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Sample records for parana states brazil

  1. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  2. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in the State of Parana in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malaghini, Marcelo; Brockelt, Sonia Regina; Burger, Marion; Kritski, Afrânio; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2009-01-01

    Sequence IS6110 has been successfully used throughout the world for characterizing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages. The aim of this study was to obtain data about circulating strains of M. tuberculosis in patients from the State of Parana in southern Brazil. Sixty-two clinical specimens obtained from sputum, bronchial aspirate, biopsy and urine from 62 patients clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis and admitted to the SUS-Brazil - The Brazilian Centralized Health Service System - were genotyped by the mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting technique. The analysis demonstrated that the number of copies of the IS6110 sequence per isolates varied from four to 13 bands, with an average number of 8.5. From this, 93% of the isolates presented multiple copies. Isolates with no copies of the IS6110 element were not observed. The genetic analysis by UPGMA grouped the 62 isolates by similarity into three different groups: the first group contained two strains, the second was composed of 23, and the third, a more heterogeneous group, contained 37 isolates. Only two isolates (3.2%) formed a cluster; in other words, they presented a pattern of polymorphism with similarity above 95%. Such findings suggest that in the State of Parana, illness predominantly develops through reactivation of the latent infection as opposed to exogenous transmission. The methodology used (mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting) allowed for 93.5% differentiation of the isolates tested, and proved to be a powerful tool for differentiation in the molecular genotyping of M. tuberculosis.

  3. Discovery of a Novel Diterpene in Brown Propolis from the State of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigemi; Arai, Yasuko; Hotta, Sho; Mitsui, Taichi; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from certain plant sources. The components of propolis depend on the vegetation of the area in which apiculture is practiced. In Brazil, there are several types of propolis including 'green,' 'red' and 'brown'. Brazilian brown propolis from the state of Parana characteristically includes diterpenes, and we discovered a novel clerodane diterpene, rel-(5S,6S,8R,9R,10S,18R,19S)-18,19-epoxy-2-oxocleroda-3,12(E),14- triene-6,18,19-triol 18,19-diacetate 6-benzoate (3) and five known diterpenes (1, 2, 4, 5 and 6). The chemical structure of the novel diterpene 3 was determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the activities of the isolated diterpenes on growth inhibition of several human cancer cell lines (LNCaP, MCF-7, DLD-1 and A549) were evaluated in vitro; diterpene 3 exhibited a potent inhibition of cell growth, and its activity was approximately 15 times higher than that of the other diterpenes.

  4. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from Holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Abílio G T; Henrique, Douglas S; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Maeda, Emilyn M; Valotto, Altair A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six), and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100%) corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood) whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott). The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.

  5. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

  6. Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the state of Parana (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2009-09-01

    Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology.

  7. PREMIUM ENERGY FOR LACTEC INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LACTEC R&D DPT. CURITIBA, STATE OF PARANA. BRAZIL

    SciTech Connect

    Silvio Vedovatto

    2003-12-31

    On April 2002 a 200KW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Power Plant. was installed at LACTEC Institute For Technology Development, Research and Development facilities. The power plant installed at LACTEC site is the second of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Its presence, not only contributed to the creation of a Fuel Cell Stationary Power market for Brazil and the rest of the region, but increased the knowledge about fuel cell technology, and marked the point of entry as a reference for the education of a new generation of applied scientists. On its first year the power plant has operated 8,558 hours achieving an availability factor of 97% and supplying 730.50MWh of premium energy. As a second regional experience with fuel cell technology, we expect this report about LACTEC PACFC power plant performance, applications and cost-benefit evaluation will provide relevant information for future regional investments on this technology.

  8. Using magnetotellurics in regional hydrocarbon exploration of Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Saad, R.A.; Ohofugi, W.

    1984-04-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has been utilized in a multidisciplinary exploration program recently completed in the Parana basin by the State of Sao Paulo. In the deeper portions of the Parana basin, MT interpretations show that basalts have thicknesses of up to 2 km (6500 ft) and that basement may be as much as 6 km (19,700 ft) below the surface. In most of the basin, the basalts are covered by thin units of Upper Cretaceous to Holocene continental sediments and are underlain by 2-4 km (6500-13,000 ft) of prospective Paleozoic sediments. In addition, interpretation of the MT sounding data with layered and fault-dike models outlines a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. Permian Irati sediments are an important source unit classified as mostly in the oil window. Good electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that MT measurements can indicate the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments for use in interpretation of migration patterns and possible traps. In addition to providing this stratigraphic information, MT and aeromagnetic surveys have delineated the influence of the Sao Francisco craton in truncating uplift and tensional features of the Ponta Grossa arch.

  9. Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Ephydridae) from Brazil with an emphasis on the faunas from the states of Parana and Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-10

    With more than 200 species worldwide, Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy is the largest genus of the family Ephydridae (Diptera). However, knowledge of this genus is much reduced in Brazil and throughout the Neotropical Region, where only 8 species are known, including one from Brazil (H. xanthocera Cresson). The objective of this study is to review the species of Hydrellia from Brazil, with an emphasis on the faunas of Paraná and Rio de Janeiro states. Six new species are described: H. bocaiuvensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m), H. longiseta sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m),H. vilelai sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W, 770 m), H. simplex sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m) e H. schneiderae sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m), H. similis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m). Seven new registers are recorded: H. agitator (Pará), H. apalachee (Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. calverti (Amazonas and Paraná), H. cavator (Rio de Janeiro), H. tibialis (Amazonas, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. vulgaris (Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro), H. wirthi (Pará, Paraná and Santa Catarina). Together with H. xanthocera, Hydrellia now includes 14 species from Brazil.

  10. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Alves, Lucimara Aparecida; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Santana, Maria Aparecida Zanella; dos Santos, Luís Roberto Alves; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and western blots (WB) were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato); a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96%) were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4%) for brucellosis, 25 (12.1%) for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1%) for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH) that was considered to be average (0.733) in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population. PMID:24159294

  11. Oil migration examples in Irati Formation, Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Espitalie, J.; Mizuta, K.; Carvalho, T.E.M.; Triguis, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Irati Formation (Late Permian), in the Parana basin, is a source rock with high oil generating potential. The TOC contents range from 0.5 to 13% according to the quality of the organic matter. Pyrolysis analysis indicates that the area where the Irati has the highest oil-generating source rock is in the north and south of the Parana basin. In these areas petroleum potential can reach 90 kg HC/t of rock. In the central part of the basin the Irati Formation might reach a depth of about 3200 m (10,498 ft). In many wells diabase intrusions have more or less completely cooked this formation, thus generating oil or gas, and leaving residual organic matter. The phenomenon of migration into the Irati Formation has been observed in many wells. In certain places, oil is accumulated in shales embedded between intrusion levels; in other places oil is accumulated into limestone beds, intercalated in the Irati Formation. It seems safe to assume that the oil accumulated in the deeper beds resulted from the effect of thermal intrusions and also from the effects of normal burial. Oil migration occurred after diabase intrusions (Late Cretaceous) during the increasing subsidence of the basin. In the Parana basin, the Irati Formation may be compared to a drain with a lateral oil migration. Vertical migration was hindered by the lack of enough porosity and permeability in the shales above the Irati source rock. Consequently, migration and accumulation of oil above and below the formation might have resulted from changes in facies of the Irati itself, by faulting, or by fractures due to diabase intrusions.

  12. REGIONAL MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS IN HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION, PARANA BASIN, BRAZIL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, William D.; Saad, Antonio; Ohofugi, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The mangetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with sounding spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas. Refs.

  13. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Halila, Gerusa C.; Junior, Edson H.; Otuki, Michel F.; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0) for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05). Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product’s efficacy (97%) and adverse effects (62.3%) were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence could be used

  14. Regional magnetotelluric surveys in hydrocarbon exploration, Parana' Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Ohofugi, W.; Saad, A.R.

    1985-03-01

    The magnetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with soundings spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. In the survey area, MT interpretations show that basalts have aggregate thicknesses of as much as 2 km (6,600 ft), and basement may be as much as 6 km (20,000 ft) below the surface. Over most of the basin, the basalts are covered by Upper Cretaceous to Holocene continental sediments of a few hundred meters thickness and are underlain by 2 to 4 km (6,600 to 13,100 ft) thick Paleozoic sediments with possible hydrocarbon potential. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas.

  15. Comparing the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum in water from Parana State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana Tracz; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; de Oliveira Silva, Márcia Benedita; Schuchard, Wagner; Osaki, Silvia Cristina; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Paulino, Rosangela Clara; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2008-12-01

    In the present work, assays were performed to compare the efficacy of hypochlorous acid, chlorine dioxide, and ozone in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocyst in public water supply from Brazilian South conditions. Experiments were carried out in samples containing 2 x 10(4) oocysts/ml of C. parvum purified from feces of experimentally contaminated calves. An in vitro excystation method was used to evaluate oocysts' viability and to determine the inactivation rates of hypochlorous acid at 2 ppm, chlorine dioxide at 1, 2, and 5 ppm, and ozone at the doses of 0.18, 0.24, 0.36, 0.48, and 1.44 mg/l. By using hypochlorous acid, the maximum inactivation rate obtained was 49.04% after 120 min. Chlorine dioxide at 5 ppm inactivated 90.56% of oocysts after 90 min of contact. Ozone was the most effective product, rendering an inactivation of 100% with the concentration of 24 mg/l. Resistance of Cryptosporidium to the usual disinfectants and the need for more effective water treatments to prevent waterborne diseases in Brazil are discussed in this manuscript.

  16. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana.

  17. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  18. Ixodidae fauna of domestic dogs in Parana, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Ressetti da; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Rodrigues, Vinicius da Silva; Andreotti, Renato; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to contribute towards identification and registration of tick species that parasitize dogs in rural and urban areas of three mesoregions of Paraná, southern Brazil, and to estimate the rate of occurrence of each species. Fifty-six dogs with ticks living in three mesoregions: Metropolitana de Curitiba (MC), Centro Oriental (COP) and Centro Sul Paranaense (CSP), were used in the study. From these 56 dogs, 253 ticks were collected and were identified and morphologically characterized according to the species. Among all the ticks, 69.6% were identified as belonging to the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l.); 28.1% as Amblyomma aureolatum and 2.4% as Amblyomma ovale. Among the dogs in MC that were evaluated, 57.7% were parasitized by R. sanguineus s. l., 38.5% by A. aureolatum and 3.8% by A. ovale; while in COP, 72.4% of the dogs were parasitized by A. aureolatum and 27.6% by R. sanguineus s. l.. In CSP, one tick was obtained, which was identified as A. aureolatum.

  19. Genotoxic effects of water from São Francisco River, Brazil, in Astyanax paranae.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; d'Arce, Luciana Paula Grégio

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic monitoring is an important tool for identifying potential compounds in rivers that may damage the environment. Here, we evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of water samples from São Francisco River (Brazil) using the micronuclei (MN) assay in resident species, Astyanax paranae. Four seasonal collections occurred between the years 2009 and 2010, at three locations between two nearby cities in the region. It was clearly observed an increase of MN frequency in fish caught in the river. This result is most likely due to the sewage contamination from the treatment plant, the waste pesticides from crops and the lack of riparian vegetation along the river, especially during the winter when there was a significant increase in the frequencies of MN. These results indicate that compounds in waters from São Francisco River may have genotoxic effects and consequently, cause damage to the environment as well as to human health.

  20. Triatomine infestation and vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in northwest and central Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia; Santana, Rosângela; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Araújo, Silvana Marques de

    2004-01-01

    Triatomine infestation, prevalence of T. cruzi antibodies in humans and domestic animals, and variables potentially associated with the presence of triatomines in a rural domiciliary unit (DU) were investigated in nine municipalities and one district of Parana, Brazil, from June 1996 to February 2000. DUs were defined as all houses and annexes on a given piece of property. Blood samples from human volunteers, dogs, and cats were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence. An epidemiological form was completed for each DU. A logistic model was adopted in order to identify associations. Seven out of nine municipalities were positive for triatomines. T. infestans was not captured, but T. sordida, P. megistus, and R. neglectus were. Different variables were considered decisive for the presence of triatomines across the municipalities: proximity to residual wooded areas, i.e. either scrub forest (capoeira) or islands of residual forest (slightly dense vegetation), longer time of residence, existence of inhabited houses, and past DU infestation. In order to ensure proper continuation of the recommended Chagas disease control program, entomo-epidemiological surveillance measures need to be maintained.

  1. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  2. Stratigraphy and reservoir potential of glacial deposits of the Itarare Group (Carboniferous-Permian), Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, A.B. ); Potter, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Drilling in the Parana basin of Brazil in the mid-1980s discovered gas and condensate in the Itarare Group, and showed that glacial deposits in Brazil can contain hydrocarbons. The reservoir potential of the Carboniferous-Permian Itarare Group of the basin is analyzed using new subsurface data from 20 deep wells drilled in the early to middle 1980s. Central to the analysis was the construction of over 3000 km of cross sections based on more than 100 wells, the description of more than 400 m of core, and study of 95 thin sections. Subsurface exploration and mapping of the Itarare are greatly aided by the recognition of three recently defined and described formations and four members, which are traceable for hundreds of kilometers. These units belong to three major glacial cycles in which the pebbly mudstones and shales are seals and glacially related sandstones are reservoirs. The best sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface belong to the Rio Segredo Member, the upper-most sandy unit of the Itarare. The Rio Segredo Member is the best petroleum target because it is overlain by thick seals and massive pebbly mudstones and shales, and because it is shallower and less compacted than underlying, more deeply buried sandstones. This member has little detrital matrix and much of its porosity is secondary, developed by carboxylic acid and CO{sub 2} generated when Jurassic-Cretaceous basalts, sills, and dikes were intruded into the Parana basin as Gondwana broke up.

  3. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  4. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Pípole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis.

  5. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  6. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  7. Artificial maturation of oil shale: The Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayer, James L.

    Oil shale samples from the Irati Formation in Brazil were evaluated from an outcrop block, denoted Block 003. The goals of this thesis include: 1) Characterizing the Irati Formation, 2) Comparing the effects of two different types of pyrolysis, anhydrous and hydrous, and 3) Utilizing a variety of geophysical experiments to determine the changes associated with each type of pyrolysis. Primary work included determining total organic carbon, source rock analysis, mineralogy, computer tomography x-ray scans, and scanning electron microscope images before and after pyrolysis, as well as acoustic properties of the samples during pyrolysis. Two types of pyrolysis (hydrous and anhydrous) were performed on samples cored at three different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) with respect to the axis of symmetry, requiring six total experiments. During pyrolysis, the overall effective pressure was maintained at 800 psi, and the holding temperature was 365°C. The changes and deformation in the hydrous pyrolysis samples were greater compared to the anhydrous pyrolysis. The velocities gave the best indication of changes occurring during pyrolysis, but it was difficult to maintain the same amplitude and quality of waveforms at higher temperatures. The velocity changes were due to a combination of factors, including thermal deformation of the samples, fracture porosity development, and the release of adsorbed water and bitumen from the sample. Anhydrous pyrolysis in this study did not reduce TOC, while TOC was reduced due to hydrous pyrolysis by 5%, and velocities in the hydrous pyrolysis decreased by up to 30% at 365°C compared to room temperature. Data from this study and future data that can be acquired with the improved high-temperature, high-pressure experiment will assist in future economic production from oil shale at lower temperatures under hydrous pyrolysis conditions.

  8. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area.

  9. Integrated remote sensing, geological and geophysical data processing and analysis for hydrocarbon prospection in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, G.; Filho, A.P.; Crosta, A.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive basaltic lava flows of the Serra Geral Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in the upper portions of the Parana sedimentary basin, are a severe obstacle for hydrocarbon prospecting. Its thickness and physical characteristics make difficult the general application of conventional geophysical methods. In order to overcome this problem a research program was developed for PETROBRAS in order to obtain the maximum geological information from remote sensing data and integrate it with field and geophysical data. Automated analysis of LANDSAT data with visual inspection of LANDSAT and SLAR imagery resulted in a large amount of lithological and structural information, which were integrated with geological and geophysical data for the selection of target areas for future investigation.

  10. The Effect of Large Dams on Flow Regime and Eco-hydrologic Connectivity Processes in the Floodplain of the Upper Parana River, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, S.; Souza Filho, E. E.; Stevaux, J. C.; Corradini, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Parana River, one of the largest alluvial rivers of the world, had been strongly affected by dams in special along the Brazilian territory. Here we present results on the eco-hydrologic effect of dams on the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, from Porto Primavera Dam to Guaíra, Brazil along more than 200km. The area includes the last remnant of floodplain in "natural" conditions of the Paraná River in Brazilian territory. Detailed mapping and field surveys of morpho-vegetation units and floristic identifications were performed. The daily discharges, stages and flow variability and temporal distribution of flows as well as the ENSO events influence, time duration flows curves and recurrence curves were analyzed at three gauge stations: Porto São José, Porto Caiuá and Guaíra. The record was divided in three periods taking account the human impact on the basin. The first period extended from 1971 to 1982, the second one from 1982 to 1998 and the last one from 1999 to 2006. Since the first period a decreasing in flow duration is detected as well as a decreasing of the recurrence period of floods. The effect of the Porto Primavera dam construction in 1998 was very strong and affected substantially the hydrology and ecology of the fluvial system. The hydrological regime was related with the ecologically important morphologic levels (stages) of the floodplain to determine the river-floodplain connections. The river stages (levels) were tested and studied for each temporal interval. The difference in river stages necessaries for connections as proposed permit the idealization of different scenarios on the ecology of the river-floodplain system and suggest that improvements need to be obtained in the identification of critical values connecting the channel with the floodplain to different stages.

  11. New field evidence for silicic ignimbrites and proximal lavas and their distribution in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontano, S.; Harmon, L. J.; Gravley, D. M.; Gualda, G. A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silicic ignimbrites and lavas are sometimes very difficult to distinguish from one another in the field. Their accurate identification provides the basis for a better understanding of the origin of these deposits, including processes related to magma extraction, fragmentation and eruption style. We are studying the silicic volcanics in the Paraná Rift Basin in southern Brazil (the ~130 to 135 Ma Palmas member of the Serra Geral Formation), the counterpart to the Etendeka silicic volcanics in Africa. We present new field evidence for the identification of tabular-shaped ignimbrite-like packages, which contrast with dome-shaped proximal viscous lavas and domes. The tabular-shaped packages are highly welded and devitrified, but primary feldspar and pyroxene crystals can still be identified in outcrops. Flow/cooling unit boundaries can be seen at outcrop scale as well as at the kilometer scale where successive flat-topped terraces have been cut into the volcanic landscape. These packages bear conspicuous swarms of vesicle-poor black lens-shaped features set in a light colored matrix. The lenses range in their aspect ratio (2D height vs. length) and can be > 2 m long. Horizontal jointing is superimposed on the black lens-bearing outcrops and their spacing appears to coincide with the aspect ratio of the lenses, i.e. thinner lenses have a narrower joint spacing. Locally wider lenses grade down into completely stretched and/or flattened lenses that resemble conventional flow banding. We interpret these tabular packages as ignimbrites and the vesicle-poor black lenses as juvenile magma blobs (distinct from typical pumice or fiamme). A notably different flow-banded, irregularly deformed, and sometimes obsidian-bearing lithology appears in a number of locations. It supports topography characterized by rolling hills that contrasts markedly with the tilted plateaus supported by ignimbrites. The difference in morphology between ignimbrites and lavas is most readily observed in

  12. Genotoxic evaluation of the River Paranaíba hydrographic basin in Monte Carmelo, MG, Brazil, by the Tradescantia micronucleus

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Carlos F.; Pereira, Boscolli B.; de Campos-Junior, Edimar O.; Sousa, Eduardo F.; Souto, Henrique N.; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pollutants have adverse effects on human health and on other organisms that inhabit or use water resources. The aim of the present study was to assess the environmental quality of three watercourses in Monte Carmelo, MG, Brazil, using the micronucleus test on Tradescantia. For each treatment, 15 plants were exposed to water samples for 24 h. The control group was exposed to formaldehyde (0.2%) and the negative control to Hoagland solution. Subsequently the plants were placed in Hoagland solution for 24 h to recover. Cells were stained with 2% acetic carmine and examined by light microscopy. Three hundred tetrads were analyzed per slide. The frequency of genotoxic alterations was expressed as the number of micronuclei per 100 tetrads, and the groups were compared by ANOVA. At all sample sites for each watercourse significant genotoxicity indices were observed. The results suggest that in the Mumbuca creek, the current situation of effluent discharge should be reconsidered by the municipal environmental authorities. The increase in micronucleus frequency denoted for water samples of the Mumbuca creek, Lambari river and Perdizes river emphasizes the need to adopt environmental vigilance strategies, such as biological monitoring. PMID:26692158

  13. Vertical Profiles Of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th And {sup 40}K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 1.84 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 4.20 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81{+-}0.22 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 4.21{+-}0.07 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 50

  14. Aphidophagous Parasitoids can Forage Wheat Crops Before Aphid Infestation, Parana State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceolin Bortolotto, Orcial; de Oliveira Menezes Júnior, Ayres; Thibes Hoshino, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids are common in Brazilian wheat fields, and parasitize aphids at the wheat tillering stage. However, there is little information available about when this natural enemy occurs in wheat crops. This study investigated the initial occurrence of aphid parasitoids in four commercial wheat crops in northern Paraná during the 2009 crop season. We installed two Malaise traps at each wheat farm, and 400 tillers were assessed weekly in each field for aphid abundance. During this study, we captured 4,355 aphid parasitoids and 197 aphids. Three species of braconid parasitoids were identified, including Aphidius colemani (Viereck 1912), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson 1880), and Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh 1855). The aphids species identified were Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus 1758) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius 1775). This study showed that aphid parasitoids are present in wheat crops even when aphid densities are low, and in one farm, occurred before the aphids colonization. These reports can justified the high efficiency of these natural enemies against aphids in wheat fields. PMID:25843593

  15. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Penha, Tania Regina; Stoffelo, Daura Regina Eira; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ribeiro, Magda Costa; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow’s uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after Hind III digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes Hind III and Bam HI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of Bam HI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group. PMID:26221118

  16. HLA-A, B and DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in volunteer bone marrow donors from the north of Parana State

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Marlene Silva; Jarduli, Luciana Ribeiro; Jorge, Adylson Justino; Camargo, Rossana Batista Oliveira Godoy; Carneiro, Fernando Pagotto; Gelinski, Jair Roberto; Silva, Roseclei Assunção Feliciano; Lavado, Edson Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of allele and haplotype frequencies of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is important in the search for unrelated bone marrow donors. The Brazilian population is very heterogeneous and the HLA system is highly informative of populations because of the high level of polymorphisms. Aim The aim of this study was to characterize the immunogenetic profile of ethnic groups (Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Asians) in the north of Parana State. Methods A study was carried out of 3978 voluntary bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry and typed for the HLA-A, B and DRB1 (low resolution) loci. The alleles were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotides method using the LabType SSO kit (One Lambda, CA, USA). The ARLEQUIN v.3.11 computer program was used to calculate allele and haplotype frequencies Results The most common alleles found in Caucasians were HLA-A*02, 24, 01; HLA-B*35, 44, 51; DRB1*11, 13, 07; for Afro-Brazilians they were HLA-A*02, 03, 30; HLA-B*35, 15, 44; DRB1*13, 11, 03; and for Asians they were: HLA-A*24, 02, 26; HLA-B*40, 51, 52; DRB1*04, 15, 09. The most common haplotype combinations were: HLA-A*01, B*08, DRB1*03 and HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 for Caucasians; HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 and HLA-A*01, B*08 and DRB1*03 for Afro-Brazilians; and HLA-A*24, B*52, DRB1*15 and HLA-A*24, B*40 and DRB1*09 for Asians. Conclusion There is a need to target and expand bone marrow donor campaigns in the north of Parana State. The data of this study may be used as a reference by the Instituto Nacional de Cancer/Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry to evaluate the immunogenetic profile of populations in specific regions and in the selection of bone marrow donors PMID:23049380

  17. HLA-A, B and DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in volunteer bone marrow donors from the north of Parana State.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Marlene Silva; Jarduli, Luciana Ribeiro; Jorge, Adylson Justino; Camargo, Rossana Batista Oliveira Godoy; Carneiro, Fernando Pagotto; Gelinski, Jair Roberto; Silva, Roseclei Assunção Feliciano; Lavado, Edson Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of allele and haplotype frequencies of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is important in the search for unrelated bone marrow donors. The Brazilian population is very heterogeneous and the HLA system is highly informative of populations because of the high level of polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunogenetic profile of ethnic groups (Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Asians) in the north of Parana State. A study was carried out of 3978 voluntary bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry and typed for the HLA-A, B and DRB1 (low resolution) loci. The alleles were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotides method using the LabType SSO kit (One Lambda, CA, USA). The ARLEQUIN v.3.11 computer program was used to calculate allele and haplotype frequencies The most common alleles found in Caucasians were HLA-A*02, 24, 01; HLA-B*35, 44, 51; DRB1*11, 13, 07; for Afro-Brazilians they were HLA-A*02, 03, 30; HLA-B*35, 15, 44; DRB1*13, 11, 03; and for Asians they were: HLA-A*24, 02, 26; HLA-B*40, 51, 52; DRB1*04, 15, 09. The most common haplotype combinations were: HLA-A*01, B*08, DRB1*03 and HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 for Caucasians; HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 and HLA-A*01, B*08 and DRB1*03 for Afro-Brazilians; and HLA-A*24, B*52, DRB1*15 and HLA-A*24, B*40 and DRB1*09 for Asians. There is a need to target and expand bone marrow donor campaigns in the north of Parana State. The data of this study may be used as a reference by the Instituto Nacional de Cancer/Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry to evaluate the immunogenetic profile of populations in specific regions and in the selection of bone marrow donors.

  18. [Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) cultivated in the State of Parana and containing arcelin].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S; Pereira, Paulo Roberto V da S; Zukovski, Luciana

    2007-01-01

    This research intended to evaluate the development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.), a stored-grain pest, on bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly cultivated in the State of Parana and containing arcelin, and the possible resistance of these genotypes to the bruchine. Tests were performed under laboratory conditions (27 masculineC, fotophase 12h, 50 +/- 10 % RH) with the genotypes TPS-Bionobre, IAC-Una, IPR-Uirapuru, IAPAR 44, IPR Juriti, IAPAR 81, Pérola, Carioca, Bolinha, and two others containing arcelin, Arc 1 and Arc 2. The genotypes with Arc 1 and 2 alleles caused higher mortality of immature stages; in Arc 1 developmental period was prolonged and the male and female dry weights were the lowest, suggesting an antibiosis mechanism of resistance. Non-preference for oviposition was not observed for these two genotypes. Among varieties without arcelin, IAPAR 44 was the most resistant to the bruchid, being the least preferred for oviposition, and promoting low percentage of viable eggs, long developmental period and reduced male and female adult dry weight. Perola, IPR Juriti and Bolinha with high number of eggs and viable eggs, low mortality of immature stages, were the most susceptible.

  19. Rural-urban focus of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maziero, Nelí; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Steindel, Mário; Link, Juliana Seger; Rossini, Diego; Alban, Silvana M; Nascimento, Aguinaldo J

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, bordering Argentina and Parana State, southern Brazil, where in recent years, VL has been recorded in both dogs and humans. Clinical signs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for Leishmania investigation. Among the 252 dogs surveyed, 41 were positive by ELISA assay, 43 in IFAT (titer>40), and 55 by PCR. From the 48 positive for VL by both serological and molecular methods, 19 (39.6%) presented clinical symptoms of leishmaniosis, 35 (72.9%) were from rural areas, and 13 (27.1%) were from urban areas. This pilot study confirms the occurrence of VL among dogs in the far western region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, with high risk of CVL outbreaks and presenting a threat to humans.

  20. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  1. E-Learning of Genetic Counseling and Basic Genetics for Psychologists in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustilnick, Renato; Correia-Neto, Jorge S.; Vilar, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of a learning process of genetic counseling and basic genetics using an e-learning model and its application to a group of psychologists in the state of Parana in southern Brazil. The aim was to analyze the impact on the increase of knowledge in the presented subjects and the possibility of applying this…

  2. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Nishi, Letícia; Brustolin, Camila Fernanda; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Falavigna Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed.

  3. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TIYO, Rogerio; de SOUZA, Carla Zangari; NISHI, Letícia; BRUSTOLIN, Camila Fernanda; RATTI, Bianca Altrão; FALAVIGNA GUILHERME, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidiumspp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardiaspp. or Cryptosporidiumspp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardiaspp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed. PMID:26422158

  4. Survey for foot-and-mouth disease in the endangered marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) from marshlands of the Parana River Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Márcia F; Duarte, José M B

    2010-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation and diseases have resulted in a decline of the marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) throughout its South American range. Our objectives were to determine whether marsh deer intended for translocation from a region of the Rio Paraná Basin had been infected previously by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and whether they were carrying virus. We captured marsh deer from June to October 1998 and collected blood from 108 animals and esophageal-pharyngeal fluid from 53. Serum was tested for antibodies against three FMDV serotypes (O, A, and C) by liquid-phase-blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Esophageal-pharyngeal fluid was tested for FMDV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and inoculation into three successive baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell subcultures, followed by RT-PCR of cultures. We detected low log(10) titers (range 1.0-1.5) to FMDV subtype A(24) Cruzeiro in 19 of 108 sampled marsh deer, but failed to isolate FMDV or detect FMDV RNA in any samples. We conclude that marsh deer from our study site were unlikely to carry FMDV; however, as a preventive measure, the 19 animals with titers for FMDV were not sent to FMDV-free Brazilian states.

  5. Economic information on the historical behavior of forest fires in the forest lands in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Treesearch

    Vitor Afonso Hoeflich; Alexandre França Tetto; Antonio Carlos Batista

    2013-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the fires have caused severe impact in the world, and their frequency and intensity tend to increase as a result of ongoing climate changes which have occurred over the past decades. It should be also noted that the urban-rural interface has attracted the attention of governments by the concentration of the number of fire...

  6. E-Learning as a Training Tool for Civil Servants: A Case in the State of Parana - Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Adriano; Munaretti de Camargo, Rosi Teresinha; Maioli, Marcos Rogerio

    2017-01-01

    The distance education (DE) modality evolves as new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are developed and based on the methodologies that are being used in the media dissemination of information, educational institutions and organizations take ownership of these innovations to promote their teaching processes. One of the methods that…

  7. The Age of Parana Flood Volcanism, Rifting of Gondwanaland, and the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, Paul R.; Ernesto, Marcia; Pacca, Igor G.; Coe, Robert S.; Glen, Jonathon M.; Prevot, Michel; Perrin, Mireille

    1992-11-01

    The Parana-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced ~1.5 x 10^6 cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New 40Ar/39Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Parana flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 ± 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Parana flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  8. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefson, Scott D.

    1990-03-01

    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under the MTCR has succeeded in stalling Brazil's missile program, but has also: (1) further strained Brazilian security relations with the United States; (2) weakened U.S. influence over Brazil's rocket and missile programs; (3) strengthened Brazilian ties with European suppliers (especially France) of space and missile technology; (4) driven Brazil into closer technological cooperation with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union; and (5) intensified Brazilian negotiations with Iraq and Libya. As Brazil moves away from the United States (its traditional supplier of space and missile technology), it is becoming relatively more autonomous and less vulnerable to U.S. restrictions on space and missile technology. The successful implementation of an internationalist development strategy by Brazil's new president, Fernando Collor de Mello, could provide the United States with an exceptional opportunity to improve relations with Brazil.

  9. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-01-01

    Background Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2–3 weeks), nursery (4–7 weeks), grower pigs (8–14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15–16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. Results The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26·23% and 1·57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96·6% and 13·2%, respectively. Conclusions The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. PMID:25648743

  10. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gislaine Cristina Ferreira; Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Girotto, Aline; Taroda, Alessandra; Vidotto, Marilda Carlos; Garcia, João Luis; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Arlington, Selwyn Headley; Vidotto, Odilon

    2012-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256) and 19.4% (49/256), respectively; while 5.47% (14/256) of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection). Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.

  11. U-Pb ages, geochemistry, C-O-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes and petrogenesis of the Catalão II carbonatitic complex (Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil): implications for regional-scale heterogeneities in the Brazilian carbonatite associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Melluso, Leone; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Ruberti, Excelso; Brilli, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    The Catalão II carbonatitic complex is part of the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP), central Brazil, close to the Catalão I complex. Drill-hole sampling and detailed mineralogical and geochemical study point out the existence of ultramafic lamprophyres (phlogopite-picrites), calciocarbonatites, ferrocarbonatites, magnetitites, apatitites, phlogopitites and fenites, most of them of cumulitic origin. U-Pb data have constrained the age of Catalão I carbonatitic complex between 78 ± 1 and 81 ± 4 Ma. The initial strontium, neodymium and hafnium isotopic data of Catalão II (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70503-0.70599; ɛNdi = -6.8 to -4.7; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28248-0.28249; ɛHfi = -10.33 to -10.8) are similar to the isotopic composition of the Catalão I complex and fall within the field of APIP kimberlites, kamafugites and phlogopite-picrites, indicating the provenance from an old lithospheric mantle source. Carbon isotopic data for Catalão II carbonatites (δ13C = -6.35 to -5.68 ‰) confirm the mantle origin of the carbon for these rocks. The origin of Catalão II cumulitic rocks is thought to be caused by differential settling of the heavy phases (magnetite, apatite, pyrochlore and sulphides) in a magma chamber repeatedly filled by carbonatitic/ferrocarbonatitic liquids (s.l.). The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Catalão II rocks matches those of APIP rocks and is markedly different from the isotopic features of alkaline-carbonatitic complexes in the southernmost Brazil. The differences are also observed in the lithologies and the magmatic affinity of the igneous rocks found in the two areas, thus demonstrating the existence of regional-scale heterogeneity in the mantle sources underneath the Brazilian platform.

  12. U-Pb ages, geochemistry, C-O-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes and petrogenesis of the Catalão II carbonatitic complex (Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil): implications for regional-scale heterogeneities in the Brazilian carbonatite associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Melluso, Leone; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Ruberti, Excelso; Brilli, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    The Catalão II carbonatitic complex is part of the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP), central Brazil, close to the Catalão I complex. Drill-hole sampling and detailed mineralogical and geochemical study point out the existence of ultramafic lamprophyres (phlogopite-picrites), calciocarbonatites, ferrocarbonatites, magnetitites, apatitites, phlogopitites and fenites, most of them of cumulitic origin. U-Pb data have constrained the age of Catalão I carbonatitic complex between 78 ± 1 and 81 ± 4 Ma. The initial strontium, neodymium and hafnium isotopic data of Catalão II (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70503-0.70599; ɛNdi = -6.8 to -4.7; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28248-0.28249; ɛHfi = -10.33 to -10.8) are similar to the isotopic composition of the Catalão I complex and fall within the field of APIP kimberlites, kamafugites and phlogopite-picrites, indicating the provenance from an old lithospheric mantle source. Carbon isotopic data for Catalão II carbonatites (δ13C = -6.35 to -5.68 ‰) confirm the mantle origin of the carbon for these rocks. The origin of Catalão II cumulitic rocks is thought to be caused by differential settling of the heavy phases (magnetite, apatite, pyrochlore and sulphides) in a magma chamber repeatedly filled by carbonatitic/ferrocarbonatitic liquids ( s.l.). The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Catalão II rocks matches those of APIP rocks and is markedly different from the isotopic features of alkaline-carbonatitic complexes in the southernmost Brazil. The differences are also observed in the lithologies and the magmatic affinity of the igneous rocks found in the two areas, thus demonstrating the existence of regional-scale heterogeneity in the mantle sources underneath the Brazilian platform.

  13. Bebedourite from its type area (Salitre I complex): A key petrogenetic series in the Late-Cretaceous Alto Paranaíba kamafugite-carbonatite-phoscorite association, Central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Elisa Soares Rocha; Brod, José Affonso; Junqueira-Brod, Tereza Cristina; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Cordeiro, Pedro Filipe de Oliveira; Gomide, Caroline Siqueira

    2012-07-01

    Bebedourite is a cumulate rock composed of variable but roughly equant amounts of diopside, apatite, magnetite, phlogopite, and a Ca-Ti phase (mostly perovskite, more rarely titanite and/or Ti-garnet). Other minerals may be modally important, such as olivine and K-feldspar in the least and most evolved members of the bebedourite series, respectively. The magmatic evolution in bebedourites is accompanied by a progressive increase in SiO2 activity, which results in the transformation of perovskite into titanite and titanite into Ti-garnet. Although the SiO2 increase may, in some cases, result from crustal contamination, it seems to be a localized effect and cannot account for the evolution of the whole bebedourite series. Crystal fractionation is supported by the chemical variation of key mineral phases such as pyroxene and phlogopite. The Salitre complex is an ultrapotassic carbonatite- and phoscorite-bearing plutonic complex belonging to the Late-Cretaceous Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP) and consisting of three main bodies (Salitre I, II, and III). The complex is composed mainly of bebedourite, with lesser amounts of carbonatite and phoscorite in its central-north portion. A particular type of bebedourite, where the main Ca-Ti phase is Ti-garnet, dominates the southern part of Salitre I and also occurs as dikes crosscutting older bebedourites, suggesting that Ti-garnet-bebedourites form an independent intrusion. Sr and Nd isotopic data indicate that the parental magmas to the bebedourites in the Salitre complex originated in a metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle similar to that involved in the origin of the rest of the APIP.

