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Sample records for parasite plasmodium vivax

  1. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Learn, Gerald H; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Malenke, Jordan A; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Ramirez, Miguel A; Crystal, Patricia A; Smith, Andrew G; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Piel, Alex K; Stewart, Fiona A; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A; Hart, Terese B; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F; Schneider, Bradley S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L; Shaw, George M; Rayner, Julian C; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa.

  2. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Learn, Gerald H.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Malenke, Jordan A.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Ramirez, Miguel A.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Smith, Andrew G.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J.; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A.; Hart, Terese B.; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa. PMID:24557500

  3. Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Jane M; Adams, John H; Silva, Joana C; Bidwell, Shelby L; Lorenzi, Hernan; Caler, Elisabet; Crabtree, Jonathan; Angiuoli, Samuel V; Merino, Emilio F; Amedeo, Paolo; Cheng, Qin; Coulson, Richard M R; Crabb, Brendan S; Del Portillo, Hernando A; Essien, Kobby; Feldblyum, Tamara V; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Gilson, Paul R; Gueye, Amy H; Guo, Xiang; Kang'a, Simon; Kooij, Taco W A; Korsinczky, Michael; Meyer, Esmeralda V-S; Nene, Vish; Paulsen, Ian; White, Owen; Ralph, Stuart A; Ren, Qinghu; Sargeant, Tobias J; Salzberg, Steven L; Stoeckert, Christian J; Sullivan, Steven A; Yamamoto, Marcio M; Hoffman, Stephen L; Wortman, Jennifer R; Gardner, Malcolm J; Galinski, Mary R; Barnwell, John W; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M

    2008-10-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the approximately 515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often causes relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is little studied because it cannot be propagated continuously in the laboratory except in non-human primates. We sequenced the genome of P. vivax to shed light on its distinctive biological features, and as a means to drive development of new drugs and vaccines. Here we describe the synteny and isochore structure of P. vivax chromosomes, and show that the parasite resembles other malaria parasites in gene content and metabolic potential, but possesses novel gene families and potential alternative invasion pathways not recognized previously. Completion of the P. vivax genome provides the scientific community with a valuable resource that can be used to advance investigation into this neglected species.

  4. Continuous in vitro propagation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Golenda, C F; Li, J; Rosenberg, R

    1997-06-24

    The difficulty in controlling Plasmodium vivax, the most common cause of human malaria, has been complicated by growing drug resistance. We have established a method to cycle parasite generations in continuous culture using human blood cells. Chesson strain parasites were passaged from owl monkey erythrocytes to human reticulocytes in McCoy's 5A medium modified with L-glutamine with 25 mM Hepes buffer supplemented with 20% AB+ human serum. Reticulocytes were separated by differential centrifugation in homologous plasma from the peripheral blood of a hemochromatosis patient. Parasites were grown during each 48-hr cycle in a static candle jar environment until the beginning of schizogony, at about 36-40 hr, when reticulocytes were added and cultures transferred to a shaker for 10-12 hr. The addition of a concentration of 10% reticulocytes resulted in stabilizing parasite densities between 0.28 and 0.57 after cycle 3 and increasing the total number of parasites at least 2-fold with each generational cycle. Cultured parasites successfully infected an owl monkey. The morphology of cultured parasites was typical of P. vivax, with highly ameboid trophozoites evident; however, infected erythrocytes were enlarged and distorted on thin film preparations. The species identity of cultivated parasites was confirmed by analysis of the A and C 18S rRNA genes from genomic DNA and expression of only the A gene during erythrocytic asexual growth. The ability to culture P. vivax opens new opportunities to develop vaccines, test drugs, and clone parasites for genome sequencing.

  5. [Plasmodium vivax, a parasite coming out of the shadows].

    PubMed

    Allgower, Andrea; Taylor, W Robert; Chappuis, François; Eperon, Gilles

    2016-05-01

    Since 2007, the incidence and mortality of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum have declined. However, this trend has not been seen with Plasmodium vivax which has biological features. Severe vivax malaria is increasingly reported in endemic countries even though P. vivax has been thought of as a benign disease. Diagnosis is challenging: the usual rapid diagnostic tests are less sensitive in detecting P. vivax and there is no test for the detection of the dormant forms (hypnozoites). The treatment of the acute phase is an artemisinin based combination, e.g. artemetherlumefantrine. Primaquine, which is the only currently available treatment against hypnozoites for the prevention of relapses, may trigger acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals with G6PD deficiency. PMID:27323480

  6. Contrasting infection susceptibility of the Japanese macaques and cynomolgus macaques to closely related malaria parasites, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Kawai, Satoru; Katakai, Yuko; Takahashi, Hideo; Nakade, Toru; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    Although the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is closely related to Asian Old World monkey malaria parasites, there are no reports of P. vivax infections in macaques. In this study, we compared the infectivity of P. vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The Japanese macaques were highly susceptible to P. cynomolgi but not to P. vivax, whereas cynomolgus macaques showed mild/limited P. cynomolgi infection and were, also, not susceptible to P. vivax. Serotyping and amino acid sequence comparison of erythrocyte surface Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC) indicate that the Japanese macaque DARC sequence is nearly identical to that of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques. This suggests that the macaques share a common mechanism for preventing P. vivax infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences of the Duffy-binding-like (DBL) domain from several different Plasmodium species suggests that P. vivax DBLs will not bind to macaque DARCs, which can explain the lack of P. vivax infectivity. The DBL sequence analyses also suggest that P. cynomolgi DBLs may target Japanese macaque erythrocytes through a DARC-independent interaction.

  7. Genetic diversity of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax parasites from the western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Omaira Vera; Resende, Sarah Stela; Chehuan, Yonne F; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Brito, Cristiana F A; Zalis, Mariano G

    2014-11-01

    The molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance is still unknown. Elucidating the molecular background of parasites that are sensitive or resistant to CQ will help to identify and monitor the spread of resistance. By genotyping a panel of molecular markers, we demonstrate a similar genetic variability between in vitro CQ-resistant and sensitive phenotypes of P. vivax parasites. However, our studies identified two loci (MS8 and MSP1-B10) that could be used to discriminate between both CQ-susceptible phenotypes among P. vivax isolates in vitro. These preliminary data suggest that microsatellites may be used to identify and to monitor the spread of P. vivax-resistance around the world. PMID:25411001

  8. Plasmodium vivax: modern strategies to study a persistent parasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Galinski, Mary R; Meyer, Esmeralda V S; Barnwell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax has unique attributes to support its survival in varying ecologies and climates. These include hypnozoite forms in the liver, an invasion preference for reticulocytes, caveola-vesicle complex structures in the infected erythrocyte membrane and rapidly forming and circulating gametocytes. These characteristics make this species very different from P. falciparum. Plasmodium cynomolgi and other related simian species have identical biology and can serve as informative models of P. vivax infections. Plasmodium vivax and its model parasites can be grown in non-human primates (NHP), and in short-term ex vivo cultures. For P. vivax, in the absence of in vitro culture systems, these models remain highly relevant side by side with human clinical studies. While post-genomic technologies allow for greater exploration of P. vivax-infected blood samples from humans, these come with restrictions. Two advantages of NHP models are that infections can be experimentally tailored to address hypotheses, including genetic manipulation. Also, systems biology approaches can capitalise on computational biology combined with set experimental infection periods and protocols, which may include multiple sampling times, different types of samples, and the broad use of "omics" technologies. Opportunities for research on vivax malaria are increasing with the use of existing and new methodological strategies in combination with modern technologies.

  9. Structure, Function and Inhibition of the Phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferases of the Human Malaria Parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Aprajita; Lukk, Tiit; Kumar, Vidya; Choi, Jae-Yeon; Augagneur, Yoann; Voelker, Dennis R.; Nair, Satish; Mamoun, Choukri Ben

    2015-03-12

    Phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (PMTs) catalyze the three-step methylation of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine, a critical step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in a select number of eukaryotes including human malaria parasites, nematodes and plants. Genetic studies in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have shown that the methyltransferase PfPMT plays a critical function in parasite development and differentiation. The presence of PMT orthologs in other malaria parasites that infect humans and their absence in mammals make them ideal targets for the development of selective antimalarials with broad specificity against different Plasmodium species. Here we describe the X-ray structures and biochemical properties of PMT orthologs from Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi and show that both enzymes are inhibited by amodiaquine and NSC158011, two drugs with potent antimalarial activity. Metabolic studies in a yeast mutant that relies on PkPMT or PvPMT for survival demonstrated that these compounds inhibit phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from ethanolamine. Our structural and functional data provide insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of PMT enzymes and set the stage for a better design of more specific and selective antimalarial drugs.

  10. Structure, Function and Inhibition of the Phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferases of the Human Malaria Parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    DOE PAGES

    Garg, Aprajita; Lukk, Tiit; Kumar, Vidya; Choi, Jae-Yeon; Augagneur, Yoann; Voelker, Dennis R.; Nair, Satish; Mamoun, Choukri Ben

    2015-03-12

    Phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (PMTs) catalyze the three-step methylation of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine, a critical step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in a select number of eukaryotes including human malaria parasites, nematodes and plants. Genetic studies in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have shown that the methyltransferase PfPMT plays a critical function in parasite development and differentiation. The presence of PMT orthologs in other malaria parasites that infect humans and their absence in mammals make them ideal targets for the development of selective antimalarials with broad specificity against different Plasmodium species. Here we describe the X-ray structures and biochemical properties ofmore » PMT orthologs from Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi and show that both enzymes are inhibited by amodiaquine and NSC158011, two drugs with potent antimalarial activity. Metabolic studies in a yeast mutant that relies on PkPMT or PvPMT for survival demonstrated that these compounds inhibit phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from ethanolamine. Our structural and functional data provide insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of PMT enzymes and set the stage for a better design of more specific and selective antimalarial drugs.« less

  11. Structure, Function and Inhibition of the Phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferases of the Human Malaria Parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Aprajita; Lukk, Tiit; Kumar, Vidya; Choi, Jae-Yeon; Augagneur, Yoann; Voelker, Dennis R.; Nair, Satish; Mamoun, Choukri Ben

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (PMTs) catalyze the three-step methylation of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine, a critical step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in a select number of eukaryotes including human malaria parasites, nematodes and plants. Genetic studies in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have shown that the methyltransferase PfPMT plays a critical function in parasite development and differentiation. The presence of PMT orthologs in other malaria parasites that infect humans and their absence in mammals make them ideal targets for the development of selective antimalarials with broad specificity against different Plasmodium species. Here we describe the X-ray structures and biochemical properties of PMT orthologs from Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi and show that both enzymes are inhibited by amodiaquine and NSC158011, two drugs with potent antimalarial activity. Metabolic studies in a yeast mutant that relies on PkPMT or PvPMT for survival demonstrated that these compounds inhibit phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from ethanolamine. Our structural and functional data provide insights into the mechanism of catalysis and inhibition of PMT enzymes and set the stage for a better design of more specific and selective antimalarial drugs. PMID:25761669

  12. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia.

  13. The Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 3β Sequence Reveals Contrasting Parasite Populations in Southern and Northwestern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kuamsab, Napaporn; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Cui, Liwang

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria control efforts have a significant impact on the epidemiology and parasite population dynamics. In countries aiming for malaria elimination, malaria transmission may be restricted to limited transmission hot spots, where parasite populations may be isolated from each other and experience different selection forces. Here we aim to examine the Plasmodium vivax population divergence in geographically isolated transmission zones in Thailand. Methodology We employed the P. vivax merozoite surface protein 3β (PvMSP3β) as a molecular marker for characterizing P. vivax populations based on the extensive diversity of this gene in Southeast Asian parasite populations. To examine two parasite populations with different transmission levels in Thailand, we obtained 45 P. vivax isolates from Tak Province, northwestern Thailand, where the annual parasite incidence (API) was more than 2%, and 28 isolates from Yala and Narathiwat Provinces, southern Thailand, where the API was less than 0.02%. We sequenced the PvMSP3β gene and examined its genetic diversity and molecular evolution between the parasite populations. Principal Findings Of 58 isolates containing single PvMSP3β alleles, 31 sequence types were identified. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.77±0.06 and nucleotide diversity 0.0877±0.0054. The northwestern vivax malaria population exhibited extensive haplotype diversity (HD) of PvMSP3β (HD = 1.0). In contrast, the southern parasite population displayed a single PvMSP3β allele (HD = 0), suggesting a clonal population expansion. This result revealed that the extent of allelic diversity in P. vivax populations in Thailand varies among endemic areas. Conclusion Malaria parasite populations in a given region may vary significantly in genetic diversity, which may be the result of control and influenced by the magnitude of malaria transmission intensity. This is an issue that should be taken into account for the implementation of P. vivax

  14. The evolutionary history of Plasmodium vivax as inferred from mitochondrial genomes: parasite genetic diversity in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jesse E; Pacheco, M Andreína; Bacon, David J; Beg, Mohammad A; Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Fairhurst, Rick M; Herrera, Socrates; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Menard, Didier; Póvoa, Marinete Marins; Villegas, Leopoldo; Mulyanto; Snounou, Georges; Cui, Liwang; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz; Escalante, Ananias A

    2013-09-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent human malaria parasite in the Americas. Previous studies have contrasted the genetic diversity of parasite populations in the Americas with those in Asia and Oceania, concluding that New World populations exhibit low genetic diversity consistent with a recent introduction. Here we used an expanded sample of complete mitochondrial genome sequences to investigate the diversity of P. vivax in the Americas as well as in other continental populations. We show that the diversity of P. vivax in the Americas is comparable to that in Asia and Oceania, and we identify several divergent clades circulating in South America that may have resulted from independent introductions. In particular, we show that several haplotypes sampled in Venezuela and northeastern Brazil belong to a clade that diverged from the other P. vivax lineages at least 30,000 years ago, albeit not necessarily in the Americas. We propose that, unlike in Asia where human migration increases local genetic diversity, the combined effects of the geographical structure and the low incidence of vivax malaria in the Americas has resulted in patterns of low local but high regional genetic diversity. This could explain previous views that P. vivax in the Americas has low genetic diversity because these were based on studies carried out in limited areas. Further elucidation of the complex geographical pattern of P. vivax variation will be important both for diversity assessments of genes encoding candidate vaccine antigens and in the formulation of control and surveillance measures aimed at malaria elimination.

  15. Transgenic Plasmodium parasites stably expressing Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase as in vitro and in vivo models for antifolate screening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of human malaria in tropical regions outside the African continent. The lack of a routine continuous in vitro culture of this parasite makes it difficult to develop specific drugs for this disease. To facilitate the development of anti-P. vivax drugs, bacterial and yeast surrogate models expressing the validated P. vivax target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) have been generated; however, they can only be used as primary screening models because of significant differences in enzyme expression level and in vivo drug metabolism between the surrogate models and P. vivax parasites. Methods Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites were transfected with DNA constructs bearing P. vivax dhfr-ts pyrimethamine sensitive (wild-type) and pyrimethamine resistant (mutant) alleles. Double crossover homologous recombination was used to replace the endogenous dhfr-ts of P. falciparum and P. berghei parasites with P. vivax homologous genes. The integration of Pvdhfr-ts genes via allelic replacement was verified by Southern analysis and the transgenic parasites lines validated as models by standard drug screening assays. Results Transgenic P. falciparum and P. berghei lines stably expressing PvDHFR-TS replacing the endogenous parasite DHFR-TS were obtained. Anti-malarial drug screening assays showed that transgenic parasites expressing wild-type PvDHFR-TS were pyrimethamine-sensitive, whereas transgenic parasites expressing mutant PvDHFR-TS were pyrimethamine-resistant. The growth and sensitivity to other types of anti-malarial drugs in the transgenic parasites were otherwise indistinguishable from the parental parasites. Conclusion With the permanent integration of Pvdhfr-ts gene in the genome, the transgenic Plasmodium lines expressing PvDHFR-TS are genetically stable and will be useful for screening anti-P. vivax compounds targeting PvDHFR-TS. A similar approach could be used to generate

  16. NMR and crystallographic structures of the FK506 binding domain of human malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax FKBP35

    PubMed Central

    Alag, Reema; Qureshi, Insaf A; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Shin, Joon; Lescar, Julien; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites is the major threat to effective malaria control, prompting a search for novel compounds with mechanisms of action that are different from the traditionally used drugs. The immunosuppressive drug FK506 shows an antimalarial activity. The mechanism of the drug action involves the molecular interaction with the parasite target proteins PfFKBP35 and PvFKBP35, which are novel FK506 binding protein family (FKBP) members from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Currently, molecular mechanisms of the FKBP family proteins in the parasites still remain elusive. To understand their functions, here we have determined the structures of the FK506 binding domain of Plasmodium vivax (PvFKBD) in unliganded form by NMR spectroscopy and in complex with FK506 by X-ray crystallography. We found out that PvFKBP35 exhibits a canonical FKBD fold and shares kinetic profiles similar to those of PfFKBP35, the homologous protein in P. falciparum, indicating that the parasite FKBP family members play similar biological roles in their life cycles. Despite the similarity, differences were observed in the ligand binding modes between PvFKBD and HsFKBP12, a human FKBP homolog, which could provide insightful information into designing selective antimalarial drug against the parasites. PMID:20572013

  17. Antigenic Diversity of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein in Parasite Isolates of Western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Escalante, Ananías A.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a malaria antigen involved in sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, and thus considered to have good vaccine potential. We evaluated the polymorphism of the Plasmodium vivax CS gene in 24 parasite isolates collected from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia. We sequenced 27 alleles, most of which (25/27) corresponded to the VK247 genotype and the remainder to the VK210 type. All VK247 alleles presented a mutation (Gly → Asn) at position 28 in the N-terminal region, whereas the C-terminal presented three insertions: the ANKKAGDAG, which is common in all VK247 isolates; 12 alleles presented the insertion GAGGQAAGGNAANKKAGDAG; and 5 alleles presented the insertion GGNAGGNA. Both repeat regions were polymorphic in gene sequence and size. Sequences coding for B-, T-CD4+, and T-CD8+ cell epitopes were found to be conserved. This study confirms the high polymorphism of the repeat domain and the highly conserved nature of the flanking regions. PMID:21292878

  18. Expression of Plasmodium vivax crt-o Is Related to Parasite Stage but Not Ex Vivo Chloroquine Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pava, Zuleima; Handayuni, Irene; Wirjanata, Grennady; To, Sheren; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium vivax is present in most countries where P. vivax infection is endemic, but the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Increased expression of P. vivax crt-o (pvcrt-o) has been correlated with in vivo CQ resistance in an area with low-grade resistance. We assessed pvcrt-o expression in isolates from Papua (Indonesia), where P. vivax is highly CQ resistant. Ex vivo drug susceptibilities to CQ, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine, and artesunate were determined using a modified schizont maturation assay. Expression levels of pvcrt-o were measured using a novel real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Large variations in pvcrt-o expression were observed across the 51 isolates evaluated, with the fold change in expression level ranging from 0.01 to 59 relative to that seen with the P. vivax β-tubulin gene and from 0.01 to 24 relative to that seen with the P. vivax aldolase gene. Expression was significantly higher in isolates with the majority of parasites at the ring stage of development (median fold change, 1.7) compared to those at the trophozoite stage (median fold change, 0.5; P < 0.001). Twenty-nine isolates fulfilled the criteria for ex vivo drug susceptibility testing and showed high variability in CQ responses (median, 107.9 [range, 6.5 to 345.7] nM). After controlling for the parasite stage, we found that pvcrt-o expression levels did not correlate with the ex vivo response to CQ or with that to any of the other antimalarials tested. Our results highlight the importance of development-stage composition for measuring pvcrt-o expression and suggest that pvcrt-o transcription is not a primary determinant of ex vivo drug susceptibility. A comprehensive transcriptomic approach is warranted for an in-depth investigation of the role of gene expression levels and P. vivax drug resistance. PMID:26525783

  19. Expression of Plasmodium vivax crt-o Is Related to Parasite Stage but Not Ex Vivo Chloroquine Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pava, Zuleima; Handayuni, Irene; Wirjanata, Grennady; To, Sheren; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta

    2015-11-02

    Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium vivax is present in most countries where P. vivax infection is endemic, but the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Increased expression of P. vivax crt-o (pvcrt-o) has been correlated with in vivo CQ resistance in an area with low-grade resistance. We assessed pvcrt-o expression in isolates from Papua (Indonesia), where P. vivax is highly CQ resistant. Ex vivo drug susceptibilities to CQ, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine, and artesunate were determined using a modified schizont maturation assay. Expression levels of pvcrt-o were measured using a novel real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Large variations in pvcrt-o expression were observed across the 51 isolates evaluated, with the fold change in expression level ranging from 0.01 to 59 relative to that seen with the P. vivax β-tubulin gene and from 0.01 to 24 relative to that seen with the P. vivax aldolase gene. Expression was significantly higher in isolates with the majority of parasites at the ring stage of development (median fold change, 1.7) compared to those at the trophozoite stage (median fold change, 0.5; P < 0.001). Twenty-nine isolates fulfilled the criteria for ex vivo drug susceptibility testing and showed high variability in CQ responses (median, 107.9 [range, 6.5 to 345.7] nM). After controlling for the parasite stage, we found that pvcrt-o expression levels did not correlate with the ex vivo response to CQ or with that to any of the other antimalarials tested. Our results highlight the importance of development-stage composition for measuring pvcrt-o expression and suggest that pvcrt-o transcription is not a primary determinant of ex vivo drug susceptibility. A comprehensive transcriptomic approach is warranted for an in-depth investigation of the role of gene expression levels and P. vivax drug resistance.

  20. Baculovirus-Vectored Multistage Plasmodium vivax Vaccine Induces Both Protective and Transmission-Blocking Immunities against Transgenic Rodent Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masanori; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Fukumoto, Shinya; Funatsu, Tomohiro; Sinden, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    A multistage malaria vaccine targeting the pre-erythrocytic and sexual stages of Plasmodium could effectively protect individuals against infection from mosquito bites and provide transmission-blocking (TB) activity against the sexual stages of the parasite, respectively. This strategy could help prevent malaria infections in individuals and, on a larger scale, prevent malaria transmission in communities of endemicity. Here, we describe the development of a multistage Plasmodium vivax vaccine which simultaneously expresses P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP) and P25 (Pvs25) protein of this species as a fusion protein, thereby acting as a pre-erythrocytic vaccine and a TB vaccine, respectively. A new-concept vaccine platform based on the baculovirus dual-expression system (BDES) was evaluated. The BDES-Pvs25-PvCSP vaccine displayed correct folding of the Pvs25-PvCSP fusion protein on the viral envelope and was highly expressed upon transduction of mammalian cells in vitro. This vaccine induced high levels of antibodies to Pvs25 and PvCSP and elicited protective (43%) and TB (82%) efficacies against transgenic P. berghei parasites expressing the corresponding P. vivax antigens in mice. Our data indicate that our BDES, which functions as both a subunit and DNA vaccine, can offer a promising multistage vaccine capable of delivering a potent antimalarial pre-erythrocytic and TB response via a single immunization regimen. PMID:25092912

  1. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  2. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kevin J; Maguire, Jason D; Price, Ric N

    2012-01-01

    Infection by Plasmodium vivax poses unique challenges for diagnosis and treatment. Relatively low numbers of parasites in peripheral circulation may be difficult to confirm, and patients infected by dormant liver stages cannot be diagnosed before activation and the ensuing relapse. Radical cure thus requires therapy aimed at both the blood stages of the parasite (blood schizontocidal) and prevention of subsequent relapses (hypnozoitocidal). Chloroquine and primaquine have been the companion therapies of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria since the 1950s. Confirmed resistance to chloroquine occurs in much of the vivax endemic world and demands the investigation of alternative blood schizontocidal companions in radical cure. Such a shift in practice necessitates investigation of the safety and efficacy of primaquine when administered with those therapies, and the toxicity profile of such combination treatments, particularly in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. These clinical studies are confounded by the frequency and timing of relapse among strains of P. vivax, and potentially by differing susceptibilities to primaquine. The inability to maintain this parasite in continuous in vitro culture greatly hinders new drug discovery. Development of safe and effective chemotherapies for vivax malaria for the coming decades requires overcoming these challenges. PMID:23199489

  4. Plasmodium vivax trophozoite-stage proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D.C.; Lapp, Stacey A.; Akinyi, Sheila; Meyer, Esmeralda V.S.; Barnwell, John W.; Korir-Morrison, Cindy; Galinski, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the causative infectious agent of 80–300 million annual cases of malaria. Many aspects of this parasite’s biology remain unknown. To further elucidate the interaction of P. vivax with its Saimiri boliviensis host, we obtained detailed proteomes of infected red blood cells, representing the trophozoite-enriched stage of development. Data from two of three biological replicate proteomes, emphasized here, were analyzed using five search engines, which enhanced identifications and resulted in the most comprehensive P. vivax proteomes to date, with 1375 P. vivax and 3209 S. boliviensis identified proteins. Ribosome subunit proteins were noted for both P. vivax and S. boliviensis, consistent with P. vivax’s known reticulocyte host–cell specificity. A majority of the host and pathogen proteins identified belong to specific functional categories, and several parasite gene families, while 33% of the P. vivax proteins have no reported function. Hemoglobin was significantly oxidized in both proteomes, and additional protein oxidation and nitration was detected in one of the two proteomes. Detailed analyses of these post-translational modifications are presented. The proteins identified here significantly expand the known P. vivax proteome and complexity of available host protein functionality underlying the host–parasite interactive biology, and reveal unsuspected oxidative modifications that may impact protein function. Biological significance Plasmodium vivax malaria is a serious neglected disease, causing an estimated 80 to 300 million cases annually in 95 countries. Infection can result in significant morbidity and possible death. P. vivax, unlike the much better-studied Plasmodium falciparum species, cannot be grown in long-term culture, has a dormant form in the liver called the hypnozoite stage, has a reticulocyte host–cell preference in the blood, and creates caveolae vesicle complexes at the surface of the infected reticulocyte

  5. Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Sullivan, Steven A.; Kawai, Satoru; Nakamura, Shota; Kim, Hyunjae R.; Goto, Naohisa; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne M. Q.; Honma, Hajime; Yagi, Masanori; Tougan, Takahiro; Katakai, Yuko; Kaneko, Osamu; Mita, Toshihiro; Kita, Kiyoshi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Sutton, Patrick L.; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Horii, Toshihiro; Yasunaga, Teruo; Barnwell, John W.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium cynomolgi, a malaria parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of Plasmodium vivax, the most prevalent human malaria species outside Africa. Since P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biologic and genetic characteristics of P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences of three P. cynomolgi strains and performed comparative genomic analysis between them and P. vivax, as well as a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by CNVs in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites, and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation for mapping parasite traits and studying parasite populations. The P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research, and to counteract the neglect of P. vivax. PMID:22863735

  6. In Silico Screening on the Three-dimensional Model of the Plasmodium vivax SUB1 Protease Leads to the Validation of a Novel Anti-parasite Compound*

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Anthony; Giganti, David; Benedet, Christophe; Gorgette, Olivier; Pêtres, Stéphane; Crublet, Elodie; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Witkowski, Benoit; Ménard, Didier; Nilges, Michael; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Stoven, Véronique; Barale, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Widespread drug resistance calls for the urgent development of new antimalarials that target novel steps in the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The essential subtilisin-like serine protease SUB1 of Plasmodium merozoites plays a dual role in egress from and invasion into host erythrocytes. It belongs to a new generation of attractive drug targets against which specific potent inhibitors are actively searched. We characterize here the P. vivax SUB1 enzyme and show that it displays a typical auto-processing pattern and apical localization in P. vivax merozoites. To search for small PvSUB1 inhibitors, we took advantage of the similarity of SUB1 with bacterial subtilisins and generated P. vivax SUB1 three-dimensional models. The structure-based virtual screening of a large commercial chemical compounds library identified 306 virtual best hits, of which 37 were experimentally confirmed inhibitors and 5 had Ki values of <50 μm for PvSUB1. Interestingly, they belong to different chemical families. The most promising competitive inhibitor of PvSUB1 (compound 2) was equally active on PfSUB1 and displayed anti-P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei activity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Compound 2 inhibited the endogenous PfSUB1 as illustrated by the inhibited maturation of its natural substrate PfSERA5 and inhibited parasite egress and subsequent erythrocyte invasion. These data indicate that the strategy of in silico screening of three-dimensional models to select for virtual inhibitors combined with stringent biological validation successfully identified several inhibitors of the PvSUB1 enzyme. The most promising hit proved to be a potent cross-inhibitor of PlasmodiumSUB1, laying the groundwork for the development of a globally active small compound antimalarial. PMID:23653352

  7. Plasmodium vivax: clinical spectrum, risk factors and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Nicholas M; Douglas, Nicholas M; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R; Price, Ric N

    2012-01-01

    Vivax malaria was historically described as 'benign tertian malaria' because individual clinical episodes were less likely to cause severe illness than Plasmodium falciparum. Despite this, Plasmodium vivax was, and remains, responsible for major morbidity and significant mortality in vivax-endemic areas. Single infections causing febrile illness in otherwise healthy individuals rarely progress to severe disease. Nevertheless, in the presence of co-morbidities, P. vivax can cause severe illness and fatal outcomes. Recurrent or chronic infections in endemic areas can cause severe anaemia and malnutrition, particularly in early childhood. Other severe manifestations include acute lung injury, acute kidney injury and uncommonly, coma. Multiorgan failure and shock are described but further studies are needed to investigate the role of bacterial and other co-infections in these syndromes. In pregnancy, P. vivax infection can cause maternal anaemia, miscarriage, low birth weight and congenital malaria. Compared to P. falciparum, P. vivax has a greater capacity to elicit an inflammatory response, resulting in a lower pyrogenic threshold. Conversely, cytoadherence of P. vivax to endothelial cells is less frequent and parasite sequestration is not thought to be a significant cause of severe illness in vivax malaria. With a predilection for young red cells, P. vivax does not result in the high parasite biomass associated with severe disease in P. falciparum, but a four to fivefold greater removal of uninfected red cells from the circulation relative to P. falciparum is associated with a similar risk of severe anaemia. Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe vivax syndromes remain incompletely understood.

  8. Rheopathologic Consequence of Plasmodium vivax Rosette Formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rou; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Lau, Yee-Ling; Albrecht, Letusa; Lopes, Stefanie C P; Costa, Fabio T M; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Cooke, Brian M; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Malaria parasites dramatically alter the rheological properties of infected red blood cells. In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the parasite rapidly decreases the shear elastic modulus of the invaded RBC, enabling it to avoid splenic clearance. This study highlights correlation between rosette formation and altered membrane deformability of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes, where the rosette-forming infected erythrocytes are significantly more rigid than their non-rosetting counterparts. The adhesion of normocytes to the PvIRBC is strong (mean binding force of 440pN) resulting in stable rosette formation even under high physiological shear flow stress. Rosetting may contribute to the sequestration of PvIRBC schizonts in the host microvasculature or spleen. PMID:27509168

  9. Rheopathologic Consequence of Plasmodium vivax Rosette Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Albrecht, Letusa; Lopes, Stefanie C. P.; Costa, Fabio T. M.; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Cooke, Brian M.; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Malaria parasites dramatically alter the rheological properties of infected red blood cells. In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the parasite rapidly decreases the shear elastic modulus of the invaded RBC, enabling it to avoid splenic clearance. This study highlights correlation between rosette formation and altered membrane deformability of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes, where the rosette-forming infected erythrocytes are significantly more rigid than their non-rosetting counterparts. The adhesion of normocytes to the PvIRBC is strong (mean binding force of 440pN) resulting in stable rosette formation even under high physiological shear flow stress. Rosetting may contribute to the sequestration of PvIRBC schizonts in the host microvasculature or spleen. PMID:27509168

  10. Uncovering the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax using population genetics.

    PubMed

    Barry, Alyssa E; Waltmann, Andreea; Koepfli, Cristian; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    Population genetic analysis of malaria parasites has the power to reveal key insights into malaria epidemiology and transmission dynamics with the potential to deliver tools to support control and elimination efforts. Analyses of parasite genetic diversity have suggested that Plasmodium vivax populations are more genetically diverse and less structured than those of Plasmodium falciparum indicating that P. vivax may be a more ancient parasite of humans and/or less susceptible to population bottlenecks, as well as more efficient at disseminating its genes. These population genetic insights into P. vivax transmission dynamics provide an explanation for its relative resilience to control efforts. Here, we describe current knowledge on P. vivax population genetic structure, its relevance to understanding transmission patterns and relapse and how this information can inform malaria control and elimination programmes.

  11. Uncovering the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax using population genetics

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Alyssa E.; Waltmann, Andreea; Koepfli, Cristian; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Population genetic analysis of malaria parasites has the power to reveal key insights into malaria epidemiology and transmission dynamics with the potential to deliver tools to support control and elimination efforts. Analyses of parasite genetic diversity have suggested that Plasmodium vivax populations are more genetically diverse and less structured than those of Plasmodium falciparum indicating that P. vivax may be a more ancient parasite of humans and/or less susceptible to population bottlenecks, as well as more efficient at disseminating its genes. These population genetic insights into P. vivax transmission dynamics provide an explanation for its relative resilience to control efforts. Here, we describe current knowledge on P. vivax population genetic structure, its relevance to understanding transmission patterns and relapse and how this information can inform malaria control and elimination programmes. PMID:25891915

  12. Efficacy of a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine using ChAd63 and modified vaccinia Ankara expressing thrombospondin-related anonymous protein as assessed with transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites.

    PubMed

    Bauza, Karolis; Malinauskas, Tomas; Pfander, Claudia; Anar, Burcu; Jones, E Yvonne; Billker, Oliver; Hill, Adrian V S; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the world's most widely distributed malaria parasite and a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for approximately 2.85 billion people living mainly in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Despite this dramatic burden, very few vaccines have been assessed in humans. The clinically relevant vectors modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 are promising delivery systems for malaria vaccines due to their safety profiles and proven ability to induce protective immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) in clinical trials. Here, we describe the development of new recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors expressing P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) and show their ability to induce high antibody titers and T cell responses in mice. In addition, we report a novel way of assessing the efficacy of new candidate vaccines against P. vivax using a fully infectious transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing P. vivax TRAP to allow studies of vaccine efficacy and protective mechanisms in rodents. Using this model, we found that both CD8+ T cells and antibodies mediated protection against malaria using virus-vectored vaccines. Our data indicate that ChAd63 and MVA expressing PvTRAP are good preerythrocytic-stage vaccine candidates with potential for future clinical application.

  13. Management of relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Cindy S; White, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Relapses are important contributors to illness and morbidity in Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale infections. Relapse prevention (radical cure) with primaquine is required for optimal management, control and ultimately elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria. A review was conducted with publications in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish using the search terms ‘P. vivax’ and ‘relapse’. Areas covered: Hypnozoites causing relapses may be activated weeks or months after initial infection. Incidence and temporal patterns of relapse varies geographically. Relapses derive from parasites either genetically similar or different from the primary infection indicating that some derive from previous infections. Malaria illness itself may activate relapse. Primaquine is the only widely available treatment for radical cure. However, it is often not given because of uncertainty over the risks of primaquine induced haemolysis when G6PD deficiency testing is unavailable. Recommended dosing of primaquine for radical cure in East Asia and Oceania is 0.5 mg base/kg/day and elsewhere is 0.25 mg base/kg/day. Alternative treatments are under investigation. Expert commentary: Geographic heterogeneity in relapse patterns and chloroquine susceptibility of P. vivax, and G6PD deficiency epidemiology mean that radical treatment should be given much more than it is today. G6PD testing should be made widely available so primaquine can be given more safely. PMID:27530139

  14. Lack of Molecular Correlates of Plasmodium vivax Ookinete Development

    PubMed Central

    Bounkeua, Viengngeun; Li, Fengwu; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Abeles, Shira R.; McClean, Colleen M.; Neyra, Victor; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Yori, Pablo P.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of Plasmodium vivax transmission to Anopheles spp. mosquitoes have not been able to predict mosquito infectivity on the basis of microscopic or molecular quantification of parasites (total parasites in the sample or total number of gametocytes) in infected blood. Two methods for production of P. vivax ookinete cultures in vitro, with yields of 106 macrogametocytes, 104 zygotes, and 103 ookinetes, respectively, per 10 mL of P. vivax-infected patient blood with approximately 0.01% parasitemia, were used to study P. vivax sexual stage development. The quantity of gametocytes, determined by counting Giemsa-stained blood smears, and quantity and type of gametocyte as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction for Pvalpha tubulin II and macrogametocyte-specific pvg377 did not predict ookinete yield. Factors that affect the efficiency of in vitro P. vivax ookinete transformation remain poorly understood. PMID:21813836

  15. Interaction of Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan-rich Antigen PvTRAg38 with Band 3 on Human Erythrocyte Surface Facilitates Parasite Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohd. Shoeb; Choudhary, Vandana; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh K.; Rathore, Sumit; Sharma, Yagya D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium tryptophan-rich proteins are involved in host-parasite interaction and thus potential drug/vaccine targets. Recently, we have described several P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs), including merozoite expressed PvTRAg38, from this noncultivable human malaria parasite. PvTRAg38 is highly immunogenic in humans and binds to host erythrocytes, and this binding is inhibited by the patient sera. This binding is also affected if host erythrocytes were pretreated with chymotrypsin. Here, Band 3 has been identified as the chymotrypsin-sensitive erythrocyte receptor for this parasite protein. Interaction of PvTRAg38 with Band 3 has been mapped to its three different ectodomains (loops 1, 3, and 6) exposed at the surface of the erythrocyte. The binding region of PvTRAg38 to Band3 has been mapped to its sequence, KWVQWKNDKIRSWLSSEW, present at amino acid positions 197–214. The recombinant PvTRAg38 was able to inhibit the parasite growth in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture probably by competing with the ligand(s) of this heterologous parasite for the erythrocyte Band 3 receptor. In conclusion, the host-parasite interaction at the molecular level is much more complicated than known so far and should be considered during the development of anti-malarial therapeutics. PMID:26149684

  16. Geographical variation in Plasmodium vivax relapse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax has the widest geographic distribution of the human malaria parasites and nearly 2.5 billion people live at risk of infection. The control of P. vivax in individuals and populations is complicated by its ability to relapse weeks to months after initial infection. Strains of P. vivax from different geographical areas are thought to exhibit varied relapse timings. In tropical regions strains relapse quickly (three to six weeks), whereas those in temperate regions do so more slowly (six to twelve months), but no comprehensive assessment of evidence has been conducted. Here observed patterns of relapse periodicity are used to generate predictions of relapse incidence within geographic regions representative of varying parasite transmission. Methods A global review of reports of P. vivax relapse in patients not treated with a radical cure was conducted. Records of time to first P. vivax relapse were positioned by geographic origin relative to expert opinion regions of relapse behaviour and epidemiological zones. Mixed-effects meta-analysis was conducted to determine which geographic classification best described the data, such that a description of the pattern of relapse periodicity within each region could be described. Model outputs of incidence and mean time to relapse were mapped to illustrate the global variation in relapse. Results Differences in relapse periodicity were best described by a historical geographic classification system used to describe malaria transmission zones based on areas sharing zoological and ecological features. Maps of incidence and time to relapse showed high relapse frequency to be predominant in tropical regions and prolonged relapse in temperate areas. Conclusions The results indicate that relapse periodicity varies systematically by geographic region and are categorized by nine global regions characterized by similar malaria transmission dynamics. This indicates that relapse may be an adaptation evolved to

  17. Red Blood Cell Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection has been widely recognised to result from absence of the Duffy (Fy) blood group from the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals of African descent. Interestingly, recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions have begun to reveal new perspectives on the association between Duffy gene polymorphism and P. vivax malaria. In Papua New Guinea and the Americas, heterozygous carriers of a Duffy-negative allele are less susceptible to P. vivax infection than Duffy-positive homozygotes. In Brazil, studies show that the Fya antigen, compared to Fyb, is associated with lower binding to the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein and reduced susceptibility to vivax malaria. Additionally, it is interesting that numerous studies have now shown that P. vivax can infect RBCs and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people. This suggests that the relationship between P. vivax and the Duffy antigen is more complex than customarily described. Evidence of P. vivax Duffy-independent red cell invasion indicates that the parasite must be evolving alternative red cell invasion pathways. In this chapter, we review the evidence for P. vivax Duffy-dependent and Duffy-independent red cell invasion. We also consider the influence of further host gene polymorphism associated with malaria endemicity on susceptibility to vivax malaria. The interaction between the parasite and the RBC has significant potential to influence the effectiveness of P. vivax-specific vaccines and drug treatments. Ultimately, the relationships between red cell polymorphisms and P. vivax blood-stage infection will influence our estimates on the population at risk and efforts to eliminate vivax malaria. PMID:23384621

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Price, Ric N; Auburn, Sarah; Marfurt, Jutta; Cheng, Qin

    2012-11-01

    In this review we present recent developments in the analysis of Plasmodium vivax clinical trials and ex vivo drug-susceptibility assays, as well approaches currently being used to identify molecular markers of drug resistance. Clinical trials incorporating the measurement of in vivo drug concentrations and parasite clearance times are needed to detect early signs of resistance. Analysis of P. vivax growth dynamics ex vivo have defined the criteria for acceptable assay thresholds for drug susceptibility testing, and their subsequent interpretation. Genotyping and next-generation sequencing studies in P. vivax field isolates are set to transform our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance.

