artery Doppler flow velocity exam alterations are associated with placental vascular alterations demonstrates the importance of this exam during prenatal care, even in the absence of maternal-fetal alterations.

  5. Modeling and processing of laser Doppler reactive hyperaemia signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau, Anne; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huiller, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry is a non-invasive method used in the medical domain to monitor the microvascular blood cell perfusion through tissue. Most commercial laser Doppler flowmeters use an algorithm calculating the first moment of the power spectral density to give the perfusion value. Many clinical applications measure the perfusion after a vascular provocation such as a vascular occlusion. The response obtained is then called reactive hyperaemia. Target pathologies include diabetes, hypertension and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. In order to have a deeper knowledge on reactive hyperaemia acquired by the laser Doppler technique, the present work first proposes two models (one analytical and one numerical) of the observed phenomenon. Then, a study on the multiple scattering between photons and red blood cells occurring during reactive hyperaemia is carried out. Finally, a signal processing that improves the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases is presented.

  6. Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Miura, Masahiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Iwasaki, Takuya; Goto, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the 3-dimensional architecture of neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy using Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. Seventeen eyes of 14 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were prospectively studied. Prototype Doppler OCT was used to evaluate the 3-dimensional vascular architecture at vitreoretinal adhesions. Proliferative membranes were detected in all eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy by standard OCT images. Doppler OCT images detected blood flow by neovascularization of the disc in 12 eyes and neovascularization elsewhere in 11 eyes. Doppler OCT images showed the 3-dimensional extent of new vessels at various stages of neovascularization, and the extent of new vessels could be clearly confirmed at vitreoretinal adhesions. Doppler OCT is useful for the detection and evaluation of the 3-dimensional vascular structure of neovascularization, and can assist in the noninvasive assessment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of arteriovenous fistulas and pseudoaneurysms in renal allografts following percutaneous needle biopsy. Color-coded Doppler sonography versus duplex Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Hübsch, P J; Mostbeck, G; Barton, P P; Gritzmann, N; Fruehwald, F X; Schurawitzki, H; Kovarik, J

    1990-02-01

    One hundred one patients with renal allografts were studied by two independent observers using duplex Doppler sonography (DDS) and color-coded Doppler sonography (CCDS). In all patients, single or multiple percutaneous needle biopsies of the transplant had been performed 1 to 30 days before. In 6 patients CCDS following the biopsy demonstrated an area of combined red and blue color-coded blood flow within the renal parenchyma (n = 5) or within the sinus (n = 1); the Doppler waveform was abnormal in these areas with signals above and below the zero line indicating turbulent blood flow. Consecutive intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed the presence of an arteriovenous fistula (n = 4) or of a pseudoaneurysm (n = 2). In one patient, gross hematuria with obstruction of the bladder occurred as a complication of a pseudoaneurysm within the renal sinus; the bleeding could not be stopped by embolization of the lesion and the kidney had to be removed. DDS demonstrated the lesion in only one of the six patients. Thus, CCDS is the method of choice for noninvasive detection of vascular lesions due to percutaneous biopsy.

  8. Parametrial adipose tissue and metabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose-rich diet in normal and neonatal-androgenized adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Ortega, Hugo H; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andres; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    Hyperandrogenemia predisposes an organism toward developing impaired insulin sensitivity. The aim of our study was to evaluate endocrine and metabolic effects during early allostasis induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) in normal (control; CT) and neonatal-androgenized (testosterone propionate; TP) female adult rats. CT and TP rats were fed either a normal diet (ND) or an FRD for 3 weeks immediately before the day of study, which was at age 100 days. Energy intake, body weight (BW), parametrial (PM) fat characteristics, and endocrine/metabolic biomarkers were then evaluated. Daily energy intake was similar in CT and TP rats regardless of the differences in diet. When compared with CT-ND rats, the TP-ND rats were heavier, had larger PM fat, and were characterized by basal hypoadiponectinemia and enhanced plasma levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and leptin. FRD-fed CT rats, when compared with CT-ND rats, had high plasma levels of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), PAI-1, leptin, and adiponectin. The TP-FRD rats, when compared with TP-ND rats, displayed enhanced leptinemia and triglyceridemia, and were hyperinsulinemic, with glucose intolerance. The PM fat taken from TP rats displayed increase in the size of adipocytes, decrease in adiponectin (protein/gene), and a greater abundance of the leptin gene. PM adipocyte response to insulin was impaired in CT-FRD, TP-ND, and TP-FRD rats. A very short duration of isocaloric FRD intake in TP rats induced severe metabolic dysfunction at the reproductive age. Our study supports the hypothesis that the early-androgenized female rat phenotype is highly susceptible to developing endocrine/metabolic dysfunction. In turn, these abnormalities enhance the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Test Bed Doppler Wind Lidar and Intercomparison Facility At NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Barnes, Bruce W.; Beyon, Jeffrey; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Ji-Rong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-01-01

    State of the art 2-micron lasers and other lidar components under development by NASA are being demonstrated and validated in a mobile test bed Doppler wind lidar. A lidar intercomparison facility has been developed to ensure parallel alignment of up to 4 Doppler lidar systems while measuring wind. Investigations of the new components; their operation in a complete system; systematic and random errors; the hybrid (joint coherent and direct detection) approach to global wind measurement; and atmospheric wind behavior are planned. Future uses of the VALIDAR (VALIDation LIDAR) mobile lidar may include comparison with the data from an airborne Doppler wind lidar in preparation for validation by the airborne system of an earth orbiting Doppler wind lidar sensor.

  10. Tissue Doppler imaging and echo-Doppler findings associated with a mitral valve stenosis with an immobile posterior valve leaflet in a bull terrier.

    PubMed

    Tidholm, A; Nicolle, A P; Carlos, C; Gouni, V; Caruso, J L; Pouchelon, J L; Chetboul, V

    2004-04-01

    A mitral valve stenosis was diagnosed in a 2-year-old female Bull Terrier by use of two-dimensional (2-D) and M-mode echocardiography, colour-flow imaging and spectral Doppler examinations. Tissue Doppler Imaging was also performed to assess the segmental radial myocardial motion. The mitral valve stenosis was characterized by a decreased mitral orifice area/left ventricle area ratio (0.14), an increased early diastolic flow velocity (E wave = 1.9 m/s), a prolonged pressure half-time (106 ms) and a decreased E-F slope (4.5 cm/s) on pulsed-wave Doppler examination. This mitral stenosis was associated with an immobile posterior leaflet, as seen on 2-D and M-mode echocardiography. Immobility of the posterior mitral leaflet is considered to be a rare finding in humans and, to our knowledge, has not been precisely documented in dogs with mitral valve stenosis.

  11. [Spectral-Doppler-Sonography - Step by Step].

    PubMed

    Bönhof, Leoni; Steffgen, Ludwig; Bönhof, Jörg

    2018-06-07

    Step by step explanation and detailed overview of the correct approach to spectral-Doppler-sonography, including several practical examples. The article provides comprehensive explanations of the appropriate settings in different situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A new fringeline-tracking approach for color Doppler ultrasound imaging phase unwrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Ashraf A.; Shapiro, Linda G.

    2008-03-01

    Color Doppler ultrasound imaging is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic tool for many clinical applications that involve examining the anatomy and hemodynamics of human blood vessels. These clinical applications include cardio-vascular diseases, obstetrics, and abdominal diseases. Since its commercial introduction in the early eighties, color Doppler ultrasound imaging has been used mainly as a qualitative tool with very little attempts to quantify its images. Many imaging artifacts hinder the quantification of the color Doppler images, the most important of which is the aliasing artifact that distorts the blood flow velocities measured by the color Doppler technique. In this work we will address the color Doppler aliasing problem and present a recovery methodology for the true flow velocities from the aliased ones. The problem is formulated as a 2D phase-unwrapping problem, which is a well-defined problem with solid theoretical foundations for other imaging domains, including synthetic aperture radar and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper documents the need for a phase unwrapping algorithm for use in color Doppler ultrasound image analysis. It describes a new phase-unwrapping algorithm that relies on the recently developed cutline detection approaches. The algorithm is novel in its use of heuristic information provided by the ultrasound imaging modality to guide the phase unwrapping process. Experiments have been performed on both in-vitro flow-phantom data and in-vivo human blood flow data. Both data types were acquired under a controlled acquisition protocol developed to minimize the distortion of the color Doppler data and hence to simplify the phase-unwrapping task. In addition to the qualitative assessment of the results, a quantitative assessment approach was developed to measure the success of the results. The results of our new algorithm have been compared on ultrasound data to those from other well-known algorithms, and it outperforms all of them.

  13. Feasibility of UltraFast Doppler in Post-operative Evaluation of Hepatic Artery in Recipients following Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Young; Kim, Kyoung Won; Choi, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Song, Gi-Won; Kwon, Heon-Ju; Yun, Young Ju; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of using UltraFast Doppler in post-operative evaluation of the hepatic artery (HA) after liver transplantation (LT), we evaluated 283 simultaneous conventional and UltraFast Doppler sessions in 126 recipients over a 2-mo period after LT, using an Aixplorer scanner The Doppler indexes of the HA (peak systolic velocity [PSV], end-diastolic velocity [EDV], resistive index [RI] and systolic acceleration time [SAT]) by retrospective analysis of retrieved waves from UltraFast Doppler clips were compared with those obtained by conventional spectral Doppler. Correlation, performance in diagnosing the pathologic wave, examination time and reproducibility were evaluated. The PSV, EDV, RI and SAT of spectral and UltraFast Doppler measurements exhibited excellent correlation with favorable diagnostic performance. During the bedside examination, the mean time spent for UltraFast clip storing was significantly shorter than that for conventional Doppler US measurements. Both conventional and UltraFast Doppler exhibited good to excellent inter-analysis consistency. In conclusion, compared with conventional spectral Doppler, UltraFast Doppler values correlated excellently and yielded acceptable pathologic wave diagnostic performance with reduced examination time at the bedside and excellent reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing the relativistic Doppler boost hypothesis for supermassive black hole binary candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisi, Maria; Haiman, Zoltán; Schiminovich, David; D'Orazio, Daniel J.

    2018-06-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be common in galactic nuclei as a result of frequent galaxy mergers. Recently, a large sample of sub-parsec SMBHB candidates was identified as bright periodically variable quasars in optical surveys. If the observed periodicity corresponds to the redshifted binary orbital period, the inferred orbital velocities are relativistic (v/c ≈ 0.1). The optical and ultraviolet (UV) luminosities are expected to arise from gas bound to the individual BHs, and would be modulated by the relativistic Doppler effect. The optical and UV light curves should vary in tandem with relative amplitudes which depend on the respective spectral slopes. We constructed a control sample of 42 quasars with aperiodic variability, to test whether this Doppler colour signature can be distinguished from intrinsic chromatic variability. We found that the Doppler signature can arise by chance in ˜20 per cent (˜37 per cent) of quasars in the nUV (fUV) band. These probabilities reflect the limited quality of the control sample and represent upper limits on how frequently quasars mimic the Doppler brightness+colour variations. We performed separate tests on the periodic quasar candidates, and found that for the majority, the Doppler boost hypothesis requires an unusually steep UV spectrum or an unexpectedly large BH mass and orbital velocity. We conclude that at most approximately one-third of these periodic candidates can harbor Doppler-modulated SMBHBs.

  15. Vector Doppler: spatial sampling analysis and presentation techniques for real-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capineri, Lorenzo; Scabia, Marco; Masotti, Leonardo F.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the vector Doppler (VD) technique is the quantitative reconstruction of a velocity field independently of the ultrasonic probe axis to flow angle. In particular vector Doppler is interesting for studying vascular pathologies related to complex blood flow conditions. Clinical applications require a real-time operating mode and the capability to perform Doppler measurements over a defined volume. The combination of these two characteristics produces a real-time vector velocity map. In previous works the authors investigated the theory of pulsed wave (PW) vector Doppler and developed an experimental system capable of producing off-line 3D vector velocity maps. Afterwards, for producing dynamic velocity vector maps, we realized a new 2D vector Doppler system based on a modified commercial echograph. The measurement and presentation of a vector velocity field requires a correct spatial sampling that must satisfy the Shannon criterion. In this work we tackled this problem, establishing a relationship between sampling steps and scanning system characteristics. Another problem posed by the vector Doppler technique is the data representation in real-time that should be easy to interpret for the physician. With this in mine we attempted a multimedia solution that uses both interpolated images and sound to represent the information of the measured vector velocity map. These presentation techniques were experimented for real-time scanning on flow phantoms and preliminary measurements in vivo on a human carotid artery.

  16. Observation of Doppler broadening in beta-delayed proton-gamma decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Sarah

    The Doppler broadening of gamma-ray peaks due to nuclear recoil from beta-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. The purpose of this Thesis is to test and apply this Doppler broadening method using gamma-ray peaks from the 26P(betapgamma) 25Al decay sequence. A fast beam of 26P was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a 26P beta-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect gamma rays from the 26P(betapgamma)25Al decay sequence. Radiative Doppler broadening in beta-delayed proton-gamma decay was observed for the first time. The Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613 keV gamma-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776 keV gamma ray de-exciting the 2720 keV 25Al level was observed in 26P(betapgamma) 25Al decay for the first time and used to determine that the center-of-mass energy of the proton emission feeding the 2720-keV level is 5.1 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) MeV, corresponding to a 26Si excitation energy of 13.3 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.7 (syst.) MeV for the proton-emitting level. The Doppler broadening method has been demonstrated to provide practical measurements of the energies for beta-delayed nucleon emissions populating excited states of nuclear recoils at least as heavy as A = 25.

  17. An Externally Dispersed Interferometer for Sensitive Doppler Extrasolar Planet Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Erskine, David J.; Rushford, Mike

    2002-09-01

    A new kind of instrument for sensitive Doppler extrasolar planet searches, called an externally dispersed interferometer, is described in this paper. It is a combination of an optical Michelson-type interferometer and an intermediate-resolution grating spectrometer. The interferometer measures Doppler radial velocity (RV) variations of starlight through the phase shifts of moiré fringes, created by multiplication of the interferometer fringes with stellar absorption lines. The intermediate-resolution spectrograph disperses the moiré fringes into thousands of parallel-wavelength channels. This increases the instrument bandwidth and fringe visibility by preventing fringe cross-talk between neighboring spectral lines. This results in a net increase in the signal-to-noise ratio over an interferometer used alone with broadband light. Compared to current echelle spectrometers for extrasolar planet searches, this instrument offers two unique instrument properties: a simple, stable, well-defined sinusoidal instrument response function (point-spread function) and magnification of Doppler motion through moiré fringe techniques. Since instrument noise is chiefly limited by the ability to characterize the instrument response, this new technique provides unprecedented low instrumental noise in an economical compact apparatus, enabling higher precision for Doppler RV measurements. In practice, the moiré magnification can be 5-10 times depending on the interferometer comb angle. This instrument has better sensitivity for smaller Doppler shifts than echelle spectrometers. The instrument can be designed with much lower spectral resolving power without losing Doppler sensitivity and optimized for higher throughput than echelle spectrometers to allow a potential survey for planets around fainter stars than current magnitude limits. Lab-based experiments with a prototype instrument with a spectral resolution of R~20,000 demonstrated ~0.7 m s-1 precision for short-term RV

  18. Flight Testing of the TWiLiTE Airborne Molecular Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Machan, Roman; Reed, Daniel; Cargo, Ryan; Wilkens, David J.; Hart, William; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Wake, Shane; hide

    2010-01-01

    In September, 2009 the TWiLiTE (Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment) direct detection Doppler lidar was integrated for engineering flight testing on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The TWiI,iTE Doppler lidar measures vertical profiles of wind by transmitting a short ultraviolet (355 nm) laser pulse into the atmosphere, collecting the laser light scattered back to the lidar by air molecules and measuring the Doppler shifted frequency of that light. The magnitude of the Doppler shift is proportional to the wind speed of the air in the parcel scattering the laser light. TWiLiTE was developed with funding from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (11P). The primary objectives of the TWiLiTE program are twofold: 1) to advance the development of key technologies and subsystems critical for a future space based Global 3-1) Wind Mission, as recommended by the National Research Council in the recent Decadal Survey for Earth Science [1] and 2) to develop, for the first time, a fully autonomous airborne Doppler lidar and to demonstrate tropospheric wind profile measurements from a high altitude downward looking, moving platform to simulate spaceborne measurements. In this paper we will briefly describe the instrument followed by a discussion of the results from the 2009 engineering test flights

  19. Reversal of orbital angular momentum arising from an extreme Doppler shift.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Graham M; Toninelli, Ermes; Horsley, Simon A R; Spalding, Gabriel C; Hendry, Euan; Phillips, David B; Padgett, Miles J

    2018-04-10

    The linear Doppler shift is familiar as the rise and fall in pitch of a siren as it passes by. Less well known is the rotational Doppler shift, proportional to the rotation rate between source and receiver, multiplied by the angular momentum carried by the beam. In extreme cases the Doppler shift can be larger than the rest-frame frequency and for a red shift, the observed frequency then becomes "negative." In the linear case, this effect is associated with the time reversal of the received signal, but it can be observed only with supersonic relative motion between the source and receiver. However, the rotational case is different; if the radius of rotation is smaller than the wavelength, then the velocities required to observe negative frequencies are subsonic. Using an acoustic source at [Formula: see text]100 Hz we create a rotational Doppler shift larger than the laboratory-frame frequency. We observe that once the red-shifted wave passes into the "negative frequency" regime, the angular momentum associated with the sound is reversed in sign compared with that of the laboratory frame. These low-velocity laboratory realizations of extreme Doppler shifts have relevance to superoscillatory fields and offer unique opportunities to probe interactions with rotating bodies and aspects of pseudorelativistic frame translation. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Ultrasonographic investigation of the Achilles tendon in elite badminton players using color Doppler.

    PubMed

    Boesen, Morten Ilum; Boesen, Anders; Koenig, Merete Juhl; Bliddal, Henning; Torp-Pedersen, Soren

    2006-12-01

    The most frequent injuries in badminton players are in the lower extremities, especially in the Achilles tendon. The game of badminton may be related to abnormal intratendinous flow in the Achilles tendon as detected by color Doppler ultrasound. To a certain extent, this blood flow might be physiological, especially when examined after match. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. Seventy-two elite badminton players were interviewed regarding Achilles tendon pain (achillodynia) in the preceding 3 years. Color Doppler was used to examine the tendons of 64 players before their matches and 46 players after their matches. Intratendinous color Doppler flow was graded from 0 to 4. The Achilles tendon was divided into dominant (eg, right side for right-handed players and vice versa) and nondominant side and classified as midtendon, preinsertional, and calcaneal areas. Of 72 players, 26 had experienced achillodynia in 34 tendons, 18 on the dominant side and 16 on the nondominant side. In 62% of the players with achillodynia, the problems had begun slowly, and the median duration of symptoms was 4 months (range, 0-36 months). Thirty-five percent had ongoing pain in their tendons for a median duration of 12 months (range, 0-12 months). Achillodynia was not associated with the self-reported training load or with sex, age, weight, singles or doubles players, or racket side. Forty-six players were scanned before and after match. At baseline, color Doppler flow was present in the majority of players, and only 7 (16%) players had no color Doppler flow in either tendon. After match, all players had some color Doppler flow in 1 or both tendons. Achillodynia and color Doppler flow were related in the nondominant Achilles tendon (chi-square, P = .008). The grades of Doppler flow also increased significantly after match in the preinsertional area in both the nondominant (P = .0002) and dominant (P = .005) side tendons. A large proportion of the players had experienced

  1. Automated assessment of noninvasive filling pressure using color Doppler M-mode echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Cardon, L. A.; Zuckerman, J.; Levine, B. D.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of left ventricular filling pressure usually requires invasive hemodynamic monitoring to follow the progression of disease or the response to therapy. Previous investigations have shown accurate estimation of wedge pressure using noninvasive Doppler information obtained from the ratio of the wave propagation slope from color M-mode (CMM) images and the peak early diastolic filling velocity from transmitral Doppler images. This study reports an automated algorithm that derives an estimate of wedge pressure based on the spatiotemporal velocity distribution available from digital CMM Doppler images of LV filling.

  2. Effect of Doppler flow meter position on discharge measurement in surcharged manholes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haoming; Zhu, David Z; Liu, Yanchen

    2018-02-01

    Determining the proper installation location of flow meters is important for accurate measurement of discharge in sewer systems. In this study, flow field and flow regimes in two types of manholes under surcharged flow were investigated using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The error in measuring the flow discharge using a Doppler flow meter (based on the velocity in a Doppler beam) was then estimated. The values of the corrective coefficient were obtained for the Doppler flow meter at different locations under various conditions. Suggestions for selecting installation positions are provided.

  3. Development of Point Doppler Velocimetry for Flow Field Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavone, Angelo A.; Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2006-01-01

    A Point Doppler Velocimeter (pDv) has been developed using a vapor-limited iodine cell as the sensing medium. The iodine cell is utilized to directly measure the Doppler shift frequency of laser light scattered from submicron particles suspended within a fluid flow. The measured Doppler shift can then be used to compute the velocity of the particles, and hence the fluid. Since this approach does not require resolution of scattered light from individual particles, the potential exists to obtain temporally continuous signals that could be uniformly sampled in the manner as a hot wire anemometer. This leads to the possibility of obtaining flow turbulence power spectra without the limitations of fringe-type laser velocimetry. The development program consisted of a methodical investigation of the technology coupled with the solution of practical engineering problems to produce a usable measurement system. The paper outlines this development along with the evaluation of the resulting system as compared to primary standards and other measurement technologies.

  4. Quantitative Doppler Analysis Using Conventional Color Flow Imaging Acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Karabiyik, Yucel; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Eik-Nes, Sturla H; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2018-05-01

    Interleaved acquisitions used in conventional triplex mode result in a tradeoff between the frame rate and the quality of velocity estimates. On the other hand, workflow becomes inefficient when the user has to switch between different modes, and measurement variability is increased. This paper investigates the use of power spectral Capon estimator in quantitative Doppler analysis using data acquired with conventional color flow imaging (CFI) schemes. To preserve the number of samples used for velocity estimation, only spatial averaging was utilized, and clutter rejection was performed after spectral estimation. The resulting velocity spectra were evaluated in terms of spectral width using a recently proposed spectral envelope estimator. The spectral envelopes were also used for Doppler index calculations using in vivo and string phantom acquisitions. In vivo results demonstrated that the Capon estimator can provide spectral estimates with sufficient quality for quantitative analysis using packet-based CFI acquisitions. The calculated Doppler indices were similar to the values calculated using spectrograms estimated on a commercial ultrasound scanner.

  5. Acoustic Doppler discharge-measurement system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Michael R.; Oltmann, Richard N.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A discharge-measurement system that uses a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler has been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey. Discharge measurements using the system require a fraction of the time needed for conventional current-meter discharge measurements and do not require shore-based navigational aids or tag lines for positioning the vessel.

  6. Calibration of echocardiographic tissue doppler velocity, using simple universally applicable methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhutia, Niti M.; Zolgharni, Massoud; Willson, Keith; Cole, Graham; Nowbar, Alexandra N.; Manisty, Charlotte H.; Francis, Darrel P.

    2014-03-01

    Some of the challenges with tissue Doppler measurement include: apparent inconsistency between manufacturers, uncertainty over which part of the trace to make measurements and a lack of calibration of measurements. We develop and test tools to solve these problems in echocardiography laboratories. We designed and constructed an actuator and phantom setup to produce automatic reproducible motion, and used it to compare velocities measured using 3 echocardiographic modalities: M-mode, speckle tracking, and tissue Doppler, against a non-ultrasound, optical gold standard. In the clinical phase, 25 patients underwent M-mode, speckle tracking and tissue Doppler measurements of tissue velocities. In-vitro, the M-mode and speckle tracking velocities were concordant with optical assessment. Of the three possible tissue Doppler measurement conventions (outer, middle and inner line) only the middle line agreed with the optical assessment (discrepancy -0.20 (95% confidence interval -0.44 to 0.03)cm/s, p=0.11, outer +5.19(4.65 to 5.73)cm/s, p<0.0001, inner -6.26(-6.87 to -5.65)cm/s, p<0.0001). All 4 studied manufacturers showed a similar pattern. M-mode was therefore chosen as the in-vivo gold standard. Clinical measurements of tissue velocities by speckle tracking and the middle line of the tissue Doppler were concordant with M-mode, while the outer line significantly overestimated (+1.27(0.96 to 1.59)cm/s, p<0.0001) and the inner line underestimated (-1.81(-2.11 to -1.52)cm/s, p<0.0001). Echocardiographic velocity measurements can be calibrated by simple, inexpensive tools. We found that the middle of the tissue Doppler trace represents velocity correctly. Echocardiographers requiring velocities to match between different equipment, settings or modalities should use the middle line as the "guideline".

  7. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound in Peninsular Arab Patients With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Adekile, Adekunle; Hassan, Meaad; Asbeutah, Akram; Al-Hinai, Mohamed; Trad, Omar; Farhan, Nayef

    2018-05-06

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is used to identify patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) at risk for stroke. We performed transcranial Doppler studies in patients from 4 countries in the Arabian Peninsula (Kuwait, Oman, Iraq, and United Arab Emirates) to document the prevalence of abnormal transcranial Doppler findings. The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics and studied in a steady state. Transcranial Doppler examinations were performed with standard equipment by experienced operators. The time-averaged maximum mean velocity (TAMMV) was documented in the arteries of the circle of Willis. The hemoglobin (Hb) genotype was confirmed, and the fetal Hb level and complete blood counts were determined. There were 415 patients in the study, aged 2 to 18 years (mean ± SD, 8.6 ± 3.5 years). None of the patients had an abnormal TAMMV (ie, > 200 cm/s), whereas only 13 (3.1%), all from Iraq, had conditional values (170-200 cm/s) in the right middle cerebral artery and 7 (1.7%) in the left middle cerebral artery. There were no consistent TAMMV differences among male and female patients or in patients with different Hb genotypes (sickle cell anemia, sickle cell β 0- thalassemia, and sickle D). The use of hydroxyurea was associated with a lower TAMMV, whereas a blood transfusion history had no influence. Total hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, serum bilirubin, and fetal Hb values showed varying degrees of association with the TAMMV in the different vessels. This study has demonstrated the rarity of abnormal transcranial Doppler findings among Peninsular Arab patients with SCD. The guidelines for transcranial Doppler screening in this population need further studies and recommendations. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. The Cassini/Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment: Results from the Titan Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, M. K.; Dutta-Roy, R.; Allison, M.; Asmar, S. W.; Atkinson, D. H.; Edenhofer, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Tyler, G. L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE), one of the six scientific investigations comprising the payload of the ESA Huygens Probe, is a determination of the wind velocity in Titan's atmosphere. Measurements of the Doppler shift of the S-band (2040 MHz) carrier signal to the Cassini Orbiter and to Earth were recorded during the Probe descent in order to deduce wind-induced motion of the Probe to an accuracy better than 1 m s-1. An experiment with the same scientific goal was performed with the Galileo Probe at Jupiter. Analogous to the Galileo experience, it was anticipated that the frequency of the Huygens radio signal could be measured on Earth to obtain an additional component of the horizontal winds. Specific secondary science objectives of DWE include measurements of: (a) Doppler fluctuations to determine the turbulence spectrum and possible wave activity in the Titan atmosphere; (b) Doppler and signal level modulation to monitor Probe descent dynamics (e.g., spinrate/spinphase, parachute swing); (c) Probe coordinates and orientation during descent and after impact on Titan.

  9. Airborne Doppler radar detection of low altitude windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.; Jones, William R.; Britt, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an integrated windshear program, the Federal Aviation Administration, jointly with NASA, is sponsoring a research effort to develop airborne sensor technology for the detection of low altitude windshear during aircraft take-off and landing. One sensor being considered is microwave Doppler radar operating at X-band or above. Using a Microburst/Clutter/Radar simulation program, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted to assess the performance of Doppler radars for this application. Preliminary results from this study are presented. Analysis show, that using bin-to-bin Automatic Gain Control (AGC), clutter filtering, limited detection range, and suitable antenna tilt management, windshear from a wet microburst can be accurately detected 10 to 65 seconds (.75 to 5 km) in front of the aircraft. Although a performance improvement can be obtained at higher frequency, the baseline X-band system that was simulated detected the presence of a windshear hazard for the dry microburst. Although this study indicates the feasibility of using an airborne Doppler radar to detect low altitude microburst windshear, further detailed studies, including future flight experiments, will be required to completely characterize the capabilities and limitations.

  10. Doppler ultrasound study of penis in men with systemic sclerosis: a correlation with Doppler indices of renal and digital arteries.

    PubMed

    Rosato, E; Barbano, B; Gigante, A; Cianci, R; Molinaro, I; Quarta, S; Digiulio, M A; Messineo, D; Pisarri, S; Salsano, F

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence in male systemic sclerosis (SSc) is high and its pathogenesis is unclear. The aim of the study is to assess correlation between Doppler ultrasound indices of penis and kidneys or digital arteries in male systemic sclerosis. Fourteen men with systemic sclerosis were enrolled in this study. Erectile function was investigated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5. Peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index, pulsative index, and systolic/diastolic ratio were measured on the cavernous arteries at the peno-scrotal junction in the flaccid state, on the interlobar artery of both kidneys and all ten proper palmar digital arteries. Ten (71 percent) patients have an International Index of Erectile Function-5 less than 21. Reduction of penis peak systolic velocity was observed in all SSc subjects. Doppler indices of cavernous arteries correlate with the International Index of Erectile Function-5. The renal and digital arteries resistive index demonstrated a good correlation (p less than 0.0001) with International Index of Erectile Function-5. A positive correlation exists between penis and kidney arteries Doppler indices: end diastolic velocity (p less than 0.05, r=0.54), resistive index (p less than 0.0001, r=0.90), systolic/diastolic ratio (p less than 0.01, r=0.69). A positive correlation was observed between penis and digital arteries Doppler indices: peak systolic velocity (p less than 0.01, r=0.68), end diastolic velocity (p less than 0.01, r=0.75), resistive index (p less than 0.001, r=0.79), systolic/diastolic ratio (p less than 0.05, r=0.59). A correlation exists between arterial impairment of penis and renal or digital arteries.

  11. C-band radar pulse Doppler error: Its discovery, modeling, and elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Dempsey, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The discovery of a C Band radar pulse Doppler error is discussed and use of the GEOS 3 satellite's coherent transponder to isolate the error source is described. An analysis of the pulse Doppler tracking loop is presented and a mathematical model for the error was developed. Error correction techniques were developed and are described including implementation details.

  12. Photodetachment and Doppler laser cooling of anionic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Sebastian; Fesel, Julian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    We propose to extend laser-cooling techniques, so far only achieved for neutral molecules, to molecular anions. A detailed computational study is performed for {{{C}}}2- molecules stored in Penning traps using GPU based Monte Carlo simulations. Two cooling schemes—Doppler laser cooling and photodetachment cooling—are investigated. The sympathetic cooling of antiprotons is studied for the Doppler cooling scheme, where it is shown that cooling of antiprotons to subKelvin temperatures could becomes feasible, with impacts on the field of antimatter physics. The presented cooling schemes also have applications for the generation of cold, negatively charged particle sources and for the sympathetic cooling of other molecular anions.

  13. Field trial of a Doppler sonar system for fisheries applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefsen, Cristina D. S.; Zedel, Len

    2003-10-01

    Various deployments of commercial Doppler current profiling systems have demonstrated that these instruments can detect fish and measure their swimming speeds. However, research into the possible application of Doppler sonar to fisheries problems is limited and has not taken advantage of coherent signal processing schemes. A field trial was undertaken in August 2002 to explore the capabilities of a coherent Doppler sonar when applied to detecting discrete targets. The passage of migrating salmon on the Fraser River in British Columbia provided an ideal test opportunity with fish of well-defined swimming behavior and allowed for comparisons with conventional fisheries acoustics techniques. The instrument tested was a 250-kHz sonar which provided for phase coding of transmit pulses and coherent sampling of successive acoustic returns. The field trial resulted in 11 consecutive days of Doppler sonar data acquired during the peak of the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) migration. A total of 7425 individual fish were identified and their swimming speed was measured with an accuracy of between 10 cms-1 and 20 cms-1, which depended on pulse length, pulse spacing, and target range. By comparison, water velocity measurements made with the same instrument can only achieve a theoretical accuracy of 60 cms-1.

  14. Blood flow velocity measurement by endovascular Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Nolte, Felix; Vuong, Barry; Cheng, Kyle H. Y.; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Standish, Beau A.; Courtney, Brian; Marotta, Tom R.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2013-03-01

    Blood flow velocity and volumetric flow measurements are important parameters for assessment of the severity of stenosis and the outcome of interventional therapy. However, feasibility of intravascular flow measurement using a rotational catheter based phase resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is difficult. Motion artefacts induced by the rotating optical imaging catheter, and the radially dependent noise background of measured Doppler signals are the main challenges encountered. In this study, a custom-made data acquisition system and developed algorithms to remove non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD) induced phase shift artefact by tracking the phase shift observed on catheter sheath. The flow velocity is calculated from Doppler shift obtained by Kasai autocorrelation after motion artefact removal. Blood flow velocity profiles in porcine carotid arteries in vivo were obtained at 100 frames/s with 500 A-lines/frame and DOCT images were taken at 20 frames/s with 2500 A-lines/frame. Time-varying velocity profiles were obtained at an artery branch. Furthermore, the identification of a vein adjacent to the catheterized vessel based on the color Doppler signal was also observed. The absolute measurement of intravascular flow using a rotating fiber catheter can provide insights to different stages of interventional treatment of stenosis in carotid artery.

  15. Method and system of doppler correction for mobile communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georghiades, Costas N. (Inventor); Spasojevic, Predrag (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Doppler correction system and method comprising receiving a Doppler effected signal comprising a preamble signal (32). A delayed preamble signal (48) may be generated based on the preamble signal (32). The preamble signal (32) may be multiplied by the delayed preamble signal (48) to generate an in-phase preamble signal (60). The in-phase preamble signal (60) may be filtered to generate a substantially constant in-phase preamble signal (62). A plurality of samples of the substantially constant in-phase preamble signal (62) may be accumulated. A phase-shifted signal (76) may also be generated based on the preamble signal (32). The phase-shifted signal (76) may be multiplied by the delayed preamble signal (48) to generate an out-of-phase preamble signal (80). The out-of-phase preamble signal (80) may be filtered to generate a substantially constant out-of-phase preamble signal (82). A plurality of samples of the substantially constant out-of-phase signal (82) may be accumulated. A sum of the in-phase preamble samples and a sum of the out-of-phase preamble samples may be normalized relative to each other to generate an in-phase Doppler estimator (92) and an out-of-phase Doppler estimator (94).

  16. Asymmetric micro-Doppler frequency comb generation via magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonov, Dmitry; Steinberg, Ben Z.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Electromagnetic scattering from moving bodies, being an inherently time-dependent phenomenon, gives rise to a generation of new frequencies, which can be used to characterize the motion. Whereas an ordinary motion along a linear path produces a constant Doppler shift, an accelerated scatterer can generate a micro-Doppler frequency comb. The spectra produced by rotating objects were studied and observed in a bistatic lock-in detection scheme. The internal geometry of a scatterer was shown to determine the spectrum, and the degree of structural asymmetry was suggested to be identified via signatures in the micro-Doppler comb. In particular, hybrid magnetoelectric particles, showing an ultimate degree of asymmetry in forward and backward scattering directions, were investigated. It was shown that the comb in the backward direction has signatures at the fundamental rotation frequency and its odd harmonics, whereas the comb of the forward scattered field has a prevailing peak at the doubled frequency and its multiples. Additional features of the comb were shown to be affected by the dimensions of the particle and by the strength of the magnetoelectric coupling. Experimental verification was performed with a printed circuit board antenna based on a wire and a split ring, while the structure was illuminated at a 2 GHz carrier frequency. Detailed analysis of micro-Doppler combs enables remote detection of asymmetric features of distant objects and could find use in a span of applications, including stellar radiometry and radio identification.

  17. Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt: diagnosis by color Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Kudo, M; Tomita, S; Tochio, H; Minowa, K; Todo, A

    1993-05-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt is a rare clinical entity; only 33 such cases have been reported. It may be congenital, or secondary to portal hypertension. Five patients with this disorder are presented, each of whom was diagnosed by color Doppler imaging, including waveform spectral analysis. One patient with clinical evidence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension had episodes of hepatic encephalopathy and elevated blood levels of ammonia. This patient had a large tubular shunt between the posterior branch of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Shunts of this type are considered to be collateral pathways which develop in the hepatic parenchyma as a result of portal hypertension. The other four patients had no evidence of liver disease, and all four evidenced an aneurysmal portohepatic venous shunt within the liver parenchyma. Shunts of this type are considered congenital. The diagnosis of intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts was established by color Doppler imaging, which demonstrated a direct communication of color flow signals between the portal vein and hepatic vein, in addition to the characterization of the Doppler spectrum at each sampling point from a continuous waveform signal (portal vein) to a turbulent signal (aneurysmal cavity), and finally, to a biphasic waveform signal (hepatic vein). As demonstrated by the five patients, color Doppler imaging is useful in the diagnosis of an intrahepatic portosystemic hepatic venous shunt, and the measurement of shunt ratio may be useful in the follow-up and determining the therapeutic option.