  14. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  15. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

    2012-01-01

    We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

  17. Brazil and the United States. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series No. 279.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Abraham F.

    One of a series, this booklet on world issues explains why Brazil has become important for the United States. Brazil's rise from a sleeping giant to continental leader is investigated. Brazil's impressive economic growth from the mid-1960s through the 1970s is explored. An analysis of Brazil's economic crisis of the 1980s is also explained.…

  18. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba – Parana StateBrazil

    PubMed Central

    Konell, K.; Gelinsk, M.A.; Benetti, T.M.; Abrahão, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection. PMID:25763066

  19. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on June 11, 2011. DATES: Applications should...

  20. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum. The term of the current representatives to the U.S. Section will...

  1. Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

  2. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, V V; Remor, J O; Lima, R E M

    2012-02-01

    The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008) of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%). In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  3. Acritarchs from Ponta Grossa Formation and their stratigraphic significance: Devonian of Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dino, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Devonian fossil record in the Parana basin of Brazil is restricted to the Ponta Grossa Formation, a potential source rock unit. Paleontological studies of the macrofauna from this formation indicated an Early Devonian age. For this paper a wide range of surface samples and core samples from eight wells drilled by Pauliperto (a CESP-IPT joint venture) have been studied. Microplankton from the Devonian of the Parana basin never before described are presented here, together with their biostratigraphical and paleoecological implications. Intrabasinal and interbasinal correlations are also made. From a total of 60 species identified until now, twenty forms having well-defined stratigraphic ranges and broad (intercontinental) geographic representation are described herein. This assemblage is marked by the presence and diversity of the Subgroups Polygonomorphitae and Pteromorphitae. The Subgroup Acanthomorphitae is also well represented. The Emsian-Frasnian age previously established for the Ponta Grossa Formation through other palynological studies is further confirmed by the paleomicroplankton evidence. Moreover, the chronostratigraphic limits of these sediments may now be refined even further. Thus, depsite the presence of long-ranging forms, other species, such as Triangulina alargada, which is restricted to the Emsian in the La Vid Formation in northern Spain, allow a better chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Ponta Grossa Formation. The abundance of forms of Tasmanites together with a large quantity and diversity of microplankton provides the basis for the paleoecologic interpretations.

  4. The state of the surgical workforce in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Mário C; Guilloux, Aline G A; Matijasevich, Alicia; Massenburg, Benjamin B; Saluja, Saurabh; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2017-02-01

    A critical insufficiency of surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians exists around the world, leaving billions of people without access to safe operative care. The distribution of the surgical workforce in Brazil, however, is poorly described and rarely assessed. Though the surgical workforce is only one element in the surgical system, this study aimed to map and characterize the distribution of the surgical workforce in Brazil in order to stimulate discussion on future surgical policy reforms. The distribution of the surgical workforce was extracted from the Brazilian Federal Medical Board registry as of July 2014. Included in the surgical workforce were surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians. There are 95,169 surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians in the surgical workforce of Brazil, creating a surgical workforce density of 46.55/100,000 population. This varies from 20.21/100,000 population in the North Region up to 60.32/100,000 population in the South Region. A total of 75.2% of the surgical workforce is located in the 100 biggest cities in Brazil, where only 40.4% of the population lives. The average age of a physician in the surgical workforce is 46.6 years. Women make up 30.0% of the surgical workforce, 15.8% of surgeons, 36.6% of anesthesiologists, and 53.8% of obstetricians and gynecologists. Brazil has a substantial surgical workforce, but inequalities in its distribution are concerning. There is an urgent need for increased surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians in states like Pará, Amapá, and Maranhão. Female surgeons and anesthesiologists are particularly lacking in the surgical workforce, and incentives to recruit these physicians are necessary. Government policies and leadership from health organizations are required to ensure that the surgical workforce will be more evenly distributed in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A New species and records of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Da Conceição Bispo, Pitágoras

    2016-10-17

    Specimens of Gripopterygidae (Plecoptera) from Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil were studied. A new species, Tupiperla sepeensis n. sp. is described. Tupiperla misionera Froehlich 2002 is a new record for Brazil and Gripopteryx reticulata Brauer 1866 and Tupiperla tessellata Brauer 1866 are new records for southern Brazil.

  6. Thermoluminescence dating of archaeological ceramics collected from state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatumi, S. H.; Martins, G. R.; Kashimoto, E. M.; Ayta, W. E. F.; Watanabe, S.

    Systematic field work has been carried out since 1993, in order to recover the archaeological sites, situated in places which will be inundated directly or indirectly by the installation of the Hydroelectric Complex "Porto Primavera". A total of 14 archaeological sites were discovered in the right margin of the Parana river, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Equivalent doses of ancient ceramics collected from these sites were determined by Additive dose method. The estimated ages were in the range of (239 ± 10) to (1248 ± 100) years. A burned charcoal sample was also collected from the oldest site and dated by 14C dating method (Centre de Faibles Radioactivités, Laboratoire Mixte C.N.R.S. - CEA, France). An age of about (1015 ± 75) BP was obtained and agrees with the one found by TL method.

  7. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  8. Stratigraphic relations, kimberlite emplacement and lithospheric thermal evolution, Quiricó Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George; Grutter, Herman; Winter, Stewart; Luckman, Nigel; Gaunt, Frank; Thomsen, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Quiricó Basin covers an area of 10,000 km 2 and is situated to the west of the conventionally defined southwestern margin of the Archean São Francisco craton in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sedimentary infill of the Quiricó Basin consists of lightly metamorphosed shallow marine clastic bedrock sediments of the Bambuı´ Group (˜650±15 Ma), unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous terrigenous lacustrine (Quiricó Formation), alluvial fan (Abaeté Formation) and fluvial/aeolian (Três Barras Formation) deposits of the Areado Group. Rare kimberlites and ubiquitous kamafugites of the Alto Paranaı´ba Igneous Province (APIP) erupted through the recently deposited sediments of the Quiricó Basin in the time period 95-61 Ma. The 120-m-thick Mata da Corda Group overlies the Late Cretaceous Areado Group over an area of 8000 km 2 and is composed largely of extrusive kamafugite and related volcanosedimentary material. Unusually large diamonds with proximal surface features and population characteristics are well known to occur in rivers and streams that drain the stratigraphic succession in the Quiricó Basin, prompting the search for their presumably local primary source(s) and a possibly associated Archean basement or cratonic root. Conceptual exploration models for this setting may in part be based on the diamondiferous 120 Ma Canastra and 95 Ma Três Ranchos kimberlites, but require reconciliation with the observed abundance of 85-61 Ma old diamond-free kamafugites. Field relations and carefully controlled stratigraphic samples show that a distinctive mantle-derived indicator mineral suite occurs in the Maxixe Member, a volcaniclastic breccia unit that occurs at the base of the Mata da Corda Group. A detailed thermobarometric comparison of mantle-derived xenocrystic clinopyroxene compositions from this member with clinopyroxene populations derived from kimberlites and kamafugites situated in the Quiricó Basin shows a distinct and abrupt change in

  9. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  10. Geodiversity of Ceará State (Brazil): assessment and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    The results on the geodiversity assessment of Ceará State (148,016 km2, northeast Brazil) are presented. The assessment was performed using a methodology based on the counting of occurrences of geodiversity with cartographical data and GIS procedures. This work is part of the methodological approaches applied in other large territories in Brazil and Portugal considering geodiversity as the diversity of rocks, fossils, lanforms, soils, water resources, and mineral and energy sources occurrences. Therefore, the geodiversity index resulted from the sum of the six partial indices: i) lithological; ii) paleontological; iii) geomorphological; iv) pedological; vi) hydrological; vi) mineral occurrences. The Geodiversity Index score of each grid square is the sum of all partial indices. Hydrological partial index was an upgrade to the previous five-partial indices methodological proposal, considering both surface water resources and ground water as essential components of geodiversity. Furthermore, the traditional cell grid used to operate the counting of geodiversity elements was substituted by a territorial organization by drainage sub-basins. Vector cartographical data were obtained from official Brazilian institutions and treated with GIS software to generate the six partial indices. According to the type of occurences these indices may have very different ranges thus values were normalized to a maximum of 5 points each. The sum of partial indices in each drainage sub-basin resulted in a quantitative map of geodiversity with values from 4 to 26. Subsequently the values were interpolated using the Kriging method delivering the geodiversity map of the Ceará State. Geodiversity index was here defined with qualitative values ranging from "very low" to "very high". The regions Noroeste Cearense and Sul Cearense have the highest geodiversity in the state while the region Sertões Cearenses has the lowest. The use of specific GIS procedures increases the mapping options and

  11. [Demographic discontinuities in Brazil and the state of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Bercovich, A; Madeira, F

    1994-06-01

    "Given the importance of information on the population age structure when planning short, medium and long-term needs within the different social strata, this paper is a proposal to deepen...the study of changes in the population pyramids.... Based on the most recent methodologies a study of age discontinuities is carried out and a method of follow-up by cohorts is suggested, taking the 15-19 and 20-24 age groups as an example. The purpose is to show that, as a...cohort ascends in the age pyramid, new and different necessities arise and also different responses are demanded on the part of the social system." Data are for Brazil as a whole and for the state of Sao Paulo. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  12. Distance Education in Brazil and in the United States: A Comparative View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifschneider, Marina Becker

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of distance education in Brazil and compares it with that in the United States. It presents a brief historical perspective of private and public initiatives in Brazil and concentrates on present governmental projects and educational policies guiding distance education, with emphasis on higher education. Deficits…

  13. Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa) in oysters of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, M S A; Carvalho, F S; Oliveira, H C; Boehs, G

    2017-08-17

    This study reports the pathogen Perkinsus beihaiensis in oysters of the genus Crassostrea on the coast of the State of Bahia (Brazil), its prevalence, infection intensity and correlation with salinity. Oysters (n = 240) were collected between October and December 2014 at eight sampling stations between latitudes 13°55'S and 15°42'S. The laboratory procedures included macroscopic analysis, histology, culture in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. PCR and sequencing have been used for the genetic identification of oysters as well. Two species of oysters have been identified: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. brasiliana. In both oyster species P. beihaiensis was the only Perkinsus species detected. In C. rhizophorae, the average prevalence was 82.8% by histology and 65.2% by RFTM. In C. brasiliana, the prevalences were 70.5% and 35.7%, respectively. The higher prevalence of P. beihaiensis in C. rhizophorae was probably influenced by salinity, with which was positively correlated (r> 0.8). In both oysters, P. beihaiensis was located mainly in the gastric epithelium. The infection was generally mild or moderate, without apparent harm to the hosts, but in cases of severe infection, there was hemocytical reaction and tissue disorganization. The generally high prevalence in the region suggests that oysters should be monitored with respect to this pathogen, especially in growing areas.

  14. Toxoplasmatinae Parasites in Bats from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; Rodrigues, Gabriel Menezes; Silva, Evandro Moraes; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Franke, Carlos Roberto; de Magalhães Cunha, Rogério; Gondim, Luís Fernando Pita

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are widespread cyst-forming coccidian parasites of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. Whereas T. gondii is a zoonotic disease, N. caninum is restricted to nonhuman animals. Some chiropteran species can be infected by T. gondii and present fatal toxoplasmosis. In most cases, T. gondii -infected bats are believed to remain asymptomatic and to act as an infection source to other animals. It is not known whether N. caninum can infect bats. We determined infection rates of T. gondii and N. caninum in free-living bats in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Brain samples from 97 bats of seven species, captured in 2008-15, were analyzed by PCRs for T. gondii and N. caninum . Two of the 97 samples were positive for T. gondii DNA. None of the samples were positive for N. caninum DNA, suggesting that the bats were not susceptible to N. caninum infection or that its prevalence was very low.

  15. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild monkeys from Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corte, Andreia C; Svoboda, Walfrido K; Navarro, Italmar T; Freire, Roberta L; Malanski, Luciano S; Shiozawa, M M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Aguiar, Lucas M; Passos, Fernando C; Maron, Angela; Camargo, Zoilo P; Itano, Eiko N; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paraná River basin, Paraná State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively. The seropositivity observed by ELISA was 44.1% and 60% for Cebus sp. and A. caraya, respectively, while by immunodiffusion test Cebus sp. showed positivity of 2.9% only. No significant difference was observed in relation to age and sex. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild-black and golden-howler monkeys. The high positivity to P. brasiliensis infection in both species evaluated in our study and the positivity by immunodiffusion test in Cebus sp. suggest that natural disease may be occurring in wild monkeys living in paracoccidioidomycosis endemic areas.

  17. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  18. Metal pollution in the environment of Minas Gerais State - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Veado, M A R V; Arantes, I A; Oliveira, A H; Almeida, M R M G; Miguel, R A; Severo, M I; Cabaleiro, H L

    2006-06-01

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil brings out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic nervous diseases, still not clearly diagnosed, which suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th and Zn in environmental samples. The obtained results show that the water and sediment contaminated with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km.

  19. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space

  20. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space

  1. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  2. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT.

  3. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  4. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  5. The age of parana flood volcanism, rifting of gondwanaland, and the jurassic-cretaceous boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, P R; Ernesto, M; Pacca, I G; Coe, R S; Glen, J M; Prévot, M; Perrin, M

    1992-11-06

    The Paraná-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced approximately 1.5 x 10(6) cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Paraná flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 +/- 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Paraná flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  6. Brazil, the United States, and the Missile Technology Control Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-19

    Pursues Dream in Space," Washington Post, 13 December 1984, lf, 4f. According to Defense News, "Brazil’s Andrade Gutierrez Quimica produces ammonium...Defense Intelligence Agency JSI-IC Washington, DC 22340 Gary Wynia Carleton College Northfield, MN 55057

  7. Coronary risk factors in adult children of parents with coronary heart disease: a comparison survey of southeastern Brazil and southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Nelia; Fletcher, Barbara J; Fletcher, Gerald F; Serra, Salvador; Cruz, Pedro di Marco da; Kelly, Deborah; Meirelles, Luisa; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Tabor, Leigh Ann; Ramos, Adriana; Castro, Iran

    2005-01-01

    A survey was performed in southeastern Brazil and in the southeastern United States to: 1) compare coronary risk factors in adult children (>18 years old) of parents with coronary heart disease enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation programs in countries with different geographic, social, and economic factors; and 2) to assess the influence of coronary heart disease of parents on alteration of lifestyle in these adult children. There were 286 biological children available for the survey (135 Brazil, 151 United States). Of those, 142 completed the survey (78 Brazil, 64 United States) for an overall compliance rate of 50% (58% Brazil, 42% United States). The following differences were noted: blood pressure > 159/90 mm Hg (23% Brazil, 15% United States [nonsignificant]); total cholesterol > 181 mg/dL (5% Brazil, 30% United States [p < 0.001]); HDL-C < 35 mg/dL (95% Brazil, 21% United States [p < 0.001]); low-fat diet (29% Brazil, 64% United States [p < 0.001]); smoke/ever (41% Brazil, 34% United States [nonsignificant]); currently smoke (72% Brazil, 18% United States [p < 0.001]); any exercise [44% Brazil, 82% United States [p < 0.001]); exercise > 90 minute/week (18% Brazil, 20% United States [nonsignificant]); improved lifestyle habits (39% Brazil, 79% United States [p < 0.001]); improved lifestyle habits related to parent's coronary heart disease (66% Brazil, 35% United States [p < 0.05]). Such differences may reflect geographic, social, and/or economic factors.

  8. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

  9. Geochemical Stratigraphy of Southern Parana' Lava Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, A.; De Min, A.; Marques, L. S.; Nardy, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2015-12-01

    Basaltic lava flows of the Paranà Large Igneous Province exhibit significant regional and stratigraphic geochemical variations. While the most notable difference concerns the dominance of low-Ti (TiO2 < 2.0 wt.%) and high-Ti types in the southern and northern part of the province, respectively, detailed analyses of lava flow sequences sampled mostly in drill cores allowed definition of six main groups of chemically distinct flow units. The chemical and possible age differences among these units were then used to define the global time-related evolution of Paranà basaltic magmatism and involvement of distinct mantle-source components. Newly sampled outcropping lava flow sequences from the southern Paranà do however only partially support this picture. Our new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data show that high- and low-Ti basaltic flows are interlayered. In particular, Pitanga type high-Ti basalts are interlayered with Gramado and Esmeralda low-Ti basalts (these latter being present both towards the base and the top of the sequence) in Paranà State, while in Santa Caterina State Gramado flows are interlayered with Urubici-type high-Ti basalts. The interlayering of distinct basaltic magma type requires near-synchronous eruption of chemically strongly different magma types generated from clearly heterogeneous mantle sources and erupted through separated magma plumbing systems, without apparent interaction (mixing) among the distinct basalts. In conclusion, the relative timing of low- and high-Ti magma types seems to be much more complicated than previously thought, as for example Esmeralda or Pitanga basalts, previously considered as quite late and postdating Gramado basalts, are indeed synchronous with them.

  10. Two new species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paschoal C; Santos, Mariana D; Almeida, Lúcia M

    2016-02-09

    Two new species of Cyclocephala constituting a new species group in the genus, Cyclocephala machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto municipality, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto) and C. everardoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, 8 km north of Cristália municipality), are here described and illustrated. The only two males known were collected with light traps and have antennal lamellae much larger than other South American species, along with large eyes and a quadrate narrow clypeal apex.

  11. [Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Raimunda N S; da Silva, Gilson S; Araújo, José R G; Das Chagas, Evandro F; Moreira, Aldenise A; Soares, Ana T M

    2006-01-01

    Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in citrus and mango crops in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, is recorded. Samples of 2003 and 2004 from several counties were identified and deposited in the Insect Collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Agronômica, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão.

  12. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  13. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test. PMID:24031474

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among turkeys on family farms in the state of Northeastern Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys and chickens on family farms in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In order to do so, 204 sera samples from turkeys were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination T...

  15. The Cultural Context of Educational Policy: Brazil and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Jose Augusto; Lynch, Patrick D.

    Both Brazil's and the United States's educational policies are influenced by centralization of administration and formal objectives mandated by law. Arising from a long division in Brazilian life between government and people, public schools have been seen to be the concern of the government, which has preserved the antiquated division of…

  16. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  17. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  18. Beyond Racism: Embracing an Interdependent Future. Brazil, South Africa, the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    This set of four publications examines contemporary power relations between persons of European and African descent in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Using a comparative and multidisciplinary approach, these publications focus on three democracies with large multiracial and multiethnic populations. "Overview Report," which…

  19. Overview of audiology in Brazil: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Russo, I C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the field of clinical and rehabilitative audiology for children and adults in Brazil, while simultaneously offering some data and results from several different research studies within the country. The theme will address seven main topics: (1) the status of services and assistance for the hearing impaired; (2) the results of five different institutional research studies showing the main causes of hearing impairment in children in the city of Săo Paulo; (3) a review of subjective and objective methods for early diagnosis and audiological habilitation of children, including parent counseling, hearing aids, and cochlear implants; (4) a discussion of hearing conservation in different settings; (5) a brief consideration of audiological rehabilitation for hearing-impaired elderly adults in the country; (6) the main results of the First and Second Brazilian National Campaigns of Deafness Prevention; and (7) conclusions.

  20. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Bezerra, Taynar Lima; Andrade, Alex Fonseca de; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Meira-Santos, Patrícia Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has a wide diversity of exotic birds that were brought to this country during the European colonization. These animals are kept in captivity and, in some cases, in inadequate facilities, which may facilitate the introduction of pathogens, including gastrointestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to identify the main gastrointestinal parasites that affect exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. Fecal samples (n = 362) from exotic birds were analyzed by direct examination and by the Willis-Mollay technique. Eggs of Amidostomum sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillarinae, Heterakis sp., Trichostrongylidae, and oocysts of coccidians were identified in nine different bird species. This is the first report in Brazil of infection by Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. in Nymphicus hollandicus; by Trichostrongylidae in Serinus canaria and Streptopelia risoria.

  2. [Public health financing by the Paraná State Government, Brazil, 1991-2006].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Manoela de; Paulus Júnior, Aylton; Cordoni, Luiz

    2008-11-01

    This study discusses public health financing by the State Government of Paraná, Brazil. Expenditures by the State Health Department were analyzed as a proxy for health expenditures by the State Government of Paraná from 1991 to 2006. Three criteria were used: (1) expenditures as a percentage of net revenue, in accordance with Constitutional Amendment no. 29; (2) expenditures as a percentage of total budget outlay; and (3) per capita health expenditures with the State's own resources. The findings showed distinct trends in expenditures during the period studied, the most recent being an expansion in spending of funds from the State treasury.

  3. "Calling a state a state": feminist politics and the policing of violence against women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hautzinger, S

    1997-01-01

    This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives.

  4. Dictyoceratida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from Tropical Southwestern Atlantic (Northeastern Brazil, Sergipe State) and the description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Sandes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-07-21

    Five species of dictyoceratid sponges were collected from trawling on the continental shelf of Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil, of which three are new to science: Ircinia sergipana sp. nov., Ircinia repens sp. nov., Ircinia strobilina, Hyattella cavernosa and Smenospongia ramosa sp. nov., the latter the first record of the genus Smenospongia from Brazil

  5. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the current U.S. Section of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on August 12...

  6. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  7. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  8. Photovoltaic energy program in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Diniz, A.S.A.C.; Prado, A.E.; Mendonca, M.S.C.C.; Almeida, F.Q.; Alvarenga, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the work done over the last years in the field of photovoltaic technology in the State of Minas Gerais, from its R and D to the Rural Electrification Program. The analysis of the global solar radiation data (over 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day) has shown that photovoltaic systems can perform well all over the State, mainly in the north and Northeast regions of the state. The potential for the utilization of PV systems in Minas Gerais is large, mainly when considering the high number of consumers in rural remote areas that are not and cannot be supplied from CEMIG`s grid in the immediate future or in the long term. As a consequence of the demonstration projects, which have shown that photovoltaics can perform well and be cost effective in rural areas, a Rural Electrification Program was launched. To support it a training program has been set up.

  9. New species and records of Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maísa DE Carvalho; Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Salles, Frederico Falcão

    2017-06-01

    Two new species of the perlid genus Anacroneuria, A. rotunda n. sp and A. pitii n. sp are described from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Additionally, six species of Anacroneuria and four species of Kempnyia are reported for the first time from Espírito Santo State. Records are also provided for A. debilis, A. subcostalis, K. flava, K. gracilenta, and K. neotropica. An undetermined species of Macrogynoplax based on nymphs is also reported from Espírito Santo State.

  10. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade Filho, José D; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2009-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies of the state of Alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. In here, Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar,) and Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) are registered for the first time in Alagoas. This report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Migonemyia migonei (França), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), all vectors of Leishmania in Brazil.

  11. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  12. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  13. [Occurrence of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) in urban area of Tocantins state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Balestra, Rafael A M; Pereira, Rosany K de O; Ribeiro, Maria J de S; Silva, Júlia dos S; Alencar, Jeronimo

    2008-01-01

    This is the first report of the presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Tocantins State, Brazil, in urban area of the Mateiros city. Immature specimens (aquatic stages) of this vector were collected in water reservoirs, treeholes, old tires and others. The existence of Ae. albopictus in the metropolitan area poses a potential risk for the interaction of this mosquito species with the urban human population.

  14. New luminescent mycenoid fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Perry, Brian A; Stevani, Cassius V

    2016-09-12

    Four species of mycenoid fungi are reported as luminescent (or putatively luminescent) on the basis of specimens collected from São Paulo State, Brazil. Two of them represent new species (Mycena oculisnymphae, Resinomycena petarensis), and two represent new reports of luminescence in previously described species (M. deformis, M. globulispora). Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions were generated for barcoding purposes and for comparisons with similar species.

  15. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mercury contamination in farmed fish setup on former garimpo mining areas in the Northern Mato Grosso State, Amazonian region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farias, R A; Hacon, S; Campos, R C; Argento, R

    2005-09-15

    The garimpo gold mining activity has released about 2.500 tons of mercury in the Brazilian Amazonian environment in the 1980-1995 period. The northern region of Mato Grosso State, an important gold mining and trading area during the Amazonian gold rush is now at a turning point regarding its economic future. Nowadays, the activities related to gold mining have only a low relevance on its economy. Thus, the local communities are looking for economic alternatives for the development of the region. Cooperative fish farming is one of such alternatives. However, some projects are directly implemented on areas degraded by the former garimpo activity and the mercury left behind still poses risks, especially by its potential accumulation in fish. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of mercury contamination in two fish farming areas, Paranaíta and Alta Floresta, with and without records of past gold-washing activity, respectively. Data such as mercury concentration in fish of different trophic level, size, and weight as well as the water physical and chemical parameters were measured and considered. These preliminary data have shown no significant difference between these two fish farming areas, relatively to mercury levels in fish.

  17. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning.

  18. MRSA from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: intriguing epidemiological differences compared to other Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Alessandro C O; Cunha, Gabriela R; Caierão, Juliana; Cordova, Caio M de; d'Azevedo, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequently isolated agents in both nosocomial and community settings. It is a constant challenge for antibacterial therapy. Therefore, it becomes essential to understand the epidemiology of MRSA isolates in the institution and/or region to guide empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of MRSA isolates in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and determine if there is a clonal spread. We evaluated 124 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various anatomical sites from patients in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was evaluated by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by Etest and broth macrodilution. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR and the clonal relationship among isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobials that have demonstrated lower rates of resistance were tetracycline (20.2%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (20.2%) and chloramphenicol (12.9%). We did not detect any resistance to glycopeptides, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. SCCmec type III was predominant (54%), followed by type II (21.8%), consistent with other Brazilian studies. Twenty-six clones were observed grouping 72 (58%) isolates and no clonal relationship was observed between our isolates and the major epidemic clones circulating in Brazil. An intriguing distinct MRSA epidemiology was observed in Santa Catarina, compared to other Brazilian regions.

  19. [Expansion of state authority and the Special Public Health Service in Brazil, 1942-1960].

    PubMed

    Vieira de Campos, André Luiz

    2005-01-01

    The Special Public Health Service (Servicio Especial de Salud Pública-SESP) was created in 1942 as a bilateral agency between Brazil and the United States, thanks to an agreement signed by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Health and the Institute for Inter-American Affairs. Although it was originally conceived by the Americans as a temporary agency with the military purposes of "cleaning the Amazon" and stimulating rubber production, the SESP contributed from its beginningS to an expansion of the presence of the Brazilian state. In the context of the "Cold War" and the "discovery of underdevelopment", the SESP reoriented its goals towards the formation of a district model of healthcare, based on the construction of a horizontal and permanent network of sanitary units. Despite its international constitution and its inspiration on a American model, the health policies of the SESP in Brazil never resulted from a one-way process. On the contrary, they were the result of a process of conflict, negotiation, resistance and adaptation. The combination of American influences and local responses shaped the history of the SESP in Brazil.

  20. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  1. New species of Hippopleurifera (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the Miocene Pirabas Formation, Pará state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Távora, Vladimir A; Tilbrook, Kevin J; Zágoršek, Kamil

    2015-08-07

    The Pirabas Formation in Brazil has been studied for many years and a great diversity of animal groups (in particular fishes, molluscs and echinoderms) have been described from there, whereas the Bryozoa have scarcely been mentioned. New samples, collected specifically to focus on bryozoans, have shown that the diversity in this formation is higher than previously thought. Here we describe two new species belonging to the cheilostomate genus Hippopleurifera--H. barbosae sp. nov. and H. confusa sp. nov. Both species were collected at Atalaia Beach, northeastern Pará state, which boasts some of the best marine Cenozoic fossil outcrops in Brazil. After accounting for all described species, plus the two new species and four generic reassignments (new combinations) described herein, some 29 Hippopleurifera species are now known. Most of these are fossils from Europe or the USA, but a handful are known from the Recent Mediterranean, Caribbean and Indo-West Pacific.

  2. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Cristiane Maria Fernandes de; Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; Wagner, Paulo Guilherme Carniel; Febrônio, Andrei Brum

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes) necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6%) and cestode Raillietina sp. (2.4%). A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots and Raillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus (Synhimantus) rectus (100%) and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%). In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita and Raillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential.

  3. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369

  4. [Critical issues for implementing oral health policy in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador.

  5. Isolations of yellow fever virus from Haemagogus leucocelaenus in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Sperb, Alethéa F; Monteiro, Hamilton A; Torres, Maria A; Sousa, Maria R; Vasconcelos, Helena B; Mardini, Lúcia B; Rodrigues, Sueli G

    2003-01-01

    Following howling monkey (Alouatta caraya) deaths and yellow fever (YF) antigen detection by immunohistochemistry in the liver sample of a dead monkey in April and May 2001 in the municipalities of Garruchos and Santo Antônio das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, epidemiological field investigations were initiated. Two strains of YF virus were isolated in suckling mice from 23 Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon mosquitoes collected from the study sites. The YF virus was isolated from this species in the 1930s in Brazil and in the 1940s in Colombia. No human cases were reported during the current epizootic outbreak. The YF virus isolation and the absence of Hg. (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar from the area suggest that Hg. leucocelaenus may be a secondary YF vector and play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease in the Southern Cone.

  6. [Professional practices in public dental healthcare: case study of two municipal districts, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; da Silva, Lígia Maria Vieira

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the working facilities and processes of dentists in the primary healthcare systems of two towns in Bahia State, Brazil, striving to analyze the extent to which factors related to dental care, training, placement and professional profiles influence their practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine dentists in both towns, with work process organization patterns in Municipality C being closer to the structuring principles of Brazil's National Health System than in Municipality E. This seems to be related to management characteristics, with networking links among individual, collective, and preventive clinical activities and planning noted in Municipality C. Despite these differences, the practitioners presented similarities in terms of dual militancy and perceptions of the public and private healthcare fields. The hegemony of the private sector seems to be influencing the professional practices of dentists in the public health system.

  7. Dinosaurs remains from western São Paulo state, Brazil (Bauru Basin, Adamantina Formation, Upper Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, C. R. A.; Abranches, C. T.; Abrantes, E. A.; Avilla, L. S.; Martins, V. C.; Moreira, A. L.; Torres, S. R.; Bergqvist, L. P.

    2004-12-01

    In this contribution is presented the preliminary results of a paleontological expedition to five Upper Cretaceous fossil sites in the western part of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Although the material is fragmented, the recovered fossils constitute an important record of the theropod dinosaur; some isolated teeth are the first record of Carcharodontosauridae in the Upper Cretaceous period in Brazil. The authors group the teeth of the theropod into five morphological groups on the basis of the general morphology of each tooth's cross-section and the presence of wrinkles on the crown. Spinosaurid and abelisaurid are also represented in this assembly, though other morph groups remain undetermined. One tooth in particular and a caudal vertebra indicate the presence of sauropods from the family Titanosauridae family.

  8. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  9. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; Vieira, José Luiz Fernandes; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; Musset, Lise; Legrand, Eric; Nacher, Mathieu; Couto, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Couto, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida

    2016-09-22

    Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  10. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; VIEIRA, José Luiz Fernandes; CASSIANO, Gustavo Capatti; MUSSET, Lise; LEGRAND, Eric; NACHER, Mathieu; COUTO, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; MACHADO, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; COUTO, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana. PMID:27680177

  11. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in Brazil nut samples from different states of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Reis, T A; Oliveira, T D; Baquião, A C; Gonçalves, S S; Zorzete, P; Corrêa, B

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in Brazil nut samples collected in different states of the Brazilian Amazon region: Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará. A total of 200 husk samples and 200 almond samples were inoculated onto Aspergillus flavus-parasiticus agar for the detection of fungi. Mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mycobiota comprised the following fungi, in decreasing order of frequency: almonds - Phialemonium spp. (54%), Penicillium spp. (16%), Fusarium spp. (13%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), and Aspergillus spp. (4%), husks - Phialemonium spp. (62%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), Penicillium spp. (10%), Fusarium spp. (9%), and Aspergillus spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 22 (11%) of the 200 almond samples, with 21 samples presenting aflatoxin B(1) levels above 8μg/kg, the limit established by the European Commission for Brazil nuts for further processing. Nineteen (9.5%) of the 200 husk samples contained aflatoxins, but at levels lower than those seen in almonds. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was detected in 44 (22%) almond samples, with levels ranging from 98.65 to 161.2μg/kg. Aspergillus nomius and A. flavus were the most frequent Aspergillus species. The presence of fungi does not necessarily imply mycotoxin contamination, but almonds of the Brazil nut seem to be a good substrate for fungal growth.

  12. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Eder dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. PMID:27833419

  13. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Eder Dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensissp. n.

  14. Wild animals as sentinels of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p < 0.001), showing more sensitivity to protein A-peroxidase than to protein G-peroxidase. The finding that wild animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.

  15. Homicide and impunity: an ecological analysis at state level in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Celeste, Roger Keller; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin

    2009-10-01

    To assess a new impunity index and variables that have been found to predict variation in homicide rates in other geographical levels as predictive of state-level homicide rates in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional ecological study. Data from the mortality information system relating to the 27 Brazilian states for the years 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. The outcome variables were taken to be homicide victim rates in 2005, for the entire population and for men aged 20-29 years. Measurements of economic and social development, economic inequality, demographic structure and life expectancy were analyzed as predictors. An 'impunity index', calculated as the total number of homicides between 1996 and 2005 divided by the number of individuals in prison in 2007, was constructed. The data were analyzed by means of simple linear regression and negative binomial regression. In 2005, state-level crude total homicide rates ranged from 11 to 51 per 100,000; for young men, they ranged from 39 to 241. The impunity index ranged from 0.4 to 3.5 and was the most important predictor of this variability. From negative binomial regression, it was estimated that the homicide victim rate among young males increased by 50% for every increase of one point in this ratio. Classic predictive factors were not associated with homicides in this analysis of state-level variation in Brazil. However, the impunity index indicated that the greater the impunity, the higher the homicide rate.

  16. Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces

  17. How Brazil outpaced the United States when it came to AIDS: the politics of civic infiltration, reputation, and strategic internationalization.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2011-04-01

    Using a temporal approach dividing the reform process into two periods, this article explains how both Brazil and the United States were slow to respond to AIDS. However, Brazil eventually outpaced the United States in its response due to international rather than democratic pressures. Since the early 1990s, Brazil's success has been attributed to "strategic internationalization": the concomitant acceptance and rejection of global pressure for institutional change and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. The formation of tripartite partnerships among donors, AIDS officials, and nongovernmental organizations has allowed Brazil to avoid foreign aid dependency, while generating ongoing incentives for influential AIDS officials to incessantly pressure Congress for additional funding. Given the heightened international media attention, concern about Brazil's reputation has contributed to a high level of political commitment. By contrast, the United States' more isolationist relationship with the international community, its focus on leading the global financing of AIDS efforts, and the absence of tripartite partnerships have prevented political leaders from adequately responding to the ongoing urban AIDS crisis. Thus, Brazil shows that strategically working with the international health community for domestic rather than international influence is vital for a sustained and effective response to AIDS.

  18. The Late Cretaceous fauna and flora of the Uberaba area (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Santos, Adriano R.; Bergqvist, Lílian P.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos B.; Apesteguía, Sebastián

    2008-03-01

    The Uberaba area, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, yields a rich continental fauna and flora from the Late Cretaceous Uberaba and Marília formations. This paper reviews the diversity of the biota recorded from these formations. The most significant taxa from Peirópolis are the frog Baurubatrachus pricei, the turtle Cambaremys langertoni, the lizard Pristiguana brasiliensis, the crocodyliforms Itasuchus jesuinoi, Peirosaurus tormini and Uberabasuchus terrificus, the titanosaurian Baurutitan britoi, Trigonosaurus pricei, Aeolosaurus sp., indeterminate titanosaurians, and abelisaurid, carcharodontosaurid and maniraptoran theropods. Together with faunas of a similar age in Argentina and Madagascar, the assemblages contribute to a better understanding of Late Cretaceous Gondwanan faunas as a whole.

  19. Two new species of Haliclona Grant, 1836 (Haplosclerida: Chalinidae) from Sergipe State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sandes, Joana; Bispo, André; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-04-29

    Haliclona is one of the most species-rich genera among Demospongiae, but with only 11 species recorded for the Brazilian coast. Here we describe two new species of Haliclona collected by trawling at Sergipe State (Northeastern Brazil). Haliclona (Halichoclona) dura sp. nov. is distinguished by the combination of confused choanosome with dense reticulation, oxeas with stepped and mucronate points, color dark brown externally and light beige internally, consistency firm and incompressible. Haliclona (Soestella) brassica sp. nov. is set apart by the combination of a choanosomal skeleton with rounded meshes, strongyles, raphides, color beige and consistency soft.

  20. Characterization of a foodborne outbreak caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Regina Pires; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Albuquerque-Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Jain, Sona; Candido, Alexandre Luna

    2015-01-01

    In December 2001, an outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis infected 114 of 161 people who ate at a restaurant in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The epidemiological and microbiological aspects of the outbreak were characterized. Potato salad made with homemade mayonnaise and stored at unsuitable temperatures was associated with increased risk of foodborne infection. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from the diarrheal stools of the hospitalized patients, and genotyping of the fecal samples generated identical randomly amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and the only record of a gastrointestinal outbreak in Sergipe.