  19. Multiplicity of Infection and Disease Severity in Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Vallejo, Andrés F.; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Escalante, Ananias A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiplicity of infection (MOI) refers to the average number of distinct parasite genotypes concurrently infecting a patient. Although several studies have reported on MOI and the frequency of multiclonal infections in Plasmodium falciparum, there is limited data on Plasmodium vivax. Here, MOI and the frequency of multiclonal infections were studied in areas from South America where P. vivax and P. falciparum can be compared. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of a passive surveillance study, 1,328 positive malaria patients were recruited between 2011 and 2013 in low transmission areas from Colombia. Of those, there were only 38 P. vivax and 24 P. falciparum clinically complicated cases scattered throughout the time of the study. Samples from uncomplicated cases were matched in time and location with the complicated cases in order to compare the circulating genotypes for these two categories. A total of 92 P. vivax and 57 P. falciparum uncomplicated cases were randomly subsampled. All samples were genotyped by using neutral microsatellites. Plasmodium vivax showed more multiclonal infections (47.7%) than P. falciparum (14.8%). Population genetics and haplotype network analyses did not detect differences in the circulating genotypes between complicated and uncomplicated cases in each parasite. However, a Fisher exact test yielded a significant association between having multiclonal P. vivax infections and complicated malaria. No association was found for P. falciparum infections. Conclusion The association between multiclonal infections and disease severity in P. vivax is consistent with previous observations made in rodent malaria. The contrasting pattern between P. vivax and P. falciparum could be explained, at least in part, by the fact that P. vivax infections have lineages that were more distantly related among them than in the case of the P. falciparum multiclonal infections. Future research should address the possible role that acquired

  20. Development of vaccines for Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ivo; Shakri, Ahmad Rushdi; Chitnis, Chetan E

    2015-12-22

    Plasmodium vivax continues to cause significant morbidity outside Africa with more than 50% of malaria cases in many parts of South and South-east Asia, Pacific islands, Central and South America being attributed to P. vivax infections. The unique biology of P. vivax, including its ability to form latent hypnozoites that emerge months to years later to cause blood stage infections, early appearance of gametocytes before clinical symptoms are apparent and a shorter development cycle in the vector makes elimination of P. vivax using standard control tools difficult. The availability of an effective vaccine that provides protection and prevents transmission would be a valuable tool in efforts to eliminate P. vivax. Here, we review the latest developments related to P. vivax malaria vaccines and discuss the challenges as well as directions toward the goal of developing highly efficacious vaccines against P. vivax malaria.

  1. Complexity of Infection and Genetic Diversity in Cambodian Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Lindsey R.; Popovici, Jean; Kim, Saorin; Dysoley, Lek; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Menard, Didier; Serre, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite with 2.9 billion people living in endemic areas. Despite intensive malaria control efforts, the proportion of cases attributed to P. vivax is increasing in many countries. Genetic analyses of the parasite population and its dynamics could provide an assessment of the efficacy of control efforts, but, unfortunately, these studies are limited in P. vivax by the lack of informative markers and high-throughput genotyping methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a sequencing-based assay to simultaneously genotype more than 100 SNPs and applied this approach to ~500 P. vivax-infected individuals recruited across nine locations in Cambodia between 2004 and 2013. Our analyses showed that the vast majority of infections are polyclonal (92%) and that P. vivax displays high genetic diversity in Cambodia without apparent geographic stratification. Interestingly, our analyses also revealed that the proportion of monoclonal infections significantly increased between 2004 and 2013, possibly suggesting that malaria control strategies in Cambodia may be successfully affecting the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that this high-throughput genotyping assay is efficient in characterizing P. vivax diversity and can provide valuable insights to assess the efficacy of malaria elimination programs or to monitor the spread of specific parasites. PMID:27018585

  2. Plasmodium vivax Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Sariwati, Elvieda; Palupi, Niken W.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Kusriastuti, Rita; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006–2008) and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,658 community surveys of P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) were identified (1985–2010) for mapping quantitative estimates of contemporary endemicity within those limits. After error-checking a total of 4,457 points were included into a national database of age-standardized 1–99 year old PvPR data. A Bayesian MBG procedure created a predicted PvPR1–99 endemicity surface with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population surface. Results We estimated 129.6 million people in Indonesia lived at risk of P. vivax transmission in 2010. Among these, 79.3% inhabited unstable transmission areas and 20.7% resided in stable transmission areas. In western Indonesia, the predicted P. vivax prevalence was uniformly low. Over 70% of the population at risk in this region lived on Java and Bali islands, where little malaria transmission occurs. High predicted prevalence areas were observed in the Lesser Sundas, Maluku and Papua. In general, prediction uncertainty was relatively low in the west and high in the east. Conclusion Most Indonesians living with endemic P. vivax experience relatively low risk of infection. However, blood surveys for this parasite are likely relatively insensitive and certainly do not detect the dormant liver stage reservoir of infection. The prospects for P. vivax elimination would be improved with deeper understanding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) distribution, anti-relapse therapy

  3. Population genetics of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and asymptomatic malaria in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Temotu Province, Solomon Islands is progressing toward malaria elimination. A baseline survey conducted in 2008 showed that most Plasmodium infections in the province were of low parasite density and asymptomatic infections. To better understand mechanisms underlying these malaria transmission characteristics genetic diversity and relationships among Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax populations in the province were examined. Methods Forty-five P. falciparum and 67 P. vivax samples collected in the 2008 baseline survey were successfully genotyped using eight P. falciparum and seven P. vivax microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity, relationships and distribution of both P. falciparum and P. vivax populations were analysed. Results Plasmodium falciparum population exhibited low diversity with 19 haplotypes identified and had closely related clusters indicating clonal expansion. Interestingly, a dominant haplotype was significantly associated with fever and high parasite density. In contrast, the P. vivax population was highly diverse with 58 haplotypes identified that were not closely related. Parasite populations between different islands in the province showed low genetic differentiation. Conclusion The low diversity and clonal population of P. falciparum population may partially account for clinical immunity developed against illness. However, it is possible that importation of a new P. falciparum strain was the major cause of illness. High diversity in P. vivax population and low relatedness between strains suggested clinical immunity to P. vivax may be maintained by different mechanisms. The genetic diversity, population structure and distribution of strains indicate that transmission of P. falciparum was low, but that of P. vivax was still high in 2008. These data will be useful for assessing changes in malaria transmission resulting from interventions. PMID:24261646

  4. Determination of the Plasmodium vivax schizont stage proteome

    PubMed Central

    Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Li, Jianyong; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Cui, Liwang

    2011-01-01

    With the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax sequenced, it is important to determine the proteomes of the parasite in order to assist efforts in antigen and drug target discovery. Since a method for continuous culture of P. vivax parasite is not available, we tried to study the proteome of the erythrocytic stages using fresh parasite isolates from patients. In schizont-enriched samples, 316 proteins were confidently identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Almost 50% of the identified proteins were hypothetical, while other major categories include proteins with binding function, protein fate, protein synthesis, metabolism and cellular transport. To identify proteins that are recognized by host humoral immunity, parasite proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and screened by Western blot using an immune serum from a P. vivax patient. Mass spectrometry analysis of protein spots recognized by the serum identified four potential antigens including PV24. The recombinant protein PV24 was recognized by antibodies from vivax malaria patients even during the convalescent period, indicating that PV24 could elicit long-lasting antibody responses in P. vivax patients. PMID:21515433

  5. Determinants of relapse periodicity in Plasmodium vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of febrile illness in endemic areas of Asia, Central and South America, and the horn of Africa. Plasmodium vivax infections are characterized by relapses of malaria arising from persistent liver stages of the parasite (hypnozoites) which can be prevented only by 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarials. Tropical P. vivax relapses at three week intervals if rapidly eliminated anti-malarials are given for treatment, whereas in temperate regions and parts of the sub-tropics P. vivax infections are characterized either by a long incubation or a long-latency period between illness and relapse - in both cases approximating 8-10 months. The epidemiology of the different relapse phenotypes has not been defined adequately despite obvious relevance to malaria control and elimination. The number of sporozoites inoculated by the anopheline mosquito is an important determinant of both the timing and the number of relapses. The intervals between relapses display a remarkable periodicity which has not been explained. Evidence is presented that the proportion of patients who have successive relapses is relatively constant and that the factor which activates hypnozoites and leads to regular interval relapse in vivax malaria is the systemic febrile illness itself. It is proposed that in endemic areas a large proportion of the population harbours latent hypnozoites which can be activated by a systemic illness such as vivax or falciparum malaria. This explains the high rates of vivax following falciparum malaria, the high proportion of heterologous genotypes in relapses, the higher rates of relapse in people living in endemic areas compared with artificial infection studies, and, by facilitating recombination between different genotypes, contributes to P. vivax genetic diversity particularly in low transmission settings. Long-latency P. vivax phenotypes may be more widespread and more prevalent than currently thought. These observations have important

  6. Fatal Case of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in a Splenectomized Patient.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, H; Farivar, L; Sharifi, I; Harandi, M Fasihi; Moazed, V; Jahanbakhsh, S; Babaei, Z; Zia-Ali, N

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries, with high morbidity and mortality. Splenectomy makes patients more susceptible to serious bacterial and parasitic infections. We report for the first time in Iran a fatal case of Plasmodium vivax malaria, confirmed by microscopic and molecular (Semi-nested multiplex PCR) tests in a patient who had undergone splenectomy due to hemolytic anemia. PMID:23109969

  7. Fatal Case of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in a Splenectomized Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, H; Farivar, L; Sharifi, I; Harandi, M Fasihi; Moazed, V; Jahanbakhsh, S; Babaei, Z; Zia-Ali, N

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries, with high morbidity and mortality. Splenectomy makes patients more susceptible to serious bacterial and parasitic infections. We report for the first time in Iran a fatal case of Plasmodium vivax malaria, confirmed by microscopic and molecular (Semi-nested multiplex PCR) tests in a patient who had undergone splenectomy due to hemolytic anemia. PMID:23109969

  8. Spatial Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Toby; Kolaczinski, Kate; Mohsen, Engineer; Mehboob, Najeebullah; Saleheen, Sarah; Khudonazarov, Juma; Freeman, Tim; Clements, Archie; Rowland, Mark; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. Geographic analysis helped highlight areas of malaria risk and clarified ecologic risk factors for transmission. Remote sensing enabled development of a risk map, thereby providing a valuable tool to help guide malaria control strategies. PMID:17176583

  9. Plasmodium vivax liver stage development and hypnozoite persistence in human liver-chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Vaughan, Ashley M; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Yimamnuaychok, Narathatai; Rezakhani, Nastaran; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Singh, Naresh; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Baldwin, Michael; Lindner, Scott E; Adams, John H; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by periodic relapses of symptomatic blood stage parasite infections likely initiated by activation of dormant liver stage parasites-hypnozoites. The lack of tractable P. vivax animal models constitutes an obstacle in examining P. vivax liver stage infection and drug efficacy. To overcome this obstacle, we have used human liver-chimeric (huHep) FRG KO mice as a model for P. vivax infection. FRG KO huHep mice support P. vivax sporozoite infection, liver stage development, and hypnozoite formation. We show complete P. vivax liver stage development, including maturation into infectious exo-erythrocytic merozoites as well as the formation and persistence of hypnozoites. Prophylaxis or treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can prevent and eliminate liver stage infection, respectively. Thus, P. vivax-infected FRG KO huHep mice are a model to investigate liver stage development and dormancy and may facilitate the discovery of drugs targeting relapsing malaria.

  10. Editing the Plasmodium vivax genome, using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Moraes Barros, Roberto R; Straimer, Judith; Sa, Juliana M; Salzman, Rebecca E; Melendez-Muniz, Viviana A; Mu, Jianbing; Fidock, David A; Wellems, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of malaria morbidity worldwide yet has remained genetically intractable. To stably modify this organism, we used zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which take advantage of homology-directed DNA repair mechanisms at the site of nuclease action. Using ZFNs specific to the gene encoding P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr), we transfected blood specimens from Saimiri boliviensis monkeys infected with the pyrimethamine (Pyr)-susceptible Chesson strain with a ZFN plasmid carrying a Pyr-resistant mutant pvdhfr sequence. We obtained Pyr-resistant parasites in vivo that carried mutant pvdhfr and additional silent mutations designed to confirm editing. These results herald the era of stable P. vivax genetic modifications.

  11. Plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Brutus, Laurent; Santalla, José; Schneider, Dominique; Avila, Juan Carlos; Deloron, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. Using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of Plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in Bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. P. vivax infection was detected in 7.9% of pregnant women attending antenatal visits, and placental infection occurred in 2.8% of deliveries; these rates did not vary with parity. Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. P. vivax-infected pregnant women were frequently anemic (6.5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria.

  12. The Robust and Modulated Biomarker Network Elicited by the Plasmodium vivax Infection Is Mainly Mediated by the IL-6/IL-10 Axis and Is Associated with the Parasite Load

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães da Costa, Allyson; do Valle Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro; Augusto Carvalho Costa, Pedro; Paulo Diniz Pimentel, João; Garcia, Nadja Pinto; Monteiro Tarragô, Andréa; Socorro Lopes dos Santos, Maria do Perpétuo; Nogueira, Paulo Afonso; Hekcmann, Maria Izabel Ovellar; Sadahiro, Aya; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Malheiro, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory process, including the biomarker production, and the intense activation of innate immune responses are greater in the malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax than other species. Here, we examined the levels of serum biomarkers and their interaction during acute malaria. Material and Methods. Blood samples were collected from P. vivax-infected patients at admission and from healthy donors. Levels of serum biomarkers were measured by Cytometric Bead Assay or ELISA. Results. P. vivax infection triggered the production of both inflammatory and regulatory biomarkers. Levels of IL-6, CXCL-8, IFN-γ, IL-5, and IL-10 were higher in P. vivax-infected patients than in healthy donors. On the other hand, malaria patients produced lower levels of TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-2 than healthy individuals. While the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were found independent on the number of malaria episodes, higher levels of these cytokines were seen in patients with higher parasite load. Conclusion. A mixed pattern of proinflammatory and regulatory biomarkers is produced in P. vivax malaria. Analysis of biomarker network suggests that IL-10 and IL-6 are a robust axis in malaria patients and that this interaction seems to be associated with the parasite load. PMID:24741587

  13. Population genomics studies identify signatures of global dispersal and drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Hupalo, Daniel N; Luo, Zunping; Melnikov, Alexandre; Sutton, Patrick L; Rogov, Peter; Escalante, Ananias; Vallejo, Andrés F; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Fan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Cui, Liwang; Lucas, Carmen M; Durand, Salomon; Sanchez, Juan F; Baldeviano, G Christian; Lescano, Andres G; Laman, Moses; Barnadas, Celine; Barry, Alyssa; Mueller, Ivo; Kazura, James W; Eapen, Alex; Kanagaraj, Deena; Valecha, Neena; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Nguitragool, Wang; Sattabonkot, Jetsumon; Gamboa, Dionicia; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M; González-Cerón, Lilia; Birren, Bruce W; Neafsey, Daniel E; Carlton, Jane M

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major public health burden, responsible for the majority of malaria infections outside Africa. We explored the impact of demographic history and selective pressures on the P. vivax genome by sequencing 182 clinical isolates sampled from 11 countries across the globe, using hybrid selection to overcome human DNA contamination. We confirmed previous reports of high genomic diversity in P. vivax relative to the more virulent Plasmodium falciparum species; regional populations of P. vivax exhibited greater diversity than the global P. falciparum population, indicating a large and/or stable population. Signals of natural selection suggest that P. vivax is evolving in response to antimalarial drugs and is adapting to regional differences in the human host and the mosquito vector. These findings underline the variable epidemiology of this parasite species and highlight the breadth of approaches that may be required to eliminate P. vivax globally.

  14. Population genomics studies identify signatures of global dispersal and drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Hupalo, Daniel N; Luo, Zunping; Melnikov, Alexandre; Sutton, Patrick L; Rogov, Peter; Escalante, Ananias; Vallejo, Andrés F; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Fan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Cui, Liwang; Lucas, Carmen M; Durand, Salomon; Sanchez, Juan F; Baldeviano, G Christian; Lescano, Andres G; Laman, Moses; Barnadas, Celine; Barry, Alyssa; Mueller, Ivo; Kazura, James W; Eapen, Alex; Kanagaraj, Deena; Valecha, Neena; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Nguitragool, Wang; Sattabonkot, Jetsumon; Gamboa, Dionicia; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M; González-Cerón, Lilia; Birren, Bruce W; Neafsey, Daniel E; Carlton, Jane M

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major public health burden, responsible for the majority of malaria infections outside Africa. We explored the impact of demographic history and selective pressures on the P. vivax genome by sequencing 182 clinical isolates sampled from 11 countries across the globe, using hybrid selection to overcome human DNA contamination. We confirmed previous reports of high genomic diversity in P. vivax relative to the more virulent Plasmodium falciparum species; regional populations of P. vivax exhibited greater diversity than the global P. falciparum population, indicating a large and/or stable population. Signals of natural selection suggest that P. vivax is evolving in response to antimalarial drugs and is adapting to regional differences in the human host and the mosquito vector. These findings underline the variable epidemiology of this parasite species and highlight the breadth of approaches that may be required to eliminate P. vivax globally. PMID:27348298

  15. Purification Methodology for Viable and Infective Plasmodium vivax Gametocytes That Is Compatible with Transmission-Blocking Assays

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Omaira; Brelas de Brito, Paula; Albrecht, Letusa; Martins-Campos, Keillen Monick; Pimenta, Paulo F. P.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress toward the control of malaria has been achieved, especially regarding Plasmodium falciparum infections. However, the unique biology of Plasmodium vivax hampers current control strategies. The early appearance of P. vivax gametocytes in the peripheral blood and the impossibility of culturing this parasite are major drawbacks. Using blood samples from 40 P. vivax-infected patients, we describe here a methodology to purify viable gametocytes and further infect anophelines. This method opens new avenues to validate transmission-blocking strategies. PMID:26239989

  16. Platform for Plasmodium vivax vaccine discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Sócrates Herrera; Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Acero, Diana Lucía; Ocampo, Vanessa; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria parasite on the American continent. It generates a global burden of 80-100 million cases annually and represents a tremendous public health problem, particularly in the American and Asian continents. A malaria vaccine would be considered the most cost-effective measure against this vector-borne disease and it would contribute to a reduction in malaria cases and to eventual eradication. Although significant progress has been achieved in the search for Plasmodium falciparum antigens that could be used in a vaccine, limited progress has been made in the search for P. vivax components that might be eligible for vaccine development. This is primarily due to the lack of in vitro cultures to serve as an antigen source and to inadequate funding. While the most advanced P. falciparum vaccine candidate is currently being tested in Phase III trials in Africa, the most advanced P. vivax candidates have only advanced to Phase I trials. Herein, we describe the overall strategy and progress in P. vivax vaccine research, from antigen discovery to preclinical and clinical development and we discuss the regional potential of Latin America to develop a comprehensive platform for vaccine development.

  17. Platform for Plasmodium vivax vaccine discovery and development

    PubMed Central

    Valencia/, Sócrates Herrera; Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Acero, Diana Lucía; Ocampo, Vanessa; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria parasite on the American continent. It generates a global burden of 80–100 million cases annually and represents a tremendous public health problem, particularly in the American and Asian continents. A malaria vaccine would be considered the most cost-effective measure against this vector-borne disease and it would contribute to a reduction in malaria cases and to eventual eradication. Although significant progress has been achieved in the search for Plasmodium falciparum antigens that could be used in a vaccine, limited progress has been made in the search for P. vivax components that might be eligible for vaccine development. This is primarily due to the lack of in vitro cultures to serve as an antigen source and to inadequate funding. While the most advanced P. falciparum vaccine candidate is currently being tested in Phase III trials in Africa, the most advanced P. vivax candidates have only advanced to Phase I trials. Herein, we describe the overall strategy and progress in P. vivax vaccine research, from antigen discovery to preclinical and clinical development and we discuss the regional potential of Latin America to develop a comprehensive platform for vaccine development. PMID:21881773

  18. The redox systems of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax: comparison, in silico analyses and inhibitor studies.

    PubMed

    Mohring, F; Pretzel, J; Jortzik, E; Becker, K

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of human malaria. P. vivax, in contrast, is the most widespread malaria parasite with an enormous impact on health and economy, since the infection is characterized by high rates of relapses. Due to the mild course of malaria tertiana and complicated in vitro culturing conditions of P. vivax, most of the research on malaria parasites has focused on P. falciparum so far. The redox metabolism of P. falciparum is a promising target for novel antimalarial drugs, since maintaining a redox equilibrium is of fundamental importance for the parasite. P. falciparum contains a cytosolic glutathione and thioredoxin system, as well as redox systems in the apicoplast and the mitochondrion. In contrast to P. falciparum, little is known about the redox processes in P. vivax so far. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the redox metabolism in malaria parasites and provides a detailed in silico comparison of the known and mostly well characterized redox enzymes from P. falciparum and the largely unknown redox proteins from P. vivax. Known antimalarials at least partially mediating their antiparasitic activity by influencing the redox balance of Plasmodium, including dehydroepiandrosterone, Mannich bases, methylene blue, and naphthoquinones, are discussed. Furthermore, we present novel inhibitors identified via screening of a compound library from the Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Jena that are active against the redox-related enzymes thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 6- phosphoglucono- lactonase from P. falciparum.

  19. Characterizing PvARP, a novel Plasmodium vivax antigen

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax continues to be the most widely distributed malarial parasite species in tropical and sub-tropical areas, causing high morbidity indices around the world. Better understanding of the proteins used by the parasite during the invasion of red blood cells is required to obtain an effective vaccine against this disease. This study describes characterizing the P. vivax asparagine-rich protein (PvARP) and examines its antigenicity in natural infection. Methods The target gene in the study was selected according to a previous in silico analysis using profile hidden Markov models which identified P. vivax proteins that play a possible role in invasion. Transcription of the arp gene in the P. vivax VCG-1 strain was here evaluated by RT-PCR. Specific human antibodies against PvARP were used to confirm protein expression by Western blot as well as its subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Recognition of recombinant PvARP by sera from P. vivax-infected individuals was evaluated by ELISA. Results VCG-1 strain PvARP is a 281-residue-long molecule, which is encoded by a single exon and has an N-terminal secretion signal, as well as a tandem repeat region. This protein is expressed in mature schizonts and is located on the surface of merozoites, having an apparent accumulation towards their apical pole. Sera from P. vivax-infected patients recognized the recombinant, thereby suggesting that this protein is targeted by the immune response during infection. Conclusions This study showed the characterization of PvARP and its antigenicity. Further assays orientated towards evaluating this antigen’s functional importance during parasite invasion are being carried out. PMID:23688042

  20. Genetic structure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the Bannu district of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are the major causative agents of malaria. While knowledge of the genetic structure of malaria parasites is useful for understanding the evolution of parasite virulence, designing anti-malarial vaccines and assessing the impact of malaria control measures, there is a paucity of information on genetic diversity of these two malaria parasites in Pakistan. This study sought to shed some light on the genetic structure of P. vivax and P. falciparum in this understudied region. Methods The genetic diversities of P. vivax and P. falciparum populations from the densely populated, malaria-endemic Bannu district of Pakistan were evaluated by analysis of their merozoite surface protein (msp) genes by PCR-RFLP. Specifically, the Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax and the Pfmsp-1 and Pfmsp-2 genes of P. falciparum were analysed. Results In P. vivax, genotyping of Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes showed a high level of diversity at these loci. Four distinct allele groups: A (1.9 kb), B (1.5 kb), C (1.2 kb), and D (0.3 kb) were detected for Pvmsp-3α, type A being the most prevalent (82%). Conversely, amplification of the P. vivax msp-3β locus produced two allele groups: A (1.7-2.2 kb, 62%) and B (1.4-1.5 kb, 33%), with 5% mixed-strain infections. Restriction analysis of Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β yielded 12 and 8 distinct alleles, respectively, with a combined mixed genotype prevalence of 20%. In P. falciparum, all three known genotypes of Pfmsp-1 and two of Pfmsp-2 were observed, with MAD20 occurring in 67% and 3D7/IC in 65% of the isolates, respectively. Overall, 24% P. falciparum samples exhibited mixed-strain infections. Conclusion These results indicate that both P. vivax and P. falciparum populations in Pakistan are highly diverse. PMID:20416089

  1. [A case of Plasmodium vivax malaria with findings of DIC].

    PubMed

    Takaki, K; Aoki, T; Akeda, H; Kajiwara, T; Honda, S; Maeda, Y; Okada, K; Sawae, Y

    1991-04-01

    We reported a rare case of Plasmodium vivax malaria who showed findings of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 50-year-old Japanese male was sent to our hospital with the diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria on the 26th of April, 1990. He had stayed in the Solomon Islands from Oct. 1987 to Dec. 1989, and had febrile episodes during his stay in the island. On April 18, 1990, he complained of a high fever with chills, and showed the same episodes on the 20th, 22th and was diagnosed as malaria. He was treated successfully with the sulfadoxine 500 mg and pyrimethamine 25mg (Fansidar), following the normal temperature on the 4th day and disappearance of malarial parasites in the peripheral blood smear on the 6th day. Interestingly, he had thrombocytopenia and a high titer serum level of fibrin degradation product (FDP) supporting the questionable diagnosis of DIC. Even on the 12th day after improved thrombocytopenia by treatment with Gabexate (FOY), the serum level of FDP, D-dimer and thrombin-nati-thrombin (TAT)III complex still remained at high titer levels. One month later he was readmitted for a relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria, when he showed thrombocytopenia but the serum level of FDP, D-dimer, TAT III complex and PM.alpha 2 PI complex were normal levels. We concluded that the thrombocytopenia and the high titer of FDP at his first admission was a manifestation of DIC. PMID:2071964

  2. Resistance to Therapies for Infection by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Baird, J. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The gravity of the threat posed by vivax malaria to public health has been poorly appreciated. The widely held misperception of Plasmodium vivax as being relatively infrequent, benign, and easily treated explains its nearly complete neglect across the range of biological and clinical research. Recent evidence suggests a far higher and more-severe disease burden imposed by increasingly drug-resistant parasites. The two frontline therapies against vivax malaria, chloroquine and primaquine, may be failing. Despite 60 years of nearly continuous use of these drugs, their respective mechanisms of activity, resistance, and toxicity remain unknown. Although standardized means of assessing therapeutic efficacy against blood and liver stages have not been developed, this review examines the provisional in vivo, ex vivo, and animal model systems for doing so. The rationale, design, and interpretation of clinical trials of therapies for vivax malaria are discussed in the context of the nuance and ambiguity imposed by the hypnozoite. Fielding new drug therapies against real-world vivax malaria may require a reworking of the strategic framework of drug development, namely, the conception, testing, and evaluation of sets of drugs designed for the cure of both blood and liver asexual stages as well as the sexual blood stages within a single therapeutic regimen. PMID:19597012

  3. Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Sullivan, Steven A; Kawai, Satoru; Nakamura, Shota; Kim, Hyunjae R; Goto, Naohisa; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Honma, Hajime; Yagi, Masanori; Tougan, Takahiro; Katakai, Yuko; Kaneko, Osamu; Mita, Toshihiro; Kita, Kiyoshi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Sutton, Patrick L; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Horii, Toshihiro; Yasunaga, Teruo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Carlton, Jane M; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    P. cynomolgi, a malaria-causing parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of P. vivax, the most prevalent malaria-causing species in humans outside of Africa. Because P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biological and genetic characteristics with P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences for three P. cynomolgi strains and performed genomic analysis comparing them with the P. vivax genome, as well as with the genome of a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here, we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by copy-number variants (CNVs) in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation that can be used to map parasite traits and study parasite populations. The sequencing of the P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research and in counteracting the neglect of P. vivax. PMID:22863735

  4. Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Sullivan, Steven A; Kawai, Satoru; Nakamura, Shota; Kim, Hyunjae R; Goto, Naohisa; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Honma, Hajime; Yagi, Masanori; Tougan, Takahiro; Katakai, Yuko; Kaneko, Osamu; Mita, Toshihiro; Kita, Kiyoshi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Sutton, Patrick L; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Horii, Toshihiro; Yasunaga, Teruo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Carlton, Jane M; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    P. cynomolgi, a malaria-causing parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of P. vivax, the most prevalent malaria-causing species in humans outside of Africa. Because P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biological and genetic characteristics with P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences for three P. cynomolgi strains and performed genomic analysis comparing them with the P. vivax genome, as well as with the genome of a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here, we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by copy-number variants (CNVs) in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation that can be used to map parasite traits and study parasite populations. The sequencing of the P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research and in counteracting the neglect of P. vivax.

  5. Plasmodium vivax Pre-Erythrocytic–Stage Antigen Discovery: Exploiting Naturally Acquired Humoral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Douglas M.; Finney, Olivia C.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing

    2012-01-01

    The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy− individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic–stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy− donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria. PMID:22826492

  6. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Bruno de Paulo; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; de Souza, Rodrigo Medeiros; Cysne, Dalila Nunes; Grisotto, Marcos Augusto Grigolin; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula Silva; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection.

  7. Major Histocompatibility Complex and Malaria: Focus on Plasmodium vivax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose

    2016-01-01

    The importance of host and parasite genetic factors in malaria resistance or susceptibility has been investigated since the middle of the last century. Nowadays, of all diseases that affect man, malaria still plays one of the highest levels of selective pressure on human genome. Susceptibility to malaria depends on exposure profile, epidemiological characteristics, and several components of the innate and adaptive immune system that influences the quality of the immune response generated during the Plasmodium lifecycle in the vertebrate host. But it is well known that the parasite’s enormous capacity of genetic variation in conjunction with the host genetics polymorphism is also associated with a wide spectrum of susceptibility degrees to complicated or severe forms of the disease. In this scenario, variations in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) associated with host resistance or susceptibility to malaria have been identified and used as markers in host–pathogen interaction studies, mainly those evaluating the impact on the immune response, acquisition of resistance, or increased susceptibility to infection or vulnerability to disease. However, due to the intense selective pressure, number of cases, and mortality rates, the majority of the reported associations reported concerned Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Studies on the MHC polymorphism and its association with Plasmodium vivax, which is the most widespread Plasmodium and the most prevalent species outside the African continent, are less frequent but equally important. Despite punctual contributions, there are accumulated evidences of human genetic control in P. vivax infection and disease. Herein, we review the current knowledge in the field of MHC and derived molecules (HLA Class I, Class II, TNF-α, LTA, BAT1, and CTL4) regarding P. vivax malaria. We discuss particularly the results of P. vivax studies on HLA class I and II polymorphisms in relation to host susceptibility, naturally

  8. Plasmodium vivax genetic diversity: microsatellite length matters.

    PubMed

    Russell, Bruce; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Lek-Uthai, Usa

    2006-09-01

    The Plasmodium vivax genome is very diverse but has a relatively low abundance of microsatellites. Leclerc et al. had shown that these di-nucleotide repeats have a low level of polymorphism, suggesting a recent bottleneck event in the evolutionary history of P. vivax. By contrast, in a recent paper, Imwong et al. show that there is a very high level of microsatellite diversity. The difference in these results is probably due to the set array lengths chosen by each group. Longer arrays are more diverse than are shorter ones because slippage mutations become exponentially more common with an increase in array length. These studies highlight the need to consider carefully the application and design of studies involving microsatellites.

  9. The burden of Plasmodium vivax relapses in an Amerindian village in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu; Stefani, Aurelia; Basurko, Celia; Lemonnier, Delphine; Djossou, Félix; Demar, Magalie; Elenga, Narcisse; Brousse, Paul; Ville, Muriel; Carme, Bernard

    2013-10-24

    Malaria is a public health problem in French Guiana. Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent parasite. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the proportion of relapses in the burden of vivax malaria using the statistical rule stating that any case of vivax malaria occurring less than 90 days following a first episode is a relapse.A total of 622 subjects were followed for 2,9 years with 336 first single episodes of P. vivax malaria, and a total of 1,226 episodes of vivax malaria among which 559 were relapses (45.5%). For 194 patients having had falciparum malaria followed by vivax malaria it was estimated that 19% of the vivax episodes occurred less than 90 days following the falciparum episode and thus were possibly relapses due to the activation of latent hypnozoites. Despite the number of vivax cases and the number of relapses, there were only 28 recorded primaquine prescriptions (3.4% of vivax episodes, 4.5% of subjects).The present study points out that despite the fact that nearly half of the P. vivax cases, many of which in children, are caused by latent hypnozoites, only a minority of them benefit from primaquine radical cure. The obstacles to this are discussed and suggestions are made to reduce the burden of vivax malaria in Camopi and other remote health centres in French Guiana.

  10. PI4 Kinase Is a Prophylactic but Not Radical Curative Target in Plasmodium vivax-Type Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; van der Werff, Nicole; Klooster, Els J.; Voorberg-van der Wel, Annemarie; Kondreddi, Ravinder R.; Bodenreider, Christophe; Simon, Oliver; Sauerwein, Robert; Yeung, Bryan K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two Plasmodium PI4 kinase (PI4K) inhibitors, KDU691 and LMV599, were selected for in vivo testing as causal prophylactic and radical-cure agents for Plasmodium cynomolgi sporozoite-infected rhesus macaques, based on their in vitro activity against liver stages. Animals were infected with P. cynomolgi sporozoites, and compounds were dosed orally. Both the KDU691 and LMV599 compounds were fully protective when administered prophylactically, and the more potent compound LMV599 achieved protection as a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight. In contrast, when tested for radical cure, five daily doses of 20 mg/kg of KDU691 or 25 mg/kg of LMV599 did not prevent relapse, as all animals experienced a secondary infection due to the reactivation of hypnozoites in the liver. Pharmacokinetic data show that LMV599 achieved plasma exposure that was sufficient to achieve efficacy based on our in vitro data. These findings indicate that Plasmodium PI4K is a potential drug target for malaria prophylaxis but not radical cure. Longer in vitro culture systems will be required to assess these compounds' activity on established hypnozoites and predict radical cure in vivo. PMID:26926645

  11. Molecular typing reveals substantial Plasmodium vivax infection in asymptomatic adults in a rural area of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria in Cameroon is due to infections by Plasmodium falciparum and, to a lesser extent, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale, but rarely Plasmodium vivax. A recent report suggested “Plasmodium vivax–like” infections around the study area that remained unconfirmed. Therefore, molecular and antigenic typing was used to investigate the prevalence of P. vivax and Duffy in asymptomatic adults resident in Bolifamba. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2008 to October 2009. The status of all parasite species was determined by nested PCR in 269 blood samples collected. The P. falciparum and P. vivax anti-MSP/CSP antibody status of each subject was also determined qualitatively by a rapid card assay. Parasite DNA was extracted from a sample infected with three parasite species, purified and sequenced. The Duffy antigen status of 12 subjects infected with P. vivax was also determined by sequencing. In silico web-based tools were used to analyse sequence data for similarities and matches to reference sequences in public DNA databases. Results The overall malaria parasite prevalence in 269 individuals was 32.3% (87) as determined by PCR. Remarkably, 14.9% (13/87) of infections were caused either exclusively or concomitantly by P. vivax, established both by PCR and microscopic examination of blood smears, in individuals both positive (50%, 6/12) and negative (50%, 6/12) for the Duffy receptor. A triple infection by P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae, was detected in one infected individual. Anti-MSP/CSP antibodies were detected in 72.1% (194/269) of samples, indicating high and continuous exposure to infection through mosquito bites. Discussion These data provide the first molecular evidence of P. vivax in Duffy positive and negative Cameroonians and suggest that there may be a significant prevalence of P. vivax infection than expected in the study area. Whether the P. vivax cases were imported or due to expansion of a founder

  12. Determinants of in vitro drug susceptibility testing of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Russell, B; Chalfein, F; Prasetyorini, B; Kenangalem, E; Piera, K; Suwanarusk, R; Brockman, A; Prayoga, P; Sugiarto, P; Cheng, Q; Tjitra, E; Anstey, N M; Price, R N

    2008-03-01

    In Papua, Indonesia, the antimalarial susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax (n = 216) and P. falciparum (n = 277) was assessed using a modified schizont maturation assay for chloroquine, amodiaquine, artesunate, lumefantrine, mefloquine, and piperaquine. The most effective antimalarial against P. vivax and P. falciparum was artesunate, with geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of 1.31 nM (1.07 to 1.59) and 0.64 nM (0.53 to 0.79), respectively. In contrast, the geometric mean chloroquine IC50 for P. vivax was 295 nM (227 to 384) compared to only 47.4 nM (42.2 to 53.3) for P. falciparum. Two factors were found to significantly influence the in vitro drug response of P. vivax: the initial stage of the parasite and the duration of the assay. Isolates of P. vivax initially at the trophozoite stage had significantly higher chloroquine IC50s (478 nM [95% CI, 316 to 722]) than those initially at the ring stage (84.7 nM [95% CI, 45.7 to 157]; P < 0.001). Synchronous isolates of P. vivax and P. falciparum which reached the target of 40% schizonts in the control wells within 30 h had significantly higher geometric mean chloroquine IC50s (435 nM [95% CI, 169 to 1,118] and 55.9 nM [95% CI, 48 to 64.9], respectively) than isolates that took more than 30 h (39.9 nM [14.6 to 110.4] and 36.9 nM [31.2 to 43.7]; P < 0.005). The results demonstrate the marked stage-specific activity of chloroquine with P. vivax and suggest that susceptibility to chloroquine may be associated with variable growth rates. These findings have important implications for the phenotypic and downstream genetic characterization of P. vivax.