  18. Three-dimensional color Doppler imaging of the carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picot, Paul A.; Rickey, Daniel W.; Mitchell, Ross; Rankin, Richard N.; Fenster, Aaron

    1991-05-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It is caused by ischemic injury to the brain, usually resulting from emboli from atherosclerotic plaques. The carotid bifurcation in humans is prone to atherosclerotic disease and is a site where emboli may originate. Currently, carotid stenoses are evaluated by non-invasive duplex Doppler ultrasound, with preoperative verification by intra-arterial angiography. We have developed a system that uses a color Doppler ultrasound imaging system to acquire in-vivo 3-D color Doppler images of the human carotid artery, with the aim of increasing the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and decreasing the use of angiography for verification. A clinical TL Ultramark 9 color Doppler ultrasound system was modified by mounting the hand-held ultrasound scan head on a motor-driven translation stage. The stage allows planar ultrasound images to be acquired over 45 mm along the neck between the clavicle and the mandible. A 3- D image is acquired by digitizing, in synchrony with the cardiac cycle, successive color ultrasound video images as the scan head is stepped along the neck. A complete volume set of 64 frames, comprising some 15 megabytes of data, requires approximately 2 minutes to acquire. The volume image is reformatted and displayed on a Sun 4/360 workstation equipped with a TAAC-1 graphics accelerator. The 3-D image may be manipulated in real time to yield the best view of blood flow in the bifurcation.

  19. Single-photon superradiant beating from a Doppler-broadened ladder-type atomic ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Heonoh; Moon, Han Seb

    2017-12-01

    We report on heralded-single-photon superradiant beating in the spontaneous four-wave mixing process of Doppler-broadened ladder-type 87Rb atoms. When Doppler-broadened atoms contribute to two-photon coherence, the detection probability amplitudes of the heralded single photons are coherently superposed despite inhomogeneous broadened atomic media. Single-photon superradiant beating is observed, which constitutes evidence for the coherent superposition of two-photon amplitudes from different velocity classes in the Doppler-broadened atomic ensemble. We present a theoretical model in which the single-photon superradiant beating originates from the interference between wavelength-separated two-photon amplitudes via the reabsorption filtering effect.

  20. Laser Doppler Measurement of Atmopsheric Wind Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwiesow, R. L.; Abshire, N. L.; Derr, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    Our presentation consists of two parts: (1) a summary review of laser Doppler principles and applications, and (2) operational design and preliminary laboratory tests of a CO2 laser system for NOAA applications.

  1. Viking S-band Doppler RMS phase fluctuations used to calibrate the mean 1976 equatorial corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Viking S-band Doppler RMS phase fluctuations (noise) and comparisons of Viking Doppler noise to Viking differenced S-X range measurements are used to construct a mean equatorial electron density model for 1976. Using Pioneer Doppler noise results (at high heliographic latitudes, also from 1976), an equivalent nonequatorial electron density model is approximated.

  2. Method and apparatus for Doppler frequency modulation of radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, J. S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Shumate, M. S.; Seaman, C. H. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for frequency modulating radiation, such as from a laser, for optoacoustic detectors, interferometers, heterodyne spectrometers, and similar devices. Two oppositely reciprocating cats-eye retroreflectors are used to Doppler modulate the radiation. By reciprocally moving both retroreflectors, the center of mass is maintained constant to permit smooth operation at many Hertz. By slightly offsetting the axis of one retroreflector relative to the other, multiple passes of a light beam may be achieved for greater Doppler shifts with the same reciprocating motion of the retroreflectors.

  3. Feasibility assessment of Doppler radar long-term physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor M; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of applying doppler radar technique for a long-term health monitoring. Doppler radar was used to detect and eliminate periods of significant motion. This technique was verified using a human study on 17 subjects, and it was determined that for 15 out of 17 subjects there was no significant motion for over 85% of the measurement interval in supine positions. Majority of subjects exhibited significantly less motion in supine position, which is promising for sleep monitoring, and monitoring of hospitalized patients.

  4. Atmospheric laser Doppler velocimetry - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Research, development, and application of atmospheric laser Doppler velocimetry are overviewed. Consideration is given to operation principles of CO2 heterodyne systems. Global wind, pollution, V/STOL flow, and true airspeed measurements are outlined. Wind energy, dust devils, water spouts, tornadoes, and aircraft wake vortices are covered.

  5. MEMS based Doppler velocity measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Minchul

    The design, fabrication, modeling and characterization of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) based in-air Doppler velocity measurement system using a 1 cm2 planar array are described. Continuous wave operation in a narrowband was chosen in order to maximize range, as it allows for better rejection of broadband noise. The sensor array has a 160-185 kHz resonant frequency to achieve a 10 degree beamwidth. A model for the cMUT and the acoustic system which includes electrical, mechanical, and acoustic components is provided. Furthermore, characterization of the cMUT sensor with a variety of testing procedures is provided. Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), beampattern, reflection, and velocity testing characterize the performance of the sensors. The sensor is capable of measuring the velocity of a moving specular reflector with a resolution of 5 cm/s, an update rate of 0.016 second, and a range of 1.5 m.

  6. An airport wind shear detection and warning system using Doppler radar: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Blick, E. F.; Elmore, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine whether ground based Doppler radar could measure the wind along the path of an approaching aircraft with sufficient accuracy to predict aircraft performance. Forty-three PAR approaches were conducted, with 16 examined in detail. In each, Doppler derived longitudinal winds were compared to aircraft measured winds; in approximately 75 percent of the cases, the Doppler and aircraft winds were in acceptable agreement. In the remaining cases, errors may have been due to a lack of Doppler resolution, a lack of co-location of the two sampling volumes, the presence of eddy or vortex like disturbances within the pulse volume, or the presence of point targets in antenna side lobes. It was further concluded that shrouding techniques would have reduced the side lobe problem. A ground based Doppler radar operating in the optically clear air, provides the appropriate longitudinal winds along an aircraft's intended flight path.

  7. Normal Doppler velocimetry of renal vasculature in Persian cats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Cibele F; Chammas, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Renal diseases are common in older cats. Decreased renal blood flow may be the first sign of dysfunction and can be evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. But previous studies suggest that the resistive index (RI) has a low sensitivity for detecting renal disease. Doppler waveforms of renal and intrarenal arteries demonstrate decreased blood flow before there are any changes in the RI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal Doppler flowmetrics parameters of renal arteries (RAs), interlobar arteries (IAs) and abdominal aorta (AO) in adult healthy, Persian cats. Twenty-five Persian cats (13 females and 12 males with mean age of 30 months and an age range 12-60 months) with normal clinical examinations and biochemical tests and normal systemic blood pressure were given B-mode ultrasonographies in order to exclude all nephropathies, including polycystic kidney disease. All measurements were performed on both kidneys. Both kidneys (n=50) were examined by color mapping of the renal vasculature. Pulsed Doppler was used to examine both RAs, the IAs at cranial, middle and caudal sites, and the AO. The RI was calculated for all of the vessels. Early systolic acceleration (ESA) of RA and IA was obtained with Doppler spectral analysis. Furthermore, the ratio indices between RA/AO, and IA/RA velocities were calculated. The mean values of peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the diameter for AO were 53.17±13.46 cm/s and 0.38±0.08 cm, respectively. The mean RA diameter for all 50 kidneys was 0.15±0.02 cm. Considering the velocimetric values in both RAs, the mean PSV and RI that were obtained were 41.17±9.40 cm/s and 0.54±0.07. The RA had a mean ESA of 1.12±1.14 m/s(2) and the calculated upper limit of the reference value was 3.40 m/s(2). The mean renal-aortic ratio was 0.828±0.296. The IA showed PSV and RI values of 32.16±9.33 cm/s and 0.52±0.06, respectively. The mean ESA of all IAs was 0.73±0.61 m/s(2). The calculated upper limit of the reference value was 2.0m

  8. Low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in visualizing and defining fetal pulmonary venous connections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Gu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2014-07-01

    The use of low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in assessing and defining pulmonary venous connections was investigated. Study A included 260 fetuses at gestational ages ranging from 18 to 36 weeks. Pulmonary veins were assessed by performing two-dimensional B-mode imaging, color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI), and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler. A score of 1 was assigned if one pulmonary vein was visualized, 2 if two pulmonary veins were visualized, 3 if three pulmonary veins were visualized, and 4 if four pulmonary veins were visualized. The detection rate between Exam-1 and Exam-2 (intra-observer variability) and between Exam-1 and Exam-3 (inter-observer variability) was compared. In study B, five cases with abnormal pulmonary venous connection were diagnosed and compared to their anatomical examination. In study A, there was a significant difference between CDFI and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler for the four pulmonary veins observed (P < 0.05). The detection rate of each pulmonary vein when employing low-frequency high-definition power Doppler was higher than that when employing two-dimensional B-mode imaging or CDFI. There was no significant difference between the intra- and inter-observer variabilities using low-frequency high-definition power Doppler display of pulmonary veins (P > 0.05). The coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-2 was 0.844, and the coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-3 was 0.821. In study B, one case of total anomalous pulmonary venous return and four cases of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return were diagnosed by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler and confirmed by autopsy. The assessment of pulmonary venous connections by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler is advantageous. Pulmonary venous anatomy can and should be monitored during fetal heart examination.

  9. Problem of the elimination of the refractional effects in Doppler positioning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gougoutoudis, I.

    The influence of the tropospheric refraction on the Doppler positioning is discussed. It is found that the differences of coordinates resulting from the use of standard atmospheric parameters instead of real ones could amount to 0.60 m for single point positioning and 0.20 m for multilocation. The necessity of registration of the real meteorologic parameters at the Doppler station is confirmed.

  10. Doppler Ultrasound: What Is It Used for?

    MedlinePlus

    ... During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses a small hand-held device (transducer), ... neurologic-disorders/neurologic-tests-and-procedures/other-neurologic-imaging-studies. Accessed Oct. 18, 2016. ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  11. Student Microwave Experiments Involving the Doppler Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, F. Neff; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described is the use of the Doppler Effect with microwaves in the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity of falling objects. The experiments described add to the repertoire of quantitative student microwave experiments. (Author/DS)

  12. Analysing simple motions using the Doppler effect—‘seeing’ sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonawski, Tamás; Gálik, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    The Doppler effect has seen widespread use in the past hundred years. It is used for medical imaging, for measuring speed, temperature, direction, etc, and it makes the spatial relations of motion easy to map. The Doppler effect also allows GPS receivers to measure the speed of a vehicle significantly more accurately than dashboard speedometers. Its diverse applications have prompted us to revisit the simple motions from kinematics with the help of everyday objects in our experiments.

  13. Swept-source based, single-shot, multi-detectable velocity range Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Meemon, Panomsak; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2010-01-01

    Phase-Resolved Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography (PR-DOCT) allows visualization and characterization of the location, direction, velocity, and profile of flow activity embedded in a static sample structure. The detectable Velocity Dynamic Range (VDR) of each particular PR-DOCT system is governed by a detectable Doppler phase shift, a flow angle, and an acquisition time interval used to determine the Doppler phase shift. In general, the lower boundary of the detectable Doppler phase shift is limited by the phase stability of the system, while the upper boundary is limited by the π phase ambiguity. For a given range of detectable Doppler phase shift, shortening the acquisition duration will increase not only the maximum detectable velocity but unfortunately also the minimum detectable velocity, which may lead to the invisibility of a slow flow. In this paper, we present an alternative acquisition scheme for PR-DOCT that extends the lower limit of the velocity dynamic range, while maintaining the maximum detectable velocity, hence increasing the overall VDR of PR-DOCT system. The essence of the approach is to implement a technique of multi-scale measurement to simultaneously acquire multiple VDRs in a single measurement. We demonstrate an example of implementation of the technique in a dual VDR DOCT, where two Doppler maps having different detectable VDRs were simultaneously detected, processed, and displayed in real time. One was a fixed VDR DOCT capable of measuring axial velocity of up to 10.9 mm/s without phase unwrapping. The other was a variable VDR DOCT capable of adjusting its detectable VDR to reveal slow flow information down to 11.3 μm/s. The technique is shown to effectively extend the overall detectable VDR of the PR-DOCT system. Examples of real time Doppler imaging of an African frog tadpole are demonstrated using the dual-VDR DOCT system. PMID:21258521

  14. Brazilian Guidelines for transcranial doppler in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini; Leite, Ana Claudia Celestino Bezerra; dos Anjos, Ana Claudia Mendonça; Pinto, Ana Cristina Silva; Matta, Andre Palma da Cunha; Silva, Célia Maria; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini; Lange, Marcos Christiano; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Rugani, Marília Álvares; Veloso, Orlando; Moura, Patrícia Gomes; Cortez, Paulo Ivo; Adams, Robert; Gualandro, Sandra Fátima Menosi; de Castilho, Shirley Lopes; Thomé, Ursula; Zetola, Viviane Flumignan

    2011-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is the most common monogenic hereditary disease in Brazil. Although strokes are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, the use of transcranial Doppler to identify children at risk is not universally used. Objective To develop Brazilian guidelines for the use of transcranial Doppler in sickle cell disease children and adolescents, so that related health policies can be expanded, and thus contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality. Methods The guidelines were formulated in a consensus meeting of experts in transcranial Doppler and sickle cell disease. The issues discussed were previously formulated and scientific articles in databases (MEDLINE, SciELO and Cochrane) were carefully analyzed. The consensus for each question was obtained by a vote of experts on the specific theme. Results Recommendations were made, including indications for the use of transcranial Doppler according to the sickle cell disease genotype and patients age; the necessary conditions to perform the exam and its periodicity depending on exam results; the criteria for the indication of blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy; the indication of hydroxyurea; and the therapeutic approach in cases of conditional transcranial Doppler. Conclusion The Brazilian guidelines on the use of transcranial doppler in sickle cell disease patients may reduce the risk of strokes, and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients. PMID:23284243

  15. Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Post Data Processing Software DAPS-LV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor); Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable post processing of airborne Doppler wind LIDAR data. In an embodiment, airborne Doppler wind LIDAR data software written in LabVIEW may be provided and may run two versions of different airborne wind profiling algorithms. A first algorithm may be the Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR ("APOLO") using airborne wind LIDAR data from two orthogonal directions to estimate wind parameters, and a second algorithm may be a five direction based method using pseudo inverse functions to estimate wind parameters. The various embodiments may enable wind profiles to be compared using different algorithms, may enable wind profile data for long haul color displays to be generated, may display long haul color displays, and/or may enable archiving of data at user-selectable altitudes over a long observation period for data distribution and population.

  16. 3D atom microscopy in the presence of Doppler shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatullah; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of hot atoms with laser fields produces a Doppler shift, which can severely affect the precise spatial measurement of an atom. We suggest an experimentally realizable scheme to address this issue in the three-dimensional position measurement of a single atom in vapors of rubidium atoms. A three-level Λ-type atom-field configuration is considered where a moving atom interacts with three orthogonal standing-wave laser fields and spatial information of the atom in 3D space is obtained via an upper-level population using a weak probe laser field. The atom moves with velocity v along the probe laser field, and due to the Doppler broadening the precision of the spatial information deteriorates significantly. It is found that via a microwave field, precision in the position measurement of a single hot rubidium atom can be attained, overcoming the limitation posed by the Doppler shift.

  17. Non-contact physiological signal detection using continuous wave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dengyu; He, Tan; Hu, Boping; Li, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show non-contact physiological signal monitoring system based on continuous-wave (CW) Doppler radar, which is becoming highly attractive in the field of health care monitoring of elderly people. Two radar signal processing methods were introduced in this paper: one to extract respiration and heart rates of a single person and the other to separate mixed respiration signals. To verify the validity of the methods, physiological signal is obtained from stationary human subjects using a CW Doppler radar unit. The sensor operating at 24 GHz is located 0.5 meter away from the subject. The simulation results show that the respiration and heart rates are clearly extracted, and the mixed respiration signals are successfully separated. Finally, reference respiration and heart rate signals are measured by an ECG monitor and compared with the results tracked by the CW Doppler radar monitoring system.

  18. On the role of mean flows in Doppler shifted frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerkema, Theo; Maas, Leo R. M.; van Haren, Hans

    2013-04-01

    In the oceanographic literature, the term 'Doppler shift' often features in the context of mean flows and (internal) waves. Closer inspection reveals that the term is in fact used for two different things, which should be carefully distinguished, for their conflation results in incorrect interpretations. One refers to the difference in frequencies measured by two observers, one at a fixed position and one moving with the mean flow. The other definition is the one used in physics, where the frequency measured by an observer is compared to that of the source. In the latter sense, Doppler shifts occur only if the source and observer move with respect to each other; a steady mean flow cannot create a Doppler shift. We rehash the classical theory to straighten out some misconceptions and discuss how wave dispersion affects the classical relations and their application, for example on near-inertial internal waves.

  19. Verification of Wind Measurement to 450-Meter Altitude with Mobile Laser Doppler System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-12-01

    The Lockheed mobile atmospheric unit is a laser Doppler velocimeter system designed for the remote sensing of winds. The capability of the laser Doppler velocimeter accurately to measure winds to 150-meter altitude has been previously demonstrated. T...

  20. Observation of Doppler broadening in β -delayed proton- γ decay

    DOE PAGES

    Schwartz, S. B.; Wrede, C.; Bennett, M. B.; ...

    2015-09-14

    Background: The Doppler broadening of gamma-ray peaks is due to nuclear recoil from beta-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using beta-delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than A = 10. Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using gamma-ray peaks from the P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of P-26 was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a P-26 beta-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect gamma rays frommore » the P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in beta-delayed proton-gamma decay was observed for the first time. Moreover, the Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613-keV gamma-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776-keV gamma ray de-exciting the 2720 keV Al-25 level was observed in P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay for the first time and used to determine that the center-of-mass energy of the proton emission feeding the 2720-keV level is 5.1 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) MeV, corresponding to a Si-26 excitation energy of 13.3 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) MeV for the proton-emitting level. Conclusions: Finally, the Doppler broadening method has been demonstrated to provide practical measurements of the energies for beta-delayed nucleon emissions populating excited states of nuclear recoils at least as heavy as A = 25.« less

  1. [The use of intraoperative Doppler ultrasound in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery].

    PubMed

    Sharipov, O I; Kutin, M A; Kalinin, P L; Fomichev, D V; Lukshin, V A; Kurnosov, A B

    2016-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound (DUS) has been widely used in neurosurgical practice to diagnose various cerebrovascular diseases. This technique is used in transsphenoidal surgery to identify the localization of intracranial arteries when making an approach or during tumor resection. To identify the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and/or basilar artery during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, we used a combined device on the basis of a click line curette («Karl Storz») and a 16 MHz Doppler probe (Lassamed). The technique was used in 51 patients during both standard transsphenoidal surgery (23 cases) and transsphenoidal tumor resection through an extended approach (28 cases). Doppler ultrasound was used in different situations: to determine a trajectory of the endonasal transsphenoidal approach in the absence of the normal anatomical landmarks (16 cases), to define the limits of safe resection of a tumor located in the laterosellar region (7), and to implement an extended transsphenoidal endoscopic approach (28). Intraoperative Doppler ultrasound enabled identification of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery in 45 cases and the basilar artery in 2 cases; a blood vessel was not found in 4 cases. Injury to the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery was observed only in 1 case. The use of the described combined device in transsphenoidal surgery turned Doppler ultrasound into an important and useful technique for visualization of the ICA within the tumor stroma as well as in the case of the changed skull base anatomy. Its use facilitates manipulations in a deep and narrow wound and enables inspection of the entire surface of the operative field in various planes, thereby surgery becomes safer due to the possibility of maximum investigation of the operative field.

  2. Observation of Doppler broadening in β -delayed proton-γ decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S. B.; Wrede, C.; Bennett, M. B.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Bowe, A.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Cooper, N.; Irvine, D.; McNeice, E.; Montes, F.; Naqvi, F.; Ortez, R.; Pain, S. D.; Pereira, J.; Prokop, C.; Quaglia, J.; Quinn, S. J.; Sakstrup, J.; Santia, M.; Shanab, S.; Simon, A.; Spyrou, A.; Thiagalingam, E.

    2015-09-01

    Background: The Doppler broadening of γ -ray peaks due to nuclear recoil from β -delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using β -delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than A =10 . Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using γ -ray peaks from the 26P(β p γ )25Al decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of 26P was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a 26P β -decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect γ rays from the 26P(β p γ )25Al decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in β -delayed proton-γ decay was observed for the first time. The Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613-keV γ -ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776-keV γ ray de-exciting the 2720 keV 25Al level was observed in 26P(β p γ )25Al decay for the first time and used to determine that the center-of-mass energy of the proton emission feeding the 2720-keV level is 5.1 ±1.0 (stat.) ±0.6 (syst.) MeV, corresponding to a 26Si excitation energy of 13.3 ±1.0 (stat.) ±0.6 (syst.) MeV for the proton-emitting level. Conclusions: The Doppler broadening method has been demonstrated to provide practical measurements of the energies for β -delayed nucleon emissions populating excited states of nuclear recoils at least as heavy as A =25 .

  3. Current Perspectives in Hyperbaric Physiology, Ultrasonic Doppler Bubble Detection, and Mass Spectrometry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-28

    Doppler sound made by a bubble passing through the inson- ified volume blood vessel resembles a very sharp truncated whistle , chirp or click depending...the Doppler ultrasound , suffered the "slings and arrows of outrageous criticism" to borrow and beat a phrase. It is not appropriate to go into this

  4. Laser Doppler velocimetry using a modified computer mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaron, Edward D.

    2016-10-01

    A computer mouse has been modified for use as a low-cost laser Doppler interferometer and used to measure the two-component fluid velocity of a flowing soap film. The mouse sensor contains two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, photodiodes, and signal processing hardware integrated into a single package, approximately 1 cm2 in size, and interfaces to a host computer via a standard USB port. Using the principle of self-mixing interferometry, whereby laser light re-enters the laser cavity after being scattered from a moving target, the Doppler shift and velocity of scatterers dispersed in the flow are measured. Observations of the boundary layer in a turbulent soap film channel flow demonstrate the capabilities of the sensor.

  5. Ultrasonic Doppler measurement of renal artery blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Implantable pulsed Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter development has resulted in designs for application to the aortas of dogs and humans, and to human renal and coronary arteries. A figure of merit was derived for each design, indicating the degree of its precision. An H-array design for transcutaneous observation of blood flow was developed and tested in vitro. Two other simplified designs for the same purpose obviate the need to determine vessel orientation. One of these will be developed in the next time period. Techniques for intraoperative use and for implantation have had mixed success. While satisfactory on large vessels, higher ultrasonic frequencies and alteration of transducer design are required for satisfactory operation of pulsed Doppler flowmeters with small vessels.

  6. Doppler centroid estimation ambiguity for synthetic aperture radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. Y.; Curlander, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique for estimation of the Doppler centroid of an SAR in the presence of large uncertainty in antenna boresight pointing is described. Also investigated is the image degradation resulting from data processing that uses an ambiguous centroid. Two approaches for resolving ambiguities in Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are presented: the range cross-correlation technique and the multiple-PRF (pulse repetition frequency) technique. Because other design factors control the PRF selection for SAR, a generalized algorithm is derived for PRFs not containing a common divisor. An example using the SIR-C parameters illustrates that this algorithm is capable of resolving the C-band DCE ambiguities for antenna pointing uncertainties of about 2-3 deg.

  7. Feasibility of transabdominal Doppler sonography for studying uterine blood flow characteristics in cycling gilts.

    PubMed

    Herlta, Catherine; Starka, Rosa; Sigmarsson, Haukur L; Kauffold, Johannes

    2018-06-01

    To test for the feasibility of transabdominal Doppler sonography (color, power, pulse wave) to define uterine perfusion characteristics throughout the estrous cycle in gilts. A total of 15 gilts were synchronized for estrus and scanned in their following spontaneous cycle while being restrained in a purpose-designed mobile crate. To define uterine perfusion characteristics, vessels in between and within uterine cross-sections were imaged and recorded as video sequences to be analyzed by PixelFlux® software for perfused area (Amix), blood flow velocity (vmix) and intensity (Imix) as well as resistance (RIvmix) and pulsatility index (PIvmix). Color Doppler sonography proved to be the only feasible technique, as it was less affected by animal movements than power and pulse wave sonography. As determined by color Doppler sonography, all five parameters determined showed specific patterns through the estrous cycle, i. e. Amix, vmix, Imix were high in proestrus, decreased in estrus and remained low in midestrus and most parts of diestrus; RIvmix and PIvmix with inversely paralleled patterns. This study has demonstrated that transabdominal color Doppler but not power and pulse wave Doppler sonography is feasible to be performed in crate-restrained gilts for studying uterine perfusion characteristics during the estrous cycle, and that changes of uterine perfusion over the course of the estrous cycle can be clearly followed by color Doppler sonography. Results encourage the use of color Doppler sonography for studying i. e. uterine capacity or uterus related infertility such as for cases of clinically unapparent endometritis. Schattauer GmbH.

  8. 3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer.

  9. Vertical Motion Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones Determined with Airborne Doppler Radial Velocities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Micheal L.; Burpee, Robert W.; Marks, Frank D., Jr.

    1996-07-01

    Vertical motions in seven Atlantic hurricanes are determined from data recorded by Doppler radars on research aircraft. The database consists of Doppler velocities and reflectivities from vertically pointing radar rays collected along radial flight legs through the hurricane centers. The vertical motions are estimated throughout the depth of the troposphere from the Doppler velocities and bulk estimates of particle fallspeeds.Portions of the flight tracks are subjectively divided into eyewall, rainband, stratiform, and `other' regions. Characteristics of the vertical velocity and radar structure are described as a function of altitude for the entire dataset and each of the four regions. In all of the regions, more than 70% of the vertical velocities range from 2 to 2 m s1. The broadest distribution of vertical motion is in the eyewall region where 5% of the vertical motions are >5 m s1. Averaged over the entire dataset, the mean vertical velocity is upward at all altitudes. Mean downward motion occurs only in the lower troposphere of the stratiform region. Significant vertical variations in the mean profiles of vertical velocity and reflectivity are discussed and related to microphysical processes.In the lower and middle troposphere, the characteristics of the Doppler-derived vertical motions are similar to those described in an earlier study using flight-level vertical velocities, even though the horizontal resolution of the Doppler data is 750 m compared to 125 m from the in situ flight-level measurements. The Doppler data are available at higher altitudes than those reached by turboprop aircraft and provide information on vertical as well as horizontal variations. In a vertical plane along the radial flight tracks, Doppler up- and downdrafts are defined at each 300-m altitude interval as vertical velocities whose absolute values continuously exceed 1.5 m s1, with at least one speed having an absolute value greater than 3.0 m s1. The properties of the Doppler

  10. Depth-encoded dual beam phase-resolved Doppler OCT for Doppler-angle-independent flow velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Cao, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Xinjian; Mo, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography (PR-D-OCT) is a functional OCT imaging technique that can provide high-speed and high-resolution depth-resolved measurement on flow in biological materials. However, a common problem with conventional PR-D-OCT is that this technique often measures the flow motion projected onto the OCT beam path. In other words, it needs the projection angle to extract the absolute velocity from PR-D-OCT measurement. In this paper, we proposed a novel dual-beam PR-D-OCT method to measure absolute flow velocity without separate measurement on the projection angle. Two parallel light beams are created in sample arm and focused into the sample at two different incident angles. The images produced by these two beams are encoded to different depths in single B-scan. Then the Doppler signals picked up by the two beams together with the incident angle difference can be used to calculate the absolute velocity. We validated our approach in vitro on an artificial flow phantom with our home-built 1060 nm swept source OCT. Experimental results demonstrated that our method can provide an accurate measurement of absolute flow velocity with independency on the projection angle.

  11. Doppler ultrasound to detect pulpal blood flow changes during local anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M J; Lee, S J; Kim, E; Park, S H

    2012-01-01

      To examine whether Doppler ultrasound can detect changes in pulpal blood flow after infiltration anaesthesia.   Changes in pulpal blood flow in maxillary central incisor teeth of 18 patients (mean age 26.7 years, 13 men, five women) after infiltration anaesthesia were examined. Before infiltration anaesthesia, the pulpal blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasound. A local anaesthetic solution containing 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine was injected into the submucosa above the experimental tooth. The Doppler ultrasound test was carried out at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min after infiltration. The parameters were Vas (maximum linear velocity, cm s(-1) ), Vam (average linear velocity, cm s(-1) ) and Vakd (minimum linear velocity, cm s(-1) ), which are indicators of the level of blood flow. The mixed procedure at the 95% confidence interval was used to examine the changes in pulpal blood flow after the injection.   The linear velocity profiles (Vas, Vam, and Vakd) decreased sharply 5 min after anaesthesia and then reduced continuously for 30 min. The maximum degree of blood flow reduction in Vas, Vam and Vakd was 58%, 83% and 82%, respectively. After 30 min, the linear velocities increased gradually. The Vam returned to the pre-anaesthesia state at 60 minutes but the Vas and Vakd did not recover completely.   Doppler ultrasound can detect changes in pulpal blood flow after infiltration anaesthesia. In the future, Doppler ultrasound can be used as a tool for measuring pulpal blood flow. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  12. DOPPLER CALCULATIONS FOR LARGE FAST CERAMIC REACTORS--EFFECTS OF IMPROVED METHODS AND RECENT CROSS SECTION INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Greebler, P.; Goldman, E.

    1962-12-19

    Doppler calculations for large fast ceramic reactors (FCR), using recent cross section information and improved methods, are described. Cross sections of U/sup 238/, Pu/sup 239/, and Pu/sup 210/ with fuel temperature variations needed for perturbation calculations of Doppler reactivity changes are tabulated as a function of potential scattering cross section per absorber isotope at energies below 400 kev. These may be used in Doppler calculations for anv fast reactor. Results of Doppler calculations on a large fast ceramic reactor are given to show the effects of the improved calculation methods and of recent cross secrion data on the calculated Dopplermore » coefficient. The updated methods and cross sections used yield a somewhat harder spectrum and accordingly a somewhat smaller Doppler coefficient for a given FCR core size and composition than calculated in earlier work, but they support the essential conclusion derived earlier that the Doppler effect provides an important safety advantage in a large FCR. 28 references. (auth)« less

  13. Human middle-ear nonlinearity measurements using laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladiné, Kilian; Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been supposed that the middle-ear has near to perfect linear characteristics, and several attempts have been made to investigate this hypothesis. In conclusion, the middle-ear was regarded as a linear system at least up till sound pressure levels of 120 dB. Because of the linear relationship between Doppler shift of light and the vibration velocity of the object on which the light is reflected, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) is an intrinsically highly linear measurement technique. Therefore it allows straightforward detection of very small nonlinearities in a vibration response. In this paper, laser Doppler vibrometry and multisine stimulation are used to detect nonlinear distortions in the vibration response at the umbo of the tympanic membrane of seven human cadaver temporal bones. Nonlinear distortions were detected starting from sound pressure levels of 99 dB and measurements were performed up to 120 dB. These distortions can be subdivided into even degree (e.g. quadratic distortion tones) and odd degree nonlinear distortions (e.g. cubic distortion tones). We illustrate that with odd multisine stimulation the level of even and odd degree nonlinear distortions can be investigated separately. In conclusion, laser Doppler vibrometry is an adequate tool to detect nonlinear distortions in the middle-ear system and to quantify the level of such distortions even at 57 dB below the vibration response. The possibility to analyze even degree and odd degree nonlinear distortion levels separately can help in future work to pinpoint the source of the nonlinearity.

  14. Robust estimation of fetal heart rate from US Doppler signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicu, Iulian; Girault, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Catherine; Decock, Aliette; Kouame, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In utero, Monitoring of fetal wellbeing or suffering is today an open challenge, due to the high number of clinical parameters to be considered. An automatic monitoring of fetal activity, dedicated for quantifying fetal wellbeing, becomes necessary. For this purpose and in a view to supply an alternative for the Manning test, we used an ultrasound multitransducer multigate Doppler system. One important issue (and first step in our investigation) is the accurate estimation of fetal heart rate (FHR). An estimation of the FHR is obtained by evaluating the autocorrelation function of the Doppler signals for ills and healthiness foetus. However, this estimator is not enough robust since about 20% of FHR are not detected in comparison to a reference system. These non detections are principally due to the fact that the Doppler signal generated by the fetal moving is strongly disturbed by the presence of others several Doppler sources (mother' s moving, pseudo breathing, etc.). By modifying the existing method (autocorrelation method) and by proposing new time and frequency estimators used in the audio' s domain, we reduce to 5% the probability of non-detection of the fetal heart rate. These results are really encouraging and they enable us to plan the use of automatic classification techniques in order to discriminate between healthy and in suffering foetus.

  15. Extreme Doppler Shifting of Io's Neutral Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl

    2017-08-01

    The dynamics and the extension of Jupiter's magnetosphere are determined by the massive internal plasma sources combined with the fast rotation. The vast majority of the plasma originates from the atmosphere of the moon Io, the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Here we propose to characterize the density and velocity of energetic neutral atoms escaping from Io's atmosphere. Exploiting the high resolution and sensitivity of the COS G130M spectral mode, we will measure the Doppler velocities of atomic O, S and Cl streams, which are energized through charge exchange and dissociative recombination of molecular ions. Prior COS observations of Io revealed a large number of emission lines from several ion and neutral species with excellent S/N, obtained over a single HST orbit. Those spectra were obtained surrounding eclipse geometry, where Doppler shifts are minimized and were restricted to Io itself rather than the stream region. Here we will target the extended clouds with only two orbits total when the moon is at eastern and western elongation for maximum Doppler shifts. The observations will provide new constraints on the diffuse large-scale cloud structures in the Jovian system and significantly improve our understanding of the transport of mass and energy within the Io-torus interaction. The absolute brightness, in combination with plasma parameters from line ratios/collision strengths, will allow us to quantify the outflow of energetic neutral atoms from Io's main sulfur-oxygen atmosphere for the first time.

  16. Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, George D.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Mary-land, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other sensors will be presented. A simulation and data product for wind measurement at Venus will be presented.

  17. Installation and Test of Doppler Acoustic Sensor

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-12-01

    This report presents details of the installation of a Doppler acoustic vortex sensing system at JFK Runway 31R, the hardware and software improvements made since installation, vortex diagnostic and tracking data and analysis, and conclusions and reco...

  18. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Jay D [Albuquerque, NM; Kim, Theodore J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  19. Compact, Engineered 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Prototype for Field and Airborne Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Koch, Grady J.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  20. Doppler-guided transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialization for haemorrhoids: results from a multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Ratto, C; Parello, A; Veronese, E; Cudazzo, E; D'Agostino, E; Pagano, C; Cavazzoni, E; Brugnano, L; Litta, F

    2015-01-01

    This multicentre study, based on the largest patient population ever published, aims to evaluate the efficacy of Doppler-guided transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD Doppler) in the treatment of symptomatic haemorrhoids and to identify the factors predicting failure for an effective mid-term outcome. Eight hundred and three patients affected by Grade II (137, 17.1%), III (548, 68.2%) and IV (118, 14.7%) symptomatic haemorrhoidal disease underwent THD Doppler, with a rectal mucopexy in patients with haemorrhoidal prolapse. The disease was assessed through a specifically designed symptom questionnaire and scoring system. A uni- and multivariate analyses of the potential predictive factors for failure were performed. The morbidity rate was 18.0%, represented mainly by pain or tenesmus (106 patients, 13.0%). Acute bleeding requiring surgical haemostasis occurred in seven patients (0.9%). No serious or life-threatening complications occurred. After a mean follow-up period of 11.1 ± 9.2 months, the overall success rate was 90.7% (728 patients), with a recurrence of haemorrhoidal prolapse, bleeding, and both symptoms in 51 (6.3%), 19 (2.4%) and 5 (0.6%) patients, respectively. Sixteen out of 47 patients undergoing re-operation had a conventional haemorrhoidectomy. All the symptoms were significantly improved in each domain of the score (P < 0.0001). At multivariate analysis the absence of morbidity and performance of a distal Doppler-guided dearterialization were associated with a better outcome. THD Doppler is a safe and effective therapy for haemorrhoidal disease. If this technique is to be employed, an accurate distal Doppler-guided dearterialization and a tailored mucopexy are mandatory to contain and reduce the symptoms. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Transthoracic Ultrafast Doppler Imaging of Human Left Ventricular Hemodynamic Function

    PubMed Central

    Osmanski, Bruno-Félix; Maresca, David; Messas, Emmanuel; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Heart diseases can affect intraventricular blood flow patterns. Real-time imaging of blood flow patterns is challenging because it requires both a high frame rate and a large field of view. To date, standard Doppler techniques can only perform blood flow estimation with high temporal resolution within small regions of interest. In this work, we used ultrafast imaging to map in 2D human left ventricular blood flow patterns during the whole cardiac cycle. Cylindrical waves were transmitted at 4800 Hz with a transthoracic phased array probe to achieve ultrafast Doppler imaging of the left ventricle. The high spatio-temporal sampling of ultrafast imaging permits to rely on a much more effective wall filtering and to increase sensitivity when mapping blood flow patterns during the pre-ejection, ejection, early diastole, diastasis and late diastole phases of the heart cycle. The superior sensitivity and temporal resolution of ultrafast Doppler imaging makes it a promising tool for the noninvasive study of intraventricular hemodynamic function. PMID:25073134

  2. Dipolar modulation in the size of galaxies: the effect of Doppler magnification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvin, Camille; Andrianomena, Sambatra; Bacon, David; Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy; Moloi, Teboho; Bull, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Objects falling into an overdensity appear larger on its near side and smaller on its far side than other objects at the same redshift. This produces a dipolar pattern of magnification, primarily as a consequence of the Doppler effect. At low redshift, this Doppler magnification completely dominates the usual integrated gravitational lensing contribution to the lensing magnification. We show that one can optimally observe this pattern by extracting the dipole in the cross-correlation of number counts and galaxy sizes. This dipole allows us to almost completely remove the contribution from gravitational lensing up to redshift ≲0.5, and even at high redshift z ≃ 1, the dipole picks up the Doppler magnification predominantly. Doppler magnification should be easily detectable in current and upcoming optical and radio surveys; by forecasting for telescopes such as the SKA, we show that this technique is competitive with using peculiar velocities via redshift-space distortions to constrain dark energy. It produces similar yet complementary constraints on the cosmological model to those found using measurements of the cosmic shear.