  1. Radium-226 in sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, products in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, C M; Amaral, R S; Santos Júnior, J A; Breckenfeld, M R O; Menezes, R S C

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the 226Ra concentrations in samples of sugar cane juice, which is sold for human consumption in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The sample collections were carried out in seventeen commercial establishments where high quantities of the juice are usually sold. The methodology used to determine the concentrations of 226Ra in the juice was based on 222Rn emanation classical technique. Concentrations of 226Ra in the samples varied from 18 to 89 mBqL(-1).

  2. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond.

  3. Chemical Control of Nematodes on Flue-cured Tobacco in Brazil, Canada, United States, and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rich, J. R.; Arnett, J. D.; Shepherd, J. A.; Watson, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey was conducted in four major flue-cured tobacco producing countries to determine use of nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes on flue-cured tobacco. Included in the survey were scientists from Brazil, Canada, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Nematicides were used on 60-95% of the flue-cured tobacco crop in these regions. The choice of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides, however, varied greatly as influenced by the edaphic factors, nematode species, and other pests present. The major nematicides, application methods, and efficacy evaluation systems used in these countries were addressed. PMID:19287656

  4. Trombiculiasis in domestic goats and humans in the state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Santos, Ana Clara Gomes; Santos, Sandra Batista; Jacinavicius, Fernando de Castro; Bassini-Silva, Ricardo; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2017-01-26

    Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larval mites (chiggers) of the family Trombiculidae. Here, we provide the first report on parasitism by the chigger species Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans) and Eutrombicula batatas (Linnaeus) in goats and humans on farms in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. Severe itching and dermatitis caused by the chiggers' bites were seen. From a total of 779 examined goats, 214 of them showed clinical signs of infestation, as well as family members of three farms of the region. Most of the cases occurred during the rainy season, from March to September.

  5. Immature mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a eutrophic landfill tank from State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio Reinaldo; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2013-01-01

    To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. The species found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.

  6. Distribution of equine infectious anemia in horses in the north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bicout, Dominique J; Carvalho, Regina; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Sabatier, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    The paper examines the prevalence of equine infectious anemia (EIA) in horse populations in the northern part (comprising 89 cities) of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from January 2002 to December 2004. Data on 8,981 agar gel immunodiffusion test results from the region were used as input for a statistical and autoregressive analysis model to construct a city-level map of the distribution of EIA prevalence. The following EIA prevalence (P) levels were found: 49 cities with 0 < P < or = 0.5%, 26 with 0.5% < P < or = 1.5%, 10 with 1.5% < P < or = 5%, and 4 with 5% < P < or = 25%.

  7. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  8. Introduction of the dengue virus type 4 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertolacci-Rocha, Lívia Garcia; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Lichs, Gislene Garcia de Castro; Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-08-01

    We report on the first isolation of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in February, 2012. The cases were isolated in the city of Campo Grande, the state capital, and presented the classic signs and symptoms of dengue fever. DENV-4 was primarily identified through viral isolation in C6/36 clone lineage of Aedes albopictus cells; followed by indirect immunofluorescence, using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were subsequently confirmed by Nested RT-PCR tests. The first description of the introduction of DENV-4 in a state whose population is susceptible to this serotype and the circulation of three other serotypes in the area is cause for concern due to the increased possibility of severe and lethal cases of the disease, and of huge epidemics.

  9. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros de; Tavares, Aluska Vieira; Marques, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2017-08-07

    This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung. The cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion stings in Rio Grande do Norte State are an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year.

  10. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros; Tavares, Aluska Vieira; Marques, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung. The cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion stings in Rio Grande do Norte State are an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year. PMID:28793026

  11. Chagas disease in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil: analysis of admissions and mortality time series.

    PubMed

    Braz, Suellen Carvalho de Moura; Melo, Myllena de Fátima Alheiros Dias; Lorena, Virginia Maria Barros de; Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Gomes, Yara de Miranda

    2011-01-01

    A time series study of admissions, deaths and acute cases was conducted in order to evaluate the context of Chagas disease in Pernambuco. Data reported to the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian National Health Service between 1980 and 2008 was collected for regions and Federal Units of Brazil; and microregions and municipalities of Pernambuco. Rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) of hospitalization, mortality and acute cases were calculated using a national hospital database (SIH), a national mortality database (SIM) and the national Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), respectively. The national average for Chagas disease admissions was 0.99 from 1995 to 2008. Pernambuco obtained a mean of 0.39 in the same period, with the highest rates being concentrated in the interior of the state. The state obtained a mean mortality rate of 1.56 between 1980 and 2007, which was lower than the national average (3.66). The mortality rate has tended to decline nationally, while it has remained relatively unchanged in Pernambuco. Interpolating national rates of admissions and deaths, mortality rates were higher than hospitalization rates between 1995 and 2007. The same occurred in Pernambuco, except for 2003. Between 2001 and 2006, rates for acute cases were 0.56 and 0.21 for Brazil and Pernambuco, respectively. Although a decrease in Chagas mortality has occurred in Brazil, the disease remains a serious public health problem, especially in the Northeast region. It is thus essential that medical care, prevention and control regarding Chagas disease be maintained and improved.

  12. Overview of feedstock research in the United States, Canada, and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.; Tardif, M.L.; Couto, L.; Garca, L.R.; Betters, D.; Ashworth, J.

    1993-12-31

    This is an overview of the current biomass feedstock efforts in Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The report from Brazil provides an historical perspective of incentive programs, the charcoal and fuelwood energy programs, the alcohol program, and other biomass energy efforts. The efforts in Brazil, particularly with the sugar cane to ethanol and the charcoal and fuelwood programs, dwarfs other commercial biomass systems in the Americas. One of the bright spots in the future is the Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine Electricity Project initially funded in 1992. The sugar cane-based ethanol industry continues to develop higher yielding cane varieties and more efficient microorganisms to convert the sugar cane carbohydrates into alcohol. In Canada a number of important institutions and enterprises taking part in the economical development of the country are involved in biomass research and development including various aspects of the biomass such as forestry, agricultural, industrial, urban, food processing, fisheries and peat bogs. Biomass feedstock research in the United States is evolving to reflect Department of Energy priorities. Greater emphasis is placed on leveraging research with the private sector contributing a greater share of funds, for both research and demonstration projects. The feedstock program, managed by ORNL, is focused on limited model species centered at a regional level using a multidisciplinary approach. Activities include a stronger emphasis on emerging environmental issues such as biodiversity, sustainability and habitat management. DOE also is a supporter of the National Biofuels Roundtable, which is developing principles for producing biomass energy in an economically viable and ecologically sound manner. Geographical Information Systems are also being developed as tools to quantify and characterize the potential supply of energy crops in various regions.

  13. First record of Scybalocanthon nigriceps (Harold, 1868) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sheila C; Mare, Rocco A DI; Silva, Pedro G DA

    2017-01-01

    The dung beetle, Scybalocanthon nigriceps (Harold, 1868), is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, for the first time, at the Moreno Fortes Biological Reserve, municipality of Dois Irmãos das Missões, northwest region of the state, expanding the area of occurrence and distribution of this species in the country.

  14. Dengue Virus Type 4 Phylogenetics in Brazil 2011: Looking beyond the Veil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Renato Pereira; Rocco, Iray M.; Maeda, Adriana Y.; Spenassatto, Carine; Bisordi, Ivani; Suzuki, Akemi; Silveira, Vivian R.; Silva, Sarai J. S.; Azevedo, Roberta M.; Tolentino, Fernanda M.; Assis, Jaqueline C.; Bassi, Margarida G.; Dambrós, Bibiana P.; Tumioto, Gabriela L.; Gregianini, Tatiana S.; Souza, Luiza Terezinha M.; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo S. T.; Santos, Cecília L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever are diseases affecting approximately 100 million people/year and are a major concern in developing countries. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship of six strains of the first autochthonous cases of DENV-4 infection occurred in Sao Paulo State, Parana State and Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2011 were studied. Nucleotide sequences of the envelope gene were determined and compared with sequences representative of the genotypes I, II, III and Sylvatic for DEN4 retrieved from GenBank. We employed a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian DENV-4 and we estimated evolutionary rates and dates of divergence for DENV-4 found in Brazil in 2011. All samples sequenced in this study were located in Genotype II. The studied strains are monophyletic and our data suggest that they have been evolving separately for at least 4 to 6 years. Our data suggest that the virus might have been present in the region for some time, without being noticed by Health Surveillance Services due to a low level of circulation and a higher prevalence of DENV-1 and DENV- 2. PMID:22216365

  15. Dengue virus type 4 phylogenetics in Brazil 2011: looking beyond the veil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Renato Pereira; Rocco, Iray M; Maeda, Adriana Y; Spenassatto, Carine; Bisordi, Ivani; Suzuki, Akemi; Silveira, Vivian R; Silva, Sarai J S; Azevedo, Roberta M; Tolentino, Fernanda M; Assis, Jaqueline C; Bassi, Margarida G; Dambrós, Bibiana P; Tumioto, Gabriela L; Gregianini, Tatiana S; Souza, Luiza Terezinha M; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo S T; Santos, Cecília L S

    2011-12-01

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever are diseases affecting approximately 100 million people/year and are a major concern in developing countries. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship of six strains of the first autochthonous cases of DENV-4 infection occurred in Sao Paulo State, Parana State and Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2011 were studied. Nucleotide sequences of the envelope gene were determined and compared with sequences representative of the genotypes I, II, III and Sylvatic for DEN4 retrieved from GenBank. We employed a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian DENV-4 and we estimated evolutionary rates and dates of divergence for DENV-4 found in Brazil in 2011. All samples sequenced in this study were located in Genotype II. The studied strains are monophyletic and our data suggest that they have been evolving separately for at least 4 to 6 years. Our data suggest that the virus might have been present in the region for some time, without being noticed by Health Surveillance Services due to a low level of circulation and a higher prevalence of DENV-1 and DENV- 2.

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine milk from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa de; Santos, André de Souza; Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz de; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Erika Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes; Oliveira, Júnior Mário Baltazar de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Júnior, José Wilton Pinheiro

    The aim of this study was to detect the IS900 region of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine milk samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and conventional PCR, and to study the agreement between these tests. A total of 121 bovine milk samples were collected from herds considered positive for MAP, from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. MAP DNA was detected in 20 samples (16.5%) using conventional PCR and in 34 samples (28.1%) using qPCR. MAP DNA was detected in all of the 6 animal farms studied. Moderate agreement was found between qPCR and conventional PCR results, where the sensitivity and specificity of conventional PCR in relation to qPCR were 50% and 96.6%, respectively. Thus, the IS900 region of MAP was found in bovine milk samples from the State of Pernambuco. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MAP DNA found in bovine milk in Northeast Brazil. We also demonstrated the qPCR technique is more sensitive than conventional PCR with respect to detection of MAP in milk samples.

  17. The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: implementation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Reinaldo Gaspar da; Barros, Nelson Filice

    2016-09-01

    Although the 224 health professionals engaged by the More Doctors for Brazil Project (Projeto Mais Médicos para o Brazil, PMMB) to strengthen the National Primary Health Care Policy (Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, PNab) in 104 municipalities of Mato Grosso (MT) State have encountered significant problems in the work process, important advances have resulted in the health of populations served by the More Doctors Programme (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM). This article analyses the implementation and development of the PMM in MT, from 2013 to 2015, on the basis of primary data from focus groups and interviews of social stakeholders at the institutions involved and secondary data from reports by supervisors, tutors, managers and institutions on the MT State Coordinating Committee (CCE) of the PMM. Despite political difficulties in managing implementation, the results show that the endeavour was beneficial in that it surmounted previous obstacles, afforded users greater access, prompted discussion of the problem and proposed and experimented with ways to strengthen primary health care. We conclude that there is a need for broader academic discussion of the provision and training of doctors, of the model of care and of human resource capacity-building by continuing professional development with integration among teaching, service and community.

  18. Distribution of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in seropositive patients in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Rosa Maria S.; Rodart, Itatiana F.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ramalho Neto, Cícero Eduardo; Silva, Denise Wanderlei

    2008-01-01

    We determined the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in anti-HCV seropositive patients in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, by means of nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of amplified fragments of the 5´NCR. The nested-PCR with genotype-specific primers from the core region was carried out when detection was not possible by the first approach. Detectable HCV-RNA was present in 115 (74.7%) of 154 serum samples. Genotype 1 was the most frequent (77.4%), against 20.9% of genotype 3 and 0.8% of genotype 2. Subtype 1b was predominant (65.2%), followed by subtypes 1a (8.7%), and 3a (6.1%). Coinfection (1a/3a) was detected in 0.8% of the samples. Indeed, there was no significant differences in the prevalence of genotype 1 compared to what has been obtained from anti-HCV seropositive patients from other locations in Brazil. Here we report for the first time the genotype 2 in the state of Alagoas. PMID:24031281

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HONEYBEE STING CASES IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    DINIZ, Ana Gilza Quaresma; BELMINO, José Franscidavid Barbosa; de ARAÚJO, Kaliany Adja Medeiros; VIEIRA, Aluska Tavares; LEITE, Renner de Souza

    2016-01-01

    In the American continent, honeybee envenomation is a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there is a lack of epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study has aimed to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 1,307 cases were analyzed. Cases were shown to be distributed in all the months of the studied years, reaching higher frequencies in August. The majority of cases occurred in urban areas and involved men aged between 20 and 29 years. Victims were mainly stung on the head and torso, and they received medical assistance predominantly within 3 hours after being stung. Local manifestations were more frequent than systemic ones. Most cases were classified as mild and progressed to cure. The high number of honeybee sting cases shows that Ceará may be an important risk area for such injuries. Moreover, the current study provides data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. PMID:27253742

  20. Male Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Association With Condom Use in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Repp, Kimberly K.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Fu, Rongwei; Schafer, Sean; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Reported associations of condom use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been inconsistent. We investigated self-reported frequency of condom use and detection of genital HPV among men. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in men aged 18–70 years from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Men completed questionnaires on sexual history, condom use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among 2621 men reporting recent vaginal sex, prevalence of any HPV, any oncogenic type, and nononcogenic types only was estimated by frequency of condom use (“always” or “not always”). Multivariable models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for HPV according to frequency of condom use. Results. The prevalence of any HPV was 70.5%; any oncogenic type, 34%, and nononcogenic types only, 22.2%. The adjusted PR for always vs not always using condoms was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77–.97) for all countries combined. The association was stronger in the United States (PR, 0.70; CI, .55–.90) than in Brazil (PR, 0.84; CI, .71–1.01) or Mexico (PR, 1.05; CI, .89–1.25) (P for interaction = .025). Conclusions. HPV prevalence was high even among those who reported always using condoms, and its associations with always using condoms varied among countries. PMID:22396601

  1. [Mortality by firearms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    PubMed

    Szwarcwald, C L; de Castilho, E A

    1998-09-01

    Mortality caused by firearms has been increasing at an alarming rate in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study analyzes the gradual evolution of firearm mortality rates in this Brazilian state from 1979 to 1992, according to sex, age, and area of residence (capital city, metropolitan area, or the state's interior), and uses spatial statistical techniques to describe the propagation of this firearm mortality epidemic in time and space. During the period analyzed, mortality due to firearms showed the greatest increase among 15- to 19-year-old male adolescents, with yearly rates ranging from 13 to 16%, according to area of residence. For children 10 to 14 years of age, mortality caused by firearms increased by 10% annually in the same period. The highest annual increase occurred in the state's interior. At the beginning of the period studied, dissemination of firearm mortality was observed to follow a definite direction parallel to the federal road that runs along the east coast of the state. Between 1990 and 1992, however, the increase in deaths by firearms spread out in practically every direction. Empirical confirmation of a general expansion of firearm wound mortality contradicts the usual claim that violence is concentrated in areas of extreme poverty within Brazil's largest cities. Programs for prevention and control of this epidemic should focus on its various aspects and take into consideration both collective issues (such as proliferation of firearms among persons involved with international firearm smuggling, increases in criminal activity, expansion of drug trafficking, and exclusion from social opportunities) and personal issues (relationships and interaction of young people with their families, schools, and social environment).

  2. Characterization of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in several Brazilian states.

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, C T; Tondella, M L; de Lemos, A P; Gorla, M C; Berto, D B; Kumiochi, N H; Melles, C E

    1994-01-01

    Epidemic strains of the Neisseria meningitidis C:2b:P1.3 electrophoretic type 11 complex were responsible for an outbreak in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, from 1990 to 1991. Strains of this complex were also isolated in other Brazilian states and were responsible for a meningococcal disease epidemic in São Paulo State in 1990. Serotyping both with monoclonal antibodies and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was useful for typing these epidemic strains related to the increased incidence of meningococcal disease. The genetic similarity of members of the electrophoretic type 11 complex was confirmed by the ribotyping method by using EcoRI or ClaI endonuclease restriction enzymes. Images PMID:7929775

  3. Leptospirosis seroprevalence and risk factors for sheep in Maranhão state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Sônia Maria; Mineiro, Ana Lys B B; Castro, Vanessa; Genovez, Margareth E; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Costa, Francisco A L

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine leptospirosis seroprevalence in sheep and their spatial distribution as well as identify risk factors associated with seropositivity in sheep from 37 herds and 11 municipalities in the Presidente Dutra microregion, Maranhão state, Brazil. We analyzed 379 blood serum samples using a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The individual seroprevalence was 32%. Of the 37 herds studied, 30 (81%, 95% CI 69-94%) had at least one seropositive animal. In seven municipalities, we observed infection in 100% of the herds. The serovars recorded were Grippotyphosa (67%), Wollfi with Hardjo (9%), Bratislava (9%), Hardjo (5%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (5%), Pomona (2%), Castellonis (2%) and Copenhageni (0.8%). We concluded that the Leptospira spp. in sheep is widespread in the area of sheep farms in Maranhão state, and a risk factor is the animals' water source.

  4. [Pap smear screening for the control of cervical cancer in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2002].

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Tereza Maria Piccinini; Almeida, Rosimary Terezinha de

    2007-04-01

    This article analyzes the implementation of Pap smears by the Cervical Cancer Control Program in 2002 in women 25-59 years of age residing in 850 municipalities (counties) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Cluster analysis was performed to classify municipalities by: number of Pap smears performed; test findings; and adequacy of slides. The variable "satisfactory slide, but limited by" was the principal factor for classifying municipalities into 5 clusters. Spatial representation of clusters indicated a more critical situation in the North, Jequitinhonha, Vale do Mucuri, and Vale do Rio Doce "meso-regions" of Minas Gerais and identified operational problems resulting from inadequate collection of material, with more "desiccated" slides observed in the North of the State and more slides with "absent endocervical cells" in the Center and South. The methodology allowed identifying clusters of municipalities with problems in the screening process, related to quality of sampling and fixing and reading of slides.

  5. [Monitoring water fluoridation in three cities in Piauí State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Josiene Saibrosa; do Val, Cinthya Melo; Costa, Juliana Nolêto; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Silva, Thais Alves Elias; Sampaio, Fábio Correia

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to monitor the fluoride concentration in the public water supply in Teresina, Floriano, and Parnaíba, Piauí State, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly for one year between 2004 and 2005. Six sites in each city were randomly selected for water sampling (total n = 576), 192 in each city. Fluoride assays were performed in duplicate, using a specific electrode. Most samples were below the optimum fluoride concentration, and only 4.3% (n = 25) presented acceptable values (0.60-0.80 ppm). Acceptable samples totaled 7.8% (n = 15), 4.7% (n = 9), and 0.5% (n = 1) in Teresina, Floriano, and Parnaíba, respectively. By conclusion, fluoride levels in the public water supply in the three cities were below the optimum concentration, and a permanent surveillance system is thus needed to guarantee effective water fluoridation in the State of Piauí.

  6. Molecular and seroepidemiologic studies of Enterovirus 71 infection in the State of Para, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ceyla M O; Cruz, Ana Cecília R; Silva, Edson E da; Gomes, Maria de Lourdes C

    2005-01-01

    In many countries, the Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) Picornaviridae family is associated to hand, foot and mouth disease in addition to acute neurological diseases while in Brazil these viruses are more closely associated to the latter group. The aim of this research was to use the first EV-71 isolate of the Northern region of Brazil in molecular and seroepidemiologic studies. Two (2.2%) out of 88 stool samples (44 cases of AFP), collected from January 1998 to December 2000 were positive for EV-71 isolation (73442/PA/99). Nucleotide sequence of the gen that codifies the VP1 protein showed that isolate 73442/PA/99 was similar to the EV-71 strains belonging to genotype B - more closely identified with EV-71 from North America. Neutralization test with 389 sera samples collected from January 1998 to November 2001, from individuals ranging from 0 to 15 years of age living in the city of Belém, State of Para showed the following results in relation to isolate 73442/PA/99 and prototype BrCr: a total of 207 individuals (53.2%) had neutralization antibodies to both viruses, 167 (42.9%) had no antibodies and 15 showed the presence of neutralizing antibodies to one of the two viruses. Only 20.2% of the children aged 0 to 3 had neutralizing antibodies to EV-71, indicating that these children were more susceptible to the infection. Both the seroprevalence study and VP1 sequencing were important to demonstrate the spread and the molecular pattern of the EV-71 circulating in the Northern Region of Brazil.

  7. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test (p < 0.05) all stations had a linear spatiotemporal trend. According to the clustering analysis, the first group (G1) contains stations located over the coastal lowlands and also over the ocean facing area of Serra do Mar (Sea ridge), a 1500 km long mountain range over the coastal Southeastern Brazil. The second group (G2) contains stations over all the state, from Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira Mountains) and Costa Verde (Green coast), to the south, up to stations in the Northern parts of the state. Group 3 (G3) contains stations in the highlands over the state (Serrana region), while group 4 (G4) has stations over the northern areas and the continent-facing side of Serra do Mar. The last two groups were formed with stations around Paraíba River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  8. Understanding the United States and Brazil's response to obesity: institutional conversion, policy reform, and the lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-06-10

    In the United States (US) and Brazil, obesity has emerged as a health epidemic. This article is driven by the following research questions: how did the US and Brazil's federal institutions respond to obesity? And how did these responses affect policy implementation? The aim of this article is therefore to conduct a comparative case study analysis of how these nations' institutions responded in order to determine the key lessons learned. This study uses primary and secondary qualitative data to substantiate causal arguments and factual claims. Brazil shows that converting preexisting federal agencies working in primary healthcare to emphasize the provision of obesity prevention services can facilitate policy implementation, especially in rural areas. Brazil also reveals the importance of targeting federal grant support to the highest obesity prevalence areas and imposing grant conditionalities, while illustrating how the incorporation of social health movements into the bureaucracy facilitates the early adoption of nutrition and obesity policies. None of these reforms were pursued in the US. Brazil's government has engaged in innovative institutional conversion processes aiding its ability to sustain its centralized influence when implementing obesity policy. The US government's adoption of Brazil's institutional innovations may help to strengthen its policy response.

  9. Reducing child mortality: the contribution of Ceará state, northeast of Brazil, on achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante e Silva, Anamaria; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Silveira, Dirlene Mafalda Ildefonso da; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano A L; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves da

    2015-04-01

    To describe the experience of Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, state on improving child survival, over a 20 year period, and discuss its contribution to Brazil's progress toward the achievement of MDG 4. Five population-based, statewide household surveys, with children <3 years of age, known as PESMIC (Mother and Child Health Survey of Ceará), were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001 and 2007. They aimed to investigate levels and causes of mortality and access to child health services. The cluster sampling of 8,000 households identified 2,000 children on average. They used the same methodological approach and indicators. Important changes occurred in demographic and health indicators in the 20 year period, including 81 % reduction in the infant mortality rate, 43 % increase in breastfeeding rate and the achievement of a 95 % immunization rate. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition declined from 28 to 13 % and acute malnutrition from 13 to 5 %. Diarrheal diseases contributed with 36.6 % to the infant mortality in 1986 and 3.9 % in 2007. The major improvements in child health contributed substantially to the progress on MDG 4 in Brazil. Results of the 5 surveys produced reliable information for planning and evaluation that contributed to the remarkable progress made by the state.

  10. Susceptibility to insecticides used for control of Piezodorus guildinii (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in the United States and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baur, M E; Sosa-Gomez, D R; Ottea, J; Leonard, B R; Corso, I C; Da Silva, J J; Temple, J; Boethel, D J

    2010-06-01

    Limited information exists on the insecticide susceptibility of redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), despite its impact on soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., production in Brazil and the United States. Therefore, this study set out to 1) determine baseline levels of susceptibility to currently recommended pesticides using topical and vial bioassays, 2) determine the levels of esterase activity in populations in the United States and Brazil, and 3) compare control among products in field trials. In topical bioassays conducted in the United States using technical grade materials, the LC50 values of lambda-cyhalothrin, acephate, and methamidophos were 4-25, 141-295, and 40-151 ng per insect, respectively. The LC50 values of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were 11 and 27 ng per insect, respectively. In vial bioassays conducted in the United States using technical grade materials, the LC50 values of cypermethrin, acephate, and methamidophos were 0.4-0.9, 3.8, and 1.6 microg per vial, respectively. In topical bioassays conducted in Brazil by using commercially formulated products, the LC50 values of acephate, methamidophos, endosulfan, and imidacloprid were 0.90-1.9, 0.4-0.6, 1.5-6.6, and 0.2-0.3 microg per insect, respectively. In vial bioassays conducted in Brazil using commercially formulated products, the LC50 values of endosulfan, methamidophos, and lambda-cyhalothrin were 4-32 and 2-24 microg/cm2 for thiamethoxam and imidacloprid. Esterase activity in Louisiana (United States) populations ranged from 251 to 658 nmol alpha-naphthol formed/min/mg protein. Esterase activity levels in Londrina (Brazil) populations averaged 163 nmol/min/mg. In field tests, P. guildinii in Louisiana were controlled by organophosphates thiamethoxam and imidacloprid and in Brazil, with combinations of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids.

  11. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up.Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States (n = 1,326), Mexico (n = 1,349), and Brazil (n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil (P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil (P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States.Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States.Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  13. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  14. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil.

  15. [Demographic profile of Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1993-1996].

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciene Guimarães de; Pagliaro, Heloisa; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from 1993 to 1996. Data came from annual collection and registration of vital statistics conducted by the health service in three villages (Garças, Meruri, and Morada dos Boróro). The average annual population growth rate was 2.4%. Nearly half (44%) of the population was younger than 15 years (median 16 years). The crude birth rate was 30.9 per 1,000 and the crude death rate 7.3 per 1,000 inhabitants. The infant mortality rate was high (58.8 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious health conditions in the villages. The results showed that women married younger than men and that there were numerous unmarried adult men (26.7%) and women (13.3%), as compared to data from other indigenous groups. The total fertility rate of Boróro women was 4.3, quite low compared to other indigenous communities in Brazil. The study emphasizes the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data on indigenous populations.

  16. [Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

    2013-09-01

    Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (≥ 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group.

  17. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  18. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    ARAUJO, Andreina de Carvalho; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; DANTAS-TORRES, Filipe; FERREIRA, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  19. Traffic deaths: recent evolution and regional differences in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the temporal evolution of mortality due to traffic accidents in regions within Bahia State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2007, using data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. We calculated overall rates of mortality due to traffic accidents and specific rates by type of victim. Temporal evolution was analyzed by means of correlations between rates and years of study, as well as polynomial regression models to evaluate trends. During the study period, the regions analyzed accounted for 60% of deaths due to traffic accidents in Bahia. Excess mortality among males and superior percentage of deaths in young individuals were observed. Overall, the evolution of global rates showed decreases beginning in 1998, but growth resumption in 2000, although the trend was not statistically significant. Regional differences were more marked when analyzing rates according to type of victim. However, a growing trend was observed in most locations for rates of accidents involving motorcyclists, which, in conjunction with other findings, substantiates concerns regarding the current situation of increased deaths involving motorcycles in Brazil.

  20. Epidemiology of dermal leishmaniasis in the Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mayrink, W; Williams, P; Coelho, M V; Dias, M; Martins, A V; Magalhães, P A; Da Costa, C A; Falcão, A R; Melo, M N; Falcão, A L

    1979-04-01

    Dermal leishmaniasis is prevalent in the predominantly settled agricultural areas in the Rio Doce Valley in the eastern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The disease has been recorded almost equally in both sexes. Cases have been confirmed in all age groups but youths aged ten to 14 years form the population segment at greatest risk to infection. Cases of single cutaneous lesions, multiple cutaneous lesions and muco-cutaneous lesions have been recorded in the area. Isolates of parasites include representatives of the Leishmania mexicana and L. braziliensis complexes and at least one parasite that does not fit into either category. Infections have not been detected in small mammals (mainly rodents) but about 3% of dogs are infected. The phlebotomine fauna includes no species (or close relatives of species) previously incriminated as vectors of mexicana and braziliensis infections in Brazil. In the complex and confusing epidemiological situation in the Rio Doce Valley it seems unwise to apply traditional specific names to Leishmania of the area.

  1. Myxomycetes from mangroves: species occurring in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Agra, L A N N; Bezerra, A C C; Cavalcanti, L H

    2015-11-01

    Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country's northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2) equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora) were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73%) over K-strategist (27%) species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.

  2. [Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2010-01-01

    In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines.

  3. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. [Trichomoniasis: prevalence in the female gender in 2004-2005 in Sergipe State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mayra Santos; Argôlo, Danilo Souza; Almeida Júnior, José Sodré; Pinheiro, Malone Santos; Brito, Ana Maria Guedes de

    2010-06-01

    Trichomoniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, which initiates a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus, cervical cancer, infertility and other diseases. Its incidence ranges from 20% up to 40% in Brazil. The primary channel of transmission is by sexual contact and laboratorial diagnostic may be performed by chain polymerase reaction (CPR), culture medium isolation, fresh vaginal content exam and/or colored by Giemsa and Papanicolau methods. The later has limitations in the detection of pathologies considered sexually transmissible, like Thricomoniasis. This work deals with prevalence of Thricomoniasis in users of laboratories associated with the Ministry of Health, in the age group from 19 up to 44 years old which were submitted to Papanicolau test in 2004-2005 in Sergipe state, Brazil. Results have revealed that among 206,034 users, 7,349 have shown Thricomoniasis, being 3,788 in 2004 and 3,498 in 2005. It could be observed that the estimated prevalence in Sergipe in the biennium studied did not corroborate with the Brazilian reality, which may be attributed to the diagnostic executed.

  5. Neurocysticercosis in Ceará State, northeastern Brazil: a review of 119 cases.

    PubMed

    Sousa, A Q; Sa, H L; Queiroz, T R; Horta, W G; Pearson, R D

    1998-06-01

    Relatively little is known about the occurrence of neurocysticercosis in northeastern Brazil. There have been no published reports from the state of Ceará, but a review of the records at the Hospital São José in Fortaleza, Brazil identified 119 patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed between January 1988 and April 1994. Patients came from 43 municipalities in Ceará. Their ages ranged from five to 74 years; the greatest number of cases were in persons 10-40 years of age; 63% were males. Seizures were the presenting complaint in 64% of the patients and headache in 22%. Two patients, each with several hundred intracranial lesions, presented with mental status changes; one was initially given the clinical diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis. Computed tomography scans showed that 44% of the patients had five or more lesions. Cysts were found throughout the brain. The parietal lobe was the most frequent site of involvement; 85% of patients had one or more lesions there. The brain stem was involved in 8%. There was no consistent association between the severity of the clinical abnormalities and the radiologic findings. Computed tomography of the thighs was done in 10 persons; cysts were identified in nine.

  6. Congenital Neosporosis in Goats from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Christian; Wouters, Flademir; Nakagaki, Karen Y.; Guimarães, Antônio M.; Santos, Domingos S.; Bezerra, Pedro S.; Costa, Rafael C.; Peconick, Ana P.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two Saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. Gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. Multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. Several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that reacted strongly only with polyclonal antiserum to Neospora caninum were seen in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. The second kid was born from a Neospora caninum seropositive mother that aborted in the last pregnancy. It was born without clinical signs. The diagnosis of neosporosis was based on antibody titer of 1:800 to N. caninum by indirect fluorescence antibody test obtained from blood collected before the goat kid ingested the colostrum and Neospora caninum DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from placenta. This is the first report of neosporosis in goats in the southeast region of Brazil. PMID:22451736

  7. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism in the population of Alagoas state, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Adriana B G; da Silva, Luiz Antonio F; Azevedo, Dalmo A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Mauricio-da-Silva, Luiz

    2008-01-01

    The sequences of the two hypervariable (HV) segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined in 167 randomly selected, unrelated individuals living in the state of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. One hundred and forty-five different haplotypes, associated with 139 variable positions, were determined. More than 95% of the mtDNA sequences could be allocated to specific mtDNA haplogroups according to the mutational motifs. Length heteroplasmy in the C-stretch HV1 and HV2 regions was observed in 22 and 11%, respectively, of the population sample. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.9975 and the probability of two random individuals presenting identical mtDNA haplotypes was 0.0084. The most frequent haplotype was shared by six individuals. All sequences showed high-quality values and phantom mutations were not detected. The diversity revealed in the mitochondrial control region indicates the importance of this locus for forensic casework and population studies within Alagoas, Brazil.

  8. Supply and usage of hemodynamic services in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andreazzi, Maria de Fatima Siliansky de; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Sancho, Leyla; Freitas, Heitor Alarico Gonçalves de

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the supply of equipment and procedures inherent to public hemodynamic services in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We conducted an exploratory study based on official data banks: AMS survey of IBGE, CNES, AIH and APAC, and ANS. The examination period of the supply was from 1999 to 2009, and of the use, from 2008 to October 2012. Since 1999 there has been a growth in the acquisition of hemodynamic equipment. The private sector concentrates most of the offer, but has been reducing its availability to the Unified Health System (SUS). The ratio of the equipment and the population exceeds that of some rich countries. On the supply side, there was, in Rio de Janeiro, in 2009, a rate of 4.1 units per million inhabitants, higher than in Brazil as a whole, of 3.4; however, when considering only the offer for the SUS (SUS), the values are similar, 1.6 and 1.5. The procedures of interventional cardiology grew between 2008 and 2011 in Rio de Janeiro, but the majority of public hospitals have reduced production and the private have increased it, resulting in the referral of SUS users to be submitted to procedures great distances from home.

  9. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  10. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  11. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5‘ ε, HindIII-G γ, HindIII-A γ, HincII- ψβ1 and HincII-3‘ ψβ1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the “quilombo community”, from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil. PMID:21637405

  12. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Silva, Wellington; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2010-07-01

    Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5' ε, HindIII-(G) γ, HindIII-(A) γ, HincII- ψβ1 and HincII-3' ψβ1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the β(A) chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  13. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  14. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

  15. Prevalence of Bluetongue virus serotype 4 in cattle in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hellmeister de Campos Nogueira, Adriana; De Stefano, Eliana; de Souza Nunes Martins, Maira; Okuda, Liria Hiromi; Dos Santos Lima, Michele; da Silva Garcia, Thais; Heinz Hellwig, Otto; Alves de Lima, José Eduardo; Savini, Giovanni; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2016-09-30

    Bluetongue (BT) is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. The State of Sao Paulo was divided into 7 cattle production regions (circuits) according the different systems of breeding, operational and logistical capacity of the state veterinary service. At least 1 animal from each property (a total of 1,716 farms) was tested by competitive ELISA for the presence of antibodies against BTV. Sero‑positive sera were subsequently also tested by virus neutralization tests (VNT) using serial dilutions from 1:10 (cutoff) up to 1:640 (in MEM). BTV‑4 neutralizing antibodies were detected in 86% (1,483/1,716) of the animals tested. These results show that BTV‑4 is endemic and widespread in the State of San Paulo and indirectly confirm that in the State there are favourable conditions for the multiplication of competent vectors. However, as no clinical signs have ever been reported in cattle in the region, BTV‑4 infection is likely to occur silently in the State of Sao Paulo.

  16. Analysis of the female mortality trend due to assault in Brazil, States and Regions.

    PubMed

    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Mascarello, Keila Cristina; Almeida, Ana Paula Santana Coelho; Fávero, Juliana Lopes; Santos, Andréia Soprani Dos; Silva, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze time trend of female mortality due to assault in Brazil, regions and states from 2002 to 2012. This is an ecological times series study with secondary data from women aged 20-59 years who died due to assault. Mortality rates were analyzed by simple linear regression and stratified by region, Gini Index and Human Development Index (HDI). The trend of female rate of mortality due to assault was stable in the country, with differences between states and regions. The Midwest had the highest rates and stagnation trend. There was an increased trend in the North, Northeast and South and a decreased trend in the Southeast. The states of the tertile with the highest HDI evidenced a declining trend and stabilization in the first and second tertiles. An increased mortality rate was recorded in states with greater social inequality. Notwithstanding the national stabilization behavior, results point to the need for social policies appropriate to the specificities of states and regions.

  17. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Ricardo J. P. S.; Freitas, Corina C.; Dutra, Luciano V.; Felgueiras, Carlos A.; Drummond, Sandra C.; Tibiriçá, Sandra H. C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. PMID:22291716

  18. Use of indicator kriging to investigate schistosomiasis in minas gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Drummond, Sandra C; Tibiriçá, Sandra H C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

  19. Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: an ethnozoological approach.

    PubMed

    Licarião, Morgana R; Bezerra, Dandara M M; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2013-03-01

    Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB), Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%), with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%). The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande.