  13. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Adams, John H.; Pasini, Erica M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  14. Role of Plasmodium vivax Duffy-binding protein 1 in invasion of Duffy-null Africans

    PubMed Central

    Gunalan, Karthigayan; Lo, Eugenia; Hostetler, Jessica B.; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Mu, Jianbing; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Yan, Guiyun; Miller, Louis H.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax to invade erythrocytes is dependent on the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen on erythrocytes. Consequently, Africans who are null for the Duffy antigen are not susceptible to P. vivax infections. Recently, P. vivax infections in Duffy-null Africans have been documented, raising the possibility that P. vivax, a virulent pathogen in other parts of the world, may expand malarial disease in Africa. P. vivax binds the Duffy blood group antigen through its Duffy-binding protein 1 (DBP1). To determine if mutations in DBP1 resulted in the ability of P. vivax to bind Duffy-null erythrocytes, we analyzed P. vivax parasites obtained from two Duffy-null individuals living in Ethiopia where Duffy-null and -positive Africans live side-by-side. We determined that, although the DBP1s from these parasites contained unique sequences, they failed to bind Duffy-null erythrocytes, indicating that mutations in DBP1 did not account for the ability of P. vivax to infect Duffy-null Africans. However, an unusual DNA expansion of DBP1 (three and eight copies) in the two Duffy-null P. vivax infections suggests that an expansion of DBP1 may have been selected to allow low-affinity binding to another receptor on Duffy-null erythrocytes. Indeed, we show that Salvador (Sal) I P. vivax infects Squirrel monkeys independently of DBP1 binding to Squirrel monkey erythrocytes. We conclude that P. vivax Sal I and perhaps P. vivax in Duffy-null patients may have adapted to use new ligand–receptor pairs for invasion. PMID:27190089

  15. Role of Plasmodium vivax Duffy-binding protein 1 in invasion of Duffy-null Africans.

    PubMed

    Gunalan, Karthigayan; Lo, Eugenia; Hostetler, Jessica B; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Mu, Jianbing; Neafsey, Daniel E; Yan, Guiyun; Miller, Louis H

    2016-05-31

    The ability of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax to invade erythrocytes is dependent on the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen on erythrocytes. Consequently, Africans who are null for the Duffy antigen are not susceptible to P. vivax infections. Recently, P. vivax infections in Duffy-null Africans have been documented, raising the possibility that P. vivax, a virulent pathogen in other parts of the world, may expand malarial disease in Africa. P. vivax binds the Duffy blood group antigen through its Duffy-binding protein 1 (DBP1). To determine if mutations in DBP1 resulted in the ability of P. vivax to bind Duffy-null erythrocytes, we analyzed P. vivax parasites obtained from two Duffy-null individuals living in Ethiopia where Duffy-null and -positive Africans live side-by-side. We determined that, although the DBP1s from these parasites contained unique sequences, they failed to bind Duffy-null erythrocytes, indicating that mutations in DBP1 did not account for the ability of P. vivax to infect Duffy-null Africans. However, an unusual DNA expansion of DBP1 (three and eight copies) in the two Duffy-null P. vivax infections suggests that an expansion of DBP1 may have been selected to allow low-affinity binding to another receptor on Duffy-null erythrocytes. Indeed, we show that Salvador (Sal) I P. vivax infects Squirrel monkeys independently of DBP1 binding to Squirrel monkey erythrocytes. We conclude that P. vivax Sal I and perhaps P. vivax in Duffy-null patients may have adapted to use new ligand-receptor pairs for invasion.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana and Armenia.

    PubMed

    Menegon, Michela; Durand, Patrick; Menard, Didier; Legrand, Eric; Picot, Stéphane; Nour, Bakri; Davidyants, Vladimir; Santi, Flavia; Severini, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphic genetic markers and especially microsatellite analysis can be used to investigate multiple aspects of the biology of Plasmodium species. In the current study, we characterized 7 polymorphic microsatellites in a total of 281 Plasmodium vivax isolates to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax populations from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana, and Armenia. All four parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-32 alleles per locus. Mean genetic diversity values was 0.83, 0.79, 0.78 and 0.67 for Madagascar, French Guiana, Sudan, and Armenia, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between all four populations was observed.

  17. Acquisition and Longevity of Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Preerythrocytic Antigens in Western Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Montoya-Díaz, Eduardo; Dunachie, Susanna; Kumpitak, Chalermpon; Nguitragool, Wang; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is now the dominant Plasmodium species causing malaria in Thailand, yet little is known about naturally acquired immune responses to this parasite in this low-transmission region. The preerythrocytic stage of the P. vivax life cycle is considered an excellent target for a malaria vaccine, and in this study, we assessed the stability of the seropositivity and the magnitude of IgG responses to three different preerythrocytic P. vivax proteins in two groups of adults from a region of western Thailand where malaria is endemic. These individuals were enrolled in a yearlong cohort study, which comprised one group that remained P. vivax free (by quantitative PCR [qPCR] detection, n = 31) and another that experienced two or more blood-stage P. vivax infections during the year of follow up (n = 31). Despite overall low levels of seropositivity, IgG positivity and magnitude were long-lived over the 1-year period in the absence of qPCR-detectable blood-stage P. vivax infections. In contrast, in the adults with two or more P. vivax infections during the year, IgG positivity was maintained, but the magnitude of the response to P. vivax circumsporozoite protein 210 (CSP210) decreased over time. These findings demonstrate that long-term humoral immunity can develop in low-transmission regions. PMID:26656115

  18. Repeated Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses in a Peruvian sailor.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Adam P; Sanchez, Juan F; Mercado, Alejandro; Ventocilla, Julio A; Cavalcanti, Sofia; Gonzalez, Sofia; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-01-01

    Two Plasmodium vivax recurrences in a Peruvian sailor with weight above the 60 kg (cap for primaquine dosage) highlight the importance of adequate radical cure weight dosage for patient treatment and control efforts, particularly within the military. PMID:26620122

  19. Repeated Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses in a Peruvian sailor.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Adam P; Sanchez, Juan F; Mercado, Alejandro; Ventocilla, Julio A; Cavalcanti, Sofia; Gonzalez, Sofia; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-12-01

    Two Plasmodium vivax recurrences in a Peruvian sailor with weight above the 60 kg (cap for primaquine dosage) highlight the importance of adequate radical cure weight dosage for patient treatment and control efforts, particularly within the military.

  20. COMPETITION FOR RED BLOOD CELLS CAN ENHANCE PLASMODIUM VIVAX PARASITEMIA IN MIXED-SPECIES MALARIA INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    MCQUEEN, PHILIP G.; MCKENZIE, F. ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    We assess the consequences of competition for red blood cells (RBCs) in co-infections with the two major agents of human malaria, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, using differential equations to model the population dynamics of RBCs and parasites. P. vivax parasitizes only the youngest RBCs, but this can reduce the broader RBC population susceptible to P. falciparum. We found that competition for RBCs typically causes one species to suppress the other, depending on their relative reproduction rates and timing of inoculation. However, if the species’ reproduction rates are nearly equal, transient increases in RBC production stimulated by the presence of P. falciparum may boost P. vivax parasitemia above its single-species infection level. Conversely, P. falciparum parasitemia is rarely enhanced above its single-species level. Furthermore, transients in RBC production can induce coupled oscillations in the parasitemia of both species. These results are remarkably robust to changes in model parameters. PMID:16837717

  1. Antibody response to Plasmodium vivax antigens in Fy-negative individuals from the Colombian Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sócrates; Gómez, Andrés; Vera, Omaira; Vergara, Juana; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Maestre, Amanda; Méndez, Fabián; Wang, Ruobing; Chitnis, Chetan E; Yazdani, Syed S; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2005-11-01

    The Duffy antigen (Fy) is necessary for Plasmodium vivax invasion of human erythrocytes. Some populations have a highly prevalent Fy-negative phenotype; such persons are naturally protected from P. vivax blood infection but are expected to completely support the P. vivax pre-erythrocytic cycle, representing a valuable model for studying the immune response during these parasitic stages. We typed 214 individuals, mostly Afro-Colombians, from a P. vivax-endemic area for Fy expression and determined the antibody response to P. vivax pre-erythrocytic (sporozoites and CS) and blood-stage antigens (blood forms, P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1, and P. vivax Duffy binding protein [PvDBP]). Antibody titers to P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, P11, and N-terminal peptides and the number of responders were similar in Fy-negative and Fy-positive individuals. The number of responders to sporozoites, blood forms, and PvDBP were different between these groups. Thus, Fy-negative individuals from malaria-endemic areas can be used to study the immune response to the P. vivax liver phase without interference of the erythrocytic cycle.

  2. Greater endothelial activation, Weibel-Palade body release and host inflammatory response to Plasmodium vivax, compared with Plasmodium falciparum: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tsin W; Lampah, Daniel A; Tjitra, Emiliana; Piera, Kim; Gitawati, Retno; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2010-07-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms underlying vivax malaria are poorly understood, with few studies comparing endothelial and inflammatory responses with falciparum malaria. In adults with uncomplicated vivax or falciparum malaria, we compared plasma measurements of endothelial Weibel-Palade body release (angiopoietin-2) and activation (ICAM-1, E-selectin), as well as selected cytokines. Despite a lower median parasite count, angiopoietin-2 concentrations were higher in patients with vivax malaria, compared with falciparum malaria. Per peripheral parasite, median plasma angiopoietin-2, ICAM-1, E-selectin, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 concentrations were higher in patients with malaria due to Plasmodium vivax. P. vivax induces greater endothelial Weibel-Palade body release and activation and greater host inflammatory responses, compared with Plasmodium falciparum.

  3. In vitro activity of pyronaridine against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Price, R N; Marfurt, J; Chalfein, F; Kenangalem, E; Piera, K A; Tjitra, E; Anstey, N M; Russell, B

    2010-12-01

    Pyronaridine, a Mannich base antimalarial, has demonstrated high in vivo and in vitro efficacy against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Although this drug has the potential to become a prominent artemisinin combination therapy, little is known about its efficacy against drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax. The in vitro antimalarial susceptibility of pyronaridine was assessed in multidrug-resistant P. vivax (n = 99) and P. falciparum (n = 90) isolates from Papua, Indonesia, using a schizont maturation assay. The median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of pyronaridine was 1.92 nM (range, 0.24 to 13.8 nM) against P. falciparum and 2.58 nM (range, 0.13 to 43.6 nM) against P. vivax, with in vitro susceptibility correlating significantly with chloroquine, amodiaquine, and piperaquine (r(s) [Spearman's rank correlation coefficient] = 0.45 to 0.62; P < 0.001). P. falciparum parasites initially at trophozoite stage had higher IC(50)s of pyronaridine than those exposed at the ring stage (8.9 nM [range, 0.6 to 8.9 nM] versus 1.6 nM [range, 0.6 to 8.9 nM], respectively; P = 0.015), although this did not reach significance for P. vivax (4.7 nM [range, 1.4 to 18.7 nM] versus 2.5 nM [range, 1.4 to 15.6 nM], respectively; P = 0.085). The excellent in vitro efficacy of pyronaridine against both chloroquine-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum highlights the suitability of the drug as a novel partner for artemisinin-based combination therapy in regions where the two species are coendemic.

  4. Membrane Feeding Assay to Determine the Infectiousness of Plasmodium vivax Gametocytes.

    PubMed

    Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kumpitak, Chalermpon; Kiattibutr, Kirakorn

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of Plasmodium vivax gametocyte infectiousness by the membrane feeding assay is herein described. While P. vivax cannot be cultured and different parasite isolates may infect mosquitoes at different rates, the protocol described in this chapter identifies critical parameters to be considered when performing the assay such as methods for the preparation of the mosquitoes, the size of the blood cup, and the blood volume used. In previous studies the data have shown that the membrane feeding assay is useful for studies of parasite biology, and the effects of transmission blocking drugs and vaccines. PMID:26450382

  5. Adherence to human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For years Plasmodium vivax has been considered the cause of benign malaria. Nevertheless, it has been observed that this parasite can produce a severe disease comparable to Plasmodium falciparum. It has been suggested that some physiopathogenic processes might be shared by these two species, such as cytoadherence. Recently, it has been demonstrated that P. vivax-infected erythrocytes (Pv-iEs) have the capacity to adhere to endothelial cells, in which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) seems to be involved in this process. Methods Adherence capacity of 21 Colombian isolates, from patients with P. vivax mono-infection to a microvascular line of human lung endothelium (HMVEC-L) was assessed in static conditions and binding was evaluated at basal levels or in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulated cells. The adherence specificity for the ICAM-1 receptor was determined through inhibition with an anti-CD54 monoclonal antibody. Results The majority of P. vivax isolates, 13 out of 21 (61.9%), adhered to the HMVEC-L cells, but P. vivax adherence was at least seven times lower when compared to the four P. falciparum isolates. Moreover, HMVEC-L stimulation with TNF led to an increase of 1.6-fold in P. vivax cytoadhesion, similar to P. falciparum isolates (1.8-fold) at comparable conditions. Also, blockage of ICAM-1 receptor with specific antibodies showed a significant 50% adherence reduction. Conclusions Plasmodium vivax isolates found in Colombia are also capable of adhering specifically in vitro to lung endothelial cells, via ICAM-1 cell receptor, both at basal state and after cell stimulation with TNF. Collectively, these findings reinforce the concept of cytoadherence for P. vivax, but here, to a different endothelial cell line and using geographical distinct isolates, thus contributing to understanding P. vivax biology. PMID:24080027

  6. Effect of anti-mosquito hemolymph antibodies on fecundity and on the infectivity of malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles stephensi (Diptera:Insecta).

    PubMed

    Gulia, Monika; Suneja, Amita; Gakhar, Surendra K

    2002-06-01

    Rabbit antibodies to hemolymph antigens (102.5, 101, 100, 96, 88, 80, 64, 55, 43, 29, and 23 kDa) of Anopheles stephensi reduced fecundity as well as viability in An. stephensi. However, ingestion of these antibodies was not associated with a marked effect on the engorgement of mosquitoes but egg laying was significantly delayed. Antisera raised against hemolymph proteins were also used to identify cross reactive antigens/epitopes present in other tissues by Western blotting, as well as by in vivo ELISA. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was also observed in An. stephensi mosquitoes that ingested anti-hemolymph antibodies along with Plasmodium vivax. The results confirmed the feasibility of targeting mosquito antigens as a novel anti-mosquito strategy, as well as confirmed the usefulness of such antigens for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. PMID:12195047

  7. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Gamboa, Dionicia; Soto-Calle, Veronica E.; Van den Eede, Peter; Torres, Eliana; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Rodriguez Ferrucci, Hugo; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Erhart, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Iquitos, the main city in the Peruvian Amazon, and 25 neighbouring peri-urban as well as rural villages along the Iquitos-Nauta Road. Methodology/ Results From April to December 2008, 292 P. vivax isolates were collected and successfully genotyped using 14 neutral microsatellites. Analysis of the molecular data revealed a similar proportion of monoclonal and polyclonal infections in urban areas, while in rural areas monoclonal infections were predominant (p = 0.002). Multiplicity of infection was higher in urban (MOI = 1.5–2) compared to rural areas (MOI = 1) (p = 0.003). The level of genetic diversity was similar in all areas (He = 0.66–0.76, p = 0.32) though genetic differentiation between areas was substantial (PHIPT = 0.17, p<0.0001). Principal coordinate analysis showed a marked differentiation between parasites from urban and rural areas. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all the areas (IAs = 0.08–0.49, for all p<0.0001). Gene flow among the areas was stablished through Bayesian analysis of migration models. Recent bottleneck events were detected in 4 areas and a recent parasite expansion in one of the isolated areas. In total, 87 unique haplotypes grouped in 2 or 3 genetic clusters described a sub-structured parasite population. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows a sub-structured parasite population with clonal propagation, with most of its components recently affected by bottleneck events. Iquitos city is the main source of parasite spreading for all the peripheral study areas. The routes of transmission and gene flow and the reduction of the parasite population described

  8. Genome-wide patterns of genetic polymorphism and signatures of selection in Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Omar E; Fisher, David; Escalante, Ananias A

    2014-12-17

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent human malaria parasite outside of Africa. Yet, studies aimed to identify genes with signatures consistent with natural selection are rare. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the pattern of genetic variation of five sequenced isolates of P. vivax and its divergence with two closely related species, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium knowlesi, using a set of orthologous genes. In contrast to Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most lethal form of human malaria, we did not find significant constraints on the evolution of synonymous sites genome wide in P. vivax. The comparative analysis of polymorphism and divergence across loci allowed us to identify 87 genes with patterns consistent with positive selection, including genes involved in the "exportome" of P. vivax, which are potentially involved in evasion of the host immune system. Nevertheless, we have found a pattern of polymorphism genome wide that is consistent with a significant amount of constraint on the replacement changes and prevalent negative selection. Our analyses also show that silent polymorphism tends to be larger toward the ends of the chromosomes, where many genes involved in antigenicity are located, suggesting that natural selection acts not only by shaping the patterns of variation within the genes but it also affects genome organization.

  9. Genome-Wide Patterns of Genetic Polymorphism and Signatures of Selection in Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Omar E.; Fisher, David; Escalante, Ananias A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent human malaria parasite outside of Africa. Yet, studies aimed to identify genes with signatures consistent with natural selection are rare. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the pattern of genetic variation of five sequenced isolates of P. vivax and its divergence with two closely related species, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium knowlesi, using a set of orthologous genes. In contrast to Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most lethal form of human malaria, we did not find significant constraints on the evolution of synonymous sites genome wide in P. vivax. The comparative analysis of polymorphism and divergence across loci allowed us to identify 87 genes with patterns consistent with positive selection, including genes involved in the “exportome” of P. vivax, which are potentially involved in evasion of the host immune system. Nevertheless, we have found a pattern of polymorphism genome wide that is consistent with a significant amount of constraint on the replacement changes and prevalent negative selection. Our analyses also show that silent polymorphism tends to be larger toward the ends of the chromosomes, where many genes involved in antigenicity are located, suggesting that natural selection acts not only by shaping the patterns of variation within the genes but it also affects genome organization. PMID:25523904

  10. The Origins of African Plasmodium vivax; Insights from Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Culleton, Richard; Coban, Cevayir; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz; Cravo, Pedro; Kaneko, Akira; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy; Kano, Shigeyuki; Farnert, Anna; Arez, Ana Paula; Sharp, Paul M.; Carter, Richard; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax, the second most prevalent of the human malaria parasites, is estimated to affect 75 million people annually. It is very rare, however, in west and central Africa, due to the high prevalence of the Duffy negative phenotype in the human population. Due to its rarity in Africa, previous studies on the phylogeny of world-wide P. vivax have suffered from insufficient samples of African parasites. Here we compare the mitochondrial sequence diversity of parasites from Africa with those from other areas of the world, in order to investigate the origin of present-day African P. vivax. Mitochondrial genome sequencing revealed relatively little polymorphism within the African population compared to parasites from the rest of the world. This, combined with sequence similarity with parasites from India, suggests that the present day African P. vivax population in humans may have been introduced relatively recently from the Indian subcontinent. Haplotype network analysis also raises the possibility that parasites currently found in Africa and South America may be the closest extant relatives of the ancestors of the current world population. Lines of evidence are adduced that this ancestral population may be from an ancient stock of P. vivax in Africa. PMID:22195007

  11. Using Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Detect Genetic Signatures of Plasmodium vivax Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jessica T.; Hathaway, Nicholas J.; Saunders, David L.; Lon, Chanthap; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Kharabora, Oksana; Gosi, Panita; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Kartchner, Laurel; Chuor, Char Meng; Satharath, Prom; Lanteri, Charlotte; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Juliano, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax infections often recur due to relapse of hypnozoites from the liver. In malaria-endemic areas, tools to distinguish relapse from reinfection are needed. We applied amplicon deep sequencing to P. vivax isolates from 78 Cambodian volunteers, nearly one-third of whom suffered recurrence at a median of 68 days. Deep sequencing at a highly variable region of the P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 gene revealed impressive diversity—generating 67 unique haplotypes and detecting on average 3.6 cocirculating parasite clones within individuals, compared to 2.1 clones detected by a combination of 3 microsatellite markers. This diversity enabled a scheme to classify over half of recurrences as probable relapses based on the low probability of reinfection by multiple recurring variants. In areas of high P. vivax diversity, targeted deep sequencing can help detect genetic signatures of relapse, key to evaluating antivivax interventions and achieving a better understanding of relapse-reinfection epidemiology. PMID:25748326

  12. Using Amplicon Deep Sequencing to Detect Genetic Signatures of Plasmodium vivax Relapse.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jessica T; Hathaway, Nicholas J; Saunders, David L; Lon, Chanthap; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Kharabora, Oksana; Gosi, Panita; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Kartchner, Laurel; Chuor, Char Meng; Satharath, Prom; Lanteri, Charlotte; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Juliano, Jonathan J

    2015-09-15

    Plasmodium vivax infections often recur due to relapse of hypnozoites from the liver. In malaria-endemic areas, tools to distinguish relapse from reinfection are needed. We applied amplicon deep sequencing to P. vivax isolates from 78 Cambodian volunteers, nearly one-third of whom suffered recurrence at a median of 68 days. Deep sequencing at a highly variable region of the P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 gene revealed impressive diversity-generating 67 unique haplotypes and detecting on average 3.6 cocirculating parasite clones within individuals, compared to 2.1 clones detected by a combination of 3 microsatellite markers. This diversity enabled a scheme to classify over half of recurrences as probable relapses based on the low probability of reinfection by multiple recurring variants. In areas of high P. vivax diversity, targeted deep sequencing can help detect genetic signatures of relapse, key to evaluating antivivax interventions and achieving a better understanding of relapse-reinfection epidemiology.

  13. Chemotherapy of Plasmodium vivax in Saimiri and Aotus models.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Young, M D; Baerg, D C

    1975-03-01

    Three standard antimalarial compounds were tested against trophozoite or sporozoite induced infections of the Panamanian Achiote strain of Plasmodium vivax in two species of monkeys. In Saimiri sciureus (24 subjects) and Aotus trivirgatus (11 subjects), parasite clearance from the peripheral blood averaged 3 days after initiating chloroquine therapy (total dose of 25 mg base/kg body weight over 3 days or single dose of 10 mg base/kg. Trophozoite induced infections were cured in all of 10 Saimiri and all of 6 Aotus, as indicated by the absence of relapses. Relapses did occur in 3 of 11 tests with Saimiri and 3 of 5 tests with Aotus against sporozoite induced infections. Subpatent periods ranged from 38 to 111 days among intact and splenectomized hosts. This is the first chemotherapeutic evidence for the persistence of exoerythrocytic stages of P. vivax in New World monkeys. Pyrimethaminr (single dose of 1 mg/kg) cured trophozoite induced infections in all of five Saimiri hosts. Radical cure of sporozoite induced infections was accomplished in each of six trials with chloroquine (25 mg base/kg) plus primaquine (1 mg base/kg for 14 days). The primary attack or relapse was treated. These models warrant further investigation in chemotherapy.

  14. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ernest R; Barnwell, John W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2015-03-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology.

  15. New insights into the Plasmodium vivax transcriptome using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Mok, Sachel; Imwong, Mallika; Jaidee, Anchalee; Russell, Bruce; Nosten, Francois; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Preiser, Peter R; Bozdech, Zbynek

    2016-01-01

    Historically seen as a benign disease, it is now becoming clear that Plasmodium vivax can cause significant morbidity. Effective control strategies targeting P. vivax malaria is hindered by our limited understanding of vivax biology. Here we established the P. vivax transcriptome of the Intraerythrocytic Developmental Cycle (IDC) of two clinical isolates in high resolution by Illumina HiSeq platform. The detailed map of transcriptome generates new insights into regulatory mechanisms of individual genes and reveals their intimate relationship with specific biological functions. A transcriptional hotspot of vir genes observed on chromosome 2 suggests a potential active site modulating immune evasion of the Plasmodium parasite across patients. Compared to other eukaryotes, P. vivax genes tend to have unusually long 5' untranslated regions and also present multiple transcription start sites. In contrast, alternative splicing is rare in P. vivax but its association with the late schizont stage suggests some of its significance for gene function. The newly identified transcripts, including up to 179 vir like genes and 3018 noncoding RNAs suggest an important role of these gene/transcript classes in strain specific transcriptional regulation.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax to antimalarials in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diana; Segura, César; Arboleda, Margarita; Garavito, Giovanny; Blair, Silvia; Pabón, Adriana

    2014-11-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 30 isolates of Plasmodium vivax to a number of antimalarials (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine, amodiaquine, quinine, and artesunate [AS]) were evaluated. The isolates came from the region of Urabá in Colombia, in which malaria is endemic, and were evaluated by the schizont maturation test. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.6 nM (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 1.0 nM) for artesunate, 8.5 nM (95% CI, 5.6 to 13.0 nM) for amodiaquine, 23.3 nM (95% CI, 12.4 to 44.1 nM) for chloroquine, 55.6 nM (95% CI, 36.8 to 84.1 nM) for mefloquine, and 115.3 nM (95% CI, 57.7 to 230.5 nM) for quinine. The isolates were classified according to whether the initial parasites were mature or immature trophozoites (Tfz). It was found that the IC50s for chloroquine and artesunate were significantly different in the two aforementioned groups (P < 0.001). The IC50s of CQ and AS were higher in the isolates from mature Tfz (CQ, 39.3 nM versus 17 nM; AS, 1.4 nM versus 0.3 nM), and 10% of the isolates showed lower susceptibilities to one of the antimalarial drugs, 13.3% to two antimalarial drugs, and 3.3% to more than three antimalarial drugs. It should be highlighted that despite the extensive use of chloroquine in Colombia, P. vivax continues to be susceptible to antimalarials. This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing in vitro susceptibilities of P. vivax isolates to antimalarials in Colombia.

  17. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y. M.; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0–12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1–9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9–8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5–7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60–80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2–6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11–0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04–0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations. PMID:26125189

  18. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations.

  19. Plasmodium vivax blood-stage dynamics.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, F Ellis; Jeffery, Geoffrey M; Collins, William E

    2002-06-01

    We examine the dynamics of parasitemia and gametocytemia reflected in the preintervention charts of 221 malaria-naive U.S. neurosyphilis patients infected with the St. Elizabeth strain of Plasmodium vivax, for malariatherapy, focusing on the 109 charts for which 15 or more days of patency preceded intervention and daily records encompassed an average 98% of the duration of each infection. Our approximations of merogony cycles (via "local peaks" in parasitemia) seldom fit patterns that correspond to "textbook" tertian brood structures. Peak parasitemia was higher in trophozoite-induced infections than in sporozoite-induced ones. Relative densities of male and female gametocytes appeared to alternate, though without a discernably regular period. Successful transmission to mosquitoes did not depend on detectable gametocytemia or on absence of fever. When gametocytes were detected, transmission success depended on densities of only male gametocytes. Successful feeds occurred on average 4.7 days later in an infection than did failures. Parasitemia was lower in homologous reinfection, gametocytemia lower or absent. PMID:12099421

  20. Malaysian child infected with Plasmodium vivax via blood transfusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria may be a serious complication of blood transfusion due to the asymptomatic persistence of parasites in some donors. This case report highlights the transfusion-transmitted malaria of Plasmodium vivax in a child diagnosed with germ cell tumour. This child had received blood transfusion from three donors and a week later started developing malaria like symptoms. Nested PCR and sequencing confirmed that one of the three donors was infected with P. vivax and this was transmitted to the 12-year-old child. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported transfusion-transmitted malaria case in Malaysia. PMID:24007496

  1. Individual Plasmodium vivax msp1 Variants within Polyclonal P. vivax Infections Display Different Propensities for Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J.; Kharabora, Oksana; Sem, Rithy; Lin, Feng-Chang; Muth, Sinuon; Ménard, Didier; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Rogers, William O.; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a newly developed Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 gene (Pvmsp1) heteroduplex tracking assay, we genotyped 107 P. vivax infections in individuals from Cambodia, 45 of whom developed recurrent parasitemia within 42 days. The majority of isolates were polyclonal, but recurrent parasitemias displayed fewer variants compared to initial parasitemias. Two Pvmsp1 gene variants occurred more frequently in the initial genotypes of those who developed recurrent parasitemia, representing the first time P. vivax variants associated with a higher risk of relapse have been described. PMID:22205791

  2. Diversity, host switching and evolution of Plasmodium vivax infecting African great apes.

    PubMed

    Prugnolle, Franck; Rougeron, Virginie; Becquart, Pierre; Berry, Antoine; Makanga, Boris; Rahola, Nil; Arnathau, Céline; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Menard, Sandie; Willaume, Eric; Ayala, Francisco J; Fontenille, Didier; Ollomo, Benjamin; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François

    2013-05-14

    Plasmodium vivax is considered to be absent from Central and West Africa because of the protective effect of Duffy negativity. However, there are reports of persons returning from these areas infected with this parasite and observations suggesting the existence of transmission. Among the possible explanations for this apparent paradox, the existence of a zoonotic reservoir has been proposed. May great apes be this reservoir? We analyze the mitochondrial and nuclear genetic diversity of P. vivax parasites isolated from great apes in Africa and compare it to parasites isolated from travelers returning from these regions of Africa, as well as to human isolates distributed all over the world. We show that the P. vivax sequences from parasites of great apes form a clade genetically distinct from the parasites circulating in humans. We show that this clade's parasites can be infectious to humans by describing the case of a traveler returning from the Central African Republic infected with one of them. The relationship between this P. vivax clade in great apes and the human isolates is discussed.

  3. Diversity, host switching and evolution of Plasmodium vivax infecting African great apes

    PubMed Central

    Prugnolle, Franck; Rougeron, Virginie; Becquart, Pierre; Berry, Antoine; Makanga, Boris; Rahola, Nil; Arnathau, Céline; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Menard, Sandie; Willaume, Eric; Ayala, Francisco J.; Fontenille, Didier; Ollomo, Benjamin; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is considered to be absent from Central and West Africa because of the protective effect of Duffy negativity. However, there are reports of persons returning from these areas infected with this parasite and observations suggesting the existence of transmission. Among the possible explanations for this apparent paradox, the existence of a zoonotic reservoir has been proposed. May great apes be this reservoir? We analyze the mitochondrial and nuclear genetic diversity of P. vivax parasites isolated from great apes in Africa and compare it to parasites isolated from travelers returning from these regions of Africa, as well as to human isolates distributed all over the world. We show that the P. vivax sequences from parasites of great apes form a clade genetically distinct from the parasites circulating in humans. We show that this clade’s parasites can be infectious to humans by describing the case of a traveler returning from the Central African Republic infected with one of them. The relationship between this P. vivax clade in great apes and the human isolates is discussed. PMID:23637341

  4. Identification and characterization of the Plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related apical merozoite protein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is a major public health problem worldwide that affects 70-80 million people in the Middle East, Asia, Western Pacific, South America and the Caribbean. Despite its epidemiological importance, few antigens from this parasite species have been characterized to date compared to Plasmodium falciparum, due in part to the difficulties of maintaining an in vitro culture of P. vivax. This study describes the identification of the P. falciparum thrombospondin-related apical merozoite protein homologue in P. vivax (PvTRAMP) and examines its potential to be further evaluated as vaccine candidate. Methods The gene encoding PvTRAMP was identified through an extensive search of the databases hosting the genome sequence of P. vivax. Genes adjacent to pvtramp were identified in silico to determine the degree of similarity between the protein sequences encoded by equivalent chromosomic fragments in P. falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi. The pvtramp gene was amplified from cDNA of P. vivax schizont stages, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Anti-PvTRAMP antisera was obtained by inoculating rabbits with PvTRAMP B cell epitopes produced as synthetic peptides in order to assess its recognition in parasite lysates by Western blot and in intact parasites by indirect immunofluorescence. The recognition of recombinant PvTRAMP by sera from P. vivax-infected individuals living in endemic areas was also assessed by ELISA. Results The PfTRAMP homologue in P. vivax, here denoted as PvTRAMP, is a 340-amino-acid long antigen encoded by a single exon that could have a potential role in cytoadherence, as indicated by the presence of a thrombospondin structural homology repeat (TSR) domain. According to its transcription and expression profile, PvTRAMP is initially located at the parasite's apical end and later on the parasite surface. Recombinant PvTRAMP is recognized by sera from infected patients, therefore, indicating that it is targeted by

  5. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Anopheles aquasalis Response to Plasmodium vivax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bahia, Ana C.; Oliveira, José Henrique M.; Kubota, Marina S.; Araújo, Helena R. C.; Lima, José B. P.; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia Maria; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius G.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria affects millions of people worldwide and hundreds of thousands of people each year in Brazil. The mosquito Anopheles aquasalis is an important vector of Plasmodium vivax, the main human malaria parasite in the Americas. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to have a role in insect innate immune responses as a potent pathogen-killing agent. We investigated the mechanisms of free radicals modulation after A. aquasalis infection with P. vivax. ROS metabolism was evaluated in the vector by studying expression and activity of three key detoxification enzymes, one catalase and two superoxide dismutases (SOD3A and SOD3B). Also, the involvement of free radicals in the mosquito immunity was measured by silencing the catalase gene followed by infection of A. aquasalis with P. vivax. Catalase, SOD3A and SOD3B expression in whole A. aquasalis were at the same levels of controls at 24 h and upregulated 36 h after ingestion of blood containing P. vivax. However, in the insect isolated midgut, the mRNA for these enzymes was not regulated by P. vivax infection, while catalase activity was reduced 24 h after the infectious meal. RNAi-mediated silencing of catalase reduced enzyme activity in the midgut, resulted in increased P. vivax infection and prevalence, and decreased bacterial load in the mosquito midgut. Our findings suggest that the interactions between A. aquasalis and P. vivax do not follow the model of ROS-induced parasite killing. It appears that P. vivax manipulates the mosquito detoxification system in order to allow its own development. This can be an indirect effect of fewer competitive bacteria present in the mosquito midgut caused by the increase of ROS after catalase silencing. These findings provide novel information on unique aspects of the main malaria parasite in the Americas interaction with one of its natural vectors. PMID:23441231

  6. The effects of urbanization on global Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many recent studies have examined the impact of urbanization on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity and found a general trend of reduced transmission in urban areas. However, none has examined the effect of urbanization on Plasmodium vivax malaria, which is the most widely distributed malaria species and can also cause severe clinical syndromes in humans. In this study, a set of 10,003 community-based P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) surveys are used to explore the relationships between PvPR in urban and rural settings. Methods The PvPR surveys were overlaid onto a map of global urban extents to derive an urban/rural assignment. The differences in PvPR values between urban and rural areas were then examined. Groups of PvPR surveys inside individual city extents (urban) and surrounding areas (rural) were identified to examine the local variations in PvPR values. Finally, the relationships of PvPR between urban and rural areas within the ranges of 41 dominant Anopheles vectors were examined. Results Significantly higher PvPR values in rural areas were found globally. The relationship was consistent at continental scales when focusing on Africa and Asia only, but in the Americas, significantly lower values of PvPR in rural areas were found, though the numbers of surveys were small. Moreover, except for the countries in the Americas, the same trends were found at national scales in African and Asian countries, with significantly lower values of PvPR in urban areas. However, the patterns at city scales among 20 specific cities where sufficient data were available were less clear, with seven cities having significantly lower PvPR values in urban areas and two cities showing significantly lower PvPR in rural areas. The urban–rural PvPR differences within the ranges of the dominant Anopheles vectors were generally, in agreement with the regional patterns found. Conclusions Except for the Americas, the patterns of significantly lower P. vivax transmission in

  7. Parasite biomass-related inflammation, endothelial activation, microvascular dysfunction and disease severity in vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Parameswaran, Uma; Piera, Kim A; Price, Ric N; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria, however its pathogenesis is poorly understood. In contrast to P. falciparum, circulating vivax parasitemia is low, with minimal apparent sequestration in endothelium-lined microvasculature, and pathogenesis thought unrelated to parasite biomass. However, the relationships between vivax disease-severity and total parasite biomass, endothelial autocrine activation and microvascular dysfunction are unknown. We measured circulating parasitemia and markers of total parasite biomass (plasma parasite lactate dehydrogenase [pLDH] and PvLDH) in adults with severe (n = 9) and non-severe (n = 53) vivax malaria, and examined relationships with disease-severity, endothelial activation, and microvascular function. Healthy controls and adults with non-severe and severe falciparum malaria were enrolled for comparison. Median peripheral parasitemia, PvLDH and pLDH were 2.4-fold, 3.7-fold and 6.9-fold higher in severe compared to non-severe vivax malaria (p = 0.02, p = 0.02 and p = 0.015, respectively), suggesting that, as in falciparum malaria, peripheral P. vivax parasitemia underestimates total parasite biomass, particularly in severe disease. P. vivax schizonts were under-represented in peripheral blood. Severe vivax malaria was associated with increased angiopoietin-2 and impaired microvascular reactivity. Peripheral vivax parasitemia correlated with endothelial activation (angiopoietin-2, von-Willebrand-Factor [VWF], E-selectin), whereas markers of total vivax biomass correlated only with systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL-10). Activity of the VWF-cleaving-protease, ADAMTS13, was deficient in proportion to endothelial activation, IL-6, thrombocytopenia and vivax disease-severity, and associated with impaired microvascular reactivity in severe disease. Impaired microvascular reactivity correlated with lactate in severe vivax malaria. Findings suggest that tissue accumulation of P. vivax may occur, with the hidden

  8. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, David J.; Pacheco, M. Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F.; Schwartz, Rachel S.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America. PMID:26709695

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing of Field Isolates Reveals Extensive Genetic Diversity in Plasmodium vivax from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Winter, David J; Pacheco, M Andreína; Vallejo, Andres F; Schwartz, Rachel S; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Cartwright, Reed A; Escalante, Ananias A

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malarial species in South America and exerts a substantial burden on the populations it affects. The control and eventual elimination of P. vivax are global health priorities. Genomic research contributes to this objective by improving our understanding of the biology of P. vivax and through the development of new genetic markers that can be used to monitor efforts to reduce malaria transmission. Here we analyze whole-genome data from eight field samples from a region in Cordóba, Colombia where malaria is endemic. We find considerable genetic diversity within this population, a result that contrasts with earlier studies suggesting that P. vivax had limited diversity in the Americas. We also identify a selective sweep around a substitution known to confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). This is the first observation of a selective sweep for SP resistance in this species. These results indicate that P. vivax has been exposed to SP pressure even when the drug is not in use as a first line treatment for patients afflicted by this parasite. We identify multiple non-synonymous substitutions in three other genes known to be involved with drug resistance in Plasmodium species. Finally, we found extensive microsatellite polymorphisms. Using this information we developed 18 polymorphic and easy to score microsatellite loci that can be used in epidemiological investigations in South America.

  10. Microsatellite Genotyping of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Pregnant Women in Four Malaria Endemic Countries.