  3. Laser Doppler flowmetry for measurement of laminar capillary blood flow in the horse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Henry S., III

    1998-07-01

    Current methods for in vivo evaluation of digital hemodynamics in the horse include angiography, scintigraphy, Doppler ultrasound, electromagnetic flow and isolated extracorporeal pump perfused digit preparations. These techniques are either non-quantifiable, do not allow for continuous measurement, require destruction of the horse orare invasive, inducing non- physiologic variables. In vitro techniques have also been reported for the evaluation of the effects of vasoactive agents on the digital vessels. The in vitro techniques are non-physiologic and have evaluated the vasculature proximal to the coronary band. Lastly, many of these techniques require general anesthesia or euthanasia of the animal. Laser Doppler flowmetry is a non-invasive, continuous measure of capillary blood flow. Laser Doppler flowmetry has been used to measure capillary blood flow in many tissues. The principle of this method is to measure the Doppler shift, that is, the frequency change that light undergoes when reflected by moving objects, such as red blood cells. Laser Doppler flowmetry records a continuous measurement of the red cell motion in the outer layer of the tissue under study, with little or no influence on physiologic blood flow. This output value constitutes the flux of red cells and is reported as capillary perfusion units. No direct information concerning oxygen, nutrient or waste metabolite exchange in the surrounding tissue is obtained. The relationship between the flowmeter output signal and the flux of red blood cells is linear. The principles of laser Doppler flowmetry will be discussed and the technique for laminar capillary blood flow measurements will be presented.

  4. Prognostic accuracy of cerebroplacental ratio and middle cerebral artery Doppler for adverse perinatal outcome: systematic review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Boer, M. A.; Heymans, M. W.; Schoonmade, L. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; De Groot, C. J. M.; Bax, C. J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) is widely used as an adjunct to umbilical artery (UA) Doppler to identify fetuses at risk of adverse perinatal outcome. However, reported estimates of its accuracy vary considerably. The aim of this study was to review systematically the prognostic accuracies of CPR and MCA Doppler in predicting adverse perinatal outcome, and to compare these with UA Doppler, in order to identify whether CPR and MCA Doppler evaluation are of added value to UA Doppler. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched, from inception to June 2016, for studies on the prognostic accuracy of UA Doppler compared with CPR and/or MCA Doppler in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in women with a singleton pregnancy of any risk profile. Risk of bias and concerns about applicability were assessed using the QUADAS‐2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies‐2) tool. Meta‐analysis was performed for multiple adverse perinatal outcomes. Using hierarchal summary receiver–operating characteristics meta‐regression models, the prognostic accuracy of CPR vs MCA Doppler was compared indirectly, and CPR and MCA Doppler vs UA Doppler compared directly. Results The search identified 4693 articles, of which 128 studies (involving 47 748 women) were included. Risk of bias or suboptimal reporting was detected in 120/128 studies (94%) and substantial heterogeneity was found, which limited subgroup analyses for fetal growth and gestational age. A large variation was observed in reported sensitivities and specificities, and in thresholds used. CPR outperformed UA Doppler in the prediction of composite adverse outcome (as defined in the included studies) (P < 0.001) and emergency delivery for fetal distress (P = 0.003), but was comparable to UA Doppler for the other outcomes. MCA Doppler performed significantly worse

  5. Right-to-left shunt detection sensitivity with air-saline and air-succinil gelatin transcranial Doppler.

    PubMed

    Puledda, Francesca; Toscano, Massimiliano; Pieroni, Alessio; Veneroso, Gabriele; Di Piero, Vittorio; Vicenzini, Edoardo

    2016-02-01

    Air-saline transcranial Doppler is nowadays the first-choice examination to identify right-to-left shunt. To increase right-to-left shunt detection in echocardiography, cardiologists also use air-gelatin mixtures, which are more stable, more echogenic, and easier to be prepared. We assessed the sensitivity of air-gelatin compared with air-saline for transcranial Doppler right-to-left shunt detection. Air-saline transcranial Doppler, during unilateral middle cerebral artery monitoring at rest and after Valsalva maneuver, was performed in patients referred to our neurosonology laboratory for right-to-left shunt detection. The same transcranial Doppler protocol was repeated with air-gelatin. To consider transcranial Doppler positive for cardiac right-to-left shunt, at least one embolic signal had to be detected within 20″ from contrast injection. Later signals were interpreted of pulmonary origin. Trans-thoracic echocardiography was repeated with both air-saline and air-gelatin. A total of 97 patients were enrolled; 46 had negative transcranial Doppler for cardiac right-to-left shunt with both air-saline and air-gelatin; out of these, four patients with air-saline plus two more patients with air-gelatin presented late, isolated microemboli, slightly more numerous with air-gelatin: these were interpreted as pulmonary shunts and confirmed with trans-thoracic echocardiography. In 28 patients with already early positive air-saline transcranial Doppler at rest, air-gelatin induced a marked right-to-left shunt increase, facilitating its visualization at trans-thoracic echocardiography. In 23 patients in whom air-saline transcranial Doppler was negative at rest and positive for cardiac right-to-left shunt only after Valsalva maneuver, air-gelatin was able to reveal shunt also at rest. Air-gelatin increases right-to-left shunt detection sensitivity with transcranial Doppler in particular at rest, even in patients in whom air-saline mixture fails to identify the shunt. The

  6. Three dimensional laser Doppler velocimeter turbulence measurements in a pipe flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. E., III; Cliff, W. C.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The mean and turbulent u, v, and w components of a gaseous fully developed turbulent pipe flow were measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter system. Measurements of important system parameters are presented and discussed in relation to the measurement accuracy. Simultaneous comparisons of the laser Doppler and hot wire anemometer measurements in the turbulent flow provided evidence that the two systems were responding to the same flow phenomena.

  7. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation assisted using color Doppler imaging for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Numata, Kazushi; Nozaki, Akito; Kondo, Masaaki; Morimoto, Manabu; Maeda, Shin; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Ohto, Masao; Ito, Ryu; Ishibashi, Yoshiharu; Oshima, Noriyoshi; Ito, Ayao; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of color Doppler flow imaging to compensate for the inadequate resolution of the ultrasound (US) monitoring during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). US-guided HIFU ablation assisted using color Doppler flow imaging was performed in 11 patients with small HCC (<3 lesions, <3 cm in diameter). The HIFU system (Chongqing Haifu Tech) was used under US guidance. Color Doppler sonographic studies were performed using an HIFU 6150S US imaging unit system and a 2.7-MHz electronic convex probe. The color Doppler images were used because of the influence of multi-reflections and the emergence of hyperecho. In 1 of the 11 patients, multi-reflections were responsible for the poor visualization of the tumor. In 10 cases, the tumor was poorly visualized because of the emergence of a hyperecho. In these cases, the ability to identify the original tumor location on the monitor by referencing the color Doppler images of the portal vein and the hepatic vein was very useful. HIFU treatments were successfully performed in all 11 patients with the assistance of color Doppler imaging. Color Doppler imaging is useful for the treatment of HCC using HIFU, compensating for the occasionally poor visualization provided by B-mode conventional US imaging.

  8. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, B. A.; Lester, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    1996-08-01

    A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE). The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s-1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels) remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels) and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s-1 and 700 m s-1. At velocities greater than 700 m s-1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  9. Ghost features in Doppler-broadened spectra of rovibrational transitions in trapped HD+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sayan; Koelemeij, J. C. J.

    2017-02-01

    Doppler broadening plays an important role in laser rovibrational spectroscopy of trapped deuterated molecular hydrogen ions (HD+), even at the millikelvin temperatures achieved through sympathetic cooling by laser-cooled beryllium ions. Recently, Biesheuvel et al. (2016) presented a theoretical lineshape model for such transitions which not only considers linestrengths and Doppler broadening, but also the finite sample size and population redistribution by blackbody radiation, which are important in view of the long storage and probe times achievable in ion traps. Here, we employ the rate equation model developed by Biesheuvel et al. to theoretically study the Doppler-broadened hyperfine structure of the (v, L) : (0, 3) → (4, 2) rovibrational transition in HD+ at 1442 nm. We observe prominent yet hitherto unrecognized ghost features in the simulated spectrum, whose positions depend on the Doppler width, transition rates, and saturation levels of the hyperfine components addressed by the laser. We explain the origin and behavior of such features, and we provide a simple quantitative guideline to assess whether ghost features may appear. As such ghost features may be common to saturated Doppler-broadened spectra of rotational and vibrational transitions in trapped ions composed of partly overlapping lines, our work illustrates the necessity to use lineshape models that take into account all the relevant physics.

  10. Ultrasound Doppler method of remote elastometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timanin, E. M.; Eremin, E. V.; Belyaev, R. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the theoretical relations constituting the basis of remote measurements of the shear elasticity of biological tissues using the ultrasound Doppler method. It also describes the hardware-software setup implementing this approach, as well as the results of experiments with these tools on a biological tissue phantom and on human liver in vivo.

  11. Analysis of Doppler radar windshear data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F.; Mckinney, P.; Ozmen, F.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to process Lincoln Laboratory Doppler radar data obtained during FLOWS testing at Huntsville, Alabama, in the summer of 1986, to characterize windshear events. The processing includes plotting velocity and F-factor profiles, histogram analysis to summarize statistics, and correlation analysis to demonstrate any correlation between different data fields.

  12. Steady-state phase error for a phase-locked loop subjected to periodic Doppler inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Win, M. Z.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a carrier phase locked loop (PLL) driven by a periodic Doppler input is studied. By expanding the Doppler input into a Fourier series and applying the linearized PLL approximations, it is easy to show that, for periodic frequency disturbances, the resulting steady state phase error is also periodic. Compared to the method of expanding frequency excursion into a power series, the Fourier expansion method can be used to predict the maximum phase error excursion for a periodic Doppler input. For systems with a large Doppler rate fluctuation, such as an optical transponder aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft, the method can be applied to test whether a lower order tracking loop can provide satisfactory tracking and thereby save the effect of a higher order loop design.

  13. Wayside Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on a Data-Driven Doppler Effect Eliminator and Transient Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Shen, Changqing; He, Qingbo; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Yongbin; Kong, Fanrang

    2014-01-01

    A fault diagnosis strategy based on the wayside acoustic monitoring technique is investigated for locomotive bearing fault diagnosis. Inspired by the transient modeling analysis method based on correlation filtering analysis, a so-called Parametric-Mother-Doppler-Wavelet (PMDW) is constructed with six parameters, including a center characteristic frequency and five kinematic model parameters. A Doppler effect eliminator containing a PMDW generator, a correlation filtering analysis module, and a signal resampler is invented to eliminate the Doppler effect embedded in the acoustic signal of the recorded bearing. Through the Doppler effect eliminator, the five kinematic model parameters can be identified based on the signal itself. Then, the signal resampler is applied to eliminate the Doppler effect using the identified parameters. With the ability to detect early bearing faults, the transient model analysis method is employed to detect localized bearing faults after the embedded Doppler effect is eliminated. The effectiveness of the proposed fault diagnosis strategy is verified via simulation studies and applications to diagnose locomotive roller bearing defects. PMID:24803197

  14. Outlier Detection in GNSS Pseudo-Range/Doppler Measurements for Robust Localization

    PubMed Central

    Zair, Salim; Le Hégarat-Mascle, Sylvie; Seignez, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    In urban areas or space-constrained environments with obstacles, vehicle localization using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is hindered by Non-Line Of Sight (NLOS) and multipath receptions. These phenomena induce faulty data that disrupt the precise localization of the GNSS receiver. In this study, we detect the outliers among the observations, Pseudo-Range (PR) and/or Doppler measurements, and we evaluate how discarding them improves the localization. We specify a contrario modeling for GNSS raw data to derive an algorithm that partitions the dataset between inliers and outliers. Then, only the inlier data are considered in the localization process performed either through a classical Particle Filter (PF) or a Rao-Blackwellization (RB) approach. Both localization algorithms exclusively use GNSS data, but they differ by the way Doppler measurements are processed. An experiment has been performed with a GPS receiver aboard a vehicle. Results show that the proposed algorithms are able to detect the ‘outliers’ in the raw data while being robust to non-Gaussian noise and to intermittent satellite blockage. We compare the performance results achieved either estimating only PR outliers or estimating both PR and Doppler outliers. The best localization is achieved using the RB approach coupled with PR-Doppler outlier estimation. PMID:27110796

  15. Outlier Detection in GNSS Pseudo-Range/Doppler Measurements for Robust Localization.

    PubMed

    Zair, Salim; Le Hégarat-Mascle, Sylvie; Seignez, Emmanuel

    2016-04-22

    In urban areas or space-constrained environments with obstacles, vehicle localization using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is hindered by Non-Line Of Sight (NLOS) and multipath receptions. These phenomena induce faulty data that disrupt the precise localization of the GNSS receiver. In this study, we detect the outliers among the observations, Pseudo-Range (PR) and/or Doppler measurements, and we evaluate how discarding them improves the localization. We specify a contrario modeling for GNSS raw data to derive an algorithm that partitions the dataset between inliers and outliers. Then, only the inlier data are considered in the localization process performed either through a classical Particle Filter (PF) or a Rao-Blackwellization (RB) approach. Both localization algorithms exclusively use GNSS data, but they differ by the way Doppler measurements are processed. An experiment has been performed with a GPS receiver aboard a vehicle. Results show that the proposed algorithms are able to detect the 'outliers' in the raw data while being robust to non-Gaussian noise and to intermittent satellite blockage. We compare the performance results achieved either estimating only PR outliers or estimating both PR and Doppler outliers. The best localization is achieved using the RB approach coupled with PR-Doppler outlier estimation.

  16. Characterization of turbulent wake of wind turbine by coherent Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songhua; Yin, Jiaping; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao; Li, Rongzhong; Wang, Xitao; Feng, Changzhong; Zhuang, Quanfeng; Zhang, Kailin

    2014-11-01

    The indispensable access to real turbulent wake behavior is provided by the pulsed coherent Doppler Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) which operates by transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. The Doppler shift in the frequency of the backscattered signal is analyzed to obtain the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity component of the air motion. From the LOS velocities the characteristic of the turbulent wake can be deduced. The Coherent Doppler LIDAR (CDL) is based on all-fiber laser technology and fast digital-signal-processing technology. The 1.5 µm eye-safe Doppler LIDAR system has a pulse length of 200ns and a pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz. The speed measurement range is ±50m/s and the speed measurement uncertainty is 0.3 m/s. The 2-axis beam scanner and detection range of 3000m enable the system to monitor the whole wind farming filed. Because of the all-fiber structure adoption, the system is stable, reliable and high-integrated. The wake vortices of wind turbine blades with different spatial and temporal scales have been observed by LIDAR. In this paper, the authors discuss the possibility of using LIDAR measurements to characterize the complicated wind field, specifically wind velocity deficit and terrain effects.

  17. Doppler imaging with dual-detection full-range frequency domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Meemon, Panomsak; Lee, Kye-Sung; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2010-01-01

    Most of full-range techniques for Frequency Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) reported to date utilize the phase relation between consecutive axial lines to reconstruct a complex interference signal and hence may exhibit degradation in either mirror image suppression performance or detectable velocity dynamic range or both when monitoring a moving sample such as flow activity. We have previously reported a technique of mirror image removal by simultaneous detection of the quadrature components of a complex spectral interference called a Dual-Detection Frequency Domain OCT (DD-FD-OCT) [Opt. Lett. 35, 1058-1060 (2010)]. The technique enables full range imaging without any loss of acquisition speed and is intrinsically less sensitive to phase errors generated by involuntary movements of the subject. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the DD-FD-OCT to a phase-resolved Doppler imaging without degradation in either mirror image suppression performance or detectable velocity dynamic range that were observed in other full-range Doppler methods. In order to accommodate for Doppler imaging, we have developed a fiber-based DD-FD-OCT that more efficiently utilizes the source power compared with the previous free-space DD-FD-OCT. In addition, the velocity sensitivity of the phase-resolved DD-FD-OCT was investigated, and the relation between the measured Doppler phase shift and set flow velocity of a flow phantom was verified. Finally, we demonstrate the Doppler imaging using the DD-FD-OCT in a biological sample. PMID:21258488

  18. Pulse Doppler ultrasound as a tool for the diagnosis of chronic testicular dysfunction in stallions

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Jose M.; Anel-Lopez, Luis; Martín-Muñoz, Patricia; Álvarez, Mercedes; Gaitskell-Phillips, Gemma; Anel, Luis; Rodríguez-Medina, Pedro; Peña, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Testicular function is particularly susceptible to vascular insult, resulting in a negative impact on sperm production and quality of the ejaculate. A prompt diagnosis of testicular dysfunction enables implementation of appropriate treatment, hence improving fertility forecasts for stallions. The present research aims to: (1) assess if Doppler ultrasonography is a good tool to diagnose stallions with testicular dysfunction; (2) to study the relationship between Doppler parameters of the testicular artery and those of sperm quality assessed by flow cytometry and (3) to establish cut off values to differentiate fertile stallions from those with pathologies causing testicular dysfunction. A total of 10 stallions (n: 7 healthy stallions and n: 3 sub-fertile stallions) were used in this study. Two ejaculates per stallion were collected and preserved at 5°C in a commercial extender. The semen was evaluated at T0, T24 and T48h by flow cytometry. Integrity and viability of sperm (YoPro®-1/EthD-1), mitochondrial activity (MitoTracker® Deep Red FM) and the DNA fragmentation index (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) were assessed. Doppler parameters were measured at three different locations on the testicular artery (Supratesticular artery (SA); Capsular artery (CA) and Intratesticular artery (IA)). The Doppler parameters calculated were: Resistive Index (RI), Pulsatility Index (PI), Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV), End Diastolic Velocity (EDV), Time Average Maximum Velocity (TAMV), Total Arterial Blood Flow (TABF) and TABF rate. The capsular artery was the most reliable location to carry out spectral Doppler assessment, since blood flow parameters of this artery were most closely correlated with sperm quality parameters. Significant differences in all the Doppler parameters studied were observed between fertile and subfertile stallions (p ≤ 0.05). The principal components analysis assay determined that fertile stallions are characterized by high EDV, TAMV, TABF and TABF rate

  19. B-mode and power Doppler ultrasonography of the equine suspensory ligament branches: A descriptive study on 13 horses.

    PubMed

    Rabba, Silvia; Grulke, Sigrid; Verwilghen, Denis; Evrard, Laurence; Busoni, Valeria

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonography is routinely used to achieve the diagnosis of equine suspensory ligament desmopathy. In human medicine, power Doppler ultrasonography has also been found to be useful for the diagnosis of tendon/ligament injuries. The aim of this prospective, pilot study was to assess the presence or absence of power Doppler signal in suspensory ligament branches and compare B-mode findings with power Doppler findings in suspensory ligament branches of lame and non-lame limbs. Thirteen horses were used (eight lame horses, with lameness related to pain in the suspensory ligament branches, and five non-lame horses). Ten lame limbs and 24 sound limbs were assessed by B-mode and power Doppler ultrasonography. The severity of power Doppler signal was scored by two independent readers. The B-mode ultrasonographic examination revealed abnormalities in branches of lame limbs and in branches of sound limbs. Suspensory ligament branches that were considered normal in B-mode showed no power Doppler signal. However, power Doppler signal was detected in suspensory ligament branches that were abnormal in B-mode, both in lame and sound limbs. Power Doppler scores were subjectively higher in suspensory ligament branches of lame limbs and in branches with more severe B-mode changes. Findings supported the use of power Doppler as an adjunctive diagnostic test for lame horses with suspected suspensory desmopathy. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Doppler tracking in time-dependent cosmological spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulini, Domenico; Carrera, Matteo

    I will discuss the theoretical problems associated with Doppler tracking in time dependent background geometries, where ordinary Newtonian kinematics fails. A derivation of an exact general-relativistic formula for the two-way Doppler tracking of a spacecraft in homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes is presented, as well as a controlled approximation in McVittie spacetimes representing an FLRW background with a single spherically-symmetric inhomogeneity (e.g. a single star or black hole). The leading-order corrections of the acceleration as compared to the Newtonian expression are calculated, which are due to retardation and cosmological expansion and which in the Solar System turn out to be significantly below the scale (nanometer per square-second) set by the Pioneer Anomaly. Last, but not least, I discuss kinematical ambiguities connected with notions of "simultaneity" and "spatial distance", which, in principle, also lead to tracking corrections.

  1. Laser backscattering analytical model of Doppler power spectra about rotating convex quadric bodies of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, YanJun; Wu, ZhenSen; Wang, MingJun; Cao, YunHua

    2010-01-01

    We propose an analytical model of Doppler power spectra in backscatter from arbitrary rough convex quadric bodies of revolution (whose lateral surface is a quadric) rotating around axes. In the global Cartesian coordinate system, the analytical model deduced is suitable for general convex quadric body of revolution. Based on this analytical model, the Doppler power spectra of cones, cylinders, paraboloids of revolution, and sphere-cones combination are proposed. We analyze numerically the influence of geometric parameters, aspect angle, wavelength and reflectance of rough surface of the objects on the broadened spectra because of the Doppler effect. This analytical solution may contribute to laser Doppler velocimetry, and remote sensing of ballistic missile that spin.

  2. Changes in cochlear blood flow in mice due to loud sound exposure measured with Doppler optical microangiography and laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Reif, Roberto; Zhi, Zhongwei; Dziennis, Suzan; Nuttall, Alfred L; Wang, Ruikang K

    2013-10-01

    In this work we determined the contributions of loud sound exposure (LSE) on cochlear blood flow (CoBF) in an in vivo anesthetized mouse model. A broadband noise system (20 kHz bandwidth) with an intensity of 119 dB SPL, was used for a period of one hour to produce a loud sound stimulus. Two techniques were used to study the changes in blood flow, a Doppler optical microangiography (DOMAG) system; which can measure the blood flow within individual cochlear vessels, and a laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) system; which averages the blood flow within a volume (a hemisphere of ~1.5 mm radius) of tissue. Both systems determined that the blood flow within the cochlea is reduced due to the LSE stimulation.

  3. C IV Doppler shifts observed in active region filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Doppler shift properties of 21 active region filaments were studied using C IV Dopplergram data. Most are associated with corridors of weak magnetic field that separate opposite polarity strong fields seen in photospheric magnetograms. A majority of the filaments are relatively blue shifted, although several lie very close to the dividing lines between blue and red shift. Only one filament in the samples is clearly red shifted. A new calibration procedure for Dopplergrams indicates that sizable zero point offsets are often required. The center-to-limb behavior of the resulting absolute Doppler shifts suggests that filament flows are usually quite small. It is possible that they vanish.

  4. Real-time and interactive virtual Doppler ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirji, Samira; Downey, Donal B.; Holdsworth, David W.; Steinman, David A.

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes our "virtual" Doppler ultrasound (DUS) system, in which colour DUS (CDUS) images and DUS spectrograms are generated on-the-fly and displayed in real-time in response to position and orientation cues provided by a magnetically tracked handheld probe. As the presence of complex flow often confounds the interpretation of Doppler ultrasound data, this system will serve to be a fundamental tool for training sonographers and gaining insight into the relationship between ambiguous DUS images and complex blood flow dynamics. Recently, we demonstrated that DUS spectra could be realistically simulated in real-time, by coupling a semi-empirical model of the DUS physics to a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a clinically relevant flow field. Our system is an evolution of this approach where a motion-tracking device is used to continuously update the origin and orientation of a slice passing through a CFD model of a stenosed carotid bifurcation. After calibrating our CFD model onto a physical representation of a human neck, virtual CDUS images from an instantaneous slice are then displayed at a rate of approximately 15 Hz by simulating, on-the-fly, an array of DUS spectra and colour coding the resulting spectral mean velocity using a traditional Doppler colour scale. Mimicking a clinical examination, the operator can freeze the CDUS image on-screen, and a spectrogram corresponding to the selected sample volume location is rendered at a higher frame rate of at least 30 Hz. All this is achieved using an inexpensive desktop workstation and commodity graphics card.

  5. Doppler search for a gravitational background radiation with two spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, B.; Iess, L.

    1985-11-01

    The prospect of detecting a gravitational wave background by means of a simultaneous Doppler tracking of two spacecraft are discussed. It is found that the cross spectrum of the Doppler shifts of the two spacecraft is a filtered expression of the energy density spectrum of the background. The filter function, which is expressed as a series in terms of Legendre polynomials, is obtained by an integration over the rotation group, assuming the background to be isotropic. The main noise sources are examined, and the advantages of a measurement with two spacecraft are noted.

  6. Doppler measurements of the ionosphere on the occasion of the Apollo-Soyuz test project. Part 2: Inversion of differential and rotating Doppler shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, R. H.; Grossi, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of the analytical approach and of the related software used in the inversion of the differential and rotating Doppler data obtained from the ionospheric experiment of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) is discussed. These data were collected in space-to-space paths (between the ASTP Docking Module (DM) and the Apollo Command Service Module and in space-to-ground paths (between the DM and ground). The Doppler links operated at 162 and 324 MHz and have an accuracy better than 3 MHz over 10-sec integration time. The inversion approach was tested with dummy data obtained with a computer simulation. It was found that a measurement accuracy of 1 to 10% in the value of the horizontal electron density gradient at 221-km altitude can be achieved, in space-to-space paths. For space-to-ground paths near the orbital plane, possible effects of the horizontal gradients on the received differential Doppler shifts were identified. It was possible to reduce the gradient-associated errors in the inversion that leads to the columnar electron content by approximately one-half. Accuracies of 5 to 10% in columnar electron content are achievable, with this gradient-compensation technique.

  7. Doppler measurements of the ionosphere on the occasion of the Apollo-Soyuz test project. Part 1: Computer simulation of ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi, M. D.; Gay, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A computer simulation of the ionospheric experiment of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) was performed. ASTP is the first example of USA/USSR cooperation in space and is scheduled for summer 1975. The experiment consists of performing dual-frequency Doppler measurements (at 162 and 324 MHz) between the Apollo Command Service Module (CSM) and the ASTP Docking Module (DM), both orbiting at 221-km height and at a relative distance of 300 km. The computer simulation showed that, with the Doppler measurement resolution of approximately 3 mHz provided by the instrumentation (in 10-sec integration time), ionospheric-induced Doppler shifts will be measurable accurately at all times, with some rare exceptions occurring when the radio path crosses regions of minimum ionospheric density. The computer simulation evaluated the ability of the experiment to measure changes of columnar electron content between CSM and DM (from which horizontal gradients of electron density at 221-km height can be obtained) and to measure variations in DM-to-ground columnar content (from which an averaged columnar content and the electron density at the DM can be deduced, under some simplifying assumptions).

  8. [Postpartal ovarian thrombophlebitis. Value of Doppler ultrasonograph y].

    PubMed

    Renaud-Giono, A; Giraud, J R; Poulain, P; Proudhon, J F; Grall, J Y; Moquet, P Y; Darnault, J P

    1996-01-01

    Thrombophlebitis of the ovarian vein is a well recognized but uncommon complication during the postpartum period. We report a small series and emphasize the contribution of color Doppler and the basic therapeutic measures.

  9. A micro-Doppler sonar for acoustic surveillance in sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaonian

    Wireless sensor networks have been employed in a wide variety of applications, despite the limited energy and communication resources at each sensor node. Low power custom VLSI chips implementing passive acoustic sensing algorithms have been successfully integrated into an acoustic surveillance unit and demonstrated for detection and location of sound sources. In this dissertation, I explore active and passive acoustic sensing techniques, signal processing and classification algorithms for detection and classification in a multinodal sensor network environment. I will present the design and characterization of a continuous-wave micro-Doppler sonar to image objects with articulated moving components. As an example application for this system, we use it to image gaits of humans and four-legged animals. I will present the micro-Doppler gait signatures of a walking person, a dog and a horse. I will discuss the resolution and range of this micro-Doppler sonar and use experimental results to support the theoretical analyses. In order to reduce the data rate and make the system amenable to wireless sensor networks, I will present a second micro-Doppler sonar that uses bandpass sampling for data acquisition. Speech recognition algorithms are explored for biometric identifications from one's gait, and I will present and compare the classification performance of the two systems. The acoustic micro-Doppler sonar design and biometric identification results are the first in the field as the previous work used either video camera or microwave technology. I will also review bearing estimation algorithms and present results of applying these algorithms for bearing estimation and tracking of moving vehicles. Another major source of the power consumption at each sensor node is the wireless interface. To address the need of low power communications in a wireless sensor network, I will also discuss the design and implementation of ultra wideband transmitters in a three dimensional

  10. Correlation of echo-Doppler aortic valve regurgitation index with angiographic aortic regurgitation severity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Luo, Huai; Miyamoto, Takashi; Atar, Shaul; Kobal, Sergio; Rahban, Masoud; Brasch, Andrea V; Makkar, Rajendra; Neuman, Yoram; Naqvi, Tasneem Z; Tolstrup, Kirsten; Siegel, Robert J

    2003-09-01

    We assessed aortic regurgitation (AR) severity by utilizing multiple echo-Doppler variables in comparison with AR severity by aortic root angiography. Patients were divided into 3 groups: mild, moderate, and severe. An AR index (ARI) was developed, comprising 5 echocardiographic parameters: ratio of color AR jet height to left ventricular outlet flow diameter, AR signal density from continuous-wave Doppler, pressure half-time, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and aortic root diameter. There was a strong correlation between AR severity by angiography and the calculated echo-Doppler ARI (r = 0.84, p = 0.0001). As validated by aortic angiography, the ARI is an accurate reflection of AR severity.

  11. Investigation of Doppler spectra of laser radiation scattered inside hand skin during occlusion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, I. O.; Zherebtsov, E. A.; Zherebtsova, A. I.; Dremin, V. V.; Dunaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a method widely used in diagnosis of microcirculation diseases. It is well known that information about frequency distribution of Doppler spectrum of the laser radiation scattered by moving red blood cells (RBC) usually disappears after signal processing procedure. Photocurrent’s spectrum distribution contains valuable diagnostic information about velocity distribution of the RBC. In this research it is proposed to compute the indexes of microcirculation in the sub-ranges of the Doppler spectrum as well as investigate the frequency distribution of the computed indexes.

  12. Power and color Doppler ultrasound settings for inflammatory flow: impact on scoring of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Christensen, Robin; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Ellegaard, Karen; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Naredo, Esperanza; Balint, Peter; Wakefield, Richard J; Torp-Pedersen, Arendse; Terslev, Lene

    2015-02-01

    To determine how settings for power and color Doppler ultrasound sensitivity vary on different high- and intermediate-range ultrasound machines and to evaluate the impact of these changes on Doppler scoring of inflamed joints. Six different types of ultrasound machines were used. On each machine, the factory setting for superficial musculoskeletal scanning was used unchanged for both color and power Doppler modalities. The settings were then adjusted for increased Doppler sensitivity, and these settings were designated study settings. Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with wrist involvement were scanned on the 6 machines, each with 4 settings, generating 264 Doppler images for scoring and color quantification. Doppler sensitivity was measured with a quantitative assessment of Doppler activity: color fraction. Higher color fraction indicated higher sensitivity. Power Doppler was more sensitive on half of the machines, whereas color Doppler was more sensitive on the other half, using both factory settings and study settings. There was an average increase in Doppler sensitivity, despite modality, of 78% when study settings were applied. Over the 6 machines, 2 Doppler modalities, and 2 settings, the grades for each of 7 of the patients varied between 0 and 3, while the grades for each of the other 4 patients varied between 0 and 2. The effect of using different machines, Doppler modalities, and settings has a considerable influence on the quantification of inflammation by ultrasound in RA patients, and this must be taken into account in multicenter studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Live imaging of rat embryos with Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Furushima, Kenryo; Dickinson, Mary E.; Behringer, Richard R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-09-01

    The rat has long been considered an excellent system to study mammalian embryonic cardiovascular physiology, but has lacked the extensive genetic tools available in the mouse to be able to create single gene mutations. However, the recent establishment of rat embryonic stem cell lines facilitates the generation of new models in the rat embryo to link changes in physiology with altered gene function to define the underlying mechanisms behind congenital cardiovascular birth defects. Along with the ability to create new rat genotypes there is a strong need for tools to analyze phenotypes with high spatial and temporal resolution. Doppler OCT has been previously used for 3-D structural analysis and blood flow imaging in other model species. We use Doppler swept-source OCT for live imaging of early postimplantation rat embryos. Structural imaging is used for 3-D reconstruction of embryo morphology and dynamic imaging of the beating heart and vessels, while Doppler-mode imaging is used to visualize blood flow. We demonstrate that Doppler swept-source OCT can provide essential information about the dynamics of early rat embryos and serve as a basis for a wide range of studies on functional evaluation of rat embryo physiology.

  14. Live imaging of rat embryos with Doppler swept-source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Larina, Irina V.; Furushima, Kenryo; Dickinson, Mary E.; Behringer, Richard R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2009-01-01

    The rat has long been considered an excellent system to study mammalian embryonic cardiovascular physiology, but has lacked the extensive genetic tools available in the mouse to be able to create single gene mutations. However, the recent establishment of rat embryonic stem cell lines facilitates the generation of new models in the rat embryo to link changes in physiology with altered gene function to define the underlying mechanisms behind congenital cardiovascular birth defects. Along with the ability to create new rat genotypes there is a strong need for tools to analyze phenotypes with high spatial and temporal resolution. Doppler OCT has been previously used for 3-D structural analysis and blood flow imaging in other model species. We use Doppler swept-source OCT for live imaging of early postimplantation rat embryos. Structural imaging is used for 3-D reconstruction of embryo morphology and dynamic imaging of the beating heart and vessels, while Doppler-mode imaging is used to visualize blood flow. We demonstrate that Doppler swept-source OCT can provide essential information about the dynamics of early rat embryos and serve as a basis for a wide range of studies on functional evaluation of rat embryo physiology. PMID:19895102

  15. A symmetrical laser Doppler velocity meter and its application to turbulence characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    A symmetrical method of optical heterodyning of the Doppler shifted scattered laser radiation developed for velocity measurements with a minimal instrumental spectral broadening and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The method employs two laser beams incident on the moving scatterer and does not use any reference beam for heterodyning. The Doppler signal frequency is independent of the scattering angle and the signal possesses no receiving aperture broadening. Optical alignment is simple. Typical values of the instrumental spectral broadening were approximately 0.8 percent of the center frequency of the Doppler signal, and the signal-to-noise ratio was approximately 25 dB, obtained from an air flow system using submicron dioctylphthalate scattering aerosol. Experimental and theoretical studies were made on the characteristics of the Doppler signal and the effect of system parameters in turbulent flow measurement. The optimization process involved in the beam optics and in the use of a spatial filter is described. For localized flow measurement in any direction of the three-dimensional orthogonal coordinates, the system, using uncorrected optical components, had a sensing volume which can be described by a sensitive length of 600 microns and a diameter of 100 microns.

  16. Low-cost mm-wave Doppler/FMCW transceivers for ground surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. J.; Lindop, R. W.; Majstorovic, D.

    2005-12-01

    A 35 GHz Doppler CW/FMCW transceiver (Equivalent Radiated Power ERP=30dBm) has been assembled and its operation described. Both instantaneous beat signals (relating to range in FMCW mode) and Doppler signals (relating to targets moving at ~1.5 ms -1) exhibit audio frequencies. Consequently, the radar processing is provided by laptop PC using its inbuilt video-audio media system with appropriate MathWorks software. The implications of radar-on-chip developments are addressed.

  17. Utero-placental perfusion Doppler indices in growth restricted fetuses: effect of sildenafil citrate.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mohamed Adel; Saleh, Said Abdel-Aty; Maher, Mohammad Ahmed; Khidre, Asmaa Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    To assess efficacy and tolerability of sildenafil citrate on utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). From March 2015, a randomized controlled trial of 54 patients at 24 weeks or more complicated by FGR and abnormal Doppler indices were randomly allocated 1:1 into an intervention arm (receive sildenafil citrate, 50 mg) or a control arm (receive placebo). The primary outcomes were changes occurred in the Doppler parameters 2 h following drug administration. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Significant difference was observed in the Delta uterine and umbilical Doppler indices among sildenafil group as compared to placebo group (p < 0.001). Middle cerebral Doppler indices, however, decreased significantly after sildenafil, which could be the result of shifting more blood to improve the utero-placental perfusion. No difference regarding Delta cerebro-placental ratio among both groups (p = 0.979). Sildenafil was also associated with pregnancy prolongation (p = .0001), increased gestational age at delivery (p = .004), improved neonatal weight (p = .0001), and less admission to neonatal intensive care unit (p = .03). No adverse effects reported in both treatment arms. Sildenafil citrate, by its vasodilator effect, can improve utero-placental blood flow in pregnancies complicated by FGR and abnormal Doppler. gov Registry: NCT02362399.