  20. [Spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kotviski, Bianca Mayara; Barbola, Ivana de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Among all bites and stings by venomous animals, scorpion stings have increased significantly in urban areas all over Brazil. Considering that Ponta Grossa is the city in Paraná State with the highest incidence of reported scorpion stings, the current study aimed to assess trends in scorpion stings based on notification records and complaints from January 2008 to December 2010. The geographic coordinates of addresses with reported scorpion stings were collected, digitized, and spatialized, resulting in a cartogram of the georeferenced scorpion stings in the city. The incidence coefficients for this period showed that Ponta Grossa had 113.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and that Colônia Dona Luiza, Neves, and Chapada were the neighborhoods with the highest rates. Investigation of determinants of scorpion stings used visual and statistical analysis, indicating wooded or green areas, water mains, and the sewer system as the main correlated variables.

  1. [Evaluation of the Mobile Emergency Care Service in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ortiga, Angela Maria Blatt; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Natal, Sonia; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2016-12-15

    This case study evaluated the Mobile Emergency Care Service (SAMU) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2013/2014. The theoretical log frame and evaluation matrix were validated by expert consensus workshops. Two dimensions were proposed: emergency care management and emergency care, analyzed with 22 indicators. Data collection used interviews, direct observation in the eight regional SAMU dispatches, and a questionnaire sent to the coordinators of the municipal SAMU. The analysis and value judgment according to separate dimensions, sub-dimensions, and indicators allowed identifying strengths and weaknesses amenable to intervention. No regional dispatch performed well in both dimensions; all were classified as "fair" in emergency care and "bad" in emergency management. An important strength was agile communication with callers for help, standardization, and external support for care. The mechanisms for internal and external linkage and communication need to be effectively implemented. The quality of advanced support units requires improvement.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems.

  3. [Use of dental services by preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Ferreira, Simone; Fischer, Laura de Almeida; Cardoso, Luciana; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of dental services and age at first dental visit in preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A representative sample of under-five children was surveyed on National Children's Vaccination Day. Children's parents completed questionnaires containing socio-demographic data and age at first dental visit. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. 192 children were examined. 13.3% of the sample had already visited the dentist at least once, but only 4.3% had their first dental visit by one year of age. The number of children who had already visited a dentist increased with age. Girls showed higher odds of having visited a dentist (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.01-2.1). Public health strategies are needed to determine the effectiveness of health promotion and improve the use of dental services by preschool children.

  4. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species.

  5. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed.

  6. Permanent education in healthcare services: educational activities developed in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, Roseni Rosângela de; Grillo, Maria José Cabral; Pereira, Lizziane d'Ávila; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; França, Bruna Dias; Freitas, Camila Poliana de

    2017-07-06

    To analyse educational activities carried out in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, considered permanent education in healthcare. This is a mixed methods study with a qualitative approach and the participation of 492 municipal health departments. Data were collected in March and October 2014 through interviews available online. The data were tabulated using Excel software. The data were subjected to thematic content analysis and statistic descriptive analysis. The study was approved with opinion 22830812.5.0000.5149. Data analysis revealed the following nine categories: type of practice, theme, method, technological resource, motive, healthcare level, public, financing, and status of the described practice. The activities were not related to a specific educational concept. The researchers found that the subjects that motivated the education activities were based on work and the diagnosis of problems faced by the workers. These principles are characteristic of permanent education in healthcare. In some municipalities, permanent education is being incorporated into the healthcare service routine.

  7. [Managing comprehensive care: a case study in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzed management of comprehensive care in a health district in Bahia State, Brazil, at the political, institutional, organizational, and healthcare practice levels and the challenges for establishing coordinated care between municipalities. The information sources were semi-structured interviews with administrators, focal groups with healthcare professionals and users, institutional documents, and observations. A comprehensive and critical analysis was produced with dialectical hermeneutics as the reference. The results show that the Inter-Administrators Regional Commission was the main regional governance strategy. There is a fragmentation between various points and lack of communications linkage in the network. Private interests and partisan political interference overlook the formally agreed-upon flows and create parallel circuits, turning the right to health into currency for trading favors. Such issues hinder coordination of comprehensive care in the inter-municipal network.

  8. [Effectiveness of community participation in Municipal Health Councils in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mauro; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a model for the evaluation of community participation in municipal (county) health systems. The theoretical basis for this evaluative study was the existing Brazilian legislation on community participation in drafting health strategies and overseeing health policy implementation. The indicators and measures were validated using the expert consensus technique. The proposed model has 26 indicators divided into five evaluative dimensions that reflect the legislation's adequacy for the structure, organization, representativeness, health planning participation, and autonomy of the Municipal Health Councils. Its applicability was tested in 24 municipalities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The data analysis indicated the best results for the dimension "planning system in the Unified National Health System" and the worst for "structure" and "autonomy". Only two municipalities showed good results for the final summary indicator. The study demonstrated the feasibility and adequacy of the proposed evaluation model.

  9. [Evaluation of decentralized management of basic pharmaceutical care in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Joslene Lacerda; Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Lessa

    2010-06-01

    This article analyzes the decentralized management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal (local) level in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The working hypothesis is that conditioning factors for such management results mainly from an essentially technical and procedures-based approach that still prevails in pharmaceutical care. Two research strategies were used: an extensive strategy, based on the Protocol of Indicators developed by the Nucleus for Studies and Research in Pharmaceutical Care (NEPAF) at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University in Bahia, in two Bahian municipalities. Data were collected with questionnaires, a checklist, and document analysis. The intensive phase used semi-structured interviews with key informants. The findings confirm the initial premises, detecting management practices limited to the operational dimension, with an emphasis on aspects of the logistic cycle in pharmaceutical care. Some limited strides were identified in the organizational and sustainability dimensions, focused on promoting greater participation and autonomy in the management of pharmaceutical care at the municipal level.

  10. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-05-01

    Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins) in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Agua Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature) and in stage D (empty gonads) were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  11. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  12. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  13. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in sheep in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sotomaior, C S; Sotomaior, V S; Madeira, H M F; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2008-12-01

    To determine the polymorphisms of the prion protein gene in sheep from the state of Paraná, Brazil, 323 animals of meat breeds (Suffolk, Hampshire Down, Texel, Ile de France, Dorper, Dorset, Santa Inês and crossbreds) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The most frequent allele was ARQ, with a frequency of 0.61, followed by ARR (0.30). VRQ and AHQ alleles were present at very low frequencies (0.13 and 0.05 respectively), and the ARH allele was not found. Seven genotypes were identified (ARR/ARR, ARR/ARQ, ARQ/ARQ, ARR/VRQ, ARR/AHQ, ARQ/VRQ and ARQ/AHQ), of which ARQ/ARQ was the most frequent (0.41). The Santa Inês breed and crossbred animals showed the highest genotypic variability.

  14. Cetacean diversity on the Parnaiba Delta, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, F A; Tosi, C H; Garri, R G; Chellappa, S; Silva, F L

    2008-08-01

    The increase in the research of cetacean surveys on the Brazilian coast has brought new data on the distribution of species never reported before. The present work reviews the current knowledge on cetaceans species and extends this knowledge with an analysis of cetaceans stranded in the Parnaiba Delta, on the coast of Maranhão State, Brazil. The studies on cetacean diversity on the coast of the Parnaíba Delta were made from August 2004 to August 2006. Fourteen strandings were reported, representing six distinct species, such as the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni), dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), pigmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) and two specimens which have not yet been identified. The significant degree of cetacean diversity in the region shows that the Parnaíba Delta is, possibly, of an important area for cetacean studies in Brasil.

  15. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence.

  16. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible.

  17. [Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides.

  18. The eolianites between Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki; Kern

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the facies distribution of Mesozoic eolian sandstones between the Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations and also their contact relationships, in São Leopoldo area, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil. The main distinctive characteristics regarding these sandstones and formations are the mineralogical composition, paleocurrents and the occurrence of wet interdune deposits. These interdune deposits are characterized by frequent thin mudstone layers with mudcracks, ichnofossils and salt impressions. There are also some features that resemble plant fossils. The distinctive characteristics of these sequences to Sanga do Cabral and Botucatu formations allow us to suggest the informal name of Pedreira Sandstone, considering its type section, the Pedreira Cliff, at Sapucaia do Sul, RS.

  19. Distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of medical importance in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Zeilhofer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Intense environmental impacts, causing alterations of the natural habitats of fauna, including those of sandfly disease vectors are observed in Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Entomologic survey of phlebotomines was based on light trap and was carried out by entomological nucleus of the FUNASA and SES in the period between 1996 and 2001. Eighty eight species were identified, including the following sandflies with medical importance to leishmaniasis: Lutzomyia amazonensis, L. anduzei, L. antunesi, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. complexa, L. cruzi, L. flaviscutellata, L. intermedia, L. longipalpis, L. migonei, L. paraensis, L. ubiquitalis, L. whitmani and L. yuilli yuilli. Most sandflies of medical importance occurred in the Amazon forest and savannah. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi had high densities in the savannah region. L. flaviscutellata is predominating in both the Amazon forest and the savannah region. L. whitmani and L. antunesi were sampled in the Amazon forest, savannah and marsh land.

  20. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  1. [Dialogue and participation in a local health council in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Wendhausen, Agueda; Caponi, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Although we are accustomed to believing that dialogue must involve participation, actual practice shows that it can occur in different ways. In this study, conducted in a municipal health council in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, the discursive mechanisms and strategies that appear as "obstacles" to this dialogue were analyzed, based on the minutes from 39 council meetings. Dialogue remained absent even though the council was intended as a forum for participation. Among the strategies, certain expressions which Umberto Eco refers to as "hypercodifications" were identified. Such expressions apparently act to block any debate in the council. The hypercodifications identified in this study were expressions of technical, administrative, and political jargon. Through these discursive strategies, the authors observed that language is used as a ruse, closing off possibilities for democratic interlocution, effectively cutting off dialogue. Thus, there is little transitivity in the power wielded by various segments in the council, which ended up concentrating primarily in the government sector.

  2. Assessment of bioaccumulation of biphenyls in the trophic chain of a coastal area of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Sandro; Maceno, Marcell

    2010-05-01

    The presence of biphenyl was investigated in sediments and water in Paranagua Bay. Chemicals compounds like biphenyl can cause several effects on the ecosystems such as bioaccumulation. Biphenyl and similar compounds are subject to bioaccumulation, which in turn may harm the local ecosystem. The bioaccumulation in the local trophic chain was evaluated using a mathematical model based on toxicokinetic properties of the compound in the organisms. The results showed that even in water, the concentration of biphenyl was high, 0.82 ng/L. Also, in the fishes, the concentrations calculated by the model were higher than the maximum than the maximum allowed for human consumption.

  3. A PIXE Study of Trace Elements in Sediments of Toledo River, Parana, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Hellen C.; Rizzutto, Marcia; Added, Nemitala; Espinoza-Quinones, Fernando

    2009-06-03

    In this work we characterize sediment samples from several points in the River Toledo--PR, using the PIXE (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) spectroscopy technique, in order to quantify trace elements in these samples aiming to provide information about pollution levels for trace elements. The samples were collected in six points of river, during a period of twelve months (12/2001 to 11/2002). The collected material was air-dried at room temperature and then pressed in pellets. The samples were irradiated under vacuum using a H beam of 2,39 MeV in the LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analises de Materials por Feixe Ionico). Produced x-rays were detected using a Si(Li) detector and a standard electronics. Using the Axil program to analyze PIXE spectra it was possible to identify and quantify some elements present in the samples. A multi-elemental referenced material (Buffalo River sediment--RM 8704) was used to validate the PIXE analysis with thick targets. Twelve months of monitoring of six river points were analyzed and these allowed us to identify 18 elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr e Pb. The following elements were monitored: V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn e Pb.

  4. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum. PMID:25893075

  5. The inner state differences of preterm birth rates in Brazil: a time series study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2016-05-17

    Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of premature births has increased worldwide, with regional differences. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births in the state of Paraná, Brazil, according to Macro-regional and Regional Health Offices (RHOs). This is an ecological time series study using preterm births records from the national live birth registry system of Brazil's National Health Service - Live Birth Information System (Sinasc), for residents of the state of Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The preterm birth rates was calculated on a yearly basis and grouped into three-year periods (2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008, 2009-2011) and one two-year period (2012-2013), according to gestational age and mother's Regional Health Office of residence. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis. The predominance of preterm birth rate increased from 6.8 % in 2000 to 10.5 % in 2013, with an average increase of 0.20 % per year (r(2) = 0.89), and a greater share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks), which increased from 5.8 % to 9 %. The same pattern was observed for all Macro-regional Health Offices, with highlight to the Northern Macro-Regional Office, which showed the highest average rate of prematurity and average annual growth during that period (7.55 % and 0.35 %, respectively). The trend analysis of preterm birth rates according to RHO showed a growing trend for almost all RHOs - except for the 7(th) RHO where a declining trend was observed (-0.95 a year); and in the 20(th), 21(st) and 22(nd) RHOs which remained unchanged. In the last three-year of the study period (2011-2013), no RHO showed preterm birth rates below 7.3 % or prevalence of moderate preterm birth below 9.4 %. The results show an increase in preterm births with differences among Macro-regional and RHOs, which indicate the need

  6. Risk analysis and prediction of visceral leishmaniasis dispersion in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liang; Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Tucker Lima, Joanna Marie; Valle, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country. VL in São Paulo State, Brazil, first appeared in the northwestern region, spreading in a southeasterly direction over time. We integrate data on the VL vector, infected dogs and infected human dispersion from 1999 to 2013 through an innovative spatial temporal Bayesian model in conjunction with geographic information system. This model is used to infer the drivers of the invasion process and predict the future progression of VL through the State. We found that vector dispersion was influenced by vector presence in nearby municipalities at the previous time step, proximity to the Bolívia-Brazil gas pipeline, and high temperatures (i.e., annual average between 20 and 23°C). Key factors affecting infected dog dispersion included proximity to the Marechal Rondon Highway, high temperatures, and presence of the competent vector within the same municipality. Finally, vector presence, presence of infected dogs, and rainfall (approx. 270 to 540mm/year) drove the dispersion of human VL cases. Surprisingly, economic factors exhibited no noticeable influence on disease dispersion. Based on these drivers and stochastic simulations, we identified which municipalities are most likely to be invaded by vectors and infected hosts in the future. Prioritizing prevention and control strategies within the identified municipalities may help halt the spread of VL while reducing monitoring costs. Our results

  7. Risk analysis and prediction of visceral leishmaniasis dispersion in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Mao, Liang; Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Tucker Lima, Joanna Marie; Valle, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country. VL in São Paulo State, Brazil, first appeared in the northwestern region, spreading in a southeasterly direction over time. We integrate data on the VL vector, infected dogs and infected human dispersion from 1999 to 2013 through an innovative spatial temporal Bayesian model in conjunction with geographic information system. This model is used to infer the drivers of the invasion process and predict the future progression of VL through the State. We found that vector dispersion was influenced by vector presence in nearby municipalities at the previous time step, proximity to the Bolívia-Brazil gas pipeline, and high temperatures (i.e., annual average between 20 and 23°C). Key factors affecting infected dog dispersion included proximity to the Marechal Rondon Highway, high temperatures, and presence of the competent vector within the same municipality. Finally, vector presence, presence of infected dogs, and rainfall (approx. 270 to 540mm/year) drove the dispersion of human VL cases. Surprisingly, economic factors exhibited no noticeable influence on disease dispersion. Based on these drivers and stochastic simulations, we identified which municipalities are most likely to be invaded by vectors and infected hosts in the future. Prioritizing prevention and control strategies within the identified municipalities may help halt the spread of VL while reducing monitoring costs. Our results

  8. Serologic survey on hantavirus in blood donors from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Emergent diseases such as Hantavirus Cardio-pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) are able to create a significant impact on human populations due to their seriousness and high fatality rate. Santa Catarina, located in the South of Brazil, is the leading state for HCPS with 267 reported cases from 1999 to 2011. We present here a serological survey on hantavirus in blood donors from different cities of the state of Santa Catarina, with an IgG-ELISA using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein from Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. In total, 314 donors from blood banks participated in the study, geographically covering the whole state. Among these, 14 individuals (4.4%) had antibodies to hantavirus: four of 50 (8% positivity) from Blumenau, four of 52 (7.6%) from Joinville, three of 50 (6%) from Florianópolis, two of 50 (4%) from Chapecó and one of 35 (2.8%) from Joaçaba. It is possible that hantaviruses are circulating across almost the whole state, with important epidemiological implications. Considering that the seropositive blood donors are healthy individuals, it is possible that hantaviruses may be causing unrecognized infections, which are either asymptomatic or clinically nonspecific, in addition to HCPS. It is also possible that more than one hantavirus type could be circulating in this region, causing mostly benign infections.

  9. Spatial modeling of the schistosomiasis mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil using spatial regression.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, F; Freitas, C; Dutra, L; Guimarães, R; Carvalho, O

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a transmissible parasitic disease caused by the etiologic agent Schistosoma mansoni, whose intermediate hosts are snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State in Brazil using spatial disease information derived from the state transportation network of roads and rivers. The spatial information was incorporated in two ways: by introducing new variables that carry spatial neighborhood information and by using spatial regression models. Climate, socioeconomic and environmental variables were also used as co-variables to build models and use them to estimate a risk map for the whole state of Minas Gerais. The results show that the models constructed from the spatial regression produced a better fit, providing smaller root mean square error (RMSE) values. When no spatial information was used, the RMSE for the whole state of Minas Gerais reached 9.5%; with spatial regression, the RMSE reaches 8.8% (when the new variables are added to the model) and 8.5% (with the use of spatial regression). Variables representing vegetation, temperature, precipitation, topography, sanitation and human development indexes were important in explaining the spread of disease and identified certain conditions that are favorable for disease development. The use of spatial regression for the network of roads and rivers produced meaningful results for health management procedures and directing activities, enabling better detection of disease risk areas.

  10. A DECADE TREND OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Puga, Fernanda Guioti; Moya, Maria Janete; Andrea, Mauro; Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Viude

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review all the notified cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in São Paulo State (Brazil), as well as to describe and discuss the clinical, microbiological and radiologic aspects in a single reference center, within the same state, from 2000 to 2012. There were 1,097 notifications of MDR-TB in São Paulo State over this period, 70% affecting men aged on average 38 years (10-77). There was a significant fall in the MDR-TB mortality rate from 30% to 8% (2000-2003 versus 2009-2012). The same trend was observed in the cases studied at the reference center. The number of notified cases increased and death rate reduced from 37.5% (2000-2005) to 3.4% (2006-2012). Among the 48 drug-resistant TB cases, 17 non-tuberculous Mycobacteria were isolated in the sputum culture of nine patients, without any clinical significance. TB and fungus co-infection was diagnosed in 15% (7/48) of these cases: three with confirmed chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and four with positive serological markers for paracoccidioidomycosis. Overall, the reports show that MDR-TB diagnosis and cure rates have increased, while the mortality rate has decreased significantly in São Paulo State including in the studied reference center.

  11. [Inter-municipal health consortia: the case of Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nicoletto, Sônia Cristina Stefano; Cordoni, Luiz; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2005-01-01

    Inter-municipal health consortia emerged in Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS) policy in the late 1980s. Municipal health administrators adhered to this strategy with the aim of upgrading health services supplied to the population. This research analyzes the profile of such consortia in Paraná State, focusing on specialized medical care. Data were obtained from reports by the State Health Council and questionnaires sent to all 20 existing municipal health consortia. Governmental Decree no. 1,101 and data published in 2000 on the profile of the health system in Paraná were used as references. Of the 399 municipalities in Paraná State, 81.5% have joined municipal consortia. Specialists are allocated by municipalities (4.4%), the State government (13.6%), or Federal Government (12.8%); another 69.2% are hired by the consortia themselves. The supply of consultations with specialists is either insufficient or inadequately distributed, and there are flaws in the referral and counter-referral system. Municipal health consortia serve as viable instrument for expanding and increasing the capacity of municipalities to supply specialized care, although there is a need for well-defined criteria, planning, and improving of the referral and counter-referral system.

  12. A DECADE TREND OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    BOLLELA, Valdes Roberto; PUGA, Fernanda Guioti; MOYA, Maria Janete; ANDREA, Mauro; OLIVEIRA, Maria de Lourdes Viude

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this retrospective study was to review all the notified cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in São Paulo State (Brazil), as well as to describe and discuss the clinical, microbiological and radiologic aspects in a single reference center, within the same state, from 2000 to 2012. There were 1,097 notifications of MDR-TB in São Paulo State over this period, 70% affecting men aged on average 38 years (10-77). There was a significant fall in the MDR-TB mortality rate from 30% to 8% (2000-2003 versus 2009-2012). The same trend was observed in the cases studied at the reference center. The number of notified cases increased and death rate reduced from 37.5% (2000-2005) to 3.4% (2006-2012). Among the 48 drug-resistant TB cases, 17 non-tuberculous Mycobacteria were isolated in the sputum culture of nine patients, without any clinical significance. TB and fungus co-infection was diagnosed in 15% (7/48) of these cases: three with confirmed chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and four with positive serological markers for paracoccidioidomycosis. Overall, the reports show that MDR-TB diagnosis and cure rates have increased, while the mortality rate has decreased significantly in São Paulo State including in the studied reference center. PMID:27828618

  13. Spatial analysis of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correa Antonialli, Suely Aparecida; Torres, Thais Gisele; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Tolezano, José Eduardo

    2007-05-01

    To map American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) in Mato Grosso do Sul State (Central Brazil). The distribution of AVL was mapped, using the Geographic Information System. The disease was endemic to the Corumbá Region from 1913 to 1998. Spatial and temporal analysis indicated that the expansion route and dissemination through the State of the disease has been from west to east, coinciding with three different human interventions; two of them, a federal highway and a rail-road, were constructed in the early twentieth century, from east to west, from Bauru city, in São Paulo State, to Corumbá city, in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The third anthropogenic intervention was the construction of a gas pipeline that started in 1998, and attracted thousands of workers. This construction route has the same direction, west to east, and timescale as the observed expansion and dissemination of AVL. The results relate the expansion of the disease to intense human traffic along the route of spread.

  14. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Cursino, Luciana; Muro-Abad, Júpiter Israel; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; Hungria, Mariangela; Cassini, Sérvio Túlio Alves

    2009-01-01

    We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin) and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin). Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity. PMID:24031433

  15. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV.

  16. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ludiele Souza; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Hans Filho, Günther; Higa Júnior, Minoru German; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  17. Two new species of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) from areas of Atlantic Rainforest at São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, A L; Lara, R I R; Perioto, N W; Olmi, M

    2015-05-01

    Two new species of Dryinidae are described and illustrated Dryinus auratus Martins, Lara, Perioto & Olmi sp. nov. and Gonatopus mariae Martins, Lara, Perioto & Olmi sp. nov., both from areas of Atlantic Rainforest at São Paulo State, Brazil. Keys to species are provided.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  19. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Cursino, Luciana; Muro-Abad, Júpiter Israel; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; Hungria, Mariangela; Cassini, Sérvio Túlio Alves

    2009-10-01

    We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin) and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin). Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity.

  20. The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

  1. [Tabanidae (Diptera) of State of Maranhão, Brazil II. Description of Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) rafaeli, sp. nov].

    PubMed

    Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) rafaeli, sp.nov. is described and figured from nine specimens collected in Carolina, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The new species is compared with the species Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) laticlava Wilkerson & Fairchild, 1983; Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) bitriangulata Lutz & Castro, 1935 e Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) enderleini Kröber, 1931.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:26607884

  3. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marina G.; Barros, Claudenice B.; Appolinário, Camila M.; Antunes, João M.A.P.; Mioni, Mateus S.R.; Bacchiega, Thais S.; Allendorf, Susan D.; Vicente, Acácia F.; Fonseca, Clóvis R.

    2016-01-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  4. Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  5. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  6. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Edson V; Marchioro, Ariella A; Araujo, Silvana M; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Adami, Carolina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Gustavo; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0%) has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP) from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167) tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7), increased serum IgE levels (6/7) and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7). The presence of pets (dogs or cats) at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  7. The Disease Burden Attributable to Smoking in the State Of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2000

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Leite, Iuri Costa

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Smoking is one of the main risk factors for morbidity and mortality. An estimated 59 million (4.4%) disability-adjusted life years were lost due to smoking throughout the world in 2000. OBJECTIVE To estimate the disease burden attributable to smoking in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the year 2000. METHODS Based on estimates of smoking prevalence and relative death risks, the smoking-attributable fraction was calculated for each selected cause, by age and gender. The disease burden attributable to smoking was estimated by multiplying the fractions by the corresponding disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS In the State of Rio de Janeiro, 7% of all disability-adjusted life years were due to smoking. For individuals 30 or more years old, the fraction increased to 10.6% (13.6% in males and 7.5% in females). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer accounted for 32.2%, 15.7%, 13.2%, and 11.1% of the estimated total DALYs, respectively, amounting to 72.2% of the smoking-attributable disease burden. DISCUSSION Limitations related to parameter estimates were not unique to this study, and therefore should not compromise the comparability of our results. Outcomes were similar to those obtained in other countries, despite methodological differences. CONCLUSION Smoking is an important risk factor and places a significant disease burden on Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing a pattern similar to that observed in high income countries. PMID:18438576

  8. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Laut, Lazaro; Martins, Maria Virginia Alves; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Ballalai, João M; Belart, Pierre; Habib, Renan; Fontana, Luiz F; Clemente, Iara M M M; Lorini, Maria Lucia; Mendonça Filho, João G; Laut, Vanessa M; Figueiredo, Marcos de Souza Lima

    2017-01-01

    Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil), and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM), namely total organic carbon (TOC), total sulfur (TS), total phosphorus (TP) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), including carbohydrates (CHO), lipids (LIP) and proteins (PTN). The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment) where the autotrophic activity is

  9. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  10. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piauí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Allan Paulo Moreira; Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Carvalho, Alcimar do Lago; Sampaio, Brunno Henrique Lanzellotti; Clarkson, Bruno; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Avelino-Capistrano, Fernanda; Gonçalves, Inês Corrêa; Cordeiro, Isabelle da Rocha Silva; Câmara, Josenir Teixeira; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; de Souza, W. Rafael Maciel; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Diversity and distribution of Neotropical aquatic insects is still poorly known, with many species to be recorded and many others to be described, due to the small number of taxonomists and sparse faunistic studies. This knowledge is especially poor in the Caatinga Domain in Northeastern Brazil, even though, this region may have played an important historical role in the spatial evolution of faunas of forested areas in northern South America. New information Aquatic insect checklists of 96 species from Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Ceará State, Brazil) and 112 species from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades (Piauí State, Brazil) are presented, representing the following taxa: Elmidae, Epimetopidae, Hydrophilidae, and Torridincolidae (Coleoptera), Hemerodromiinae (Diptera: Empididae), Ephemeroptera, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Hemiptera), Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Because of the scarce number of biological inventories in Northeastern Brazil, several new distributional records (of species, genera, and families) for Brazil, Northeastern Brazil, and Ceará and Piauí states are provided. In addition, several undescribed species were detected, being 26 from Ubajara and 20 from Sete Cidades. Results represent a significant increase to the known fauna of these states, ranging from 13%-70% increase for Ceará and 41% to 91% increase for Piauí. Although both parks are relatively close to each other and within the Caatinga domain, their aquatic fauna display a very high complementarity (89% species), possibly due to structural differences of water bodies sampled in each park. Rarefaction curves based on quantitative light trap samples suggest a much higher expected species richness of aquatic insects at Sete Cidades than at Ubajara National Park. Discussion on biogeographical affinities of this sample of the Caatinga fauna is provided. PMID:27660528

  11. Aquatic Insects from the Caatinga: checklists and diversity assessments of Ubajara (Ceará State) and Sete Cidades (Piauí State) National Parks, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Takiya, Daniela Maeda; Santos, Allan Paulo Moreira; Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Carvalho, Alcimar do Lago; Sampaio, Brunno Henrique Lanzellotti; Clarkson, Bruno; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Avelino-Capistrano, Fernanda; Gonçalves, Inês Corrêa; Cordeiro, Isabelle da Rocha Silva; Câmara, Josenir Teixeira; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; de Souza, W Rafael Maciel; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-01-01

    Diversity and distribution of Neotropical aquatic insects is still poorly known, with many species to be recorded and many others to be described, due to the small number of taxonomists and sparse faunistic studies. This knowledge is especially poor in the Caatinga Domain in Northeastern Brazil, even though, this region may have played an important historical role in the spatial evolution of faunas of forested areas in northern South America. Aquatic insect checklists of 96 species from Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Ceará State, Brazil) and 112 species from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades (Piauí State, Brazil) are presented, representing the following taxa: Elmidae, Epimetopidae, Hydrophilidae, and Torridincolidae (Coleoptera), Hemerodromiinae (Diptera: Empididae), Ephemeroptera, Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Hemiptera), Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Because of the scarce number of biological inventories in Northeastern Brazil, several new distributional records (of species, genera, and families) for Brazil, Northeastern Brazil, and Ceará and Piauí states are provided. In addition, several undescribed species were detected, being 26 from Ubajara and 20 from Sete Cidades. Results represent a significant increase to the known fauna of these states, ranging from 13%-70% increase for Ceará and 41% to 91% increase for Piauí. Although both parks are relatively close to each other and within the Caatinga domain, their aquatic fauna display a very high complementarity (89% species), possibly due to structural differences of water bodies sampled in each park. Rarefaction curves based on quantitative light trap samples suggest a much higher expected species richness of aquatic insects at Sete Cidades than at Ubajara National Park. Discussion on biogeographical affinities of this sample of the Caatinga fauna is provided.

  12. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, C H; Silva, C G; Lobo, A P

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21 degrees 14'43"S; 44 degrees 59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil.

  13. Astronomy in the Curriculum Proposals of Southern Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Evonir; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-08-01

    Astronomy is a science that has attracted attention and fascination of different people. Because it is a subject that arouses curiosity, Astronomy has been the subject of several studies related to the area of education. In this respect, this article presents partial results of an ongoing Doctoral research. The objective is to analyze and compare the contents related to Astronomy present in curricular proposals that guide the Basic Education in Southern Brazil. The methodological approach followed the assumptions of qualitative research. We used content analysis to make the comparison between the astronomical content present in the curriculum proposals from the states of Parana, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The reading of the proposals has possible to reorganize the content into categories. As a result the category is displayed Earth and its analysis, which shows the lack of clarity and specificity in the presentation of the contents of the curriculum proposals. This finding may be an indicator that affect the integration of astronomical content in the curriculum of schools.

  14. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  15. Official information systems for cryptococcal meningitis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Beatriz Consuelo Quinet; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The study aimed to compare the epidemiological profile of crytococcal meningitis in different information systems, thus assessing to what extent the profile available in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) reflected cryptococcal meningitis occurrences in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2004. That database was compared to a new database comprised of cryptococcal meningitis cases from this System, from the Assessoria de Meningite da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (State Department of Health Meningitis Advisory Committee), and from the Instituto Estadual de Infectologia São Sebastião (State Institute of Infectious Diseases) laboratory records. The System detected 65.7% of the cases present in the new database. The percentage of patients with AIDS as a pre-existing disease was similar in both databases (26% and 24.9%). Thus, even though cryptococcal meningitis incidence is underreported in the System, the profile of notified cases reflects the profile of the total number of cases.

  16. Three decades of meningococcal disease in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Puricelli, Rubens C B; Kupek, Emil; Westrupp, Maria Helena Bittencourt

    2004-06-01

    Consolidation of data on meningococcal disease surveillance for the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, has provided new insight about the evolution of this disease during the period of 1971-2000. A descriptive epidemiological study, based on retrospective analysis of all cases of meningococcal disease notified in the state of Santa Catarina, linked the surveillance data from the Secretary of the State of Health, magnetic tape records and the data from the national surveillance of diseases of obligatory notification. Following World Health Organization guidelines, cumulative incidence exceeding five cases per 100,000 inhabitants was considered indicative of an epidemic. Official population data from the Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística were used for the incidence denominator. During the 1971-2000 period, 7,893 cases and 1,354 deaths caused by meningococcal disease were reported. This corresponds to a mean of 263 cases and 45 deaths per year, with a mean incidence of 6.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and a fatality rate of 17.2%. Three distinct epidemiological periods were identified, two of which can be considered epidemic. Two of three distinct epidemiological periods were characterized by an epidemic of meningococcal disease, covering 20 of the 30 years analyzed. Identification of the epidemics and preventive actions, such as vaccination and health education, contributed to the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to this disease.

  17. [Some perspectives for the analysis of health management in São Paulo State (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Ermel, Regina Célia; Bigio, Fernanda Martins; Evangelista, Aline Francine Raphael; Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida

    2011-03-01

    The current study aims to reflect the changes made in Secretaria do Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES) (São Paulo's Health State Secretariat, Brazil) related to the theoretical management proposals. A brief bibliography research was done, in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Twenty two bibliography sources from the period of 1993 to 2007 were selected. The results have shown that the main trends in the management of public administration are represented by the separation between the political and administrative functions, distinction between state exclusive activities from the ones that can be accomplished by other workers, emphasis of procedure control to product control, clear result attribution, definition of rendering account forms, governability and governing. It has been concluded that the redefinition and direction of several functions of the SES' management allowed the continuity of the decentralization processes so that health actions coverage is enlarged and it makes possible the attention inequalities decrease and promotes the equality in the health processes through an articulated management between states and cities.

  18. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases.

  19. Congenital toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a neglected infectious disease?

    PubMed

    Carellos, E V M; Caiaffa, W T; Andrade, G M Q; Abreu, M N S; Januário, J N

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of congenital toxoplasmosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil and describe the demographic and socioeconomic profile of the municipalities associated with the disease. An ecological study was conducted using socioeconomic indicators of a database (MGSSRI) created by Fundação João Pinheiro (a government technical support agency of Minas Gerais), in order to show the development of the municipalities in the state. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was the outcome and the items of the MGSSRI were the explanatory variables. Of 146,307 newborns screened (November 2006 to May 2007), 190 had congenital toxoplasmosis, yielding a prevalence of 1·3/1000, ranging from 0 to 76·9/1000 in the municipalities. The multivariate model indicated a higher occurrence of toxoplasmosis in municipalities with smaller populations and worse indexes of tax performance. Congenital toxoplasmosis appears to be a neglected disease in the state of Minas Gerais, given the high prevalence found and its concentration in municipalities with worse socioeconomic indexes.

  20. Social determinants of leprosy in a hyperendemic State in North Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the socioeconomic, demographic, operational, and health service-related factors associated with the occurrence of leprosy in a hyperendemic State in North Brazil. METHODS This is an ecological study based on secondary data from the Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação in municipalities of the State of Tocantins from 2001 to 2012. Units of analysis were the 139 municipalities of the State. Negative binomial log linear regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios. RESULTS In bivariate analysis, the incidence rate ratios were significantly higher for municipalities with higher income ratio of the poorest 20.0% (1.47; 95%CI 1.19–1.81) and better Municipal Human Development Index (1.53; 95%CI 1.14–2.06). In multivariate analysis, the incidence rate ratios were significantly higher in municipalities with higher proportion of immigrants (1.31; 95%CI 1.11–1.55) and higher proportion of households with waste collection (1.37; 95%CI 1.11–1.69). There was a significant reduction in the incidence rate ratio with increased coverage of the Bolsa Família Program (0.98; 95%CI 0.96–0.99). CONCLUSIONS Control programs need to focus on activities in municipalities of greater social vulnerability with intersectoral investment for the improvement of the living conditions of the population. PMID:28746575

  1. Molecular Characterization of Noroviruses and HBGA from Infected Quilombola Children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L.; Ferreira, Mônica S. R.; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher’s exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n = 6), O (n = 6), and B (n = 2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se40, 171,216,357,428,739,960 were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le59, 202, 314 for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as

  2. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  3. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  4. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  5. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Souza, Tiago Oliveira de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran's I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices.

  6. [International migration, health, and work: an analysis of Haitians in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa; Muraro, Ana Paula; Palos, Cássia Carraco; Martins, Maria Angela C; Borges, Fabiano Tonaco

    2017-07-27

    This article addresses the relations between immigration, health, and work in Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, emphasizing their work conditions. This was an exploratory study based on primary data collected through a survey of the Haitian population in Cuiabá in 2014-2015. A total of 452 Haitians were interviewed, living in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande (373 men and 79 women), and the findings point to the precarious social situation of Haitian immigrants in Mato Grosso State, marked by high unemployment. Of the immigrants interviewed, 52.7% were currently working and 26.5% reported a workweek greater than 48 hours. The two main occupations for Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá were construction and services, and most were working below their original level of training, skills sets, and job experience in Haiti. The main risks identified in these two sectors were physical (53.2% and 63.4%, respectively) and accidents (23.4% and 17.1%, respectively), in addition to reports of physical and psychosocial distress. The study points to the precarious social, economic, and labor conditions of the Haitian population in the capital of Mato Grosso.

  7. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Lívia Victório de Carvalho; Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez

    2009-02-01

    Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and categorizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70); front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32); and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI: 8.10-159.52. Contributing factors included highway maintenance problems (OR = 4.35; CI: 1.94-9.75) and disobeying traffic signs (OR = 5.69; CI: 2.01-16.12). In conclusion, reduction of motor vehicle accidents on this highway requires comprehensive intervention rather than targeting measures only to drivers or highway patrol personnel, but considering regional issues and their economic, social, and cultural dimensions.