    PubMed

    Menegon, Michela; Bardají, Azucena; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Mueller, Ivo; Betuela, Inoni; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Kochar, Swati; Kochar, Sanjay K; Jaju, Puneet; Hans, Dhiraj; Chitnis, Chetan; Padilla, Norma; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Ortiz, Lucía; Sanz, Sergi; Piqueras, Mireia; Desai, Meghna; Mayor, Alfredo; Del Portillo, Hernando; Menéndez, Clara; Severini, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human parasite and the main cause of human malaria outside the African continent. However, the knowledge about the genetic variability of P. vivax is limited when compared to the information available for P. falciparum. We present the results of a study aimed at characterizing the genetic structure of P. vivax populations obtained from pregnant women from different malaria endemic settings. Between June 2008 and October 2011 nearly 2000 pregnant women were recruited during routine antenatal care at each site and followed up until delivery. A capillary blood sample from the study participants was collected for genotyping at different time points. Seven P. vivax microsatellite markers were used for genotypic characterization on a total of 229 P. vivax isolates obtained from Brazil, Colombia, India and Papua New Guinea. In each population, the number of alleles per locus, the expected heterozygosity and the levels of multilocus linkage disequilibrium were assessed. The extent of genetic differentiation among populations was also estimated. Six microsatellite loci on 137 P. falciparum isolates from three countries were screened for comparison. The mean value of expected heterozygosity per country ranged from 0.839 to 0.874 for P. vivax and from 0.578 to 0.758 for P. falciparum. P. vivax populations were more diverse than those of P. falciparum. In some of the studied countries, the diversity of P. vivax population was very high compared to the respective level of endemicity. The level of inter-population differentiation was moderate to high in all P. vivax and P. falciparum populations studied.

  11. Microsatellite Genotyping of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Pregnant Women in Four Malaria Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Menegon, Michela; Bardají, Azucena; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Mueller, Ivo; Betuela, Inoni; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Kochar, Swati; Kochar, Sanjay K.; Jaju, Puneet; Hans, Dhiraj; Chitnis, Chetan; Padilla, Norma; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Ortiz, Lucía; Sanz, Sergi; Piqueras, Mireia; Desai, Meghna; Mayor, Alfredo; del Portillo, Hernando; Menéndez, Clara; Severini, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human parasite and the main cause of human malaria outside the African continent. However, the knowledge about the genetic variability of P. vivax is limited when compared to the information available for P. falciparum. We present the results of a study aimed at characterizing the genetic structure of P. vivax populations obtained from pregnant women from different malaria endemic settings. Between June 2008 and October 2011 nearly 2000 pregnant women were recruited during routine antenatal care at each site and followed up until delivery. A capillary blood sample from the study participants was collected for genotyping at different time points. Seven P. vivax microsatellite markers were used for genotypic characterization on a total of 229 P. vivax isolates obtained from Brazil, Colombia, India and Papua New Guinea. In each population, the number of alleles per locus, the expected heterozygosity and the levels of multilocus linkage disequilibrium were assessed. The extent of genetic differentiation among populations was also estimated. Six microsatellite loci on 137 P. falciparum isolates from three countries were screened for comparison. The mean value of expected heterozygosity per country ranged from 0.839 to 0.874 for P. vivax and from 0.578 to 0.758 for P. falciparum. P. vivax populations were more diverse than those of P. falciparum. In some of the studied countries, the diversity of P. vivax population was very high compared to the respective level of endemicity. The level of inter-population differentiation was moderate to high in all P. vivax and P. falciparum populations studied. PMID:27011010

  12. Gene Models, Expression Repertoire, and Immune Response of Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jenni; Chim-Ong, Anongruk; Chiramanewong, Thanprakorn; Gruszczyk, Jakub; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Tham, Wai-Hong; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Nguitragool, Wang

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein (PvRBP) family are believed to mediate specific invasion of reticulocytes by P. vivax. In this study, we performed molecular characterization of genes encoding members of this protein family. Through cDNA sequencing, we constructed full-length gene models and verified genes that are protein coding and those that are pseudogenes. We also used quantitative PCR to measure their in vivo transcript abundances in clinical P. vivax isolates. Like genes encoding related invasion ligands of P. falciparum, Pvrbp expression levels vary broadly across different parasite isolates. Through antibody measurements, we found that host immune pressure may be the driving force behind the distinctly high diversity of one of the family members, PvRBP2c. Mild yet significant negative correlation was found between parasitemia and the PvRBP2b antibody level, suggesting that antibodies to the protein may interfere with invasion. PMID:26712206

  13. Development of sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax in experimentally infected Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Salas, M L; Romero, J F; Solarte, Y; Olano, V; Herrera, M A; Herrera, S

    1994-01-01

    The sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium vivax was established and maintained under laboratory conditions in two different strains of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using as a parasite source blood from human patients or from Aotus monkeys infected with the VCC-2 P.vivax colombian isolate. Both the Tecojate strain isolate from Guatemala and the Cartagena strain from the colombian Pacific coast were susceptible to infections with P.vivax. A higher percentage of Cartagena mosquitoes was infected per trial, however the Tecojate strain developed higher sporozoite loads. Intravenous inoculation of Aotus monkeys with sporozoites obtained from both anopheline strains resulted in successful blood infections. Animals infected with sporozoites from the Tecojate strain presented a patent period of 21-32 days whereas parasitemia appeared between days 19-53 in monkeys infected with sporozites from Cartagena strain. PMID:7565121

  14. Revealing natural antisense transcripts from Plasmodium vivax isolates: evidence of genome regulation in complicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, P A; Subudhi, Amit Kumar; Garg, Shilpi; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Pakalapati, Deepak; Saxena, Vishal; Aiyaz, Mohammed; Chand, Bipin; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Kochar, Sanjay K; Sirohi, Parmendra; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Das, Ashis

    2013-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread human malaria parasite causing approximately 130-435 million infections annually. It is an economic burden in many parts of the world and poses a public health challenge along with the other Plasmodium sp. The biology of this parasite is less studied and poorly understood, in spite of these facts. Emerging evidence of severe complications due to infections by this parasite provides an impetus to focus research on the same. Investigating the parasite directly from infected patients is the best way to study its biology and pathogenic mechanisms. Gene expression studies of this parasite directly obtained from the patients has provided evidence of gene regulation resulting in varying amount of transcript levels in the different blood stages. The mechanisms regulating gene expression in malaria parasites are not well understood. Discovery of Natural Antisense Transcripts (NATs) in Plasmodium falciparum has suggested that these might play an important role in regulating gene expression. We report here the genome-wide occurrence of NATs in P. vivax parasites from patients with differing clinical symptoms. A total of 1348 NATs against annotated gene loci have been detected using a custom designed microarray with strand specific probes. Majority of NATs identified from this study shows positive correlation with the expression pattern of the sense (S) transcript. Our data also shows condition specific expression patterns of varying S and antisense (AS) transcript levels. Genes with AS transcripts enrich to various biological processes. To our knowledge this is the first report on the presence of NATs from P. vivax obtained from infected patients with different disease complications. The data suggests differential regulation of gene expression in diverse clinical conditions, as shown by differing sense/antisense ratios and would lead to future detailed investigations of gene regulation.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species. PMID:24953504

  17. Expression and function of pvcrt-o, a Plasmodium vivax ortholog of pfcrt, in Plasmodium falciparum and Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sá, Juliana Martha; Yamamoto, Marcio M; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; de Azevedo, Mauro Ferreira; Papakrivos, Janni; Naudé, Bronwen; Wellems, Thomas E; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2006-12-01

    Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax threatens the use of this drug as first-line treatment for millions of people infected each year worldwide. Unlike Plasmodium falciparum, in which chloroquine resistance is associated with mutations in the pfcrt gene encoding a digestive vacuole transmembrane protein, no point mutations have been associated with chloroquine resistance in the P. vivax ortholog gene, pvcrt-o (also called pvcg10). However, the question remains whether pvcrt-o can affect chloroquine response independent of mutations. Since P. vivax cannot be cultured in vitro, we used two heterologous expression systems to address this question. Results from the first system, in which chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum parasites were transformed with pvcrt-o, showed a 2.2-fold increase in chloroquine tolerance with pvcrt-o expression under a strong promoter; this effect was reversed by verapamil. In the second system, wild type pvcrt-o or a mutated form of the gene was expressed in Dictyostelium discoideum. Forms of PvCRT-o engineered to express either lysine or threonine at position 76 produced a verapamil-reversible reduction of chloroquine accumulation in this system to approximately 60% of that in control cells. Our data support an effect of PvCRT-o on chloroquine transport and/or accumulation by P. vivax, independent of the K76T amino acid substitution.

  18. Primaquine treatment and relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Rishikesh, Kumar; Saravu, Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    The relapsing peculiarity of Plasmodium vivax is one of the prime reasons for sustained global malaria transmission. Global containment of P. vivax is more challenging and crucial compared to other species for achieving total malaria control/elimination. Primaquine (PQ) failure and P. vivax relapse is a major global public health concern. Identification and characterization of different relapse strains of P. vivax prevalent across the globe should be one of the thrust areas in malaria research. Despite renewed and rising global concern by researchers on this once 'neglected' species, research and development on the very topic of P. vivax reappearance remains inadequate. Many malaria endemic countries have not mandated routine glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) testing before initiating PQ radical cure in P. vivax malaria. This results in either no PQ prescription or thoughtless prescription and administration of PQ to P. vivax patients by healthcare providers without being concerned about patients' G6PD status and associated complications. It is imperative to ascertain the G6PD status and optimum dissemination of PQ radical cure in all cases of P. vivax malaria across the globe. There persists a compelling need to develop/validate a rapid, easy-to-perform, easy-to-interpret, quality controllable, robust, and cost-effective G6PD assay. High-dose PQ of both standard and short duration appears to be safe and more effective for preventing relapses and should be practiced among patients with normal G6PD activity. Multicentric studies involving adequately representative populations across the globe with reference PQ dose must be carried out to determine the true distribution of PQ failure. Study proving role of cytochrome P450-2D6 gene in PQ metabolism and association of CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes and P. vivax relapse is of prime importance and should be carried forward in multicentric systems across the globe. PMID:27077309

  19. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum at the Crossroads of Exchange among Islands in Vanuatu: Implications for Malaria Elimination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chim W.; Sakihama, Naoko; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Lum, J. Koji; Kaneko, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the transmission and movement of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for malaria elimination and prevention of resurgence. Located at the limit of malaria transmission in the Pacific, Vanuatu is an ideal candidate for elimination programs due to low endemicity and the isolated nature of its island setting. We analyzed the variation in the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) and the circumsporozoite protein (csp) of P. falciparum and P. vivax populations to examine the patterns of gene flow and population structures among seven sites on five islands in Vanuatu. Genetic diversity was in general higher in P. vivax than P. falciparum from the same site. In P. vivax, high genetic diversity was likely maintained by greater extent of gene flow among sites and among islands. Consistent with the different patterns of gene flow, the proportion of genetic variance found among islands was substantially higher in P. falciparum (28.81–31.23%) than in P. vivax (-0.53–3.99%). Our data suggest that the current island-by-island malaria elimination strategy in Vanuatu, while adequate for P. falciparum elimination, might need to be complemented with more centrally integrated measures to control P. vivax movement across islands. PMID:25793260

  20. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    specificities are presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main results We included 47 studies enrolling 22,862 participants. Patient characteristics, sampling methods and reference standard methods were poorly reported in most studies. RDTs detecting 'non-falciparum' parasitaemia Eleven studies evaluated Type 2 tests compared with microscopy, 25 evaluated Type 3 tests, and 11 evaluated Type 4 tests. In meta-analyses, average sensitivities and specificities were 78% (95% CI 73% to 82%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 2 tests, 78% (95% CI 69% to 84%) and 99% (95% CI 98% to 99%) for Type 3 tests, and 89% (95% CI 79% to 95%) and 98% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 4 tests, respectively. Type 4 tests were more sensitive than both Type 2 (P = 0.01) and Type 3 tests (P = 0.03). Five studies compared Type 3 tests with PCR; in meta-analysis, the average sensitivity and specificity were 81% (95% CI 72% to 88%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) respectively. RDTs detecting P.vivax parasitaemia Eight studies compared pLDH tests to microscopy; the average sensitivity and specificity were 95% (95% CI 86% to 99%) and 99% (95% CI 99% to 100%), respectively. Authors' conclusions RDTs designed to detect P. vivax specifically, whether alone or as part of a mixed infection, appear to be more accurate than older tests designed to distinguish P. falciparum malaria from non-falciparum malaria. Compared to microscopy, these tests fail to detect around 5% ofP. vivax cases. This Cochrane Review, in combination with other published information about in vitro test performance and stability in the field, can assist policy-makers to choose between the available RDTs. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Rapid tests for diagnosing malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax or other less common parasites This review summarises trials evaluating the accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosing malaria due to Plasmodium vivax or other non-falciparum species. After searching for relevant studies up to December

  1. Genomic analysis of local variation and recent evolution in Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard D; Amato, Roberto; Auburn, Sarah; Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Suon, Seila; Mao, Sivanna; Noviyanti, Rintis; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Marfurt, Jutta; Anstey, Nicholas M; William, Timothy; Boni, Maciej F; Dolecek, Christiane; Tran, Hien Tinh; White, Nicholas J; Michon, Pascal; Siba, Peter; Tavul, Livingstone; Harrison, Gabrielle; Barry, Alyssa; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Karunaweera, Nadira; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Gao, Qi; Hubbart, Christina; Hart, Lee; Jeffery, Ben; Drury, Eleanor; Mead, Daniel; Kekre, Mihir; Campino, Susana; Manske, Magnus; Cornelius, Victoria J; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Rockett, Kirk A; Miles, Alistair; Rayner, Julian C; Fairhurst, Rick M; Nosten, Francois; Price, Ric N; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2016-08-01

    The widespread distribution and relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection present major challenges for the elimination of malaria. To characterize the genetic diversity of this parasite in individual infections and across the population, we performed deep genome sequencing of >200 clinical samples collected across the Asia-Pacific region and analyzed data on >300,000 SNPs and nine regions of the genome with large copy number variations. Individual infections showed complex patterns of genetic structure, with variation not only in the number of dominant clones but also in their level of relatedness and inbreeding. At the population level, we observed strong signals of recent evolutionary selection both in known drug resistance genes and at new loci, and these varied markedly between geographical locations. These findings demonstrate a dynamic landscape of local evolutionary adaptation in the parasite population and provide a foundation for genomic surveillance to guide effective strategies for control and elimination of P. vivax.

  2. Genomic analysis of local variation and recent evolution in Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard D; Amato, Roberto; Auburn, Sarah; Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Suon, Seila; Mao, Sivanna; Noviyanti, Rintis; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Marfurt, Jutta; Anstey, Nicholas M; William, Timothy; Boni, Maciej F; Dolecek, Christiane; Tran, Hien Tinh; White, Nicholas J; Michon, Pascal; Siba, Peter; Tavul, Livingstone; Harrison, Gabrielle; Barry, Alyssa; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Karunaweera, Nadira; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Gao, Qi; Hubbart, Christina; Hart, Lee; Jeffery, Ben; Drury, Eleanor; Mead, Daniel; Kekre, Mihir; Campino, Susana; Manske, Magnus; Cornelius, Victoria J; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Rockett, Kirk A; Miles, Alistair; Rayner, Julian C; Fairhurst, Rick M; Nosten, Francois; Price, Ric N; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2016-08-01

    The widespread distribution and relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection present major challenges for the elimination of malaria. To characterize the genetic diversity of this parasite in individual infections and across the population, we performed deep genome sequencing of >200 clinical samples collected across the Asia-Pacific region and analyzed data on >300,000 SNPs and nine regions of the genome with large copy number variations. Individual infections showed complex patterns of genetic structure, with variation not only in the number of dominant clones but also in their level of relatedness and inbreeding. At the population level, we observed strong signals of recent evolutionary selection both in known drug resistance genes and at new loci, and these varied markedly between geographical locations. These findings demonstrate a dynamic landscape of local evolutionary adaptation in the parasite population and provide a foundation for genomic surveillance to guide effective strategies for control and elimination of P. vivax. PMID:27348299

  3. Modelling the contribution of the hypnozoite reservoir to Plasmodium vivax transmission

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael T; Karl, Stephan; Battle, Katherine E; Hay, Simon I; Mueller, Ivo; Ghani, Azra C

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax relapse infections occur following activation of latent liver-stages parasites (hypnozoites) causing new blood-stage infections weeks to months after the initial infection. We develop a within-host mathematical model of liver-stage hypnozoites, and validate it against data from tropical strains of P. vivax. The within-host model is embedded in a P. vivax transmission model to demonstrate the build-up of the hypnozoite reservoir following new infections and its depletion through hypnozoite activation and death. The hypnozoite reservoir is predicted to be over-dispersed with many individuals having few or no hypnozoites, and some having intensely infected livers. Individuals with more hypnozoites are predicted to experience more relapses and contribute more to onwards P. vivax transmission. Incorporating hypnozoite killing drugs such as primaquine into first-line treatment regimens is predicted to cause substantial reductions in P. vivax transmission as individuals with the most hypnozoites are more likely to relapse and be targeted for treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04692.001 PMID:25406065

  4. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria. PMID:27461878

  5. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria.

  6. The Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 Paralog Is a Novel Erythrocyte-Binding Ligand of P. vivax

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yang; Wang, Yue; Ito, Daisuke; Kong, Deok-Hoon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Chen, Jun-Hu; Lu, Feng; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon

    2013-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP1), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP), is a malaria vaccine candidate for P. vivax. The paralog of PvMSP1, named P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 paralog (PvMSP1P; PlasmoDB PVX_099975), was recently identified and predicted as a GPI-AP. The similarities in genetic structural characteristics between PvMSP1 and PvMSP1P (e.g., size of open reading frames, two epidermal growth factor-like domains, and GPI anchor motif in the C terminus) led us to study this protein. In the present study, different regions of the PvMSP1P protein, demarcated based on the processed forms of PvMSP1, were expressed successfully as recombinant proteins [i.e., 83 (A, B, and C), 30, 38, 42, 33, and 19 fragments]. We studied the naturally acquired immune response against each fragment of recombinant PvMSP1P and the potential ability of each fragment to bind erythrocytes. The N-terminal fragment (83A) and two C-terminal fragments (33 and 19) reacted strongly with sera from P. vivax-infected patients, with 50 to 68% sensitivity and 95 to 96% specificity, respectively. Due to colocalization of PvMSP1P with PvMSP1, we supposed that PvMSP1P plays a similar role as PvMSP1 during erythrocyte invasion. An in vitro cytoadherence assay showed that PvMSP1P, especially the 19-kDa C-terminal region, could bind to erythrocytes. We also found that human sera from populations naturally exposed to vivax malaria and antisera obtained by immunization using the recombinant molecule PvMSP1P-19 inhibited in vitro binding of human erythrocytes to PvMSP1P-19. These results provide further evidence that the PvMSP1P might be an essential parasite adhesion molecule in the P. vivax merozoite and is a potential vaccine candidate against P. vivax. PMID:23460511

  7. Functional Antibodies against VAR2CSA in Nonpregnant Populations from Colombia Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Arango, Eliana M.; Cabrera, Ana; Arroyo, Maria Isabel; Kain, Kevin C.; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Maestre, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, parity-dependent immunity is observed in response to placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies recognize the surface antigen, VAR2CSA, expressed on infected red blood cells and inhibit cytoadherence to the placental tissue. In most settings of malaria endemicity, antibodies against VAR2CSA are predominantly observed in multigravid women and infrequently in men, children, and nulligravid women. However, in Colombia, we detected antibodies against multiple constructs of VAR2CSA among men and children with acute P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of men and children (>60%) had high levels of IgGs against three recombinant domains of VAR2CSA: DBL5ε, DBL3X, and ID1-ID2. Surprisingly, these antibodies were observed only in pregnant women, men, and children exposed either to P. falciparum or to P. vivax. Moreover, the anti-VAR2CSA antibodies are of high avidity and efficiently inhibit adherence of infected red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A in vitro, suggesting that they are specific and functional. These unexpected results suggest that there may be genotypic or phenotypic differences in the parasites of this region or in the host response to either P. falciparum or P. vivax infection outside pregnancy. These findings may hold significant clinical relevance to the pathophysiology and outcome of malaria infections in this region. PMID:24686068

  8. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Amanda R; Vicentin, Elaine C; Jimenez, Maria C; Ricci, Ricardo; Leite, Juliana A; Costa, Fabio T; Ferreira, Luis C; Russell, Bruce; Nosten, François; Rénia, Laurent; Galinski, Mary R; Barnwell, John W; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

    2013-01-01

    A recent clinical trial in African children demonstrated the potential utility of merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3 as a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study evaluated the use of Plasmodium vivax MSP-3 (PvMSP-3) as a target antigen in vaccine formulations against malaria caused by P. vivax. Recombinant proteins representing MSP-3α and MSP-3β of P. vivax were expressed as soluble histidine-tagged bacterial fusions. Antigenicity during natural infection was evaluated by detecting specific antibodies using sera from individuals living in endemic areas of Brazil. A large proportion of infected individuals presented IgG antibodies to PvMSP-3α (68.2%) and at least 1 recombinant protein representing PvMSP-3β (79.1%). In spite of the large responder frequency, reactivity to both antigens was significantly lower than was observed for the immunodominant epitope present on the 19-kDa C-terminal region of PvMSP-1. Immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins was studied in mice in the absence or presence of different adjuvant formulations. PvMSP-3β, but not PvMSP-3α, induced a TLR4-independent humoral immune response in the absence of any adjuvant formulation. The immunogenicity of the recombinant antigens were also tested in formulations containing different adjuvants (Alum, Salmonella enterica flagellin, CpG, Quil A,TiterMax® and incomplete Freunds adjuvant) and combinations of two adjuvants (Alum plus flagellin, and CpG plus flagellin). Recombinant PvMSP-3α and PvMSP-3β elicited higher antibody titers capable of recognizing P. vivax-infected erythrocytes harvested from malaria patients. Our results confirm that P. vivax MSP-3 antigens are immunogenic during natural infection, and the corresponding recombinant proteins may be useful in elucidating their vaccine potential. PMID:23457498

  9. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-3

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Amanda R.; Vicentin, Elaine C.; Jimenez, Maria C.; Ricci, Ricardo; Leite, Juliana A.; Costa, Fabio T.; Ferreira, Luis C.; Russell, Bruce; Nosten, François; Rénia, Laurent; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.; Soares, Irene S.

    2013-01-01

    A recent clinical trial in African children demonstrated the potential utility of merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3 as a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study evaluated the use of Plasmodium vivax MSP-3 (PvMSP-3) as a target antigen in vaccine formulations against malaria caused by P. vivax. Recombinant proteins representing MSP-3α and MSP-3β of P. vivax were expressed as soluble histidine-tagged bacterial fusions. Antigenicity during natural infection was evaluated by detecting specific antibodies using sera from individuals living in endemic areas of Brazil. A large proportion of infected individuals presented IgG antibodies to PvMSP-3α (68.2%) and at least 1 recombinant protein representing PvMSP-3β (79.1%). In spite of the large responder frequency, reactivity to both antigens was significantly lower than was observed for the immunodominant epitope present on the 19-kDa C-terminal region of PvMSP-1. Immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins was studied in mice in the absence or presence of different adjuvant formulations. PvMSP-3β, but not PvMSP-3α, induced a TLR4-independent humoral immune response in the absence of any adjuvant formulation. The immunogenicity of the recombinant antigens were also tested in formulations containing different adjuvants (Alum, Salmonella enterica flagellin, CpG, Quil A,TiterMax® and incomplete Freunds adjuvant) and combinations of two adjuvants (Alum plus flagellin, and CpG plus flagellin). Recombinant PvMSP-3α and PvMSP-3β elicited higher antibody titers capable of recognizing P. vivax-infected erythrocytes harvested from malaria patients. Our results confirm that P. vivax MSP-3 antigens are immunogenic during natural infection, and the corresponding recombinant proteins may be useful in elucidating their vaccine potential. PMID:23457498

  10. Epidemiology of Disappearing Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Case Study in Rural Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nathália F.; Batista, Camilla L.; Bastos, Melissa da Silva; Nicolete, Vanessa C.; Fontoura, Pablo S.; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Viana, Susana Ariane S.; Menezes, Maria José; Scopel, Kézia Katiani G.; Cavasini, Carlos E.; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Castro, Márcia C.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2014-01-01

    Background New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings. Methods Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease. Principal Findings/Conclusions P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March–April 2010) to 3.0% (April–May 2013), with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March–April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2–3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a) the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy) increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b) most (56.6%) P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c) asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d) over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e) few (17.0%) asymptomatic and subpatent P

  11. Confirmed Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Van, Nguyen Van; Louisa, Melva; Baird, Kevin; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Hung, Le Xuan; Duong, Tran Thanh; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Speybroeck, Niko; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) is currently reported in almost all countries where P. vivax is endemic. In Vietnam, despite a first report on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine published in the early 2000s, P. vivax was still considered sensitive to CQ. Between May 2009 and December 2011, a 2-year cohort study was conducted in central Vietnam to assess the recommended radical cure regimen based on a 10-day course of primaquine (0.5 mg/kg/day) together with 3 days of CQ (25 mg/kg). Here we report the results of the first 28-day follow-up estimating the cumulative risk of P. vivax recurrences together with the corresponding CQ blood concentrations, among other endpoints. Out of 260 recruited P. vivax patients, 240 completed treatment and were followed up to day 28 according to the WHO guidelines. Eight patients (3.45%) had a recurrent P. vivax infection, at day 14 (n = 2), day 21 (n = 1), and day 28 (n = 5). Chloroquine blood concentrations, available for 3/8 recurrent infections (days 14, 21, and 28), were above the MIC (>100 ng/ml whole blood) in all of these cases. Fever and parasitemia (both sexual and asexual stages) were cleared by day 3. Anemia was common at day 0 (35.8%), especially in children under 10 years (50%), and hemoglobin (Hb) recovery at day 28 was substantial among anemic patients (median change from day 0 to 28, +1.7 g/dl; interquartile range [IQR], +0.7 to +3.2). This report, based on CQ blood levels measured at the time of recurrences, confirms for the first time P. vivax CQ resistance in central Vietnam and calls for further studies using standardized protocols for accurately monitoring the extent and evolution of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine in Vietnam. These results, together with the mounting evidence of artemisinin resistance in central Vietnam, further highlight the increasing threat of antimalarial drug resistance to malaria elimination in Vietnam. PMID:26392501

  12. Confirmed Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Vinh; Hong, Nguyen Van; Van, Nguyen Van; Louisa, Melva; Baird, Kevin; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Hung, Le Xuan; Duong, Tran Thanh; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Speybroeck, Niko; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) is currently reported in almost all countries where P. vivax is endemic. In Vietnam, despite a first report on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine published in the early 2000s, P. vivax was still considered sensitive to CQ. Between May 2009 and December 2011, a 2-year cohort study was conducted in central Vietnam to assess the recommended radical cure regimen based on a 10-day course of primaquine (0.5 mg/kg/day) together with 3 days of CQ (25 mg/kg). Here we report the results of the first 28-day follow-up estimating the cumulative risk of P. vivax recurrences together with the corresponding CQ blood concentrations, among other endpoints. Out of 260 recruited P. vivax patients, 240 completed treatment and were followed up to day 28 according to the WHO guidelines. Eight patients (3.45%) had a recurrent P. vivax infection, at day 14 (n = 2), day 21 (n = 1), and day 28 (n = 5). Chloroquine blood concentrations, available for 3/8 recurrent infections (days 14, 21, and 28), were above the MIC (>100 ng/ml whole blood) in all of these cases. Fever and parasitemia (both sexual and asexual stages) were cleared by day 3. Anemia was common at day 0 (35.8%), especially in children under 10 years (50%), and hemoglobin (Hb) recovery at day 28 was substantial among anemic patients (median change from day 0 to 28, +1.7 g/dl; interquartile range [IQR], +0.7 to +3.2). This report, based on CQ blood levels measured at the time of recurrences, confirms for the first time P. vivax CQ resistance in central Vietnam and calls for further studies using standardized protocols for accurately monitoring the extent and evolution of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine in Vietnam. These results, together with the mounting evidence of artemisinin resistance in central Vietnam, further highlight the increasing threat of antimalarial drug resistance to malaria elimination in Vietnam.

  13. Emergence of FY*Anull in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic region of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Woolley, Ian; Masinde, Godfred L.; Miller, Stephanie M.; McNamara, David T.; Hazlett, Fred; Mgone, Charles S.; Alpers, Michael P.; Genton, Blaise; Boatin, B. A.; Kazura, James W.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG), numerous blood group polymorphisms and hemoglobinopathies characterize the human population. Human genetic polymorphisms of this nature are common in malarious regions, and all four human malaria parasites are holoendemic below 1500 meters in PNG. At this elevation, a prominent condition characterizing Melanesians is α+-thalassemia. Interestingly, recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that α+-thalassemia is associated with increased susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria among young children. It is further proposed that α+-thalassemia may facilitate so-called “benign” Plasmodium vivax infection to act later in life as a “natural vaccine” against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, in a P. vivax-endemic region of PNG where the resident Abelam-speaking population is characterized by a frequency of α+-thalassemia ≥0.98, we have discovered the mutation responsible for erythrocyte Duffy antigen-negativity (Fy[a−b−]) on the FY*A allele. In this study population there were 23 heterozygous and no homozygous individuals bearing this new allele (allele frequency, 23/1062 = 0.022). Flow cytometric analysis illustrated a 2-fold difference in erythroid-specific Fy-antigen expression between heterozygous (FY*A/FY*Anull) and homozygous (FY*A/FY*A) individuals, suggesting a gene-dosage effect. In further comparisons, we observed a higher prevalence of P. vivax infection in FY*A/FY*A (83/508 = 0.163) compared with FY*A/FY*Anull (2/23 = 0.087) individuals (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 0.47–8.91). Emergence of FY*Anull in this population suggests that P. vivax is involved in selection of this erythroid polymorphism. This mutation would ultimately compromise α+-thalassemia/P. vivax-mediated protection against severe P. falciparum malaria. PMID:10570183

  14. Plasmodium vivax infection in Anajás, State of Pará: no differential resistance profile among Duffy-negative and Duffy-positive individuals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is large body of evidence that states that invasion of Plasmodium vivax requires the Duffy antigen, but the universality of this specificity is certainly now under question with recent reports showing that in some parts of the world P. vivax infects and causes disease in Duffy-negative people. These findings reinforce the idea that this parasite is rapidly evolving, being able to use other receptors than Duffy to invade the erythrocytes, which may have an enormous impact in P. vivax current distribution. The presence of P. vivax infection in Duffy-negative individuals was investigated in a cross-sectional study conducted in Anajás, Archipelago of Marajó, State of Pará, which is an area of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazonia. Methods Duffy genotyping and Plasmodium species diagnostic assays were performed successfully in 678 individuals. An allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for Duffy blood group genotyping. Identification of Plasmodium species was achieved by conventional blood smear light microscopy and a TaqMan-based real-time PCR method to detect mitochondrial genome of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Results Plasmodium spp. infection was detected in 137 samples (20.2%). Prevalence of each Plasmodium species was 13.9% P. vivax, 5.8% P. falciparum, and 0.6% P. vivax plus P. falciparum. Overall, 4.3% (29/678) were genotyped as Duffy-negative (FY*BES/*BES). Among Duffy-negative individuals 6.9% were P. vivax PCR positive and among Duffy-positive 14.2% were P. vivax PCR positive. Although lower, the risk of Duffy-negatives to experience a P. vivax blood stage infection was not significantly different to that of Duffy-positives. Furthermore, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the Duffy blood group among P. vivax-infected patients and in the control group did not differ significantly, also suggesting no reduction in infection rates among the carriers of FY*BES allele. Conclusions The data

  15. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date.

    PubMed

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria. PMID:27528800

  16. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria. PMID:27528800

  17. Simple Molecular Methods for Early Detection of Chloroquine Drug Resistance in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raksha; Urhehar, Anant Dattatraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is a human disease of which causes high morbidity and mortality. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the resistance to antimalarial drugs, especially chloroquine (CQ) is one of the paramount factors contributing to the global increase in morbidity and mortality, due to malaria. Hence, there is a need for detection of chloroquine drug resistance genes i.e., pfcrt-o (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter-o) and pfmdr-1 (Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1) of P. falciparum and pvcrt-o (Plasmodium vivax chloroquine resistance transporter-o) and pvmdr-1 (Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance-1) of P. vivax by using molecular methods to prevent mortality in malarial cases. Aim To standardize chloroquine drug sensitivity testing by molecular method so as to provide reports of chloroquine within 6-8 hours to physicians for better treatment. Materials and Methods This study was conducted over a period of one year from January to December 2014. A Total of 300 blood samples were collected from malaria suspected patient attending MGM Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, India. Out of 300 blood samples, 44 were malaria positive as assessed by Thick and Thin blood smear stained, by Leishman’s method and examination with light microscope. Chloroquine drug sensitivity testing was performed using WHO III plate method (micro test). Nested PCR was done for detection of pfcrt-o and pfmdr-1 for P. falciparum and pvcrt-o, pvmdr-1 genes for P. vivax. Results Total 44 samples were included in this study, out of which 22 samples confirmed for Plasmodium falciparum and 22 samples confirmed for Plasmodium vivax. Out of 22 P. falciparum 15 (68.18%) samples were chloroquine resistant. P. vivax showed chloroquine resistance to 5 samples (22.73%) by method similar to WHO III plate method (micro test) and nested PCR. Conclusion Drug resistance testing by molecular methods is useful for early detection of antimalarial drug resistance. pfmdr-1 along with

  18. Simple Molecular Methods for Early Detection of Chloroquine Drug Resistance in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raksha; Urhehar, Anant Dattatraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is a human disease of which causes high morbidity and mortality. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the resistance to antimalarial drugs, especially chloroquine (CQ) is one of the paramount factors contributing to the global increase in morbidity and mortality, due to malaria. Hence, there is a need for detection of chloroquine drug resistance genes i.e., pfcrt-o (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter-o) and pfmdr-1 (Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1) of P. falciparum and pvcrt-o (Plasmodium vivax chloroquine resistance transporter-o) and pvmdr-1 (Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance-1) of P. vivax by using molecular methods to prevent mortality in malarial cases. Aim To standardize chloroquine drug sensitivity testing by molecular method so as to provide reports of chloroquine within 6-8 hours to physicians for better treatment. Materials and Methods This study was conducted over a period of one year from January to December 2014. A Total of 300 blood samples were collected from malaria suspected patient attending MGM Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, India. Out of 300 blood samples, 44 were malaria positive as assessed by Thick and Thin blood smear stained, by Leishman’s method and examination with light microscope. Chloroquine drug sensitivity testing was performed using WHO III plate method (micro test). Nested PCR was done for detection of pfcrt-o and pfmdr-1 for P. falciparum and pvcrt-o, pvmdr-1 genes for P. vivax. Results Total 44 samples were included in this study, out of which 22 samples confirmed for Plasmodium falciparum and 22 samples confirmed for Plasmodium vivax. Out of 22 P. falciparum 15 (68.18%) samples were chloroquine resistant. P. vivax showed chloroquine resistance to 5 samples (22.73%) by method similar to WHO III plate method (micro test) and nested PCR. Conclusion Drug resistance testing by molecular methods is useful for early detection of antimalarial drug resistance. pfmdr-1 along with

  19. Preliminary analysis of Plasmodium vivax genotypes isolated in southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; Döşkaya, Mert; Caner, Ayşe; Gül, Kadri; Nergiz, Şebnem; Can, Hüseyin; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most common cause of malaria worldwide as well as southeastern Turkey. After the implementation of a successful national elimination program that the local malaria cases were not reported in 2011, malaria returned to county of Savur located in southeastern Turkey in summer of 2012. The present study aimed to determine the prevalent P. vivax genotypes isolated from southeastern Turkey. Genetic polymorphism in P. vivax CSP gene was analyzed by PCR-RFLP to assess the ratio of VK210 and VK247 types. Blood samples were obtained from 15 patients who lived in southeastern between 2005-2006. According to the results, VK210 type was detected in 10 samples (66.6%), VK247 type was observed in three samples (20%). Remaining two samples showed mixed infection (13.3%). The results of the present study first time showed the ratio of P. vivax genotypes in southeastern Turkey before the elimination in 2011. The results of the present study will be enable researchers to compare the new isolates with the previously detected ones and design new treatment and/elimination strategies.