  18. On the utility of the ionosonde Doppler-derived EXB drift during the daytime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, L. M.; Sripathi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Vertical EXB drift measured using the ionosonde Doppler sounding during the daytime suffers from an underestimation of the actual EXB drift because the reflection height of the ionosonde signals is also affected by the photochemistry of the ionosphere. Systematic investigations have indicated a fair/good correlation to exist between the C/NOFS and ionosonde Doppler-measured vertical EXB drift during the daytime over magnetic equator. A detailed analysis, however, indicated that the linear relation between the ionosonde Doppler drift and C/NOFS EXB drift varied with seasons. Thus, solar, seasonal, and also geomagnetic variables were included in the Doppler drift correction, using the artificial neural network-based approach. The RMS error in the neural network was found to be smaller than that in the linear regression analysis. Daytime EXB drift was derived using the neural network which was also used to model the ionospheric redistribution in the SAMI2 model. SAMI2 model reproduced strong (weak) equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) for cases when neural network corrected daytime vertical EXB drift was high (low). Similar features were also observed in GIM TEC maps. Thus, the results indicate that the neural network can be utilized to derive the vertical EXB drift from its proxies, like the ionosonde Doppler drift. These results indicate that the daytime ionosonde measured vertical EXB drift can be relied upon, provided that adequate corrections are applied to it.

  19. Adaptive OFDM Radar Waveform Design for Improved Micro-Doppler Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata

    Here we analyze the performance of a wideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in estimating the micro-Doppler frequency of a rotating target having multiple scattering centers. The use of a frequency-diverse OFDM signal enables us to independently analyze the micro-Doppler characteristics with respect to a set of orthogonal subcarrier frequencies. We characterize the accuracy of micro-Doppler frequency estimation by computing the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) on the angular-velocity estimate of the target. Additionally, to improve the accuracy of the estimation procedure, we formulate and solve an optimization problem by minimizing the CRB on the angular-velocity estimate with respect to themore » OFDM spectral coefficients. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the CRB variations with respect to the signal-to-noise ratios, number of temporal samples, and number of OFDM subcarriers. We also analysed numerically the improvement in estimation accuracy due to the adaptive waveform design. A grid-based maximum likelihood estimation technique is applied to evaluate the corresponding mean-squared error performance.« less

  20. Signatures of the Martian rotation parameters in the Doppler and range observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yseboodt, Marie; Dehant, Véronique; Péters, Marie-Julie

    2017-09-01

    The position of a Martian lander is affected by different aspects of Mars' rotational motions: the nutations, the precession, the length-of-day variations and the polar motion. These various motions have a different signature in a Doppler observable between the Earth and a lander on Mars' surface. Knowing the correlations between these signatures and the moments when these signatures are not null during one day or on a longer timescale is important to identify strategies that maximize the geophysical return of observations with a geodesy experiment, in particular for the ones on-board the future NASA InSight or ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars2020 missions. We provide first-order formulations of the signature of the rotation parameters in the Doppler and range observables. These expressions are functions of the diurnal rotation of Mars, the lander position, the planet radius and the rotation parameter. Additionally, the nutation signature in the Doppler observable is proportional to the Earth declination with respect to Mars. For a lander on Mars close to the equator, the motions with the largest signature in the Doppler observable are due to the length-of-day variations, the precession rate and the rigid nutations. The polar motion and the liquid core signatures have a much smaller amplitude. For a lander closer to the pole, the polar motion signature is enhanced while the other signatures decrease. We also numerically evaluate the amplitudes of the rotation parameters signature in the Doppler observable for landers on other planets or moons.

  1. Improved cardiac motion detection from ultrasound images using TDIOF: a combined B-mode/ tissue Doppler approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Stoddard, Marcus F.; Amini, Amir A.

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative motion analysis of echocardiographic images helps clinicians with the diagnosis and therapy of patients suffering from cardiac disease. Quantitative analysis is usually based on TDI (Tissue Doppler Imaging) or speckle tracking. These methods are based on two independent techniques - the Doppler Effect and image registration, respectively. In order to increase the accuracy of the speckle tracking technique and cope with the angle dependency of TDI, herein, a combined approach dubbed TDIOF (Tissue Doppler Imaging Optical Flow) is proposed. TDIOF is formulated based on the combination of B-mode and Doppler energy terms in an optical flow framework and minimized using algebraic equations. In this paper, we report on validations with simulated, physical cardiac phantom, and in-vivo patient data. It is shown that the additional Doppler term is able to increase the accuracy of speckle tracking, the basis for several commercially available echocardiography analysis techniques.

  2. Direct measurement of Lorentz transformation with Doppler effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    For space science and astronomy the fundamentality of one-way velocity of light (OWVL) is selfevident. The measurement of OWVL (distance/interval) and the clock synchronization with light-signal transfer make a logical circulation. This means that OWVL could not be directly measured but only come indirectly from astronomical method (Romer's Io eclipse and Bradley's sidereal aberration), furthermore, the light-year by definitional OWVL and the trigonometry distance with AU are also un-measurable. For to solve this problem two methods of clock synchronization were proposed: The direct method is that at one end of dual-speed transmissionline with single clock measure the arriving-time difference of longitudinal wave and transverse wave or ordinary light and extraordinary light, again to calculate the collective sending-time of two wave with Yang's /shear elastic-modulus ratio (E/k) or extraordinary/ordinary light refractive-index ratio (ne/no), which work as one earthquake-station with single clock measures first-shake time and the distance to epicenter; The indirect method is that the one-way wavelength l is measured by dual-counters Ca and Cb and computer's real-time operation of reading difference (Nb - Na) of two counters, the frequency f is also simultaneously measured, then l f is just OWVL. Therefore, with classical Newtonian mechanics and ether wave optics, OWVL can be measured in the Galileo coordinate system with an isotropic length unit (1889 international meter definition). Without any hypotheses special relativity can entirely establish on the metrical results. When a certain wavelength l is defined as length unit, foregoing measurement of one-way wavelength l will become as the measurement of rod's length. Let a rigidity-rod connecting Ca and Cb moves relative to lamp-house with velocity v, rod's length L = (Nb - Na) l will change follow v by known Doppler effect, i.e., L(q) =L0 (1+ (v/c) cos q), where L0 is the proper length when v= 0, v• r = v cos q

  3. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003775.htm Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the ...

  4. Carotid artery Doppler ultrasonography in retinal macroaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Thurairajan, G; Potamitis, T; Naylor, G; Gibson, J

    1998-01-01

    It is postulated that retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAMs) occur at the site of incomplete embolic occlusion of a branch retinal artery. Embolic events of the retinal vessels are related to the state of the carotid artery tree and therefore Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid arteries in these patients is of particular interest. We have examined 13 patients with retinal artery macroaneurysms with carotid artery Doppler ultrasonography (CADU). Eight of these patients (61.5%) exhibited atheromatous plaques on the same side as the RAM with a moderate degree of arterial narrowing. Although our group of patients did not show advanced carotid artery disease, alterations of the arterial wall found at the level of the carotid artery were higher than expected in a similar hypertensive population. To our knowledge this is the first study of the carotid arterial tree in these patients. Our results support the theory that RAMs may be of embolic origin. Furthermore they demonstrate that CADU is a useful investigation in patients with RAMs.

  5. Developments in laser Doppler blood perfusion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Martin J.; de Mul, Frits F. M.; Nilsson, Gert E.; Maniewski, Roman; Liebert, Adam

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the development and use of laser Doppler perfusion monitors and imagers. Despite their great success and almost universal applicability in microcirculation research, they have had great difficulty in converting to widespread clinical application. The enormous interest in microvascular blood perfusion coupled with the 'ease of use' of the technique has led to 2000+ publications citing its use. However, useful results can only be achieved with an understanding of the basic principles of the instrumentation and its application in the various clinical disciplines. The basic technical background is explored and definitions of blood perfusion and laser Doppler perfusion are established. The calibration method is then described together with potential routes to standardisation. A guide to the limitations in application of the technique gives the user a clear indication of what can be achieved in new studies as well as possible inadequacy in some published investigations. Finally some clinical applications have found acceptability and these will be explored.

  6. Cavity-ring-down Doppler-broadening primary thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotti, Riccardo; Moretti, Luigi; Gatti, Davide; Castrillo, Antonio; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Gianfrani, Livio; Marangoni, Marco

    2018-01-01

    A step forward in Doppler-broadening thermometry is demonstrated using a comb-assisted cavity-ring-down spectroscopic approach applied to an isolated near-infrared line of carbon dioxide at thermodynamic equilibrium. Specifically, the line-shape of the Pe(12 ) line of the (30012 )←(00001 ) band of C O2 at 1.578 µm is accurately measured and its Doppler width extracted from a refined multispectrum fitting procedure accounting for the speed dependence of the relaxation rates, which were found to play a role even at the very low pressures explored, from 1 to 7 Pa. The thermodynamic gas temperature is retrieved with relative uncertainties of 8 ×10-6 (type A) and 11 ×10-6 (type B), which ranks the system at the first place among optical methods. Thanks to a measurement time of only ≈5 h , the technique represents a promising pathway toward the optical determination of the thermodynamic temperature with a global uncertainty at the 10-6 level.

  7. Design and Development of a Scanning Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005 we began developing an airborne scanning direct detection molecular Doppler lidar. The instrument is being built as part of the Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE), a three year project selected by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office under the Instrument Incubator Program. The TWiLiTE project is a collaboration involving scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab, Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. The TWiLiTE instrument will leverage significant research and development investments made by NASA Goddard and it's partners in the past several years in key lidar technologies and sub-systems (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. These sub-systems will be integrated into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57. The WB57 flies at an altitude of 18 km and from this vantage point the nadir viewing Doppler lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a future spaceborne tropospheric wind system. In addition to being a technology testbed for space based tropospheric wind lidar, when completed the TWiLiTE high altitude airborne lidar will be used for studying mesoscale dynamics and storm research (e.g. winter storms, hurricanes) and could be used for calibration and validation of satellite based wind systems such as ESA's Aeolus Atmospheric Dynamics Mission. The TWiLiTE Doppler lidar will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 km to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and < 2mls

  8. Doppler echocardiographic predictors of mortality in female rats after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra Alberta; Helber, Izzo; Flumignan, Ronald L G; Antonio, Ednei L; Carvalho, Antonio C; Paola, Angelo A; Tucci, Paulo J; Moises, Valdir A

    2009-03-01

    Doppler echocardiogram is useful for the evaluation of anatomical and functional changes in late myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. However, no studies have evaluated the prognostic value of echocardiographic parameters 1 week after MI. Doppler echocardiogram was performed in 84 female Wistar rats 1 week after MI to determine infarction size, left chambers dimensions, fractional area change (FAC) of the left ventricle (LV), mitral inflow and tissue Doppler, myocardial performance index (MPI), and signs of pulmonary hypertension. The 365-day follow-up showed 53.6% mortality rate. Nonsurvivors showed larger (P < .05) MI size and cavity dimensions, poorer diastolic and systolic function, and higher frequency of pulmonary hypertension. Parameters at early stage of MI associated with higher mortality risk by Cox multivariate regression model were FAC or=0.60 (RR 3.49, 95% CI, 1.80-6.76), LV systolic area >or=0.26 cm(2) (RR 4.38, 95% CI, 1.88-10.21), E/E' ratio >or=20.3 (RR 2.12, 95% CI, 1.15-4.34), and E/A ratio associated with FAC (RR 2.99, 95% CI, 1.44-6.18). Some diastolic and systolic Doppler echocardiographic parameters in rats may be able to predict late mortality risk after MI.

  9. Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

  10. Christian Andreas Doppler: A legendary man inspired by the dazzling light of the stars

    PubMed Central

    Katsi, V; Felekos, I; Kallikazaros, I

    2013-01-01

    Christian Andreas Doppler is renowned primarily for his revolutionary theory of the Doppler effect, which has deeply influenced many areas of modern science and technology, including medicine. His work has laid the foundations for modern ultrasonography and his ideas are still inspiring discoveries more than a hundred years after his death. Doppler may well earn the title of Homo Universalis for his broad knowledge of physics, mathematics and astronomy and most of all for his indefatigable investigations for new ideas and his ingenious mind. According to Bolzano: “It is hard to believe how fruitful a genius Austria has in this man”. His legacy of scientific achievement have seen Doppler honoured in the later years on coinage and money, names of streets, educational institutions, rock groups, even of a lunar crater; while the ultimate tribute to his work is the countless references to the homonymous medical eponym. PMID:24376313

  11. Generalized Doppler and aberration kernel for frequency-dependent cosmological observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasini, Siavash; Pierpaoli, Elena

    2017-11-01

    We introduce a frequency-dependent Doppler and aberration transformation kernel for the harmonic multipoles of a general cosmological observable with spin weight s , Doppler weight d and arbitrary frequency spectrum. In the context of cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies, the frequency-dependent formalism allows to correct for the motion-induced aberration and Doppler effects on individual frequency maps with different masks. It also permits to deboost background radiations with non-blackbody frequency spectra, like extragalactic foregrounds and CMB spectra with primordial spectral distortions. The formalism can also be used to correct individual E and B polarization modes and account for motion-induced E/B mixing of polarized observables with d ≠1 at different frequencies. We apply the generalized aberration kernel on polarized and unpolarized specific intensity at 100 and 217 GHz and show that the motion-induced effects typically increase with the frequency of observation. In all-sky CMB experiments, the frequency-dependence of the motion-induced effects for a blackbody spectrum are overall negligible. However in a cut-sky analysis, ignoring the frequency dependence can lead to percent level error in the polarized and unpolarized power spectra over all angular scales. In the specific cut-sky used in our analysis (b >4 5 ° ,fsky≃14 % ), and for the dipole-inferred velocity β =0.00123 typically attributed to our peculiar motion, the Doppler and aberration effects can change polarized and unpolarized power spectra of specific intensity in the CMB rest frame by 1 - 2 % , but we find the polarization cross-leakage between E and B modes to be negligible.

  12. 3D power Doppler ultrasound in early diagnosis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Neto, R Moreira; Ramos, J G L

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a known cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Thus, evaluation of the predicting value of comparing 3D power Doppler indices (3DPD) of uteroplacental circulation (UPC) in the first and second trimester in patients who developed preeclampsia (PE) and those who did not and testing the hypothesis that the parameters of vascularization and placenta flow intensity, as determined by three-dimensional ultrasound (3D), are different in normal pregnancies compared with preeclampsia, could be a suitable screening method. A prospective observational study using 3D power Doppler were performed to evaluate the placental perfusion in 96 pregnant women who came to do the ultrasound routine between 11 and 14 weeks. The placental vascular index (VI), flow index (FI), blood vessels and blood flow index (VFI) by three-dimensional Doppler histogram were calculated. All patients repeated the exam between 16 and 20 weeks. The outcome was scored as normal or preeclamptic. Placental vascular indices including VI, FI and VFI were significantly lower in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls in the study performed in the second trimester (p<0.001). There was not any statistical difference in the patients examined in the first trimester. Our findings suggest that 3D-power Doppler assessment of placental vascular indices in the second trimester has the potential to detect women at risk for subsequent development of PE. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dove prism based rotating dual beam bidirectional Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, Cedric; Coquoz, Séverine; Grajciar, Branislav; Singh, Amardeep S. G.; Bonesi, Marco; Werkmeister, René M.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Doppler OCT is highly sensitive to motion artifacts due to the dependence on the Doppler angle. This limits its accuracy in clinical practice. To overcome this limitation, we use a bidirectional dual beam technique equipped with a novel rotating scanning scheme employing a Dove prism. The volume is probed from two distinct illumination directions with variable controlled incidence plane, allowing for reconstruction of the true flow velocity at arbitrary vessel orientations. The principle is implemented with Swept Source OCT at 1060nm with 100,000 A-Scans/s. We apply the system to resolve pulsatile retinal absolute blood velocity by performing segment scans around the optic nerve head and circumpapillary scan time series. PMID:23847742

  14. How to study the Doppler effect with Audacity software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriano Dias, Marco; Simeão Carvalho, Paulo; Rodrigues Ventura, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The Doppler effect is one of the recurring themes in college and high school classes. In order to contextualize the topic and engage the students in their own learning process, we propose a simple and easily accessible activity, i.e. the analysis of the videos available on the internet by the students. The sound of the engine of the vehicle passing by the camera is recorded on the video; it is then analyzed with the free software Audacity by measuring the frequency of the sound during approach and recede of the vehicle from the observer. The speed of the vehicle is determined due to the application of Doppler effect equations for acoustic waves.

  15. Power Doppler flow mapping and four-dimensional ultrasound for evaluating tubal patency compared with laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amr A; Shaalan, Waleed; Abdel-Dayem, Tamer; Awad, Elsayed Elbadawy; Elkassar, Yasser; Lüdders, Dörte; Malik, Eduard; Sallam, Hassan N

    2015-12-01

    To study the accuracy of four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound and power Doppler flow mapping in detecting tubal patency in women with sub-/infertility, and compare it with laparoscopy and chromopertubation. A prospective study. The study was performed in the outpatient clinic and infertility unit of a university hospital. The sonographic team and laparoscopic team were blinded to the results of each other. Women aged younger than 43 years seeking medical advice due to primary or secondary infertility and who planned to have a diagnostic laparoscopy performed, were recruited to the study after signing an informed consent. All of the recruited patients had power Doppler flow mapping and 4D hysterosalpingo-sonography by injecting sterile saline into the fallopian tubes 1 day before surgery. Registering Doppler signals, while using power Doppler, both at the tubal ostia and fimbrial end and the ability to demonstrate the course of the tube especially the isthmus and fimbrial end, while using 4D mode, was considered a patent tube. Out of 50 recruited patients, 33 women had bilateral patent tubes and five had unilateral patent tubes as shown by chromopertubation during diagnostic laparoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for two-dimensional power Doppler hysterosalpingography were 94.4%, 100%, 100%, 89.2%, and 96.2%, respectively and for 4D ultrasound were 70.4%, 100%, 100%, 70.4%, and 82.6%, respectively. Four-dimensional saline hysterosalpingography has acceptable accuracy in detecting tubal patency, but is surpassed by power Doppler saline hysterosalpingography. Power Doppler saline hysterosalpingography could be incorporated into the routine sub-/infertility workup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Doppler waveform study as indicator of change of portal pressure after administration of octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Shahbaz; Hussain, Qurban; Tabassum, Sumera; Hussain, Bilal; Durrani, Muhammad Rasheed; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the effect of portal pressure lowering drug ‘octreotide’, by observing the Doppler waveform before and after the administration of intravenous bolus of octreotide and thus to assess indirectly its efficacy to lower the portal pressure. Methods: This quassi experimental study was carried out in Medical Department in collaboration with Radiology Department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi Pakistan from September 10, 2015 to February 5, 2016. Cases were selected from patients admitted in Medical Wards and those attending Medical OPD. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by Clinical Examination and Lab & Imaging investigation in Medical Department. Doppler waveform study was done by experienced radiologist in Radiology Department before and after administration of octreotide. Doppler signals were obtained from the right hepatic vein. Waveform tracings were recorded for five seconds and categorized as ‘monophasic’, ‘biphasic’ and ‘triphasic’. Waveform changes from one waveform to other were noted and analyzed. Results: Significant change i.e. from ‘monophasic’ to ‘biphasic’ or ‘biphasic’ to ‘triphasic’ was seen in 56% cases while ‘monophasic’ to ‘triphasic’ was seen in 20% cases. No change was seen in 24% cases. Improvement in waveform reflects lowering of portal vein pressure. Conclusion: Non invasive Hepatic vein Doppler waveform study showed improvement in Doppler waveform after administration of octreotide in 76% cases. Doppler waveform study has the potential of becoming non invasive ‘follow up tool’ of choice for assessing portal pressure in patients having variceal bleed due to portal hypertension. PMID:27648043

  17. Results of vardenafil mediated power Doppler ultrasound, contrast enhanced ultrasound and systematic random biopsies to detect prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Girolamo; Pagni, Riccardo; Mariani, Chiara; Minervini, Riccardo; Morelli, Andrea; Gori, Francesco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria; Paterni, Marco; Mauro, Eva; Guidi, Elisa; Armillotta, Nicola; Canale, Domenico; Vitti, Paolo; Caramella, Davide; Minervini, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the ability of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil to increase prostate microcirculation during power Doppler ultrasound. We also evaluated the results of contrast and vardenafil enhanced targeted biopsies compared to those of standard 12-core random biopsies to detect cancer. Between May 2008 and January 2010, 150 consecutive patients with prostate specific antigen more than 4 ng/ml at first diagnosis with negative digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound, and no clinical history of prostatitis underwent contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (bolus injection of 2.4 ml SonoVue® contrast agent), followed by vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (1 hour after oral administration of vardenafil 20 mg). All patients underwent standard 12-core transrectal ultrasound guided random prostate biopsy plus 1 further sampling from each suspected hypervascular lesion detected by contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound. Prostate cancer was detected in 44 patients (29.3%). Contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound detected suspicious, contrast enhanced and vardenafil enhanced areas in 112 (74.6%) and 110 patients (73.3%), and was diagnostic for cancer in 32 (28.5%) and 42 (38%), respectively. Analysis of standard technique, and contrast and vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound findings by biopsy core showed significantly higher detection using vardenafil vs contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound and standard technique (41.2% vs 22.7% and 8.1%, p <0.005 and <0.001, respectively). The detection rate of standard plus contrast or vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was 10% and 11.7% (p not significant). Vardenafil enhanced power Doppler ultrasound enables excellent visualization of the microvasculature associated with cancer and can improve the detection rate compared to contrast enhanced power Doppler ultrasound and the random technique. Copyright © 2011 American Urological

  18. The effect of clock, media, and station location errors on Doppler measurement accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler tracking by the Deep Space Network (DSN) is the primary radio metric data type used by navigation to determine the orbit of a spacecraft. The accuracy normally attributed to orbits determined exclusively with Doppler data is about 0.5 microradians in geocentric angle. Recently, the Doppler measurement system has evolved to a high degree of precision primarily because of tracking at X-band frequencies (7.2 to 8.5 GHz). However, the orbit determination system has not been able to fully utilize this improved measurement accuracy because of calibration errors associated with transmission media, the location of tracking stations on the Earth's surface, the orientation of the Earth as an observing platform, and timekeeping. With the introduction of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, it may be possible to remove a significant error associated with the troposphere. In this article, the effect of various calibration errors associated with transmission media, Earth platform parameters, and clocks are examined. With the introduction of GPS calibrations, it is predicted that a Doppler tracking accuracy of 0.05 microradians is achievable.

  19. Doppler spectra of airborne ultrasound forward scattered by the rough surface of open channel turbulent water flows.

    PubMed

    Dolcetti, Giulio; Krynkin, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Experimental data are presented on the Doppler spectra of airborne ultrasound forward scattered by the rough dynamic surface of an open channel turbulent flow. The data are numerically interpreted based on a Kirchhoff approximation for a stationary random water surface roughness. The results show a clear link between the Doppler spectra and the characteristic spatial and temporal scales of the water surface. The decay of the Doppler spectra is proportional to the velocity of the flow near the surface. At higher Doppler frequencies the measurements show a less steep decrease of the Doppler spectra with the frequency compared to the numerical simulations. A semi-empirical equation for the spectrum of the surface elevation in open channel turbulent flows over a rough bed is provided. The results of this study suggest that the dynamic surface of open channel turbulent flows can be characterized remotely based on the Doppler spectra of forward scattered airborne ultrasound. The method does not require any equipment to be submerged in the flow and works remotely with a very high signal to noise ratio.

  20. Multi-Component, Multi-Point Interferometric Rayleigh/Mie Doppler Velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Lee, Joseph W.; Bivolaru, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An interferometric Rayleigh scattering system was developed to enable the measurement of multiple, orthogonal velocity components at several points within very-high-speed or high-temperature flows. The velocity of a gaseous flow can be optically measured by sending laser light into the gas flow, and then measuring the scattered light signal that is returned from matter within the flow. Scattering can arise from either gas molecules within the flow itself, known as Rayleigh scattering, or from particles within the flow, known as Mie scattering. Measuring Mie scattering is the basis of all commercial laser Doppler and particle imaging velocimetry systems, but particle seeding is problematic when measuring high-speed and high-temperature flows. The velocimeter is designed to measure the Doppler shift from only Rayleigh scattering, and does not require, but can also measure, particles within the flow. The system combines a direct-view, large-optic interferometric setup that calculates the Doppler shift from fringe patterns collected with a digital camera, and a subsystem to capture and re-circulate scattered light to maximize signal density. By measuring two orthogonal components of the velocity at multiple positions in the flow volume, the accuracy and usefulness of the flow measurement increase significantly over single or nonorthogonal component approaches.

  1. Doppler Effect on Structure Period of Nonlinear Laser Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ozgun; Kara, Semih; Tokel, Onur; Pavlov, Ihor; Ilday, Fatih Omer

    Recently, Nonlinear Laser Lithography (NLL) was developed for large-area, nanopatterning of surfaces. In NLL, nanopatterns emerge through coherent scattering of the laser from the surface, and its interference with the incident beam. The period of the structures is determined by the laser wavelength. It has been shown by Sipe that the period depends on the laser incidence angle (θ) as λ / (1 +/- sinθ). Here, we show that the period not only depends on this angle, but also on the polarisation angle. We update the Sipe equation as λ / (1 +/- sinθsinα) , where ' α' is the angle between scanning direction and polarisation. The physical reason behind this is found through a formal analogy to Doppler effect. In Doppler effect, the measured wavelength of a moving emitter is given as λ / (1 +/- c / vsinθ) , where ' θ'is the angle between observer and the direction of emitter, 'c' is the speed of observer, 'v' is speed of source. In NLL, velocity of source can be written as vsinθ , and the period equation can be shown to take its new form. We believe that this is the first application of Doppler effect in laser-processing of solid materials.

  2. Advances in Doppler recognition for ground moving target indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kealey, Paul G.; Jahangir, Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) radar provides a day/night, all-weather, wide-area surveillance capability to detect moving vehicles and personnel. Current GMTI radar sensors are limited to only detecting and tracking targets. The exploitation of GMTI data would be greatly enhanced by a capability to recognize accurately the detections as significant classes of target. Doppler classification exploits the differential internal motion of targets, e.g. due to the tracks, limbs and rotors. Recently, the QinetiQ Bayesian Doppler classifier has been extended to include a helicopter class in addition to wheeled, tracked and personnel classes. This paper presents the performance for these four classes using a traditional low-resolution GMTI surveillance waveform with an experimental radar system. We have determined the utility of an "unknown output decision" for enhancing the accuracy of the declared target classes. A confidence method has been derived, using a threshold of the difference in certainties, to assign uncertain classifications into an "unknown class". The trade-off between fraction of targets declared and accuracy of the classifier has been measured. To determine the operating envelope of a Doppler classification algorithm requires a detailed understanding of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) performance of the algorithm. In this study the SNR dependence of the QinetiQ classifier has been determined.

  3. Distribution of mean Doppler shift, spectral width, and skewness of coherent 50-MHz auroral radar backscatter

    SciTech Connect

    Watermann, J.; McNamara, A.G.; Sofko, G.J.

    Some 7,700 radio aurora spectra obtained from a six link 50-MHz CW radar network set up on the Canadian prairies were analyzed with respect to the distributions of mean Doppler shift, spectral width and skewness. A comparison with recently published SABRE results obtained at 153 MHz shows substantial differences in the distributions which are probably due to different experimental and geophysical conditions. The spectra are mostly broad with mean Doppler shifts close to zero (type II spectra). The typical groupings of type I and type III spectra are clearly identified. All types appear to be in general much more symmetricmore » than those recorded with SABRE, and the skewness is only weakly dependent on the sign of the mean Doppler shift. Its distribution peaks near zero and shows a weak positive correlation with the type II Doppler shifts while the mostly positive type I Doppler shifts are slightly negatively correlated with the skewness.« less

  4. Non-contact and noise tolerant heart rate monitoring using microwave doppler sensor and range imagery.

    PubMed

    Matsunag, Daichi; Izumi, Shintaro; Okuno, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a non-contact and noise-tolerant heart beat monitoring system. The proposed system comprises a microwave Doppler sensor and range imagery using Microsoft Kinect™. The possible application of the proposed system is a driver health monitoring. We introduce the sensor fusion approach to minimize the heart beat detection error. The proposed algorithm can subtract a body motion artifact from Doppler sensor output using time-frequency analysis. The body motion artifact is a crucially important problem for biosignal monitoring using microwave Doppler sensor. The body motion speed is obtainable from range imagery, which has 5-mm resolution at 30-cm distance. Measurement results show that the success rate of the heart beat detection is improved about 75% on average when the Doppler wave is degraded by the body motion artifact.

  5. Postnatal Anthropometric and Body Composition Profiles in Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Identified by Prenatal Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Mazarico, E.; Martinez-Cumplido, R.; Díaz, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Ibáñez, L.; Gómez-Roig, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infant anthropometry and body composition have been previously assessed to gauge the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth, but the interplay between prenatal Doppler measurements and postnatal development has not been studied in this setting. The present investigation was performed to assess the significance of prenatal Doppler findings relative to postnatal anthropometrics and body composition in IUGR newborns over the first 12 months of life. Patients and Methods Consecutive cases of singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR were prospectively enrolled over 12 months. Fetal biometry and prenatal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry at ages 10 days, and at 4 and12 months. Results A total of 48 pregnancies qualifying as IUGR were studied. Doppler parameters were normal in 26 pregnancies. The remaining 22 deviated from normal, marked by an Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA-PI) >95th centil or Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) <5th centile. No significant differences emerged when comparing anthropometry and body composition at each time point, in relation to Doppler findings. Specifically, those IUGR newborns with and without abnormal Doppler findings had similar weight, length, body mass index, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral content throughout the first 12 months of life. In a separate analysis, when comparing IUGR newborns by Doppler (abnormal UA-PI vs. abnormal CPR), anthropometry and body composition did not differ significantly. Conclusions Infants with IUGR maintain a pattern of body composition during the first year of life that is independent of prenatal Doppler findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and correlating with hormonal status are warranted to further extend the phenotypic characterization of the various conditions now classified under the common label of IUGR. PMID:26938993

  6. Luminosity Dependence and Search Doppler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanParadijs, Johannes A.

    1998-01-01

    The research supported by this grant covered two projects: (1) a study of the luminosity dependence of the properties of atoll sources; and (2) a search for Doppler shifts in the pulse arrival times of the anomalous pulsar 4U 0142+61. Following the discovery of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) in Sco X-1 studies of the X-ray properties of atoll sources have been dominated by searches for these QPOS, and the study of their dependence on other source properties, such as X-ray luminosity and spectral state. In the project supported by grant NAG5-3269 we have detected kHz QPOs for several atoll sources. The physical interpretation of these QPO is as yet unclear, but simple models (such as the Keplerian beat frequency model) can probably be excluded. The results of this research have been reported. We have studied the X-ray pulsations of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 using the Rossi XTE. A detailed search for Doppler shifts did not lead to a positive detection. The upper limits exclude almost all types of possible companion stars, except white dwarfs. However, the latter can be excluded since anomalous X-ray pulsars are very young objects. We therefore conclude that anomalous X-ray pulsars are single neutron stars.

  7. A comparison of a coaxial focused laser Doppler system in atmospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karaki, S.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric velocities and turbulence with the laser Doppler system were obtained, and the results compared with cup anemometer and hot-wire measurements in the same wind field. The laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) is described along with the test procedures. It was found that mean values determined from the LDV data are within 5% of other anemometer data for long time periods, and the LDV measures higher velocities.

  8. Doppler ultrasonography of the anterior knee tendons in elite badminton players: colour fraction before and after match.

    PubMed

    Koenig, M J; Torp-Pedersen, S; Boesen, M I; Holm, C C; Bliddal, H

    2010-02-01

    Anterior knee tendon problems are seldom reported in badminton players although the game is obviously stressful to the lower extremities. Painful anterior knee tendons are common among elite badminton players. The anterior knee tendons exhibit colour Doppler activity. This activity increases after a match. Painful tendons have more Doppler activity than tendons without pain. Cohort study. 72 elite badminton players were interviewed about training, pain and injuries. The participants were scanned with high-end ultrasound equipment. Colour Doppler was used to examine the tendons of 64 players before a match and 46 players after a match. Intratendinous colour Doppler flow was measured as colour fraction (CF). The tendon complex was divided into three loci: the quadriceps tendon, the proximal patellar tendon and the insertion on the tibial tuberosity. Interview: Of the 72 players, 62 players had problems with 86 tendons in the lower extremity. Of these 86 tendons, 48 were the anterior knee tendons. Ultrasound: At baseline, the majority of players (87%) had colour Doppler flow in at least one scanning position. After a match, the percentage of the knee complexes involved did not change. CF increased significantly in the dominant leg at the tibial tuberosity; single players had a significantly higher CF after a match at the tibial tuberosity and in the patellar tendon both before and after a match. Painful tendons had the highest colour Doppler activity. Most elite badminton players had pain in the anterior knee tendons and intratendinous Doppler activity both before and after match. High levels of Doppler activity were associated with self-reported ongoing pain.

  9. Doppler lidar for measurement of atmospheric wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of wind fields in the earth's troposphere with daily global coverage is widely considered as a significant advance for forecasting and transport studies. For optimal use by NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) models the horizontal and vertical resolutions should be approximately 100 km and 1 km, respectively. For boundary layer studies vertical resolution of a few hundred meters seems essential. Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar has a unique capability to measure global winds in the troposphere with the high vertical resolution required. The lidar approach depends on transmission of pulses with high spectral purity and backscattering from the atmospheric aerosol particles or layered clouds to provide a return signal. Recent field measurement campaigns using NASA research aircraft have resulted in collection of aerosol and cloud data which can be used to optimize the Doppler lidar instrument design and measurement strategy.

  10. Comparative study evaluating the role of color Doppler sonography and computed tomography in predicting chest wall invasion by lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Smiti; Mahajan, Abhishek

    2013-09-01

    To analyze qualitative and quantitative parameters of lung tumors by color Doppler sonography, determine the role of color Doppler sonography in predicting chest wall invasion by lung tumors using spectral waveform analysis, and compare color Doppler sonography and computed tomography (CT) for predicting chest wall invasion by lung tumors. Between March and September 2007, 55 patients with pleuropulmonary lesions on chest radiography were assessed by grayscale and color Doppler sonography for chest wall invasion. Four patients were excluded from the study because of poor acoustic windows. Quantitative and qualitative sonographic examinations of the lesions were performed using grayscale and color Doppler imaging. The correlation between the color Doppler and CT findings was determined, and the final outcomes were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of a total of 51 lesions, 32 were malignant. Vascularity was present on color Doppler sonography in 28 lesions, and chest wall invasion was documented in 22 cases. Computed tomography was performed in 24 of 28 evaluable malignant lesions, and the findings were correlated with the color Doppler findings for chest wall invasion. Of the 24 patients who underwent CT, 19 showed chest wall invasion. The correlation between the color Doppler and CT findings revealed that color Doppler sonography had sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 100% for assessing chest wall invasion, whereas CT had sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 66.7%. Combined qualitative and quantitative color Doppler sonography can predict chest wall invasion by lung tumors with better sensitivity and specificity than CT. Although surgery is the reference standard, color Doppler sonography is a readily available, affordable, and noninvasive in vivo diagnostic imaging modality that is complementary to CT and magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer staging.

  11. On the utility of the ionosonde Doppler derived EXB drift during the daytime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Joshi, Lalit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle

    2016-07-01

    Vertical EXB drift measured using the ionosonde Doppler sounding during the daytime suffers from an underestimation of the actual EXB drift. This is due to the photochemistry that determines the height of the F layer during the daytime, in addition to the zonal electric field. Systematic investigations have indicated a fair/good correlation to exist between the C/NOFS and ionosonde Doppler measured vertical EXB drift during the daytime over magnetic equator. A detailed analysis, however, indicated that the linear relation between the ionosonde Doppler drift and C/NOFS EXB drift varied with seasons. Thus, solar, seasonal and also geomagnetic variables were included in the Doppler drift correction, using the artificial neural network based approach. The RMS error in the neural network was found to be lesser than that in the linear regression analysis. Daytime EXB drift was derived using the neural network which was also used to model the ionospheic redistribution in the SAMI2 model. SAMI2 model reproduced strong (/weak) equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) for cases when neural network corrected daytime vertical EXB drift was high (/low). Similar features were also observed in GIM TEC maps. Thus, the results indicate that the neural network can be utilized to derive the vertical EXB drift from its proxies, like the ionosonde Doppler drift. These results indicate that the daytime ionosonde measured vertical EXB drift can be relied upon, provided adequate corrections are applied to it.