  9. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Norovirus in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Simone Guadagnucci; Cilli, Audrey; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV), previously called Norwalk-like virus, represents an important group of human pathogens associated with outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Epidemiological surveys of outbreaks have shown that the most important routes of transmission are person-to-person contacts and contaminated food and water, with the virus affecting adults and children. NoV is classified into genogroups, being genogroups GI, GII and GIV found in humans. In view of the high genetic diversity of NoV and the lack of information about this virus in Brazil, the aim of the present study was the molecular characterization of NoV isolated from diarrheic stool samples of patients from São Paulo State. In this study, 204 stool specimens collected during diarrhea outbreaks were analyzed by RT-PCR, and 12 were sequenced for genogroup confirmation. One-step PCR was performed in order to amplify the B region of ORF 1 using the MON 431, 432, 433 and 434 primer pool. From total, 32 (15.7%) stool specimens were positive for NoV genogroup GII. Comparison of the sequences of the PCR products to GenBank sequences showed 88.8% to 98.8% identity, suggesting the presence of genogroup GII in gastroenteritis outbreaks in São Paulo State. PMID:24031277

  10. Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

    2012-11-01

    Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

  11. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paraiso, Maria Leticia de Souza; Gouveia, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  12. [Mapping harm reduction programs in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Rigoni, Rafaela de Quadros

    2009-02-01

    This study mapped and described 11 harm reduction interventions/programs in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2004-2006. Mapping was based on interviews and analysis of available documents and comparison with a previous study with data from 2003. We aimed to discuss the programs' sustainability (political, financial, and administrative) and operational characteristics, based on the following categories: type of links in the program or intervention; forms of inclusion in the municipalities; background, financing; typical activities; team hiring practices; volunteer work, if any; resources (human and financial); partnerships; municipal legislation, if any; and participation in forums for political representation. Despite the diversity of links and organizational formats, there were some common characteristics: precarious professional status; dependence on volunteer work to implement activities; influence of turnover in Municipal and State administration on the continuity of projects and partnerships, as well as on the maintenance of human and financial resources. We conclude that such factors lead to lack of continuity in the services provided to the target population.

  13. The dynamics of dengue virus serotype 3 introduction and dispersion in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paulo Roberto Santana de; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; Ciuffo, Isolina Allen; Góes, Mônica; Blanton, Ronald Edward; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos

    2007-12-01

    By 2002, dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-2 had circulated for more than a decade in Brazil. In 2002, the introduction of DENV-3 in the state of Bahia produced a massive epidemic and the first cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Based on the standardized frequency, timing and location of viral isolations by the state's Central Laboratory, DENV-3 probably entered Bahia through its capital, Salvador, and then rapidly disseminated to other cities, following the main roads. A linear regression model that included traffic flow, distance from the capital and DENV-1 circulation (r2 = 0.24, p = 0.001) supported this hypothesis. This pattern was not seen for serotypes already in circulation and was not seen for DENV-3 in the following year. Human population density was another important factor in the intensity of viral circulation. Neither DENV-1 nor DENV-2 fit this model for 2001 or 2003. Since the vector has limited flight range and vector densities fail to correlate with intensity of viral circulation, this distribution represents the movement of infected people and to some extent mosquitoes. This pattern may mimic person-to-person spread of a new infection.

  14. EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS CASES REPORTED IN PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ALCÂNTARA, Léia Regina de Souza; DEMARCHI, Izabel Galhardo; ARISTIDES, Sandra Mara Alessi

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmaniases are infectious diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. They are widely distributed worldwide and endemic in 88 countries in four continents. The present study analyzed the reported cases of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in Paraná State (Brazil) from January 2007 to December 2013. The data were grouped according to Regional Health (RH) districts and macroregions, which allowed visualization of the reality in each region in the state. A total of 2,879 ATL cases were reported and distributed among the 22 RH districts, with an average detection rate of 3.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The northwestern region accounted for 50.1% of the total cases, and the northern region accounted for 26.0-76.1% of the reported cases. The 6th RH district did not report any cases. The 7th, 9th, and 18th RH districts had a higher cure rate (> 80%), and lower cure rates were found in the 1st, 4th, and 12th RH districts. Reported unfavorable outcomes included treatment abandonment and death. Overall cure rates are based on the entire country, and unfavorable outcomes require greater attention of managers and health professionals to meet the goals of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. PMID:27680172

  15. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  16. [Equity and provision of public dental services in the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baldani, Márcia Helena; Almeida, Eurivaldo Sampaio de; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    To assess the association between socioeconomic indicators of provision of public dental services and allocation of financial resources in health and to identify whether this association reinforced the promotion of vertical equity. A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted based on data obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health data system for 399 cities in the State of Paraná (Southern Brazil) between 1998 and 2005. Socioeconomic condition was measured by the Human Development Index in the cities studied, as well as by some indicators of income, education and sanitation, which were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical tests: Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Friedman and Mann-Whitney tests. A redistribution trend of federal resources for primary health care in municipalities was seen. The provision of dental health services increased after the government launched the Family Health Strategy. An expanded provision of dental procedures was reported during the study period with a pro-equity trend of the utilization of dental services in primary health care. There was seen a redistribution or pro-equity trend in the provision of dental services in the state of Paraná with higher per capita provision of resources or services in cities with the lowest socioeconomic indicators. This trend is consistent with the recent programmatic guidelines of the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

  17. Pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, between 2005 and 2013: quality of diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Tao; da Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Buenafuente, Sandra Maria Franco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of diagnosis and the epidemiological profile of patients with pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, in order to provide technical support for the development and implementation of public policies to combat the disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of pleural forms of tuberculosis in Roraima between 2005 and 2013 and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria used, as well as their determinants. This study was based on secondary data from the Brazilian Case Registry Database, including all reported cases of pleural tuberculosis in the state during the study period. Diagnoses based on bacteriological or histopathological confirmation were defined as high-quality diagnoses. Results: Among the 1,395 cases of tuberculosis reported during the study period, 116 (8.3%) were cases of pleural tuberculosis, accounting for 38.9% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the sample. The incidence rate of pleural tuberculosis did not follow the downward trend observed for the pulmonary form of the disease during the same period. The prevalence of cases with a high-quality diagnosis was 28.5% (95% CI: 20.4-37.6%). In a univariate analysis, none of the demographic or clinical characteristics collected from the database were found to have a significant impact on the outcome (as explanatory variables). Conclusions: The quality of the diagnoses in our study sample was considered unsatisfactory. Limited access to specific diagnostic methods might have contributed to these results. PMID:27167431

  18. Energy balance in the watershed of Ipê, Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, Diego G.; T. Hernandez, Fernando B.; Franco, Renato A. M.; Teixeira, Antonio H. C.; Neale, Christopher M.

    2016-10-01

    The region of Ilha Solteira, in the Northwestern of São Paulo State, has been undergoing significant changes in agricultural land use and cover since 2006, as pasture fields have been replaced by sugarcane crop. This drastic change can lead to a disturbance in the energy balance, affecting the local climate. The aim of this paper was to assess some parameters related to the energy balance of Ipê's watershed, that changed since no sugarcane cultivation in 2006 to 2,164 hectares in 2011, occupying 31% of the catchment area with this important energy crop for the economy and the environment of Brazil. This study was carried out using remote sensing combined with weather data and using the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) model applied in 9 Landsat images collected between 2003 and 2011. The results showed a wide variation between the components of energy balance and when considering only the sugarcane crop were verified the increase values of ETa (Actual Evapotranspiration), H/Rn (Sensible Heat Flux/Net Radiation), TS (Surface Temperature), Rl↑ (Emitted longwave), Rl↓ (Incidente longwave) and surface albedo after the sugarcane production over these years. On the other hand, the NDVI, λE/Rn (Latent Heat Flux/Net Radiation) and Rn values (data) decreased in the same period. Also there was satisfactory correlation between NDVI and ETa. The SAFER model showed satisfactory results for studies of energy balance applied in the Northwestern of São Paulo State.

  19. Nutritional Status of the adult population in the Bolsa Família Program in Curitiba, State of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Flávia Emília Leite; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Dias, Márcia Regina Messaggi Gomes

    2011-06-01

    The Bolsa Família Program is the largest program of conditional cash transfer in Brazil, and its major goal is to reverse the current food insecurity. In spite of that, there are few studies that show the development of nutritional status for this population. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status of the adult population enrolled in the Bolsa Família program, in the municipality of Curitiba, PR. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, performed in the health districts of the city of Curitiba, Parana, in the period from July 2006 to July 2007. We interviewed 747 adults, 18 years of age and over, of both sexes, living in the catchment area of the basic healthcare units in the city. To assess the nutritional status of this population, we measured weight (kg), height (cm), and waist circumference (WC) and calculated the body mass index. They were asked about age, marital status, occupation, number of household members, origin, and years of schooling. The association between excessive weight, waist circumference and sociodemographic co-variables was assessed by unconditional logistic regression. About 40% of the population was considered of normal weight and 27.1% obese, according to BMI standards. Analyzing waist circumference data, 48.2% have measures that show a much greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Significant statistical association occurred between BMI increase and age (OR = 2.16; CI 95%: 1.57-2.96), sex (OR = 0.57; CI 95%: 0.33-0.97) and marital status (OR = 1.40; CI 95%: 1.03-1.88). A significant association was observed between waist circumference and age (OR = 2.93; IC 95%: 2.13-4.02) and sex. Most of the population presented excessive weight and abdominal fat, risks for cardiovascular diseases. The results point towards the need to build and implement regional diet public policies.

  20. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

  1. Cancer incidence in eighteen cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, G I; Veneziano, D B; Giannotti Filho, O; Marigo, C; Mirra, A P; Fonseca, L A

    2001-08-01

    As in Brazil cancer registries are mostly based on large cities, there are no estimates per state or per region and information on the disease incidence in the vast in-land areas is very scarce. An incidence survey was conducted in 18 major cities of the state of São Paulo, excluding the capital, aiming to collect information about cancer incidence in the state of São Paulo. Of the 18 cities in state of São Paulo included in the survey, all had available resources for cancer management. Data from the year of 1991 were collected by the personnel of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Statistics), who were especially trained by the study coordinators at the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (Cancer Center of São Paulo). The collected data were processed and analyzed at the Oncocentro. Data collection, processing, and analyses were performed according to the recommendations of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although some discrepancies were observed in cancer incidence rates between the cities, results obtained for all 18 cities combined were remarkably close to those recently found for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993. One remarkable finding was the relatively high cancer incidence rates in both sexes in the city of Santos. The very similar all-sites cancer incidence rates found in the year 1991, when compared to those for the city of São Paulo in the year 1993, are suggestive that all regions have common cancer-related factors. Nevertheless, other explanations, such as the inclusion in the study of prevalent cases, as well as of non-residents, may have occurred in both studies, biasing the results. There is a need of further studies to confirm the high cancer incidence in Santos.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  3. U.S.-Brazil Security Cooperation and the State Partnership Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    that establishing a SPP with Brazil is the sort of confidence building measure needed to bridge the current challenges and to put the countries on...with Brazil is the sort of confidence building measure needed to bridge the current hard feelings and to put the countries on the path to greater

  4. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestia beckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderes obliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestia beckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  5. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestiabeckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderesobliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestiabeckeri is included in a previous key.

  6. Water balance indicators from MODIS images and agrometeorological data in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; da Silva, Gustavo B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Minas Gerais state, Brazil, has experienced severe water scarcity in some areas, demanding large-scale water balance studies to subsidize water policies. The reflectance bands from the MOD13Q1 MODIS product were used together with gridded agrometeorological data in the state, during the year 2014, later extracting the main agriculture growing regions, North, Northwest and Minas Triangle, for analyzes. Precipitation (Prec) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data from 36 weather stations were interpolated, while for actual evapotranspiration (ET), the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm was used. Two climatic water balance indicators were applied, the Water Balance Ratio (WBr = Prec/ET) and the Water Balance Difference (WDd = Prec - ET). The daily net radiation (Rn) was retrieved from surface albedo (α0), air temperature (Ta) and shortwave atmospheric transmissivity (τsw), while the ground heat flux (G) was estimated as a fraction of Rn. For surface moisture, the evapotranspiration ratio (ETr = ET/ET0) and the evaporative fraction [Ef = λE/(Rn - G)] were used, with the latent heat flux (λE) obtained by transforming ET into energy units. Analyzing WDr and WDd, the most water scarcity critical MODIS 16-day periods, reaching to minimum values lower than 1.0 and -10 mm, respectively, were from the end of April to the middle of October. Higher water availability, detected by these indicators larger than 1.5 and 10 mm, respectively, were from the middle of October to the end of December. The maximums WDr and WDd of 7.0 and 158 mm happened from the middle of November to the start of December in the Northwest agricultural growing region. However, according to the ETr and Ef values, after this period, the soil moisture storage showed a gap, increasing only in the second half of December, when they reached to averages of 0.63. The largest values of these last soil moisture indicators, above 0.70 in May, did not coincided with the period

  7. New Paleointensity Results from the Parana Basin Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, M.; Zhao, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) in southern Brazil is one of the largest continental flood basalt provinces preserved on Earth (with an estimated exposed area of ~1.2 million km2), characterized by large individual flow volumes with both normal and reversed polarities. We have collected basaltic samples at sites distributed in large areas of the PMP and applied our new paleointensity method on these samples for paleointensity determination. Results from our experiments show that the inert atmosphere (provided by a vacuum oven) can avoid the relative low temperature oxidation. Progressive demagnetization experiments show that 5mT AF treatment or 250°C thermal demagnetization can completely remove viscous remanent magnetization in the samples. Thus, 5mT AF demagnetization pretreatment was conducted during every paleointensity experiment step. Paleointensity results on the PMP basalts from this study has an average paleointensity 17.0×3 uT, corresponding to an average virtual dipole moment of 2.6 x 1022 A m2. Our results do not favor the hypothesis that paleostrength of the Earth's magnetic field during Early Cretaceous may be comparable or even much higher than recent field intensity. Rather, our results indicate that the Early Cretaceous geomagnetic field was significantly lower than half of the recent field, in accordance with a general low dipole field region persisted during the Early Cretaceous (134 Ma), nearly prior to the Cretaceous Normal Superchron.

  8. Mortality Predictors in Patients with Severe Dengue in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rosemary Costa; de Castro, Daniel Barros; de Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; dos Passos, Ricardo Augusto; da Costa, Cristiano Fernandes; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. There is a lack of information on the risk factors for death due to severe dengue fever in developing countries, including Brazil where the state of Amazonas is located. This knowledge is important for decision making and the implementation of effective measures for patient care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with death among patients with severe dengue, in Amazonas from 2001 to 2013. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of dengue provided by the Fundação de Vigilância em Saúde do Amazonas, FVS (Health Surveillance Foundation) of the Secretaria de Saúde do Amazonas, SUSAM (Health Secretariat of the State of Amazonas). Data on dengue cases were obtained from the SINAN (Notifiable Diseases Information System) and SIM (Mortality Information System) databases. We selected cases of severe dengue with laboratory confirmation, including dengue-related deaths of residents in the state of Amazonas from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The explanatory variables analyzed were sex, age, level of education, spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma extravasation and platelet count. Patients who died due to severe dengue had more hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia than the survivors. Considering the simultaneous effects of demographic and clinical characteristics with a multiple logistic regression model, it was observed that the factors associated with death were age >55 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.98), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 10.26), hematuria (OR 5.07), and thrombocytopenia (OR 2.55). Gastrointestinal bleeding was the clinical sign most strongly associated with death, followed by hematuria and age >55 years. The study results showed that the best predictor of death from severe dengue is based on the characteristic of age >55 years, together with the clinical signs of

  9. HIV-1 genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance among individuals from Roraima state, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corado, André de Lima Guerra; Bello, Gonzalo; Leão, Renato Augusto Carvalho; Granja, Fabiana; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil has spread towards the Northern country region, but little is known about HIV-1 subtypes and prevalence of HIV strains with resistance mutations to antiretrovirals in some of the Northern states. HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were obtained from 73 treatment-naive and -experienced subjects followed between 2013 and 2014 at a public health reference unit from Roraima, the northernmost Brazilian state. The most prevalent HIV-1 clade observed in the study population was the subtype B (91%), followed by subtype C (9%). Among 12 HIV-1 strains from treatment-naïve patients, only one had a transmitted drug resistance mutation for NNRTI. Among 59 treatment-experienced patients, 12 (20%) harbored HIV-1 strains with acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRM) that reduce the susceptibility to two classes of antiretroviral drugs (NRTI and NNRTI or NRTI and PI), and five (8%) harbored HIV-1 strains with ADRM that reduced susceptibility to only one class of antiretroviral drugs (NNRTI or PI). No patients harboring HIV strains with reduced susceptibility to all three classes of antiretroviral drugs were detected. A substantial fraction of treatment-experienced patients with (63%) and without (70%) ADRM had undetectable plasma viral loads (<40 copies/ml) at the time of sampling. Among treatment-experienced with plasma viral loads above 2,000 copies/ml, 44% displayed no ADRM. This data showed that the HIV-1 epidemic in Roraima displayed a much lower level of genetic diversity and a lower prevalence of ADRM than that described in other Brazilian states.

  10. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis Chemotype Populations in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Hamilton, James G. C.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Shaw, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. Methodology/Principal Findings A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. Conclusion/Significance The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures. PMID:25781320

  11. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis chemotype populations in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Shaw, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures.

  12. HIV-1 genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance among individuals from Roraima state, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Renato Augusto Carvalho; Granja, Fabiana; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil has spread towards the Northern country region, but little is known about HIV-1 subtypes and prevalence of HIV strains with resistance mutations to antiretrovirals in some of the Northern states. HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were obtained from 73 treatment-naive and -experienced subjects followed between 2013 and 2014 at a public health reference unit from Roraima, the northernmost Brazilian state. The most prevalent HIV-1 clade observed in the study population was the subtype B (91%), followed by subtype C (9%). Among 12 HIV-1 strains from treatment-naïve patients, only one had a transmitted drug resistance mutation for NNRTI. Among 59 treatment-experienced patients, 12 (20%) harbored HIV-1 strains with acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRM) that reduce the susceptibility to two classes of antiretroviral drugs (NRTI and NNRTI or NRTI and PI), and five (8%) harbored HIV-1 strains with ADRM that reduced susceptibility to only one class of antiretroviral drugs (NNRTI or PI). No patients harboring HIV strains with reduced susceptibility to all three classes of antiretroviral drugs were detected. A substantial fraction of treatment-experienced patients with (63%) and without (70%) ADRM had undetectable plasma viral loads (<40 copies/ml) at the time of sampling. Among treatment-experienced with plasma viral loads above 2,000 copies/ml, 44% displayed no ADRM. This data showed that the HIV-1 epidemic in Roraima displayed a much lower level of genetic diversity and a lower prevalence of ADRM than that described in other Brazilian states. PMID:28301548

  13. Mortality Predictors in Patients with Severe Dengue in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rosemary Costa; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Sampaio, Vanderson de Souza; Passos, Ricardo Augusto Dos; Costa, Cristiano Fernandes da; Sadahiro, Megumi; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. There is a lack of information on the risk factors for death due to severe dengue fever in developing countries, including Brazil where the state of Amazonas is located. This knowledge is important for decision making and the implementation of effective measures for patient care. This study aimed to identify factors associated with death among patients with severe dengue, in Amazonas from 2001 to 2013. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of dengue provided by the Fundação de Vigilância em Saúde do Amazonas, FVS (Health Surveillance Foundation) of the Secretaria de Saúde do Amazonas, SUSAM (Health Secretariat of the State of Amazonas). Data on dengue cases were obtained from the SINAN (Notifiable Diseases Information System) and SIM (Mortality Information System) databases. We selected cases of severe dengue with laboratory confirmation, including dengue-related deaths of residents in the state of Amazonas from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The explanatory variables analyzed were sex, age, level of education, spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma extravasation and platelet count. Patients who died due to severe dengue had more hematuria, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia than the survivors. Considering the simultaneous effects of demographic and clinical characteristics with a multiple logistic regression model, it was observed that the factors associated with death were age >55 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.98), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 10.26), hematuria (OR 5.07), and thrombocytopenia (OR 2.55). Gastrointestinal bleeding was the clinical sign most strongly associated with death, followed by hematuria and age >55 years. The study results showed that the best predictor of death from severe dengue is based on the characteristic of age >55 years, together with the clinical signs of

  14. Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

  15. [Knowledge and use of the Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) by municipal health administrators, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Keila Silene de Brito E; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Sousa, Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano

    2010-02-01

    Considering the importance of Brazil's Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) as a tool for planning, management, and social control of public expenditures in health, this article aimed to evaluate the relationship between the regularity of data entry into the SIOPS and knowledge and use of the system by municipal health administrators in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Ten municipalities were selected from the State's five meso-regions, five of which entered information into the system and five only on an irregular basis. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the municipal health secretaries. Analysis of the data showed that command of information technology and knowledge of the System do not affect the regularity of data entry, as a function of the distance between the Municipal Health Secretariat administrators and the SIOPS, such that the data are normally entered by outsourced services. Thus, the resulting information has not been fully explored by systems administrators as a management tool.

  16. Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state.

    PubMed

    Novo, André Luiz Monteiro; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies, and product and land prices are described, as well as how these are linked to changing policies in Brazil. We argue that sugarcane/biofuel expansion should be understood in the context of the dynamics of other agricultural sectors and the long-term national political economy rather than as solely due to recent global demand for biofuel. This argument is based on a meticulous analysis of changes in three important sectors - sugarcane, dairy farming, and beef production - and the mutual interactions between these sectors.

  17. The Campos Sales Chondrite: A New Fall from Ceara State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, V. W.; Costa, T. V. V.; Araujo, M. A. B.; Michel-Levy, M. Christophe; Dreher, A. M.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    1995-09-01

    The Campos Sales meteorite shower fell at 10:00 PM (local time) on January 31, 1991 and was observed by many local inhabitants. The fall was accompanied by a loud sound and bright flash, causing astonishment among the witnesses. The site of the fall is a grain field near the small town of Campos Sales situated in the southwest of the state of Cear , Brazil (7 02' S, 40 10' W). The total weight of the recovered material is estimated to be 23.68 Kg. Thirty-five crust-covered pieces, weighing 21.30 Kg total, ranged from 3g to 3.49 Kg each, and 300 smaller fragments totalled 2.38 Kg. Preliminary mineralogical and microprobe studies indicate that Campos Sales is a lightly shocked L chondrite with many chondrules dispersed in mineral debris. The olivine is Fa 25.0 and orthopyroxene is Fs 21.4 Wo 1.6. Neumann bands in the kamacite (6.2 - 6.5% Ni and 0.4 - 0.7% Co) and cracks in the olivine are the main shock features. Clear and cloudy taenite, plessite and monocrystalline troilite are also present. The available analyses are still insufficient to allow for a precise definition of the degree of equilibration. Thus, a petrological classification of types L4 or L5 is suggested. More detailed analyses are in progress and will be published elsewhere.

  18. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galvagne Loss, Ana Teresa; Costa Neto, Eraldo Medeiros; Machado, Caio Graco; Flores, Fernando Moreira

    2014-07-10

    Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin's principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form ("pássaro" in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community.

  19. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results.

  20. [Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in primigravidae in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriani Castro de; Dotto, Leila Maria Geromel; Mamede, Marli Villela

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction prior to and during the first pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study using postpartum interviews with 778 primigravidae who were married or in stable unions and had given birth at the two maternity hospitals in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, from February 1st to July 31st, 2010. Median age was 20 years, 45% were adolescents, 19% had completed elementary school, 30% had paid jobs, and 86.5% had used public healthcare services (SUS) for childbirth. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 23.9% prior to pregnancy and 67.7% during pregnancy. Decreased libido was present in 20.2% prior to pregnancy and 51% during pregnancy. Decreased vaginal lubrication occurred in 29.1% during pregnancy. Dyspareunia was present in 1.2% prior to pregnancy and 14.4% during pregnancy. Some 3.3% reported sexual dissatisfaction prior to pregnancy, as compared to 10.8% during pregnancy. Women with more schooling showed higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction during (as compared to before) their first pregnancy.

  1. Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Suzi M.; Omena, Elianne P.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2003-08-01

    The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale ( Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1 mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa were the crustaceans (83%, 31 spp.), polychetes (10%, 18 spp.), and molluscs (3.7%, 15 spp.). Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, ascidians, echinoderms, pycnogonids, bryozoans, and sponges were also represented. Amphipod crustaceans were the dominant group, comprising 61% of all individuals collected. Species richness and abundance of associated fauna were highly correlated with sponge volume, but diversity and evenness were not. The site of collection influenced the species composition of the fauna associated to M. microsigmatosa but did not change significantly its diversity, abundance, richness, and dominance patterns of higher taxa. Pregnant females and juvenile stages of 29% of the species associated, including crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and pycnogonids were frequently found inside M. microsigmatosa. Although many of these organisms do occur and reproduce in other habitats outside the sponge as well, M. microsigmatosa is also important for their reproduction and survivorship, thus contributing for the maintenance of biodiversity in Southwestern Atlantic sublittoral rocky shores.

  2. [Oral health of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Pedro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Vettore, Mario Viana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the oral health conditions of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted in 508 subjects (90.7% of the Guaraní population) using World Health Organization criteria. At 5 years of age, 38.5% of children were caries-free. DMF-T was 1.7 at 12 years. 54.2% of subjects in the 35-44-year group and 12% in the 65-74-year group had at least 20 teeth. Numbers of teeth for the 35-44 and 65-74 age groups were 18.5 and 8.5, respectively. While caries index did not differ by gender for deciduous teeth, DMF-T and tooth loss was higher in women. Nearly 60% of the population showed no periodontal illness. Gingival bleeding and calculus were the most severe periodontal conditions. Gingival bleeding and calculus were more common in men and excluded sextants more common in women. Oral health promotion strategies are needed for this ethnic group and should consider the epidemiological profile according to age and gender.

  3. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  4. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Vieira, Elisa Diniz Reis; Japenga, Jan; Koopmans, Gerwin Ferdinand

    2002-01-01

    The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90% of the population depends on its water for domestic uses. After extraction with non-polar solvents in a hot sohxlet device and clean up using chromatographic columns, three classes of organic micropollutants were analyzed: organochlorine insecticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The organochlorines, including the PCBs were scarcely present in the collected samples probably reflecting the restrictions of use of this class of compounds in the Brazilian market. However, the PAHs levels were high at the vicinity of a huge steelworks located in the city of Volta Redonda. This contamination is probably due to the massive use of coal in the above-cited metallurgical plant.

  5. Dosimetry and image quality in digital mammography facilities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Sabrina Donato; Joana, Geórgia Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-11-01

    According to the National Register of Health Care Facilities (CNES), there are approximately 477 mammography systems operating in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, of which an estimated 200 are digital apparatus using mainly computerized radiography (CR) or direct radiography (DR) systems. Mammography is irreplaceable in the diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. A high standard of image quality alongside smaller doses and optimization of procedures are essential if early detection is to occur. This study aimed to determine dosimetry and image quality in 68 mammography services in Minas Gerais using CR or DR systems. The data of this study were collected between the years of 2011 and 2013. The contrast-to-noise ratio proved to be a critical point in the image production chain in digital systems, since 90% of services were not compliant in this regard, mainly for larger PMMA thicknesses (60 and 70 mm). Regarding the image noise, only 31% of these were compliant. The average glandular dose found is of concern, since more than half of the services presented doses above acceptable limits. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of using CR and DR systems, the employment of this technology has to be revised and optimized to achieve better quality image and reduce radiation dose as much as possible.

  6. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-03-05

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face.

  7. Energy balance model applied to pasture experimental areas in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de Castro Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; de Castro Victoria, Daniel; Furlan Nogueira, Sandra; Freitas Leivas, Janice; Coaguila, Daniel N.; Rodrigues Herling, Valdo

    2016-10-01

    The Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER) was used to estimate biophysical parameters and the energy balance components in two different pasture experimental areas, in the São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental pastures consist in six rotational (RGS) and three continuous grazing systems (CGS) paddocks. Landsat-8 images from 2013 and 2015 dry and rainy seasons were used, as these presented similar hydrological cycle, with 1,600 mm and 1,613 mm of annual precipitation, resulting in 19 cloud-free images. Bands 1 to 7 and thermal bands 10 and 11 were used with weather data from a station located near the experimental area. NDVI, biomass, evapotranspiration and latent heat flux (λE) temporal values statistically differ CGS from RGS areas. Grazing systems influences the energy partition and these results indicate that RGS benefits biomass production, evapotranspiration and the microclimate, due higher LE values. SAFER is a feasible tool to estimate biophysical parameters and energy balance components in pasture and has potential to discriminate continuous and rotation grazing systems in a temporal analysis.

  8. Survey for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the State of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Spolidorio, Mariana G.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Zago, Augusto M.; Donatele, Dirlei M.; Pinheiro, Sônia R.; Silveira, Iara; Caliari, Késia M.; Yoshinari, Natalino H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome. PMID:20595502

  9. New species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp (Diptera: Chironomidae) from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanseverino, Angela M; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Tanytarsus lenyae sp. n., T. giovannii sp. n., T. fittkaui sp. n. and T. alfredoi sp. n. from São Paulo State (Brazil) are described and diagnosed, the first as adult male and pupa, and the remaining as male, pupa and larva. The species were collected in areas of Cerrado, at the boundaries of São Carlos city. Complete diagnoses and drawings of the species are given. The imagos can be separated from other species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp mainly by differences in the antennal ratio, dorsomedian extension of the eyes, the thorax and wing setation, the shape of anal tergal bands, the anal point armament and the shape of superior volsella, digitus and median volsella. The pupae are characterized by the thoracic horn armament, the arrangement of the precorneals, the shape of anal comb and the abdominal setation. The larvae can be separated by differences in the antennal pedestal, the sclerotization of the second antennal segment, the size of Lauterborn organ pedicels, the shape of the clypeal seta S3 and the sclerotization of the mentum. Apparently, the four new species are not closely related, and the anal point armament alone would be enough to separate one species from the other.

  10. Intelligent monitoring of Aedes aegypti in a rural area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sanavria, Argemiro; da Silva, Claudia Bezerra; Electo, Érica Heleno; Nogueira, Lidiane Cristina Rocha; Thomé, Sandra Maria Gomes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Vita, Gilmar Ferreira; Sanavria, Talles Eduardo Cabral; Padua, Elisa Domingues; Gaiotte, Denise Glória

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to monitor the presence of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) on the Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, from 2010 to 2013. For this purpose, the Intelligent Dengue Monitoring (IM-Dengue) and Intelligent Virus Monitoring (IM-Virus) developed by Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Ecovec – Minas Gerais, Brazil), were used. IM-Dengue is a tool that allows achieving a weekly overview of A. aegypti infestation, while IM-Virus is another tool that allows detecting dengue virus directly from the mosquito, by Real Time-PCR. Both tools were developed for diagnosis in a prepathogenesis period of the disease, before infection occurrence. Traps were distributed in 19 locations inside the municipality and the bugs were collected weekly during the years of the research. As a result, the presence of 163 females of A. aegypti was recorded over the period; there was no circulation of the virus in the municipality. In one of the 19 study sites, a high degree of disease transmission risk was verified. The study concluded that the municipality, as a whole, showed no risk of disease transmission throughout the field research period. PMID:28793020

  11. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in urban rainforest fragments, Manaus -- Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; de Freitas, Rui Alves; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-05-01

    The non-flooded upland rainforest fragment in the Federal University of Amazonas Campus is considered one of the world's largest urban tropical woodland areas and Brazil's second largest one in an urban setting. It is located in the city of Manaus, State of Amazonas at 03° 04' 34″ S, 59° 57' 30″ W, in an area covering nearly 800 hectares. Forty-one (41) sand fly species belonging to genus Lutzomyia were found attaining a total of 4662 specimens collected. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the dominant species at all heights, followed by Lutzomyia anduzei and Lutzomyia claustrei. The fauna alpha diversity index showed to be 6.4, which is not much lower than that reported for areas of continuous forest in this Amazonian region. This data provides additional evidence on Phlebotomine sand flies found to transmit Leishmania and other trypanosomatids to humans and other animals circulating in this area. This is the first study being reported on sand flies collected in an urban rainforest fragment in Amazonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Glênio César Nunes; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici; Ferrer, Kelian Tenfen; Traebert, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This was an epidemiological study with an ecological design. Data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality were collected from specific Brazilian National Ministry of Health databases. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was based on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The DALYs were estimated by adding the years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Absolute values were transformed into rates per 100,000 population. The rates were calculated by gender, age group, and health care macroregion. RESULTS: The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was 5,644.27 DALYs (92.25 DALYs/100,000 population), YLLs and YLDs respectively accounting for 78.77% and 21.23% of that total. The highest rates were found in males in the 30-44 and 45-59 year age brackets, although that was not true in every health care macroregion. Overall, the highest estimated burden was in the Planalto Norte macroregion (179.56 DALYs/100,000 population), followed by the Nordeste macroregion (167.07 DALYs/100,000 population). CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the health care macroregions of Santa Catarina, the burden of disease due to tuberculosis was concentrated in adult males, the level of that concentration varying among the various macroregions. PMID:24626271

  13. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  14. Interdisciplinary paleovegetation study in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco State), northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessenda, Luiz C R; Gouveia, Susy E M; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Aravena, Ramon; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia S; Bendassolli, José A; Ribeiro, Adauto de S; Saia, Soraya E M G; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Menor, Eldemar de A; Oliveira, Sônia M B de; Cordeiro, Renato C; Freitas, Angela M de M; Boulet, René; Filizola, Heloisa F

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences) that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental), carbon isotopes (delta13C, 14C) and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM) and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years.

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of Brazilian spotted fever in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Amorim, Vânia Dutra; Chamone, Talita Leal; Brito, Mariana Gontijo de; Calic, Simone Berger; Leite, Anamaria Cordeiro; Fraga, Gabriela Lobato; Ferraz, Marcela Lencine

    2011-10-01

    Brazilian spotted fever is the most common rickettsiosis in Brazil, most prevalent in the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of Brazilian spotted fever in Minas Gerais from 2000 to 2008. Of the 132 cases of Brazilian spotted fever, 53 patients died, representing a case-fatality rate of 40.2%. Males predominated, with 78.8% of confirmed cases, and median age was 26.5 years. Absence of rash was associated with increased risk of death (p = 0.005). Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Rio Doce Valley, and Zona da Mata accounted for 70.6% of the cases, which occurred mainly from May to November. There was an increase in the number of cases, which could suggest an expansion of the disease, but probably resulted from an increase in the health system's diagnostic capacity and sensitivity. Despite this improvement, the case-fatality rate remains high and with no apparent tendency to decrease, thus indicating the need for improved prevention and patient care.

  16. Highly endemic, waterborne toxoplasmosis in north Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia-Oliveira, Lílian Maria Garcia; Jones, Jeffrey L; Azevedo-Silva, Juliana; Alves, Cristiane C F; Oréfice, Fernando; Addiss, David G

    2003-01-01

    In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84% of the population in the lower socioeconomic group was seropositive, compared with 62% and 23% of the middle and upper socioeconomic groups, respectively (p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was performed, drinking unfiltered water was found to increase the risk of seropositivity for the lower socioeconomic (odds ratio [OR]: 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 6.9) and middle socioeconomic (OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3) populations. We also found a high T. gondii seroprevalence in this Brazilian community. Drinking unfiltered water increased the risk of T. gondii seropositivity, indicating the potential importance of oocyst transmission in water in this region.

  17. A survey of ectoparasites infesting urban and rural dogs of Maranhão state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Andrea P; Silva, Arannadia B; Costa, Francisco B; Xavier, Gabriel S; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Guerra, Rita M S N C

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated for the first time, ectoparasite infestations on dogs from urban and rural areas of the continental land of the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In total, 622 dogs were examined for ectoparasite infestations. Overall, 392 (63.0%) were infested with ectoparasites, 154 (51.3%) of 300 urban dogs and 238 (73.9%) of 322 rural dogs. Five species of ectoparasites were found, three ticks [Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma cajennense (F.)], one flea [Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché)], and one louse [(Heterodoxus spininger (Enderlein)]. The frequency of infestation by R. sanguineus tended to be higher in urban than in rural areas, whereas infestations by Amblyomma ticks and C. felis fleas tended to be higher among rural dogs. Louse (H. spininger) infestations were similarly low among all areas. Mixed infestations by at least two species of ectoparasites on the same dog were significantly more frequent on rural than on urban dogs. The most frequent mixed infestation was by R. sanguineus and C. felis, found on 11.4% of the dogs. Further studies are warranted to evaluate canine vector-borne agents in Maranhão, especially because most of the ectoparasites here reported are vectors of major vector-borne diseases, including zoonoses of continental importance.

  18. Contextual analysis and epidemiology of spider bite in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cristiano, Maykon P; Cardoso, Danon C; Raymundo, Melissa S

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct an epidemiological and clinical review of 1126 cases of envenoming by spider recorded in the national notifiable diseases information system (SINAN) files of the Municipal Health Secretary of the Criciúma region, Santa Catarina State, Brazil from 1994 to 2006. This work presents a critical analysis carried out by the application of the chi(2) test, with different regional contextual parameters, including the incidence coefficient. Spider envenoming accounts for more than 50% of all cases recorded in the SINAN files for poisonous animals and is the main cause of human envenomation in the Criciúma region. The majority of the spider bites (57.4%) were reported in the hottest months, from December to May. The anatomic region that suffered the most bites was the hand. Nearly 50% of the accidents were recorded in the group aged 20-49 years. The spiders most frequently involved in accidents for all age groups were of the Loxosceles genus. Although the data collected lack further epidemiological and, especially, clinical details, this does not affect the conclusions of the study, which could be used in the planning of actions aimed at improving environmental health.