  20. Fya/Fyb antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    King, Christopher L.; Adams, John H.; Xianli, Jia; Grimberg, Brian T.; McHenry, Amy M.; Greenberg, Lior J.; Siddiqui, Asim; Howes, Rosalind E.; da Silva-Nunes, Monica; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is a major cause of human malaria and is increasing in public health importance compared with falciparum malaria. Pv is unique among human malarias in that invasion of erythrocytes is almost solely dependent on the red cell's surface receptor, known as the Duffy blood-group antigen (Fy). Fy is an important minor blood-group antigen that has two immunologically distinct alleles, referred to as Fya or Fyb, resulting from a single-point mutation. This mutation occurs within the binding domain of the parasite's red cell invasion ligand. Whether this polymorphism affects susceptibility to clinical vivax malaria is unknown. Here we show that Fya, compared with Fyb, significantly diminishes binding of Pv Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) at the erythrocyte surface, and is associated with a reduced risk of clinical Pv in humans. Erythrocytes expressing Fya had 41–50% lower binding compared with Fyb cells and showed an increased ability of naturally occurring or artificially induced antibodies to block binding of PvDBP to their surface. Individuals with the Fya+b− phenotype demonstrated a 30–80% reduced risk of clinical vivax, but not falciparum malaria in a prospective cohort study in the Brazilian Amazon. The Fya+b− phenotype, predominant in Southeast Asian and many American populations, would confer a selective advantage against vivax malaria. Our results also suggest that efficacy of a PvDBP-based vaccine may differ among populations with different Fy phenotypes. PMID:22123959

  1. A Long Neglected World Malaria Map: Plasmodium vivax Endemicity in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gething, Peter W.; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Smith, David L.; Battle, Katherine E.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; Price, Ric N.; Müeller, Ivo; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current understanding of the spatial epidemiology and geographical distribution of Plasmodium vivax is far less developed than that for P. falciparum, representing a barrier to rational strategies for control and elimination. Here we present the first systematic effort to map the global endemicity of this hitherto neglected parasite. Methodology and Findings We first updated to the year 2010 our earlier estimate of the geographical limits of P. vivax transmission. Within areas of stable transmission, an assembly of 9,970 geopositioned P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) surveys collected from 1985 to 2010 were used with a spatiotemporal Bayesian model-based geostatistical approach to estimate endemicity age-standardised to the 1–99 year age range (PvPR1–99) within every 5×5 km resolution grid square. The model incorporated data on Duffy negative phenotype frequency to suppress endemicity predictions, particularly in Africa. Endemicity was predicted within a relatively narrow range throughout the endemic world, with the point estimate rarely exceeding 7% PvPR1–99. The Americas contributed 22% of the global area at risk of P. vivax transmission, but high endemic areas were generally sparsely populated and the region contributed only 6% of the 2.5 billion people at risk (PAR) globally. In Africa, Duffy negativity meant stable transmission was constrained to Madagascar and parts of the Horn, contributing 3.5% of global PAR. Central Asia was home to 82% of global PAR with important high endemic areas coinciding with dense populations particularly in India and Myanmar. South East Asia contained areas of the highest endemicity in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and contributed 9% of global PAR. Conclusions and Significance This detailed depiction of spatially varying endemicity is intended to contribute to a much-needed paradigm shift towards geographically stratified and evidence-based planning for P. vivax control and elimination. PMID:22970336

  2. Therapeutic Responses of Plasmodium vivax Malaria to Chloroquine and Primaquine Treatment in Northeastern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lili; Wang, Ying; Parker, Daniel M.; Gupta, Bhavna; Yang, Zhaoqing; Liu, Huaie; Fan, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Xiao, Yuping; Lee, Ming-chieh; Zhou, Guofa; Yan, Guiyun; Baird, J. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ) continues to be the frontline therapy for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Emergence of CQ-resistant (CQR) P. vivax parasites requires a shift to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), which imposes a significant financial, logistical, and safety burden. Monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of CQ is thus important. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of CQ-PQ for P. vivax malaria in northeast Myanmar. We recruited 587 patients with P. vivax monoinfection attending local malaria clinics during 2012 to 2013. These patients received three daily doses of CQ at a total dose of 24 mg of base/kg of body weight and an 8-day PQ treatment (0.375 mg/kg/day) commencing at the same time as the first CQ dose. Of the 401 patients who finished the 28-day follow-up, the cumulative incidence of recurrent parasitemia was 5.20% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04% to 7.36%). Among 361 (61%) patients finishing a 42-day follow-up, the cumulative incidence of recurrent blood-stage infection reached 7.98% (95% CI, 5.20% to 10.76%). The cumulative risk of gametocyte carriage at days 28 and 42 was 2.21% (95% CI, 0.78% to 3.64%) and 3.93% (95% CI, 1.94% to 5.92%), respectively. Interestingly, for all 15 patients with recurrent gametocytemia, this was associated with concurrent asexual stages. Genotyping of recurrent parasites at the merozoite surface protein 3α gene locus from 12 patients with recurrent parasitemia within 28 days revealed that 10 of these were the same genotype as at day 0, suggesting recrudescence or relapse. Similar studies in 70 patients in the same area in 2007 showed no recurrent parasitemias within 28 days. The sensitivity to chloroquine of P. vivax in northeastern Myanmar may be deteriorating. PMID:25512415

  3. Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax gametocyte carriage in Papua New Guinean children with uncomplicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Karl, Stephan; Laman, Moses; Moore, Brioni R; Benjamin, John M; Salib, Mary; Lorry, Lina; Maripal, Samuel; Siba, Peter; Robinson, Leanne J; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2016-08-01

    There are limited data on gametocytaemia risk factors before/after treatment with artemisinin combination therapy in children from areas with transmission of multiple Plasmodium species. We utilised data from a randomised trial comparing artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artemisinin-naphthoquine (AN) in 230 Papua New Guinean children aged 0.5-5 years with uncomplicated malaria in whom determinants of gametocytaemia by light microscopy were assessed at baseline using logistic regression and during follow-up using multilevel mixed effects modelling. Seventy-four (32%) and 18 (8%) children presented with P. falciparum and P. vivax gametocytaemia, respectively. Baseline P. falciparum gametocytaemia was associated with Hackett spleen grade 1 (odds ratio (95% CI) 4.01 (1.60-10.05) vs grade 0; P<0.001) and haemoglobin (0.95 (0.92-0.97) per 1g/L increase; P<0.001), and P. falciparum asexual parasitaemia in slide-positive cases (0.36 (0.19-0.68) for a 10-fold increase; P=0.002). Baseline P. vivax gametocytaemia was associated with Hackett grade 2 (12.66 (1.31-122.56); P=0.028), mixed P. falciparum/vivax infection (0.16 (0.03-1.00); P=0.050), P. vivax asexual parasitaemia (5.68 (0.98-33.04); P=0.053) and haemoglobin (0.94 (0.88-1.00); P=0.056). For post-treatment P. falciparum gametocytaemia, independent predictors were AN vs AL treatment (4.09 (1.43-11.65)), haemoglobin (0.95 (0.93-0.97)), presence/absence of P. falciparum asexual forms (3.40 (1.66-0.68)) and day post-treatment (0.086 (0.82-0.90)) (P<0.001). Post-treatment P. vivax gametocytaemia was predicted by presence of P. vivax asexual forms (596 (12-28,433); P<0.001). Consistent with slow P. falciparum gametocyte maturation, low haemoglobin, low asexual parasite density and higher spleen grading, markers of increased prior infection exposure/immunity, were strong associates of pre-treatment gametocyte positivity. The persistent inverse association between P. falciparum gametocytaemia and haemoglobin during follow

  4. Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax gametocyte carriage in Papua New Guinean children with uncomplicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Karl, Stephan; Laman, Moses; Moore, Brioni R; Benjamin, John M; Salib, Mary; Lorry, Lina; Maripal, Samuel; Siba, Peter; Robinson, Leanne J; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2016-08-01

    There are limited data on gametocytaemia risk factors before/after treatment with artemisinin combination therapy in children from areas with transmission of multiple Plasmodium species. We utilised data from a randomised trial comparing artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artemisinin-naphthoquine (AN) in 230 Papua New Guinean children aged 0.5-5 years with uncomplicated malaria in whom determinants of gametocytaemia by light microscopy were assessed at baseline using logistic regression and during follow-up using multilevel mixed effects modelling. Seventy-four (32%) and 18 (8%) children presented with P. falciparum and P. vivax gametocytaemia, respectively. Baseline P. falciparum gametocytaemia was associated with Hackett spleen grade 1 (odds ratio (95% CI) 4.01 (1.60-10.05) vs grade 0; P<0.001) and haemoglobin (0.95 (0.92-0.97) per 1g/L increase; P<0.001), and P. falciparum asexual parasitaemia in slide-positive cases (0.36 (0.19-0.68) for a 10-fold increase; P=0.002). Baseline P. vivax gametocytaemia was associated with Hackett grade 2 (12.66 (1.31-122.56); P=0.028), mixed P. falciparum/vivax infection (0.16 (0.03-1.00); P=0.050), P. vivax asexual parasitaemia (5.68 (0.98-33.04); P=0.053) and haemoglobin (0.94 (0.88-1.00); P=0.056). For post-treatment P. falciparum gametocytaemia, independent predictors were AN vs AL treatment (4.09 (1.43-11.65)), haemoglobin (0.95 (0.93-0.97)), presence/absence of P. falciparum asexual forms (3.40 (1.66-0.68)) and day post-treatment (0.086 (0.82-0.90)) (P<0.001). Post-treatment P. vivax gametocytaemia was predicted by presence of P. vivax asexual forms (596 (12-28,433); P<0.001). Consistent with slow P. falciparum gametocyte maturation, low haemoglobin, low asexual parasite density and higher spleen grading, markers of increased prior infection exposure/immunity, were strong associates of pre-treatment gametocyte positivity. The persistent inverse association between P. falciparum gametocytaemia and haemoglobin during follow

  5. Immunogenicity of a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding 42kDa fragment of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Inayat Hussain; Kaushal, Deep C; Chandra, Deepak; Kaushal, Nuzhat A

    2016-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the second major human malaria parasite that inflicts debilitating morbidity and consequent economic impact in South-East Asian countries. The relapsing nature of P. vivax along with the emergence of drug-resistant P. vivax strains has emphasized the urgent need for a vaccine. However, the development of an effective vivax vaccine is seriously hampered due to the diversity and variation in parasite antigens and non-availability of suitable animal models. DNA based vaccines represent an alternative approach in inducing immunity to multiple targets from different stages of malaria parasite. DNA prime-boosting strategies induce both antibody mediated and cell-mediated immune responses that are the major mechanisms of protection against malaria parasites. We have earlier studied the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the soluble and refolded forms of recombinant 42kDa fragment of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP-142) using P. cynomolgi rhesus monkey model. In the present study, we have constructed a recombinant DNA vaccine encoding 42kDa fragment of P. vivax MSP-1 and studied the immunogenicity of PvMSP-142 DNA vaccine construct in mice. The 42kDa gene fragment of PvMSP-1 was PCR amplified using gene specific primers and subcloned into pcDNA 3.1 (+) eukaryotic expression vector. In vitro expression of PvMSP-142 plasmid construct was checked by transfection in COS-1 cell line. Indirect immunofluorescence of transfected COS-1 cells probed with monoclonal antibodies against PvMSP-142 exhibited positive fluorescence. Immunization of BALB/c mice with PvMSP-142-pcDNA vaccine construct revealed the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccine plasmid that can be enhanced by prime boosting with recombinant protein corresponding to the DNA vaccine as evidenced by significant elevation of antibody and the cytokines responses. PMID:27311385

  6. Increasing Prevalence of Plasmodium vivax among Febrile Patients in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Salem Ould Ahmedou; Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Deida, Jemila Mint; Emouh, Ahmed Ould; Weddady, Mohamed Ould; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem; Basco, Leonardo K.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria was reported in Nouakchott, Mauritania in the 1990s. Several studies have suggested the frequent occurrence of P. vivax malaria among Nouakchott residents, including those without recent travel history to the southern part of the country where malaria is known to be endemic. To further consolidate the evidence for P. vivax endemicity and the extent of malaria burden in one district in the city of Nouakchott, febrile illnesses were monitored in 2012–2013 in the Teyarett health center. The number of laboratory-confirmed P. vivax cases has attained more than 2,000 cases in 2013. Malaria transmission occurs locally, and P. vivax is diagnosed throughout the year. Plasmodium vivax malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and largely predominates over Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:25582695

  7. Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi co-infection in north-western Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María J; Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A; Ortega, Eugenia S; Galante, Guillermina B; Zaidenberg, Mario O

    2013-01-01

    A case of co-infection with Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi was detected in a blood sample from a person who had shown symptoms of malaria and lived in a city that was close to the Argentina/Bolivia border. The case was detected during a random revision of thick and thin smears from patients diagnosed with malaria from various towns and cities located in north-western Argentina between 1983 and 2001. Trophozoites of P. vivax were observed in the thin blood smear along with M. ozzardi microfilaria (larval form), which presented a long, slender, pointed anucleate tail and the absence of the sheath. This last characteristic is shared with Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca and Onchocerca volvulus. More rigorously controlled studies to detect other co-infection cases in the area as well as the possibility of importation from Bolivia into Argentina are currently ongoing. The relationship between the malaria parasite and microfilaria, the potential effect of malaria treatment on the development of M. ozzardi, and the possible impact of this microfilaria on the immunity of a person against P. vivax are all still unknown. This contribution constitutes a point of focus for future studies involving the interaction between the parasites and the potential risk that humans are exposed to. PMID:23866313

  8. Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi co-infection in north-western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of co-infection with Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi was detected in a blood sample from a person who had shown symptoms of malaria and lived in a city that was close to the Argentina/Bolivia border. The case was detected during a random revision of thick and thin smears from patients diagnosed with malaria from various towns and cities located in north-western Argentina between 1983 and 2001. Trophozoites of P. vivax were observed in the thin blood smear along with M. ozzardi microfilaria (larval form), which presented a long, slender, pointed anucleate tail and the absence of the sheath. This last characteristic is shared with Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca and Onchocerca volvulus. More rigorously controlled studies to detect other co-infection cases in the area as well as the possibility of importation from Bolivia into Argentina are currently ongoing. The relationship between the malaria parasite and microfilaria, the potential effect of malaria treatment on the development of M. ozzardi, and the possible impact of this microfilaria on the immunity of a person against P. vivax are all still unknown. This contribution constitutes a point of focus for future studies involving the interaction between the parasites and the potential risk that humans are exposed to. PMID:23866313

  9. MOLECULAR SURVEILLANCE OF Plasmodium vivax AND Plasmodium falciparum DHFR MUTATIONS IN ISOLATES FROM SOUTHERN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Sarasiabi, Khojasteh; Haghighi, Ali; Kazemi, Bahram; Taghipour, Niloofar; Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Gachkar, Latif

    2016-01-01

    In Iran, both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum malaria have been detected, but P. vivax is the predominant species. Point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene in both Plasmodia are the major mechanisms of pyrimethamine resistance. From April 2007 to June 2009, a total of 134 blood samples in two endemic areas of southern Iran were collected from patients infected with P. vivax and P. falciparum. The isolates were analyzed for P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) point mutations using various PCR-based methods. The majority of the isolates (72.9%) had wild type amino acids at five codons of pvdhfr. Amongst mutant isolates, the most common pvdhfr alleles were double mutant in 58 and 117 amino acids (58R-117N). Triple mutation in 57, 58, and 117 amino acids (57L/58R/117N) was identified for the first time in the pvdhfr gene of Iranian P. vivax isolates. All the P. falciparumsamples analyzed (n = 16) possessed a double mutant pfdhfrallele (59R/108N) and retained a wild-type mutation at position 51. This may be attributed to the fact that the falciparum malaria patients were treated using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran. The presence of mutant haplotypes in P. vivax is worrying, but has not yet reached an alarming threshold regarding drugs such as SP. The results of this study reinforce the importance of performing a molecular surveillance by means of a continuous chemoresistance assessment.

  10. Role of Plasmodium vivax Dihydropteroate Synthase Polymorphisms in Sulfa Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Pornthanakasem, Wichai; Riangrungroj, Pinpunya; Chitnumsub, Penchit; Ittarat, Wanwipa; Kongkasuriyachai, Darin; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree

    2016-08-01

    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is a known sulfa drug target in malaria treatment, existing as a bifunctional enzyme together with hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (HPPK). Polymorphisms in key residues of Plasmodium falciparum DHPS (PfDHPS) have been characterized and linked to sulfa drug resistance in malaria. Genetic sequencing of P. vivax dhps (Pvdhps) from clinical isolates has shown several polymorphisms at the positions equivalent to those in the Pfdhps genes conferring sulfa drug resistance, suggesting a mechanism for sulfa drug resistance in P. vivax similar to that seen in P. falciparum To characterize the role of polymorphisms in the PvDHPS in sulfa drug resistance, various mutants of recombinant PvHPPK-DHPS enzymes were expressed and characterized. Moreover, due to the lack of a continuous in vitro culture system for P. vivax parasites, a surrogate P. berghei model expressing Pvhppk-dhps genes was established to demonstrate the relationship between sequence polymorphisms and sulfa drug susceptibility and to test the activities of PvDHPS inhibitors on the transgenic parasites. Both enzyme activity and transgenic parasite growth were sensitive to sulfadoxine to different degrees, depending on the number of mutations that accumulated in DHPS. Ki values and 50% effective doses were higher for mutant PvDHPS enzymes than the wild-type enzymes. Altogether, the study provides the first evidence of sulfa drug resistance at the molecular level in P. vivax Furthermore, the enzyme inhibition assay and the in vivo screening system can be useful tools for screening new compounds for their activities against PvDHPS.

  11. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four Rural Communities in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Thanh, Pham Vinh; Van den Eede, Peter; Guetens, Pieter; Binh, Nguyen Thi Huong; Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of malaria in Vietnam has drastically reduced, prompting the National Malaria Control Program to officially engage in elimination efforts. Plasmodium vivax is becoming increasingly prevalent, remaining a major problem in the country's central and southern provinces. A better understanding of P. vivax genetic diversity and structure of local parasite populations will provide baseline data for the evaluation and improvement of current efforts for control and elimination. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from four communities in Tra Leng commune, Nam Tra My district in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax mono infections collected from 234 individuals between April 2009 and December 2010 were successfully analyzed using a panel of 14 microsatellite markers. Isolates displayed moderate genetic diversity (He = 0.68), with no significant differences between study communities. Polyclonal infections were frequent (71.4%) with a mean multiplicity of infection of 1.91 isolates/person. Low but significant genetic differentiation (FST value from -0.05 to 0.18) was observed between the community across the river and the other communities. Strong linkage disequilibrium (IAS = 0.113, p < 0.001) was detected across all communities, suggesting gene flow within and among them. Using multiple approaches, 101 haplotypes were grouped into two genetic clusters, while 60.4% of haplotypes were admixed. Conclusions/Significance In this area of Central Vietnam, where malaria transmission has decreased significantly over the past decade, there was moderate genetic diversity and high occurrence of polyclonal infections. Local human populations have frequent social and economic interactions that facilitate gene flow and inbreeding among parasite populations, while decreasing population structure. Findings provide important information on parasites populations circulating in the

  12. Worldwide sequence conservation of transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Pvs230 in Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Masanori; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Hamai, Meiko; Tachibana, Mayumi; Mita, Toshihiro; Yagi, Masanori; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Akira; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Ya-Ming; Horii, Toshihiro; Torii, Motomi; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Pfs230, surface protein of gametocyte/gamete of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is a prime candidate of malaria transmission-blocking vaccine. P. vivax has an ortholog of Pfs230 (Pvs230), however, there has been no study in any aspects on Pvs230 to date. To investigate whether Pvs230 can be a vivax malaria transmission-blocking vaccine, we performed evolutionary and population genetic analysis of the Pvs230 gene (pvs230: PVX_003905). Our analysis of Pvs230 and its orthologs in seven Plasmodium species revealed two distinctive parts: an interspecies variable part (IVP) containing species-specific oligopeptide repeats at the N-terminus and a 7.5 kb interspecies conserved part (ICP) containing 14 cysteine-rich domains. Pvs230 was closely related to its orthologs, Pks230 and Pcys230, in monkey malaria parasites. Analysis of 113 pvs230 sequences obtained from worldwide, showed that nucleotide diversity is remarkably low in the non-repeat 8-kb region of pvs230 (θπ = 0.00118) with 77 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 40 of which resulting in amino acid replacements. A signature of purifying selection but not of balancing selection was seen on pvs230. Functional and/or structural constraints may limit the level of polymorphism in pvs230. The observed limited polymorphism in pvs230 should ground for utilization of Pvs230 as an effective transmission-blocking vaccine. PMID:21514344

  13. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Alistair R. D.; Boel, Machteld E.; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  14. Prevalence of mutation and phenotypic expression associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Zakai, Haytham A; Khan, Wajihullah; Asma, Umme

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), which is commonly used to treat falciparum malaria, was assessed in isolates of Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) and Plasmodium vivax (Grassi et Feletti, 1890) ofAligarh, Uttar Pradesh, North India and Taif, Saudi Arabia during 2011-2012. Both the species showed mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as they have common biochemical drug targets. Mutation rate for pfdhfr was higher compared to pvdhfr because the drug was mainly given to treat falciparum malaria. Since both the species coexist, P. vivax was also exposed to SP due to faulty species diagnosis or medication without specific diagnosis. Low level of mutations against SP in P. falciparum of Saudi isolates indicates that the SP combination is still effective for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Since SP is used as first-line of treatment because of high level of resistance against chloroquine (CQ), it may result in spread of higher level of mutations resulting in drug resistance and treatment failure in near future. Therefore, to avoid further higher mutations in the parasite, use of better treatment regimens such as artesunate combination therapy must be introduced against SP combination.

  15. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    McLean, Alistair R D; Boel, Machteld E; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A; Fowkes, Freya J I

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  16. [Monitoring delagil (chloroquine) efficacy against imported Plasmodium vivax strains].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, S A; Tokmalaev, A K; Kukina, I V; Morozov, E N; Maksakovskaia, E V; Sadykova, V D; Burchik, M A; Ivanova, T N; Sergiev, V P

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of P. vivax malaria treatment with delagil (chloroquine) was evaluated in 122 patients, including 82 cases in Moscow and the Moscow region. The origin of the cases was malaria endemic areas in Asia, Africa, the Pacific Region, South America, and Transcaucasia. Forty other cases were imported malaria cases (secondary to imported ones), detected in Moscow and the Moscow region. Standard treatment with delagil (2.5 g) resulted in clinical improvement during 3 days in the majority of cases. Initial signs of degradation of asexual stages of P. vivax--kernels of nucleus, refinement of cytoplasm and its vacuolization, aggregation of pigment in isolated instances, its pushing out from cytoplasm--were observed after 1-2 hours after administration of delagil. Thereafter, parasite degradation was increasing, and it disappeared within 48 hours. Disappearance of fever slowed down in a few cases. However, degradation of parasites occurred during the same period among the rest of cases. It can not be excluded that fever was determined by the pyrogenic effect of remnants of degraded parasites and by the products of destroyed infected erythrocytes. It is probable that the findings of gametocytes, not completely degraded after disappearance of asexual forms in conjunction with prolonged fever, could result in a wrong conclusion of drug resistance. Negative results of microscopy and nested PCR on the last day of treatment, as well as in the following 10 days and absence of complains during 45 days, suggest the absence of resistance to delagil in P. vivax strains imported from different regions of the world. It is also probable that the literature on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine is limited to sporadic cases. PMID:21395044

  17. Plasmodium vivax hospitalizations in a monoendemic malaria region: severe vivax malaria?

    PubMed

    Quispe, Antonio M; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-07-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P < 0.001), but similar in other regards. Severe vivax malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought.

  18. Immunogenicity of a Prime-Boost Vaccine Containing the Circumsporozoite Proteins of Plasmodium vivax in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Lais H.; Tararam, Cibele A.; Lasaro, Marcio O.; Camacho, Ariane G. A.; Ersching, Jonatan; Leal, Monica T.; Herrera, Sócrates; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Soares, Irene S.; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Ertl, Hildegund C. J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread and the second most prevalent malaria-causing species in the world. Current measures used to control the transmission of this disease would benefit from the development of an efficacious vaccine. In the case of the deadly parasite P. falciparum, the recombinant RTS,S vaccine containing the circumsporozoite antigen (CSP) consistently protects 30 to 50% of human volunteers against infection and is undergoing phase III clinical trials in Africa with similar efficacy. These findings encouraged us to develop a P. vivax vaccine containing the three circulating allelic forms of P. vivax CSP. Toward this goal, we generated three recombinant bacterial proteins representing the CSP alleles, as well as a hybrid polypeptide called PvCSP-All-CSP-epitopes. This hybrid contains the conserved N and C termini of P. vivax CSP and the three variant repeat domains in tandem. We also generated simian and human recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vectors expressing PvCSP-All-CSP-epitopes. Mice immunized with the mixture of recombinant proteins in a formulation containing the adjuvant poly(I·C) developed high and long-lasting serum IgG titers comparable to those elicited by proteins emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Antibody titers were similar in mice immunized with homologous (protein-protein) and heterologous (adenovirus-protein) vaccine regimens. The antibodies recognized the three allelic forms of CSP, reacted to the repeated and nonrepeated regions of CSP, and recognized sporozoites expressing the alleles VK210 and VK247. The vaccine formulations described in this work should be useful for the further development of an anti-P. vivax vaccine. PMID:24478093

  19. Maternal-foetal transfer of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antibodies in a low transmission setting

    PubMed Central

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; McGready, Rose; Herten-Crabb, Asha; Powell, Rosanna; Guy, Andrew; Langer, Christine; Richards, Jack S.; Gilson, Paul R.; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Narum, David L.; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Simpson, Julie A.; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy immunolglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are transferred from mother to neonate across the placenta. Studies in high transmission areas have shown transfer of P. falciparum-specific IgG, but the extent and factors influencing maternal-foetal transfer in low transmission areas co-endemic for both P. falciparum and P. vivax are unknown. Pregnant women were screened weekly for Plasmodium infection. Mother-neonate paired serum samples at delivery were tested for IgG to antigens from P. falciparum, P. vivax and other infectious diseases. Antibodies to malarial and non-malarial antigens were highly correlated between maternal and neonatal samples (median [range] spearman ρ = 0.78 [0.57–0.93]), although Plasmodium spp. antibodies tended to be lower in neonates than mothers. Estimated gestational age at last P. falciparum infection, but not P. vivax infection, was positively associated with antibody levels in the neonate (P. falciparum merozoite, spearman ρ median [range] 0.42 [0.33–0.66], PfVAR2CSA 0.69; P. vivax ρ = 0.19 [0.09–0.3]). Maternal-foetal transfer of anti-malarial IgG to Plasmodium spp. antigens occurs in low transmission settings. P. vivax IgG acquisition is not associated with recent exposure unlike P. falciparum IgG, suggesting a difference in acquisition of antibodies. IgG transfer is greatest in the final weeks of pregnancy which has implications for the timing of future malaria vaccination strategies in pregnant women. PMID:26861682

  20. Malaria morbidity in Papua Indonesia, an area with multidrug resistant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Karyana, Muhammad; Burdarm, Lenny; Yeung, Shunmay; Kenangalem, Enny; Wariker, Noah; Maristela, Rilia; Umana, Ketut Gde; Vemuri, Ram; Okoseray, Maurits J; Penttinen, Pasi M; Ebsworth, Peter; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance has emerged to both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum and yet the comparative epidemiology of these infections is poorly defined. Methods All laboratory-confirmed episodes of malaria in Timika, Papua, Indonesia, presenting to community primary care clinics and an inpatient facility were reviewed over a two-year period. In addition information was gathered from a house-to-house survey to quantify the prevalence of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of people with fever. Results Between January 2004 and December 2005, 99,158 laboratory-confirmed episodes of malaria were reported, of which 58% (57,938) were attributable to P. falciparum and 37% (36,471) to P. vivax. Malaria was most likely to be attributable to pure P. vivax in children under one year of age (55% 2,684/4,889). In the household survey, the prevalence of asexual parasitaemia was 7.5% (290/3,890) for P. falciparum and 6.4% (248/3,890) for P. vivax. The prevalence of P. falciparum infection peaked in young adults aged 15–25 years (9.8% 69/707), compared to P. vivax infection which peaked in children aged 1 to 4 years (9.5% 61/642). Overall 35% (1,813/5,255) of people questioned reported a febrile episode in the preceding month. Of the 60% of people who were estimated to have had malaria, only 39% would have been detected by the surveillance network. The overall incidence of malaria was therefore estimated as 876 per 1,000 per year (Range: 711–906). Conclusion In this region of multidrug-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum, both species are associated with substantial morbidity, but with significant differences in the age-related risk of infection. PMID:18673572

  1. Plasmodium vivax Promiscuous T-Helper Epitopes Defined and Evaluated as Linear Peptide Chimera Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Aguilar, Ivette; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio; Guzmán, Fanny; De la Vega, Patricia; Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel; Galinski, Mary R.; Moreno, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trials of malaria vaccines have confirmed that parasite-derived T-cell epitopes are required to elicit consistent and long-lasting immune responses. We report here the identification and functional characterization of six T-cell epitopes that are present in the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1) and bind promiscuously to four different HLA-DRB1∗ alleles. Each of these peptides induced lymphoproliferative responses in cells from individuals with previous P. vivax infections. Furthermore, linear-peptide chimeras containing the promiscuous PvMSP-1 T-cell epitopes, synthesized in tandem with the Plasmodium falciparum immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP) B-cell epitope, induced high specific antibody titers, cytokine production, long-lasting immune responses, and immunoglobulin G isotype class switching in BALB/c mice. A linear-peptide chimera containing an allele-restricted P. falciparum T-cell epitope with the CSP B-cell epitope was not effective. Two out of the six promiscuous T-cell epitopes exhibiting the highest anti-peptide response also contain B-cell epitopes. Antisera generated against these B-cell epitopes recognize P. vivax merozoites in immunofluorescence assays. Importantly, the anti-peptide antibodies generated to the CSP B-cell epitope inhibited the invasion of P. falciparum sporozoites into human hepatocytes. These data and the simplicity of design of the chimeric constructs highlight the potential of multimeric, multistage, and multispecies linear-peptide chimeras containing parasite promiscuous T-cell epitopes for malaria vaccine development. PMID:12065487

  2. PvRON2, a new Plasmodium vivax rhoptry neck antigen

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhoptries are specialized organelles from parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa; they secrete their protein content during invasion of host target cells and are sorted into discrete subcompartments within rhoptry neck or bulb. This distribution is associated with these proteins' role in tight junction (TJ) and parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation, respectively. Methods Plasmodium falciparum RON2 amino acid sequence was used as bait for screening the codifying gene for the homologous protein in the Plasmodium vivax genome. Gene synteny, as well as identity and similarity values, were determined for ron2 and its flanking genes among P. falciparum, P. vivax and other malarial parasite genomes available at PlasmoDB and Sanger Institute databases. Pvron2 gene transcription was determined by RT-PCR of cDNA obtained from the P. vivax VCG-1 strain. Protein expression and localization were assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence using polyclonal anti-PvRON2 antibodies. Co-localization was confirmed using antibodies directed towards specific microneme and rhoptry neck proteins. Results and discussion The first P. vivax rhoptry neck protein (named here PvRON2) has been identified in this study. PvRON2 is a 2,204 residue-long protein encoded by a single 6,615 bp exon containing a hydrophobic signal sequence towards the amino-terminus, a transmembrane domain towards the carboxy-terminus and two coiled coil α-helical motifs; these are characteristic features of several previously described vaccine candidates against malaria. This protein also contains two tandem repeats within the interspecies variable sequence possibly involved in evading a host's immune system. PvRON2 is expressed in late schizonts and localized in rhoptry necks similar to what has been reported for PfRON2, which suggests its participation during target cell invasion. Conclusions The identification and partial characterization of the first P. vivax rhoptry neck protein are

  3. Induction of Inhibitory Receptors on T Cells During Plasmodium vivax Malaria Impairs Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro A C; Leoratti, Fabiana M S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Tada, Mauro S; Pereira, Dhelio B; Junqueira, Caroline; Soares, Irene S; Barber, Daniel L; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Antonelli, Lis R V

    2015-12-15

    The function and regulation of the immune response triggered during malaria is complex and poorly understood, and there is a particular paucity of studies conducted in humans infected with Plasmodium vivax. While it has been proposed that T-cell-effector responses are crucial for protection against blood-stage malaria in mice, the mechanisms behind this in humans remain poorly understood. Experimental models of malaria have shown that the regulatory molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte attenuator-4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), and programmed death-1 (PD-1) are involved in the functional impairment of T cells during infection. Our goal was to define the role of these molecules during P. vivax malaria. We demonstrate that infection triggers the expression of regulatory molecules on T cells. The pattern of expression differs in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Higher frequencies of CD4(+) express more than 1 regulatory molecule compared to CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, lower proportions of CD4(+) T cells coexpress regulatory molecules, but are still able to proliferate. Importantly, simultaneously blockade of the CLTA-4, PD-1, and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-3 signaling restores the cytokine production by antigen-specific cells. These data support the hypothesis that upregulation of inhibitory receptors on T cells during P. vivax malaria impairs parasite-specific T-cell effector function.

  4. Expression and biochemical characterization of a type I methionine aminopeptidase of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Ju, Hye-Lim; Lee, Jinyoung; Lee, Kon Ho; Lee, Won-Ja; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-04-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs), ubiquitous enzymes that play an important role in nascent protein maturation, have been recognized as attractive targets for the development of drugs against pathogenic protozoa including Plasmodium spp. Here, we characterized partial biochemical properties of a type I MetAP of Plasmodium vivax (PvMetAP1). PvMetAP1 had the typical amino acid residues essential for metal binding and substrate binding sites, which are well conserved in the type I MetAP family enzymes. Recombinant PvMetAP1 showed activity in a broad range of neutral pHs, with optimum activity at pH 7.5. PvMetAP1 was stable under neutral and alkaline pHs, but was relatively unstable under acidic conditions. PvMetAP1 activity was highly increased in the presence of Mn(2+), and was effectively inhibited by a metal chelator, EDTA. Fumagillin and aminopeptidase inhibitors, amastatin and bestatin, also showed an inhibitory effect on PvMetAP1. The enzyme had a highly specific hydrolytic activity for N-terminal methionine. These results collectively suggest that PvMetAP1 belongs to the family of type I MetAPs and may play a pivotal role for the maintenance of P. vivax physiology by mediating protein maturation and processing of the parasite.

  5. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls associated with primaquine-tolerant Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Spudick, Jeanne M; Garcia, Lynne S; Graham, David M; Haake, David A

    2005-02-01

    We describe a U.S. Army Ranger returning from duty in Afghanistan and Iraq with life-threatening infection due to Plasmodium vivax. Morphological variants were observed in blood films prepared using samples collected by venipuncture. The patient's multiple relapses indicate infection with primaquine-tolerant P. vivax. Strategies for relapse prevention using primaquine are reviewed. PMID:15695723

  6. Regular production of infective sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in laboratory-bred Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, S; Salas, M L; Romero, J F; Zapata, J C; Ortiz, H; Arevalo-Herrera, M; Herrera, S

    1997-01-01

    One of the major constraints for studies on the sporogonic cycle of the parasites causing human malaria, and on the protective efficacy of pre-erythrocytic vaccines, is the scarcity of laboratory-reared Anopheles mosquitoes as a source of infective sporozoites. The aim of the present study was to reproduce the life-cycles of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in the laboratory and so develop the ability to produce infective sporozoites of these two species regularly under laboratory conditions. Colonized Anopheles albimanus, of Buenaventura and Tecojate strains, were infected by feeding either on Plasmodium-infected blood, from human patients or experimentally inoculated Aotus monkeys, or on gametocytes of the P. falciparum NF-54 isolate grown in vitro. The monkeys were infected with the blood stages of a Colombian P. vivax isolate and then, after recovery, with the Santa Lucia strain of P. falciparum from El Salvador. Although both of the mosquito strains used were successfully infected with both parasite species, the Buenaventura strain of mosquito was generally more susceptible to infection than the Tecojate strain, and particularly to infection with the parasites from the patients, who lived where this strain of mosquitoes was originally isolated. Monkeys injected intravenously with the P. vivax sporozoites produced in the mosquitoes developed patent sexual and asexual parasitaemias; the gametocytes that developed could then be used to infect mosquitoes, allowing the development of more sporozoites. However, experimental infections failed to establish after the P. falciparum sporozoites were used to inoculate monkeys. The ability to reproduce the complete life cycle of P. vivax in the laboratory, from human to mosquito and then to monkey, should greatly facilitate many studies on vivax malaria and on the efficacy of candidate malaria vaccines. The availability of the sporogonic cycles of P. falciparum from three different sources should also permit a variety of

  7. Sensitive Detection of Plasmodium vivax Using a High-Throughput, Colourimetric Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (HtLAMP) Platform: A Potential Novel Tool for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Sumudu; Cheng, Qin; Grigg, Matthew J.; Poole, Catherine B.; Pasay, Cielo; William, Timothy; Fornace, Kimberley; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Sutherland, Colin J.; Drakeley, Chris; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Plasmodium vivax malaria has a wide geographic distribution and poses challenges to malaria elimination that are likely to be greater than those of P. falciparum. Diagnostic tools for P. vivax infection in non-reference laboratory settings are limited to microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests but these are unreliable at low parasitemia. The development and validation of a high-throughput and sensitive assay for P. vivax is a priority. Methods A high-throughput LAMP assay targeting a P. vivax mitochondrial gene and deploying colorimetric detection in a 96-well plate format was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. Diagnostic accuracy was compared against microscopy, antigen detection tests and PCR and validated in samples from malaria patients and community controls in a district hospital setting in Sabah, Malaysia. Results The high throughput LAMP-P. vivax assay (HtLAMP-Pv) performed with an estimated limit of detection of 1.4 parasites/ μL. Assay primers demonstrated cross-reactivity with P. knowlesi but not with other Plasmodium spp. Field testing of HtLAMP-Pv was conducted using 149 samples from symptomatic malaria patients (64 P. vivax, 17 P. falciparum, 56 P. knowlesi, 7 P. malariae, 1 mixed P. knowlesi/P. vivax, with 4 excluded). When compared against multiplex PCR, HtLAMP-Pv demonstrated a sensitivity for P. vivax of 95% (95% CI 87–99%); 61/64), and specificity of 100% (95% CI 86–100%); 25/25) when P. knowlesi samples were excluded. HtLAMP-Pv testing of 112 samples from asymptomatic community controls, 7 of which had submicroscopic P. vivax infections by PCR, showed a sensitivity of 71% (95% CI 29–96%; 5/7) and specificity of 93% (95% CI87-97%; 98/105). Conclusion This novel HtLAMP-P. vivax assay has the potential to be a useful field applicable molecular diagnostic test for P. vivax infection in elimination settings. PMID:26870958

  8. Plasmodium vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA) binds human erythrocytes independent of Duffy antigen status

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yang; Lu, Feng; Wang, Bo; Li, Jian; Han, Jin-Hee; Ito, Daisuke; Kong, Deok-Hoon; Jiang, Lubin; Wu, Jian; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Jun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Desai, Sanjay A.; Miller, Louis H.; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Han, Eun-Taek

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax, a major agent of malaria in both temperate and tropical climates, has been thought to be unable to infect humans lacking the Duffy (Fy) blood group antigen because this receptor is critical for erythrocyte invasion. Recent surveys in various endemic regions, however, have reported P. vivax infections in Duffy-negative individuals, suggesting that the parasite may utilize alternative receptor-ligand pairs to complete the erythrocyte invasion. Here, we identified and characterized a novel parasite ligand, Plasmodium vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA), that bound human erythrocytes regardless of Duffy antigen status. PvGAMA was localized at the microneme in the mature schizont-stage parasites. The antibodies against PvGAMA fragments inhibited PvGAMA binding to erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The erythrocyte-specific binding activities of PvGAMA were significantly reduced by chymotrypsin treatment. Thus, PvGAMA may be an adhesion molecule for the invasion of Duffy-positive and -negative human erythrocytes. PMID:27759110

  9. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax subclinical infection in non-endemic region: implications for blood transfusion and malaria epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon River basin and non-endemic in the extra-Amazon region, which includes areas of São Paulo state. In this state, a number of autochthonous cases of malaria occur annually, and the prevalence of subclinical infection is unknown. Asymptomatic infections may remain undetected, maintaining transmission of the pathogen, including by blood transfusion. In these report it has been described subclinical Plasmodium infection in blood donors from a blood transfusion centre in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods In this cross-sectional study, representative samples of blood were obtained from 1,108 healthy blood donors at the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, the main blood transfusion centre in São Paulo. Malaria exposure was defined by the home region (exposed: forest region; non-exposed: non-forest region). Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Subclinical malaria cases were geo-referenced. Results Eighty-four (7.41%) blood donors tested positive for Plasmodium; 57 of these were infected by P. falciparum, 25 by P. vivax, and 2 by both. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was 5.14 and 2.26, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio (PR) was 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03, 5.13); P. falciparum PR was 16.11 (95% CI 5.87, 44.21) and P. vivax PR was 0.47 (95% CI 0.2, 1.12). Plasmodium falciparum subclinical malaria infection in the Atlantic Forest domain was present in the mountain regions while P. vivax infection was observed in cities from forest-surrounded areas. Conclusions The presence of Plasmodium in healthy blood donors from a region known as non-endemic, which is important in the context of transfusion biosafety, was described. Infected recipients may become asymptomatic carriers and a reservoir for parasites, maintaining their transmission. Furthermore, P. falciparum PR was positively associated with the forest environment, and P. vivax was