  12. Combination of serum angiopoietin-2 and uterine artery Doppler for prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Puttapitakpong, Ploynin; Phupong, Vorapong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the combination of serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels and uterine artery Doppler for the detection of preeclampsia in women at 16-18 weeks of gestation and to identify other pregnancy complications that could be predicted with these combined tests. Maternal serum Ang-2 levels were measured, and uterine artery Doppler was performed in 400 pregnant women. The main outcome was preeclampsia. The predictive values of this combination were calculated. Twenty-five women (6.3%) developed preeclampsia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of uterine artery Doppler combined with serum Ang-2 levels for the prediction of preeclampsia were 24.0%, 94.4%, 22.2% and 94.9%, respectively. For the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 57.1%, 94.1%, 14.8% and 99.2%, respectively. Patients with abnormal uterine artery Doppler and abnormal serum Ang-2 levels (above 19.5 ng ml(-1)) were at higher risk for preterm delivery (relative risk=2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.8). Our findings revealed that the combination of uterine artery Doppler and serum Ang-2 levels at 16-18 weeks of gestation can be used to predict early-onset preeclampsia but not overall preeclampsia. Thus, this combination may be a useful early second trimester screening test for the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia.

  13. Localization of needle tip with color doppler during pericardiocentesis: In vitro validation and initial clinical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, G.; Cardon, L.; Vilkomerson, D.; Lipson, D.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L. L.; Thomas, J. D.; Griffin, B. P.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates a new device that uses color Doppler ultrasonography to enable real-time image guidance of the aspirating needle, which has not been possible until now. The ColorMark device (EchoCath Inc, Princeton, NJ) induces high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations in the needle to enable localization with color Doppler. We studied this technique in 25 consecutive patients undergoing pericardiocentesis, and in vitro, in a urethane phantom with which the accuracy of color Doppler localization of the needle tip was compared with that obtained by direct measurement. Tip localization was excellent in vitro; errors axial to the ultrasound beam (velocity Doppler -0.13 +/- 0.90 mm, power Doppler -0.05 +/- 1.7 mm) were less than lateral errors (velocity -0.36 +/- 1.8 mm, power -0.02 +/- 2.8 mm). In 18 of 25 patients, the needle was identified and guided into the pericardial space with the ColorMark technique, and it allowed successful, uncomplicated drainage of fluid. Initial failures were the result of incorrect settings on the echocardiographic machine and inappropriate combinations of the needle puncture site and imaging window. This study demonstrates a novel color Doppler technique that is highly accurate at localizing a needle tip. The technique is feasible for guiding pericardiocentesis. Further clinical validation of this technique is required.

  14. Evaluation of gastrointestinal activity patterns in healthy horses using B mode and Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Healthy adult horses were examined by using transabdominal ultrasonography to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate activity of the jejunum, cecum, and colon with B mode and Doppler techniques. Doppler ultrasound was used to assess jejunal peristaltic activity. Examinations were performed on multiple occasions under imposed colic evaluation conditions, including fasting, nasogastric intubation, and xylazine sedation. In fasted horses, jejunal visibility was increased and jejunal, cecal, and colonic activity was decreased. The stomach was displaced ventrally and was visualized ventral to the costochondral junction. Xylazine sedation in fed horses had minimal effects; however, in fasted horses, xylazine significantly decreased jejunal and cecal activity. Nasogastric intubation in fasted horses had no observable effects on activity, but moved the stomach dorsally. B mode and Doppler jejunal activity were strongly correlated. Prior feeding and sedation status need to be considered when interpreting the results of equine abdominal ultrasound examinations. Doppler techniques may be useful for assessing jejunal activity. PMID:15825515

  15. The Doppler Effect: A Consideration of Quasar Redshifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kurtiss J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the calculation of the redshift to blueshift ratio introduced by the transverse Doppler effect at relativistic speeds. Indicates that this shift should be mentioned in discussions of whether quasars are "local" rather than "cosmological" objects. (GS)

  16. [Doppler study of gluteal arteries. A useful tool for excluding gluteal arterial pathology snd an important adjunct to lower limb Doppler studies].

    PubMed

    Bruninx, G; Salame, H; Wery, D; Delcour, C

    2002-02-01

    1) To determine the negative predictive value (VPN) of duplex scan in patients complaining of buttock or hip pain and thereby to distinguish vascular claudication from other musculoskeletal or neurological diseases. 2) To show its complementarity in doppler investigation of lower limb arteries. Prospective study by duplex scan and arteriography of 60 gluteal arteries in 30 consecutive patients referred to check up for lower limb arteriopathy or sexual impotence. Duplex scan was performed by posterior approach. Correlation between doppler ultrasound and arteriography was studied. The study of normal arteries was possible in all cases and only one normal gluteal artery could not be detected in a diabetic overweight patient. On 60 arteries, sensitivity of duplex was 100 percent, specificity 96 percent and VPN 100 percent. Significant obstructive lesions were always associated with pathological velocimetric waveform or were not detected. Buttock claudication can appear like a typical vascular claudication or mimic neurological or musculoskeletal diseases. It is very useful to rule out a vascular causality responsible for buttock or hip pain by simple, non-invasive and cheap exploration. A normal doppler ultrasound of gluteal arteries can rule out vascular disease responsible for buttock or hip pain thereby avoiding arteriography. The strategy of diagnostic or therapy can be modified by such additional information as shown in two case reports.

  17. Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave Doppler device for blood flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Lee, Po-Yang; Chen, Pay-Yu; Liu, Ting-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Blood flow measurement using Doppler ultrasound has become a useful tool for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases and as a physiological monitor. Recently, pocket-sized ultrasound scanners have been introduced for portable diagnosis. The present paper reports the implementation of a portable ultrasound pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler flowmeter using a smartphone. A 10-MHz ultrasonic surface transducer was designed for the dynamic monitoring of blood flow velocity. The directional baseband Doppler shift signals were obtained using a portable analog circuit system. After hardware processing, the Doppler signals were fed directly to a smartphone for Doppler spectrogram analysis and display in real time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this system for medical ultrasound Doppler signal processing. A Couette flow phantom, consisting of two parallel disks with a 2-mm gap, was used to evaluate and calibrate the device. Doppler spectrograms of porcine blood flow were measured using this stand-alone portable device under the pulsatile condition. Subsequently, in vivo portable system verification was performed by measuring the arterial blood flow of a rat and comparing the results with the measurement from a commercial ultrasound duplex scanner. All of the results demonstrated the potential for using a smartphone as a novel embedded system for portable medical ultrasound applications. © 2012 IEEE

  18. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging Applied to the Noninvasive and Quantitative Imaging of Blood Vessels in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, J.; Papadacci, C.; Demene, C.; Gennisson, J-L.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast Doppler Imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on three-dimensional plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that non-invasive 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler, Pulsed Doppler, and Color Doppler Imaging can be used to perform quantitative imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of three-dimensional tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D Ultrafast Imaging. Using a 32X32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. 3-D Ultrafast Power Doppler Imaging was first validated by imaging Tygon tubes of varying diameter and its in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D Color and Pulsed Doppler Imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer. PMID:26276956

  19. Current-induced spin wave Doppler shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailleul, Matthieu

    2010-03-01

    In metal ferromagnets -namely Fe, Co and Ni and their alloys- magnetism and electrical transport are strongly entangled (itinerant magnetism). This results in a number of properties such as the tunnel and giant magnetoresistance (i.e. the dependence of the electrical resistance on the magnetic state) and the more recently addressed spin transfer (i.e. the ability to manipulate the magnetic state with the help of an electrical current). The spin waves, being the low-energy elementary excitations of any ferromagnet, also exist in itinerant magnets, but they are expected to exhibit some peculiar properties due the itinerant character of the carriers. Accessing these specific properties experimentally could shed a new light on the microscopic mechanism governing itinerant magnetism, which -in turn- could help in optimizing material properties for spintronics applications. As a simple example of these specific properties, it was predicted theoretically that forcing a DC current through a ferromagnetic metal should induce a shift of the frequency of the spin waves [1,2]. This shift can be identified to a Doppler shift undergone by the electron system when it is put in motion by the electrical current. We will show how detailed spin wave measurements allow one to access this current-induced Doppler shift [3]. From an experimental point of view, we will discuss the peculiarities of propagating spin wave spectroscopy experiments carried out at a sub-micrometer length-scale and with MHz frequency resolution. Then, we will discuss the measured value of the Doppler shift in the context of both the old two-current model of spin-polarized transport and the more recent model of adiabatic spin transfer torque. [4pt] [1] P.Lederer and D.L. Mills, Phys.Rev. 148, 542 (1966).[0pt] [2] J. Fernandez-Rossier et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 174412 (2004)[0pt] [3] V. Vlaminck and M. Bailleul, Science 322, 410 (2008).

  20. Use of speckle for determining the response characteristics of Doppler imaging radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilley, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    An optical model is developed for imaging optical radars such as the SAR on Seasat and the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B) by analyzing the Doppler shift of individual speckles in the image. The signal received at the spacecraft is treated in terms of a Fresnel-Kirchhoff integration over all backscattered radiation within a Huygen aperture at the earth. Account is taken of the movement of the spacecraft along the orbital path between emission and reception. The individual points are described by integration of the point source amplitude with a Green's function scattering kernel. Doppler data at each point furnishes the coordinates for visual representations. A Rayleigh-Poisson model of the surface scattering characteristics is used with Monte Carlo methods to generate simulations of Doppler radar speckle that compare well with Seasat SAR data SIR-B data.

  1. Non-invasive Foetal ECG – a Comparable Alternative to the Doppler CTG?

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, J.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the alternative of using the non-invasive foetal ECG compared with the conventionally used Doppler CTG. Non-invasive abdominal electrocardiograms (ECG) have been approved for clinical routine since 2008; subsequently they were also approved for antepartum and subpartum procedures. The first study results have been published. Non-invasive foetal ECG is especially indicated during early pregnancy, while the Doppler CTG is recommended for the vernix period. Beyond the vernix period no difference has been recorded in the success rate of either approach. The foetal ECG signal quality is independent of the BMI, whereas the success rate of the Doppler CTG is diminished with an increased BMI. During the first stage of labour, non-invasive foetal ECG demonstrates better signal quality; however during the second stage of labour no difference has been identified between the methods. PMID:25308981

  2. Reappraisal of quantitative evaluation of pulmonary regurgitation and estimation of pulmonary artery pressure by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lei, M H; Chen, J J; Ko, Y L; Cheng, J J; Kuan, P; Lien, W P

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of continuous wave Doppler echocardiography and color flow mapping in evaluating pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and estimating pulmonary artery (PA) pressure. Forty-three patients were examined, and high quality Doppler spectral recordings of PR were obtained in 32. All patients underwent cardiac catheterization, and simultaneous PA and right ventricular (RV) pressures were recorded in 17. Four Doppler regurgitant flow velocity patterns were observed: pandiastolic plateau, biphasic, peak and plateau, and early diastolic triangular types. The peak diastolic and end-diastolic PA-to-RV pressure gradients derived from the Doppler flow profiles correlated well with the catheter measurements (r = 0.95 and r = 0.95, respectively). As PA pressure increased, the PR flow velocity became higher; a linear relationship between either systolic or mean PA pressure and Doppler-derived peak diastolic pressure gradient was noted (r = 0.90 and 0.94, respectively). Based on peak diastolic gradients of < 15, 15-30 or > 30 mm Hg, patients could be separated as those with mild, moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension, respectively (p < 0.05). A correlation was also observed between PA diastolic pressure and Doppler-derived end-diastolic pressure gradient (r = 0.91). Moreover, the Doppler velocity decay slope of PR closely correlated with that derived from the catheter method (r = 0.98). The decay slope tended to be steeper with the increment in regurgitant jet area and length obtained from color flow mapping. In conclusion, continuous wave Doppler evaluation of PR is a useful means for noninvasive estimation of PA pressure, and the Doppler velocity decay slope seems to reflect the severity of PR.

  3. High-frequency ultrasound Doppler system for biomedical applications with a 30-MHz linear array.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaochen; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Yen, Jesse T; Shung, K Kirk

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we report the development of the first high-frequency (HF) pulsed-wave Doppler system using a 30-MHz linear array transducer to assess the cardiovascular functions in small animals. This array-based pulsed-wave Doppler system included a 16-channel HF analog beamformer, a HF pulsed-wave Doppler module, timing circuits, HF bipolar pulsers and analog front ends. The beamformed echoes acquired by the 16-channel analog beamformer were fed directly to the HF pulsed-wave Doppler module. Then the in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) audio Doppler signals were digitized by either a sound card or a Gage digitizer and stored in a personal computer. The Doppler spectrogram was displayed on a personal computer in real time. The two-way beamwidths were determined to be 160 microm to 320 microm when the array was electronically focused at different focal points at depths from 5 to 10 mm. A micro-flow phantom, consisting of a polyimide tube with an inner diameter of 127 microm and the wire phantom were used to evaluate and calibrate the system. The results show that the system is capable of detecting motion velocity of the wire phantom as low as 0.1 mm/s, and detecting blood-mimicking flow velocity in the 127-microm tube lower than 7 mm/s. The system was subsequently used to measure the blood flow in vivo in two mouse abdominal superficial vessels, with diameters of approximately 200 microm, and a mouse aorta close to the heart. These results demonstrated that this system may become an indispensable part of the current HF array-based imaging systems for small animal studies.

  4. Preoperative color Doppler assessment in planning of gluteal perforator flaps.

    PubMed

    Isken, Tonguc; Alagoz, M Sahin; Onyedi, Murat; Izmirli, Hakki; Isil, Eda; Yurtseven, Nagehan

    2009-02-01

    Gluteal artery perforator flaps have gained popularity due to reliability, preservation of the muscle, versatility in flap design without restricting other flap options, and low donor-site morbidity in ambulatory patients and possibility of enabling future reconstruction in paraplegic patients. But the inconstant anatomy of the vascular plexus around the gluteal muscle makes it hard to predict how many perforators are present, what their volume of blood flow and size are, where they exit the overlying fascia, and what their course through the muscle will be. Without any prior investigations, the reconstructive surgeon could be surprised intraoperatively by previous surgical damage, scar formation, or anatomic variants.For these reasons, to confirm the presence and the location of gluteal perforators preoperatively we have used color Doppler ultrasonography. With the help of the color Doppler ultrasonography 26 patients, 21 men and 5 women, were operated between the years 2002 and 2007. The mean age of patients was 47.7 (age range: 7-77 years). All perforator vessels were marked preoperatively around the defect locations. The perforator based flap that will allow primary closure of the donor site and the defect without tension was planned choosing the perforator that showed the largest flow in color Doppler ultrasonography proximally. Perforators were found in the sites identified with color Doppler ultrasonography in all other flaps. In our study, 94.4% flap viability was ensured in 36 perforator-based gluteal area flaps. Mean flap elevation time was 31.9 minutes. We found that locating the perforators preoperatively helps to shorten the operation time without compromising a reliable viability of the perforator flaps, thus enabling the surgeon easier treatment of pressure sores.

  5. Power Doppler ultrasonography and synovitis: correlating ultrasound imaging with histopathological findings and evaluating the performance of ultrasound equipments.

    PubMed

    Koski, J M; Saarakkala, S; Helle, M; Hakulinen, U; Heikkinen, J O; Hermunen, H

    2006-12-01

    To examine the validity of power Doppler ultrasound imaging to identify synovitis, using histopathology as gold standard, and to assess the performance of ultrasound equipments. 44 synovial sites in small and large joints, bursae and tendon sheaths were depicted with ultrasound. A synovial biopsy was performed on the site depicted and a synovial sample was taken for histopathological evaluation. The performance of three ultrasound devices was tested using flow phantoms. A positive Doppler signal was detected in 29 of 35 (83%) of the patients with active histological inflammation. In eight additional samples, histological examination showed other pathological synovial findings and a Doppler signal was detected in five of them. No significant correlation was found between the amount of Doppler signal and histological synovitis score (r = 0.239, p = NS). The amount of subsynovial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and surface fibrin correlated significantly with the amount of power Doppler signal: r = 0.397 (p<0.01) and 0.328 (p<0.05), respectively. The ultrasound devices differed in showing the smallest detectable flow. A negative Doppler signal does not exclude the possibility of synovitis. A positive Doppler signal in the synovium is an indicator of an active synovial inflammation in patients. A Doppler signal does not correlate with the extent of the inflammation and it can also be seen in other synovial reactions. It is important that the quality measurements of ultrasound devices are reported, because the results should be evaluated against the quality of the device used.

  6. Nomograms for mitral inflow Doppler and tissue Doppler velocities in Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Scalese, Marco; Murzi, Bruno; Assanta, Nadia; Spadoni, Isabella; Crocetti, Maura; Marotta, Marco; Molinaro, Sabrina; Kutty, Shelby; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric echocardiographic nomograms for systolic/diastolic functional indices are limited by small sample size and inconsistent methodologies. Our aim was to establish pediatric nomograms for mitral valve (MV) pulsed wave Doppler (PWD) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) velocities. We performed PWD/TDI measurements of MV velocities and generated models testing for linear/logarithmic/exponential/square root relationships. Heteroscedasticity was accounted for by White test or Breusch-Pagan test. Age, weight, height, heart rate (HR), and body surface area (BSA) were used as independent variables in different analyses to predict the mean values of each measurement. In all, 904 Caucasian Italian healthy children (age 0 days-17 years; 45.5% females; BSA 0.12-2.12m(2)) were prospectively studied. No individual variable provided equations with an acceptable coefficient of determination (R(2)) and even the inclusion of multiple variables in the model resulted in only a partial amelioration of the R(2). Higher R(2) were obtained for PWD-E deceleration time (0.53), septal (Se') and lateral (Le') MV-TDI e' velocity (Se': 0.54; Le': 0.55). Variability was higher at lower age and BSA. In older children patterns were more reproducible; however, the exclusion of neonates did not substantially improve the final models. The low R(2) hampered building of z-scores and calculation of estimated percentiles. Thus normative data have been presented as observed percentile according to age for all measurements. We report normal ranges for PWD and TDI mitral velocities derived from a large population of Caucasian children. Variability of diastolic patterns especially at lower ages needs to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High Speed A/D DSP Interface for Carrier Doppler Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggett, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    As on-board satellite systems continue to increase in ability to perform self diagnostic checks, it will become more important for satellites to initiate ground communications contact. Currently, the NASA Space Network requires users to pre-arranged times for satellite communications links through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). One of the challenges in implementing an on-demand access protocol into the Space Network, is the fact that a low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellite's communications will be subject to a doppler shift which is outside the capability of the NASA ground station to lock onto. In a prearranged system, the satellite's doppler is known a priori, and the ground station is able to lock onto the satellite's signal. This paper describes the development of a high speed analog to digital interface into a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). This system will be used for identifying the doppler shift of a LEO satellite through the Space Network, and aiding the ground station equipment in locking onto the signal. Although this interface is specific to one application, it can be used as a basis for interfacing other devices with a DSP.

  8. Intraoperative assessment of in situ saphenous vein bypass grafts with continuous-wave Doppler probe.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T D; Goldman, M H; Hyslop, J W; Lee, H M; Barnes, R W

    1984-11-01

    A 5 MHz continuous-wave Doppler probe was used intraoperatively to evaluate 25 in situ saphenous vein bypass grafts. At least one arteriovenous fistula per case and five retained competent posterior valvular leaflets were identified before completion angiography. The Doppler was able to distinguish a retained valve from an arteriovenous fistula on clinical grounds but not by waveform analysis. Intraoperative assessment of in situ saphenous vein bypass grafts with the continuous-wave Doppler can identify retained valves that might be missed by angiography. It can reduce the number of angiograms needed to demonstrate a technically perfect result, thus saving operative time and contrast agent load to the patient.

  9. Wind field measurement in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding storms by an airborne pulsed Doppler lidar system, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    Coherent Doppler lidar appears to hold great promise in contributing to the basic store of knowledge concerning flow field characteristics in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding severe storms. The Doppler lidar, through its ability to measure clear air returns, augments the conventional Doppler radar system, which is most useful in the precipitous regions of the storm. A brief description of the Doppler lidar severe storm measurement system is provided along with the technique to be used in performing the flow field measurements. The application of the lidar is addressed, and the planned measurement program is outlined.

  10. The high-resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Dobbs, Michael E.; Gell, David A.; Grassl, Heinz J.; Skinner, Wilbert R.

    1993-01-01

    The high-resolution Doppler imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is a triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer designed to measure winds in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. Winds are determined by measuring the Doppler shifts of rotational lines of the O2 atmospheric band, which are observed in emission in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and in absorption in the stratosphere. The interferometer has high resolution (0.05/cm), good offhand rejection, aud excellent stability. This paper provides details of the design and capabilities of the HRDI instrument.

  11. Aerial ultrasonic micro Doppler sonar detection range in outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Marshall; Sabatier, James M

    2012-03-01

    Current research demonstrates that micro Doppler sonar has the capability to uniquely identify the presence of a moving human, making it an attractive component in surveillance systems for border security applications. Primary environmental factors that limit sonar performance are two-way spreading losses, ultrasonic absorption, and backscattered energy from the ground that appears at zero Doppler shift in the sonar signal processor. Spectral leakage from the backscatter component has a significant effect on sonar performance for slow moving targets. Sonar performance is shown to rapidly decay as the sensor is moved closer to the ground due to increasing surface backscatter levels. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  12. Using microwave Doppler radar in automated manufacturing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory C.

    Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, manufacturers worldwide have used automation to improve productivity, gain market share, and meet growing or changing consumer demand for manufactured products. To stimulate further industrial productivity, manufacturers need more advanced automation technologies: "smart" part handling systems, automated assembly machines, CNC machine tools, and industrial robots that use new sensor technologies, advanced control systems, and intelligent decision-making algorithms to "see," "hear," "feel," and "think" at the levels needed to handle complex manufacturing tasks without human intervention. The investigator's dissertation offers three methods that could help make "smart" CNC machine tools and industrial robots possible: (1) A method for detecting acoustic emission using a microwave Doppler radar detector, (2) A method for detecting tool wear on a CNC lathe using a Doppler radar detector, and (3) An online non-contact method for detecting industrial robot position errors using a microwave Doppler radar motion detector. The dissertation studies indicate that microwave Doppler radar could be quite useful in automated manufacturing applications. In particular, the methods developed may help solve two difficult problems that hinder further progress in automating manufacturing processes: (1) Automating metal-cutting operations on CNC machine tools by providing a reliable non-contact method for detecting tool wear, and (2) Fully automating robotic manufacturing tasks by providing a reliable low-cost non-contact method for detecting on-line position errors. In addition, the studies offer a general non-contact method for detecting acoustic emission that may be useful in many other manufacturing and non-manufacturing areas, as well (e.g., monitoring and nondestructively testing structures, materials, manufacturing processes, and devices). By advancing the state of the art in manufacturing automation, the studies may help

  13. Spatiotemporal image correlation-derived volumetric Doppler impedance indices from spherical samples of the placenta: intraobserver reliability and correlation with conventional umbilical artery Doppler indices.

    PubMed

    Welsh, A W; Hou, M; Meriki, N; Martins, W P

    2012-10-01

    Volumetric impedance indices derived from spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) power Doppler ultrasound (PDU) might overcome the influence of machine settings and attenuation. We examined the feasibility of obtaining these indices from spherical samples of anterior placentas in healthy pregnancies, and assessed intraobserver reliability and correlation with conventional umbilical artery (UA) impedance indices. Uncomplicated singleton pregnancies with anterior placenta were included in the study. A single observer evaluated UA pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D) and acquired three STIC-PDU datasets from the placenta just above the placental cord insertion. Another observer analyzed the STIC-PDU datasets using Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL) spherical samples from every frame to determine the vascularization index (VI) and vascularization flow index (VFI); maximum, minimum and average values were used to determine the three volumetric impedance indices (vPI, vRI, vS/D). Intraobserver reliability was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and association between volumetric indices from placenta, and UA Doppler indices were assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A total of 25 pregnant women were evaluated but five were excluded because of artifacts observed during analysis. The reliability of measurement of volumetric indices of both VI and VFI from three STIC-PDU datasets was similar, with all ICCs ≥ 0.78. Pearson's r values showed a weak and non-significant correlation between UA pulsed-wave Doppler indices and their respective volumetric indices from spherical samples of placenta (all r ≥ 0.23). VOCAL indices from specific phases of the cardiac cycle showed good repeatability (ICC ≥ 0.92). Volumetric impedance indices determined from spherical samples of placenta are sufficiently reliable but do not correlate with UA Doppler indices in healthy pregnancies. Copyright © 2012

  14. Expected Characteristics of Global Wind Profile Measurements with a Scanning, Hybrid, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Over 20 years of investigation by NASA and NOAA scientists and Doppler lidar technologists into a global wind profiling mission from earth orbit have led to the current favored concept of an instrument with both coherent- and direct-detection pulsed Doppler lidars (i.e., a hybrid Doppler lidar) and a stepstare beam scanning approach covering several azimuth angles with a fixed nadir angle. The nominal lidar wavelengths are 2 microns for coherent detection, and 0.355 microns for direct detection. The two agencies have also generated two sets of sophisticated wind measurement requirements for a space mission: science demonstration requirements and operational requirements. The requirements contain the necessary details to permit mission design and optimization by lidar technologists. Simulations have been developed that connect the science requirements to the wind measurement requirements, and that connect the wind measurement requirements to the Doppler lidar parameters. The simulations also permit trade studies within the multi-parameter space. These tools, combined with knowledge of the state of the Doppler lidar technology, have been used to conduct space instrument and mission design activities to validate the feasibility of the chosen mission and lidar parameters. Recently, the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey recommended the wind mission to NASA as one of 15 recommended missions. A full description of the wind measurement product from these notional missions and the possible trades available are presented in this paper.

  15. Cloud fraction and cloud base measurements from scanning Doppler lidar during WFIP-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, T.; Long, C.; Lantz, K. O.; Choukulkar, A.; Pichugina, Y. L.; McCarty, B.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Marquis, M.

    2017-12-01

    The second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP-2) consisted of an 18-month field deployment of a variety of instrumentation with the principle objective of validating and improving NWP forecasts for wind energy applications in complex terrain. As a part of the set of instrumentation, several scanning Doppler lidars were installed across the study domain to primarily measure profiles of the mean wind and turbulence at high-resolution within the planetary boundary layer. In addition to these measurements, Doppler lidar observations can be used to directly quantify the cloud fraction and cloud base, since clouds appear as a high backscatter return. These supplementary measurements of clouds can then be used to validate cloud cover and other properties in NWP output. Herein, statistics of the cloud fraction and cloud base height from the duration of WFIP-2 are presented. Additionally, these cloud fraction estimates from Doppler lidar are compared with similar measurements from a Total Sky Imager and Radiative Flux Analysis (RadFlux) retrievals at the Wasco site. During mostly cloudy to overcast conditions, estimates of the cloud radiating temperature from the RadFlux methodology are also compared with Doppler lidar measured cloud base height.

  16. Laser Doppler velocimetry primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research in experimental fluid dynamics required a familiarity with sophisticated measurement techniques. In some cases, the development and application of new techniques is required for difficult measurements. Optical methods and in particular, the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) are now recognized as the most reliable means for performing measurements in complex turbulent flows. And such, the experimental fluid dynamicist should be familiar with the principles of operation of the method and the details associated with its application. Thus, the goals of this primer are to efficiently transmit the basic concepts of the LDV method to potential users and to provide references that describe the specific areas in greater detail.

  17. The Effect of Sea Surface Slicks on the Doppler Spectrum Width of a Backscattered Microwave Signal.

    PubMed

    Karaev, Vladimir; Kanevsky, Mikhail; Meshkov, Eugeny

    2008-06-06

    The influence of a surface-active substance (SAS) film on the Doppler spectrum width at small incidence angles is theoretically investigated for the first time for microwave radars with narrow-beam and knife-beam antenna patterns. It is shown that the requirements specified for the antenna system depend on the radar motion velocity. A narrow-beam antenna pattern should be used to detect slicks by an immobile radar, whereas radar with a knife-beam antenna pattern is needed for diagnostics from a moving platform. The study has revealed that the slick contrast in the Doppler spectrum width increases as the radar wavelength diminishes, thus it is preferable to utilize wavelengths not larger than 2 cm for solving diagnostic problems. The contrast in the Doppler spectrum width is generally weaker than that in the radar backscattering cross section; however, spatial and temporal fluctuations of the Doppler spectrum width are much weaker than those of the reflected signal power. This enables one to consider the Doppler spectrum as a promising indicator of slicks on water surface.

  18. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for Planetary Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocanegra Bahamon, Tatiana; Cimo, Giuseppe; Duev, Dmitry; Gurvits, Leonid; Molera Calves, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a technique that allows the determination of the radial velocity and lateral coordinates of planetary spacecraft with very high accuracy (Duev, 2012). The setup of the experiment consists of several ground stations from the European VLBI Network (EVN) located around the globe, which simultaneously perform Doppler tracking of a spacecraft carrier radio signal, and are subsequently processed in a VLBI-style in phase referencing mode. Because of the accurate examination of the changes in phase and amplitude of the radio signal propagating from the spacecraft to the multiple stations on Earth, the PRIDE technique can be used for several fields of planetary research, among which planetary atmospheric studies, gravimetry and ultra-precise celestial mechanics of planetary systems. In the study at hand the application of this technique for planetary atmospheric investigations is demonstrated. As a test case, radio occultation experiments were conducted with PRIDE having as target ESA's Venus Express, during different observing sessions with multiple ground stations in April 2012 and March 2014. Once each of the stations conducts the observation, the raw data is delivered to the correlation center at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE) located in the Netherlands. The signals are processed with a high spectral resolution and phase detection software package from which Doppler observables of each station are derived. Subsequently the Doppler corrected signals are correlated to derive the VLBI observables. These two sets of observables are used for precise orbit determination. The reconstructed orbit along with the Doppler observables are used as input for the radio occultation processing software, which consists of mainly two modules, the geometrical optics module and the ray tracing inversion module, from which vertical density profiles, and subsequently, temperature and pressure profiles of Venus

  19. Doppler aortic flow velocity measurement in healthy children.

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, S.; Kim, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine normal values for Doppler parameters of left ventricular function, ascending aortic blood flow velocity was measured by pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography in 63 healthy children with body surface area (BSA) < 1 m(2) (age < 10 yr). Peak velocity was independent of sex, but increased with body size. Mean acceleration was related to peak velocity (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). Both stroke distance and ejection time had strong negative correlations with heart rate and positive correlations with BSA, suggesting that these parameters should be evaluated in relation to heart rate and body size. Mean intra- and interobserver variability for peak velocity, ejection time, stroke and minute distance ranged from 3 to 7%, whereas variability for acceleration time was 9 to 13%. These data may be used as reference values for the assessment of hemodynamic states in young children with cardiac disease. PMID:11306737

  20. Recent Doppler Backscattering results from EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chu; Liu, Adi; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Mingyuan; Yu, Changxuan; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Sun, Xuan; Xie, Jinlin; Ding, Weixing; CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China Team; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A Doppler reflectometer system has recently been installed in the EAST tokamak. It includes two separated systems, one for Q-band and the other for V-band. The optical system consists of a fixed flat mirror and a steerable parabolic mirror, which enabling the measurement of perpendicular wave number in the range of 4-22/cm, with the wave number resolution around 2/cm, while the radial location can cover the whole minor radius for L mode and the whole pedestal for H mode on EAST. A 2D Gaussion Ray tracing code is used to calculate the scattering location, the perpendicular wave number and the resolution. In EAST last experimental campaign the Doppler shifted signals have been obtained and the radial profiles of the perpendicular propagation velocity during L-mode and H-mode are calculated. The Er evolution during L-H and H-L transition have also been measured. The two separated systems are also used as a poloidal coherent system together to study the GAM in EAST tokamak.

  1. The Pathophysiology of Decompression Sickness and the Effects of Doppler Detectable Bubbles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-18

    Doppler Ultrasound and a calibrated 6 1 Venous Gas Embol i Scale. C. Electronic Counting of Doppler Bubble Signals 72 £ III. Pulmonary Embolism Studies...IA. Background 75 B. Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure following Gas 81 Embolization and Venous Gas Phase Content IC. Effects of Pulmonary Gas... Embolism on the Development 9 of Limb-Bend Decompression Sickness 1 IV. Gas Phase Formation in Highly Perfused Tissues IA. Renal 9 B. Cerebral 9 1 I I V

  2. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  3. Compact and Rugged Transceiver for Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Applications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Trieu, Bo C.; Modlin, Ed A.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Reithmaier, Karl; hide

    2007-01-01

    High-accuracy, vertical profiles of the horizontal vector wind in earth s atmosphere, with the global coverage of an orbiting sensor, are a highly desired measurement of NASA, NOAA, and many other agencies and countries. It is the consensus of NASA and NOAA that the most cost effective, lowest risk measurement method with the earliest achievable mission date is the hybrid Doppler lidar method which utilizes both coherent- and direct-detection Doppler lidars to obtain the desired profiles. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has advanced the 2-micron pulsed solid-state laser greatly over the past 15 years and has recently demonstrated 1.2 J of pulse energy whereas the requirement for a 400-km hybrid Doppler lidar mission is only 0.25 J. The IIP project reported here is an effort to increase the ruggedness and to compactly package the LaRC state-of-the-art laser technology.

  4. Four-dimensional ultrasonography of the fetal heart using color Doppler spatiotemporal image correlation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Lee, Wesley; Treadwell, Marjorie; Chintala, Kavitha; Brandl, Helmut; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2004-04-01

    To describe clinical and research applications of 4-dimensional imaging of the fetal heart using color Doppler spatiotemporal image correlation. Forty-four volume data sets were acquired by color Doppler spatiotemporal image correlation. Seven subjects were examined: 4 fetuses without abnormalities, 1 fetus with ventriculomegaly and a hypoplastic cerebellum but normal cardiac anatomy, and 2 fetuses with cardiac anomalies detected by fetal echocardiography (1 case of a ventricular septal defect associated with trisomy 21 and 1 case of a double-inlet right ventricle with a 46,XX karyotype). The median gestational age at the time of examination was 21 3/7 weeks (range, 19 5/7-34 0/7 weeks). Volume data sets were reviewed offline by multiplanar display and volume-rendering methods. Representative images and online video clips illustrating the diagnostic potential of this technology are presented. Color Doppler spatiotemporal image correlation allowed multiplanar visualization of ventricular septal defects, multiplanar display and volume rendering of tricuspid regurgitation, volume rendering of the outflow tracts by color and power Doppler ultrasonography (both in a normal case and in a case of a double-inlet right ventricle with a double-outlet right ventricle), and visualization of venous streams at the level of the foramen ovale. Color Doppler spatiotemporal image correlation has the potential to simplify visualization of the outflow tracts and improve the evaluation of the location and extent of ventricular septal defects. Other applications include 3-dimensional evaluation of regurgitation jets and venous streams at the level of the foramen ovale.

  5. Repeatability of Doppler ultrasound measurements of hindlimb blood flow in halothane anaesthetised horses.

    PubMed

    Raisis, A L; Young, L E; Meire, H; Walsh, K; Taylor, P M; Lekeux, P

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability of femoral blood flow recorded using Doppler ultrasound in anaesthetised horses. Doppler ultrasound of the femoral artery and vein was performed in 6 horses anaesthetised with halothane and positioned in left lateral recumbency. Velocity spectra, recorded using low pulse repetition frequency, were used to calculate time-averaged mean velocity (TAV), velocity of component a (TaVa), velocity of component b (TaVb), volumetric flow, early diastolic deceleration slope (EDDS) and pulsatility index (PI). Within-patient variability was determined for sequential Doppler measurements recorded during a single standardised anaesthetic episode. Within-patient variability was also determined for Doppler and cardiovascular measurements recorded during 4 separate standardised anaesthetic episodes performed at intervals of at least one month. Within-patient variation during a single anaesthetic episode was small. Coefficients of variation (cv) were <12.5% for arterial measurements and <17% for venous measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.75 for all measurements. No significant change was observed in measurements of cardiovascular function suggesting that within-patient variation observed during a single anaesthetic episode was due to measurement error. In contrast, within-patient variation during 4 separate anaesthetic episodes was marked (cv>17%) for most Doppler measurements obtained from arteries and veins. Variation in measurements of cardiovascular function were marked (cv>20%), suggesting that there is marked biological variation in central and peripheral observed. Further studies are warranted to determine the ability of this technique to detect differences in blood flow during administration of different anaesthetic agents.

  6. Hurricane Wind Field Measurements with Scanning Airborne Doppler Lidar During CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, D. R.; Howell, J. N.; Darby, L. S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Traff, D. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998 Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3), the first hurricane wind field measurements with Doppler lidar were achieved. Wind fields were mapped within the eye, along the eyewall, in the central dense overcast, and in the marine boundary layer encompassing the inflow region. Spatial coverage was determined primarily by cloud distribution and opacity. Within optically-thin cirrus slant range of 20- 25 km was achieved, whereas no propagation was obtained during penetration of dense cloud. Measurements were obtained with the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. MACAWS was developed and operated cooperatively by the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A pseudo-dual Doppler technique ("co-planar scanning") is used to map the horizontal component of the wind at several vertical levels. Pulses from the laser are directed out the left side of the aircraft in the desired directions using computer-controlled rotating prisms. Upon exiting the aircraft, the beam is completely eyesafe. Aircraft attitude and speed are taken into account during real-time signal processing, resulting in determination of the ground-relative wind to an accuracy of about 1 m/s magnitude and about 10 deg direction. Beam pointing angle errors are about 0.1 deg, equivalent to about 17 m at 10 km. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km (along-track) for typical signal processor and scanner settings; vertical resolution varies with range. Results from CAMEX-3 suggest that scanning Doppler wind lidar can complement airborne Doppler radar by providing wind field measurements in regions that are devoid of hydrometeors. At present MACAWS observations are being assimilated into experimental forecast models and satellite Doppler wind lidar simulations to evaluate the relative impact.