  19. Bird ticks in an area of the Cerrado of Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Ferreira, Ildemar

    2012-09-01

    In the present study the tick prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and species were recorded on birds captured between January 2009 and December 2010 in the Ecological Station Pirapitinga-ESEC from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 967 birds, from 15 families and 40 species were captured and 165 (17.1 %) individuals were parasitized by ticks. Of these 160 (97 %) belonged to the order Passeriformes. Five tick species were identified: Amblyomma longirostre (n = 274) was the most common species followed by Amblyomma parvum (n = 43), Amblyomma nodosum (n = 39), Amblyomma ovale (n = 24) and Riphicephalus sanguineus (n = 7). None of 61 unengorged larvae molted to nymph. The mean intensity of infestation was 2.7 ± 2.4 ticks per bird (448 ticks/165 birds) ranging from 1 to 10. Only 19 (11.4 %) birds were infested with one species of tick. The remaining birds were infested by two, three or four species of ticks. Also new hosts for all five ticks were recorded. Only nymphs were recorded throughout the year with two similar peaks during autumn and winter 2009 and 2010.

  20. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Patrícia da Silva; RAMOS, Eliezer Lucas Pires; GÓMEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, César; FERREIRA, Gabriela Lícia Santos; REZENDE-OLIVEIRA, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  1. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, A R; Bruno, S F; Navegantes, A Q

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W). The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian) and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian). Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated.

  2. Coccidioides immitis isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the state of Piauí, northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eulálio, K D; de Macedo, R L; Cavalcanti, M A; Martins, L M; Lazéra, M S; Wanke, B

    2001-01-01

    Natural infection of armadillos with Coccidioides immitis was studied in the state of Piauí, northeast of Brazil, endemic for coccidioidomycosis. In 1998, 26 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were captured in 4 different counties. The animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia with ether. At necropsy fragments of spleen, liver, lungs and heart were homogenized and seeded onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide (BBL, USA). Part of each organ was also processed for histological examination. Suspected colonies of filamentous fungi observed after the second week of incubation at room temperature, exhibiting barrel-shaped arthroconidia alternating with empty spaces, were inoculated intraperitoneally into mice. Three armadillos proved to be infected with C. immitis. Mice inoculated with suspected colonies obtained from homogenized spleen of three and liver of two armadillos developed disseminated coccidioidomycosis and immature and mature spherules of C. immitis were disclosed in several organs. For the first time armadillos (D. novemcinctus) were found naturally infected with C. immitis, adding new data on the ecology and on a possible role of these ancestral mammals in the evolutionary life cycle of this fungus.

  3. Current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Constança Simões; Araújo, Karina Conceição; Sevilla, Manuel Alexander Amarista; Melo, Fabio; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo

    2010-07-01

    Uncontrolled peripheral urbanisation coupled with environmental degradation has affected the status of schistosomiasis in Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. This endemic disease continues to perpetuate its transmission in rural areas and has also become a cause for concern in coastal towns of the state. The lack of basic infrastructure (sanitation and health programmes) to support the new urban areas leads to faecal contamination of natural aquatic environments, resulting in consequent infection of vector snails and the emergence of new sources of schistosomiasis transmission. In the present paper, we discuss the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis in PE. We have consolidated and analysed information from parasitological, malacological and morbidity surveys undertaken by the group of researchers at the Laboratory of Schistosomiasis, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães-Fiocruz. The results of our analysis show: (i) the maintenance of the levels of schistosomiasis in the rural Zona da Mata, PE, (ii) the record of the human cases of schistosomiasis and the foci of infected snails detected along the coast of PE through 2007, (iii) the high record of the severe clinical form of schistosomiasis in the metropolitan region of Recife (RMR) and (iv) new breeding sites of schistosomiasis vector snails that were identified in a 2008 survey covering the RMR and the coastal localities of PE.

  4. [The insertion of oral health services in the Family Health Program at Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Eloisio do Carmo; Silva, Ana Cláudia Baladelli; Meneghin, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the administrative and operational aspects of Oral Health Teams (OHT) at the Family Health Program (FHP) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Two types of questionnaire were sent to 310 cities, and 53.5% were answered until June/2004. From the total of the respondents, 66.9% reported unstable forms of hiring and 82.5% of the dental surgeons receive wage 9 times lower than minimum wage for full-time job (8 hours); 75.9% of the cities presented an average of 4000 inhabitants for OHT. In average, 79.6% of all OHTs attended all ages group; 48.9% of dental surgeons reported not having participated in any of the courses offered. The integration between OH and FHP teams could be seen in 76.2 %, however only 54% organize regular meetings. The positive points observed were that FHP teams follow the principle of universality, the eight-hour shift and the quantitative extension allowing a higher access to oral health services. As negative points, it was observed the lack of qualification of the OHT, the excessive demand, the precarious work relations and the lack of involvement between OH and FH teams.

  5. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  6. [AIDS in children: the influence of socioeconomic differences in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Emeline Moura; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Holanda, Eliane Rolim de; Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between pediatric AIDS cases and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. This was an ecological and descriptive study with socioeconomic data from the 2010 Population Census and AIDS data in children for 2001-2011 from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pearson's correlation was performed and the Moran index was used to verify spatial autocorrelation. A multinomial model was used to identify clusters. Of the total sample, 57.8% were male. In 18.8% of the children, the diagnosis was made after two years of age. There was a positive spatial correlation between AIDS cases in children and income (I = 0.6; p = 0.001) and the proportion of poor (I = 0.5; p = 0.001). Neighborhoods with these characteristics are mainly located in the Northwest and Southwest areas of the city. Spatial correlation between pediatric AIDS cases and socioeconomic indicators highlights the need for interventions aimed at improving health and living conditions.

  7. Resilience skills as emergent phenomena: A study of emergency departments in Brazil and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Priscila; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Righi, Angela Weber; Wears, Robert Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of resilience skills (RSs) by emergency department (ED) front-line staff is ubiquitous, the nature and origin of these skills tend to be taken for granted. This study investigates the research question "where do RSs come from"? Case studies in two EDs were undertaken in order to answer the research question: one in Brazil and the other in the United States. The case studies adopted the same data collection and analysis procedures, involving interviews, questionnaires, observations, and analysis of documents. A model for describing RSs as emergent phenomena is proposed. The model indicates that RSs arise from interactions between: work constraints, hidden curriculum, gaps in standardized operating procedures, organizational support for resilience, and RSs themselves. An instantiation of the model is illustrated by a critical event identified from the American ED. The model allows the identification of leverage points for influencing the development of RSs, instead of leaving their evolution purely to chance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Evaluation of sandfly control measures in northern Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teodoro, Ueslei; Santos, Demilson Rodrigues dos; Santos, Ademar Rodrigues dos; Oliveira, Otílio de; Poiani, Luís Paschoal; Kühl, João Balduíno; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Neitzke, Herintha Coeto

    2007-11-01

    Sandfly captures from April 2001-September 2002 were compared to those from October 1996-September 1997 and October 1998-April 2000 in order to evaluate control procedures conducted in Recanto Marista in the county of Doutor Camargo, Paraná State, Brazil. Sandflies were captured with Falcão traps twice a month, both in the domiciles and henhouses, from 10 PM to 2 AM. In 2001-2002, 199,821 sandflies were captured, with an hourly average of 1,625.5 insects; average captures in 1996-1997 and 1997-1998 were 1,641.9 and 806.7, respectively. Nyssomyia neivai was the most abundant species (90.4%) in all habitats. This species, together N. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, and Pintomyia fischeri, accounted for 99.9% of all the specimens captured. The total hourly average sandfly captures increased, but 85% of these insects were captured in henhouses built with the purpose of attracting sandfly specimens, while the density decreased in other environments, especially intradomiciliary.

  9. [Prevalence of tobacco use and associated factors among women in Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bittencourt, Lorna; Person, Sharina; Cruz, Regina C; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to describe the demographic profile of female smokers in Paraná State, Brazil. The study used a cross-sectional population-based design with cluster sampling (n = 2,153) of women 18 years or older in seven cities. Prevalence of smoking was 13.4%, ranging from 10% in Cascavel to 19% in Irati. According to multivariate analysis, city of residence, marital status, and schooling were significantly associated with tobacco use. Women in Irati (OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.22-3.54) were more likely to smoke than those in Cambé. Married women and widows were less likely to smoke (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.30-0.73 and OR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87) than single women. Women living with a partner (but not married) were more likely to smoke than single women (OR = 2.49; 95%CI: 1.12-5.53), and women with university degrees were less likely to smoke than those with eight years of school or less (OR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87). The results confirm the need for tobacco control programs that take gender and regional differences into account.

  10. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

  11. Intimate partner violence among undergraduate students of two universities of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Flake, Tania Aldrighi; Barros, Claudia; Schraiber, Lilia B; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of violence in intimate relationships, suffered or perpetrated, was estimated among undergraduate students, be it physical, psychological and sexual, describing the overlap between them. This is an original study and there is scarce literature on this matter in Brazil. Men and women were investigated and some issues on gender violence were discussed. The study is part of the multicenter survey "International Study of Violence in Dating - IDVS" conducted in 2002 - 2003, using its standardized instrument. A total of 362 students, from two universities in the state of São Paulo, one public and one private, answered the self-reported questionnaire, being 37% male and 63% female, mean age of 20 years old. Suffered and perpetrated intimate partner violence during life was examined. Among all interviewees, 75.9% suffered and 76.4% perpetrated some kind of violence throughout life. Psychological violence was the most prevalent type, followed by sexual violence, both suffered and perpetrated. The great superposition between suffered and perpetrated violence (83.9%) reflects the reciprocity of aggression, with no observed difference between men and women. The results of this study are consistent with previous literature on dating violence, which shows high prevalence of suffered and perpetrated violence, besides reciprocity for both men and women. Intervention actions at this stage of intimate relationships may potentially impact on subsequent marital partnership situations.

  12. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Margonari de; Pessanha, Jose Eduardo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; Costa, Daniela Carmargos; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2004-12-01

    A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7%) were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  13. Evidence of Borrelia in wild and domestic mammals from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montandon, Carlos Emmanuel; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Milagres, Bruno Silva; Mazioli, Rafael; Gomes, Gabriel Guimarães; Moreira, Higo Nasser; Padilha, Amanda de Freitas; Wanderley, Guido Gomes; Mantovani, Elenice; Galvão, Márcio Antônio Moreira; Langoni, Helio; Mafra, Cláudio

    2014-01-01

    The main of the study was to evaluate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in domestic and wild vertebrates and ectoparasites in endemic areas from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 445 serum samples were examined by ELISA, which used the Borrelia burgdorferi strain G39/40 U.S. source and 3,821 tick samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). B. burgdorferi antibodies were found in 30 serum samples (6.74%); three in marsupials (7.69%), three in rodents (2.80%), nine in dogs (6.25%), and 15 in horses (9.68%). Nested-PCR performed in DNA samples obtained from collected ticks demonstrated negative results. Although attempts to amplify B. burgdorferi DNA from ticks had been not successful, the presence of seroreactive vertebrates suggests the possibility the Borrelia species circulating in these regions. Further research is required to provide information on the presence of Borrelia in Brazilian territory and its association with Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome.

  14. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gasparotto, Jaqueline de Carvalho; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Liebel, Sandra Mara Rodrigues da Silva; Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Cristovão, Edilson Colhera; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing. PMID:28380111

  15. Sustainable development and child health in the Curitiba metropolitan mesoregion, State of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Roberto Eduardo; Tetu Moysés, Simone; Reis Bueno, Paula Alexandra; Jorge Moysés, Samuel; de Carvalho, Max Luiz; Sottile França, Beatriz Helena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze social determinants of health through the relationship between Sustainable Development and child health outcomes. The population studied lives in 37 municipalities of the Curitiba mesoregion, in the State of Paraná, Brazil. It is a cross-cutting ecological study. In the 1st phase of the study, 16 contextual indicators were obtained from the 2010 demographic census performed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Principal Components Factor Analysis was undertaken to demonstrate possible correlations between social determinants of health, resulting in Sustainable Development indices for the places where the children live. In the 2nd phase the mortality rate in children aged under 5 was obtained from the Ministry of Health database. Pearson's correlation demonstrated statistically significant, moderate and negative association between the mortality rate in children aged under 5 (2001-2010) and the Sustainable Development Index (r = -0.62, p<0.01); with the Equity component (r = -0.70, p<0.01); and with the clusters (r = -0.68, p<0.01). Contextual indicators of Sustainable Development for the places where the children live showed themselves to be associated with the child health outcome. As such, equitable and sustainable social policies, based on inclusive health promotion strategies, need to be integrated into the children's life context.

  16. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from the aquatic basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Nilma Cintra; de Araújo Figueiroa, Angela Cristina Torres; Cavalcanti, Valdelúcia Oliveira; da Silva, Soraya Cavalcante; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Hofer, Ernesto

    2008-03-01

    Through a continuous bacteriological monitoring programme carried out by the Health Secretariat of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, two isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa were discovered in an endemic area in 2001, during a cholera inactive period, along with six V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains and two Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strains showing an unusual characteristic of agglutination with O1 antiserum. Between that time and 2005, eight other O1 isolates were found. The virulence genes present in the V. cholerae differed among strains, with only three O1 strains harboring the ctxA gene. The O1 and some non-O1/non-O139 strains displayed identical patterns of amplification of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. RAPD of the 10 V. cholerae O1 strains, with the two primers used, revealed heterogeneity. The presence of V. cholerae carrying virulence genes in the aquatic basins examined confirms that they constitute a vibrio reservoir during a cholera inactive period, thus strengthening the argument for a continuous monitoring programme and preventative measures for cholera, mainly in the areas where the supply of drinking water is deficient.

  17. Probability of occurrence of the Brazilian spotted fever in northeast of Paraná state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Otomura, Flávio Haragushiku; Truppel, Jessé Henrique; Moraes, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; Massafera, Rubens; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a fatal zoonosis because of the difficulties in its early diagnosis and treatment. Occurrences of BSF in the northeast of the state of Paraná prompted investigation of areas at risk of this rickettsiosis in the municipalities of Japira, Jaboti, Pinhalão and Tomazina. To determine the areas at risk, 592 serum samples from dogs and 230 from equids were analyzed by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for Rickettsia rickettsii and R. parkeri . In addition, risk probability maps were drawn up using the kriging indicator technique. Among the samples tested, 5.3% (43/822) indicated presence of antibodies reactive to at least one of the two Rickettsia species tested: 7.8% of the equids (18/230) and 4.2% of the dogs (25/592) were positive. Geostatistical analysis showed that the average seropositivity rate was 5 to 6%. Although the average seropositivity rates observed among these dogs and equids were lower than those reported from endemic areas of Brazil, the biotic components (etiological agent, vector and reservoirs) and environmental aspects of BSF epidemiology were present in these municipalities.

  18. Population data of 17 Y-STR loci from Rio Grande do Sul state (South Brazil).

    PubMed

    Schwengber, Solange P; Kommers, Trícia; Matte, Cecília H F; Raimann, Paulo E; Carvalho, Bianca A; Leite, Fabio P N; Medeiros, Marcelo A; Souza, Luis F; Castro, Cibele S; Chassot, Fernanda G C; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2009-12-01

    A sample of 255 Brazilian males from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the Brazilian southernmost state, was typed for 17 Y-STR loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA_H4.1 and DYS385ab). A total of 247 haplotypes were identified, of which 239 were unique and eight were found in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity (99.98%) and discrimination capacity (96.86%) were calculated. Pairwise haplotype distances showed that the RS population is not significantly different from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, and Argentina, is different from São Paulo, Italy, and North Portugal, and is very distant from Spain, the Amazon region, Germany, and South Amerindians. When the RS data was separated in the seven geopolitical regions, some pairs of regions were significantly different; however no region was different from the whole Brazilian sample.

  19. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Arthur Willian de Lima; Parentoni, Roberta Nunes; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Bezerra, Camila de Sousa; Vilela, Vinicius Longo Ribeiro; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; de Azevedo, Sergio Santos

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1%) for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%). Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99) and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33) were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals.

  20. The Association of Health and Income in the Elderly: Experience from a Southern State of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.; Pieper, Carl F.; King, Katherine E.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50th-66th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions. Methods Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥60 (N=6963), in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status), depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale) together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures. Results In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status). For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association), and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes. Conclusion Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled. PMID:24058505

  1. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  2. [Factors associated with use of medication during first pregnancies in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Andréia Moreira de; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Dotto, Leila Maria Geromel; Cunha, Margarida de Aquino; Opitz, Simone Perufo

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study in a sample of 887 primigravidae in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil aimed to analyze factors associated with the use of medicines during the first pregnancy. Information was obtained from interviews and prenatal cards. Medicines were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System of the World Health Organization and risk categories according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Mean age was 21 years and mean number of medicines used was 2.42. The most frequently consumed medicines were antianemics (47.5%), supplements and vitamins (18.7%), analgesics (13.8%), and antibiotics (10.5%). In the risk categorization, 69.3% belonged to category A, 22.3% to B, 7.6% to C, and 0.8% to D. The odds of having used risky medicines were higher among primigravidae in unit B (OR = 2.10; 95%CI: 1.26-3.50), in the 19 to 24-year age bracket (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 1.58-4.93), and in the presence of a medical prescription (OR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.18-2.95). Essential drugs were less used by women with higher family income (OR = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.42-0.96) and those who had received private prenatal care (OR = 0.53; 95%CI: 0.38-0.74).

  3. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA05 Isolated from an Ovine Host in Pará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alyne Cristina Sodré; de Moura, Vitória Almeida Gonçalves; Pinheiro, Kenny da Costa; Paixão, Carla Thais Moreira; da Costa, Wana Lailan Oliveira; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Guaraldi, Ana Luiza de Mattos; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis PA05, isolated from an ovine host in Pará State, Brazil. C. pseudotuberculosis is an etiological agent of diseases with veterinary and medical importance. The genome contains 2,435,137 bp, a G+C content of 52.2%, 2,295 coding sequences, five pseudogenes, 53 tRNAs, and six rRNAs. PMID:28360158

  5. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  6. A new species and notes on Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Paraná and Santa Catarina States, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-02-20

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) deposited in the Entomological Collection "Padre Jesus S. Moure" of the Universidade Federal do Paraná and additional material recently collected in Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil were studied. Six previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. cathia Froehlich, 2002, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. trimacula Jewett, 1959, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacoson and Bianchi, 1905) and K. colossica (Navás, 1934). Additionally, a new species, Anacroneuria iguazu n. sp is described.

  7. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from rubber tree crops in the State of Bahia, Brazil, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Lofego, Antonio Carlos; Castro, Elizeu Barbosa; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2015-06-02

    The current study describes the results of a survey of Phytoseiidae mites conducted on a rubber tree plantation in the State of Bahia, Brazil. We present 22 species, two of which are new to science, Amblydromalus insolitus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and Typhlodromips paramilus n. sp. Nuvoloni & Lofego, and three new records for this host are presented. The species composition was more related with the records of the northern Brazilian Region, than with that of Southeastern and Midwestern.

  8. Population dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle, 1806) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; Passos, Lygia M F; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2009-05-12

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are distributed throughout the world, especially in those areas in which dogs are in close contact with humans. R. sanguineus and fleas are regarded as the main ectoparasites infesting dogs in Brazil. Besides causing direct damage during the blood feeding process, this tick species can also transmit pathogens to dogs and humans. Despite its importance in Brazil, data regarding the seasonality of R. sanguineus are limited, especially with regard to natural infestations of dogs. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonality of R. sanguineus on dogs living in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. From August 2006 to July 2007, ticks were collected monthly from 12 adult dogs in nine houses, which were located in two districts in the north region of the city. In parallel, canine clients of a pet care department of the small animal veterinary clinic were examined for the presence of ticks before bathing and/or clipping. The climatic data recorded for Belo Horizonte during the experimental period were: mean temperature 18.6 degrees C; relative air humidity 56.5%; rainfall 37mm. The only species of ticks identified from all infested dogs was R. sanguineus, which was found in all its development stages. Among dogs living in houses, three tick population peaks were observed (August, February, and June), suggesting the occurrence of three generations per year in Belo Horizonte. A total of 7318 ticks were collected, of which 5422 were adult ticks and 1896 represented immature stages (744 larvae and 1152 nymphs). The monthly inspection of dogs living in houses demonstrated significantly higher parasitism during the dry season (p<0.05). A total of 2848 dogs from the pet care department of the small animal veterinary clinic were examined, of which 222 (7.8%) were infested with ticks and the percentage of infested dogs in the dry season was higher (p<0.05) than in the hot wet. The percentage of male dogs infested with ticks was significantly

  9. Specialized care for people with AIDS in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Santos, Vanessa da Frota; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the distribution of specialized care services for HIV/AIDS is associated with AIDS rates. METHODS Ecological study, for which the distribution of 10 specialized care services in the Ceara state, Northeastern Brazil, was obtained, and the mean rates of the disease were estimated per mesoregion. We evaluated 7,896 individuals who had been diagnosed with AIDS, were aged 13 years or older, lived in Ceara, and had been informed of their condition between 2001 and 2011. Maps were constructed to verify the relationship between the distribution of AIDS cases and institutionalized support networks in the 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. BoxMap and LisaMap were used for data analysis. The Voronoi diagram was applied for the distribution of the studied services. RESULTS Specialized care services concentrated in AIDS clusters in the metropolitan area. The Noroeste Cearense and west of the Sertoes Cearenses had high AIDS rates, but a low number of specialized care services over time. Two of these services were implemented where clusters of the disease exist in the second period. The application of the Voronoi diagram showed that the specialized care services located outside the metropolitan area covered a large territory. We identified one polygon that had no services. CONCLUSIONS The scenario of AIDS cases spread away from major urban areas demands the creation of social support services in areas other than the capital and the metropolitan area of the state; this can reduce access barriers to these institutions. It is necessary to create specialized care services for HIV/AIDS in the Noroeste Cearense and north of Jaguaribe. PMID:26487292

  10. Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from caves in the state of Rondônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Resadore, Fábio; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luis Marcelo Aranha

    2016-01-01

    This study had the aim of ascertaining the sandfly fauna and possible presence of Leishmania in these insects, collected in caves in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Collections were conducted in eight caves located in two different areas of this state. Leishmania in the sandflies collected was detected using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This was the first study on sandflies from caves in Rondônia and, among the total of 1,236 individuals collected, 24 species and 10 genera were identified. The species Evandromyia georgii was collected for the first time in Rondônia and the most abundant species were Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis with 448 individuals (36.2%), followed by T. octavioi with 283 (22.9%) and E. georgii with 179 (14.5%). For the PCR, 17 pools were analyzed and five pools were positive (forT. auraensis in three pools and for Nyssomyia shawi and N. antunesi in one pool each). The kDNA region was amplified and the presence of Leishmania DNA was confirmed. The sandfly fauna in these caves can be considered diverse in comparison with similar studies in other regions. It may be that some species use caves as a temporary shelter and breeding site, while other species live exclusively in this environment. The detection of Leishmania DNA indicates that this pathogen is circulating in cave environments and that further studies are needed in order to ascertain the risks of infection by leishmaniasis in these locations with high touristic potential.

  11. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.

  12. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; Miranda, Marina Jorge de; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Santos, Patrícia Carlos Dos; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2017-08-23

    Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

    2007-05-01

    The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

  14. The burden of diabetes and hyperglycemia in Brazil and its states: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; França, Elisabeth Barboza; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Cousin, Ewerton; Ishitani, Lenice Harumi; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mooney, Meghan; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2017-05-01

    The global burden of disease (GBD) 2015 project, extends GBD analyses to include Brazilian federative units separately. We take advantage of GBD methodological advances to describe the current burden of diabetes and hyperglycemia in Brazil. Using standard GBD 2015 methods, we analyzed the burden of diabetes, chronic kidney disease due to diabetes and high fasting plasma glucose in Brazil and its states. The age-standardized rate of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) which was lost to high fasting plasma glucose, a category which encompasses burdens of diabetes and of lesser hyperglycemia, were 2448.85 (95% UI 2165.96-2778.69) /100000 for males, and 1863.90 (95% UI 1648.18-2123.47) /100000 for females in 2015. This rate was more than twice as great in states with highest burden, these being overwhelmingly in the northeast and north, compared with those with lowest rates. The rate of crude DALYs for high fasting plasma glucose, increased by 35% since 1990, while DALYs due to all non-communicable diseases increased only by 12.7%, and DALYs from all causes declined by 20.5%. The worldwide pandemic of diabetes and hyperglycemia now causes a major and growing disease burden in Brazil, especially in states with greater poverty and a lesser educational level. Diabetes and chronic kidney disease due to diabetes, as well as high fasting plasma glucose in general, currently constitute a major and growing public health problem in Brazil. Actions to date for their prevention and control have been slow considering the magnitude of this burden.

  15. Mortality Trends for Neglected Tropical Diseases in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, 1980-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa de Albuquerque, Marcos Antônio; Dias, Danielle Menezes; Vieira, Lucas Teixeira; Lima, Carlos Anselmo; da Silva, Angela Maria

    2017-02-08

    Neglected Tropical Diseases are a set of communicable diseases that affect the population so low socioeconomic status, particularly 1.4 billion people who are living below the poverty level. This study has investigated the magnitude and mortality time trends for these diseases in the state of Sergipe, Northeast Region of Brazil. We conducted an ecological study of time series, based on secondary data derived from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. The mortality rates (crude, age-standardized rates and proportional ratio) were calculated from the deaths due to Neglected Tropical Diseases in the state of Sergipe, from 1980 to 2013. The time trends were obtained using the Joinpoint regression model. Three hundred six thousand and eight hundred seventy-two deaths were certified in the state and Neglected Tropical Diseases were mentioned as the underlying cause in 1,203 certificates (0.39%). Mean number of deaths was 35.38 per year, and crude and age-standardized mortality rates were, respectively: 2.16 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI: 1.45-2.87) and 2.87 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI: 1.93-3.82); the proportional mortality ratio was 0.41% (95% CI: 0.27-0.54). In that period, Schistosomiasis caused 654 deaths (54.36%), followed by Chagas disease, with 211 (17.54%), and by Leishmaniases, with 142 (11.80%) deaths. The other diseases totalized 196 deaths (16.30%). There were increasing mortality trends for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Schistosomiasis and Chagas disease in the last 15 years, according to the age-standardized rates, and stability of the mortality trends for Leishmaniases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases show increasing trends and are a real public health problem in the state of Sergipe, since they are responsible for significant mortality rates. The following diseases call attention for showing greater number of deaths in the period of study: Schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and Leishmaniases. We finally suggest that public

  16. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  17. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  18. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  19. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Anne I; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L P; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution.

  20. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

  1. Natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat from Paraná State, Brazil and estimated daily intake by wheat products.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes dos Santos, Joice; Souza, Thiago Montagner; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque; Hashimoto, Elisabete Hiromi; Bassoi, Manoel Carlos; de Miranda, Martha Zavariz; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was evaluated in 113 wheat samples from the northern and central/southwestern regions of Paraná State, Brazil during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons, and this rate of occurrence was used to estimate the DON dietary exposure. The DON determination was carried out by an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DON was detected in 66.4% samples at levels ranging from 206.3 to 4732.3 μg/kg (mean 1894.9 μg/kg). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of DON through bread and pasta was evaluated in the inhabitants of Londrina City in northern Paraná State, Brazil. The average intake of these inhabitants was 0.79 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) for bread and 0.35 μg/kg b.w. for pasta. The total EDI was 1.13 μg/kg, which is above the Provisional Tolerable Daily Maximum Intake (PTDMI) of 1 μg/kg b.w. To our knowledge, this is the first report on natural DON occurrence in wheat and DON dietary exposure estimation from Paraná, Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison study of Zika virus outbreaks in French Polynesia, Colombia and the State of Bahia in Brazil.

    PubMed

    He, Daihai; Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Shi; Ruan, Shigui

    2017-03-21

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease outbreaks occurred in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and in Brazil and Colombia in 2015-2016, respectively. Using our recently developed ZIKV disease model, we simulated the reported ZIKV infection cases from French Polynesia, Colombia and the State of Bahia of Brazil. Moreover, we estimated that the infection attack rates were 78.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 63.5-86.3%) in French Polynesia which closely matches a previous serological study; 20.8% (95% CI: 1.1-50.0%) in Colombia which suggests that the attack rate was most likely less than 50%; and 32.4% (95% CI: 2.5-94.2%) in the State of Bahia in Brazil which suggests that the attack rate is unidentifiable with monthly data in Bahia. Furthermore, we found that the association of precipitation and ZIKV outbreak was more evident in Colombia than the other two places. These results are helpful for us to understand the possible evolution, to control the on-going outbreaks, to prevent the potential geographic spread, and to study the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of ZIKV.

  3. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Goldman, Joseph; Rhodes, Donna G; Hoy, Mary Katherine; Moura Souza, Amanda de; Chester, Deirdra N; Martin, Carrie L; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Ahuja, Jaspreet K; Sichieri, Rosely; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2014-07-21

    International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population's total energy intake were compared between the countries. Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not consume a diet similar to Americans

  4. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  5. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  6. Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

    2014-02-13

    Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil.

  7. Isolation of leptospira Serovars Canicola and Copenhageni from cattle urine in the state of ParanÁ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Francielle Gibson da Silva; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Anzai, Eleine Kuroki; Giraldi, Nilson; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Hartskeerl, Rudy

    2008-10-01

    In 2001, 698 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle at a slaughterhouse in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Direct examination using dark field microscopy was carried out immediately after collection. Five putative positive samples were cultured in modified EMJH medium, yielding two positive cultures (LO-14 and LO-10). Typing with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the two isolates were similar to Canicola (LO-14) and Copenhageni (LO-10). Microscopic agglutination test results show that Hardjo is the most common serovar in cattle in Brazil. Rats and dogs are the common maintenance hosts of serovars Copenhageni and Canicola. The excretion of highly pathogenic serovars such as Copenhageni and Canicola by cattle can represent an increasing risk for severe leptospirosis is large populations, mainly living in rural areas.

  8. Detection of avian paramyxoviruses in migratory and resident birds in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fornells, Luz Alba M G; Travassos, Carlos E P F; Costa, Claudia M; Novelli, Ronaldo; Petrucci, Melissa P; Soffiati, Flavio L; Bianchi, Iliani; de Souza, Luiz F Lino; Veiga, Venício F; Liberal, Maíra H T; Couceiro, José Nelson S S

    2013-12-01

    Paramyxoviruses and avian influenza viruses are present worldwide, and wild birds are known natural reservoirs of these viruses. This study monitored the circulation of these viruses in migratory and resident coastal birds captured in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 494 birds were trapped, and their fecal samples were collected and inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs. The allantoic fluids were evaluated using a hemagglutination test and PCR amplification of the genes of the M and L proteins of influenza A virus and paramyxovirus, respectively. Avian paramyxovirus was detected in 5 (1.01%) of the birds. The majority of these viruses were isolated from migratory birds classified into the order Charadriiformes (families Scolopacidae and Charadriidae). Four samples were characterized as avian paramyxovirus serotype-2 (APMV-2) by a hemagglutination inhibition test. These results reinforce the importance of continuous surveillance of wild species in Brazil.

  9. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-09-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  10. Isolation of leptospira Serovars Canicola and Copenhageni from cattle urine in the state of ParanÁ, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zacarias, Francielle Gibson da Silva; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Anzai, Eleine Kuroki; Giraldi, Nilson; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Hartskeerl, Rudy

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, 698 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle at a slaughterhouse in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Direct examination using dark field microscopy was carried out immediately after collection. Five putative positive samples were cultured in modified EMJH medium, yielding two positive cultures (LO-14 and LO-10). Typing with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the two isolates were similar to Canicola (LO-14) and Copenhageni (LO-10). Microscopic agglutination test results show that Hardjo is the most common serovar in cattle in Brazil. Rats and dogs are the common maintenance hosts of serovars Copenhageni and Canicola. The excretion of highly pathogenic serovars such as Copenhageni and Canicola by cattle can represent an increasing risk for severe leptospirosis is large populations, mainly living in rural areas. PMID:24031301

  11. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:25141284

  12. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving.

  13. [Presence of Loxosceles similis Moenkhaus, 1898 (Araneae, Sicariidae) in Serra da Bodoquena, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Andrade, R M; Galati, E A; Tambourgi, D V

    2001-01-01

    The venom of Loxosceles spiders causes dermonecrotic lesion and induces complement-dependent intravascular haemolysis that characterizes a severe systemic effect. In Brazil, L. gaucho, L. intermedia and L. laeta, present in the anthropic environment, have been pointed out as the most important agents of the loxoscelism. Besides these species there are others that, by predominating in the natural environment, have not been evaluated regarding human health risk, as in the case of Loxosceles similis. The development of a research project in Bodoquena Range, for ecological observation and identification of insects of medical interest, enabled the capture of Loxosceles similis specimens in the "Pitangueiras" cave and "Lago Azul" cave, in Bodoquena Range, municipality of Bonito, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to define the parameters for identification, environmental features of the habitat of this species, as well as an update of its geographical distribution.

  14. Production of metallo-β-lactamase among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in the State of Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lívia Maria do Amorim; Fleming, Maria Emília de Castro Kling; Paula, Geraldo Renato de; Teixeira, Lenise Arneiro; Mondino, Pedro Juan José; de Mondino, Sílvia Susana Bona; Mendonça-Souza, Cláudia Rezende de Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Acquired production of metallo-β-lactamases is an important mechanism of resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to investigate the production of metallo-β-lactamase and the genetic diversity among ceftazidime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from State of Sergipe, Brazil. Metallo-β-lactamase was investigated using the disk approximation test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genetic diversity was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A total of 48 (51.6%) isolates were resistant to ceftazidime. Six (12.2%) of these were positive for metallo-β-lactamase production. Only two (4.1%) of the ceftazidime-resistant isolates carried the bla SPM-1 gene. Production of metallo-β-lactamases was not the main mechanism of resistance to ceftazidime and carbapenems among P. aeruginosa strains in Sergipe, Brazil.

  15. Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, ParabaĪBA state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Annielle Regina Fonseca; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; Genovez, Margareth Élide; de Azevedo, Adílio Santos; de Sousa Américo Batista, Carolina; Alves, Clebert José

    2011-10-01

    To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog's environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil.

  16. Envenomation caused by Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986 (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira; Santos-Jr, Alfredo P; Oliveira, Joacir Stolarz

    2014-01-01

    Scorpions, mainly those belonging to the genus Tityus cause many deaths and injuries in Brazil, with tens of thousands of envenomations notified every year. However, injuries involving other scorpion species are scarcely registered. Among the sixteen species of the genus Rhopalurus, Thorell, 1876, described up to date, nine are found in this country, with only a confirmed case of human envenomation provoked by R. agamemnon Koch, 1839. The present case reports, for the first time, a case of scorpion sting in a human victim involving Rhopalurus amazonicus, endemic species of the west region of the Pará state, Amazon, Brazil. The symptoms of envenomation were local pain and paresthesia. This study contributes to develop the knowledge on venomous scorpions, particularly those that may cause envenomations in this region.

  17. Assessment of water resources potential of Ceará state (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    A methodological approach and results on water resources assessment in large areas are described with the case study of Ceará State (148,016 km2, northeast Brazil), where the scarceness of water resources is one of the main challenges in territorial planning and development. This work deals with the quantification and the mapping of water resources potential, being part of methodological approaches applied to the quantification of hydric diversity and geodiversity. Water resources potential is here considered as the sum of the hydric elements rainfall, groundwater specific discharge, water reservoirs, and river hierarchy. The assessment was based in a territorial organization by drainage sub-basins and in vector maps generated and treated with GIS software. Rainfall, groundwater specific discharge and hydrographical data were obtained in official institutions and allowed the construction of the annual mean rainfall map for a forty year period (1974-2014), the annual mean groundwater specific discharge map for a thirty-four year period, and the river and drainage basin hierarchy maps. These delivered rainfall, groundwater specific discharge, water reservoirs and river hierarchy partial indices expressed on quantitative maps with normalized values distributed by level 3 drainage basins. The sum of the partial indices originated the quantitative map of water resources potential index and by the Gaussian interpolation of this quantitative data a map of hydric diversity in Ceará state was created. Therefore, the water resources potential index is higher in 4 regions of the state (Noroeste Cearense, Zona Metropolitana de Fortaleza e da Zona Norte, Vale do Jaguaribe and Zonas Centro-sul e Sul Cearense). The index is low or very low in the whole region of Sertões Cearenses, confirming the important role of climatic features in hydrological diversity. Water resources management must consider technical tools for water resources assessment, in the line of other methods for

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  19. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg(-1)). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg(-1)). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg(-1) in water-based beverages.

  20. Overweight and obesity related factors in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Caldeira, Gilberto Veras; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation of socioeconomic, dietary, and anthropometric-nutritional variables of parents and their children to overweight (including obesity) in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This is a transversal study conducted on 4,964, 6 to 10-year-old schoolchildren registered in 345 Santa Catarina elementary schools. The following data were acquired: the children's current weight and height, birth weight and length, duration of breastfeeding, age at which water, herbal tea and other foods were introduced to their diet; parental income, education level, age, weight and height were also obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obese children were estimated by point and by interval with a 95% confidence; prevalence rates were obtained based on the Poisson model. An hierarchical approach was used, in which variables were adjusted within blocks and included in the model when they presented p < 0.05 at the outcome (overweight including obesity). The results indicate that 47.8% of the subjects were male. The prevalence of overweight and obese students was 15.4% (C195%: 14.4%-16.5%) and 6.1% (C195%: 5.4%-6.7%) respectively and were statistically similar among sexes and age ranges. BMI values were higher in males and among older children (p < 0.05). After adjustment within and among blocks, the variables per capita household income and parents' BMI values remained associated with overweight (including obesity). Overweight (including obesity) in schoolchildren is associated with a higher per capita household income and parental overweight and obesity.