  10. Optimization of a Membrane Feeding Assay for Plasmodium vivax Infection in Anopheles albimanus

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Andrés F.; Rubiano, Kelly; Amado, Andres; Krystosik, Amy R.; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals exposed to malaria infections for a long time develop immune responses capable of blocking Plasmodium transmission to mosquito vectors, potentially limiting parasite spreading in nature. Development of a malaria TB vaccine requires a better understanding of the mechanisms and main effectors responsible for transmission blocking (TB) responses. The lack of an in vitro culture system for Plasmodium vivax has been an important drawback for development of a standardized method to assess TB responses to this parasite. This study evaluated host, vector, and parasite factors that may influence Anopheles mosquito infection in order to develop an efficient and reliable assay to assess the TB immunity. Methods/Principal Findings A total of 94 P. vivax infected patients were enrolled as parasite donors or subjects of direct mosquito feeding in two malaria endemic regions of Colombia (Tierralta, and Buenaventura). Parasite infectiousness was assessed by membrane feeding assay or direct feeding assay using laboratory reared Anopheles mosquitoes. Infection was measured by qPCR and by microscopically examining mosquito midguts at day 7 for the presence of oocysts. Best infectivity was attained in four day old mosquitoes fed at a density of 100 mosquitos/cage. Membrane feeding assays produced statistically significant better infections than direct feeding assays in parasite donors; cytokine profiles showed increased IFN-γ, TNF and IL-1 levels in non-infectious individuals. Mosquito infections and parasite maturation were more reliably assessed by PCR compared to microscopy. Conclusions We evaluated mosquito, parasite and host factors that may affect the outcome of parasite transmission as measured by artificial membrane feeding assays. Results have led us to conclude that: 1) optimal mosquito infectivity occurs with mosquitoes four days after emergence at a cage density of 100; 2) mosquito infectivity is best quantified by PCR as it may be underestimated

  11. Naturally-Acquired Immune Response against Plasmodium vivax Rhoptry-Associated Membrane Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Changrob, Siriruk; Wang, Bo; Han, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Lim, Chae Seung; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Chootong, Patchanee; Han, Eun-Taek

    2016-01-01

    Rhoptry-associated membrane antigen (RAMA) is an abundant glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that is embedded within the lipid bilayer and is implicated in parasite invasion. Antibody responses against rhoptry proteins are produced by individuals living in a malaria-endemic area, suggesting the immunogenicity of Plasmodium vivax RAMA (PvRAMA) for induction of immune responses during P. vivax infection. To determine whether PvRAMA contributes to the acquisition of immunity to malaria and could be a rational candidate for a vaccine, the presence of memory T cells and the stability of the antibody response against PvRAMA were evaluated in P. vivax-exposed individuals. The immunogenicity of PvRAMA for the induction of T cell responses was evaluated by in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). High levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 cytokines were detected in the culture supernatant of PBMCs, and the CD4+ T cells predominantly produced IL-10 cytokine. The levels of total anti-PvRAMA immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody were significantly elevated, and these antibodies persisted over the 12 months of the study. Interestingly, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 were the major antibody subtypes in the response to PvRAMA. The frequency of IgG3 in specific to PvRAMA antigen maintained over 12 months. These data could explain the immunogenicity of PvRAMA antigen in induction of both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity in natural P. vivax infection, in which IFN-γ helps antibody class switching toward the IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 isotypes and IL-10 supports PvRAMA-specific antibody production. PMID:26886867

  12. Immunological alterations associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, H K; Lim, J; Kim, M; Lee, S; Oh, E J; Lee, J; Oh, J; Kim, Y; Han, K; Lee, E J; Kang, C S; Kim, B K

    2001-01-01

    Various haematological and immunological studies on patients infected with Plasmodium vivax were undertaken, at diagnosis (day 0), after treatment with chloroquine but during primaquine treatment (day 10) and after all treatment (day 59), in South Korea (where there has been a recent and abrupt increase in the incidence of such infection). The main aims were to gain an understanding of the haemto-immunological alterations of this malarial infection, both before and after treatment, and to identify at least one useful marker for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of P. vivax malaria. Thirty-eight patients with P. vivax malaria were compared with 20, apparently healthy controls. At diagnosis, the patients had lymphopenia, marked eosinopenia (the eosinophil count being correlated with the platelet count) and thrombopenia. Cells of most of the lymphocyte subsets investigated [i.e. CD3+, CD8+, CD19+, CD56+, CD3-/CD56+ and CD8+/CD56+ but not CD4+, CD3+/CD56+ or CD25+] were significantly less common among the lymphocytes of patients at diagnosis than among those of the controls. After initiating treatment, the numbers of CD19+ lymphocytes gradually increased (to normal values by day 59), whereas those of CD3+/56+ lymphocytes remained abnormally low throughout the follow-up period. The proportions of lymphocytes identified as CD4+ appeared to be unaffected by treatment. Although serum concentrations of IgE (and, to a lesser extent, IgM) were elevated in the patients at diagnosis, they were subnormal on day 10 post-treatment and normal at the day-59 follow-up. Serum concentrations of IgG and IgA in the patients were always found to be similar to those in the controls. At diagnosis the serum concentrations of complements C3 and C4 were significantly elevated in the patients. C3 remained at the same high concentration during follow-up but the concentration of C4, like that of IgE, was found to be subnormal on day 10 and normal 7 weeks later. The level of parasitaemia

  13. Antigen-displaying lipid-enveloped PLGA nanoparticles as delivery agents for a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    Moon, James J; Suh, Heikyung; Polhemus, Mark E; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Yadava, Anjali; Irvine, Darrell J

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, but efforts to develop viable vaccines against P. vivax so far have been inadequate. We recently developed pathogen-mimicking polymeric vaccine nanoparticles composed of the FDA-approved biodegradable polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) "enveloped" by a lipid membrane. In this study, we sought to determine whether this vaccine delivery platform could be applied to enhance the immune response against P. vivax sporozoites. A candidate malaria antigen, VMP001, was conjugated to the lipid membrane of the particles, and an immunostimulatory molecule, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), was incorporated into the lipid membranes, creating pathogen-mimicking nanoparticle vaccines (VMP001-NPs). Vaccination with VMP001-NPs promoted germinal center formation and elicited durable antigen-specific antibodies with significantly higher titers and more balanced Th1/Th2 responses in vivo, compared with vaccines composed of soluble protein mixed with MPLA. Antibodies raised by NP vaccinations also exhibited enhanced avidity and affinity toward the domains within the circumsporozoite protein implicated in protection and were able to agglutinate live P. vivax sporozoites. These results demonstrate that these VMP001-NPs are promising vaccines candidates that may elicit protective immunity against P. vivax sporozoites.

  14. Antibody Profiling in Naïve and Semi-immune Individuals Experimentally Challenged with Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Dotsey, Emmanuel; Jain, Aarti; Rubiano, Kelly; Felgner, Philip L.; Davies, D. Huw; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Background Acquisition of malaria immunity in low transmission areas usually occurs after relatively few exposures to the parasite. A recent Plasmodium vivax experimental challenge trial in malaria naïve and semi-immune volunteers from Colombia showed that all naïve individuals developed malaria symptoms, whereas semi-immune subjects were asymptomatic or displayed attenuated symptoms. Sera from these individuals were analyzed by protein microarray to identify antibodies associated with clinical protection. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum samples from naïve (n = 7) and semi-immune (n = 9) volunteers exposed to P. vivax sporozoite-infected mosquito bites were probed against a custom protein microarray displaying 515 P. vivax antigens. The array revealed higher serological responses in semi-immune individuals before the challenge, although malaria naïve individuals also had pre-existing antibodies, which were higher in Colombians than US adults (control group). In both experimental groups the response to the P. vivax challenge peaked at day 45 and returned to near baseline at day 145. Additional analysis indicated that semi-immune volunteers without fever displayed a lower response to the challenge, but recognized new antigens afterwards. Conclusion Clinical protection against experimental challenge in volunteers with previous P. vivax exposure was associated with elevated pre-existing antibodies, an attenuated serological response to the challenge and reactivity to new antigens. PMID:27014875

  15. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax].

    PubMed

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment. PMID:27656940

  16. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax].

    PubMed

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment.

  17. Genetic structure of Plasmodium vivax in Nicaragua, a country in the control phase, based on the carboxyl terminal region of the merozoite surface protein-1.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Sleidher; González-Cerón, Lilia; Montoya, Alberto; Sandoval, Marco A; Tórres, Maritza E; Cerritos, Rene

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is still a grave public health problem in tropical areas of the world. The greater genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax at geographic sites with less control over infection evidences the importance of genetic studies of these parasites. The present genetic study compares P. vivax in Nicaragua, which is still in the control phase, with this species in several other countries. In Nicaragua, P. vivax causes over 80% of malaria cases, most occurring in two remote northern regions. Plasmodium asexual blood-stage antigens, implicated in reticulocyte invasion, are possible molecular markers for analyzing parasite population genetics and for developing vaccines. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic structure of P. vivax based on the 42kDa merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP-142), which may represent a sensitive marker for evaluating malaria transmission control. From blood samples of patients with P. vivax, we amplified PvMSP-142, obtained the nucleotide sequences, and compared them to homologous sequences of parasites from other geographic sites, retrieved from the GenBank. The 92 nucleotide sequences of P. vivax resulted in the resolution of eight haplotypes, six exclusive to Nicaragua. The great nucleotide diversity (π=0.020), the minimal recombination events (Rm=11), and the dN-dS values were similar to other control phase countries. FST values between parasites were low (0.069) for Nicaragua versus Brazil but higher for Nicaragua versus other regions (0.134-0.482). The haplotype network revealed five lineages: two were very frequent in Nicaragua and closely related to American parasites; three have been detected in multiple geographic sites around the world. These results suggest that P. vivax in Nicaragua is a differentiated and genetically diverse population (mainly due to mutation, positive balancing selection and recombination) and that PvMSP-142 may be a sensitive marker for evaluating sustained reduction in malaria transmission and for

  18. Plasmodium vivax: genetic diversity of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) in isolates from India.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Vidya; Elamaran, M; Vidya, S; Gowrishankar, M; Kochar, Dhanpat; Das, Ashis

    2007-07-01

    Malaria parasites exhibit sequence diversity for a number of stage specific antigens. Several studies have proved that apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is an effective target for eliciting a protective immune response in humans and other experimental animals. We have investigated the sequence variation in Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 (Pv AMA-1) from different Indian isolates. This is the first study of its kind for the nearly full length Pv AMA-1 from India. Our analysis reveals greater degree of genetic diversity in Pv AMA-1 than reported so far and identifies five novel haplotypes. This is significant to establish the antigenic repertoire of isolates in a malaria endemic country like India. PMID:17336299

  19. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Castellanos, Angélica; Kajava, Andrey V; Servis, Catherine; Felger, Ingrid; Moret, Remy; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-01-01

    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high α-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the α-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-γ by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the α-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.

  20. Preserved dendritic cell HLA-DR expression and reduced regulatory T cell activation in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection.

    PubMed

    Kho, Steven; Marfurt, Jutta; Noviyanti, Rintis; Kusuma, Andreas; Piera, Kim A; Burdam, Faustina H; Kenangalem, Enny; Lampah, Daniel A; Engwerda, Christian R; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R; Price, Ric N; Anstey, Nicholas M; Minigo, Gabriela; Woodberry, Tonia

    2015-08-01

    Clinical illness with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax compromises the function of dendritic cells (DC) and expands regulatory T (Treg) cells. Individuals with asymptomatic parasitemia have clinical immunity, restricting parasite expansion and preventing clinical disease. The role of DC and Treg cells during asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is unclear. During a cross-sectional household survey in Papua, Indonesia, we examined the number and activation of blood plasmacytoid DC (pDC), CD141(+), and CD1c(+) myeloid DC (mDC) subsets and Treg cells using flow cytometry in 168 afebrile children (of whom 15 had P. falciparum and 36 had P. vivax infections) and 162 afebrile adults (of whom 20 had P. falciparum and 20 had P. vivax infections), alongside samples from 16 patients hospitalized with uncomplicated malaria. Unlike DC from malaria patients, DC from children and adults with asymptomatic, microscopy-positive P. vivax or P. falciparum infection increased or retained HLA-DR expression. Treg cells in asymptomatic adults and children exhibited reduced activation, suggesting increased immune responsiveness. The pDC and mDC subsets varied according to clinical immunity (asymptomatic or symptomatic Plasmodium infection) and, in asymptomatic infection, according to host age and parasite species. In conclusion, active control of asymptomatic infection was associated with and likely contingent upon functional DC and reduced Treg cell activation.

  1. A Novel Erythrocyte Binding Protein of Plasmodium vivax Suggests an Alternate Invasion Pathway into Duffy-Positive Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson-Luque, Richard; Torres, Letícia de Menezes; Gunalan, Karthigayan; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development and an important determinant of host range. In Plasmodium vivax, the interaction between the Duffy binding protein (DBP) and its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), on human erythrocytes is central to blood-stage infection. Contrary to this established pathway of invasion, there is growing evidence of P. vivax infections occurring in Duffy blood group-negative individuals, suggesting that the parasite might have gained an alternative pathway to infect this group of individuals. Supporting this concept, a second distinct erythrocyte binding protein (EBP2), representing a new member of the DBP family, was discovered in P. vivax and may be the ligand in an alternate invasion pathway. Our study characterizes this novel ligand and determines its potential role in reticulocyte invasion by P. vivax merozoites. EBP2 binds preferentially to young (CD71high) Duffy-positive (Fy+) reticulocytes and has minimal binding capacity for Duffy-negative reticulocytes. Importantly, EBP2 is antigenically distinct from DBP and cannot be functionally inhibited by anti-DBP antibodies. Consequently, our results do not support EBP2 as a ligand for invasion of Duffy-negative blood cells, but instead, EBP2 may represent a novel ligand for an alternate invasion pathway of Duffy-positive reticulocytes. PMID:27555313

  2. Soluble recombinant merozoite surface antigen-142kDa of Plasmodium vivax: An improved diagnostic antigen for vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Mirahmadi, Hadi; Fallahi, Shirzad; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), as a serological test, can be a beneficial tool for epidemiological studies by screening blood donors and diagnosis of specific antibodies from Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infected cases. Since P. vivax cannot easily be acquired in vitro, ELISA assays using total or semi-purified antigens are seldom used. On the basis of this restriction, we examined whether recombinant protein 42 kDa related to C-terminal region of the merozoite surface antigen-1 of P. vivax (MSA-1(42)) could be suitable for serological detection of vivax malaria infection. Purified recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) (GST-MSA-1(42)) was examined for its ability to bind to IgG antibodies of individuals with patent P. vivax infection. The method was tested with 262 serum samples collected from individuals living in the south and southeastern regions of Iran where malaria is endemic. Samples exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) infection and patients with other infectious disease (toxoplasmosis, Leishmania infantum infection, echinococcosis and FUO (fever with unknown origin)) except for P. falciparum were residing in non- malaria endemic areas in Iran. Generally, the sensitivity of ELISA evaluated with sera from naturally infected individuals was 86.9%. The specificity value of the ELISA determined with sera from healthy individuals and from individuals with other infectious diseases was 94.05%. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) provided, and the diagnostic efficiency of anti-rPvMSA-1(42) antibody using indirect ELISA were determined 93.58, 87.77 and 91.06% respectively. Our study demonstrated that, because MSA-1(42) kDa contains both the 33 and 19 kDa fragments in its structure, it can serve as the basis for the development of a sensitive serological test which can be used for epidemiological studies, screening blood donors and diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. PMID:26851675

  3. Genotype comparison of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum clones from pregnant and non-pregnant populations in North-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Placental malaria is the predominant pathology secondary to malaria in pregnancy, causing substantial maternal and infant morbidity and mortality in tropical areas. While it is clear that placental parasites are phenotypically different from those in the peripheral circulation, it is not known whether unique genotypes are associated specifically with placental infection or perhaps more generally with pregnancy. In this study, genetic analysis was performed on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from peripheral and placental blood in pregnant women living in North-west Colombia, and compared with parasites causing acute malaria in non-pregnant populations. Methods A total of 57 pregnant women at delivery with malaria infection confirmed by real-time PCR in peripheral or placental blood were included, as well as 50 pregnant women in antenatal care and 80 men or non-pregnant women with acute malaria confirmed by a positive thick smear for P. vivax or P. falciparum. Five molecular markers per species were genotyped by nested PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Genetic diversity and the fixation index FST per species and study group were calculated and compared. Results Almost all infections at delivery were asymptomatic with significantly lower levels of infection compared with the groups with acute malaria. Expected heterozygosity for P. vivax molecular markers ranged from 0.765 to 0.928 and for P. falciparum markers ranged from 0.331 to 0.604. For P. vivax infections, the genetic diversity was similar amongst the four study groups and the fixation index from each pairwise comparison failed to show significant genetic differentiation. For P. falciparum, no genetic differentiation was observed between placental and peripheral parasites from the same woman at delivery, but the parasites isolated at delivery showed significant genetic differentiation compared with parasites isolated from subjects with acute malaria. Conclusions In

  4. Computational Design of Protein-Based Inhibitors of Plasmodium vivax Subtilisin-Like 1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Bastianelli, Giacomo; Bouillon, Anthony; Nguyen, Christophe; Le-Nguyen, Dung

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major global health concern. The development of novel therapeutic strategies is critical to overcome the selection of multiresistant parasites. The subtilisin-like protease (SUB1) involved in the egress of daughter Plasmodium parasites from infected erythrocytes and in their subsequent invasion into fresh erythrocytes has emerged as an interesting new drug target. Findings Using a computational approach based on homology modeling, protein–protein docking and mutation scoring, we designed protein–based inhibitors of Plasmodium vivax SUB1 (PvSUB1) and experimentally evaluated their inhibitory activity. The small peptidic trypsin inhibitor EETI-II was used as scaffold. We mutated residues at specific positions (P4 and P1) and calculated the change in free-energy of binding with PvSUB1. In agreement with our predictions, we identified a mutant of EETI-II (EETI-II-P4LP1W) with a Ki in the medium micromolar range. Conclusions Despite the challenges related to the lack of an experimental structure of PvSUB1, the computational protocol we developed in this study led to the design of protein-based inhibitors of PvSUB1. The approach we describe in this paper, together with other examples, demonstrates the capabilities of computational procedures to accelerate and guide the design of novel proteins with interesting therapeutic applications. PMID:25343504

  5. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    specificities are presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main results We included 47 studies enrolling 22,862 participants. Patient characteristics, sampling methods and reference standard methods were poorly reported in most studies. RDTs detecting 'non-falciparum' parasitaemia Eleven studies evaluated Type 2 tests compared with microscopy, 25 evaluated Type 3 tests, and 11 evaluated Type 4 tests. In meta-analyses, average sensitivities and specificities were 78% (95% CI 73% to 82%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 2 tests, 78% (95% CI 69% to 84%) and 99% (95% CI 98% to 99%) for Type 3 tests, and 89% (95% CI 79% to 95%) and 98% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 4 tests, respectively. Type 4 tests were more sensitive than both Type 2 (P = 0.01) and Type 3 tests (P = 0.03). Five studies compared Type 3 tests with PCR; in meta-analysis, the average sensitivity and specificity were 81% (95% CI 72% to 88%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) respectively. RDTs detecting P.vivax parasitaemia Eight studies compared pLDH tests to microscopy; the average sensitivity and specificity were 95% (95% CI 86% to 99%) and 99% (95% CI 99% to 100%), respectively. Authors' conclusions RDTs designed to detect P. vivax specifically, whether alone or as part of a mixed infection, appear to be more accurate than older tests designed to distinguish P. falciparum malaria from non-falciparum malaria. Compared to microscopy, these tests fail to detect around 5% ofP. vivax cases. This Cochrane Review, in combination with other published information about in vitro test performance and stability in the field, can assist policy-makers to choose between the available RDTs. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Rapid tests for diagnosing malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax or other less common parasites This review summarises trials evaluating the accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosing malaria due to Plasmodium vivax or other non-falciparum species. After searching for relevant studies up to December

  6. Genome-Scale Protein Microarray Comparison of Human Antibody Responses in Plasmodium vivax Relapse and Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Chuquiyauri, Raul; Molina, Douglas M.; Moss, Eli L.; Wang, Ruobing; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Torres, Sonia; Gilman, Robert H.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Felgner, Philip; Liang, Xiaowu; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Large scale antibody responses in Plasmodium vivax malaria remains unexplored in the endemic setting. Protein microarray analysis of asexual-stage P. vivax was used to identify antigens recognized in sera from residents of hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon. Over 24 months, of 106 participants, 91 had two symptomatic P. vivax malaria episodes, 11 had three episodes, 3 had four episodes, and 1 had five episodes. Plasmodium vivax relapse was distinguished from reinfection by a merozoite surface protein-3α restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (MSP3α PCR-RFLP) assay. Notably, P. vivax reinfection subjects did not have higher reactivity to the entire set of recognized P. vivax blood-stage antigens than relapse subjects, regardless of the number of malaria episodes. The most highly recognized P. vivax proteins were MSP 4, 7, 8, and 10 (PVX_003775, PVX_082650, PVX_097625, and PVX_114145); sexual-stage antigen s16 (PVX_000930); early transcribed membrane protein (PVX_090230); tryptophan-rich antigen (Pv-fam-a) (PVX_092995); apical merozoite antigen 1 (PVX_092275); and proteins of unknown function (PVX_081830, PVX_117680, PVX_118705, PVX_121935, PVX_097730, PVX_110935, PVX_115450, and PVX_082475). Genes encoding reactive proteins exhibited a significant enrichment of non-synonymous nucleotide variation, an observation suggesting immune selection. These data identify candidates for seroepidemiological tools to support malaria elimination efforts in P. vivax-endemic regions. PMID:26149860

  7. Plasmodium vivax population structure and transmission dynamics in Sabah Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Noor Rain; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Satsu, Umi Rubiah; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Ismail, Zakiah; Grigg, Matthew J; Jelip, Jenarun; Piera, Kim; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M; Price, Ric N; Auburn, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the control of malaria in Malaysia, the complex transmission dynamics of P. vivax continue to challenge national efforts to achieve elimination. To assess the impact of ongoing interventions on P. vivax transmission dynamics in Sabah, we genotyped 9 short tandem repeat markers in a total of 97 isolates (8 recurrences) from across Sabah, with a focus on two districts, Kota Marudu (KM, n = 24) and Kota Kinabalu (KK, n = 21), over a 2 year period. STRUCTURE analysis on the Sabah-wide dataset demonstrated multiple sub-populations. Significant differentiation (F ST  = 0.243) was observed between KM and KK, located just 130 Km apart. Consistent with low endemic transmission, infection complexity was modest in both KM (mean MOI  = 1.38) and KK (mean MOI  = 1.19). However, population diversity remained moderate (H E  = 0.583 in KM and H E  = 0.667 in KK). Temporal trends revealed clonal expansions reflecting epidemic transmission dynamics. The haplotypes of these isolates declined in frequency over time, but persisted at low frequency throughout the study duration. A diverse array of low frequency isolates were detected in both KM and KK, some likely reflecting remnants of previous expansions. In accordance with clonal expansions, high levels of Linkage Disequilibrium (I A (S) >0.5 [P<0.0001] in KK and KM) declined sharply when identical haplotypes were represented once (I A (S)  = 0.07 [P = 0.0076] in KM, and I A (S) = -0.003 [P = 0.606] in KK). All 8 recurrences, likely to be relapses, were homologous to the prior infection. These recurrences may promote the persistence of parasite lineages, sustaining local diversity. In summary, Sabah's shrinking P. vivax population appears to have rendered this low endemic setting vulnerable to epidemic expansions. Migration may play an important role in the introduction of new parasite strains leading to epidemic expansions, with important implications for

  8. Adherence to Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients' adherence to malaria treatment is an important factor in determining the therapeutic response to anti-malarial drugs. It contributes to the patient's complete recovery and prevents the emergence of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Brazil, the low compliance with malaria treatment probably explains the large number of Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses observed in the past years. The goal of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients adhering to the P. vivax malaria treatment with chloroquine + primaquine in the dosages recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Methods Patients who were being treated for P. vivax malaria with chloroquine plus primaquine were eligible for the study. On the seventh day of taking primaquine, they were visited at their home and were interviewed. The patients were classified as probably adherent, if they reported having taken all the medication as prescribed, in the correct period of time and dosage, and had no medication tablets remaining; probably non-adherent, if they reported not having taken the medication, in the correct period of time and dosage, and did not show any remaining tablets; and certainly non-adherent, if they showed any remaining medication tablets. Results 242 of the 280 patients reported having correctly followed the prescribed instructions and represented a treatment adherence frequency (CI95%) of 86.4% (81.7%-90.1%). Of the 38 patients who did not follow the recommendations, 27 (9.6%) were still taking the medication on the day of the interview and, therefore, still had primaquine tablets left in the blister pack. These patients were then classified as certainly non-adherent to treatment. Although 11 patients did not show any tablets left, they reported incorrect use of the prescribed therapy regimen and were considered as probably non-adherent to treatment. Conclusions Compliance with the P. vivax malaria treatment is a characteristic of 242/280 patients in the

  9. Preclinical Assessment of Viral Vectored and Protein Vaccines Targeting the Duffy-Binding Protein Region II of Plasmodium Vivax.

    PubMed

    de Cassan, Simone C; Shakri, A Rushdi; Llewellyn, David; Elias, Sean C; Cho, Jee Sun; Goodman, Anna L; Jin, Jing; Douglas, Alexander D; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, François H; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce; Chitnis, Chetan E; Draper, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vaccine development has largely focused on Plasmodium falciparum; however, a reawakening to the importance of Plasmodium vivax has spurred efforts to develop vaccines against this difficult to treat and at times severe form of relapsing malaria, which constitutes a significant proportion of human malaria cases worldwide. The almost complete dependence of P. vivax red blood cell invasion on the interaction of the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein region II (PvDBP_RII) with the human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) makes this antigen an attractive vaccine candidate against blood-stage P. vivax. Here, we generated both preclinical and clinically compatible adenoviral and poxviral vectored vaccine candidates expressing the Salvador I allele of PvDBP_RII - including human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV5), chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63), and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors. We report on the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines in mice or rabbits, either used alone in a viral vectored prime-boost regime or in "mixed-modality" adenovirus prime - protein-in--adjuvant boost regimes (using a recombinant PvDBP_RII protein antigen formulated in Montanide(®)ISA720 or Abisco(®)100 adjuvants). Antibodies induced by these regimes were found to bind to native parasite antigen from P. vivax infected Thai patients and were capable of inhibiting the binding of PvDBP_RII to its receptor DARC using an in vitro binding inhibition assay. In recent years, recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors have been quickly translated into human clinical trials for numerous antigens from P. falciparum as well as a growing number of other pathogens. The vectors reported here are immunogenic in small animals, elicit antibodies against PvDBP_RII, and have recently entered clinical trials, which will provide the first assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of the PvDBP_RII antigen in humans. PMID:26217340

  10. Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among Humans and Anopheles dirus Mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Culleton, Richard; Maeno, Yoshimasa; Quang, Nguyen Tuyen; Nakazawa, Shusuke

    2011-01-01

    A single Anopheles dirus mosquito carrying sporozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax was recently discovered in Khanh Phu, southern Vietnam. Further sampling of humans and mosquitoes in this area during 2009–2010 showed P. knowlesi infections in 32 (26%) persons with malaria (n = 125) and in 31 (43%) sporozoite-positive An. dirus mosquitoes (n = 73). Co-infections of P. knowlesi and P. vivax were predominant in mosquitoes and humans, while single P. knowlesi infections were found only in mosquitoes. P. knowlesi–co-infected patients were largely asymptomatic and were concentrated among ethnic minority families who commonly spend nights in the forest. P. knowlesi carriers were significantly younger than those infected with other malaria parasite species. These results imply that even if human malaria could be eliminated, forests that harbor An. dirus mosquitoes and macaque monkeys will remain a reservoir for the zoonotic transmission of P. knowlesi. PMID:21762577

  11. The Duffy binding protein as a key target for a Plasmodium vivax vaccine: lessons from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Taís Nóbrega; Kano, Flora Satiko; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves; Carvalho, Luzia Helena

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax infects human erythrocytes through a major pathway that requires interaction between an apical parasite protein, the Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and its receptor on reticulocytes, the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC). The importance of the interaction between PvDBP (region II, DBPII) and DARC to P. vivax infection has motivated our malaria research group at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) to conduct a number of immunoepidemiological studies to characterise the naturally acquired immunity to PvDBP in populations living in the Amazon rainforest. In this review, we provide an update on the immunology and molecular epidemiology of PvDBP in the Brazilian Amazon - an area of markedly unstable malaria transmission - and compare it with data from other parts of Latin America, as well as Asia and Oceania. PMID:25185002

  12. Frequency of pruritus in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients treated with chloroquine in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bussaratid, V; Walsh, D S; Wilairatana, P; Krudsood, S; Silachamroon, U; Looareesuwan, S

    2000-10-01

    Chloroquine-induced itch in black-skinned African malaria patients is common and frequently leads to poor compliance or treatment defaulting.To assess the frequency and severity of chloroquine-induced pruritus in an Asian population, we reviewed case records of 1189 Plasmodium vivax malaria patients treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg over 3 days) at the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases from 1992 through 1997. The majority of patients were Thais or ethnic Burmese (light brown skin), referred from the western border of Thailand. Overall, there were 23 patients (1.9%) with complaints of pruritus during chloroquine therapy. Of these, 12 (52%) had palm and sole involvement, eight (35%) had generalized pruritus including the palms and soles, and three (13%) had palm itching only. One patient developed pruritus on the palms and soles on two consecutive admissions. The pruritus did not interfere with daily activity, was reduced in intensity by anti-histamine therapy, and did not affect the patient's willingness to complete the chloroquine regimen. Therapeutic responses in the 23 patients with chloroquine itch was similar to those without itch. Among the itch patients, there was no association with gender or level of parasitaemias. Our findings indicate that the frequency of chloroquine-induced pruritus in Asian patients treated with chloroquine for P. vivax malaria is low in comparison with black-skinned Africans.This may be related to pharmacogenetic factors, the infective Plasmodium species, drug metabolism or drug-parasite interactions, or a lower affinity of chloroquine for less pigmented skin.

  13. Plasmodium vivax malaria: a re-emerging threat for temperate climate zones?

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eskild; Severini, Carlo; Picot, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax was endemic in temperate areas in historic times up to the middle of last century. Temperate climate P. vivax has a long incubation time of up to 8-10 months, which partly explain how it can be endemic in temperate areas with a could winter. P. vivax disappeared from Europe within the last 40-60 years, and this change was not related to climatic changes. The surge of P. vivax in Northern Europe after the second world war was related to displacement of refugees and large movement of military personnel exposed to malaria. Lately P. vivax has been seen along the demilitarized zone in South Korea replication a high endemicity in North Korea. The potential of transmission of P. vivax still exist in temperate zones, but reintroduction in a larger scale of P. vivax to areas without present transmission require large population movements of P. vivax infected people. The highest threat at present is refugees from P. vivax endemic North Korea entering China and South Korea in large numbers.

  14. Potent Ex Vivo Activity of Naphthoquine and Methylene Blue against Drug-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Wirjanata, Grennady; Sebayang, Boni F; Chalfein, Ferryanto; Prayoga; Handayuni, Irene; Trianty, Leily; Kenangalem, Enny; Noviyanti, Rintis; Campo, Brice; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Möhrle, Jörg J; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta

    2015-10-01

    The 4-aminoquinoline naphthoquine (NQ) and the thiazine dye methylene blue (MB) have potent in vitro efficacies against Plasmodium falciparum, but susceptibility data for P. vivax are limited. The species- and stage-specific ex vivo activities of NQ and MB were assessed using a modified schizont maturation assay on clinical field isolates from Papua, Indonesia, where multidrug-resistant P. falciparum and P. vivax are prevalent. Both compounds were highly active against P. falciparum (median [range] 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]: NQ, 8.0 nM [2.6 to 71.8 nM]; and MB, 1.6 nM [0.2 to 7.0 nM]) and P. vivax (NQ, 7.8 nM [1.5 to 34.2 nM]; and MB, 1.2 nM [0.4 to 4.3 nM]). Stage-specific drug susceptibility assays revealed significantly greater IC50s in parasites exposed at the trophozoite stage than at the ring stage for NQ in P. falciparum (26.5 versus 5.1 nM, P = 0.021) and P. vivax (341.6 versus 6.5 nM, P = 0.021) and for MB in P. vivax (10.1 versus 1.6 nM, P = 0.010). The excellent ex vivo activities of NQ and MB against both P. falciparum and P. vivax highlight their potential utility for the treatment of multidrug-resistant malaria in areas where both species are endemic.

  15. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; VIEIRA, José Luiz Fernandes; CASSIANO, Gustavo Capatti; MUSSET, Lise; LEGRAND, Eric; NACHER, Mathieu; COUTO, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; MACHADO, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; COUTO, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana. PMID:27680177

  16. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  17. An immunomics approach for the analysis of natural antibody responses to Plasmodium vivax infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Hu; Chen, Shen-Bo; Wang, Yue; Ju, Chuan; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Bin; Shen, Hai-Mo; Mo, Xiao-Jin; Molina, Douglas M; Eng, Michael; Liang, Xiaowu; Gardner, Malcolm J; Wang, Ruobing; Hu, Wei

    2015-08-01

    High throughput immunomics is a powerful platform to discover potential targets of host immunity and develop diagnostic tests for infectious diseases. We screened the sera of Plasmodium vivax-exposed individuals to profile the antibody response to blood-stage antigens of P. vivax using a P. vivax protein microarray. A total of 1936 genes encoding the P. vivax proteins were expressed, printed and screened with sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals and normal subjects. Total of 151 (7.8% of the 1936 targets) highly immunoreactive antigens were identified, including five well-characterized antigens of P. vivax (ETRAMP11.2, Pv34, SUB1, RAP2 and MSP4). Among the highly immunoreactive antigens, 5 antigens were predicted as adhesins by MAAP, and 11 antigens were predicted as merozoite invasion-related proteins based on homology with P. falciparum proteins. There are 40 proteins that have serodiagnostic potential for antibody surveillance. These novel Plasmodium antigens identified provide the clues for understanding host immune response to P. vivax infection and the development of antibody surveillance tools.

  18. A comparative study of natural immune responses against Plasmodium vivax C-terminal merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP-1) and apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) in two endemic settings

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hui; Fang, Qiang; Jangpatarapongsa, Kulachart; Zhiyong, Tao; Cui, Liwang; Li, Baiqing; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of cellular and humoral immune responses against P. vivax parasite remain poorly understood. Several malaria immunological studies have been conducted in endemic regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites co-exist. In this study, a comparative analysis of immunity to Plasmodium vivax antigens in different geography and incidence of Plasmodium spp. infection was performed. We characterised antibodies against two P. vivax antigens, PvMSP-1 and PvAMA-1, and the cross-reactivity between these antigens using plasma from acute malaria infected patients living in the central region of China and in the western border of Thailand. P. vivax endemicity is found in central China whereas both P. vivax and P. falciparum are endemic in Thailand. There was an increased level of anti-PvMSP-1/anti-PvAMA-1 in both populations. An elevated level of antibodies to total P. vivax proteins and low level of antibodies to total P. falciparum proteins was found in acute P. vivax infected Chinese, suggesting antibody cross-reactivity between the two species. P. vivax infected Thai patients had both anti-P. vivax and anti-P. falciparum antibodies as expected since both species are present in Thailand. More information on humoral and cell mediated immunity during acute P. vivax-infection in the area where only single P. vivax species existed is of great interest in the relation of building up anti-disease severity caused by P. falciparum. This knowledge will support vaccine development in the future. PMID:26713085

  19. Defining the erythrocyte binding domains of Plasmodium vivax tryptophan rich antigen 33.5.

    PubMed

    Bora, Hema; Tyagi, Rupesh Kumar; Sharma, Yagya Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan-rich antigens play important role in host-parasite interaction. One of the Plasmodium vivax tryptophan-rich antigens called PvTRAg33.5 had earlier been shown to be predominantly of alpha helical in nature with multidomain structure, induced immune responses in humans, binds to host erythrocytes, and its sequence is highly conserved in the parasite population. In the present study, we divided this protein into three different parts i.e. N-terminal (amino acid position 24-106), middle (amino acid position 107-192), and C-terminal region (amino acid position 185-275) and determined the erythrocyte binding activity of these fragments. This binding activity was retained by the middle and C-terminal fragments covering 107 to 275 amino acid region of the PvTRAg33.5 protein. Eight non-overlapping peptides covering this 107 to 275 amino acid region were then synthesized and tested for their erythrocyte binding activity to further define the binding domains. Only two peptides, peptide P4 (at 171-191 amino acid position) and peptide P8 (at 255-275 amino acid position), were found to contain the erythrocyte binding activity. Competition assay revealed that each peptide recognizes its own erythrocyte receptor. These two peptides were found to be located on two parallel helices at one end of the protein in the modelled structure and could be exposed on its surface to form a suitable site for protein-protein interaction. Natural antibodies present in the sera of the P. vivax exposed individuals or the polyclonal rabbit antibodies against this protein were able to inhibit the erythrocyte binding activity of PvTRAg33.5, its fragments, and these two synthetic peptides P4 and P8. Further studies on receptor-ligand interaction might lead to the development of the therapeutic reagent. PMID:23638151

  20. Case Report: Successful Sporozoite Challenge Model in Human Volunteers with Plasmodium vivax Strain Derived from Human Donors

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Fernández, Olga; Manzano, María R.; Murrain, Bermans; Vergara, Juana; Blanco, Pedro; Palacios, Ricardo; Vélez, Juan D.; Epstein, Judith E.; Chen-Mok, Mario; Reed, Zarifah H.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Successful establishment of a Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge model in humans is described. Eighteen healthy adult, malaria-naïve volunteers were randomly allocated to Groups A–C and exposed to 3 ± 1, 6 ± 1, and 9 ± 1 bites of Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with P. vivax, respectively. Seventeen volunteers developed signs and symptoms consistent with malaria, and geometric mean prepatent periods of 11.1 days (9.3–11) for Group A; 10.8 days (9.8–11.9) for Group B; and 10.6 days (8.7–12.4) for Group C, with no statistically significant difference among groups (Kruskal-Wallis, P = 0.70). One volunteer exposed to eight mosquito bites did not develop a parasitemia. No differences in parasite density were observed and all individuals successfully recovered after anti-malarial treatment. None of the volunteers developed parasite relapses within an 18-month follow-up. In conclusion, malaria-naive volunteers can be safely and reproducibly infected with bites of 2–10 An. albimanus mosquitoes carrying P. vivax sporozoites. This challenge method is suitable for vaccine and anti-malarial drug testing. PMID:19861603

  1. Variation in Human Cytochrome P-450 Drug-Metabolism Genes: A Gateway to the Understanding of Plasmodium vivax Relapses

    PubMed Central

    Silvino, Ana Carolina Rios; Costa, Gabriel Luiz; de Araújo, Flávia Carolina Faustino; Ascher, David Benjamin; Pires, Douglas Eduardo Valente; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves; Sousa, Tais Nobrega

    2016-01-01

    Although Plasmodium vivax relapses are classically associated with hypnozoite activation, it has been proposed that a proportion of these cases are due to primaquine (PQ) treatment failure caused by polymorphisms in cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Here, we present evidence that CYP2D6 polymorphisms are implicated in PQ failure, which was reinforced by findings in genetically similar parasites, and may explain a number of vivax relapses. Using a computational approach, these polymorphisms were predicted to affect the activity of CYP2D6 through changes in the structural stability that could lead to disruption of the PQ-enzyme interactions. Furthermore, because PQ is co-administered with chloroquine (CQ), we investigated whether CQ-impaired metabolism by cytochrome P-450 2C8 (CYP2C8) could also contribute to vivax recurrences. Our results show that CYP2C8-mutated patients frequently relapsed early (<42 days) and had a higher proportion of genetically similar parasites, suggesting the possibility of recrudescence due to CQ therapeutic failure. These results highlight the importance of pharmacogenetic studies as a tool to monitor the efficacy of antimalarial therapy. PMID:27467145

  2. The pathophysiology of vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Nicholas M; Russell, Bruce; Yeo, Tsin W; Price, Ric N

    2009-05-01

    Long considered a benign infection, Plasmodium vivax is now recognized as a cause of severe and fatal malaria, despite its low parasite biomass, the increased deformability of vivax-infected red blood cells and an apparent paucity of parasite sequestration. Severe anemia is associated with recurrent bouts of hemolysis of predominantly uninfected erythrocytes with increased fragility, and lung injury is associated with inflammatory increases in alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. Although rare, vivax-associated coma challenges our understanding of pathobiology caused by Plasmodium spp. Host and parasite factors contribute to the risk of severe disease, and comorbidities might contribute to vivax mortality. In this review, we discuss potential mechanisms underlying the syndromes of uncomplicated and severe vivax malaria, identifying key areas for future research.