  7. Potential of Higher Moments of the Radar Doppler Spectrum for Studying Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehnert, U.; Maahn, M.

    2015-12-01

    More observations of ice clouds are required to fill gaps in understanding of microphysical properties and processes. However, in situ observations by aircraft are costly and cannot provide long term observations which are required for a deeper understanding of the processes. Ground based remote sensing observations have the potential to fill this gap, but their observations do not contain sufficient information to unambiguously constrain ice cloud properties which leads to high uncertainties. For vertically pointing cloud radars, usually only reflectivity and mean Doppler velocity are used for retrievals; some studies proposed also the use of Doppler spectrum width.In this study, it is investigated whether additional information can be obtained by exploiting also higher moments of the Doppler spectrum such as skewness and kurtosis together with the slope of the Doppler peak. For this, observations of pure ice clouds from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in Alaska 2008 are analyzed. Using the ISDAC data set, an Optimal Estimation based retrieval is set up based on synthetic and real radar observations. The passive and active microwave radiative transfer model (PAMTRA) is used as a forward model together with the Self-Similar Rayleigh-Gans approximation for estimation of the scattering properties. The state vector of the retrieval consists of the parameters required to simulate the radar Doppler spectrum and describes particle mass, cross section area, particle size distribution, and kinematic conditions such as turbulence and vertical air motion. Using the retrieval, the information content (degrees of freedom for signal) is quantified that higher moments and slopes can contribute to an ice cloud retrieval. The impact of multiple frequencies, radar sensitivity and radar calibration is studied. For example, it is found that a single-frequency measurement using all moments and slopes contains already more information content than a dual

  8. Potential of Higher Moments of the Radar Doppler Spectrum for Studying Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, M. F.; Rigby, M. L.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Saito, T.; Harth, C. M.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P.; Arnold, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, P.; Fraser, P. J.; Li, S.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Young, D.; Simmonds, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    More observations of ice clouds are required to fill gaps in understanding of microphysical properties and processes. However, in situ observations by aircraft are costly and cannot provide long term observations which are required for a deeper understanding of the processes. Ground based remote sensing observations have the potential to fill this gap, but their observations do not contain sufficient information to unambiguously constrain ice cloud properties which leads to high uncertainties. For vertically pointing cloud radars, usually only reflectivity and mean Doppler velocity are used for retrievals; some studies proposed also the use of Doppler spectrum width.In this study, it is investigated whether additional information can be obtained by exploiting also higher moments of the Doppler spectrum such as skewness and kurtosis together with the slope of the Doppler peak. For this, observations of pure ice clouds from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in Alaska 2008 are analyzed. Using the ISDAC data set, an Optimal Estimation based retrieval is set up based on synthetic and real radar observations. The passive and active microwave radiative transfer model (PAMTRA) is used as a forward model together with the Self-Similar Rayleigh-Gans approximation for estimation of the scattering properties. The state vector of the retrieval consists of the parameters required to simulate the radar Doppler spectrum and describes particle mass, cross section area, particle size distribution, and kinematic conditions such as turbulence and vertical air motion. Using the retrieval, the information content (degrees of freedom for signal) is quantified that higher moments and slopes can contribute to an ice cloud retrieval. The impact of multiple frequencies, radar sensitivity and radar calibration is studied. For example, it is found that a single-frequency measurement using all moments and slopes contains already more information content than a dual

  9. Satellite Doppler data processing using a microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, P. E.; Lynn, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A microcomputer which was developed to compute ground radio beacon position locations using satellite measurements of Doppler frequency shift is described. Both the computational algorithms and the microcomputer hardware incorporating these algorithms were discussed. Results are presented where the microcomputer in conjunction with the NIMBUS-6 random access measurement system provides real time calculation of beacon latitude and longitude.

  10. [Vascular complications following kidney transplant: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    PubMed

    Granata, Antonio; Floccari, Fulvio; Lentini, Paolo; Vittoria, Salvatore; Di Pietro, Fabio; Zamboli, Pasquale; Fiorini, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    The progressive decline in the incidence of graft rejection has made urological, surgical, parenchymal and vascular complications of kidney transplant more frequent. The latter, although accounting for only 5-10% of all post-transplant complications, are a frequent cause of graft loss. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of parenchymal and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of vascular complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is very important in case of stenosis of the transplanted renal artery, pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulas, and thrombosis with complete or partial artery or vein occlusion. Doppler and color determinations present high diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of vascular complications of the transplanted kidney, planted kidney.

  11. Parametric Investigation of Laser Doppler Microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Naguib, A.

    2002-11-01

    The concept of a Laser Doppler Microphone (LDM) is based on utilizing the Doppler frequency shift of a focused laser beam to measure the unsteady velocity of the center point of a flexible polymer diaphragm that is mounted on top of a hole and subjected to the unsteady pressure. Time integration of the velocity signal yields a time series of the diaphragm displacement, which can be converted to pressure from knowledge of the sensor's deflection sensitivity. In our APS/DFD presentation last year, the stringent frequency resolution requirement of these new sensors and methods to meet this requirement were discussed. Here, the dependence of the sensor characteristics (sensitivity, bandwidth, and noise floor) on various significant parameters is investigated in detail by calibrating the sensor in a plane wave tube in the frequency range of 50 - 5000 Hz. Parameters investigated include sensor diaphragm material and thickness, sensor size, damping of the diaphragm motion and laser beam spot size. The results shed light on the operating limits of the new sensor and demonstrate its ability to conduct high-spatial-resolution measurements in typical high-Reynolds-number test facilities. Moreover, calibrated LDM sensors were used to conduct measurements in a separating/reattaching flow and the results are compared to classical electret-type microphones with a similar sensing diameter.

  12. Doppler lidar signal and turbulence study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Huang, K. H.; Fitzjarrald, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the second moments of the Doppler lidar signal with aircraft and tower measured parameters is being carried out. Lidar binary data tapes were successfully converted to ASCII Code on the VAX 11/780. These data were used to develop the computer programs for analyzing data from the Marshall Space Flight Center field test. Raw lidar amplitude along the first 50 forward and backward beams of Run No. 2, respectively was plotted. Plotting techniques for the same beams except with the amplitude thresholded and range corrected were developed. Plotting routines for the corresponding lidar width of the first 50 forward and backward beams were also established. The relationship between raw lidar amplitude and lidar width was examined. The lidar width is roughly constant for lidar amplitudes less than 120 dB. A field test with the NASA/MSFC ground based Doppler lidar, the instrumented NASA B-57B gust gradient aircraft, and the NASA/MSFC eight tower array was carried out. The data tape for the lidar was received and read. The aircraft data and tower data are being digitized and converted to engineering units. Velocities computed sequentially along each of the lidar beams beginning at 16:40:00, May 12, 1983 were plotted for Run No. 1.

  13. [Identification of cervical lymph node micrometastasis of tongue cancer by color Doppler and MRI].

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufeng; Zhang, Quan; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lina; Zheng, Lie; Liu, Longzhong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the values of color Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of cervical lymph node micrometastasis of tongue cancer. Totally 96 cases of tongue cancer with impalpable neck lymph node was examined with color Doppler and MRI within one week before surgery. Chi-square test was used to assess if the presence of regional lymph node micrometastasis, histopathological analysis as a golden standard lymph node micrometastasis. For the diagnosis of cervical lymph node micrometastasis, color Doppler was significantly better than MRI in sensitivity (72.5% vs 50.0%, P = 0.039) and the accuracy (78.1% vs 64.6%, P = 0.038), but no significant difference in the specificity (82.1% vs 75.0%, P = 0.357), the positive predictive value (74.4% vs 58.8%, P = 0.159) and the negative predictive value (80.7% vs 67.7%, P = 0.108). Color Doppler is better than MRI in the sensitivity and accuracy for the diagnosis of cervical lymph node micrometastasis of tongue cancer.

  14. Relationship of spaced antenna and Doppler techniques for velocity measurements (keynote paper), part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Doppler, spaced-antenna and interferometric methods of measuring wind velocities all use the same basic information, the Doppler shifts imposed on backscattered radio waves, but they process it in different ways. The Doppler technique is most commonly used at VHF since the narrow radar beams are readily available. However, the spaced antenna (SA) method has been successfully used with the SOUSY and Adelaide radars. At MF/HF the spaced antenna method is widely used since the large antenna arrays (diameter 1 km) required to generate narrow beams are expensive to construct. Where such arrays of this size are available then the Doppler method has been successfully used (e.g., Adelaide and Brisbane). In principle, the factors which influence the choice of beam pointing angle, the optimum antenna spacing will be the same whether operation is at MF or VHF. Many of the parameters which govern the efficient use of wind measuring systems have been discussed at previous MST workshops. Some of the points raised by these workshops are summarized.

  15. Polarimetric Doppler spectrum of backscattered echoes from nonlinear sea surface damped by natural slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengju; Guo, Lixin

    2016-11-01

    Based on the Lombardini et al. model that can predict the hydrodynamic damping of rough sea surfaces in the presence of monomolecular slicks and the "choppy wave" model (CWM) that can describe the nonlinear interactions between ocean waves, the modeling of time-varying nonlinear sea surfaces damped by natural or organic sea slicks is presented in this paper. The polarimetric scattering model of second-order small-slope approximation (SSA-II) with tapered wave incidence is utilized for evaluating co- and cross-polarized backscattered echoes from clean and contaminated CWM nonlinear sea surfaces. The influence of natural sea slicks on Doppler shift and spectral bandwidth of radar sea echoes is investigated in detail by comparing the polarimetric Doppler spectra of contaminated sea surfaces with those of clean sea surfaces. A narrowing of Doppler spectra in the presence of oil slicks is observed for both co- and cross-polarization, which is qualitatively consistent with wave-tank measurements. Simulation results also show that the Doppler shifts in slicks can increase or decrease, depending on incidence angles and polarizations.

  16. Angiosonography in suspicious breast lesions with non-diagnostic FNAC: comparison with power Doppler US.

    PubMed

    Caumo, F; Carbognin, G; Casarin, A; Pinali, L; Vasori, S; D'Onofrio, M; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of angiosonography in comparison with colour Doppler ultrasound (US) in the discrimination of suspicious breast lesions with nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Pre-operative Power Doppler US and angiosonography were prospectively performed in 20 suspicious breast lesions with non-diagnostic FNAC. A second-generation US contrast agent was utilised with a high-frequency transducer and a contrast-specific algorithm (low acoustic pressure CnTI). The enhancement characteristics of all lesions were analysed using qualitative and quantitative parameters obtained from time-intensity curves with the different imaging modalities. The final diagnosis was confirmed at pathology in all cases. Microvessel density (MVD) was assessed in the surgical specimen using CD34. The correct assessment of biological behaviour was achieved in all cases by angiosonography (sensitivity of 100%; specificity of 91%) and colour Doppler US (45% sensitivity; 78% specificity). MVD correlated with the biological behaviour. Angiosonography is more accurate than colour Doppler US in the correct assessment of biological behaviour of suspicious breast lesions.

  17. Correction of Doppler Rada Data for Aircraft Motion Using Surface Measurements and Recursive Least-Squares Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S.; Haddad, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Observations of Doppler velocity of hydrometeors form airborne Doppler weather radars normally contains a component due to the aircraft motion. Accurate hydrometeor velocity measurements thus require correction by subtracting this velocity from the observed velocity.

  18. Ionospheric S-shaped Doppler fluctuations produced by the tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Rao, G. L.; Smith, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A three-dimensional nine element HF-CW Doppler sounder array has been used to detect ionospheric disturbances which may be due to tornadoes. The typical events chosen in the present study occurred on November 20 and 27, 1973. Both events are apparently associated with tornadoes sighted in the Huntsville, Alabama area. The Doppler records show S-shaped waves rather than the quasi-sinusoidal waves observed in conjunction with and apparently due to thunderstorms. The wave-periods are in the range of 6 to 8 minutes instead of the 3 to 5 minute periods associated with thunderstorms. Dissipation of waves is mostly due to the evanescent effect and they cannot propagate very far from the path of the tornado center. A theory is presented which is in good agreement with the observations.

  19. In-Suit Doppler Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Arthur E.; Greene, Ernest R.; Nadeau, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform a technology assessment survey of non-invasive air embolism detection utilizing Doppler ultrasound methodologies. The primary application of this technology will be a continuous monitor for astronauts while performing extravehicular activities (EVA's). The technology assessment was to include: (1) development of a full understanding of all relevant background research; and (2) a survey of the medical ultrasound marketplace for expertise, information, and technical capability relevant to this development. Upon completion of the assessment, LSR was to provide an overview of technological approaches and R&D/manufacturing organizations.

  20. In vivo photoacoustic tomography of total blood flow and Doppler angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    As two hallmarks of cancer, angiogenesis and hypermetabolism are closely related to increased blood flow. Volumetric blood flow measurement is important to understanding the tumor microenvironment and developing new means to treat cancer. Current photoacoustic blood flow estimation methods focus on either the axial or transverse component of the flow vector. Here, we propose a method to compute the total flow speed and Doppler angle by combining the axial and transverse flow measurements. Both the components are measured in M-mode. Collating the A-lines side by side yields a 2D matrix. The columns are Hilbert transformed to compare the phases for the computation of the axial flow. The rows are Fourier transformed to quantify the bandwidth for the computation of the transverse flow. From the axial and transverse flow components, the total flow speed and Doppler angle can be derived. The method has been verified by flowing bovine blood in a plastic tube at various speeds from 0 to 7.5 mm/s and at Doppler angles from 30 to 330°. The measurement error for total flow speed was experimentally determined to be less than 0.3 mm/s; for the Doppler angle, it was less than 15°. In addition, the method was tested in vivo on a mouse ear. The advantage of this method is simplicity: No system modification or additional data acquisition is required to use our existing system. We believe that the proposed method has the potential to be used for cancer angiogenesis and hypermetabolism imaging.

  1. [Comparison between two methods for hemodynamic measurement: thermodilution and oesophageal doppler].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberto Manara Victorio; do Amaral, José Luiz Gomes; Valiatti, Jorge Luís dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Thermodilution (TD) is the "gold standard method" for hemodynamic monitoring. Some parameters can be measured by Oesophageal Doppler (OD), which is simpler and less invasive. To evaluate the accuracy of OD, we compared this method with TD in measurement of cardiac output (CO). One hundred and ninety two simultaneous measurements were made in 10 patients (5 male and 5 female) with different clinical situations, 8 with sepsis using vasoactive drugs and 2 monitored for laryngectomy and liver transplantation. Measurements were taken during 4 hours at 30 minute intervals. The two oesophageal dopplers used DeltexR and ArrowR, were introduced between 35 and 45 cm from the nose and located at the point of largest diameter of the descending aorta. In TD, we used the pulmonary artery catheter (Swan Ganz BaxterR) and the DX- 2001 monitorR positioning was confirmed with support of radiology and of pressures curves. Measurements of CO carried out by means of TD were achieved using an iced saline solution considering the mean of four measurements with less than a 5% difference. The statistical method used was the Bland-Altman scatter plot and dispersion graphic. No statistically significant difference was found between the two methods for hemodyamic measurement with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 for CO (Deltex DopplerR and Baxter Swan GanzR) and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 for CO (Arrow DopplerR and Baxter Swan GanzR). Homodynamic measurements with OD have the same accuracy as those with TD and were easily obtained in the 10 patients.

  2. The effect of blood acceleration on the ultrasound power Doppler spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchenko, O. S.; Barannik, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of blood acceleration and time window length on the power Doppler spectrum for Gaussian ultrasound beams. The work has been carried out on the basis of continuum model of the ultrasound scattering from inhomogeneities in fluid flow. Correlation function of fluctuations has been considered for uniformly accelerated scatterers, and the resulting power Doppler spectra have been calculated. It is shown that within the initial phase of systole uniformly accelerated slow blood flow in pulmonary artery and aorta tends to make the correlation function about 4.89 and 7.83 times wider, respectively, than the sensitivity function of typical probing system. Given peak flow velocities, the sensitivity function becomes, vice versa, about 4.34 and 3.84 times wider, respectively, then the correlation function. In these limiting cases, the resulting spectra can be considered as Gaussian. The optimal time window duration decreases with increasing acceleration of blood flow and equals to 11.62 and 7.54 ms for pulmonary artery and aorta, respectively. The width of the resulting power Doppler spectrum is shown to be defined mostly by the wave vector of the incident field, the duration of signal and the acceleration of scatterers in the case of low flow velocities. In the opposite case geometrical properties of probing field and the average velocity itself are more essential. In the sense of signal-noise ratio, the optimal duration of time window can be found. Abovementioned results may contribute to the improved techniques of Doppler ultrasound diagnostics of cardiovascular system.

  3. Noninvasive estimation of cardiac systolic function using continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography in dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Masui, Y; Masuda, K; Fujinaga, T

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive estimation of cardiac systolic function using transthoracic continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography in dogs with mitral regurgitation. Seven mongrel dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation were used. Left ventriculography and measurement of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were performed under inhalational anaesthesia. A micromanometer-tipped catheter was placed into the left ventricle and transthoracic echocardiography was carried out. The peak rate of left ventricular pressure rise (peak dP/dt) was derived simultaneously by continuous-wave Doppler and manometer measurements. The Doppler-derived dP/dt was compared with the catheter-measured peak dP/dt in the dogs. Classification of the severity of mitral regurgitation in the dogs was as follows: 1+, 2 dogs; 2+, 1 dog; 3+, 2 dogs; 4+, 1 dog; and not examined, 1 dog. We were able to derive dP/dt from the transthoracic continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography in all dogs. Doppler-derived dP/dt had a significant correlation with the catheter-measured peak dP/dt (r = 0.90, P < 0.0001). It was demonstrated that transthoracic continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography is a feasible method of noninvasive estimation of cardiac systolic function in dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation and may have clinical usefulness in canine patients with spontaneous mitral regurgitation.

  4. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  5. Portable fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock wave diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    1993-01-01

    Testing and analysis of shock wave characteristics such as detonators and ground shock propagation frequently require a method of measuring velocity and displacement of the surface of interest. One method of measurement is Doppler interferometry. The VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) uses Doppler interferometry and has gained wide acceptance as the preferred tool for shock measurement. An important asset of VISAR is that it measures velocity and displacement nonintrusively.

  6. New Cricetid Rodents from Strata near the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Erden Obo Section (Nei Mongol, China).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    New cricetids (Eucricetodon wangae sp. nov., Eucricetodon sp. and Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis sp. nov.) are reported from the lower and middle parts of the "Upper Red" beds of the Erden Obo section in Nei Mongol, China. Eucricetodon wangae is more primitive than other known species of the genus from lower Oligocene of Asia and Europe in having a single anterocone on M1, a single connection between the protocone and the paracone, the anterior metalophule connection in M1-2 and weaker anteroconid and ectomesolophid in lower molars. Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis is more advanced than other species of the genus in permanently missing P4 and having posterior protolophule connection. These fossils suggest that the age of the "Upper Red" of the Erden Obo section is younger than the age of the Upper Eocene Houldjin and Caijiachong formations, but older than those containing the Shandgolian faunas; the "Upper Red" is most closely correlative to the Ergilian beds in age, and probably close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Given the age estimate, Eucricetodon wangae provides the new evidence to support that cricetid dispersal from Asia to Europe occurred prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

  7. Analytical estimates of the PP-algorithm at low number of Doppler periods per pulse length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, M. D.; Stoykova, E. V.; Stoyanov, D. V.

    1992-01-01

    When discussing the Doppler velocity estimators, it is of significant interest to analyze their behavior at a low number of Doppler periods n(sub D) = 2v(sub r)t(sub s)/lambda is approximately equal to 1 within the resolution cell t(sub s) (v(sub 4) is the radial velocity, lambda is the wavelength). Obviously, at n(sub D) is approximately less than 1 the velocity error is essentially increased. The problem of low n(sub D) arises in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), where higher resolutions are usually required but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is relatively high. In this work analytical expression for the relative root mean square (RMS) error of the PP Doppler estimator at low number of periods for a narrowband Doppler signal and arbitrary model of the noise correlation function is obtained. The results are correct at relatively high SNR. The analysis is supported by computer simulations at various SNR's.

  8. Doppler Data and Density Profile from Cassini Saturn Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M.; Boone, D.; Roth, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    After thirteen years of surveying the Saturnian system and providing a multitude of ground-breaking science data, the Cassini spacecraft will perform its final act on September 15, 2017 when it plunges into Saturn's upper atmosphere. This `close contact' with uncharted territory will deliver sets of data about Saturn that were not previously obtainable. In addition to new information obtained from various science instruments onboard, the doppler signal, primarily used for navigation purposes throughout the tour, will in this circumstance furnish a glimpse of the atmospheric density along Cassini's path through the upper atmosphere. In this talk we will discuss preliminary results from our analysis of the doppler data and its implication on the atmospheric density.

  9. Doppler lidar power, aperture diameter, and FFT size trade-off study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David B.; Budge, Scott E.

    2017-05-01

    In the design or selection of a Doppler lidar instrument for a spacecraft landing system, it is important to evaluate the balance between performance requirements and cost, weight, and power consumption. Leveraging the capability of LadarSIM, a trade-off study was performed to evaluate the interaction between the laser transmission power, aperture diameter, and FFT size in a Doppler lidar system. For this study the probabilities of detection and false alarm were calculated using LadarSIM to simulate FMCW lidar systems with varying power, aperture diameter, and FFT size. This paper reports the results of this trade-off study.

  10. Pipe flow measurements of turbulence and ambiguity using laser-Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, N. S.; Dunning, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The laser-Doppler ambiguities predicted by George and Lumley (1973) have been verified experimentally for turbulent pipe flows. Experiments were performed at Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 15,000 at the center line and near the wall. Ambiguity levels were measured from power spectral densities of FM demodulated laser signals and were compared with calculations based on the theory. The turbulent spectra for these water flows after accounting for the ambiguity were equivalent to hot-film measurements at similar Reynolds numbers. The feasibility of laser-Doppler measurements very close to the wall in shear flows is demonstrated.

  11. Modeling the Performance of Direct-Detection Doppler Lidar Systems in Real Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Hart, William D.; McKay, Jack A.; Spinhirne, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Previous modeling of the performance of spaceborne direct-detection Doppler lidar systems has assumed extremely idealized atmospheric models. Here we develop a technique for modeling the performance of these systems in a more realistic atmosphere, based on actual airborne lidar observations. The resulting atmospheric model contains cloud and aerosol variability that is absent in other simulations of spaceborne Doppler lidar instruments. To produce a realistic simulation of daytime performance, we include solar radiance values that are based on actual measurements and are allowed to vary as the viewing scene changes. Simulations are performed for two types of direct-detection Doppler lidar systems: the double-edge and the multi-channel techniques. Both systems were optimized to measure winds from Rayleigh backscatter at 355 nm. Simulations show that the measurement uncertainty during daytime is degraded by only about 10-20% compared to nighttime performance, provided a proper solar filter is included in the instrument design.

  12. Imaging shear wave propagation for elastic measurement using OCT Doppler variance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiang; Miao, Yusi; Qu, Yueqiao; Ma, Teng; Li, Rui; Du, Yongzhao; Huang, Shenghai; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have developed an acoustic radiation force orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) method for the visualization of the shear wave and the calculation of the shear modulus based on the OCT Doppler variance method. The vibration perpendicular to the OCT detection direction is induced by the remote acoustic radiation force (ARF) and the shear wave propagating along the OCT beam is visualized by the OCT M-scan. The homogeneous agar phantom and two-layer agar phantom are measured using the ARFOE-OCE system. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to measure the shear modulus beyond the OCT imaging depth. The OCT Doppler variance method, instead of the OCT Doppler phase method, is used for vibration detection without the need of high phase stability and phase wrapping correction. An M-scan instead of the B-scan for the visualization of the shear wave also simplifies the data processing.

  13. Sizing gaseous emboli using Doppler embolic signal intensity.

    PubMed

    Banahan, Caroline; Hague, James P; Evans, David H; Patel, Rizwan; Ramnarine, Kumar V; Chung, Emma M L

    2012-05-01

    Extension of transcranial Doppler embolus detection to estimation of bubble size has historically been hindered by difficulties in applying scattering theory to the interpretation of clinical data. This article presents a simplified approach to the sizing of air emboli based on analysis of Doppler embolic signal intensity, by using an approximation to the full scattering theory that can be solved to estimate embolus size. Tests using simulated emboli show that our algorithm is theoretically capable of sizing 90% of "emboli" to within 10% of their true radius. In vitro tests show that 69% of emboli can be sized to within 20% of their true value under ideal conditions, which reduces to 30% of emboli if the beam and vessel are severely misaligned. Our results demonstrate that estimation of bubble size during clinical monitoring could be used to distinguish benign microbubbles from potentially harmful macrobubbles during intraoperative clinical monitoring. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multipoint photonic doppler velocimetry using optical lens elements

    DOEpatents

    Frogget, Brent Copely; Romero, Vincent Todd

    2014-04-29

    A probe including a fisheye lens is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into fisheye lens, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to an index-matching lens and eventually to a fisheye lens. The fiber array flat polished and coupled to the index-matching lens using index-matching gel. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays through the fisheye lens which in turn project many measurement points at numerous different locations to establish surface coverage over a hemispherical shape with very little crosstalk.

  15. Assessment of internal mammary artery and saphenous vein graft patency and flow reserve using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirillo, F.; Bruni, A.; Balestra, G.; Cavallini, C.; Olivari, Z.; Thomas, J. D.; Stritoni, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in the identification of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) flow for assessing graft patency. DESIGN: The initial study group comprised 45 consecutive patients with previous CABG undergoing elective cardiac catheterisation for recurrent ischaemia. The Doppler variables best correlated with angiographic graft patency were then tested prospectively in a further 84 patients (test group). SETTING: Three tertiary referral centres. INTERVENTIONS: Flow velocities in grafts were recorded at rest and during hyperaemia induced by dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg/4 min), under the guidance of transthoracic colour Doppler flow mapping. Findings on transthoracic Doppler were compared with angiography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility of identifying open grafts by Doppler and diagnostic accuracy for Doppler detection of significant (>/= 70%) graft stenosis. RESULTS: In the test group the identification rate for mammary artery grafts was 100%, for saphenous vein grafts to left anterior descending coronary artery 91%, for vein grafts to right coronary artery 96%, and for vein grafts to circumflex artery 90%. Coronary flow reserve (the ratio between peak diastolic velocity under hyperaemia and at baseline) of < 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.83 to 2.08) had 100% sensitivity, 98% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value for mammary artery graft stenosis. Coronary flow reserve of < 1.6 (95% CI 1.51 to 1.73) had 91% sensitivity, 87% specificity, 85.4% positive predictive value, and 92.3% negative predictive value for significant vein graft stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Transthoracic Doppler can provide non-invasive assessment of CABG patency.

  16. A chimaeric-pattern flap design for implantable Doppler surrogate monitoring: a novel placement technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Ho, Samuel Y M; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-02-01

    Postoperative flap monitoring is a vital aspect of free tissue transfer in order to detect early vascular compromise and to enable early flap salvage. The implantable Doppler monitoring system is one of many monitoring devices used to ensure accuracy and reduce unnecessary flap explorations. However, there are a number of concerns with its use, namely tension on the anastomosis, possible vessel constriction and false-negative detection. This study aimed to alleviate these concerns, by introducing a new method of placing the implantable Doppler probe on the adjacent vessel limb of a chimaeric flap. This is illustrated by a case series of chimaeric free tissue flaps that allow this surrogate placement of the Doppler probe. The flap is raised in a chimaeric fashion, with a main perforator pedicle to the skin or muscle paddle for the main reconstructive purpose and a side branch from the main pedicle going to a smaller adipofascial or muscle flap for monitoring. This branch vascular pedicle leading to the chimaeric tissue is kept sufficiently long to enable placement of the Doppler cuff and prevent turbulence. The probe of a Cook-Swartz implantable Doppler system is placed around the branch pedicle, approximately 5 mm from the branching point, and secured with a vessel clip. This is then secured away from the major vessels of the main free flap. Removal of the probe's crystal and wire is easily done with a single gentle traction on postoperative day 7. Five cases of chimaeric free flaps were performed with this manoeuvre: three thoracodorsal perforator chimaeric flaps for head-and-neck or extremity reconstruction, one latissimus dorsi neuromuscular chimaeric flap for facial reanimation and one digastric lymph node transfer for the treatment of lower limb lymphoedema. The Doppler system showed a low but sustained oscillating flow in all cases indicating vascular patency, with minimal flow interference from other large-calibre vessels. There was no discernible kinking on

  17. Tissue Doppler Imaging in the evaluation of abdominal aortic pulsatility: a useful tool for the neonatologist.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Grison, Alessandra; Capretta, Anna; Golin, Rosanna; Ferrarese, Paola; Bellettato, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Sonographic cardiac evaluation of newborns with suspected aortic coarctation (AoC) should tend to demonstrate a good phasic and pulsatile flow and the absence of pressure gradient along a normally conformed aortic arch from the modified left parasternal and suprasternal echocardiographic views; these findings, however, may not necessarily rule out a more distal coarctation in the descending aorta. For this reason, the sonographic exam of newborns with suspected AoC should always include a Doppler evaluation of abdominal aortic blood flow from the subcostal view. Occasionally, however, a clearly pulsatile Doppler flow trace in abdominal aorta may be difficult to obtain due to the bad insonation angle existing between the probe and the vessel. In such suboptimal ultrasonic alignment situation, the use of Tissue Doppler Imaging instead of classic Doppler flow imaging may reveal a preserved aortic pulsatility by sampling the aortic wall motion induced by normal flow. We propose to take advantage of the TDI pattern as a surrogate of a normal pulsatile Doppler flow trace in abdominal aorta when the latter is difficult to obtain due to malalignment with the insonated vessel.

  18. AMSNEXRAD-Automated detection of meteorite strewnfields in doppler weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankey, Michael; Fries, Marc; Matson, Rob; Fries, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    For several years meteorite recovery in the United States has been greatly enhanced by using Doppler weather radar images to determine possible fall zones for meteorites produced by witnessed fireballs. While most fireball events leave no record on the Doppler radar, some large fireballs do. Based on the successful recovery of 10 meteorite falls 'under the radar', and the discovery of radar on more than 10 historic falls, it is believed that meteoritic dust and or actual meteorites falling to the ground have been recorded on Doppler weather radar (Fries et al., 2014). Up until this point, the process of detecting the radar signatures associated with meteorite falls has been a manual one and dependent on prior accurate knowledge of the fall time and estimated ground track. This manual detection process is labor intensive and can take several hours per event. Recent technological developments by NOAA now help enable the automation of these tasks. This in combination with advancements by the American Meteor Society (Hankey et al., 2014) in the tracking and plotting of witnessed fireballs has opened the possibility for automatic detection of meteorites in NEXRAD Radar Archives. Here in the processes for fireball triangulation, search area determination, radar interfacing, data extraction, storage, search, detection and plotting are explained.

  19. Investigation of laser Doppler techniques using the Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetten, Walter; Gellekum, Thomas; Jessen, Katrin

    1995-01-01

    Laser Doppler techniques are increasingly used in research and clinical applications to study perfusion phenomena in the skin, yet the influences of changing scattering parameters and geometry on the measure of perfusion are not well explored. To investigate these influences, a simulation program based on the Monte Carlo method was developed, which is capable of determining the Doppler spectra caused by moving red blood cells. The simulation model allows for the definition of arbitrary networks of blood vessels with individual velocities. The volume is represented by a voxel tree with adaptive spatial resolution which contains references to the optical properties and is used to store the location dependent photon fluence determined during the simulation. Two evaluation methods for Doppler spectra from biological tissue described in the literate were investigated with the simulation program. The results obtained suggest that both methods give a measure of perfusion nearly proportional to the velocity of the red blood cells. However, simulations done with different geometries of the blood vessels seem to indicate a nonlinear behavior concerning the concentration of red blood cells in the measurement volume. Nevertheless these simulation results may help in the interpretation of measurements obtained from devices using the investigated evaluation methods.

  20. Color Doppler ultrasound evaluation of testicular blood flow in stallions.

    PubMed

    Pozor, M A; McDonnell, S M

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential use of color Doppler ultrasound to characterize blood flow to the stallion testis, and to establish reference values for Doppler measures of blood flow in the testicular artery of the stallion. Both testes from each of 52 horses were examined using a pulsed-wave color Doppler ultrasound with a sector array 5/7.5 MHz transducer with a 1mm gate setting. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the testicular artery were measured in each of two locations, the convoluted aspect (spermatic cord) and the marginal aspect of the artery (on the epididymal edge of testis). We found that: (1) all measures were obtainable; (2) except for EDV, the majority of the measures were higher at the cord location than at the marginal aspect of the artery (P < 0.05); and (3) measures for left and right testes were similar (P > 0.10). Resulting measures from 41 of these stallions (82 testes) that appeared free of testicular pathology provide useful reference values for clinical evaluation. Evaluation of 11 cases with testicular pathology suggested further investigation of possible effects of these various conditions on testicular blood flow and testicular function.

  1. Lab Demonstration of the Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar (HDWL) Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, Catherine T.; Gentry, Bruce; Jordan, Patrick; Dogoda, Peter; Faust, Ed; Kavaya, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The recommended design approach for the 3D Tropospheric Winds mission is a hybrid Doppler lidar which combines the best elements of both a coherent aerosol Doppler lidar operating at 2 micron and a direct detection molecular Doppler lidar operating at 0.355 micron. In support of the mission, we built a novel, compact, light-weighted multi-field of view transceiver where multiple telescopes are used to cover the required four fields of view. A small mechanism sequentially selects both the "transmit" and "receive" fields of view. The four fields are combined to stimulate both the 0.355 micron receiver and the 2 micron receiver. This version is scaled (0.2 micron diameter aperture) from the space-based version but still demonstrates the feasibility of the hybrid approach. The primary mirrors were conventionally light-weighted and coated with dielectric, high reflectivity coatings with high laser damage thresholds at both 2 micron and 0.355 micron. The mechanical structure and mounts were fabricated from composites to achieve dimensional stability while significantly reducing the mass. In the laboratory, we demonstrated the system level functionality at 0.355 micron and at 2 micron raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from 2 to 4.

  2. Lab Demonstration of the Hybrid Doppler Wind Lidar (HDWL) Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marx, Catherine T.; Gentry, Bruce; Jordan, Patrick; Dogoda, Peter; Faust, Ed; Kavaya, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The recommended design approach for the 3D Tropospheric Winds mission is a hybrid Doppler lidar which combines the best elements of both a coherent aerosol Doppler lidar operating at 2 microns and a direct detection molecular Doppler lidar operating at 0.355 microns. In support of the mission, we built a novel, compact, light-weighted multi-field of view transceiver where multiple telescopes are used to cover the required four fields of view. A small mechanism sequentially selects both the "transmit" and "receive" fields of view. The four fields are combined to stimulate both the 0.355 micron receiver and the 2 micron receiver. This version is scaled (0.2 m diameter aperture) from the space-based version but still demonstrates the feasibility of the hybrid approach. The primary mirrors were conventionally light-weighted and coated with dielectric, high reflectivity coatings with high laser damage thresholds at both 2 microns and 0.355 microns. The mechanical structure and mounts were fabricated from composites to achieve dimensional stability while significantly reducing the mass. In the laboratory, we demonstrated the system level functionality at 0.355 microns and at 2 microns, raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) from 2 to 4.