  1. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; de Miranda, Marina Jorge; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; dos Santos, Patrícia Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Design Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. Settings The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Participants Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Main outcome measures Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. Results In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). Conclusions The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. PMID:28838894

  2. High prevalence of intestinal infections and ectoparasites in dogs, Minas Gerais State (southeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Frank, Raphael; Ariza, Liana; de Sousa Lopes, Iris; de Assis E Silva, Alcides; Borges, Ana Cláudia; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, 155 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Unit of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais State (Southeast Brazil) were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs was systematically examined for the presence of helminthic parasites. In total, we isolated 5,155 metazoan parasites of eight species (three intestinal helminth species, five ectoparasite species). The cestode Dipylidium caninum was present in 57 dogs (36.8 %), the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum in 30 (19.4 %) and Toxocara canis in 24 (15.5 %), respectively. Among the ectoparasites, 139 (89.7 %) dogs were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 115 (74.2 %) with Ctenocephalides felis, 5 (3.2 %) with Tunga penetrans and one specimen (0.7 %) with Amblyomma cajennense, while myiasis was found in one dog (0.7 %). In logistic regression analysis, young age (adjusted odds ratio 5.74; 95 % confidence interval 1.18-27.85) and male sex (3.60; 1.24-10.40) were significantly associated with toxocariasis, and crossbreed dogs (8.20; 1.52-44.31), with dipylidiasis. Male (2.23; 1.12-4.43) and crossbreed dogs (5.17; 1.17-22.83) had also a significant higher number of concomitant parasitoses. Spatial distribution of dogs by neighbourhood identified high-risk areas. Our systematic study shows that dogs in Uberlândia carry a high number of parasites which may cause zoonotic diseases in humans; therefore, further specific evidence-based intervention measures are needed.

  3. The Fazenda Largo off-craton kimberlites of Piauí State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Sablukova, Ludmila I.; Zakharchenko, Olga D.

    2009-10-01

    In the late 1990s, the Fazenda Largo kimberlite cluster was discovered in the Piauí State of Brazil. As with earlier known kimberlites in this area - Redondão, Santa Filomena-Bom Jesus (Gilbues) and Picos - this cluster is located within the Palaeozoic Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin that separates the São Francisco and the Amazonian Precambrian cratons. Locations of kimberlites are controlled by the 'Transbrasiliano Lineament'. The Fazenda Largo kimberlites are intensely weathered, almost completely altered rocks with a fine-grained clastic structure, and contain variable amounts of terrigene admixture (quartz sand). These rocks represent near-surface volcano-sedimentary deposits of the crater parts of kimberlite pipes. By petrographic, mineralogical and chemical features, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites are similar to average kimberlite. The composition of the deep-seated material in the Fazenda Largo kimberlites is quite diverse: among mantle microxenoliths are amphibolitised pyrope peridotites, garnetised spinel peridotites, ilmenite peridotites, chromian spinel + chromian diopside + pyrope intergrowths, and large xenoliths of pyrope dunite. High-pressure minerals are predominantly of the ultramafic suite, Cr-association minerals (purplish-red and violet pyrope, chromian spinel, chromian diopside, Cr-pargasite and orthopyroxene). The Ti-association minerals of the ultramafic suite (picroilmenite and orange pyrope), as well as rare grains of orange pyrope-almandine of the eclogite association, are subordinate. Kimberlites from all four pipes contain rare grains of G10 pyrope of the diamond association, but chromian spinel of the diamond association was not encountered. By their tectonic position, by geochemical characteristics, and by the composition of kimberlite indicator minerals, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites, like the others of such type, are unlikely to be economic.

  4. Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte

    2014-08-06

    Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services.

  5. Stability and adaptability of popcorn genotypes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Candido, L S; Vittorazzi, C; Ribeiro, R M; Freitas, S P

    2012-08-31

    This study aimed to obtain estimates of stability and adaptability of phase launched materials and materials recommended in the country, for the northern and northwestern regions of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and made a comparative analysis of different methods to evaluate stability and adaptability of grain yield and popping expansion. To this end, 10 genotypes were evaluated (UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, Beija-Flor, IAC 112, IAC 125, Zélia, Jade, and UFVM2 Barão de Viçosa) in five environments. The Yates and Cochran method revealed that genotypes UFV2M Barão de Viçosa, BRS Angela and UNB2U-C3 were the most stable for grain yield. This method also indicated superiority of genotypes UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, IAC 125, and Zélia for popping expansion. The Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke methods demonstrated that genotypes Zélia and UNB2U-C4 were the most productive and stable. These methods indicated genotypes UNB2U-C3 and BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. The Kang and Phan ranking system uses methods based on analysis of variance and classified population UNB2U-C4 as the genotype with the highest stability of grain production and confirmed cultivar BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. Genotypes IAC 112 and UNB2U-C4 were the most stable and adapted for grain yield, according to the Lin and Binns method. The P(i) statistics also ranked UNB2U-C3 and UNB2U-C4 as the genotypes with the best predictability and capacity for popping expansion.

  6. Dental caries profile in Monte Negro, Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, in 2008

    PubMed Central

    BASTOS, Roosevelt Silva; SILVA, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues; MAIA-JUNIOR, Adelson Francisco; CARVALHO, Fábio Silva; MERLINI, Sabrina; CALDANA, Magali Lourdes; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    Objective This epidemiological survey assessed the dental caries profile in Monte Negro, a small town in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, and its relationship with the northern region, national and global goals for oral health in the years 2000 and 2020. Material and Methods The groups randomly examined were composed of individuals aged 5, 12, 15 to 19, 35 to 44, 65 to 74 years, living in both rural and urban areas. Results The means dft (standard deviation) and DMFT (standard deviation) for the groups were, respectively, 3.15 (3.12), 3.41 (2.69), 5.96 (4.19), 16.00 (7.30) and 25.96 (9.82). Caries-free individuals were 34.42%, 14.81% and 8.16% in the preschoolchildren, schoolchildren and adolescent groups, respectively. The Significant Caries Index percentages applied to the two younger groups were 6.65 and 6.70, and they increased to 32.00 in the individuals aged 65 to 74 years. Care Index percentages for adolescents, adults and elderly groups were, respectively, 29.40, 25.00 and 1.41. The dental caries profile in Monte Negro in 2008 shows that, 8 years after the year 2000, no FDI/WHO goal for any age settled in 1982 has been achieved. Dental caries increased with age and the main dental problem of adult and elderly groups was tooth loss. Conclusion Oral health promotion and prevention of oral disease policies are urgent needs. Setting of oral health goals and targets to people living in Monte Negro or Amazonia to be pursuit and achieved in a near future is an important action to do because of the culture, sanitary conditions and socioeconomic aspects of this particular population. PMID:21085797

  7. A new species of Neoathripsodes Holzenthal, 1989 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) with new generic and species records in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Quinteiro, Fabio B; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-10-19

    Trichoptera is the most species-rich clade of exclusively aquatic insects. In Brazil, 645 species have been recorded, distributed in 70 genera and 16 families. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, 85 species have been recorded, including 56 in Bahia State. Sixteen of the Northeast Region species belong to the family Leptoceridae. Among these, the long-horned caddisfly genus Neoathripsodes Holzenthal has been a monotypic genus since its erection more than 26 years ago. It is an endemic genus in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and only the male stage has been described for its only known species, Neoathripsodes anomalus. In this paper, we describe a new species of Neoathripsodes, with the first description of a female in this genus. Additionally, we present new records for the family Leptoceridae in Bahia, especially from the Serra Bonita Mountains, in order to help solve a long-term problem in Brazilian caddisfly research: An uneven proportion of studies in some regions of the country due to historical reasons. The Northeast Region of Brazil still remains a neglected area in which efforts to unearth its biodiversity should be focused. In this work, four species are recorded for the first time for Bahia State and its Serra Bonita Mountains: Grumichella rostrata Thienemann 1905, Neoathripsodes holzenthali n. sp., Nectopsyche fuscomaculata Flint 1983, and Notalina cipo Holzenthal 1986. Neoathripsodes and Notalina are new generic records for Bahia State. The following four species are new records for Serra Bonita: Atanatolica bonita Costa & Calor 2014, Oecetis martinae Quinteiro & Calor 2015, O. furcata Quinteiro & Calor 2015, and Triplectides gracilis (Burmeister 1839). Additional new distributional records for Bahia State are included in this study.

  8. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; Maximo, Michele; Costa, Wagner Alexandre; de Santana, Antonio Luís Ferreira; da Costa, Simone Miranda; da Costa Rego, Taiana Amancio Neves; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-11-13

    The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the

  9. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case

  10. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, Erlane Chaves; OLIVEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANDRADE, Mônica Coelho; VASCONCELOS, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; da SILVA, José Damião; CÂNDIDO, Darlan da Silva; PEREIRA, Laíse dos Santos; CORREIA, João Paulo Ramalho; da CRUZ, José Napoleão Monte; CAVALCANTI, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease. PMID:26603232

  11. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the genital tracts of female dairy cattle in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A

    2017-02-01

    Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.

  12. Checklist of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil-Contribution of Entomological Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lázaro Silva Inácio, Cássio; Hilário Tavares da Silva, José; César de Melo Freire, Renato; Antonaci Gama, Renata; Brisola Marcondes, Carlos; de Fátima Freire de Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2017-05-01

    The distribution of mosquito species in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, was compiled from published data mid-2016 and a review of specimens deposited in the entomological collection of the Entomology Laboratory of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. The existing records exist for 40 of the 167 municipalities in the state. The specimens in the Entomology Laboratory were collected using Shannon traps and by active search for immature individuals and from aquatic habitats using standard methods, in preserved Atlantic Forest and Caatinga remnants, located in urban and rural areas of the state. In total were recorded 76 species distributed into 25 subgenera, 15 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies, in addition to 15 new species records for the state. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  15. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  16. Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness comparison of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected in Brazil and the USA were determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine i...

  17. Race and Reason: A Comparison of Racial Attitudes in the United States and Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgione, Pascal D.; And Others

    This teacher's guide for use at the secondary level, although it has not yet undergone classroom trial, is recommended for inclusion in U.S. History, World History, Modern European History, or as a unit in Problems of Democracy. The primary objective of the unit is to demonstrate that the key to understanding present racial attitudes in Brazil and…

  18. Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Cecília C.; de Morais, Nélio B.; Carrieri, Maria Luíza; Rolim, Benedito N.; Silva, Lucia M.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Durigon, Edison L.; de Mattos, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Rabies viruses circulating in Ceará, Brazil, were identified by molecular analysis to be related to variants maintained by dogs, bats, and other wildlife. Most of these viruses are associated with human rabies cases. We document the emergence of a rabies virus variant responsible for an independent epidemic cycle in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). PMID:17326958

  19. Vegetation and its relationship with geomorphologic units in the Parana River floodplain, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Z. Y.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Pereira, M. S.; Ramonell, C. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Parana River is one of the most important fluvial systems of South America and its floodplain includes the most diverse subtropical ecosystem on the continent. However, the relationship between basic aspects, such as the vegetation and geomorphology of the river floodplain, has scarcely been investigated. In this paper, the annual dynamics of vegetation in relation to the geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of a river floodplain around 31° 30' S, are analyzed. The annual dynamics of vegetation was investigated using values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from satellite images at two scales of spatial analysis: the first, at the geomorphologic unit level, through several transects crossing the total width of each unit and, the second, through some transects selected from each unit. Our analysis considered variables of different temporal stability (such as geomorphology, hydrology, vegetation, precipitation, and ground temperature), using scenes corresponding to two hydrological cycles of the system (2009 and 2010), which represented relatively "dry" and "humid" years. Five main geomorphologic units were identified in the floodplain of this anabranching system, which were named considering the predominant landforms and the most important (or typical) water course of each area: Bars and Islands of the Main Channel of the Parana River (BI-MCH), Scroll Bars of the Colastine Branch (SB-C), Scroll Bars of the San Javier River Channel (SB-SJ), Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Malo-Mendieta minor channels (CSL-MM), and Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Santa Fe-Coronda river channels (CSL-SFC). These major units are assembled at different general levels and with variable slopes, which partially control the permanence and other characteristics of the flood flow. The crevasse splays and river levees units were predominantly characterized by herbaceous-bushy marshy vegetation, with low mean NDVI values, while SB-C and BI

  20. Hepatic photosensitization in buffaloes intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive

  1. Factors associated with death from dengue in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Campos, Kauara Brito; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-02-01

    To analyse the clinical and epidemiological profiles of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and complicated dengue cases and deaths from 2008 to 2010 that occurred in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil, and to identify factors associated with death from dengue. Historical cohort study using data from the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases. A descriptive analysis of the DHF, DSS and complicated dengue cases and deaths was performed; the incidence, mortality and case-fatality rates were estimated. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with death from dengue. Comorbidities were not included in the analysis because the information system does not contain such data. During the study period, 2214 DHF, DSS and complicated dengue cases were reported, including 156 deaths. The annual case-fatality rates for DHF/DSS and complicated dengue cases in the period of 2008-2010 were 7.3%, 4.8% and 7.9%, respectively. The factors associated with death from dengue included residence in a municipality with a population of fewer than 100,000 inhabitants [odds ratio (OR) 2.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-3.55], age over 65 years (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.99-4.68) and plasma leakage (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.16-2.46). The results support the importance of plasma leakage as a warning sign associated with death from dengue as well as the signs and symptoms that allow the diagnosis of DHF. Moreover, our findings suggest that increased attention is necessary for individuals over 65 years of age and in municipalities with populations under 100,000 inhabitants to ensure a better quality of care during the management of severe patients of dengue in these locations. Differences in the interpretation of the DHF definition have hindered the comparison of data from different countries; it can improve from the WHO 2009 dengue classification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Geochemistry of contaminated komatiites from the Umburanas greenstone belt, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes Leal, Angela Beatriz de; Santos, André Luis Dias; Bastos Leal, Luiz Rogério; Cunha, José Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The late Archaean Umburanas greenstone belt (UGB) is located in the São Francisco Craton, southwest of Bahia State, Brazil. The lower unit of UGB comprises basal komatiite lavas and tholeiitic basalts intercalated with felsic volcanic rocks. The regional crystalline basement rocks, the Gavião block, predominantly consist of granitic, granodioritic and migmatitic gneiss along with tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) associations. Petrographic studies of UGB komatiites reveal characteristic spinifex igneous texture although primary mineralogy is rarely preserved. Based on textural relationships, komatiites are divided into cumulate, spinifex, and massive types. The MgO content varies in the range 31.5-40.4 wt%. The MgO-SiO2 negative correlation in komatiites suggests olivine fractionation trend. The UGB komatiites are of Al-undepleted type, characterized by Al2O3/TiO2 (21-48) ratio, enriched in highly incompatible LILE relative to moderately incompatible HFSE and distinct negative Nb, Sr and Eu anomalies. Also shows depletion of light rare earths, convex-downward rare earth patterns typically not observed in komatiites world-wide, and primitive mantle normalized Gd/Yb (1.03-1.23) and La/Sm (2.36-4.99) ratios. The negative Eu anomaly is attributed to the circulation of H2O-rich fluid, whereas the negative Nb and Sr anomalies are attributed to contamination from granitic basement rocks of the Gavião block. The UGB komatiites are most likely derived from adiabatic decompressional melting of a mantle plume. The melting took place at liquidus temperatures in the range 1572-1711 °C, which is consistent with mantle-plume origin invoked for several other komatiites in Archaean greenstone belts elsewhere. The melts were more likely generated at a depth shallower than 100 km (pressure < 2.5 GPa) where garnet was absent in the source mineralogy. Geochemical characteristics suggest contamination of primary melts with granitic basement rocks either during ascent of melt

  3. Ticks collected on birds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Sanfilippo, Luiz F; Demetrio, Cristiane; Menezes, Ana C; Pinter, Adriano; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Silveira, Luis F

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports a collection of Amblyomma spp. ticks in birds from several areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 568 tick specimens (404 larvae, 164 nymphs) were collected from 261 bird specimens. From these ticks, 204 (36%) specimens (94 larvae, 110 nymphs) were reared to the adult stage, being identified as Amblyomma longirostre (94 larvae, 90 nymphs), Amblyomma calcaratum (13 nymphs), Amblyomma nodosum (2 nymphs), and Amblyomma cajennense (5 nymphs). Additionally, 39 larvae reared to the nymphal stage and 8 nymphs that died before reaching the adult stage were identified as A. longirostre according to peculiar characters inherent to the nymphal stage of this species: scutum elongate, and hypostome pointed. The remaining 271 larvae and 46 nymphs were identified as Amblyomma sp. Ticks were collected from 51 species of birds distributed in 22 bird families and 6 orders. The order Passeriformes constituted the vast majority of the records, comprising 253 (97%) out of the 261 infested birds. Subadults of A. longirostre were identified from 35 species of Passeriformes, comprising 11 families (Cardinalidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Fringillidae, Furnariidae, Parulidae, Pipridae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Turdidae, Tyrannidae, and Vireonidae), and from 1 species of a non-passerine bird, a puffbird (Bucconidae). Subadults of A. calcaratum were identified from 5 species of Passeriformes, comprising 5 families (Cardinalinae, Conopophagidae, Pipridae, Thamnophilidae and Turdidae). Subadults of A. nodosum were identified from 2 species of Passeriformes, comprising two bird families (Thamnophilidae and Pipridae). Subadults of A. cajennense were identified from 2 species of non-passerine birds, belonging to 2 different orders (Ciconiiformes: Threskiornithidae, and Gruiformes: Cariamidae). Birds were usually infested by few ticks (mean infestation of 2.2 ticks per bird; range: 1-16). Currently, 82 bird species are known to be infested by immature stages of A

  4. Genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Nayanne Gama Teixeira; Suffys, Phillip Noel; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; de Almeida, Isabela Neves; de Assis, Lida Jouca; Augusto, Claudio José; Gomgnimbou, Michel Kireopori; Refregier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe; de Miranda, Silvana Spíndola

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) clinical isolates and investigate the molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. One hundred and four MTb clinical isolates were assessed by IS6110-RFLP, 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR), TB-SPRINT (simultaneous spoligotyping and rifampicin-isoniazid drug-resistance mutation analysis) and 3R-SNP-typing (analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes involved in replication, recombination and repair functions). Fifty-seven different IS6110-RFLP patterns were found, among which 50 had unique patterns and 17 were grouped into seven clusters. The discriminatory index (Hunter and Gaston, HGDI) for RFLP was 0.9937. Ninety-nine different MIRU-VNTR patterns were found, 95 of which had unique patterns and nine isolates were grouped into four clusters. The major allelic diversity index in the MIRU-VNTR loci ranged from 0.6568 to 0.7789. The global HGDI for MIRU-VNTR was 0.9991. Thirty-two different spoligotyping profiles were found: 16 unique patterns (n = 16) and 16 clustered profiles (n = 88). The HGDI for spoligotyping was 0.9009. The spoligotyped clinical isolates were phylogenetically classified into Latin-American Mediterranean (66.34 %), T (14.42 %), Haarlem (5.76 %), X (1.92 %), S (1.92 %) and U (unknown profile; 8.65 %). Among the U isolates, 77.8 % were classified further by 3R-SNP-typing as 44.5 % Haarlem and 33.3 % LAM, while the 22.2 % remaining were not classified. Among the 104 clinical isolates, 86 were identified by TB-SPRINT as MDR, 12 were resistant to rifampicin only, one was resistant to isoniazid only, three were susceptible to both drugs, and two were not successfully amplified by PCR. A total of 42, 28 and eight isolates had mutations in rpoB positions 531, 526 and 516, respectively. Correlating the cluster analysis with the

  5. Overview of the state of the art of constructed wetlands for decentralized wastewater management in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, A I; Beretta, M; Fragoso, R; Duarte, E

    2017-02-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) commonly require large capital investments as well as operation and maintenance costs. Constructed wetlands (CWs) appear as a cost-effective treatment, since they can remove a broad range of contaminants by a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes with a low cost. Therefore, CWs can be successfully applied for decentralized wastewater treatment in regions with low population density and/or with large land availability as Brazil. The present work provides a review of thirty nine studies developed on CWs implemented in Brazil to remove wastewater contaminants. Brazil current sanitation data is also considered to evaluate the potential role of CWs as decentralized wastewater treatment. Performance of CWs was evaluated according to (i) type of wetland system, (ii) different support matrix (iii) vegetation species and (iv) removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). The reviewed CWs in overall presented good efficiencies, whereas H-CWs achieved the highest removals for P, while the higher results for N were attained on VF-CW and for COD and BOD5 on HF-CW. Therefore, was concluded that CWs are an interesting solution for decentralized wastewater treatment in Brazil since it has warm temperatures, extensive radiation hours and available land. Additionally, the low percentage of population with access to the sewage network in the North and Northeast regions makes these systems especially suitable. Hence, the further implementation of CW is encouraged by the authors in regions with similar characteristics as Brazil.

  6. Notification of the first isolation of Cacipacore virus in a human in the State of Rondônia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Batista, Weber Cheli; Tavares, Glauciane da Silva Bifano; Vieira, Deusilene Souza; Honda, Eduardo Rezende; Pereira, Soraya Santos; Tada, Mauro Shugiro

    2011-01-01

    Flavivirus is a genus of arthropod-transmitted viruses of the family Flaviviridae, and in Brazil, up to eleven different Flavivirus have been isolated. We collected blood from farmers in the municipality of Theobroma, which is located 320km from the City of Porto Velho, the former capital of the Brazilian State of Rondônia. For viral isolation, we used newborn mouse brain, followed by RT-PCR with specific universal Flavivirus primers. We obtained fragments 958bp and 800bp in length. Based on BLAST, these sequences were 91% similar to a sequence of Cacipacore virus.

  7. Stigma related to bipolar disorder in the perception of psychiatrists from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Adauto Silva; Santos, Wagner Jorge Dos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2017-07-13

    This research sought to understand meanings and implications of the stigma related to bipolar disorder in relation to social processes and local cultural value systems. Seven semidirected individual interviews were performed with psychiatrists (from Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and analyzed with referential from the Medical Anthropology. Some potential stigmatizing views about bipolar disorder patients were endorsed by respondents related to biomedical model of bipolar disorder. They claimed about the extreme trivialization of this diagnosis nowadays and observed that, in spite of the mitigation of stigma related to bipolar disorder over time, it remains an important issue, especially at labor fields and as a cause of refusal of treatment.

  8. Genetic characterization of Cacipacoré virus from ticks collected in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Glauciane Garcia; Amarilla, Alberto Anastacio; de Souza, William Marciel; Fumagalli, Marcílio Jorge; de Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Badra, Soraya Jabur; Setoh, Yin Xiang; Khromykh, Alexander A; Aquino, Victor Hugo; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2017-02-20

    Cacipacoré virus (CPCV) is a potential emerging virus classified in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. In the present study, we present the genetic characterization of a CPCV isolated from ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in São Paulo State, Brazil. The CPCV isolate shares the typical genomic organization of flaviviruses with 10,857 nucleotides in length and a single open reading frame of 10,284 nucleotides encoding a polyprotein of 3,427 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CPCV is unique, as a potentially tick-borne virus, in the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup.

  9. Microbial diversity of soils on the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa da Santos, Ellen Karla Nobrex; Honda, Rubens Tomio; Nozawa, Sérgio Ricardo; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica Stropa

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of bacterial diversity in soils along the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil, was by partial sequencing of the genes codifying the rDNA16S region. Diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTU) and of the divergent sequences obtained were applied in comparative analysis of microbiological diversity in the two environments, based on richness estimators and OTU diversity indices. The higher OTU diversity in the Solimões was based on the higher number of parameters that evoke this. The interaction between the nucleotide sequences of bacteria inhabiting the two riverine environments indicated that the two microrganism communities are similar in composition. PMID:22481886

  10. First report of yellow fever virus in non-human primates in the State of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tranquilin, Marcos Vinícius; Lehmkuhl, Ricardo Coelho; Maron, Angela; Silva, Lineu Roberto da; Ziliotto, Liane; Seki, Meire Christina; Salomon, Gabriela Ronchi; Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres

    2013-01-01

    Sylvatic yellow fever is a zoonosis associated mainly with wild animals, especially those in the genus Alouatta, that act as the source of infection. Once infected, these animals pass the disease on to humans by way of an infected mosquito belonging to the genera Aedes, Haemagogus, or Sabethes. The present study is the first report of a case of yellow fever in non-human primates (NHP) in the State of Paraná, Brazil. After the case was diagnosed, several prophylactic measures were adopted to prevent outbreaks of the disease in humans.

  11. Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae) - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Valente, Ana Carolina Dos Santos; Luna-Dias, Antonio Paulino A; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Marchon-Silva, Verônica

    2012-08-01

    A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres). This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C.) subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  12. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  13. Social determinants of leprosy in a hyperendemic State in North Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2017-07-20

    To identify the socioeconomic, demographic, operational, and health service-related factors associated with the occurrence of leprosy in a hyperendemic State in North Brazil. This is an ecological study based on secondary data from the Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação in municipalities of the State of Tocantins from 2001 to 2012. Units of analysis were the 139 municipalities of the State. Negative binomial log linear regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios. In bivariate analysis, the incidence rate ratios were significantly higher for municipalities with higher income ratio of the poorest 20.0% (1.47; 95%CI 1.19-1.81) and better Municipal Human Development Index (1.53; 95%CI 1.14-2.06). In multivariate analysis, the incidence rate ratios were significantly higher in municipalities with higher proportion of immigrants (1.31; 95%CI 1.11-1.55) and higher proportion of households with waste collection (1.37; 95%CI 1.11-1.69). There was a significant reduction in the incidence rate ratio with increased coverage of the Bolsa Família Program (0.98; 95%CI 0.96-0.99). Control programs need to focus on activities in municipalities of greater social vulnerability with intersectoral investment for the improvement of the living conditions of the population. Identificar fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, operacionais e de serviços de saúde associados à ocorrência da hanseníase em um estado hiperendêmico do norte do Brasil. Estudo ecológico com dados secundários do Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação em municípios do estado do Tocantins de 2001 a 2012. As unidades de análise foram os 139 municípios do estado. Modelos de regressão log linear binomial negativa foram utilizados para estimar as razões de taxas de incidência. Na análise bivariada, a razão de taxa de incidência foi significativamente maior para os municípios com maior razão de renda dos 20,0% mais pobres (1,47; IC95% 1,19-1,81) e

  14. Pharmaceutical companies vs. the State: who is responsible for post-trial provision of drugs in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Wang, Daniel Wei L; Ferraz, Octavio Luiz Motta

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the post-trial access to drugs for patients who participated in clinical trials in Brazil. The ethical guidance for clinical trials in Brazil is arguably one of the clearest in the world in attributing to research sponsors the responsibility for providing post-trial drugs to patients who participated in their experiments. The Federal Constitution recognizes health as a fundamental right to be fulfilled by the State. Based on the Brazilian constitution and on the National Health Council resolutions, courts have been accepting patients' claims and ordering the State and the pharmaceutical companies to provide these patients with the tested treatment in the quantity and duration they need it. This generous interpretation of the duties of the pharmaceutical companies and the State makes the Brazilian model for post-trial access unique when compared to the experience of other countries and thus should be followed with attention by future research in order to assess its consequences for patients, research sponsors, and the public health system.

  15. Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea) larvae in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Identification key, new records and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Melissa Ottoboni; Valente-Neto, Francisco; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaíde Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The family Elmidae Curtis, 1830 has cosmopolitan distribution and most species inhabit riffles on streams and rivers, hence the name “riffle beetle”. In recent years, this family has been featured in papers addressing the assessment and environmental monitoring of water quality. In Brazil, studies on the family remain scarce and the present investigation is a pioneering study in the state of São Paulo. This study aims to propose a taxonomic key for the identification of larvae of Elmidae genera known to occur in the State, as well as to report new records and the distribution of these genera. The material analyzed was collected from various locations in each of 15 drainage basins from 2005 to 2010. The identification key includes 12 genera (Austrolimnius Carter & Zeck, 1929, Heterelmis Sharp, 1882, Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940, Hexanchorus Sharp, 1882, Huleechius Brown, 1981, Macrelmis Motschulsky, 1859, Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935, Neoelmis Musgrave, 1935, Phanocerus Sharp, 1882, Potamophilops Grouvelle, 1896, Stegoelmis Hinton, 1939 and Xenelmis Hinton, 1936) known in Brazil as well as three morphotypes designated herein as Genus A, Genus M and Genus X. The genus Hexanchorus is recorded for the first time in the state of São Paulo. PMID:22368452

  16. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  17. Determination of β haplotypes in patients with sickle-cell anemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Cynthia Hatsue Kitayama; Serafim, Edvis Santos Soares; de Medeiros, Waleska Rayane Dantas Bezerra; de Medeiros Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Rebecchi, Ivanise Marina Moretti; de Medeiros, Tereza Maria Dantas

    2011-07-01

    β(S) haplotypes were studied in 47 non-related patients with sickle-cell anemia from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Molecular analysis was conducted by PCR/RFLP using restriction endonucleases XmnI, HindIII, HincII and HinfI to analyze six polymorphic sites from the beta cluster. Twenty-seven patients (57.5%) were identified with genotype CAR/CAR, 9 (19.1%) CAR/BEN, 6 (12.8%) CAR/CAM, 1 (2.1%) BEN/BEN, 2 (4.3%) CAR/Atp, 1 (2.1%) BEN/Atp and 1 (2.1%) with genotype Atp/Atp. The greater frequency of Cameroon haplotypes compared to other Brazilian states suggests the existence of a peculiarity of African origin in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  18. Regulation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol in water bodies in Europe, the United States, and Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Danieli Lima; da Silva, Samuel Muylaert Camargo; Bila, Daniele Maia; Oliveira, Jaime Lopes da Mota; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; Larentis, Ariane Leites

    2016-03-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol, the principal component of oral contraceptives, has been identified as one of the main compounds accounting for adverse effects on the endocrine system in various species. This study aimed to analyze the state-of-the-art in legislation and guidelines for the control of this synthetic estrogen in water bodies in Europe and the United States and to draw a parallel with the Brazilian reality. Countries have generally attempted to expand the regulation and monitoring of certain emerging micropollutants not previously covered by legislation. Europe is more advanced in terms of water quality, while in the United States this estrogen is only regulated in water for human consumption. Brazil still lacks legal provisions or standards for this estrogen, which can be explained by the relatively limited maturity of the country's system for controlling water pollutants.

  19. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  20. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives.

  1. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  2. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  3. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea).

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007-2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal.

  4. Space geodiversity review: a case study in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manosso, Fernando; Tauana Basso, Bruna; Alcindo Da Roza, Douglas; Souza dos Santos, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Considering the strong global concern for nature protection, improvements emerge to support techniques to understand physical and biological means of selecting areas for environmental conservation. Most techniques take into consideration mainly the biological characteristics of nature, however as the nature is a complex of biotic and abiotic elements it becomes thus necessary the creation of parameters to understand the diversity of abiotic elements, their distribution, occurrence, threats and values as well. This paper aims to identify, quantify and perform a spatial analysis of the distribution of geodiversity in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, from the different concepts of geodiversity with the use of techniques on digital cartographic database in a Geographic Information System - GIS. Gray (2004) conceptualized geodiversity as the natural distribution of geology, including rocks, minerals, fossils, soil characteristics, land forms and processes (geomorphology), and their connections. Geodiversity is composed by the variability of abiotic nature, including lithological elements, tectonic, geomorphological, edaphic, hydrological, topographical and physical processes of the Earth surface, seas, oceans, together with natural endogenous, exogenous and anthropogenic processes that include a diversity of particles, elements and places (Serrano and Ruiz Flaño, 2007). Different methods of quantitative assessment of geodiversity in different territories were applied by Carcavilla et al (2007), Pellitero and González-Amuchastegui (2010), Navarro (2010), Katerina and Dušan (2008), Serrano et al (2007; 2009), Kozlowski (2010), Zwolinski and Stachowiak (2012), Thomas (2012), Hjort and Luoto (2010; 2012), Pellitero et al (2014), and Silva (2014). Considering geodiversity as the abiotic elements which constitute the landscape; it is important to mention that such set may vary spatially according to the occurrence of different geological formations, rock

  5. Molecular characterisation of Bartonella species in cats from São Luís, state of Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Maria do Socorro Costa de Oliveira; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; André, Marcos Rogério; Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that predominantly infect mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells and cause long-lasting bacteraemia in their reservoir hosts. Reports that describe the epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil are limited. This study aimed to detect and characterise Bartonella spp DNA from cat blood samples in São Luís, Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil. Among 200 cats tested for multiple genes, nine (4.5%) were positive for Bartonella spp: six cats for Bartonella henselae and three for Bartonella clarridgeiae. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of four genes, the B. henselae strain matched strains previously observed in Brazil and was positioned in the same clade as B. henselae isolates from the United States of America. Moreover, sequence alignment demonstrated that the B. clarridgeiae strain detected in the present study was the same as the one recently detected in cats from southern Brazil.

  6. A new Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-10-31

    Mapinguari Papavero & Wilcox, 1974 (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae) is a very rare monotypic genus, with the type-species, M. politus (Wiedemann, 1828), occurring exclusively in Amazonia. With the description of Mapinguari uai sp. nov. from a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, the distribution of the genus is greatly expanded. In addition, an updated diagnosis for the genus and its type-species is provided.

  7. [Characteristics of intra-metropolitan mobility in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1970-1980].

    PubMed

    Cunha, J M

    1992-01-01

    "Based on the 1980 census, the study attempts to provide a general overview of [intra-metropolitan migration in Brazil], using information regarding previous place of residence--data included for the first time in a Brazilian census--, which helps to establish the internal, intermunicipal, migratory flow. The article also presents certain aspects related to volume, direction and reasons for these movements as well as some of the characteristics of influencing factors." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jacomini, Analu Egydio; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Avelar, Wagner Eustáquio Paiva; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2011-04-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  9. Electronic gaming machines and gambling disorder: a cross-cultural comparison between Brazil and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Gustavo Costa; Leppink, Eric W.; Yaemi, Ana; Mariani, Mirella; Tavares, Hermano; Grant, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The objective of this paper is to perform a cross-cultural comparison of gambling disorder (GD) due to electronic gaming machines (EGM), a form of gambling that may have a high addictive potential. Our goal is to investigate two treatment-seeking samples of adults collected in Brazil and the United States, countries with different socio-cultural backgrounds. This comparison may lead to a better understanding of cultural influences on GD. Methods The total studied sample involved 733 treatment-seeking subjects: 353 men and 380 women (average age = 45.80, standard deviation ±10.9). The Brazilian sample had 517 individuals and the American sample 216. Subjects were recruited by analogous strategies. Results We found that the Brazilian sample was younger, predominantly male, less likely to be Caucasian, more likely to be partnered, had a faster progression from recreational gambling to GD, and were more likely to endorse chasing losses. Conclusion This study demonstrated that there are significant differences between treatment-seeking samples of adults presenting GD due to EGM in Brazil and in the United States. These findings suggest that cultural aspects may have a relevant role in GD due to EGM. PMID:26474662

  10. Stigma, deforming metaphors and patients' moral experience of multibacillary leprosy in Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marilyn K; Lira, Geison Vasconcelos; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle

    2009-06-01

    In response to the call for a new Science of Stigma, this anthropological study investigates the moral experience of patients diagnosed with severe multibacillary leprosy. From 2003 to 2006, fieldwork was conducted in the so-called 'United-States-of-Sobral', in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. Sobral is highly endemic for leprosy, despite intensified eradication efforts and a 30% increase in primary care coverage since 1999. Of 329 active leprosy cases at two public clinics, 279 multibacillary patients were identified and six information-rich cases selected for in-depth ethnographic analysis, utilizing illness narratives, key-informant interviews, home visits, participant-observation of clinical consultations and semi-structured interviews with physicians. A 'contextualized semantic interpretation' revealed four leprosy metaphors: a repulsive rat's disease, a racist skin rash, a biblical curse and lethal leukemia. Far from value-free pathology, the disease is imbued with moral significance. Patients' multivocalic illness constructions contest physicians' disease discourse. 'Skin Spot Day' discriminates more than educates. Patients' 'non-compliance' with effective multi-drug therapy is due to demoralizing stigma more than a rejection of care. 'Social leprosy' in Northeast Brazil deforms patients' moral reputations and personal dignity.