  3. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H.; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response. PMID:25276830

  4. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  5. Population genetic structure of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sajani; Wickramarachchi, Thilan; Sahabandu, Imeshi; Escalante, Ananias A; Udagama, Preethi V

    2013-04-15

    Molecular methods elucidate evolutionary and ecological processes in parasites, where interaction between hosts and parasites enlighten the evolution of parasite lifestyles and host defenses. Population genetics of Plasmodium vivax parasites accurately describe transmission dynamics of the parasites and evaluation of malaria control measures. As a first generation vaccine candidate against malaria, the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) has demonstrated significant potential in P. falciparum. Extensive polymorphism hinders the development of a potent malaria vaccine. Hence, the genetic diversity of Pvcsp was investigated for the first time in 60 Sri Lankan clinical isolates by obtaining the nucleotide sequence of the central repeat (CR) domain and examining the polymorphism of the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs), the genetic diversity indices and phylogenetic relationships. PCR amplicons determined size polymorphism of 610, 700 and 710 bp in Pvcsp of Sri Lanka where all amino acid sequences obtained were of the VK210 variant, consisting variable repeats of 4 different PRMs. The two most abundant PRMs of the CR domain, GDRADGQPA and GDRAAGQPA consisted ~2-4 repeats, while GNRAAGQPA was unique to the island. Though, different nucleotide sequences termed repeat allotypes (RATs) were observed for each PRM, these were synonymous contributing to a less polymorphic CR domain. The genetic diversity of Pvcsp in Sri Lanka was due to the number of repetitive peptide repeat motifs, point mutations, and intragenic recombination. The 19 amino acid haplotypes defined were exclusive to Sri Lanka, whereas the 194 Pvcsp sequences of global isolates generated 57 more distinct a.a. haplotypes of the VK210 variant. Strikingly, the CR domain of both VK210 and VK247 variants was under purifying selection interpreting the scarcity of CSP non-synonymous polymorphisms. Insights to the distribution of RATs in the CR region with geographic clustering of the P. vivax VK210 variant were revealed. The

  6. Identification of the Plasmodium vivax mdr-like gene (pvmdr1) and analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms among isolates from different areas of endemicity.

    PubMed

    Brega, Sara; Meslin, Benoit; de Monbrison, Frédérique; Severini, Carlo; Gradoni, Luigi; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Sutanto, Inge; Peyron, François; Picot, Stéphane

    2005-01-15

    Because of the lack of methods for continuous in vitro culture of Plasmodium vivax, little is known about drug-resistance mechanisms in this malaria-causing parasite. Therefore, identification of all the genes potentially involved in drug resistance and of molecular markers related to drug resistance would provide a framework for studying the incidence and spread of drug-resistant P. vivax strains. We have identified the P. vivax orthologue of the pfmdr1 gene (pvmdr1), which was shown to have a role in the drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum. Comparison of the alignments of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of pvmdr1 with those of other Plasmodium multidrug-resistance genes revealed an open-reading frame of 4392 base pairs encoding a deduced protein of 1464 amino acids. Nucleotide polymorphisms at 2 codons of the pvmdr1 gene--Y976F and F1076L--were found in 14 of 23 P. vivax isolates from different areas of endemicity, including Thailand, Indonesia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and French Guyana.

  7. Plasmodium vivax Malaria among military personnel, French Guiana, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Queyriaux, Benjamin; Texier, Gaetan; Ollivier, Lenaick; Galoisy-Guibal, Laurent; Michel, Remy; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Decam, Christophe; Verret, Catherine; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Spiegel, Andre; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Migliani, Rene; Deparis, Xavier

    2011-07-01

    We obtained health surveillance epidemiologic data on malaria among French military personnel deployed to French Guiana during 1998-2008. Incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria increased and that of P. falciparum remained stable. This new epidemiologic situation has led to modification of malaria treatment for deployed military personnel.

  8. Transmission Risk from Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the China–Myanmar Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Duoquan; Li, Shengguo; Cheng, Zhibin; Cotter, Chris; Hwang, Jimee; Li, Xishang; Yin, Shouqin; Wang, Jiazhi; Bai, Liang; Zheng, Zhi; Wang, Sibao

    2015-01-01

    Malaria importation and local vector susceptibility to imported Plasmodium vivax infection are a continuing risk along the China–Myanmar border. Malaria transmission has been prevented in 3 border villages in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, by use of active fever surveillance, integrated vector control measures, and intensified surveillance and response. PMID:26401843

  9. Imported chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax in Singapore: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Poh Lian; Mok, Ying Juan; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee Sin

    2010-01-01

    Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax (CRPV) infection is emerging as a clinically significant problem. Detailed travel history is crucial to the management of imported malarial cases. We report a 58-year-old business traveler who returned from Indonesia and experienced relapse due to CRPV. The epidemiology and diagnostic challenges of CRPV for travel medicine clinicians are reviewed. PMID:20074103

  10. Population structure and spatio-temporal transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax after radical cure treatment in a rural village of the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the large burden of Plasmodium vivax, little is known about its transmission dynamics. This study explored the population structure and spatio-temporal dynamics of P. vivax recurrent infections after radical cure in a two-year cohort study carried out in a rural community of the Peruvian Amazon. Methods A total of 37 P. vivax participants recruited in San Carlos community (Peru) between April and December 2008 were treated radically with chloroquine and primaquine and followed up monthly for two years with systematic blood sampling. All samples were screened for malaria parasites and subsequently all P. vivax infections genotyped using 15 microsatellites. Parasite population structure and dynamics were determined by computing different genetic indices and using spatio-temporal statistics. Results After radical cure, 76% of the study participants experienced one or more recurrent P. vivax infections, most of them sub-patent and asymptomatic. The parasite population displayed limited genetic diversity (He = 0.49) and clonal structure, with most infections (84%) being monoclonal. Spatio-temporal clusters of specific haplotypes were found throughout the study and persistence of highly frequent haplotypes were observed over several months within the same participants/households. Conclusions In San Carlos community, P. vivax recurrences were commonly observed after radical treatment, and characterized by asymptomatic, sub-patent and clustered infections (within and between individuals from a few neighbouring households). Moreover low genetic diversity as well as parasite inbreeding are likely to define a clonal parasite population which has important implications on the malaria epidemiology of the study area. PMID:24393454

  11. DETECTION OF PUTATIVE ANTIMALARIAL-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM VIVAX IN ANOPHELES VECTORS AT THAILAND-CAMBODIA AND THAILAND-MYANMAR BORDERS.

    PubMed

    Rattaprasert, Pongruj; Chaksangchaichot, Panee; Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Suparach, Nutjaree; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring of multidrug-resistant (MDR)falciparum and vivax malaria has recently been included in the Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC) of the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly at the Thailand-Cambodia and Thailand-Myanmar borders. In parallel to GPARC, monitoring MDR malaria parasites in anopheline vectors is an ideal augment to entomological surveillance. Employing Plasmodium- and species-specific nested PCR techniques, only P. vivax was detected in 3/109 salivary gland DNA extracts of anopheline vectors collected during a rainy season between 24-26 August 2009 and 22-24 September 2009 and a dry season between 29-31 December 2009 and 16-18 January 2010. Indoor and out- door resting mosquitoes were collected in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province (border of Thailand-Myanmar) and Bo Rai District, Trat Province (border of Thailand-Cambodia): one sample from Anopheles dirus at the Thailand-Cambodia border and two samples from An. aconitus from Thailand-Myanmar border isolate. Nucleotide sequencing of dihydrofolate reductase gene revealed the presence in all three samples of four mutations known to cause high resistance to antifolate pyrimethamine, but no mutations were found in multidrug resistance transporter 1 gene that are associated with (falciparum) resistance to quinoline antimalarials. Such findings indicate the potential usefulness of this approach in monitoring the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites in geographically regions prone to the development of drug resistance and where screening of human population at risk poses logistical and ethical problems. Keywords: Anopheles spp, Plasmodium vivax, antimalarial resistance, Greater Mekong Sub-region, nested PCR, vector surveillance

  12. DETECTION OF PUTATIVE ANTIMALARIAL-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM VIVAX IN ANOPHELES VECTORS AT THAILAND-CAMBODIA AND THAILAND-MYANMAR BORDERS.

    PubMed

    Rattaprasert, Pongruj; Chaksangchaichot, Panee; Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Suparach, Nutjaree; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring of multidrug-resistant (MDR)falciparum and vivax malaria has recently been included in the Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC) of the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly at the Thailand-Cambodia and Thailand-Myanmar borders. In parallel to GPARC, monitoring MDR malaria parasites in anopheline vectors is an ideal augment to entomological surveillance. Employing Plasmodium- and species-specific nested PCR techniques, only P. vivax was detected in 3/109 salivary gland DNA extracts of anopheline vectors collected during a rainy season between 24-26 August 2009 and 22-24 September 2009 and a dry season between 29-31 December 2009 and 16-18 January 2010. Indoor and out- door resting mosquitoes were collected in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province (border of Thailand-Myanmar) and Bo Rai District, Trat Province (border of Thailand-Cambodia): one sample from Anopheles dirus at the Thailand-Cambodia border and two samples from An. aconitus from Thailand-Myanmar border isolate. Nucleotide sequencing of dihydrofolate reductase gene revealed the presence in all three samples of four mutations known to cause high resistance to antifolate pyrimethamine, but no mutations were found in multidrug resistance transporter 1 gene that are associated with (falciparum) resistance to quinoline antimalarials. Such findings indicate the potential usefulness of this approach in monitoring the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites in geographically regions prone to the development of drug resistance and where screening of human population at risk poses logistical and ethical problems. Keywords: Anopheles spp, Plasmodium vivax, antimalarial resistance, Greater Mekong Sub-region, nested PCR, vector surveillance PMID:27244954

  13. Modeling the Dynamics of Plasmodium vivax Infection and Hypnozoite Reactivation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Adekunle, Adeshina I.; Pinkevych, Mykola; McGready, Rose; Luxemburger, Christine; White, Lisa J.; Nosten, François; Cromer, Deborah; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by reactivation of hypnozoites at varying time intervals. The relative contribution of new P. vivax infection and reactivation of dormant liver stage hypnozoites to initiation of blood stage infection is unclear. In this study, we investigate the contribution of new inoculations of P. vivax sporozoites to primary infection versus reactivation of hypnozoites by modeling the dynamics of P. vivax infection in Thailand in patients receiving treatment for either blood stage infection alone (chloroquine), or the blood and liver stages of infection (chloroquine + primaquine). In addition, we also analysed rates of infection in a study in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where patients were treated with either artesunate, or artesunate + primaquine. Our results show that up to 96% of the P. vivax infection is due to hypnozoite reactivation in individuals living in endemic areas in Thailand. Similar analysis revealed the around 70% of infections in the PNG cohort were due to hypnozoite reactivation. We show how the age of the cohort, primaquine drug failure, and seasonality may affect estimates of the ratio of primary P. vivax infection to hypnozoite reactivation. Modeling of P. vivax primary infection and hypnozoite reactivation provides important insights into infection dynamics, and suggests that 90–96% of blood stage infections arise from hypnozoite reactivation. Major differences in infection kinetics between Thailand and PNG suggest the likelihood of drug failure in PNG. PMID:25780913

  14. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structure of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein from P. vivax, a homolog of Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), has been solved to a resolution of 1.3 Å. The inferred interaction surface near the anion-binding site is found to include a distinctive left-handed α-helix. The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed α-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family.

  15. Prediction of substrate specificity and preliminary kinetic characterization of the hypothetical protein PVX_123945 from Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Kempaiah Nagappa, Lakshmeesha; Shukla, Arpit; Balaram, Hemalatha

    2015-01-01

    Members of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily are emerging as an important group of enzymes by virtue of their role in diverse chemical reactions. In different Plasmodium species their number varies from 16 to 21. One of the HAD superfamily members, PVX_123945, a hypothetical protein from Plasmodium vivax, was selected for examining its substrate specificity. Based on distant homology searches and structure comparisons, it was predicted to be a phosphatase. Thirty-eight metabolites were screened to identify potential substrates. Further, to validate the prediction, biochemical and kinetic studies were carried out that showed that the protein was a monomer with high catalytic efficiency for β-glycerophosphate followed by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The enzyme also exhibited moderate catalytic efficiencies for α-glycerophosphate, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate. It also hydrolyzed the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Mg(2+) was the most preferred divalent cation and phosphate inhibited the enzyme activity. The study is the first attempt at understanding the substrate specificity of a hypothetical protein belonging to HAD superfamily from the malarial parasite P. vivax. PMID:25655405

  16. A Plasmodium falciparum Homologue of Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein (PvRBP1) Defines a Trypsin-resistant Erythrocyte Invasion Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Julian C.; Vargas-Serrato, Esmeralda; Huber, Curtis S.; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium merozoites is an intricate process involving multiple receptor-ligand interactions. The glycophorins and an unknown trypsin sensitive factor are all erythrocyte receptors used during invasion by the major human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. However, only one erythrocyte receptor, Glycophorin A, has a well-established cognate parasite ligand, the merozoite protein erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175). The involvement of several other parasite proteins during invasion have been proposed, but no direct evidence links them with a specific invasion pathway. Here we report the identification and characterization of P. falciparum normocyte binding protein 1 (PfNBP1), an ortholog of Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein-1. PfNBP1 binds to a sialic acid dependent trypsin-resistant receptor on the erythrocyte surface that appears to be distinct from known invasion receptors. Antibodies against PfNBP1 can inhibit invasion of trypsinized erythrocytes and two P. falciparum strains that express truncated PfNBP1 are unable to invade trypsinized erythrocytes. One of these strain, 7G8, also does not invade Glycophorin B–negative erythrocytes. PfNBP1 therefore defines a novel trypsin-resistant invasion pathway and adds a level of complexity to current models for P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion. PMID:11733572

  17. Transmission blocking potency and immunogenicity of a plant-produced Pvs25-based subunit vaccine against Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Blagborough, A M; Musiychuk, K; Bi, H; Jones, R M; Chichester, J A; Streatfield, S; Sala, K A; Zakutansky, S E; Upton, L M; Sinden, R E; Brian, I; Biswas, S; Sattabonkot, J; Yusibov, V

    2016-06-14

    Malaria transmission blocking (TB) vaccines (TBVs) directed against proteins expressed on the sexual stages of Plasmodium parasites are a potentially effective means to reduce transmission. Antibodies induced by TBVs block parasite development in the mosquito, and thus inhibit transmission to further human hosts. The ookinete surface protein P25 is a primary target for TBV development. Recently, transient expression in plants using hybrid viral vectors has demonstrated potential as a strategy for cost-effective and scalable production of recombinant vaccines. Using a plant virus-based expression system, we produced recombinant P25 protein of Plasmodium vivax (Pvs25) in Nicotiana benthamiana fused to a modified lichenase carrier protein. This candidate vaccine, Pvs25-FhCMB, was purified, characterized and evaluated for immunogenicity and efficacy using multiple adjuvants in a transgenic rodent model. An in vivo TB effect of up to a 65% reduction in intensity and 54% reduction in prevalence was observed using Abisco-100 adjuvant. The ability of this immunogen to induce a TB response was additionally combined with heterologous prime-boost vaccination with viral vectors expressing Pvs25. Significant blockade was observed when combining both platforms, achieving a 74% and 68% reduction in intensity and prevalence, respectively. This observation was confirmed by direct membrane feeding on field P. vivax samples, resulting in reductions in intensity/prevalence of 85.3% and 25.5%. These data demonstrate the potential of this vaccine candidate and support the feasibility of expressing Plasmodium antigens in a plant-based system for the production of TBVs, while demonstrating the potential advantages of combining multiple vaccine delivery systems to maximize efficacy.

  18. Transmission blocking potency and immunogenicity of a plant-produced Pvs25-based subunit vaccine against Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Blagborough, A M; Musiychuk, K; Bi, H; Jones, R M; Chichester, J A; Streatfield, S; Sala, K A; Zakutansky, S E; Upton, L M; Sinden, R E; Brian, I; Biswas, S; Sattabonkot, J; Yusibov, V

    2016-06-14

    Malaria transmission blocking (TB) vaccines (TBVs) directed against proteins expressed on the sexual stages of Plasmodium parasites are a potentially effective means to reduce transmission. Antibodies induced by TBVs block parasite development in the mosquito, and thus inhibit transmission to further human hosts. The ookinete surface protein P25 is a primary target for TBV development. Recently, transient expression in plants using hybrid viral vectors has demonstrated potential as a strategy for cost-effective and scalable production of recombinant vaccines. Using a plant virus-based expression system, we produced recombinant P25 protein of Plasmodium vivax (Pvs25) in Nicotiana benthamiana fused to a modified lichenase carrier protein. This candidate vaccine, Pvs25-FhCMB, was purified, characterized and evaluated for immunogenicity and efficacy using multiple adjuvants in a transgenic rodent model. An in vivo TB effect of up to a 65% reduction in intensity and 54% reduction in prevalence was observed using Abisco-100 adjuvant. The ability of this immunogen to induce a TB response was additionally combined with heterologous prime-boost vaccination with viral vectors expressing Pvs25. Significant blockade was observed when combining both platforms, achieving a 74% and 68% reduction in intensity and prevalence, respectively. This observation was confirmed by direct membrane feeding on field P. vivax samples, resulting in reductions in intensity/prevalence of 85.3% and 25.5%. These data demonstrate the potential of this vaccine candidate and support the feasibility of expressing Plasmodium antigens in a plant-based system for the production of TBVs, while demonstrating the potential advantages of combining multiple vaccine delivery systems to maximize efficacy. PMID:27177945

  19. A new computational approach redefines the subtelomeric vir superfamily of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subtelomeric multigene families of malaria parasites encode virulent determinants. The published genome sequence of Plasmodium vivax revealed the largest subtelomeric multigene family of human malaria parasites, the vir super-family, presently composed of 346 vir genes subdivided into 12 different subfamilies based on sequence homologies detected by BLAST. Results A novel computational approach was used to redefine vir genes. First, a protein-weighted graph was built based on BLAST alignments. This graph was processed to ensure that edge weights are not exclusively based on the BLAST score between the two corresponding proteins, but strongly dependant on their graph neighbours and their associations. Then the Markov Clustering Algorithm was applied to the protein graph. Next, the Homology Block concept was used to further validate this clustering approach. Finally, proteome-wide analysis was carried out to predict new VIR members. Results showed that (i) three previous subfamilies cannot longer be classified as vir genes; (ii) most previously unclustered vir genes were clustered into vir subfamilies; (iii) 39 hypothetical proteins were predicted as VIR proteins; (iv) many of these findings are supported by a number of structural and functional evidences, sub-cellular localization studies, gene expression analysis and chromosome localization (v) this approach can be used to study other multigene families in malaria. Conclusions This methodology, resource and new classification of vir genes will contribute to a new structural framing of this multigene family and other multigene families of malaria parasites, facilitating the design of experiments to understand their role in pathology, which in turn may help furthering vaccine development. PMID:23324551

  20. Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

  1. Comparative ex vivo activity of novel endoperoxides in multidrug-resistant plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax.

    PubMed

    Marfurt, Jutta; Chalfein, Ferryanto; Prayoga, Pak; Wabiser, Frans; Wirjanata, Grennady; Sebayang, Boni; Piera, Kim A; Wittlin, Sergio; Haynes, Richard K; Möhrle, Jörg J; Anstey, Nicholas M; Kenangalem, Enny; Price, Ric N

    2012-10-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum highlights the urgent need to identify alternative highly potent compounds for the treatment of malaria. In Papua Indonesia, where multidrug resistance has been documented against both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, comparative ex vivo antimalarial activity against Plasmodium isolates was assessed for the artemisinin derivatives artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439, the semisynthetic 10-alkylaminoartemisinin derivatives artemisone and artemiside, and the conventional antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), and piperaquine (PIP). Ex vivo drug susceptibility was assessed in 46 field isolates (25 P. falciparum and 21 P. vivax). The novel endoperoxide compounds exhibited potent ex vivo activity against both species, but significant differences in intrinsic activity were observed. Compared to AS and its active metabolite DHA, all the novel compounds showed lower or equal 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) in both species (median IC(50)s between 1.9 and 3.6 nM in P. falciparum and 0.7 and 4.6 nM in P. vivax). The antiplasmodial activity of novel endoperoxides showed different cross-susceptibility patterns in the two Plasmodium species: whereas their ex vivo activity correlated positively with CQ, PIP, AS, and DHA in P. falciparum, the same was not apparent in P. vivax. The current study demonstrates for the first time potent activity of novel endoperoxides against drug-resistant P. vivax. The high activity against drug-resistant strains of both Plasmodium species confirms these compounds to be promising candidates for future artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regimens in regions of coendemicity.

  2. Discovery of Novel and Ligand-Efficient Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivaxN-Myristoyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an attractive antiprotozoan drug target. A lead-hopping approach was utilized in the design and synthesis of novel benzo[b]thiophene-containing inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) NMT. These inhibitors are selective against Homo sapiens NMT1 (HsNMT), have excellent ligand efficiency (LE), and display antiparasitic activity in vitro. The binding mode of this series was determined by crystallography and shows a novel binding mode for the benzothiophene ring. PMID:23170970

  3. Characterization of Pv92, a Novel Merozoite Surface Protein of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Kyun; Wang, Bo; Han, Jin-Hee; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Muh, Fauzi; Chootong, Patchanee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of antigenic proteins are essential for development of a vaccine against malaria. In Plasmodium falciparum, Pf92 have been characterized as a merozoite surface protein, and this protein is expressed at the late schizont stage, but no study of Pv92, the orthologue of Pf92 in P. vivax, has been reported. Thus, the protein structure of Pv92 was analyzed, and the gene sequence was aligned with that of other Plasmodium spp. using bioinformatics tools. The recombinant Pv92 protein was expressed and purified using bacterial expression system and used for immunization of mice to gain the polyclonal antibody and for evaluation of antigenicity by protein array. Also, the antibody against Pv92 was used for subcellular analysis by immunofluorescence assay. The Pv92 protein has a signal peptide and a sexual stage s48/45 domain, and the cysteine residues at the N-terminal of Pv92 were completely conserved. The N-terminal of Pv92 was successfully expressed as soluble form using a bacterial expression system. The antibody raised against Pv92 recognized the parasites and completely merged with PvMSP1-19, indicating that Pv92 was localized on the merozoite surface. Evaluation of the human humoral immune response to Pv92 indicated moderate antigenicity, with 65% sensitivity and 95% specificity by protein array. Taken together, the merozoite surface localization and antigenicity of Pv92 implicate that it might be involved in attachment and invasion of a merozoite to a new host cell or immune evasion during invasion process. PMID:27658588

  4. Characterization of Pv92, a Novel Merozoite Surface Protein of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Kyun; Wang, Bo; Han, Jin-Hee; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Muh, Fauzi; Chootong, Patchanee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2016-08-01

    The discovery and understanding of antigenic proteins are essential for development of a vaccine against malaria. In Plasmodium falciparum, Pf92 have been characterized as a merozoite surface protein, and this protein is expressed at the late schizont stage, but no study of Pv92, the orthologue of Pf92 in P. vivax, has been reported. Thus, the protein structure of Pv92 was analyzed, and the gene sequence was aligned with that of other Plasmodium spp. using bioinformatics tools. The recombinant Pv92 protein was expressed and purified using bacterial expression system and used for immunization of mice to gain the polyclonal antibody and for evaluation of antigenicity by protein array. Also, the antibody against Pv92 was used for subcellular analysis by immunofluorescence assay. The Pv92 protein has a signal peptide and a sexual stage s48/45 domain, and the cysteine residues at the N-terminal of Pv92 were completely conserved. The N-terminal of Pv92 was successfully expressed as soluble form using a bacterial expression system. The antibody raised against Pv92 recognized the parasites and completely merged with PvMSP1-19, indicating that Pv92 was localized on the merozoite surface. Evaluation of the human humoral immune response to Pv92 indicated moderate antigenicity, with 65% sensitivity and 95% specificity by protein array. Taken together, the merozoite surface localization and antigenicity of Pv92 implicate that it might be involved in attachment and invasion of a merozoite to a new host cell or immune evasion during invasion process. PMID:27658588

  5. Genetic variation of aldolase from Korean isolates of Plasmodium vivax and its usefulness in serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The malaria aldolase is widely used as rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy in aspect of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed and recombinant aldolase was evaluated as a serological antigen in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Methods Genomic DNA was purified and the aldolase gene of P. vivax from 25 patients’ blood samples was amplified. The samples came from 5 epidemic areas; Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, Paju-si of Gyeonggido, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon of Gangwon-do, South Korea. The antigenicity of the recombinant aldolase was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Sequence analysis of 25 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 1,110 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 369 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% homology with the P. vivax Sal I strain (XM_00165894) and P. vivax WDK strain (AF247063), 87.4% homology with Plasmodium falciparum (AF179421), 90.6% homology with Plasmodium chabaudi (AF247060), 89.5% homology with Plasmodium vinckei (AF247061), and 96.7% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 180 (G to A, n = 5) was also observed in the isolates. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 31 kDa (monomeric form) and 62 kDa (dimeric form) as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Among 109 P. vivax patients, 32 (29.4%) had positive in an enzyme-linked absorbance assay (ELISA). This result showed significant correlation between ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The aldolase gene from Korean isolates of P. vivax showed one SNP at nucleotide position 180; this SNP mutant was discovered in only the western part of Han River, and included the regions of Ganghwa, Gimpo, and Bucheon. Based on the

  6. Immune Responses and Protection of Aotus Monkeys Immunized with Irradiated Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Perdomo, Anilza Bonelo; Epstein, Judith E.; López, Jesús; Castellanos, Alejandro; Manzano, María R.; Hernández, Miguel A.; Soto, Liliana; Méndez, Fabián; Richie, Thomas L.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    A non-human primate model for the induction of protective immunity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium vivax malaria using radiation-attenuated P. vivax sporozoites may help to characterize protective immune mechanisms and identify novel malaria vaccine candidates. Immune responses and protective efficacy induced by vaccination with irradiated P. vivax sporozoites were evaluated in malaria-naive Aotus monkeys. Three groups of six monkeys received two, five, or ten intravenous inoculations, respectively, of 100,000 irradiated P. vivax sporozoites; control groups received either 10 doses of uninfected salivary gland extract or no inoculations. Immunization resulted in the production low levels of antibodies that specifically recognized P. vivax sporozoites and the circumsporozoite protein. Additionally, immunization induced low levels of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses. Intravenous challenge with viable sporozoites resulted in partial protection in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the Aotus monkey model may be able to play a role in preclinical development of P. vivax pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines. PMID:21292877

  7. Plasmodium interspersed repeats: the major multigene superfamily of malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Christoph S.; Phillips, R. Stephen; Turner, C. Michael R.; Barrett, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Functionally related homologues of known genes can be difficult to identify in divergent species. In this paper, we show how multi-character analysis can be used to elucidate the relationships among divergent members of gene superfamilies. We used probabilistic modelling in conjunction with protein structural predictions and gene-structure analyses on a whole-genome scale to find gene homologies that are missed by conventional similarity-search strategies and identified a variant gene superfamily in six species of malaria (Plasmodium interspersed repeats, pir). The superfamily includes rif in P.falciparum, vir in P.vivax, a novel family kir in P.knowlesi and the cir/bir/yir family in three rodent malarias. Our data indicate that this is the major multi-gene family in malaria parasites. Protein localization of products from pir members to the infected erythrocyte membrane in the rodent malaria parasite P.chabaudi, demonstrates phenotypic similarity to the products of pir in other malaria species. The results give critical insight into the evolutionary adaptation of malaria parasites to their host and provide important data for comparative immunology between malaria parasites obtained from laboratory models and their human counterparts. PMID:15507685

  8. Fy(a)/Fy(b) antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    King, Christopher L; Adams, John H; Xianli, Jia; Grimberg, Brian T; McHenry, Amy M; Greenberg, Lior J; Siddiqui, Asim; Howes, Rosalind E; da Silva-Nunes, Monica; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2011-12-13

    Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is a major cause of human malaria and is increasing in public health importance compared with falciparum malaria. Pv is unique among human malarias in that invasion of erythrocytes is almost solely dependent on the red cell's surface receptor, known as the Duffy blood-group antigen (Fy). Fy is an important minor blood-group antigen that has two immunologically distinct alleles, referred to as Fy(a) or Fy(b), resulting from a single-point mutation. This mutation occurs within the binding domain of the parasite's red cell invasion ligand. Whether this polymorphism affects susceptibility to clinical vivax malaria is unknown. Here we show that Fy(a), compared with Fy(b), significantly diminishes binding of Pv Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) at the erythrocyte surface, and is associated with a reduced risk of clinical Pv in humans. Erythrocytes expressing Fy(a) had 41-50% lower binding compared with Fy(b) cells and showed an increased ability of naturally occurring or artificially induced antibodies to block binding of PvDBP to their surface. Individuals with the Fy(a+b-) phenotype demonstrated a 30-80% reduced risk of clinical vivax, but not falciparum malaria in a prospective cohort study in the Brazilian Amazon. The Fy(a+b-) phenotype, predominant in Southeast Asian and many American populations, would confer a selective advantage against vivax malaria. Our results also suggest that efficacy of a PvDBP-based vaccine may differ among populations with different Fy phenotypes.

  9. Effective preparation of Plasmodium vivax field isolates for high-throughput whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Sarah; Marfurt, Jutta; Maslen, Gareth; Campino, Susana; Ruano Rubio, Valentin; Manske, Magnus; Machunter, Barbara; Kenangalem, Enny; Noviyanti, Rintis; Trianty, Leily; Sebayang, Boni; Wirjanata, Grennady; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Alcock, Daniel; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Miotto, Olivo; Clark, Taane G; Russell, Bruce; Anstey, Nicholas M; Nosten, François; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Price, Ric N

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Plasmodium vivax is problematic due to the reliance on clinical isolates which are generally low in parasitaemia and sample volume. Furthermore, clinical isolates contain a significant contaminating background of host DNA which confounds efforts to map short read sequence of the target P. vivax DNA. Here, we discuss a methodology to significantly improve the success of P. vivax WGS on natural (non-adapted) patient isolates. Using 37 patient isolates from Indonesia, Thailand, and travellers, we assessed the application of CF11-based white blood cell filtration alone and in combination with short term ex vivo schizont maturation. Although CF11 filtration reduced human DNA contamination in 8 Indonesian isolates tested, additional short-term culture increased the P. vivax DNA yield from a median of 0.15 to 6.2 ng µl(-1) packed red blood cells (pRBCs) (p = 0.001) and reduced the human DNA percentage from a median of 33.9% to 6.22% (p = 0.008). Furthermore, post-CF11 and culture samples from Thailand gave a median P. vivax DNA yield of 2.34 ng µl(-1) pRBCs, and 2.65% human DNA. In 22 P. vivax patient isolates prepared with the 2-step method, we demonstrate high depth (median 654X coverage) and breadth (≥89%) of coverage on the Illumina GAII and HiSeq platforms. In contrast to the A+T-rich P. falciparum genome, negligible bias was observed in coverage depth between coding and non-coding regions of the P. vivax genome. This uniform coverage will greatly facilitate the detection of SNPs and copy number variants across the genome, enabling unbiased exploration of the natural diversity in P. vivax populations.

  10. A Randomized Comparison of Chloroquine versus Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Infection in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thuan, Phung Duc; Ca, Nguyen Thuy Nha; Van Toi, Pham; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Thai, Cao Quang; Hong Thai, Le; Hoa, Nhu Thi; Thanh Dong, Le; Loi, Mai Anh; Son, Do Hung; Khanh, Tran Tinh Ngoc; Dolecek, Christiane; Nhan, Ho Thi; Wolbers, Marcel; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2016-01-01

    A total of 128 Vietnamese patients with symptomatic Plasmodium vivax mono-infections were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, randomized trial to receive either chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA-PPQ). The proportions of patients with adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 47% in the chloroquine arm (31 of 65 patients) and 66% in the DHA-PPQ arm (42 of 63 patients) in the Kaplan–Meier intention-to-treat analysis (absolute difference 19%, 95% confidence interval = 0–37%), thus establishing non-inferiority of DHA-PPQ. Fever clearance time (median 24 versus 12 hours, P = 0.02), parasite clearance time (median 36 versus 18 hours, P < 0.001), and parasite clearance half-life (mean 3.98 versus 1.80 hours, P < 0.001) were all significantly shorter in the DHA-PPQ arm. All cases of recurrent parasitemia in the chloroquine arm occurred from day 33 onward, with corresponding whole blood chloroquine concentration lower than 100 ng/mL in all patients. Chloroquine thus remains efficacious for the treatment of P. vivax malaria in southern Vietnam, but DHA-PPQ provides more rapid symptomatic and parasitological recovery. PMID:26856909

  11. A Randomized Comparison of Chloroquine Versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Infection in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Phung Duc; Ca, Nguyen Thuy Nha; Van Toi, Pham; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Thai, Cao Quang; Thai, Le Hong; Hoa, Nhu Thi; Dong, Le Thanh; Loi, Mai Anh; Son, Do Hung; Khanh, Tran Tinh Ngoc; Dolecek, Christiane; Nhan, Ho Thi; Wolbers, Marcel; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; White, Nicholas J; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2016-04-01

    A total of 128 Vietnamese patients with symptomatic Plasmodium vivax mono-infections were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, randomized trial to receive either chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ). The proportions of patients with adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 47% in the chloroquine arm (31 of 65 patients) and 66% in the DHA-PPQ arm (42 of 63 patients) in the Kaplan-Meier intention-to-treat analysis (absolute difference 19%, 95% confidence interval = 0-37%), thus establishing non-inferiority of DHA-PPQ. Fever clearance time (median 24 versus 12 hours,P= 0.02), parasite clearance time (median 36 versus 18 hours,P< 0.001), and parasite clearance half-life (mean 3.98 versus 1.80 hours,P< 0.001) were all significantly shorter in the DHA-PPQ arm. All cases of recurrent parasitemia in the chloroquine arm occurred from day 33 onward, with corresponding whole blood chloroquine concentration lower than 100 ng/mL in all patients. Chloroquine thus remains efficacious for the treatment of P. vivax malaria in southern Vietnam, but DHA-PPQ provides more rapid symptomatic and parasitological recovery. PMID:26856909

  12. Colorimetric Detection of Plasmodium vivax in Urine Using MSP10 Oligonucleotides and Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alnasser, Yossef; Ferradas, Cusi; Clark, Taryn; Calderon, Maritza; Gurbillon, Alejandro; Gamboa, Dionicia; McKakpo, Uri S.; Quakyi, Isabella A.; Bosompem, Kwabena M.; Sullivan, David J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of human malaria in the world and can lead to severe disease with high potential for relapse. Its genetic and geographic diversities make it challenging to control. P. vivax is understudied and to achieve control of malaria in endemic areas, a rapid, accurate, and simple diagnostic tool is necessary. In this pilot study, we found that a colorimetric system using AuNPs and MSP10 DNA detection in urine can provide fast, easy, and inexpensive identification of P. vivax. The test exhibited promising sensitivity (84%), high specificity (97%), and only mild cross-reactivity with P. falciparum (21%). It is simple to use, with a visible color change that negates the need for a spectrometer, making it suitable for use in austere conditions. Using urine eliminates the need for finger-prick, increasing both the safety profile and patient acceptance of this model. PMID:27706158

  13. Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Proteins Are Key Targets of Naturally Acquired Immunity in Young Papua New Guinean Children

    PubMed Central

    França, Camila T.; He, Wen-Qiang; Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Lin, Enmoore; Kiniboro, Benson; Siba, Peter M.; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Major gaps in our understanding of Plasmodium vivax biology and the acquisition of immunity to this parasite hinder vaccine development. P. vivax merozoites exclusively invade reticulocytes, making parasite proteins that mediate reticulocyte binding and/or invasion potential key vaccine or drug targets. While protein interactions that mediate invasion are still poorly understood, the P. vivax Reticulocyte-Binding Protein family (PvRBP) is thought to be involved in P. vivax restricted host-cell selectivity. Methodology/Principal findings We assessed the binding specificity of five members of the PvRBP family (PvRBP1a, PvRBP1b, PvRBP2a, PvRBP2b, PvRBP2-P2 and a non-binding fragment of PvRBP2c) to normocytes or reticulocytes. PvRBP2b was identified as the only reticulocyte-specific binder (P<0.001), whereas the others preferentially bound to normocytes (PvRBP1a/b P≤0.034), or showed comparable binding to both (PvRBP2a/2-P2, P = 0.38). Furthermore, we measured levels of total and IgG subclasses 1, 2, 3 and 4 to the six PvRBPs in a cohort of young Papua New Guinean children, and assessed their relationship with prospective risk of P. vivax malaria. Children had substantial, highly correlated (rho = 0.49–0.82, P<0.001) antibody levels to all six PvRBPs, with dominant IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. Both total IgG (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 0.63–0.73, P = 0.008–0.041) and IgG1 (IRR 0.56–0.69, P = 0.001–0.035) to PvRBP2b and PvRBP1a were strongly associated with reduced risk of vivax-malaria, independently of age and exposure. Conclusion/Significance These results demonstrate a diversity of erythrocyte-binding phenotypes of PvRBPs, indicating binding to both reticulocyte-specific and normocyte-specific ligands. Our findings provide further insights into the naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax and highlight the importance of PvRBP proteins as targets of naturally acquired humoral immunity. In-depth studies of the role of PvRBPs in P. vivax invasion and

  14. Infection of laboratory-colonized Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzmán, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-04-01

    Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector-pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingi-Plasmodium interactions.