  3. [Validation of a new hand-carried ultrasound device equipped with directional color power Doppler and continuous wave Doppler].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Junichi; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Matsuzaki, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Kazuto; Yagi, Toshikazu; Fujii, Yoko; Konda, Toshiko; Ui, Kazuyo; Sumida, Toshiaki; Okada, Midori; Tani, Tomoko; Morioka, Shigefumi

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of the directional color power Doppler (DCPD) and continuous wave Doppler (CWD) methods incorporated in the new hand-carried SonoSite 180PLUS ultrasound device. The hand-held ultrasound system with 2.5 MHz transducer and SONOS 5500 was used as a standard ultrasound system with a 2 to 4 MHz wideband transducer. The experimental study used a Doppler wire phantom to evaluate the influence of target wire speed and angle of transducer on DCPD imaging. The clinical study included 48 consecutive patients. DCPD assessment of valvular regurgitation measured the distances of DCPD signals of mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve regurgitation using the apical four-chamber view for comparison with standard echocardiography. CWD assessment measured the peak velocities of the aortic flow and tricuspid valve regurgitant flow for comparison with standard echocardiography. In the experimental study, DCPD signals were not influenced by target wire speed changes and transducer incident angles. In the clinical study, agreements for mitral, aortic and tricuspid regurgitation between the two methods were 89.6%, 81.8% and 78.7%, respectively. The distances of DCPD valve regurgitant signals by the hand-carried ultrasound device showed good correlation (mitral regurgitation: y = 0.84x + 0.55; r = 0.93, aortic regurgitation: y = 0.95x + 0.27; r = 0.94, tricuspid regurgitation: y = 0.86x + 0.61; r = 0.90) with those by standard echocardiography. Evaluation of CWD velocity measurements showed good agreement for the lower flow velocities (< 2.0 m/sec). However, underestimation occurred for the high flow velocities (> 2.0 m/sec) compared with those by standard echocardiography (aortic flow: y = 0.80x + 0.11; r = 0.95, tricuspid regurgitation: y = 1.00x - 0.23; r = 0.90). The new hand-carried ultrasound device (SonoSite 180PLUS equipped with DCPD and CWD) is clinically useful for evaluating valvular regurgitations and flow velocities. Further studies are needed to

  4. Performance Bounds on Micro-Doppler Estimation and Adaptive Waveform Design Using OFDM Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata; Barhen, Jacob; Glover, Charles Wayne

    We analyze the performance of a wideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in estimating the micro-Doppler frequency of a target having multiple rotating scatterers (e.g., rotor blades of a helicopter, propellers of a submarine). The presence of rotating scatterers introduces Doppler frequency modulation in the received signal by generating sidebands about the transmitted frequencies. This is called the micro-Doppler effects. The use of a frequency-diverse OFDM signal in this context enables us to independently analyze the micro-Doppler characteristics with respect to a set of orthogonal subcarrier frequencies. Therefore, to characterize the accuracy of micro-Doppler frequency estimation, we compute themore » Cram er-Rao Bound (CRB) on the angular-velocity estimate of the target while considering the scatterer responses as deterministic but unknown nuisance parameters. Additionally, to improve the accuracy of the estimation procedure, we formulate and solve an optimization problem by minimizing the CRB on the angular-velocity estimate with respect to the transmitting OFDM spectral coefficients. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the CRB variations at different values of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of OFDM subcarriers. The CRB values not only decrease with the increase in the SNR values, but also reduce as we increase the number of subcarriers implying the significance of frequency-diverse OFDM waveforms. The improvement in estimation accuracy due to the adaptive waveform design is also numerically analyzed. Interestingly, we find that the relative decrease in the CRBs on the angular-velocity estimate is more pronounced for larger number of OFDM subcarriers.« less

  5. Transient basilar artery occlusion monitored by transcranial color Doppler presenting with a spectacular shrinking deficit: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We describe the case of a 79-year-old Caucasian Italian woman with a transient basilar occlusion monitored by transcranial Doppler, with subsequent recanalization and clinical shrinking deficit. This is the first case of transient basilar occlusive disease diagnosed and monitored by transcranial Doppler. This case is important and needs to be reported because transient basilar occlusion may be easily diagnosed if transcranial Doppler is performed. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman affected by chronic atrial fibrillation and not treated with oral anticoagulants, cardioverted to sinus rhythm during a gastric endoscopy. She then showed a sudden-onset loss of consciousness, horizontal and vertical gaze palsy, tetraparesis and bilateral miosis and coma. Two hours later, the symptoms resolved quickly, leaving no residual neurologic deficits. Transcranial Doppler examination showed a dampened flow in the basilar artery in the emergency examination and a restored flow when the symptoms resolved. Conclusion This is the first case of transient basilar occlusive disease diagnosed and monitored by transcranial Doppler. We believe that transcranial Doppler should be performed in all cases of unexplained acute loss of consciousness, in particular, if associated with signs of brainstem dysfunctions. PMID:20205759

  6. High resolution Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Vincent J.; Hays, Paul B.; Barnes, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution lidar system was implemented to measure winds in the lower atmosphere. The wind speed along the line of sight was determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the aerosol backscattered laser signal. The system in its present configuration is stable, and behaves as indicated by theoretical simulations. This system was built to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector system as a prototype for a spaceborne lidar. The detector system investigated consisted of a plane Fabry-Perot etalon, and a 12-ring anode detector. This system is generically similar to the Fabry-Perot interferometer developed for passive wind measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite. That this detector system performs well in a lidar configuration was demonstrated.

  7. Verification of Wind Measurement with Mobile Laser Doppler System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-09-01

    The Lockheed Mobile Atmospheric Unit is a laser Doppler velocimeter system designed for the remote measurement of the three components of atmospheric wind. The unit was tested at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Table Mountain Test...

  8. [Current role of color Doppler ultrasound in acute renal failure].

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, M; Quaia, E; Rimondini, A; Lubin, E; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2001-01-01

    Acute Renal Failure (ARF) is characterized by a rapid decline of the glomerular filtration rate, due to hypotension (prerenal ARF), obstruction of the urinary tract (post-renal ARF) or renal parenchymal disease (renal ARF). The differential diagnosis among different causes of ARF is based on anamnesis, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. Usually ultrasound (US) is the only imaging examination performed in these patients, because it is safe and readily available. In patients with ARF gray scale US is usually performed to rule out obstruction since it is highly sensitive to recognize hydronephrosis. Patients with renal ARF have no specific changes in renal morphology. The size of the kidneys is usually normal or increased, with smooth margins. Detection of small kidneys suggests underlying chronic renal pathology and worse prognosis. Echogenicity and parenchymal thickness are usually normal, but in some cases there are hyperechogenic kidneys, increased parenchymal thickness and increased cortico-medullary differentiation. Evaluation of renal vasculature with pulsed Doppler US is useful in the differential diagnosis between prerenal ARF and acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and in the diagnosis of renal obstruction. Latest generation US apparatus allow color Doppler and power Doppler evaluation of renal vasculature up to the interlobular vessels. A significant, but non specific, reduction in renal perfusion is usually appreciable in the patients with ARF. There are renal pathologic conditions presenting with ARF in which color Doppler US provides more specific morphologic and functional information. In particular, color Doppler US often provides direct or indirect signs which can lead to the right diagnosis in old patients with chronic renal insufficiency complicated with ARF, in patients with acute pyelonephritis, hepatic disease, vasculitis, thrombotic microangiopathies, and in patients with acute thrombosis of the renal artery and vein. Contrast enhanced US is

  9. Calibration of a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar System using a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, David

    2012-07-01

    As a critical stage of a Project to develop an airborne Direct-Detection Doppler Wind Lidar System, it was possible to exploit a Wind Tunnel of the VZLU, Prague, Czech Republic for a comprehensive series of tests against calibrated Air Speed generated by the Wind Tunnel. The initial results from these test sequences will be presented. The rms wind speed errors were of order 0.25 m/sec - very satisfactory for this class of Doppler Wind Lidar measurements. The next stage of this Project will exploit a more highly-developed laser and detection system for measurements of wind shear, wake vortex and other potentially hazardous meteorological phenomena at Airports. Following the end of this Project, key parts of the instrumentation will be used for routine ground-based Doppler Wind Lidar measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere.

  10. Exact Doppler broadening of tabulated cross sections. [SIGMA 1 kernel broadening method

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1976-07-01

    The SIGMA1 kernel broadening method is presented to Doppler broaden to any required accuracy a cross section that is described by a table of values and linear-linear interpolation in energy-cross section between tabulated values. The method is demonstrated to have no temperature or energy limitations and to be equally applicable to neutron or charged-particle cross sections. The method is qualitatively and quantitatively compared to contemporary approximate methods of Doppler broadening with particular emphasis on the effect of each approximation introduced.

  11. Viking Doppler noise used to determine the radial dependence of electron density in the extended corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.; Rockwell, S. T.; Kwan, M.

    1977-01-01

    The common form for radial dependence of electron density in the extended corona is given. By assuming proportionality between Doppler noise and integrated signal path electron density, Viking Doppler noise can be used to solve for a numerical value of X.

  12. Homogenization of Doppler broadening in spin-noise spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, M. Yu.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Smirnov, D. S.; Belyaev, L. Yu.; Potekhin, R. A.; Glazov, M. M.; Kulyasov, V. N.; Kozlov, G. G.; Aleksandrov, E. B.; Zapasskii, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The spin-noise spectroscopy, being a nonperturbative linear optics tool, is still reputed to reveal a number of capabilities specific to nonlinear optics techniques. The effect of the Doppler broadening homogenization discovered in this work essentially widens these unique properties of spin-noise spectroscopy. We investigate spin noise of a classical system—cesium atoms vapor with admixture of buffer gas—by measuring the spin-induced Faraday rotation fluctuations in the region of D 2 line. The line, under our experimental conditions, is strongly inhomogeneously broadened due to the Doppler effect. Despite that, optical spectrum of the spin-noise power has the shape typical for the homogeneously broadened line with a dip at the line center. This fact is in stark contrast with the results of previous studies of inhomogeneous quantum dot ensembles and Doppler broadened atomic systems. In addition, the two-color spin-noise measurements have shown, in a highly spectacular way, that fluctuations of the Faraday rotation within the line are either correlated or anticorrelated depending on whether the two wavelengths lie on the same side or on different sides of the resonance. The experimental data are interpreted in the frame of the developed theoretical model which takes into account both kinetics and spin dynamics of Cs atoms. It is shown that the unexpected behavior of the Faraday rotation noise spectra and effective homogenization of the optical transition in the spin-noise measurements are related to smallness of the momentum relaxation time of the atoms as compared with their spin-relaxation time. Our findings demonstrate abilities of spin-noise spectroscopy for studying dynamic properties of inhomogeneously broadened ensembles of randomly moving spins.

  13. An Observational Study of a Prefrontal Convective Rainband Using Tamex Single-and Dual-Doppler Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    integration from the surface. Other Doppler studies, e.g., Chong and Testud (1983), Lin et al. 37 (1986), etc, also showed similiar results. 4.3 Variational...Atmos. Sci., 39, 258- 279. Chong, M., and J. Testud , 1983: Three-Dimensional Wind Field Analysis from Dual-Doppler Radar Data. Part III: The Boundary

  14. Doppler lidar wind measurement on Eos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, D.; Bilbro, J.; Beranek, R.; Mabry, J.

    1985-01-01

    A polar-orbiting platform segment of the Earth Observing System (EOS) could carry a CO2-laser based Doppler lidar for recording global wind profiles. Development goals would include the manufacture of a 10 J laser with a 2 yr operational life, space-rating the optics and associated software, and the definition of models for global aerosol distributions. Techniques will be needed for optimal scanning and generating computer simulations which will provide adequately accurate weather predictions.

  15. Micro-Doppler Signal Time-Frequency Algorithm Based on STFRFT.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cunsuo; Han, Yan; Hou, Huiling; Liu, Shengheng; Zhang, Nan

    2016-09-24

    This paper proposes a time-frequency algorithm based on short-time fractional order Fourier transformation (STFRFT) for identification of a complicated movement targets. This algorithm, consisting of a STFRFT order-changing and quick selection method, is effective in reducing the computation load. A multi-order STFRFT time-frequency algorithm is also developed that makes use of the time-frequency feature of each micro-Doppler component signal. This algorithm improves the estimation accuracy of time-frequency curve fitting through multi-order matching. Finally, experiment data were used to demonstrate STFRFT's performance in micro-Doppler time-frequency analysis. The results validated the higher estimate accuracy of the proposed algorithm. It may be applied to an LFM (Linear frequency modulated) pulse radar, SAR (Synthetic aperture radar), or ISAR (Inverse synthetic aperture radar), for improving the probability of target recognition.

  16. How often parametrial involvement leads to post-operative adjuvant treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and type C radical hysterectomy?

    PubMed

    Martinelli, F; Bogani, G; Ditto, A; Carcangiu, M; Papadia, A; Lecce, F; Chiappa, V; Lorusso, D; Raspagliesi, F

    2015-08-01

    Parametrial involvement (PMI) is one of the most important factors influencing prognosis in locally advanced stage cervical cancer (LACC) patients. We aimed to evaluate PMI rate among LACC patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), thus evaluating the utility of parametrectomy in tailor adjuvant treatments. Retrospective evaluation of consecutive 275 patients affected by LACC (IB2-IIB), undergoing NACT followed by type C/class III radical hysterectomy. Basic descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify factors predicting PMI. Survival outcomes were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. PMI was detected in 37 (13%) patients: it was associated with vaginal involvement, lymph node positivity and both in 10 (4%), 5 (2%) and 12 (4%) patients, respectively; while PMI alone was observed in only 10 (4%) patients. Among this latter group, adjuvant treatment was delivered in 3 (1%) patients on the basis of pure PMI; while the remaining patients had other characteristics driving adjuvant treatment. Considering factors predicting PMI we observed that only suboptimal pathological responses (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.22) and vaginal involvement (OR: 1.29 (95%) CI: 1.17, 1.44) were independently associated with PMI. PMI did not correlate with survival (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 0.82, 4.89); while clinical response to NACT (HR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.04), vaginal involvement (HR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.02) and lymph nodes positivity (HR: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.62, 7.41), independently correlated with worse survival outcomes. Our data suggest that PMI had a limited role on the choice to administer adjuvant treatment, thus supporting the potential embrace of less radical surgery in LACC patients undergoing NACT. Further prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Orbit-determination performance of Doppler data for interplanetary cruise trajectories. Part 1: Error analysis methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    An error covariance analysis methodology is used to investigate different weighting schemes for two-way (coherent) Doppler data in the presence of transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors. The analysis focuses on orbit-determination performance in the interplanetary cruise phase of deep-space missions. Analytical models for the Doppler observable and for transmission-media and observing-platform calibration errors are presented, drawn primarily from previous work. Previously published analytical models were improved upon by the following: (1) considering the effects of errors in the calibration of radio signal propagation through the troposphere and ionosphere as well as station-location errors; (2) modelling the spacecraft state transition matrix using a more accurate piecewise-linear approximation to represent the evolution of the spacecraft trajectory; and (3) incorporating Doppler data weighting functions that are functions of elevation angle, which reduce the sensitivity of the estimated spacecraft trajectory to troposphere and ionosphere calibration errors. The analysis is motivated by the need to develop suitable weighting functions for two-way Doppler data acquired at 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). This weighting is likely to be different from that in the weighting functions currently in use; the current functions were constructed originally for use with 2.3 GHz (S-band) Doppler data, which are affected much more strongly by the ionosphere than are the higher frequency data.

  18. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  19. A pseudo-dual-Doppler analysis of cyclic tornadogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, David Collin

    2000-06-01

    Several tornadic storms formed in the Texas Panhandle on 8 June 1995, the date of the last mission of VORTEX (Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment). The southernmost storm in this severe weather outbreak produced a family of at least five tornadoes near the town of McLean. Airborne Doppler radar scans of this storm by the ELDORA (ELectra DOppler RAdar) offer the most detailed look to date at a storm producing a family of tornadoes. The goals of this study were twofold. The first was to determine a pseudo-dual-Doppler wind synthesis method in Cartesian coordinates appropriate for the analysis of the ELDORA data. Unique aspects of this part of the study include a comparison of wind synthesis methods based on variational formulations and the use of a non-uniform moving reference frame for the syntheses. A dual-Doppler formulation in which the radial velocity and continuity equations are all satisfied as weak constraints (Gamache 1997, Shapiro and Mewes 1999) yields a more accurate wind field than traditional (and variational) methods in which the radial velocity equations are satisfied exactly. The second goal of this study was to diagnose both the cyclic process and the formation of individual tornadoes. The McLean storm produced three large tornadoes at 18 min intervals. The last of these then lasted much longer (over one hour) and was stronger than the previous tornadoes. New pre-tornadic vortices formed on the east side of the updraft by tilting of strong environmental low-level horizontal vorticity into the vertical and then stretching of the vertical vorticity within the updraft. The vortices did not mature at low levels until they migrated to the west side of the updraft. Indirect evidence indicates that both baroclinic generation of horizontal vorticity and the rear downdraft may have played roles in tornado formation at this stage. The tornadic potential of a storm appears-to be related to the relative strength of low-level storm

  20. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  1. A novel decision tree approach based on transcranial Doppler sonography to screen for blunt cervical vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Dianna; Aldaghlas, Tayseer; Trickey, Amber W; Rizzo, Anne; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of blunt cervical vascular injuries prevent adverse neurologic sequelae. Current screening criteria can miss up to 22% of these injuries. The study objective was to investigate bedside transcranial Doppler sonography for detecting blunt cervical vascular injuries in trauma patients using a novel decision tree approach. This prospective pilot study was conducted at a level I trauma center. Patients undergoing computed tomographic angiography for suspected blunt cervical vascular injuries were studied with transcranial Doppler sonography. Extracranial and intracranial vasculatures were examined with a portable power M-mode transcranial Doppler unit. The middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, and their asymmetries were used to quantify flow patterns and develop an injury decision tree screening protocol. Student t tests validated associations between injuries and transcranial Doppler predictive measures. We evaluated 27 trauma patients with 13 injuries. Single vertebral artery injuries were most common (38.5%), followed by single internal carotid artery injuries (30%). Compared to patients without injuries, mean flow velocity asymmetry was higher for single internal carotid artery (P = .003) and single vertebral artery (P = .004) injuries. Similarly, pulsatility index asymmetry was higher in single internal carotid artery (P = .015) and single vertebral artery (P = .042) injuries, whereas the lowest pulsatility index was elevated for bilateral vertebral artery injuries (P = .006). The decision tree yielded 92% specificity, 93% sensitivity, and 93% correct classifications. In this pilot feasibility study, transcranial Doppler measures were significantly associated with the blunt cervical vascular injury status, suggesting that transcranial Doppler sonography might be a viable bedside screening tool for trauma. Patient-specific hemodynamic information from transcranial Doppler assessment has the potential to alter

  2. Maternal hemodynamics, fetal biometry and Dopplers in pregnancies followed up for suspected fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llinos A; Ling, Hua Zen; Poon, Liona; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Kametas, Nikos A

    2018-04-01

    To assess whether in a cohort of patients with small for gestational age (SGA) foetuses with estimated fetal weight ≤10 th percentile, maternal hemodynamics, fetal biometry and Dopplers at presentation, can predict the subsequent development of abnormal fetal Dopplers or delivery with birthweight <3 rd percentile. The study population comprised of 86 singleton pregnancies with SGA fetuses presenting at a median gestational age of 32 (range 26-35) weeks. We measured maternal cardiac function with a non-invasive transthoracic bioreactance monitor (NICOM, Cheetah), mean arterial pressure, fetal biometry, umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and uterine artery (UT) pulsatility index (PI) and the deepest vertical pool (DVP) of amniotic fluid. Z-scores of these variables were calculated based on reported reference ranges and the values were compared between those with evidence of abnormal fetal Dopplers at presentation (group 1), those that developed abnormal Dopplers in subsequent visits (group 2) and those who did not develop abnormal Dopplers throughout pregnancy (group 3). Abnormal fetal Dopplers were defined as UAPI >95 th percentile, or MCA PI <5 th percentile. Differences in measured variables at presentation were also compared between pregnancies delivering a baby with birthweight <3 rd and ≥3 rd percentile. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant predictors of birthweight <3 rd percentile and evolution from normal fetal Dopplers to abnormal fetal Dopplers in groups 2 and 3. In the study population 14 (16%) cases were in group 1, 19 (22%) in group 2 and 53 (62%) in group 3. The birthweight was <3 rd percentile in 39 (45%) cases and ≥3 rd percentile in 47 (55%). In the study groups, compared to normal populations, there was decreased cardiac output and stroke volume and increased peripheral vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the deviations from normal were most marked in group 1

  3. Reliability of laser Doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy and Doppler ultrasound for peripheral blood flow measurements during and after exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Choo, Hui C; Nosaka, Kazunori; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Ihsan, Mohammed; Yeo, Chow C; Abbiss, Chris R

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and Doppler ultrasound to assess exercise-induced haemodynamics. Nine men completed two identical trials consisting of 25-min submaximal cycling at first ventilatory threshold followed by repeated 30-s bouts of high-intensity (90% of peak power) cycling in 32.8 ± 0.4°C and 32 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). NIRS (tissue oxygenation index [TOI] and total haemoglobin [tHb]) and LDF (perfusion units [PU]) signals were monitored continuously during exercise, and leg blood flow was assessed by Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after exercise. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; PU/mean arterial pressure (MAP)) was expressed as the percentage change from baseline (%CVC BL ). Coefficients of variation (CVs) as indicators of absolute reliability were 18.7-28.4%, 20.2-33.1%, 42.5-59.8%, 7.8-12.4% and 22.2-30.3% for PU, CVC, %CVC BL , TOI and tHb, respectively. CVs for these variables improved as exercise continued beyond 10 min. CVs for baseline and post-exercise leg blood flow were 17.8% and 10.5%, respectively. CVs for PU, tHb (r 2  = 0.062) and TOI (r 2  = 0.002) were not correlated (P > 0.05). Most variables demonstrated CVs lower than the expected changes (35%) induced by training or heat stress; however, minimum of 10 min exercise is recommended for more reliable measurements.

  4. Exploiting Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra of Mixed-Phase Clouds during ACCEPT Field Experiment to Identify Microphysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, H.; Myagkov, A.; Seifert, P.; Buehl, J.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra offer much information about cloud processes. By analyzing millimeter radar Doppler spectra from cloud-top to -base in mixed-phase clouds in which super-cooled liquid-layers are present we try to tell the microphysical evolution story of particles that are present by disentangling the contributions of the solid and liquid particles to the total radar returns. Instead of considering vertical profiles, dynamical effects are taken into account by following the particle population evolution along slanted paths which are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud. The goal is to identify regions in which different microphysical processes such as new particle formation (nucleation), water vapor deposition, aggregation, riming, or sublimation occurr. Cloud radar measurements are supplemented by Doppler lidar and Raman lidar observations as well as observations with MWR, wind profiler, and radio sondes. The presence of super-cooled liquid layers is identified by positive liquid water paths in MWR measurements, the vertical location of liquid layers (in non-raining systems and below lidar extinction) is derived from regions of high-backscatter and low depolarization in Raman lidar observations. In collocated cloud radar measurements, we try to identify cloud phase in the cloud radar Doppler spectrum via location of the Doppler peak(s), the existence of multi-modalities or the spectral skewness. Additionally, within the super-cooled liquid layers, the radar-identified liquid droplets are used as air motion tracer to correct the radar Doppler spectrum for vertical air motion w. These radar-derived estimates of w are validated by independent estimates of w from collocated Doppler lidar measurements. A 35 GHz vertically pointing cloud Doppler radar (METEK MIRA-35) in linear depolarization (LDR) mode is used. Data is from the deployment of the Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) during the Analysis of the Composition of

  5. Contrast-enhanced power Doppler endosonography and pathological assessment of vascularization in advanced gastric carcinomas--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Iordache, Sevastiţa; Filip, Maria-Monalisa; Georgescu, Claudia-Valentina; Angelescu, Cristina; Ciurea, Tudorel; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Besides representing angiogenesis markers, microvascular density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are two important tools for the assessment of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the Doppler parameters (resistivity and pulsatility indexes) and vascularity index (VI) calculated by contrast-enhanced power Doppler endoscopic ultrasound (CEPD-EUS) in correlation with the expression of intra-tumoral MVD and VEGF in patients with gastric cancer. The study included 20 consecutive patients with advanced gastric carcinoma, but without distant metastasis at initial assessment. All the patients were assessed by contrast-enhanced power Doppler endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) combined with pulsed Doppler examinations in the late venous phase. The vascularity index (VI) was calculated before and after injection of second generation microbubble contrast specific agent (SonoVue 2.4 mL), used as a Doppler signal enhancer. Moreover, pulsed Doppler parameters (resistivity and pulsatility indexes) were further calculated. The correlation between power Doppler parameters and pathological/molecular parameters (MVD assessed through immunohistochemistry with CD31 and CD34, as well as VEGF assessed through real-time PCR) was assessed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for the assessment of prognosis. Significantly statistical correlations were found between post-contrast VI and CD34 (p=0.0226), VEGF (p=0.0231), VEGF-A (p=0.0464) and VEGF-B (p=0.0022) while pre-contrast VI was correlated only with CD34 expression. Pulsatility index and resistivity index were not correlated with MVD or VEGF expression. Survival analysis demonstrated that VEGF-A is an accurate parameter for survival rate (p=0.045), as compared to VEGF (p=0.085) and VEGF-B (p=0.230). We did not find any correlation between the survival rate and ultrasound parameters (RI, PI, pre-contrast VI or post-contrast VI). Assessment of tumor vascularity using contrast

  6. Doppler optical coherence microscopy and tomography applied to inner ear mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Scott; Freeman, Dennis M.; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    While it is clear that cochlear traveling waves underlie the extraordinary sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of mammalian hearing, the underlying micromechanical mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent advances in low coherence measurement techniques show promise over traditional laser Doppler vibrometry and video microscopy, which are limited by low reflectivities of cochlear structures and restricted optical access. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) both utilize a broadband source to limit constructive interference of scattered light to a small axial depth called a coherence gate. The coherence gate can be swept axially to image and measure sub-nanometermore » motions of cochlear structures throughout the cochlear partition. The coherence gate of DOCT is generally narrower than the confocal gate of the focusing optics, enabling increased axial resolution (typically 15 μm) within optical sections of the cochlear partition. DOCM, frequently implemented in the time domain, centers the coherence gate on the focal plane, achieving enhanced lateral and axial resolution when the confocal gate is narrower than the coherence gate. We compare these two complementary systems and demonstrate their utility in studying cellular and micromechanical mechanisms involved in mammalian hearing.« less

  7. Routine preoperative colour Doppler duplex ultrasound scanning in anterolateral thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Lichte, Johanna; Teichmann, Jan; Loberg, Christina; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Bartella, Alexander; Steiner, Timm; Modabber, Ali; Hölzle, Frank; Lethaus, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) is often used to reconstruct the head and neck and depends on one or more skin perforators, which often present with variable anatomy. The aim of this study was to localise and evaluate the precise position of these perforators preoperatively with colour Doppler duplex ultrasound scanning (US). We detected 74 perforators in 30 patients. The mean duration of examination with colour Doppler was 29 (range 13-51) minutes. Adequate perforators and their anatomical course could be detected preoperatively extremely accurately (p<0.001). The mean difference between the preoperatively marked, and the real, positions was 6.3 (range 0-16) mm. There was a highly significant correlation between the accuracy of the prediction and the body mass index of the patient (0.75; p<0.001). Neither the age nor the sex of the patient correlated with the accuracy of the prediction. Colour Doppler duplex US used preoperatively to localise perforators in ALT flaps is reliable and could be adopted as standard procedure. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Doppler Sonography in Early Detection of Splenic Steal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaolun; Quintini, Cristiano; Hashimoto, Koji; Fung, John; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Sands, Mark J; Wang, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    To retrospectively investigate the role of Doppler sonography in the early detection of splenic steal syndrome. Fifty cases of splenic steal syndrome after orthotopic liver transplantation were identified. A control group was matched to the splenic steal syndrome group. Information was collected about the clinical presentation, liver enzyme levels, Doppler sonographic results, and follow-up after patients underwent splenic artery embolization. A persistent hepatic arterial diastolic reversal waveform was observed in 25 patients with splenic steal syndrome versus 0 control patients. The mean hepatic arterial resistive index (RI) values ± SD were 0.95 ± 0.09 in patients with splenic steal syndrome and 0.80 ± 0.10 in control patients (P < .0001). One week after orthotopic liver transplantation, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the RI was 0.884 (95% confidence interval, 0.793-0.975; P = .001) for splenic steal syndrome diagnosis. After splenic artery embolization, there was normalization of the reversal waveform, with an average RI of 0.77 ± 0.11 (P < .0001). Dynamic changes in the hepatic arterial waveform and RI are keys to detecting splenic steal syndrome with Doppler sonography.

  9. Numerical RCS and micro-Doppler investigations of a consumer UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Arne; Aulenbacher, Uwe; Renker, Matthias; Böniger, Urs; Oechslin, Roland; Murk, Axel; Wellig, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This contribution gives an overview of recent investigations regarding the detection of a consumer market unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The steadily increasing number of such drones gives rise to the threat of UAVs interfering civil air traffic. Technologies for monitoring UAVs which are flying in restricted air space, i. e. close to airports or even over airports, are desperately needed. One promising way for tracking drones is to employ radar systems. For the detection and classification of UAVs, the knowledge about their radar cross section (RCS) and micro-Doppler signature is of particular importance. We have carried out numerical and experimental studies of the RCS and the micro-Doppler of an example commercial drone in order to study its detectability with radar systems.

  10. Using Doppler Shifts of GPS Signals To Measure Angular Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    A method has been proposed for extracting information on the rate of rotation of an aircraft, spacecraft, or other body from differential Doppler shifts of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals received by antennas mounted on the body. In principle, the method should be capable of yielding low-noise estimates of rates of rotation. The method could eliminate the need for gyroscopes to measure rates of rotation. The method is based on the fact that for a given signal of frequency ft transmitted by a given GPS satellite, the differential Doppler shift is attributable to the difference between those components of the instantaneous translational velocities of the antennas that lie along the line of sight from the antennas to the GPS satellite.

  11. A comparison of the wavelet and short-time fourier transforms for Doppler spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Guo, Zhenyu; Wang, Weilian; He, Side; Lee, Ting; Loew, Murray

    2003-09-01

    Doppler spectrum analysis provides a non-invasive means to measure blood flow velocity and to diagnose arterial occlusive disease. The time-frequency representation of the Doppler blood flow signal is normally computed by using the short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This transform requires stationarity of the signal during a finite time interval, and thus imposes some constraints on the representation estimate. In addition, the STFT has a fixed time-frequency window, making it inaccurate to analyze signals having relatively wide bandwidths that change rapidly with time. In the present study, wavelet transform (WT), having a flexible time-frequency window, was used to investigate its advantages and limitations for the analysis of the Doppler blood flow signal. Representations computed using the WT with a modified Morlet wavelet were investigated and compared with the theoretical representation and those computed using the STFT with a Gaussian window. The time and frequency resolutions of these two approaches were compared. Three indices, the normalized root-mean-squared errors of the minimum, the maximum and the mean frequency waveforms, were used to evaluate the performance of the WT. Results showed that the WT can not only be used as an alternative signal processing tool to the STFT for Doppler blood flow signals, but can also generate a time-frequency representation with better resolution than the STFT. In addition, the WT method can provide both satisfactory mean frequencies and maximum frequencies. This technique is expected to be useful for the analysis of Doppler blood flow signals to quantify arterial stenoses.

  12. Evaluation of a Delay-Doppler Imaging Algorithm Based on the Wigner-Ville Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-18

    exchanging the frequency and time variables. 2.3 PROPERTIES OF THE WIGNER - VILLE DISTRIBUTION A partial list of the properties of the WVD is provided...ESD-TH-89-163 N Technical Report (N R55 00 Lfl Evaluation of a Delay-Doppler Imaging Algorithm Based on the Wigner - Ville Distribution K.I. Schultz 18...DOPPLER IMAGING ALGORITHM BASED ON THE WIGNER - VILLE DISTRIBUTION K.I. SCHULTZ Group 52 TECHNICAL REPORT 855 18 OCTOBER 1989 Approved for public release

  13. Turbulence measurements using the laser Doppler velocimeter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Berman, N. S.

    1971-01-01

    The photomultiplier signal representing the axial velocity of water within a glass pipe is considered. It is shown that with proper analysis of the photomultiplier signal, the turbulent information that can be obtained in liquid flows is equivalent to results obtained in recent hot film studies. In shear flows the signal from the laser Doppler velocimeter contains additional information which may be related to the average shear.

  14. Turbulence measurements using the laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Berman, N. S.

    1971-01-01

    The photomultiplier signal representing the axial velocity of water within a glass pipe is examined. It is shown that with proper analysis of the photomultiplier signal, the turbulent information that can be obtained in liquid flows is equivalent to recent hot film studies. In shear flows the signal from the laser Doppler velocimeter contains additional information which may be related to the average shear.

  15. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    PubMed Central

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  16. Doppler-shift estimation of flat underwater channel using data-aided least-square approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weiqiang; Liu, Ping; Chen, Fangjiong; Ji, Fei; Feng, Jing

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we proposed a dada-aided Doppler estimation method for underwater acoustic communication. The training sequence is non-dedicate, hence it can be designed for Doppler estimation as well as channel equalization. We assume the channel has been equalized and consider only flat-fading channel. First, based on the training symbols the theoretical received sequence is composed. Next the least square principle is applied to build the objective function, which minimizes the error between the composed and the actual received signal. Then an iterative approach is applied to solve the least square problem. The proposed approach involves an outer loop and inner loop, which resolve the channel gain and Doppler coefficient, respectively. The theoretical performance bound, i.e. the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) of estimation is also derived. Computer simulations results show that the proposed algorithm achieves the CRLB in medium to high SNR cases.

  17. New Approaches For Asteroid Spin State and Shape Modeling From Delay-Doppler Radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, Chedy; Lamee, Mehdi; Mosiane, Olorato; Vassallo, Corinne; Busch, Michael W.; Greenberg, Adam; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Duong, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Delay-Doppler radar imaging is a powerful technique to characterize the trajectories, shapes, and spin states of near-Earth asteroids; and has yielded detailed models of dozens of objects. Reconstructing objects' shapes and spins from delay-Doppler data is a computationally intensive inversion problem. Since the 1990s, delay-Doppler data has been analyzed using the SHAPE software. SHAPE performs sequential single-parameter fitting, and requires considerable computer runtime and human intervention (Hudson 1993, Magri et al. 2007). Recently, multiple-parameter fitting algorithms have been shown to more efficiently invert delay-Doppler datasets (Greenberg & Margot 2015) - decreasing runtime while improving accuracy. However, extensive human oversight of the shape modeling process is still required. We have explored two new techniques to better automate delay-Doppler shape modeling: Bayesian optimization and a machine-learning neural network.One of the most time-intensive steps of the shape modeling process is to perform a grid search to constrain the target's spin state. We have implemented a Bayesian optimization routine that uses SHAPE to autonomously search the space of spin-state parameters. To test the efficacy of this technique, we compared it to results with human-guided SHAPE for asteroids 1992 UY4, 2000 RS11, and 2008 EV5. Bayesian optimization yielded similar spin state constraints within a factor of 3 less computer runtime.The shape modeling process could be further accelerated using a deep neural network to replace iterative fitting. We have implemented a neural network with a variational autoencoder (VAE), using a subset of known asteroid shapes and a large set of synthetic radar images as inputs to train the network. Conditioning the VAE in this manner allows the user to give the network a set of radar images and get a 3D shape model as an output. Additional development will be required to train a network to reliably render shapes from delay-Doppler

  18. Medical application of artificial immune recognition system (AIRS): diagnosis of atherosclerosis from carotid artery Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Latifoğlu, Fatma; Kodaz, Halife; Kara, Sadik; Güneş, Salih

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to distinguish between atherosclerosis and healthy subjects. Hence, we have employed the maximum envelope of the carotid artery Doppler sonograms derived from Fast Fourier Transformation-Welch method and Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS). The fuzzy appearance of the carotid artery Doppler signals makes physicians suspicious about the existence of diseases and sometimes causes false diagnosis. Our technique gets around this problem using AIRS to decide and assist the physician to make the final judgment in confidence. AIRS has reached 99.29% classification accuracy using 10-fold cross validation. Results show that the proposed method classified Doppler signals successfully.

  19. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor); Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable airborne Doppler Wind LIDAR system measurements and INS/GPS measurements to be combined to estimate wind parameters and compensate for instrument misalignment. In a further embodiment, the wind speed and wind direction may be computed based on two orthogonal line-of-sight LIDAR returns.

  20. A real-time device for converting Doppler ultrasound audio signals into fluid flow velocity

    PubMed Central

    Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Koch, Dennis W.; Krishnan, Anandi; Momen, Afsana; Leuenberger, Urs A.