  11. Tuberculosis recurrence in a priority city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amadeu Antonio; Leite, Danila Torres; Adreoni, Solange

    2017-01-01

    To describe cases of tuberculosis recurrence (TBR), stratified by temporal classification (early or late TBR), and to identify possible predictors of such recurrence. This was an analytical retrospective observational epidemiological study involving a cohort of 963 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, reported and treated via the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil. The study period was from 2000 to 2010. All of the pulmonary tuberculosis patients who successfully completed the treatment (with or without confirmation of cure) were selected and followed until December 31, 2012. Of the 963 cases, TBR occurred in 47 (4.88%). The mean time between the first and second tuberculosis episodes was 36.12 months. Of the 47 TBR cases, 16 (34.04%) occurred within the first 18 months after the completion of the initial treatment (early TBR) and 31 (65.96%) occurred thereafter (late TBR). There were statistically significant differences between the early and late TBR groups only regarding level of education (≤ 3 vs. > 3 years of schooling; p < 0.004) and weight gain at completion of the initial treatment (1.78 kg vs. 5.31 kg; p < 0.045)-not regarding any of the other variables studied. A low level of education might translate to poor treatment adherence, which impedes the killing of bacilli and facilitates their survival in a latent state, making it appear as if the treatment was effective. Minimal or no weight gain at completion of the initial treatment might be a reliable biomarker to be used by health care facilities that provide tuberculosis treatment. Descrever os casos de recorrência de tuberculose (RTB) e identificar possíveis preditores segundo a classificação RTB recente ou tardia. Estudo epidemiológico observacional analítico retrospectivo a partir de uma coorte de 963 casos novos de tuberculose pulmonar notificados e tratados no Programa de Controle de Tuberculose de Carapicuíba (SP). O período de estudo foi de 2000 a 2010. Todos

  12. 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva do Carmo; Saillard, Colette; Eveillard, Sandrine; Danet, Jean Luc; da Costa, Paulo Inácio; Ayres, Antonio Juliano; Bové, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB) were reported in São Paulo State (SPS), Brazil, in March 2004. In Asia, HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and in Africa by 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus'. Detection of the liberibacters is based on PCR amplification of their 16S rRNA gene with specific primers. Leaves with blotchy mottle symptoms characteristic of HLB were sampled in several farms of SPS and tested for the presence of liberibacters. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was detected in a small number of samples but most samples gave negative PCR results. Therefore, a new HLB pathogen was suspected. Evidence for an SPS-HLB bacterium in symptomatic leaves was obtained by PCR amplification with universal primers for prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences. The amplified 16S rRNA gene was cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis and phylogeny studies showed that the 16S rRNA gene possessed the oligonucleotide signatures and the secondary loop structure characteristic of the alpha-Proteobacteria, including the liberibacters. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree showed that the SPS-HLB bacterium clustered within the alpha-Proteobacteria, the liberibacters being its closest relatives. For these reasons, the SPS-HLB bacterium is considered a member of the genus 'Ca. Liberibacter'. However, while the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. africanus' had 98.4% similarity, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the SPS-HLB liberibacter had only 96.0% similarity with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' or 'Ca. L. africanus'. This lower similarity was reflected in the phylogenetic tree, where the SPS-HLB liberibacter did not cluster within the 'Ca. L asiaticus'/'Ca. L. africanus group', but as a separate branch. Within the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' and for a given species, the 16S/23S intergenic region does not vary greatly. The intergenic regions of three strains of 'Ca. L. asiaticus', from India, the People's Republic of China and Japan

  13. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  14. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure.

  15. [Epidemiological characteristics of AIDS cases in persons aged 60 years or older, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 1998 to 2008].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcella Monteiro; de Vasconcelos, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Leila Karina de Novaes P

    2013-10-01

    Changes have occurred in the world scenario in recent years due to declining fertility and mortality, and longevity has thus appeared as a real phenomenon. Sexuality of the elderly is viewed with various prejudices. The current study characterized AIDS cases in persons 60 years or older in Pernambuco State, Brazil, reported to the State Health Department from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed with data from the Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN). In 1998 the AIDS incidence rate in the target age bracket was 1.6 cases per 100 thousand, increasing to 4.8 per 100 thousand in 2008, or an increase of 200%. There is thus an evident need to develop measures for prevention, diagnosis, and patient care specifically targeting the elderly, since sexuality in this age bracket is still enshrouded by myths and taboos.

  16. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea.

  17. Molecular detection of Leishmania sp. in cats (Felis catus) from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-03-10

    The aim of this work was to molecularly detect Leishmania species in 52 cats from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The direct parasitological test was performed by using imprints of poplited lymph node, bone marrow and spleen to verify amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. The samples that were positive parasitological tests were subjected to molecular analysis (PCR) and sequencing. Infection was detected for 5.76% (3/52) of the examined cats and two had presence of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. in lymph nodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kinetoplast minicircle DNA, indicated positive amplification for samples of spleen and lymph nodes and the sequencing resulted in 97% similarity with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This study proved the occurrence of infection with Leishmania (L.) chagasi in felines from Andradina municipality, São Paulo State. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Training health workers to deal with sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to identify initiatives for training staff in the municipal healthcare system in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, to deal with cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. The reference for this exploratory study was the training program provided by the municipal government in 2010-2012 for administrators and health professionals in the public healthcare system in Fortaleza. At the time, the issue of sexual abuse was low in the system's training programs, despite recognition of its importance. Federal and State programs have provided input for such training programs in the various municipal health departments. The main strategy was to invest in training for health workers in primary care. Social workers were found to have insufficient training, aggravated by temporary work contracts and high staff turnover. The study suggests the need for training to deal with violence, particularly sexual abuse.

  19. [Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Roza, Daiane Leite da; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Dal-Fabbro, Amaury Lelis

    2011-05-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR) form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP), higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI), and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable). The study demonstrates a significant association between teenage pregnancy and socioeconomic indicators.

  20. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  1. [The first report of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907 (Acari Ixodidae) on the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (L.) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martins, João R; Monticelli, Elida C; Onofrio, Valéria C; Barros-Battesti, Darcy M; Doyle, Rovaina L

    2007-01-01

    Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females) parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens), Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens). The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.

  2. An evaluation of the Sinan health information system as used by the Hansen's disease control programme, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Paulo Roberto Silva; Ferreira, Andréa Torres; Maciel, Maria Das Graças Galvão; De Almeida, Rejane Pereira; Hinders, Duane; Schreuder, Pieter A M; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina S

    2008-06-01

    Since the introduction of the national notifiable diseases information system (SINAN) in Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 1994, many problems have been encountered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SINAN software, quality of data input, the transfer of the computerised data from the municipality to state levels, human resources and other factors associated with the health information system infrastructure (HIS). A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pernambuco state, North-eastern Brazil, in 2005. A sample of health regions and municipalities was chosen. SINAN forms from those municipalities were analysed and the flow of notifications followed from municipal level to the regional and finally to the state. Professionals from health units, district, municipal and regional Hansen's Disease Control Programme (HDCP) and Epidemiological Surveillance System (ESS) coordinators, health secretaries and managers of the municipalities and health regions selected were interviewed. SINAN software is functioning up to expectation. However, at all levels of the health system, serious weaknesses not related to the SINAN software were found, varying from lack of human resources (limited number of staff and staff development), lack of infrastructure (office space, computers, supplies, etc.) to an absence of effective coordination, management and supervision of the HIS. Lack of reliable, complete and timely information, and especially the lack of widespread analysis and use of available information in planning and management of health services were the main weaknesses found. Many areas need urgent attention: the quality of patient examination, recording and reporting, the timely processing of quality data, the coordination and management of disease control programmes, and the use of HIS reports by the health services and health managers. Regular feedback, supportive supervision visits and annual reviews are essential to monitor the system and make sure that essential

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  4. Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brillhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Picanço, Yuri Vieira Cunha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Araujo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra de; Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima de; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-09-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in patients reporting symptoms of pneumonia, even if these symptoms are only presented for a short period, who are from areas considered endemic for this disease.

  5. Radiocarbon measurements of stromatolite heads and crusts at the Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, Melayne M.; Silva, Cleverson G.; Barbosa, Cátia F.; Mueller, Ken A.

    2000-10-01

    In this work, we prepared and measured some stromatolite carbonate samples, from Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Stromatolites are bio-sedimentary, laminated, carbonate structures produced by sedimentary, chemical and biological processes related to the development and growth of microbial benthic communities, mainly dominated by blue algae and cyanobacteria. These structures are present in the geological record in rocks older than 3.0 billion years and have been used to study the origin of primitive life and variations in past environmental conditions. Detailed AMS measurements were performed at PRIME Lab (Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory, Purdue University, IN, USA).

  6. [Phlebotomine sandflies in Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu, Minas Gerais state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo A; Antonini, Yasmine; Gonçalves, Caroline M; Costa, Daniela C; Dias, Edelberto S

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed the phlebotomine fauna in the Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruaçu, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to associate the presence of vector with the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. Field captures were performed with CDC light traps between February and March 2003. A total of 436 sand flies were captured, belonging to 14 species. The predominant species (28.7%) was Lutzomyia ischnacantha Martins, Souza e Falcão, followed by L. renei (27,06%) and L. cavernicola (13,07%). The finding of L. intermedia, a species that is incriminated as vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, has to be taken into account.

  7. Serological survey of Neospora caninum in small ruminants from Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tembue, Antonio Amélia Santos Mucalane; Ramos, Rafael Antonio de Nascimento; de Sousa, Thais Rabelo; Albuquerque, Alessandra Ribeiro; da Costa, Alvimar José; Meunier, Isabelle Maria Jaqueline; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2011-01-01

    Neospora caninum infection is an important cause of bovine abortion as well as neonatal mortality in goats and sheep. A serological survey for antibodies against N. caninum in goats and sheep was carried out in the municipality of Ibimirim, PE, Northeastern Brazil. The imunnofluoresce antibody test showed that 26.6% (85/319) of the goats and 64.2% (52/81) of the sheep were positive. Serologic reactivity was associated with age in goats (p < 0.01) and sheep (p > 0.05), with increasing rates in older animals. These results indicate exposure to N. caninum among small ruminants in the study area.

  8. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Dénes, Francisco V.; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  9. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-08-22

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved.

  10. Many Miles to Go: A Systematic Review of the State of Cost-Utility Analyses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campolina, Alessandro G; Rozman, Luciana M; Decimoni, Tassia C; Leandro, Roseli; Novaes, Hillegonda M D; De Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the quality and quantity of cost-utility analyses (CUAs) in Brazil. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of published CUAs of healthcare technologies in Brazil. We performed a systematic review of economic evaluations studies published in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), NHS EED (National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database), HTA (Health Technology Assessment) Database, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), BVS ECOS (Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health), and SISREBRATS (Sistema de Informação da Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde [Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies]) from 1980 to 2013. Articles were included if they were CUAs according to the classification devised by Drummond et al. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and carried out data extraction. Disagreements were resolved through discussion or through consultation with a third reviewer. We performed a qualitative narrative synthesis. Of the 535 health economic evaluations (HEEs) relating to Brazil, only 40 were CUAs and therefore included in the analysis. Most studies adhered to methodological guidelines for quality of reporting and 77.5% used quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the health outcome. Of these studies, 51.6% did not report the population used to elicit preferences for outcomes and 45.2% used a specific population such as expert opinion. The preference elicitation method was not reported in 58.1% of these studies. The majority (80.6%) of studies did not report the instrument used to derive health state valuations and no publication reported whether tariffs (or preference weights) were national or international. No study mentioned the methodology used to estimate QALYs. Many published Brazilian cost-utility studies

  11. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  12. Microbiological quality of salmon (Salmo salar) sold in cities of the state of SãO Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nespolo, Natália Maramarque; Martineli, Thaís Mioto; Rossi Jr., Oswaldo Durival

    2012-01-01

    The present paper evaluated the microbiology of salmon by quantifying mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms, total and thermotolerant coliforms, and the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Aeromonas sp. in the meat. This study can provide technical support for the suggestion of a new regulation of a Brazilian legislation through specific microbiological standards concerning the consumption of raw fish. A number of 31 (16 cooled and 15 frozen) samples of salmon were collected in the retail market network of a few cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results presented populations of mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms ranging from 1.0 × 10 and 3.9 × 106 CFU/g, total and thermotolerant coliforms in 32.25% and 19.35% of the samples, respectively, and Aeromonas sp. in 41.95% of the samples with a populational variation ranging from 2.0 × 102 to 8.0 × 103 CFU/g. Staphylococcus aureus was found in one sample whereas Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were not found. These results demonstrated the presence of potencially pathogenic microorganisms in fresh fish consumed in Brazil, highlighting the necessity of control measures to avoid public health problems related to the consumption of raw fish. PMID:24031968

  13. [Assessment of the cervical cancer screening in the Family Health Strategy in Amparo, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vale, Diama Bhadra Andrade Peixoto do; Morais, Sirlei Siani; Pimenta, Aparecida Linhares; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Uterine cervical cancer mortality has not been declining. The territorial distribution and registration of families in Brazil's Family Health Strategy help identify women that have performed a Pap smear or that have not had one for more than three years. This study analyzed whether cervical cancer screening in Amparo, São Paulo State, Brazil, made progress in complying with the prevailing guidelines during the seven years of experience with the Strategy. The annual examination rate remained high, with a slight trend towards greater intervals between follow-up tests. Distribution of tests tended to increase in the 40-59-year age bracket and decrease in the over-60 age group, while annual coverage tended to decrease. The proportions of excess tests varied from 61.2% to 65.5%. Concluding, the upgrading of cervical cancer screening was slight, and did not change the opportunistic pattern of follow-up tests. Considering that community health agents can act to increase the coverage of these measures, it is essential to train them for this work.

  14. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila; Trevizani, Nathália Abreu Borges; Dias, Letícia Sena; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça de; Melo, Bernardino Vaz de; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD) to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL) was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph) of the SRL. The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50) that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  15. Rickettsia rickettsii infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille 1806), in high altitude atlantic forest fragments, Ceara State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; da Costa Cavalcante, Robson; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; de Lima Duré, Ana Íris; de Melo Iani, Felipe Campos; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, Spotted Fever (SF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Forest. In recent years, several human cases of a milder SF have been reported from the Maciço de Baturité region of Ceará State. Previous studies in this region found R. parkeri strain Atlantic Forest to be present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale ticks. The present study isolated and identified the Rickettsia spp. present in this new endemic area in Brazil. In March 2015, R. sanguineus s.l. and A. ovale were collected in rural areas of the Maciço de Baturité region, and subjected to the isolation technique. A bacterium was isolated from one R. sanguineus s.l., which phylogenetic analysis clustered to the R. rickettsii group. In conclusion, R. rickettsii bacteria is circulating in the studied area and may in future have an impact on the clinical diagnoses and consequently cause changes in the profile of the disease in the region. In addition, we suggest the increase of epidemiological and environmental surveillance in the area, in order to prevent Brazilian Spotted Fever cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Re-emergence of Chorioptes bovis (Acari: Psoroptidae) in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Maria Isabel Botelho; Bordin, Tiago; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Zanchin, Fabiane; Motta, Adriana Costa Da; Noro, Mirela

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe an outbreak of chorioptic mange in cattle, 56 years after its first identification in Brazil. Between the months of June and July 2011, dermatitis characterized by alopecia and crusted and thickened skin at the insertion of the tail and in the ischiorectal fossa was recognized in 40 (35.7%) out of 112 Holstein cows on a farm in the northeastern mesoregion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After diagnosing mange caused by Chorioptes bovis, the cows were weighed and treated with 0.5% ivermectin, as a pour-on single dose, and were separated into two groups: cows in early lactation and those in late lactation. The survival rate of C. bovis and the healing rate in the two groups of infested cows were monitored every seven days through skin scrapings. After 28 days of evaluation, the cure rate through treatment was greater among cows in early lactation (p <0.0001). The survival rate of C. bovis was higher in cows in late lactation.

  17. Conservation priorities and population structure of woody medicinal plants in an area of caatinga vegetation (Pernambuco State, NE Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo L C; Lins Neto, Ernani M F; Araújo, Elcida L; Albuquerque, Ulysses P

    2007-09-01

    In spite of heavy harvesting pressure on some of the most popular medicinal plant species, there are very few published studies concerning their conservation the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. In light of this fact, the present work sought to evaluate the local conservation and the harvesting sustainability of medicinal plants in an region of caatinga vegetation employing a fusion of biological and cultural approaches. Ethnobotanical methodologies and techniques were employed in the community of "Riachão de "Malhada de Pedra" (municipality of Caruaru, state of Pernambuco, Brazil) in order to document local knowledge concerning medicinal plants and to examine the availability of those plants in a caatinga vegetation fragment located near that community. A total of 21 medicinal plant species were identified in the area and classified according to ecological factors and local uses. Two plants (Ziziphus joazeiro and Myracrodruon urundeuva) stood out has having high priority for conservation efforts. Sixteen species were identified as having populations adequate for harvesting through a system of pre-determined quotas, while four species were deemed sufficiently abundant to be harvested without risk of causing significant impact on their sustainability.

  18. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  19. Morphological diversity of cassava accessions of the south-central mesoregion of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zago, B W; Barelli, M A A; Hoogerheide, E S S; Corrêa, C L; Delforno, G I S; da Silva, C J

    2017-08-17

    Genetic variability of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Brazil is wide, being this the result of natural and cultural selection during pre- and post-domestication of the species in different environments. Given the number of species of the genus found in the region (38 of a total of 98 species), the central region of Brazil was defined as the primary center of cassava diversity. Therefore, genetic diversity characterization of cassava accessions is fundamental, both for farmers and for plant breeders, because it allows the organization of genetic resources and better utilization of available genetic diversity. This research aims to assess genetic divergence of cassava accessions from the south-central region of the State of Mato Grosso, based on multi-categorical morphological traits. For this purpose, 38 qualitative and quantitative morphological descriptors were used. Genetic diversity was expressed by the genetic similarity index, with subsequent clustering of accessions by the modified Tocher's procedure and UPGMA. Of 38 descriptors, only growth habit of stem showed no variability. Tocher and UPGMA methods were efficient and corroborated on group composition. Both methods were able to group accessions of different localities in distinct group consistency.

  20. Substance use and sexual risk among at-risk adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Penelope; Smith, Amy Erica; Akers, Aletha

    2014-04-01

    We examined the difference in prevalence of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk youth participants in programs offered by community-based organizations in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, by gender and organization type (governmental vs. non-governmental). 388 adolescents were recruited from 25 intervention-based organizations servicing at-risk youth between the ages of 12 and 17 in Juiz de Fora. Participants completed a 15-item survey assessing substance use and sexual risk behaviors, along with socio-demographic predictors of these behaviors. Males were more likely to report drug and alcohol use associated with homelessness and abandonment. Females were more likely to report sexual risk taking associated with neighborhood crime. Participants from non-governmental organizations were less likely to engage in all measured risk behaviors. The present analysis points to the need to understand how Brazil's Child and Adolescent Act is being applied and the implications this has for intervention and the promotion of positive health outcomes for young people.

  1. Detection of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Clebert José; de Figueiredo, Salomão Moreira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Clementino, Inácio José; Keid, Lara Borges; Vasconcellos, Sílvio Arruda; de Sousa Américo Batista, Carolina; Rocha, Vivianne Cambuí Mesquita; Higino, Severino Silvano

    2010-01-01

    To determine the presence of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil, 80 animals slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of Patos city were used. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected by jugular venopuncture from each animal, and after slaughter, testicles, epidydimus and uterus were aseptically collected. For the serological diagnosis of B. ovis and B. abortus infections, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and Rose Bengal (RBT) tests were carried out, respectively. In addition, microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples. Six animals (7.5%) tested positive for the presence of B. ovis antibodies and all animals tested negative for the presence of B. abortus antibodies. One AGID-positive animal tested positive at uterine swab culture. PCR was able to amplify DNA of Brucella spp. from the pool of testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples from AGID-positive animals. This is the first report of isolation and detection of B. ovis DNA by PCR in ovine from the Northeast region of Brazil. PMID:24031505

  2. A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nava, William R; Martinelli, Agustín G

    2011-03-01

    The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata) is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet.) and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.). In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group) located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids). This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record.

  3. Community Ecology of Euglossine Bees in the Coastal Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance. PMID:23901873

  4. Community ecology of euglossine bees in the coastal Atlantic forest of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar--Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance.

  5. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferron, Mariana Maleronka; Lima, André Klafke de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Gouveia, Nelson

    2012-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  6. Reactional state and nutritional profile among leprosy patients in the primary health care system, Greater Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Rosa Maria Natalli; Zandonade, Eliana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Diniz, Lúcia Martins

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy may present acute/subacute inflammatory processes (leprosy reactions). The study characterized the reactional states of patients at health clinics in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and associated them with sociodemographic factors and clinical/nutritional variables. between January and December 2009, longitudinal follow-up of patients with leprosy continued until leprosy reactions occurred or patients completed 6 months of multidrug therapy. Of the 151 patients participating, 78 (51.7%) were females, 48 (31.8%) had 5 to 8 years schooling, 93 (61.6%) worked and earned from 1 to 3 minimum wages, and 55 (36.4 %) had leprosy reactions, but with no statistical association to socioeconomic characteristics or nutritional status. However, absence of reaction was more common in the low-weight group, suggesting a trend in this group to protection from the reaction (p = 0.0906). The study found no association between nutritional status and leprosy reaction.

  7. Identification and Analysis of Storm Tracks Associated with Extreme Flood Events in Southeast and South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos; Lopes, Camila

    2015-04-01

    Flood is the main natural disaster in Brazil, practically affecting all regions in the country and causing several economical damages and losses of lives. In traditional hydrology, the study of floods is focused on a frequency analysis of the extreme events and on the fit of statistical models to define flood quantiles associated with pre-specified return periods or exceedance probabilities. The basic assumptions are randomness and temporal stationarity of the streamflow data. In this paper we seek to advance the traditional flood frequency studies by using the ideas developed in the area of flood hydroclimatology, which is defined as the study of climate in the flood framework, i.e., the understanding of long term changes in the frequency, magnitude, duration, location and seasonality of floods as driven by the interaction of regional and global patterns of the ocean and atmospheric circulation. That being said, flood events are not treated as random and stationary but resulting from a causal chain, where exceptional floods in water basins from different sizes are related with large scale anomalies in the atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns. Hence, such studies enrich the classical assumption of stationary flood hazard adopted in most flood frequency studies through a formal consideration of the physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of extreme floods, which implies recognizing the natural climate variability due to persistent and oscillatory regimes (e.g. ENSO, NAO, PDO) in many temporal scales (interannual, decadal, etc), and climate fluctuations in response to anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere, soil use and vegetation cover. Under this framework and based on streamflow gauge and reanalysis data, we identify and analyze here the storm tracks that preceded extreme events of floods in key flood-prone regions of the country (e.g. Parana and Rio Doce River basins) with such events defined based on the magnitude, duration and volume of the

  8. Brazil Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Brazil was the eighth-largest energy consumer in the world and the third-largest in the Americas, behind the United States and Canada, according to BP statistics. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has nearly doubled in the past decade1 because of sustained economic growth. The largest share of Brazil's total energy consumption is oil and other liquid fuels, followed by hydroelectricity and natural gas

  9. Celiac disease in native Indians from Brazil: A clinical and epidemiological survey

    PubMed Central

    Utiyama, Shirley Ramos da Rosa; Ribas, João Luis Coelho; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Kotze, Lorete Maria da Silva; de Messias-Reason, Iara José

    2010-01-01

    Background: Celiac disease has been described in populations from around the world, with recent data emphasizing the occurrence of the disease in ethnic minorities. There are only a few studies evaluating celiac disease in native Indians. Aims: This study aimed to screen the anti-endomysial antibody (IgA-EmA) in Kaingang and Guarani Indians from southern Brazil, in order to establish a clinical serological evaluation of celiac disease in these individuals. Material and Methods: Serum samples from 321 individuals (125 male and 196 female; 4-86 years old) from Mangueirinha Indigenous Reserve, State of Parana, Brazil, and 180 non-Indigenous healthy individuals (62 male and 118 female; 2-81 years old) were analysed to the presence of anti-endomysial antibody class IgA by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Amongst the Indians, 158 were Kaingang, 98 Guarani and 65 of mixed race. Indians presenting complaints of diarrhea (N=12) were also evaluated to the IgG class of anti-endomisyal antibody. Results: None of the individuals showed positive results either to IgA or IgG anti-endomysial antibodies. Conclusions: Although the results indicate an absence of celiac disease in Kaingang and Guarani Indians, the authors call attention to the importance of following up indigenous children or adults presenting gastrointestinal complaints or other symptoms related to the disease. Consideration should be given to the genetic background of these individuals, allied to the inter ethnic marriages and the changing habits or occupational activities, that have gradually introduced diseases previously not described in indigenous populations. PMID:22624128

  10. Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  11. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  12. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Helena; Barchesi, Luciana; Filho, Antonio Nader; Ferreira, Luciano Menezes; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3%) milk samples: 14 (6.7%) from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8%) from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3%) and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested. PMID:24031507

  13. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, P F; Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Rosa, E S; Monteiro, H A; Cruz, A C; Barros, V L; Souza, M R; Rosa, J F

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes.

  14. Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Michelle S P; Santiago, Idalina M F L; Cortez, Creuza S; Trindade, Priscila M; Mourão, José S

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations) and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance). Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks), mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens genidens (0.7), Callinectes exasperatus (0.73) and Anomalocardia brasiliana (0.46). The diversity of resources exploited demonstrates the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to MRE families, and the data gathered can serve as a basis for formulating public policies to promote the equal participation of women in fishing and environmental conservation.

  15. Health care of people in homelessness: a comparative study of mobile units in Portugal, United States and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borysow, Igor da Costa; Conill, Eleonor Minho; Furtado, Juarez Pereira

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the legal and normative framework guiding the use of mobile units in Portugal, United States and Brazil, which seek to improve access and continuity of care for people in homelessness. We used a comparative analysis through literature and documentary review relating three categories: context (demographic, socio-economic and epidemiological), services system (access, coverage, organization, management and financing) and, specifically, mobile units (design, care and financing model). The analysis was based on the theory of convergence/divergence between health systems from the perspective of equity in health. Improving access, addressing psychoactive substances abuse, outreach and multidisciplinary work proved to be common to all three countries, with the potential to reduce inequities. Relationships with primary healthcare, use of vehicles and the type of financing are considered differently in the three countries, influencing the greater or lesser extent of equity in the analyzed proposals.

  16. [Evaluation of municipal management of the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program in the largest cities of Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Freitas, Sérgio Fernando Torres de; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares

    2014-09-01

    This article reports on an evaluative study of municipal management of the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program in the largest cities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The matrix of indicators included two dimensions: political-organizational, with the sub-dimensions resources, inter-sector action, and social control, and operational-technical, organized in nutritional and feeding efficacy, nutritional monitoring, and educational activities for a healthy diet. A total of 22 indicators were determined, and data were collected through interviews with nutritionists. The political-organizational dimension showed 60% of fair cases and 40% of poor cases, while the operational-technical dimension showed 90% of poor cases, resulting from low performance in monitoring and educational activities. Although the cases showed unsatisfactory results, the evaluation provides important data on the management of the Brazilian National School Nutrition Program. The study emphasizes the importance of evaluation for alerting managers to the relevance of reviewing and upgrading activities.

  17. [Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance.

  18. [Morbidity profile and hospital expenses with elderly patients in Paraná State, Brazil, 2008-2012].

    PubMed

    Kernkamp, Clarice da Luz; Costa, Cassia Kely Favoretto; Massuda, Ely Mitie; Silva, Eraldo Schunk; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Bernuci, Marcelo Picinin

    2016-07-21

    Growth in the elderly population has increased both the demand for health services and healthcare expenses, with relevant consequences for economic stability. The current study aimed to analyze the morbidity profile and hospital expenses with elderly patients in relation to socioeconomic and demographic conditions in Paraná State, Brazil, from 2008 to 2012, applying principal components analysis and groupings. Regions with higher and lower economic and human development showed high prevalence of hospitalizations and costs pertaining to the circulatory and respiratory systems and cardiac diseases for males and females. In regions with intermediary development, diseases of the nervous system in men and of the circulatory system in women had the highest morbidity and hospital expenses. Thus, measures for prevention and health promotion in this elderly population should be targeted to regional investigations.

  19. [Assessment of the adequacy of prenatal care according to family income in Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil, 2011].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Renata Alves da Silva; Santos, Victor Santana; Melo, Cláudia Moura de; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Oliveira, Cristiane Costa da Cunha

    2016-01-01

    to assess the adequacy of prenatal care offered to pregnant health service users in Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil, according to family income. this was a cross-sectional study with 322 women living in the city of Aracaju whose children were born in November and December 2011; data were collected using questionnaires, including number of consultations, technical and laboratory procedures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH); adequacy of prenatal care was assessed according to MoH criteria; chi-square test was used to compare proportions between categorical variables. prenatal care was considered inadequate for 89.1% of women, with no statistical difference for inadequacy of prenatal care according to family income (p=0.323). low adequacy of prenatal care was found when applying MoH parameters, regardless of pregnant women's family income.

  20. Risk perception and communication regarding pesticide use in rural work: a case study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Frederico; Moreira, Josino C; Rodrigues, Karla M; Claudio, Luz

    2006-01-01

    In an agricultural region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, rapid assessment procedures were used for risk-perception studies based on methodologic triangulation that included semi-structured interviews, participatory observations, and focus groups. Data were qualitatively categorized. Women's risk perception was prioritized, as they did not recognize some risks they were exposed to during work activities. To reach women likely to be exposed to pesticides, a photographic soap opera (fotonovela) was constructed in collaboration with rural workers, using community-based participatory research methods. Contents of the risk-communication strategies included the harmful effects of pesticides. Results showed that the inclusion of risk-perception studies in the development of educative and risk-communication campaigns is very important, bridging research to action.

  1. [Factors associated with participation in sports and physical education among students from Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli; Pires Junior, Raymundo; dos-Santos, Júlio Wilson; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors associated with participation in sports and physical education. The sample consisted of 827 young people selected in two stages and stratified by neighborhood of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The study analyzed participation in sports and physical education in relation to socio-demographic, behavioral, and environmental variables. Factors associated with participation in physical education included: male gender, age (10-13 years), equal to high self-rated physical activity, participation in sports, moving around during classes, and having classes on the court. Factors associated with participation in sports were male gender, age (10-13 years), equal to high self-rated physical activity, physical activity (≥ 7 hours/week), participation in physical education, having ≥ 10 friends, participation in sports with friends, and frequency using facilities for sports practice. These factors should be considered in programs to encourage sports and participation in physical education.

  2. [Maternal near misses and health inequalities: an analysis of contextual determinants in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rosendo, Tatyana Maria Silva de Souza; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this study was to identify socioeconomic contextual and health care factors in primary care associated with maternal near misses and their marker conditions. This is an ecological study that used aggregated data of 63 clusters formed by the municipalities of State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using the Skater method of area regionalization, as the unit of analysis. The ratio of maternal near misses and their marker conditions were obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. In multiple linear regression analysis, there was a significant association between maternal near misses and variables of poverty and poor primary health care. Hypertensive disorders were also associated with poverty and poor primary care and the occurrence of hemorrhaging was associated with infant mortality. It was observed that the occurrence of maternal near misses is linked to unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and poor quality health care that are a reflection of public policies that accentuate health inequalities.

  3. [Communication related to pesticides use in a rural area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Peres, F; Rozemberg, B; Alves, S R; Moreira, J C; Oliveira-Silva, J J

    2001-12-01

    To assess communications aspects related to pesticide use in a rural area of the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The study was carried out in the area of São Lourenço stream. It was based on methodological triangulation comprising: semi-structured interviews and observation of a local population sample (about 600 inhabitants); structured questionnaire to collect data on the local community; and records of lectures given by argonomic engineers, pesticides traders and other public service professionals. This study pointed out to the historical misinformation on pesticides in rural areas; the emphasis on technical language in educational and training activities available which constitutes a barrier for rural workers knowledge acquisition and empowerment; and the industry/commerce's pressure to legitimate pesticide trading, reinforcing the existing communication process, resulting in unfavorable inclusion of the rural worker into a broader market economy.

  4. Spatial distribution of dengue incidence and socio-environmental conditions in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007.

    PubMed

    Costa, José Vilton; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of dengue risk and its association with socio-environmental conditions. This was an ecological study of the counts of autochthonous dengue cases in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the year 2007, aggregated according to 47 coverage areas of municipal health centers. Spatial models for mapping diseases were constructed with Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). The analyses were stratified according to two age groups, 0 to 14 years and above 14 years. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of dengue risk is not associated with socio-environmental conditions in the 0 to 14 year age group. In the age group older than 14 years, the relative risk of dengue increases significantly as the level of socio-environmental deprivation increases. Mapping of socio-environmental deprivation and dengue cases proved to be a useful tool for data analysis in dengue surveillance systems.

  5. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal Neto, Onicio Batista; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Oliveira Junior, Fernando José Moreira de; Andrade, Rafael; Reis, Diego Leandro; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Bocanegra, Silvana; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2013-02-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata snails were captured in 36 breeding sites, and 11 schistosomiasis transmission foci were identified. A negative correlation was found between breeding site temperature and snail density and infection rate, and a positive correlation with pH and salinity. The rainy season showed a positive correlation with snail density and infection rate. The study emphasizes the factors involved in the maintenance of schistosomiasis breeding sites, in light of persistence of this disease in Porto de Galinhas for more than 10 years.

  6. Infection of Amblyomma ovale with Rickettsia species Atlantic rainforest in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; McIntosh, Douglas; Furusawa, Guilherme P; Flausino, Walter; Rozental, Tatiana; Lemos, Elba R S; Landulfo, Gabriel A; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, that is considered to represent a genetic variant of Rickettsia parkeri, are confirmed as being capable of infecting humans in Brazil. This study reports the detection and characterization, by PCR and nucleotide sequencing, of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rain forest in Amblyomma ovale parasitizing a human, in ticks infesting dogs and in free-living ticks collected from the environment where the human infestation was recorded. The data contribute to our knowledge of infection rates in A. ovale with Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and identified an additional location in the state of São Paulo populated with ticks infected with this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, P. F.; Rosa, A. P.; Rodrigues, S. G.; Rosa, E. S.; Monteiro, H. A.; Cruz, A. C.; Barros, V. L.; Souza, M. R.; Rosa, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes. PMID:11485676

  8. Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rogério M O; Carvalho, Carlos A L; Souza, Bruno A; Santos, Wyratan S

    2012-09-01

    The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.

  9. A Progress Report on the Cooperative Development of a General Histology Program by Several Schools in Brazil and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Norman O.; And Others

    A programed course in general histology was completely developed by dental schools in the United States and Brazil. A group of international experts specified the course objectives, wrote and taped scripts for a series of 28 lectures of 50 minutes each, developed slides to accompany the lectures, prepared microphotographs and scripts to explain…

  10. Towards a Pedagogy of a New Social Contract: Lessons from the Participatory Budget in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo Romeu

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyses the pedagogical dimension of the process of Participatory Budgeting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), taking into consideration the local and regional culture as well as the wider political milieu. The question this paper engages with is whether, in this social movement involving around 400,000 people in 2001, there…

  11. Towards a Pedagogy of a New Social Contract: Lessons from Participatory Budgeting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo R.

    This paper analyzes the pedagogical dimension within the process of participatory budgeting in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, taking into consideration the local and regional culture, as well as the political milieu. The question is whether, in this social movement which involved around 400,000 people in 2001, signs can be identified that…

  12. Towards a Pedagogy of a New Social Contract: Lessons from the Participatory Budget in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo Romeu

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyses the pedagogical dimension of the process of Participatory Budgeting in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), taking into consideration the local and regional culture as well as the wider political milieu. The question this paper engages with is whether, in this social movement involving around 400,000 people in 2001, there…

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a Marine-Derived Bacterium Isolated from the Coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso Vargas, Nadia Catalina; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a marine-derived bacterium isolated from the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in binding, transport, and chitin metabolism and different virulence-associated factors. PMID:27908996

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a Marine-Derived Bacterium Isolated from the Coast of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Flávio Augusto; Alfonso Vargas, Nadia Catalina; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-12-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a marine-derived bacterium isolated from the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in binding, transport, and chitin metabolism and different virulence-associated factors.

  15. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  16. Serologic and molecular evidence of Brucella ovis infection in ovine and caprine flocks in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luciana Fachini; Pessoa, Moisés Sena; Guimarães, Laís Bitencourt; Faria, Anne Karoene Silva; Morão, Rodrigo Pereira; Mol, Juliana Pinto da Silva; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Almeida, Anna Christina; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2016-03-26

    Brucella ovis infection is one of the leading causes of sub fertility and infertility in ovine, been characterized mainly by epididymitis, orchitis and testicular atrophy in rams. This study aimed to determine the frequency of B. ovis positivity in rams and goats flocks in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, by agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID), ELISA, Rose Bengal, PCR and bacteriological isolation as diagnostic tools. Serum and urine samples were collected from properties with sheep or goat flocks, or from properties with mixed flock. Out of 50 sheep flocks, 6% (3/50) were seropositive by AGID while 4% (2/50) were positive by urine PCR for B. ovis. Out of five goat farms, 20% (1/5) were seropositive for B. ovis by AGID. Mixed flock farms had 11.1% (2/18) of positivity by AGID. By ELISA, 19.5% (8/41) of sheep properties and 61.1% (11/18) of the properties with mixed flocks were positive for B. ovis. No samples were positive in the test of Rose Bengal, ruling out exposure to smooth LPS Brucella species (particularly Brucella melitensis) and indicating that the positive in the ELISA was associated with Brucella spp. LPS rough (presumably B. ovis). No urine sample from sheep or goat was positive by bacteriological isolation. Our results demonstrate serologic or molecular evidence of B. ovis infection in several rams and billy goats from meso-regions of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Also, this study report the indirect ELISA as an important tool for the diagnosis of B. ovis infection, as indirect ELISA in this study demonstrated to be the most sensitive diagnostic method adopted.

  17. Identification of Risk Areas for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piaui State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Andréa S.; de Andrade Medronho, Roberto; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used spatial analysis to identify areas at greatest risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the urban area of Teresina, Brazil during 2001–2006. The