    2010-01-01

    A Doppler signal converter has been developed to facilitate cardiovascular and exercise physiology research. This device directly converts audio signals from a clinical Doppler ultrasound imaging system into a real-time analog signal that accurately represents blood flow velocity and is easily recorded by any standard data acquisition system. This real-time flow velocity signal, when simultaneously recorded with other physiological signals of interest, permits the observation of transient flow response to experimental interventions in a manner not possible when using standard Doppler imaging devices. This converted flow velocity signal also permits a more robust and less subjective analysis of data in a fraction of the time required by previous analytic methods. This signal converter provides this capability inexpensively and requires no modification of either the imaging or data acquisition system. PMID:20173048

  1. System for Processing Coded OFDM Under Doppler and Fading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Haiping; Darden, Scott; Lee, Dennis; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2005-01-01

    An advanced communication system has been proposed for transmitting and receiving coded digital data conveyed as a form of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in the presence of such adverse propagation-channel effects as large dynamic Doppler shifts and frequency-selective multipath fading. Such adverse channel effects are typical of data communications between mobile units or between mobile and stationary units (e.g., telemetric transmissions from aircraft to ground stations). The proposed system incorporates novel signal processing techniques intended to reduce the losses associated with adverse channel effects while maintaining compatibility with the high-speed physical layer specifications defined for wireless local area networks (LANs) as the standard 802.11a of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE 802.11a). OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique that is widely used for wireless transmission of data in LANs and in metropolitan area networks (MANs). OFDM has been adopted in IEEE 802.11a and some other industry standards because it affords robust performance under frequency-selective fading. However, its intrinsic frequency-diversity feature is highly sensitive to synchronization errors; this sensitivity poses a challenge to preserve coherence between the component subcarriers of an OFDM system in order to avoid intercarrier interference in the presence of large dynamic Doppler shifts as well as frequency-selective fading. As a result, heretofore, the use of OFDM has been limited primarily to applications involving small or zero Doppler shifts. The proposed system includes a digital coherent OFDM communication system that would utilize enhanced 802.1la-compatible signal-processing algorithms to overcome effects of frequency-selective fading and large dynamic Doppler shifts. The overall transceiver design would implement a two-frequency-channel architecture (see figure

  2. B-mode Ultrasound Versus Color Doppler Twinkling Artifact in Detecting Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Jonathan D.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Shah, Anup R.; Dighe, Manjiri K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Moshiri, Mariam; Paun, Marla; Lu, Wei; Bailey, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To compare color Doppler twinkling artifact and B-mode ultrasonography in detecting kidney stones. Patients and Methods Nine patients with recent CT scans prospectively underwent B-mode and twinkling artifact color Doppler ultrasonography on a commercial ultrasound machine. Video segments of the upper pole, interpolar area, and lower pole were created, randomized, and independently reviewed by three radiologists. Receiver operator characteristics were determined. Results There were 32 stones in 18 kidneys with a mean stone size of 8.9±7.5 mm. B-mode ultrasonography had 71% sensitivity, 48% specificity, 52% positive predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value, while twinkling artifact Doppler ultrasonography had 56% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 62% positive predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value. Conclusions When used alone, B-mode is more sensitive, but twinkling artifact is more specific in detecting kidney stones. This information may help users employ twinkling and B-mode to identify stones and developers to improve signal processing to harness the fundamental acoustic differences to ultimately improve stone detection. PMID:23067207

  3. Doppler shifts in a tornado in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Mein, N.; Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Ofman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Context. High resolution movies in 193 Å from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) show apparent rotation in the leg of a prominence observed during a coordinated campaign. Such structures are commonly referred to as tornadoes. Time-distance intensity diagrams of the AIA data show the existence of oscillations suggesting that the structure is rotating. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand if the cool plasma at chromospheric temperatures inside the tornado is rotating around its central axis. Methods: The tornado was also observed in Hα with a cadence of 30 s by the MSDP spectrograph, operating at the Solar Tower in Meudon. The MSDP provides sequences of simultaneous spectra in a 2D field of view from which a cube of Doppler velocity maps is retrieved. Results: The Hα Doppler maps show a pattern with alternatively blueshifted and redshifted areas of 5 to 10'' wide. Over time the blueshifted areas become redshifted and vice versa, with a quasi-periodicity of 40 to 60 min. Weaker amplitude oscillations with periods of 4 to 6 min are superimposed onto these large period oscillations. Conclusions: The Doppler pattern observed in Hα cannot be interpreted as rotation of the cool plasma inside the tornado. The Hα velocity observations give strong constraints on the possible interpretations of the AIA tornado.

  4. SonTek SL3G Side-Looking Doppler Current Meter application in Complex Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, D.

    2014-12-01

    The SonTek Argonaut SL Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters are well established products in the measurement of real-time water velocity in open channels. With the development of acoustic doppler technology the decision was made to incorporate latest technology in the Argonaut SL and hence the SonTek SL3G was born.The SonTek SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument incorporates a number of innovations that improves velocity measurements and quality assurance of data for Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters. SmartPulseHD was originally introduced with the launch of the SonTek M9/S5 RiverSurveyor Acoustic Doppler Instruments and the increased accuracy and resolution of velocity measurements made it obvious to include into the new SL3G instruments. SmartPulseHD continuously tracks the water conditions and selects the optimum processing configuration required using multiple ping types and processing techniques. The new SL3G design makes it the smallest Side Looking Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter on the market reducing flow disturbance caused by the instrument and the distance of first measurement cell from boundary.The application of the SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument is designed for complex flow conditions where the use of conventional stage-discharge relationships is economically not viable and therefore requires the use of velocity index methodology. The case-study presented in this paper is situated in the Colorado River downstream of Imperial Dam affected by controlled releases, drainage from adjacent irrigation areas and backwater from a weir situated downstream of the monitoring site. The paper analyses the relationship between measured mean velocity and index velocity and if additional variables such as stage and or Y-velocity need to be incorporated in the development of the index velocity rating. In addition, to determine the variables impacting on the index velocity rating, the index velocity applied will be evaluated by the best linear relationship between the

  5. Chronic mitral regurgitation and Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temporelli, P. L.; Scapellato, F.; Corra, U.; Eleuteri, E.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Thomas, J. D.; Giannuzzi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies relating Doppler parameters and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWP) typically exclude patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of chronic MR on the Doppler estimation of PCWP. PCWP and mitral Doppler profiles were obtained in 88 patients (mean age 55 +/- 8 years) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 23% +/- 5%). Patients were classified by severity of MR. Patients with severe MR had greater left atrial areas, LV end-diastolic volumes, and mean PCWPs and lower ejection fractions (each P <.01). In patients with mild MR, multiple echocardiographic parameters correlated with PCWP; however, with worsening MR, only deceleration time strongly related to PCWP. From stepwise multivariate analysis, deceleration time was the best independent predictor of PCWP overall, and it was the only predictor in patients with moderate or severe MR. Doppler-derived early mitral deceleration time reliably predicts PCWP in patients with severe LV dysfunction irrespective of degree of MR.

  6. Rapid and stable measurement of respiratory rate from Doppler radar signals using time domain autocorrelation model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact measurement of respiratory rate using Doppler radar will play a vital role in future clinical practice. Doppler radar remotely monitors the tiny chest wall movements induced by respiration activity. The most competitive advantage of this technique is to allow users fully unconstrained with no biological electrode attachments. However, the Doppler radar, unlike other contact-type sensors, is easily affected by the random body movements. In this paper, we proposed a time domain autocorrelation model to process the radar signals for rapid and stable estimation of the respiratory rate. We tested the autocorrelation model on 8 subjects in laboratory, and compared the respiratory rates detected by noncontact radar with reference contact-type respiratory effort belt. Autocorrelation model showed the effects of reducing the random body movement noise added to Doppler radar's respiration signals. Moreover, the respiratory rate can be rapidly calculated from the first main peak in the autocorrelation waveform within 10 s.

  7. Theoretical model for Sub-Doppler Cooling with EIT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peiru; Tengdin, Phoebe; Anderson, Dana; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray

    2016-05-01

    We propose a of sub-Doppler cooling mechanism that takes advantage of the unique spectral features and extreme dispersion generated by the so-called Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) effect, a destructive quantum interference phenomenon experienced by atoms with Lambda-shaped energy levels when illuminated by two light fields with appropriate frequencies. By detuning the probe lasers slightly from the ``dark resonance'', we observe that atoms can be significantly cooled down by the strong viscous force within the transparency window, while being just slightly heated by the diffusion caused by the small absorption near resonance. In contrast to polarization gradient cooling or EIT sideband cooling, no external magnetic field or external confining potential are required. Using a semi-classical method, analytical expressions, and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed EIT cooling method can lead to temperatures well below the Doppler limit. This work is supported by NSF and NIST.

  8. Multipath induced errors in meteorological Doppler/interferometer location systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    One application of an RF interferometer aboard a low-orbiting spacecraft to determine the location of ground-based transmitters is in tracking high-altitude balloons for meteorological studies. A source of error in this application is reflection of the signal from the sea surface. Through propagating and signal analysis, the magnitude of the reflection-induced error in both Doppler frequency measurements and interferometer phase measurements was estimated. The theory of diffuse scattering from random surfaces was applied to obtain the power spectral density of the reflected signal. The processing of the combined direct and reflected signals was then analyzed to find the statistics of the measurement error. It was found that the error varies greatly during the satellite overpass and attains its maximum value at closest approach. The maximum values of interferometer phase error and Doppler frequency error found for the system configuration considered were comparable to thermal noise-induced error.

  9. Photonic Doppler velocimetry lens array probe incorporating stereo imaging

    DOEpatents

    Malone, Robert M.; Kaufman, Morris I.

    2015-09-01

    A probe including a multiple lens array is disclosed to measure velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the moving surface is reflected back from the surface and is Doppler shifted, collected into the array, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to the multiple lens array. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays to establish many measurement points at numerous different locations. One or more lens groups may be replaced with imaging lenses so a stereo image of the moving surface can be recorded. Imaging a portion of the surface during initial travel can determine whether the surface is breaking up.

  10. Doppler broadening in the β-proton- γ decay sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Sarah; Wrede, C.; Bennett, M. B.; Liddick, S. N.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Bowe, A.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Cooper, N.; Irvine, D.; McNeice, E.; Montes, F.; Naqvi, F.; Ortez, R.; Pain, S. D.; Pereira, J.; Prokop, C.; Quaglia, J.; Quinn, S. J.; Sakstrup, J.; Santia, M.; Shanab, S.; Simon, A.; Spyrou, A.; Thiagalingam, E.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first observation of Doppler-broadening in β delayed proton- γ decay. The broadening occurs because the daughter nucleus γ decays while recoiling from proton emission. A method to analyze β delayed nucleon emission was applied to two Doppler-broadened 25Al peaks from the 26P(βpγ)25Al decay. The method was first tested on the broad 1613 keV γ-ray peak using known center-of-mass proton energies as constraints. The method was then applied to the 1776 keV γ-ray peak from the 2720 keV excited state of 25Al. The broadening was used to determine a 26Si excitation energy of 13.3 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.7 (syst.) MeV. This energy is consistent with proton emission from the known T = 2 isobaric analog state of 26P in 26Si.

  11. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research. PMID:23067875

  12. Novel laser Doppler flowmeter for pulpal blood flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, De Yu; Millerd, James E.; Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Arrastia-Jitosho, Anna-Marie A.

    1996-04-01

    We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a new configuration of laser Doppler flowmetry for dental pulpal blood flow measurements. To date, the vitality of a tooth can be determined only by subjective thermal or electric tests, which are of questionable reliability and may induced pain in patient. Non-invasive techniques for determining pulpal vascular reactions to injury, treatment, and medication are in great demand. The laser Doppler flowmetry technique is non-invasive; however, clinical studies have shown that when used to measure pulpal blood flow the conventional back-scattering Doppler method suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and unreliable flux readings rendering it impossible to calibrate. A simplified theoretical model indicates that by using a forward scattered geometry the detected signal has a much higher SNR and can be calibrated. The forward scattered signal is readily detectable due to the fact that teeth are relatively thin organs with moderate optical loss. A preliminary experiment comparing forward scattered detection with conventional back- scattered detection was carried out using an extracted human molar. The results validated the findings of the simple theoretical model and clearly showed the utility of the forward scattering geometry. The back-scattering method had readings that fluctuated by as much as 187% in response to small changes in sensor position relative to the tooth. The forward scattered method had consistent readings (within 10%) that were independent of the sensor position, a signal-to-noise ratio that was at least 5.6 times higher than the back-scattering method, and a linear response to flow rate.

  13. Users Guide to the JPL Doppler Gravity Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, P. M.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Local gravity accelerations and gravimetry have been determined directly from spacecraft Doppler tracking data near the Moon and various planets by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Researchers in many fields have an interest in planet-wide global gravimetric mapping and its applications. Many of them use their own computers in support of their studies and would benefit from being able to directly manipulate these gravity data for inclusion in their own modeling computations. Pubication of some 150 Apollo 15 subsatellite low-altitude, high-resolution, single-orbit data sets is covered. The doppler residuals with a determination of the derivative function providing line-of-sight-gravity are both listed and plotted (on microfilm), and can be ordered in computer readable forms (tape and floppy disk). The form and format of this database as well as the methods of data reduction are explained and referenced. A skeleton computer program is provided which can be modified to support re-reductions and re-formatted presentations suitable to a wide variety of research needs undertaken on mainframe or PC class microcomputers.

  14. Method for ambiguity resolution in range-Doppler measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M. (Inventor); Miller, Lee S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for resolving range and Doppler target ambiguities when the target has substantial range or has a high relative velocity in which a first signal is generated and a second signal is also generated which is coherent with the first signal but at a slightly different frequency such that there exists a difference in frequency between these two signals of Delta f(sub t). The first and second signals are converted into a dual-frequency pulsed signal, amplified, and the dual-frequency pulsed signal is transmitted towards a target. A reflected dual-frequency signal is received from the target, amplified, and changed to an intermediate dual-frequency signal. The intermediate dual-frequency signal is amplified, with extracting of a shifted difference frequency Delta f(sub r) from the amplified intermediate dual-frequency signal done by a nonlinear detector. The final step is generating two quadrature signals from the difference frequency Delta f(sub t) and the shifted difference frequency Delta f(sub r) and processing the two quadrature signals to determine range and Doppler information of the target.

  15. A Microfluidics-based Pulpal Arteriole Blood Flow Phantom for Validation of Doppler Ultrasound Devices in Pulpal Blood Flow Velocity Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyun; Park, Sung-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Recently, Doppler ultrasound has been used for the measurement of pulpal blood flow in human teeth. However, the reliability of this method has not been verified. In this study, we developed a model to simulate arteriole blood flow within the dental pulp by using microfluidics. This arteriole simulator, or flow phantom, was used to determine the reliability of measurements obtained by using a Doppler ultrasound device. A microfluidic chip was fabricated by using the soft lithography technique, and blood-mimicking fluid was pumped through the channel by a microfluidic system. A Doppler ultrasound device was used for the measurement of flow velocity. The peak, mean, and minimal flow velocities obtained from the phantom and the Doppler ultrasound device were compared by using linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to evaluate the velocity differences between the flow generated by the phantom and the flow measurements made with the Doppler ultrasound device. The microfluidic system was able to generate the flow profiles as intended, and the fluid flow could be monitored and controlled by the software program. There were excellent linear correlations between the peak, mean, and minimal flow velocities of the phantom and those of the Doppler ultrasound device (r = 0.94-0.996, P < .001). However, the velocities were overestimated by the Doppler ultrasound device. This phantom provides opportunities for research and education involving the Doppler ultrasound technique in dentistry. Although Doppler ultrasound can be an effective tool for the measurement of pulpal blood flow velocity, it is essential to validate and calibrate the device before clinical use. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Laser Doppler position sensor for position and shape measurements of fast rotating objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarske, Jürgen; Pfister, Thorsten; Büttner, Lars

    2006-08-01

    We report about a novel optical method based on laser Doppler velocimetry for position and shape measurements of moved solid state surfaces with approximately one micrometer position resolution. 3D shape measurements of a rotating cylinder inside a turning machine as well as tip clearance measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor performed during operation at 50,000 rpm and 586 m/s blade tip velocity are presented. All results are in good agreement with conventional reference probes. The measurement accuracy of the laser Doppler position sensor is investigated in dependence of the speckle pattern. Furthermore, it is shown that this sensor offers high temporal resolution and high position resolution simultaneously and that shading can be reduced compared to triangulation. Consequently, the presented laser Doppler position sensor opens up new perspectives in the field of real-time manufacturing metrology and process control, for example controlling the turning and the grinding process or for future developments of turbo machines.

  17. Clinical, echocardiographic, and Doppler imaging characteristics of mitral valve stenosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Fox, P R; Miller, M W; Liu, S K

    1992-11-15

    Mitral stenosis was diagnosed noninvasively by echocardiography and Doppler imaging in 2 Bull Terriers. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed severe atrial and moderate left ventricular dilatation; severely reduced mitral valve opening excursion; doming of the cranial mitral valve leaflet into the left ventricle during diastole; thickened, nodular cranial mitral valve leaflets; and reduced mitral valve orifice. M-mode echocardiographic findings additionally indicated greatly diminished mitral valve E to F slope and abnormal caudal mitral valve leaflet motion. Color flow Doppler imaging revealed bright bursts of color with aliasing originating from the stenotic mitral valve orifice, extending into the left atrium during systole, and into the left atrium during diastole. Spectral Doppler recordings revealed transvalvular mitral valve gradients and prolonged pressure half-times. Necropsy performed on 1 dog revealed extremely thickened, nodular, and stiff mitral valves with short, thickened, and fused chordae tendineae. The diagnosis of mitral valve stenosis was easily facilitated with diagnostic ultrasonography.

  18. A Method for the Automatic Detection of Insect Clutter in Doppler-Radar Returns.

    SciTech Connect

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.

    2006-06-12

    The accurate detection and removal of insect clutter from millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) returns is of high importance to boundary layer cloud research (e.g., Geerts et al., 2005). When only radar Doppler moments are available, it is difficult to produce a reliable screening of insect clutter from cloud returns because their distributions overlap. Hence, screening of MMCR insect clutter has historically involved a laborious manual process of cross-referencing radar moments against measurements from other collocated instruments, such as lidar. Our study looks beyond traditional radar moments to ask whether analysis of recorded Doppler spectra can serve as the basismore » for reliable, automatic insect clutter screening. We focus on the MMCR operated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility in Oklahoma. Here, archiving of full Doppler spectra began in September 2003, and during the warmer months, a pronounced insect presence regularly introduces clutter into boundary layer returns.« less

  19. Toward the development of a low-cost laser Doppler module for ophthalmic microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattini, Stefano; Rovati, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    A laser Doppler module easily integrated into a commercial ophthalmic microscope is proposed. Such setup adds flow measurement capability to standard visual inspection of the fundus. The proposed instrument may provide important clinical information such as the detection of vessel occlusion provided by surgical treatments (i.e. photocoagulation). The measuring system is based on a self-mixing laser diode Doppler flowmeter (SM-DF). Reduced costs, easy implementation and small size represent the main features of SM-DF. Moreover, this technique offers the advantage to have the excitation and measurement beams spatially overlapped, thus both overcoming the alignment difficulty of traditional laser Doppler flowmeter and, well fitting with to limited optical aperture of the pupil. Thanks to an on-board DSP-microcontroller, the optoelectronic module directly estimates the blood flow; USB connection and an ad-hoc developed user-friendly software interface allow displaying the result on a personal computer. Preliminary test demonstrates the applicability of the proposed measuring system.

  20. Development of the One-Sided Nonlinear Adaptive Doppler Shift Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Serror, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    The new development of a one-sided nonlinear adaptive shift estimation technique (NADSET) is introduced. The background of the algorithm and a brief overview of NADSET are presented. The new technique is applied to the wind parameter estimates from a 2-micron wavelength coherent Doppler lidar system called VALIDAR located in NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia. The new technique enhances wind parameters such as Doppler shift and power estimates in low Signal-To-Noise-Ratio (SNR) regimes using the estimates in high SNR regimes as the algorithm scans the range bins from low to high altitude. The original NADSET utilizes the statistics in both the lower and the higher range bins to refine the wind parameter estimates in between. The results of the two different approaches of NADSET are compared.

  1. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukuru, N. W.; Calhoun, R.

    2016-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which the enables the user to view virtual content as if it existed in real world. We are exploring the possibility of using this technology to view radial velocities or processed wind vectors from a Doppler wind lidar, thus giving the user an ability to see the wind in a literal sense. This approach could find possible applications in aviation safety, atmospheric data visualization as well as in weather education and public outreach. As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  2. Analysis and improved design considerations for airborne pulse Doppler radar signal processing in the detection of hazardous windshear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonggil

    1990-01-01

    High resolution windspeed profile measurements are needed to provide reliable detection of hazardous low altitude windshear with an airborne pulse Doppler radar. The system phase noise in a Doppler weather radar may degrade the spectrum moment estimation quality and the clutter cancellation capability which are important in windshear detection. Also the bias due to weather return Doppler spectrum skewness may cause large errors in pulse pair spectral parameter estimates. These effects are analyzed for the improvement of an airborne Doppler weather radar signal processing design. A method is presented for the direct measurement of windspeed gradient using low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) radar. This spatial gradient is essential in obtaining the windshear hazard index. As an alternative, the modified Prony method is suggested as a spectrum mode estimator for both the clutter and weather signal. Estimation of Doppler spectrum modes may provide the desired windshear hazard information without the need of any preliminary processing requirement such as clutter filtering. The results obtained by processing a NASA simulation model output support consideration of mode identification as one component of a windshear detection algorithm.

  3. Noise considerations for remote detection of life signs with microwave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dung; Yamada, Shuhei; Park, Byung-Kwon; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and quantifies three main sources of baseband noise affecting physiological signals in a direct conversion microwave Doppler radar for life signs detection. They are thermal noise, residual phase noise, and Flicker noise. In order to increase the SNR of physiological signals at baseband, the noise floor, in which the Flicker noise is the most dominant factor, needs to be minimized. This paper shows that with the consideration of the noise factor in our Doppler radar, Flicker noise canceling techniques may drastically reduce the power requirement for heart rate signal detection by as much as a factor of 100.

  4. Audible handheld Doppler ultrasound determines reliable and inexpensive exclusion of significant peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Nabavizadeh, Reza; Valaei, Farnaz; Coutts, Pat; Mayer, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of audible arterial foot signals with an audible handheld Doppler ultrasound for identification of significant peripheral arterial disease as a simple, quick, and readily available bedside screening tool. Two hundred consecutive patients referred to an interprofessional wound care clinic underwent audible handheld Doppler ultrasound of both legs. As a control and comparator, a formal bilateral lower leg vascular study including the calculation of Ankle Brachial Pressure Index and toe pressure (TP) was performed at the vascular lab. Diagnostic reliability of audible handheld Doppler ultrasound was calculated versus Ankle Brachial Pressure Index as the gold standard test. A sensitivity of 42.8%, a specificity of 97.5%, negative predictive value of 94.10%, positive predictive value of 65.22%, positive likelihood ratio of 17.52, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.59. The univariable logistic regression model had an area under the curve of 0.78. There was a statistically significant difference at the 5% level between univariable and multivariable area under the curves of the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial models (p < 0.001). Audible handheld Doppler ultrasound proved to be a reliable, simple, rapid, and inexpensive bedside exclusion test of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. An Efficient Adaptive Angle-Doppler Compensation Approach for Non-Sidelooking Airborne Radar STAP

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mingwei; Yu, Jia; Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of non-sidelooking airborne radar clutter dispersion on space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is considered, and an efficient adaptive angle-Doppler compensation (EAADC) approach is proposed to improve the clutter suppression performance. In order to reduce the computational complexity, the reduced-dimension sparse reconstruction (RDSR) technique is introduced into the angle-Doppler spectrum estimation to extract the required parameters for compensating the clutter spectral center misalignment. Simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are presented. PMID:26053755

  6. Temporal variability of vena contracta and jet areas with color Doppler in aortic regurgitation: a chronic animal model study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, M; Jones, M; Shiota, T; Yamada, I; Sinclair, B; Heinrich, R S; Yoganathan, A P; Sahn, D J

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the temporal variability of regurgitant color Doppler jet areas and the width of the color Doppler imaged vena contracta for evaluating the severity of aortic regurgitation. Twenty-nine hemodynamically different states were obtained pharmacologically in 8 sheep 20 weeks after surgery to produce aortic regurgitation. Aortic regurgitation was quantified by peak and mean regurgitant flow rates, regurgitant stroke volumes, and regurgitant fractions determined using pulmonary and aortic electromagnetic flow probes and meters balanced against each other. The regurgitant jet areas and the widths of color Doppler imaged vena contracta were measured at 4 different times during diastole to determine the temporal variability of this parameter. When measured at 4 different temporal points in diastole, a significant change was observed in the size of the color Doppler imaged regurgitant jet (percent of difference: from 31.1% to 904%; 233% +/- 245%). Simple linear regression analysis between each color jet area at 4 different periods in diastole and flow meter-based severity of the aortic regurgitation showed only weak correlation (0.23 < r < 0.49). In contrast, for most conditions only a slight change was observed in the width of the color Doppler imaged vena contracta during the diastolic regurgitant period (percent of difference, vena contracta: from 2.4% to 12.9%, 5.8% +/- 3.2%). In addition, for each period the width of the color Doppler imaged vena contracta at the 4 different time periods in diastole correlated quite strongly with volumetric measures of the severity of aortic regurgitation (0.81 < r < 0.90) and with the instantaneous flow rate for the corresponding period (0.85 < r < 0.87). Color Doppler imaged vena contracta may provide a simple, practical, and accurate method for quantifying aortic regurgitation, even when using a single frame color Doppler flow mapping image.

  7. Relationship of oscillating and average components of laser Doppler flowmetry signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeva, Irina; Frick, Peter; Podtaev, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Signals from laser Doppler flowmeters widely used in intravital studies of skin blood flow include, along with a slowly varying average component, an oscillating part. However, in most clinical studies, pulsations are usually smoothed by data preprocessing and only the mean blood flow is analyzed. To reveal the relationship between average and oscillating perfusion components measured by a laser Doppler flowmeter, we examined the microvascular response to the contralateral cold pressor test recorded at two different sites of the hand: dorsal part of the arm and finger pad. Such a protocol makes it possible to provide a wide range of perfusion. The average perfusion always decreases during cooling, while the oscillating component demonstrates a differently directed response. The wavelet analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals shows that the pulsatile component is nonlinearly related to the average perfusion. Under low perfusion, the amplitude of pulsations is proportional to its mean value, but, as perfusion increases, the amplitude of pulsations becomes lower. The type of response is defined by the basal perfusion and the degree of vasoconstriction caused by cooling. Interpretation of the results is complicated by the nonlinear transfer function of the LDF device, the contribution of which is studied using artificial examples.

  8. Ambiguity resolution for satellite Doppler positioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Marini, J.

    1979-01-01

    The implementation of satellite-based Doppler positioning systems frequently requires the recovery of transmitter position from a single pass of Doppler data. The least-squares approach to the problem yields conjugate solutions on either side of the satellite subtrack. It is important to develop a procedure for choosing the proper solution which is correct in a high percentage of cases. A test for ambiguity resolution which is the most powerful in the sense that it maximizes the probability of a correct decision is derived. When systematic error sources are properly included in the least-squares reduction process to yield an optimal solution the test reduces to choosing the solution which provides the smaller valuation of the least-squares loss function. When systematic error sources are ignored in the least-squares reduction, the most powerful test is a quadratic form comparison with the weighting matrix of the quadratic form obtained by computing the pseudoinverse of a reduced-rank square matrix. A formula for computing the power of the most powerful test is provided. Numerical examples are included in which the power of the test is computed for situations that are relevant to the design of a satellite-aided search and rescue system.

  9. Measurement Capabilities of Single-Pulse Planar Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Robert L.; Kutler, Paul F. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary investigations are described of a method that is capable of measuring instantaneous, 3-D, velocity vectors everywhere in a light sheet generated by a pulsed laser. The technique, here called Planar Doppler Velocimetry (PDV), is a variation of a new concept for velocity measurements that was called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) in its original disclosure. The concept relies on the use of a narrowband laser and measurements of the Doppler shift of scattered light from particles moving with a flow. The Doppler shift is recorded as a variation in transmission through a sharp-edged spectral filter provided by iodine vapor in a cell. Entire fields of velocity can be determined by using a solid-state camera to record the intensity variations throughout the field of view. However, the implementation of DGV has been centered principally on the use of high power, continuous-wave, ion lasers and measurement times that are determined by the 30-ms framing times of standard video cameras. Hence, they provide velocity fields that are averaged in time at least over that period. On the other hand, the PDV concept described in this presentation incorporates a high energy, repetitively pulsed, Nd-YAG laser that is injection-seeded to make it narrowband and then frequency-doubled to provide light at frequencies absorbed by the iodine vapor. The duration of each pulse is less than 10 nanoseconds. When used in combination with nonstandard, scientific quality, solid state cameras, a sequence of images can be obtained that provides instantaneous velocity vectors everywhere in the field of view. The investigations described in this paper include an accurate characterization of the iodine cell spectral behavior and its influence on the PDV measurements, a derivation of the PDV signal analysis requirements, and the unique aspects of the pulsed laser behavior related to this application. In addition, PDV measurements are to be demonstrated using data from a rotating wheel

  10. A preliminary investigation of bird classification by Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the application of Doppler radar to the classification of birds is reported. The desirability for improvements in bird classification stems primarily from the hazards they present to jet aircraft in flight and in the vicinity of airports. A secondary need exists in the study of bird migration. The wing body and tail motion of a bird in flight reflect signals which, when analyzed properly present a signature of wing beat pattern which is unique for each bird species. Although the results of this investigation did not validate the feasibility of classifying bird species, they do indicate that a more thorough investigation is warranted. Certain gross characteristics such as wing beat rates, multiple bird patterns, and bird maneuverability, were indicated clearly in the results. Large birds with slow wing beat rates appear to be the most optimum subject for further study with the X-band Doppler radar used in this investigation.

  11. Versatile mid-infrared frequency-comb referenced sub-Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambetta, A.; Vicentini, E.; Coluccelli, N.; Wang, Y.; Fernandez, T. T.; Maddaloni, P.; De Natale, P.; Castrillo, A.; Gianfrani, L.; Laporta, P.; Galzerano, G.

    2018-04-01

    We present a mid-IR high-precision spectrometer capable of performing accurate Doppler-free measurements with absolute calibration of the optical axis and high signal-to-noise ratio. The system is based on a widely tunable mid-IR offset-free frequency comb and a Quantum-Cascade-Laser (QCL). The QCL emission frequency is offset locked to one of the comb teeth to provide absolute-frequency calibration, spectral-narrowing, and accurate fine frequency tuning. Both the comb repetition frequency and QCL-comb offset frequency can be modulated to provide, respectively, slow- and fast-frequency-calibrated scanning capabilities. The characterisation of the spectrometer is demonstrated by recording sub-Doppler saturated absorption features of the CHF3 molecule at around 8.6 μm with a maximum signal-to-noise ratio of ˜7 × 103 in 10 s integration time, frequency-resolution of 160 kHz, and accuracy of less than 10 kHz.

  12. Doppler radar sensor positioning in a fall detection system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Popescu, Mihail; Ho, K C; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Falling is a common health problem for more than a third of the United States population over 65. We are currently developing a Doppler radar based fall detection system that already has showed promising results. In this paper, we study the sensor positioning in the environment with respect to the subject. We investigate three sensor positions, floor, wall and ceiling of the room, in two experimental configurations. Within each system configuration, subjects performed falls towards or across the radar sensors. We collected 90 falls and 341 non falls for the first configuration and 126 falls and 817 non falls for the second one. Radar signature classification was performed using a SVM classifier. Fall detection performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) for each sensor deployment. We found that a fall is more likely to be detected if the subject is falling toward or away from the sensor and a ceiling Doppler radar is more reliable for fall detection than a wall mounted one.

  13. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie

    2015-03-01

    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector.

  14. Effects of implanted Doppler flowmeters on femoral vein autografts.

    PubMed Central

    Michie, D D; Cowan, D F; Cain, C P; Bell, C C

    1976-01-01

    Thirteen femoral vein autografts were placed into the corresponding ipsilateral femoral arteries of 8 mongrel dogs. Cuff-type Doppler (ultrasonic) flowmeters were placed around six of the grafts. None of the vessels thrombosed. Blood flow velocities were measured in all vessels up until the time of sacrifice (mean 95 +/- 5 days after surgery) or accidental death (one dog, 49 days after surgery). The only case of graft failure was attributed to infection at the flowmeter site. With this single exception, the vein grafts exhibited uniformity in histological appearance from dog to dog. These data suggest that implantation of properly designed Doppler flow transducers may have clinical applications. This technique permits continuous or intermittent assessment of blood flow characteristics through a graft without additional trauma or cost to the patient. It is free of the many inherent disadvantages of chronically implanted electromagnetic flowmeters and may negate the need in some instances for followup angiographic studies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:130843

  15. Fiber Scrambling for Extreme Doppler Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronck, Julien; Kaplan, Z.; Fischer, D.

    2011-09-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called “super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980’s to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber’s ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on understanding the scrambling properties of fibers with different geometries (circular, square, octagonal), different lengths and fiber sizes. Another important parameter when it comes to fibers is the so-called focal ratio degradation (FRD), which accounts for a different (faster) focal ratio after the fiber than the one sent into the fiber. In this paper, we will present new insight on fiber scrambling, FRD and what we call fiber personality, which describes differing behaviors for supposedly identical fiber.

  16. Clinical stage I carcinoma of the cervix. Value of MR imaging in determining invasion into the parametrium.

    PubMed

    Lien, H H; Blomlie, V; Iversen, T; Tropé, C; Sundfør, K; Abeler, V M

    1993-03-01

    Using MR imaging with a body coil parametrial invasion was determined prospectively in 169 consecutive patients considered on the basis of clinical examination to have carcinoma confined to the cervix. After radical hysterectomy correlation with histologic examination was performed for the left and right parametrium separately. The criterion for parametrial invasion was a high-signal-intensity lesion with disruption of the full thickness of the cervical stroma combined with areas of abnormal signal intensity within the parametrial region on T2-weighted images. Histologic examination showed that 18 parametria in 13 patients were invaded by tumor. MR had an overall accuracy of 93%, a sensitivity of 89%, and a specificity of 93% in demonstrating parametrial involvement. Positive and negative predictive values were 43% and 99%. The main weakness of MR was 21 false-positive tests. This represents a limitation when MR is performed with a body coil.

  17. Calculation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Time Constant (TAU) in Dogs with Mitral Regurgitation Using Continuous-Wave Doppler.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chaoyang; Sun, Jing; Fan, Chunzhi; Dou, Jianping

    2018-05-04

    The left ventricular diastolic time constant (Tau) cannot be practically measured non-invasively. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a new method for the evaluation of Tau using continuous-wave (CW) Doppler in dogs with mitral regurgitation. Guided by ultrasound, we created 12 beagle models of mitral regurgitation and acute ischemic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Raw audio signals of the CW Doppler spectra were collected, and new mitral regurgitation Doppler spectra were observed after computer re-processing. The new Doppler spectra contour line was constructed using MATLAB (Version R2009), and two time intervals, t1-t2 and t1-t3, were measured on the descending branch of the mitral regurgitation Doppler spectrum and were substituted into Bai's equation group. The Doppler-derived Tau (Tau-d) was resolved and compared with the simultaneous catheter-derived Tau (Tau-c). No significant difference (p > 0.05) between Tau-d (49.33 ± 18.79 ms) and Tau-c (48.76 ± 17.60 ms) was found. A correlation analysis between Tau-d and Tau-c suggested a strong positive relationship (r = 0.85, p = 0.000). Bland-Altman plots of Tau-d and Tau-c revealed fair agreement. Compared with previous non-invasive approaches, this method is simpler and more accurate. There is a strong positive relationship and fair agreement between Tau-d and Tau-c. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Golay Complementary Waveforms in Reed–Müller Sequences for Radar Detection of Nonzero Doppler Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezhi; Huang, Xiaotao; Suvorova, Sofia; Moran, Bill

    2018-01-01

    Golay complementary waveforms can, in theory, yield radar returns of high range resolution with essentially zero sidelobes. In practice, when deployed conventionally, while high signal-to-noise ratios can be achieved for static target detection, significant range sidelobes are generated by target returns of nonzero Doppler causing unreliable detection. We consider signal processing techniques using Golay complementary waveforms to improve radar detection performance in scenarios involving multiple nonzero Doppler targets. A signal processing procedure based on an existing, so called, Binomial Design algorithm that alters the transmission order of Golay complementary waveforms and weights the returns is proposed in an attempt to achieve an enhanced illumination performance. The procedure applies one of three proposed waveform transmission ordering algorithms, followed by a pointwise nonlinear processor combining the outputs of the Binomial Design algorithm and one of the ordering algorithms. The computational complexity of the Binomial Design algorithm and the three ordering algorithms are compared, and a statistical analysis of the performance of the pointwise nonlinear processing is given. Estimation of the areas in the Delay–Doppler map occupied by significant range sidelobes for given targets are also discussed. Numerical simulations for the comparison of the performances of the Binomial Design algorithm and the three ordering algorithms are presented for both fixed and randomized target locations. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed signal processing procedure has a better detection performance in terms of lower sidelobes and higher Doppler resolution in the presence of multiple nonzero Doppler targets compared to existing methods. PMID:29324708

  19. Color Doppler sonography and angioscintigraphy in hepatic Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Stojković, Mirjana V; Artiko, Vera M; Radoman, Irena B; Knežević, Slavko J; Lukić, Snezana M; Kerkez, Mirko D; Lekić, Nebojsa S; Antić, Andrija A; Žuvela, Marinko M; Ranković, Vitomir I; Petrović, Milorad N; Šobić, Dragana P; Obradović, Vladimir B

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the characteristics of Color Doppler findings and the results of hepatic radionuclide angiography (HRA) in secondary Hodgkin’s hepatic lymphoma. METHODS: The research included patients with a diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma with metastatic focal lesions in the liver and controls. Morphologic characteristics of focal liver lesions and hemodynamic parameters were examined by pulsed and Color Doppler in the portal, hepatic and splenic veins were examined. Hepatic perfusion index (HPI) estimated by HRA was calculated. RESULTS: In the majority of patients, hepatomegaly was observed. Lesions were mostly hypoechoic and mixed, solitary or multiple. Some of the patients presented with dilated splenic veins and hepatofugal blood flow. A pulse wave was registered in the centre and at the margins of lymphoma. The average velocity of the pulse wave was higher at the margins (P > 0.05). A continuous venous wave was found only at the margins of lymphoma. There was no linear correlation between lymphoma size and velocity of pulse and continuous wave (r = 390, P < 0.01). HPI was significantly lower in patients with lymphomas than in controls (P < 0.05), pointing out increased arterial perfusion in comparison to portal perfusion. CONCLUSION: Color Doppler ultrasonography is a sensitive method for the detection of neovascularization in Hodgkin’s hepatic lymphoma and estimation of its intensity. Hepatic radionuclide angiography can additionally help in the assesment of vascularisation of liver lesions. PMID:19598303

  20. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550 Section 892.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and...