  15. Infection of Laboratory-Colonized Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzmán, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector–pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingi–Plasmodium interactions. PMID:24534811

  16. Mitochondrial DNA from the eradicated European Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from 70-year-old slides from the Ebro Delta in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gelabert, Pere; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Olalde, Iñigo; Fregel, Rosa; Rieux, Adrien; Escosa, Raül; Aranda, Carles; Paaijmans, Krijn; Mueller, Ivo; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium parasites has indicated that their modern-day distribution is a result of a series of human-mediated dispersals involving transport between Africa, Europe, America, and Asia. A major outstanding question is the phylogenetic affinity of the malaria causing parasites Plasmodium vivax and falciparum in historic southern Europe—where it was endemic until the mid-20th century, after which it was eradicated across the region. Resolving the identity of these parasites will be critical for answering several hypotheses on the malaria dispersal. Recently, a set of slides with blood stains of malaria-affected people from the Ebro Delta (Spain), dated between 1942 and 1944, have been found in a local medical collection. We extracted DNA from three slides, two of them stained with Giemsa (on which Plasmodium parasites could still be seen under the microscope) and another one consisting of dried blood spots. We generated the data using Illumina sequencing after using several strategies aimed at increasing the Plasmodium DNA yield: depletion of the human genomic (g)DNA content through hybridization with human gDNA baits, and capture-enrichment using gDNA derived from P. falciparum. Plasmodium mitochondrial genome sequences were subsequently reconstructed from the resulting data. Phylogenetic analysis of the eradicated European P. vivax mtDNA genome indicates that the European isolate is closely related to the most common present-day American haplotype and likely entered the American continent post-Columbian contact. Furthermore, the European P. falciparum mtDNA indicates a link with current Indian strains that is in agreement with historical accounts. PMID:27671660

  17. ama1 Genes of Sympatric Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from Venezuela Differ Significantly in Genetic Diversity and Recombination Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Ord, Rosalynn L.; Tami, Adriana; Sutherland, Colin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background We present the first population genetic analysis of homologous loci from two sympatric human malaria parasite populations sharing the same human hosts, using full-length sequences of ama1 genes from Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum collected in the Venezuelan Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings Significant differences between the two species were found in genetic diversity at the ama1 locus, with 18 distinct haplotypes identified among the 73 Pvama1 sequences obtained, compared to 6 unique haplotypes from 30 Pfama1 sequences, giving overall diversity estimates of h = 0.9091, and h = 0.538 respectively. Levels of recombination were also found to differ between the species, with P. falciparum exhibiting very little recombination across the 1.77kb sequence. In contrast, analysis of patterns of nucleotide substitutions provided evidence that polymorphisms in the ama1 gene of both species are maintained by balancing selection, particularly in domain I. The two distinct population structures observed are unlikely to result from different selective forces acting upon the two species, which share both human and mosquito hosts in this setting. Rather, the highly structured P. falciparum population appears to be the result of a population bottleneck, while the much less structured P. vivax population is likely to be derived from an ancient pool of diversity, as reflected in a larger estimate of effective population size for this species. Greatly reduced mosquito transmission in 1997, due to low rainfall prior to the second survey, was associated with far fewer P. falciparum infections, but an increase in P. vivax infections, probably due to hypnozoite activation. Conclusions/Significance The relevance of these findings to putative competitive interactions between these two important human pathogen species is discussed. These results highlight the need for future control interventions to employ strategies targeting each of the parasite species present

  18. Transcription Profiling of Malaria-Naïve and Semi-immune Colombian Volunteers in a Plasmodium vivax Sporozoite Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Peña, Monica L.; Vallejo, Andres; Herrera, Sócrates; Gibson, Greg; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Background Continued exposure to malaria-causing parasites in endemic regions of malaria induces significant levels of acquired immunity in adult individuals. A better understanding of the transcriptional basis for this acquired immunological response may provide insight into how the immune system can be boosted during vaccination, and into why infected individuals differ in symptomology. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood gene expression profiles of 9 semi-immune volunteers from a Plasmodium vivax malaria prevalent region (Buenaventura, Colombia) were compared to those of 7 naïve individuals from a region with no reported transmission of malaria (Cali, Colombia) after a controlled infection mosquito bite challenge with P. vivax. A Fluidigm nanoscale quantitative RT-PCR array was used to survey altered expression of 96 blood informative transcripts at 7 timepoints after controlled infection, and RNASeq was used to contrast pre-infection and early parasitemia timepoints. There was no evidence for transcriptional changes prior to the appearance of blood stage parasites at day 12 or 13, at which time there was a strong interferon response and, unexpectedly, down-regulation of transcripts related to inflammation and innate immunity. This differential expression was confirmed with RNASeq, which also suggested perturbations of aspects of T cell function and erythropoiesis. Despite differences in clinical symptoms between the semi-immune and malaria naïve individuals, only subtle differences in their transcriptomes were observed, although 175 genes showed significantly greater induction or repression in the naïve volunteers from Cali. Conclusion/Significance Gene expression profiling of whole blood reveals the type and duration of the immune response to P. vivax infection, and highlights a subset of genes that may mediate adaptive immunity. PMID:26244760

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of genes encoding vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A major concern in malaria vaccine development is genetic polymorphisms typically observed among Plasmodium isolates in different geographical areas across the world. Highly polymorphic regions have been observed in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antigenic surface proteins such as Circumsporozoite protein (CSP), Duffy-binding protein (DBP), Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and Thrombospondin related anonymous protein (TRAP). Methods Genetic variability was assessed in important polymorphic regions of various vaccine candidate antigens in P. vivax among 106 isolates from the Amazon Region of Loreto, Peru. In addition, genetic diversity determined in Peruvian isolates was compared to population studies from various geographical locations worldwide. Results The structured diversity found in P. vivax populations did not show a geographic pattern and haplotypes from all gene candidates were distributed worldwide. In addition, evidence of balancing selection was found in polymorphic regions of the trap, dbp and ama-1 genes. Conclusions It is important to have a good representation of the haplotypes circulating worldwide when implementing a vaccine, regardless of the geographic region of deployment since selective pressure plays an important role in structuring antigen diversity. PMID:22417572

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics and demographic profiles of imported Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in Ontario, Canada (1990-2009).

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Williams, Dawn; Johnson, Karen; Li, Lennon; Baker, Stacey L; Marshall, Sean; Bhanich-Supapol, Wendy; Pillai, Dylan R; Ralevski, Filip

    2013-01-01

    We examined malaria cases reported to Ontario's public health surveillance systems from 1990 through 2009 to determine how temporal scale (longitudinal, seasonal), spatial scale (provincial, health unit), and demography (gender, age) contribute to Plasmodium infection in Ontario travellers. Our retrospective study included 4,551 confirmed cases of imported malaria reported throughout Ontario, with additional analysis at the local health unit level (i.e., Ottawa, Peel, and Toronto). During the 20-year period, Plasmodium vivax accounted for 50.6% of all cases, P. falciparum (38.6%), Plasmodium sp. (6.0%), P. ovale (3.1%), and P. malariae (1.8%). During the first ten years of the study (1990-1999), P. vivax (64% of all cases) was the dominant agent, followed by P. falciparum (28%); however, during the second ten years (2000-2009) the situation reversed and P. falciparum (55%) dominated, followed by P. vivax (30%). The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax cases varied spatially (e.g., P. falciparum more prevalent in Toronto, P. vivax more prevalent in Peel), temporally (e.g. P. falciparum incidence increased during the 20-year study), and demographically (e.g. preponderance of male cases). Infection rates per 100,000 international travellers were estimated: rates of infection were 2× higher in males compared to females; rates associated with travel to Africa were 37× higher compared to travel to Asia and 126× higher compared to travel to the Americas; rates of infection were 2.3-3.5× higher in June and July compared to October through March; and rates of infection were highest in those 65-69 years old. Where exposure country was reported, 71% of P. falciparum cases reported exposure in Ghana or Nigeria and 63% of P. vivax cases reported exposure in India. Our study provides insights toward improving pre-travel programs for Ontarians visiting malaria-endemic regions and underscores the changing epidemiology of imported malaria in the province.

  1. Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Demographic Profiles of Imported Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Infections in Ontario, Canada (1990–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Russell, Curtis; Williams, Dawn; Johnson, Karen; Li, Lennon; Baker, Stacey L.; Marshall, Sean; Bhanich-Supapol, Wendy; Pillai, Dylan R.; Ralevski, Filip

    2013-01-01

    We examined malaria cases reported to Ontario’s public health surveillance systems from 1990 through 2009 to determine how temporal scale (longitudinal, seasonal), spatial scale (provincial, health unit), and demography (gender, age) contribute to Plasmodium infection in Ontario travellers. Our retrospective study included 4,551 confirmed cases of imported malaria reported throughout Ontario, with additional analysis at the local health unit level (i.e., Ottawa, Peel, and Toronto). During the 20-year period, Plasmodium vivax accounted for 50.6% of all cases, P. falciparum (38.6%), Plasmodium sp. (6.0%), P. ovale (3.1%), and P. malariae (1.8%). During the first ten years of the study (1990–1999), P. vivax (64% of all cases) was the dominant agent, followed by P. falciparum (28%); however, during the second ten years (2000–2009) the situation reversed and P. falciparum (55%) dominated, followed by P. vivax (30%). The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax cases varied spatially (e.g., P. falciparum more prevalent in Toronto, P. vivax more prevalent in Peel), temporally (e.g. P. falciparum incidence increased during the 20-year study), and demographically (e.g. preponderance of male cases). Infection rates per 100,000 international travellers were estimated: rates of infection were 2× higher in males compared to females; rates associated with travel to Africa were 37× higher compared to travel to Asia and 126× higher compared to travel to the Americas; rates of infection were 2.3–3.5× higher in June and July compared to October through March; and rates of infection were highest in those 65–69 years old. Where exposure country was reported, 71% of P. falciparum cases reported exposure in Ghana or Nigeria and 63% of P. vivax cases reported exposure in India. Our study provides insights toward improving pre-travel programs for Ontarians visiting malaria-endemic regions and underscores the changing epidemiology of imported malaria in the province. PMID

  2. Structural and functional characterization of an iron-sulfur cluster assembly scaffold protein-SufA from Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Pala, Zarna Rajeshkumar; Saxena, Vishal; Saggu, Gagandeep Singh; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Pareek, R P; Kochar, Sanjay Kumar; Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar; Garg, Shilpi

    2016-07-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are utilized as prosthetic groups in all living organisms for diverse range of cellular processes including electron transport in respiration and photosynthesis, sensing of ambient conditions, regulation of gene expression and catalysis. In Plasmodium, two Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways are reported, of which the Suf pathway in the apicoplast has been shown essential for the erythrocytic stages of the parasite. While the initial components of this pathway detailing the sulfur mobilization have been elucidated, the components required for the assembly and transfer of Fe-S clusters are not reported from the parasite. In Escherichia coli, SufB acts as a scaffold protein and SufA traffics the assembled Fe-S cluster from SufB to target apo-proteins. However, in Plasmodium, the homologs of these proteins are yet to be characterized for their function. Here, we report a putative SufA protein from Plasmodium vivax with signature motifs of A-type scaffold proteins, which is evolutionarily conserved. The presence of the [Fe4S4](3+) cluster under reduced conditions was confirmed by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopy and the interaction of these clusters with the conserved cysteine residues of chains A and B of PvSufA, validates its existence as a dimer, similar to that in E. coli. The H-bond interactions at the PvSufA-SufB interface demonstrate SufA as a scaffold protein in conjunction with SufB for the pre-assembly of Fe-S clusters and their transfer to the target proteins. Co-localization of the protein to the apicoplast further provides an experimental evidence of a functional scaffold protein SufA for the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters in apicoplast of Plasmodium. PMID:27033210

  3. Structural and functional characterization of an iron-sulfur cluster assembly scaffold protein-SufA from Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Pala, Zarna Rajeshkumar; Saxena, Vishal; Saggu, Gagandeep Singh; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Pareek, R P; Kochar, Sanjay Kumar; Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar; Garg, Shilpi

    2016-07-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are utilized as prosthetic groups in all living organisms for diverse range of cellular processes including electron transport in respiration and photosynthesis, sensing of ambient conditions, regulation of gene expression and catalysis. In Plasmodium, two Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways are reported, of which the Suf pathway in the apicoplast has been shown essential for the erythrocytic stages of the parasite. While the initial components of this pathway detailing the sulfur mobilization have been elucidated, the components required for the assembly and transfer of Fe-S clusters are not reported from the parasite. In Escherichia coli, SufB acts as a scaffold protein and SufA traffics the assembled Fe-S cluster from SufB to target apo-proteins. However, in Plasmodium, the homologs of these proteins are yet to be characterized for their function. Here, we report a putative SufA protein from Plasmodium vivax with signature motifs of A-type scaffold proteins, which is evolutionarily conserved. The presence of the [Fe4S4](3+) cluster under reduced conditions was confirmed by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopy and the interaction of these clusters with the conserved cysteine residues of chains A and B of PvSufA, validates its existence as a dimer, similar to that in E. coli. The H-bond interactions at the PvSufA-SufB interface demonstrate SufA as a scaffold protein in conjunction with SufB for the pre-assembly of Fe-S clusters and their transfer to the target proteins. Co-localization of the protein to the apicoplast further provides an experimental evidence of a functional scaffold protein SufA for the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters in apicoplast of Plasmodium.

  4. Antimalarial activity of artefenomel (OZ439), a novel synthetic antimalarial endoperoxide, in patients with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria: an open-label phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Phyo, Aung Pyae; Jittamala, Podjanee; Nosten, François H; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Imwong, Mallika; White, Nicholas J; Duparc, Stephan; Macintyre, Fiona; Baker, Mark; Möhrle, Jörg J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Artefenomel (OZ439) is a novel synthetic trioxolane with improved pharmacokinetic properties compared with other antimalarial drugs with the artemisinin pharmacophore. Artefenomel has been generally well tolerated in volunteers at doses up to 1600 mg and is being developed as a partner drug in an antimalarial combination treatment. We investigated the efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of artefenomel at different doses in patients with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria. Methods This phase 2a exploratory, open-label trial was done at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, and the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit in Thailand. Adult patients with acute, uncomplicated P falciparum or P vivax malaria received artefenomel in a single oral dose (200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg, or 1200 mg). The first cohort received 800 mg. Testing of a new dose of artefenomel in a patient cohort was decided on after safety and efficacy assessment of the preceding cohort. The primary endpoint was the natural log parasite reduction per 24 h. Definitive oral treatment was given at 36 h. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01213966. Findings Between Oct 24, 2010, and May 25, 2012, 82 patients were enrolled (20 in each of the 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg cohorts, and 21 in the 1200 mg cohort). One patient withdrew consent (before the administration of artefenomel) but there were no further dropouts. The parasite reduction rates per 24 h ranged from 0·90 to 1·88 for P falciparum, and 2·09 to 2·53 for P vivax. All doses were equally effective in both P falciparum and P vivax malaria, with median parasite clearance half-lives of 4·1 h (range 1·3–6·7) to 5·6 h (2·0–8·5) for P falciparum and 2·3 h (1·2–3·9) to 3·2 h (0·9–15·0) for P vivax. Maximum plasma concentrations, dose-proportional to 800 mg, occurred at 4 h (median). The estimated elimination half-life was 46–62 h. No serious drug-related adverse effects

  5. No more monkeying around: primate malaria model systems are key to understanding Plasmodium vivax liver-stage biology, hypnozoites, and relapses

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Chester; Barnwell, John W.; Galinski, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a human malaria parasite responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and potentially death. This parasite possesses formidable liver-stage biology that involves the formation of dormant parasites known as hypnozoites. Hypnozoites are capable of activating weeks, months, or years after a primary blood-stage infection causing relapsing bouts of illness. Elimination of this dormant parasitic reservoir will be critical for global malaria eradication. Although hypnozoites were first discovered in 1982, few advancements have been made to understand their composition and biology. Until recently, in vitro models did not exist to study these forms and studying them from human ex vivo samples was virtually impossible. Today, non-human primate (NHP) models and modern systems biology approaches are poised as tools to enable the in-depth study of P. vivax liver-stage biology, including hypnozoites and relapses. NHP liver-stage model systems for P. vivax and the related simian malaria species P. cynomolgi are discussed along with perspectives regarding metabolite biomarker discovery, putative roles of extracellular vesicles, and relapse immunobiology. PMID:25859242

  6. Induction of Multifunctional Broadly Reactive T Cell Responses by a Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein Recombinant Chimera.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Singh, Balwan; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; Calvo-Calle, J Mauricio; Moreno, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread species of Plasmodium, causing up to 50% of the malaria cases occurring outside sub-Saharan Africa. An effective vaccine is essential for successful control and potential eradication. A well-characterized vaccine candidate is the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). Preclinical and clinical trials have shown that both antibodies and cellular immune responses have been correlated with protection induced by immunization with CSP. On the basis of our reported approach of developing chimeric Plasmodium yoelii proteins to enhance protective efficacy, we designed PvRMC-CSP, a recombinant chimeric protein based on the P. vivax CSP (PvCSP). In this engineered protein, regions of the PvCSP predicted to contain human T cell epitopes were genetically fused to an immunodominant B cell epitope derived from the N-terminal region I and to repeat sequences representing the two types of PvCSP repeats. The chimeric protein was expressed in soluble form with high yield. As the immune response to PvCSP has been reported to be genetically restricted in the murine model, we tested the immunogenicity of PvRMC-CSP in groups of six inbred strains of mice. PvRMC-CSP was able to induce robust antibody responses in all the mouse strains tested. Synthetic peptides representing the allelic forms of the P. vivax CSP were also recognized to a similar extent regardless of the mouse strain. Furthermore, the immunization regimen induced high frequencies of multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) PvRMC-CSP-specific T cells. The depth and breadth of the immune responses elicited suggest that immunization with PvRMC-CSP can circumvent the genetic restriction of the immune response to P. vivax CSP. Interestingly, PvRMC-CSP was also recognized by naturally acquired antibodies from individuals living in areas where malaria is endemic. These features make PvRMC-CSP a promising vaccine candidate for further development.

  7. Origins and implications of neglect of G6PD deficiency and primaquine toxicity in Plasmodium vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Most of the tens of millions of clinical attacks caused by Plasmodium vivax each year likely originate from dormant liver forms called hypnozoites. We do not systematically attack that reservoir because the only drug available, primaquine, is poorly suited to doing so. Primaquine was licenced for anti-relapse therapy in 1952 and became available despite threatening patients having an inborn deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with acute haemolytic anaemia. The standard method for screening G6PD deficiency, the fluorescent spot test, has proved impractical where most malaria patients live. The blind administration of daily primaquine is dangerous, but so too are the relapses invited by withholding treatment. Absent G6PD screening, providers must choose between risking harm by the parasite or its treatment. How did this dilemma escape redress in science, clinical medicine and public health? This review offers critical historic reflection on the neglect of this serious problem in the chemotherapy of P. vivax. PMID:25943156

  8. Origins and implications of neglect of G6PD deficiency and primaquine toxicity in Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Most of the tens of millions of clinical attacks caused by Plasmodium vivax each year likely originate from dormant liver forms called hypnozoites. We do not systematically attack that reservoir because the only drug available, primaquine, is poorly suited to doing so. Primaquine was licenced for anti-relapse therapy in 1952 and became available despite threatening patients having an inborn deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with acute haemolytic anaemia. The standard method for screening G6PD deficiency, the fluorescent spot test, has proved impractical where most malaria patients live. The blind administration of daily primaquine is dangerous, but so too are the relapses invited by withholding treatment. Absent G6PD screening, providers must choose between risking harm by the parasite or its treatment. How did this dilemma escape redress in science, clinical medicine and public health? This review offers critical historic reflection on the neglect of this serious problem in the chemotherapy of P. vivax. PMID:25943156

  9. Experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of key Anopheles species from the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the major malaria vector in countries located in the Amazon region. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles albitarsis s.l. are also proven vectors in this region. Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were found infected with Plasmodium vivax; however, their status as vectors is not yet well defined. Knowledge of susceptibility of Amazon anopheline populations to Plasmodium infection is necessary to better understand their vector capacity. Laboratory colonization of An. darlingi, the main Amazon vector, has proven to be difficult and presently An. aquasalis is the only available autonomous colony. Methods Larvae of An. darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l., An. nuneztovari s.l. and An. triannulatus s.l. were collected in the field and reared until adult stage. Adults of An. aquasalis were obtained from a well-established colony. Mosquitoes were blood-fed using a membrane-feeding device containing infected blood from malarial patients. The infection of the distinct Anopheles species was evaluated by the impact variance of the following parameters: (a) parasitaemia density; (b) blood serum inactivation of the infective bloodmeal; (c) influence of gametocyte number on infection rates and number of oocysts. The goal of this work was to compare the susceptibility to P. vivax of four field-collected Anopheles species with colonized An. aquasalis. Results All Anopheles species tested were susceptible to P. vivax infection, nevertheless the proportion of infected mosquitoes and the infection intensity measured by oocyst number varied significantly among species. Inactivation of the blood serum prior to mosquito feeding increased infection rates in An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l., but was diminished in An. albitarsis s.l. and An. aquasalis. There was a positive correlation between gametocyte density and the infection rate in all tests (Z = −8.37; p < 0.001) but varied among the mosquito species. Anopheles albitarsis

  10. Conserved and Variant Epitopes of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein as Targets of Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ntumngia, Francis B.; Schloegel, Jesse; Barnes, Samantha J.; McHenry, Amy M.; Singh, Sanjay; King, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    The Duffy binding protein (DBP) is a vital ligand for Plasmodium vivax blood-stage merozoite invasion, making the molecule an attractive vaccine candidate against vivax malaria. Similar to other blood-stage vaccine candidates, DBP allelic variation eliciting a strain-specific immunity may be a major challenge for development of a broadly effective vaccine against vivax malaria. To understand whether conserved epitopes can be the target of neutralizing anti-DBP inhibition, we generated a set of monoclonal antibodies to DBP and functionally analyzed their reactivity to a panel of allelic variants. Quantitative analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) determined that some monoclonal antibodies reacted strongly with epitopes conserved on all DBP variants tested, while reactivity of others was allele specific. Qualitative analysis characterized by anti-DBP functional inhibition using an in vitro erythrocyte binding inhibition assay indicated that there was no consistent correlation between the endpoint titers and functional inhibition. Some monoclonal antibodies were broadly inhibitory while inhibition of others varied significantly by target allele. These data demonstrate a potential for vaccine-elicited immunization to target conserved epitopes but optimization of DBP epitope target specificity and immunogenicity may be necessary for protection against diverse P. vivax strains. PMID:22215740

  11. Computational screening and characterization of putative vaccine candidates of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Nanda Kumar, Y; Jeyakodi, G; Gunasekaran, K; Jambulingam, P

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent species of malaria affecting millions of people annually worldwide and demands effective interventions to develop a successful vaccine. In this milieu, we have dedicated noteworthy efforts to characterize the proteome of P. vivax to give a lead for the epitope-based vaccine development. Membrane proteins of P. vivax were collected from SWISS PROT database and 10 antigenic proteins were identified among them by in silico analysis using multiple servers. T-cell and B-cell epitopes were identified and their immunity was assessed. Their ability to trigger humoral and cell-mediated responses was determined. Three dimensional models were constructed for the antigenic proteins using Modeller, Phyre2, and Modloop tools and their quality was validated using PROCHECK and ProSA-web validation servers. Further, the binding affinity and molecular interactions of these antigenic proteins were characterized by performing protein-protein docking against transmission-blocking anti-malaria antibody Fab2A8 (PDB ID: 3S62) using Z-dock module of Discovery Studio 4.0. The presence of potential B & T-cell epitopes, major histocompatibility complex-binding sites, and their efficient interactions with Fab2A8 antibody suggests the use of predicted antigenic proteins for the construction of multi-epitope peptide vaccine against P. vivax. PMID:26338678

  12. Characterizing the genetic diversity of the monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrick L; Luo, Zunping; Divis, Paul C S; Friedrich, Volney K; Conway, David J; Singh, Balbir; Barnwell, John W; Carlton, Jane M; Sullivan, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium cynomolgi is a malaria parasite that typically infects Asian macaque monkeys, and humans on rare occasions. P. cynomolgi serves as a model system for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, with which it shares such important biological characteristics as formation of a dormant liver stage and a preference to invade reticulocytes. While genomes of three P. cynomolgi strains have been sequenced, genetic diversity of P. cynomolgi has not been widely investigated. To address this we developed the first panel of P. cynomolgi microsatellite markers to genotype eleven P. cynomolgi laboratory strains and 18 field isolates from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We found diverse genotypes among most of the laboratory strains, though two nominally different strains were found to be genetically identical. We also investigated sequence polymorphism in two erythrocyte invasion gene families, the reticulocyte binding protein and Duffy binding protein genes, in these strains. We also observed copy number variation in rbp genes. PMID:26980604

  13. Antirelapse Efficacy of Various Primaquine Regimens for Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Rajgor, D. D.; Gogtay, N. J.; Kadam, V. S.; Kocharekar, M. M.; Parulekar, M. S.; Dalvi, S. S.; Vaidya, A. B.; Kshirsagar, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Efficacy of standard dose of primaquine (PQ) as antirelapse for P. vivax has decreased. We aimed to assess efficacy of different PQ regimens. Methods. It was an open label, randomized, controlled, parallel group, assessor blind study comparing antirelapse efficacy of 3 PQ regimens (B = 15 mg/day × 14 days, C = 30 mg/day × 7 days, and D = 30 mg/day × 14 days) with no PQ group (A) in P. vivax patients. Paired primary and recurrence samples were subjected to 3 methods: (i) month of recurrence and genotyping, (ii) by PCR-RFLP, and (iii) PCR sequencing, to differentiate relapse and reinfection. The rates of recurrence relapse and reinfection were compared. Methods were compared for concordance between them. Results. The recurrence rate was 16.39%, 8.07%, 10.07%, and 6.62% in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (P = 0.004). The relapse rate was 6.89%, 1.55%, 4%, and 3.85% as per the month of recurrence; 8.2%, 2%, 4.58%, and 3.68% (P = 0.007) as per PCR-RFLP; and 2.73%, 1.47%, 1.55%, and 1.53% as per PCR sequencing for groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The concordance between methods was low, 45%. Conclusion. The higher recurrence rate in no PQ as compared to PQ groups documents PQ antirelapse activity. Regimens tested were safe. However, probable resistance to PQ warrants continuous monitoring and low concordance and limitations in the methods warrant caution in interpreting. PMID:25295216

  14. HMS-Related Hemolysis after Acute Attacks of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mitjà, Oriol; Hays, Russell; Malken, James; Ipai, Anthony; Kangapu, Samson; Robson, Jenny; Bassat, Quique

    2011-01-01

    Among a cohort of 1,213 cases treated for Plasmodium vivax malaria from an isolated Papua New Guinean population, seven adults with severe and sustained hemolytic anemia after clearance of the peripheral parasitemia were prospectively investigated. All the patients fulfilled the criteria for hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly and in 2 of 7 cases an IgG warm antibody was identified. Hereditary hemolytic anemia was excluded in 5 of 5 patients. All treated cases improved after an initial high dose of prednisone and antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. The persistence of marked anemia in a patient with splenomegaly after a P. vivax attack should raise the suspicion of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. PMID:21976560

  15. High Rates of Asymptomatic, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium vivax Infection and Disappearing Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in an Area of Low Transmission in Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Waltmann, Andreea; Darcy, Andrew W.; Harris, Ivor; Koepfli, Cristian; Lodo, John; Vahi, Ventis; Piziki, David; Shanks, G. Dennis; Barry, Alyssa E.; Whittaker, Maxine; Kazura, James W.; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solomon Islands is intensifying national efforts to achieve malaria elimination. A long history of indoor spraying with residual insecticides, combined recently with distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets and artemether-lumefantrine therapy, has been implemented in Solomon Islands. The impact of these interventions on local endemicity of Plasmodium spp. is unknown. Methods In 2012, a cross-sectional survey of 3501 residents of all ages was conducted in Ngella, Central Islands Province, Solomon Islands. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and light microscopy (LM). Presence of gametocytes was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results By qPCR, 468 Plasmodium spp. infections were detected (prevalence = 13.4%; 463 P. vivax, five mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax, no P. ovale or P. malariae) versus 130 by LM (prevalence = 3.7%; 126 P. vivax, three P. falciparum and one P. falciparum/P. vivax). The prevalence of P. vivax infection varied significantly among villages (range 3.0–38.5%, p<0.001) and across age groups (5.3–25.9%, p<0.001). Of 468 P. vivax infections, 72.9% were sub-microscopic, 84.5% afebrile and 60.0% were both sub-microscopic and afebrile. Local residency, low education level of the household head and living in a household with at least one other P. vivax infected individual increased the risk of P. vivax infection. Overall, 23.5% of P. vivax infections had concurrent gametocytaemia. Of all P. vivax positive samples, 29.2% were polyclonal by MS16 and msp1F3 genotyping. All five P. falciparum infections were detected in residents of the same village, carried the same msp2 allele and four were positive for P. falciparum gametocytes. Conclusion P. vivax infection remains endemic in Ngella, with the majority of cases afebrile and below the detection limit of LM. P. falciparum has nearly disappeared, but the risk of re-introductions and

  16. Further Evidence of Increasing Diversity of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Zo, Young-Gun; Ji, So-Young; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; To, Sheren; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated from the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the late 1970s but re-emerged in 1993. Two decades later as the ROK enters the final stages of malaria elimination, dedicated surveillance of the local P. vivax population is critical. We apply a population genetic approach to gauge P. vivax transmission dynamics in the ROK between 2010 and 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax positive blood samples from 98 autochthonous cases were collected from patients attending health centers in the ROK in 2010 (n = 27), 2011 (n = 48) and 2012 (n = 23). Parasite genotyping was undertaken at 9 tandem repeat markers. Although not reaching significance, a trend of increasing population diversity was observed from 2010 (HE = 0.50 ± 0.11) to 2011 (HE = 0.56 ± 0.08) and 2012 (HE = 0.60 ± 0.06). Conversely, linkage disequilibrium declined during the same period: IAS = 0.15 in 2010 (P = 0.010), 0.09 in 2011 (P = 0.010) and 0.05 in 2012 (P = 0.010). In combination with data from other ROK studies undertaken between 1994 and 2007, our results are consistent with increasing parasite divergence since re-emergence. Polyclonal infections were rare (3% infections) suggesting that local out-crossing alone was unlikely to explain the increased divergence. Cases introduced from an external reservoir may therefore have contributed to the increased diversity. Aside from one isolate, all infections carried a short MS20 allele (142 or 149 bp), not observed in other studies in tropical endemic countries despite high diversity, inferring that these regions are unlikely reservoirs. Conclusions Whilst a number of factors may explain the observed population genetic trends, the available evidence suggests that an external geographic reservoir with moderate diversity sustains the majority of P. vivax infection in the ROK, with important implications for malaria elimination. PMID:26990869

  17. Genetic structure of Plasmodium vivax using the merozoite surface protein 1 icb5-6 fragment reveals new hybrid haplotypes in southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax is a protozoan parasite with an extensive worldwide distribution, being highly prevalent in Asia as well as in Mesoamerica and South America. In southern Mexico, P. vivax transmission has been endemic and recent studies suggest that these parasites have unique biological and genetic features. The msp1 gene has shown high rate of nucleotide substitutions, deletions, insertions, and its mosaic structure reveals frequent events of recombination, maybe between highly divergent parasite isolates. Methods The nucleotide sequence variation in the polymorphic icb5-6 fragment of the msp1 gene of Mexican and worldwide isolates was analysed. To understand how genotype diversity arises, disperses and persists in Mexico, the genetic structure and genealogical relationships of local isolates were examined. To identify new sequence hybrids and their evolutionary relationships with other P. vivax isolates circulating worldwide two haplotype networks were constructed questioning that two portions of the icb5-6 have different evolutionary history. Results Twelve new msp1 icb5-6 haplotypes of P. vivax from Mexico were identified. These nucleotide sequences show mosaic structure comprising three partially conserved and two variable subfragments and resulted into five different sequence types. The variable subfragment sV1 has undergone recombination events and resulted in hybrid sequences and the haplotype network allocated the Mexican haplotypes to three lineages, corresponding to the Sal I and Belem types, and other more divergent group. In contrast, the network from icb5-6 fragment but not sV1 revealed that the Mexican haplotypes belong to two separate lineages, none of which are closely related to Sal I or Belem sequences. Conclusions These results suggest that the new hybrid haplotypes from southern Mexico were the result of at least three different recombination events. These rearrangements likely resulted from the recombination between haplotypes of

  18. [An outbreak of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Kyrghyzstan].

    PubMed

    Usenbaev, N T; Ezhov, M N; Zvantsov, A B; Annarbaev, A; Zhoroev, A A; Almerekov, K Sh

    2006-01-01

    Malaria was not notified in the republic in 1960 to 1982, with exception of 1963 where one case of imported malaria was identified. Twenty-four cases of locally transmitted malaria were detected, 11 of them being registered in the Batken district, Osh Region, contiguous with Tadjikistan and Uzbekistan. In 1981 to 2000, a total of 101 cases of malaria were notified, in 2001 there was an increase in cases of malaria to 136, while in 2002, a total of 2744 cases of malaria were registered mainly in the Fergana valley. Malaria was imported from Tadjikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan. The infectious agent of malaria was P. vivax in 98% of cases and P. falciparum in 2%. The high malarial potential areas are the Osh, Zhalalabat, and Batken Regions and town of Osh. In 2002, the investigators identified patients with malaria, made its chloroquine eliminating treatment, seasonal chemoprevention of some 5000 dwellers of the Leilek District of the Batken Region contiguous with Tadjikistan, and larvicidal treatments of water reservoirs and rice checks with dimilin. Almost 1,988,000 m2 of premises were treated with Solfac. Mosquito fishes were placed into more water reservoirs in 2003. In 2003 there was a tendency for a decrease in the incidence of malaria, as compared with 2002, which may be ascribed to the small size of vectors, which is due to the cold spring and cool June and July. In 2003, there were treatments of premises, mosquito fish enrichment of water reservoirs, interseasonal chemoprophylaxis of patients who experienced malaria in 2002; impregnated bed curtains were available to protect the dwellers of foci from mosquito bites. PMID:16562744

  19. Design and Synthesis of High Affinity Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax N-Myristoyltransferases Directed by Ligand Efficiency Dependent Lipophilicity (LELP)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme and an attractive drug target in parasitic infections such as malaria. We have previously reported that 2-(3-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-((1,3,5-trimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (34c) is a high affinity inhibitor of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax NMT and displays activity in vivo against a rodent malaria model. Here we describe the discovery of 34c through optimization of a previously described series. Development, guided by targeting a ligand efficiency dependent lipophilicity (LELP) score of less than 10, yielded a 100-fold increase in enzyme affinity and a 100-fold drop in lipophilicity with the addition of only two heavy atoms. 34c was found to be equipotent on chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant cell lines and on both blood and liver stage forms of the parasite. These data further validate NMT as an exciting drug target in malaria and support 34c as an attractive tool for further optimization. PMID:24641010

  20. Plasmodium vivax: N-terminal diversity in the blood stage SERA genes from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Rahul, C N; Shiva Krishna, K; Meera, M; Phadke, Sandhya; Rajesh, Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide malaria risk due to Plasmodium vivax makes development of vaccine against P. vivax, a high priority. Serine Repeat Antigen of P. vivax (PvSERA) is a multigene family of blood stage proteins with 12 homologues. Sequence diversity studies are important for understanding them as potential vaccine candidates. No information on N-terminal diversity of these genes is available in literature. In this paper, we evaluate the genetic polymorphism of N-terminal regions of the highly expressed member PvSERA4 and PvSERA5 genes from Indian field isolates. Our results show that PvSERA4 has deletions and insertions in Glutamine rich tetrameric repeat units contributing to its diversity. PvSERA5 also exhibits high genetic diversity with non-synonymous substitutions leading to identification of novel haplotypes from India. Our first report helps in elucidating the allelic variants of PvSERA genes in this region and contributes to evaluating their efficacy as vaccine candidates.

  1. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in an Area Where Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Infections Are Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Fobia, Wendy; Kenangalem, Enny; Lampah, Daniel A.; Warikar, Noah; Seal, Andrew; McGready, Rose; Sugiarto, Paulus; Tjitra, Emiliana; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum infection exerts a considerable burden on pregnant women, but less is known about the adverse consequences of Plasmodium vivax infection. Methods In Papua, Indonesia, where multiple drug resistance to both species has emerged, we conducted a cross-sectional hospital-based study to quantify the risks and consequences of maternal malaria. Results From April 2004 through December 2006, 3046 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of parasitemia at delivery was 16.8% (432 of 2570 women had infections), with 152 (35.2%) of these 432 infections being associated with fever. The majority of infections were attributable to P. falciparum (250 [57.9%]); 146 (33.8%) of the infections were attributable to P. vivax, and 36 (8.3%) were coinfections with both species. At delivery, P. falciparum infection was associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration, <7 g/dL; odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.0–4.0) and a 192 g (95% CI, 119–265) reduction in mean birth weight (P < .001). P. vivax infection was associated with an increased risk of moderate anemia (hemoglobin concentration, 7–11 g/dL; OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.9; P = .01) and a 108 g (95% CI, 17.5–199) reduction in mean birth weight (P < .019). Parasitemia was associated with preterm delivery (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0; P = .02) and stillbirth (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3–4.1; P = .007) but was not associated with these outcomes after controlling for the presence of fever and severe anemia, suggesting that malaria increases the risk of preterm delivery and stillbirth through fever and contribution to severe anemia rather than through parasitemia per se. Conclusions These observations highlight the need for novel, safe, and effective treatment and prevention strategies against both multidrug-resistant P. falciparum and multidrug-resistant P. vivax infections in pregnant women in areas of mixed endemicity. PMID:18419439

  2. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) displays increased attractiveness to infected individuals with Plasmodium vivax gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most hematophagous insects use host odours as chemical cues. The odour components, some physiological parameters and host attractiveness are affected by several conditions, including infection by parasites, e.g., plasmodia and, therefore, change the epidemiological scenario. This study evaluated the attractiveness of individuals with vivax malaria before, during (7 days) and after treatment (14 days) with specific antimalarial drugs. Findings Mosquito attractiveness to vivax-infected patients was assessed using a vertical olfactometer using the foot as a source of body odour. The ratio of Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in the lower chamber of the olfactometer was used to calculate the attractiveness, and patient temperature was measured using a digital thermometer. An increased attractiveness was found only in patients bearing vivax gametocytes during the first experiment (early infection) (P < 0.001). Patients in the first experiment tended to have a higher body temperature, but grouping patients into fever and non-fever resulted in a higher attractiveness only in the fever group of gametocyte carriers, suggesting a synergistic effect of temperature and gametocytes in the host attractiveness to A. darlingi. Conclusions Gametocyte presence and fever in vivax malaria patients increased short distance host attractiveness to An. darlingi. PMID:24885914

  3. Immunogenicity of a Synthetic Vaccine Based on Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein Region II

    PubMed Central

    Ntumngia, Francis B.; Barnes, Samantha J.; McHenry, Amy M.; George, Miriam T.; Schloegel, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Molecules that play a role in Plasmodium merozoite invasion of host red blood cells represent attractive targets for blood-stage vaccine development against malaria. In Plasmodium vivax, merozoite invasion of reticulocytes is mediated by the Duffy binding protein (DBP), which interacts with its cognate receptor, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines, on the surface of reticulocytes. The DBP ligand domain, known as region II (DBPII), contains the critical residues for receptor recognition, making it a prime target for vaccine development against blood-stage vivax malaria. In natural infections, DBP is weakly immunogenic and DBPII allelic variation is associated with strain-specific immunity, which may compromise vaccine efficacy. In a previous study, a synthetic vaccine termed DEKnull that lacked an immunodominant variant epitope in DBPII induced functional antibodies to shared neutralizing epitopes on the native Sal1 allele. Anti-DEKnull antibody titers were lower than anti-Sal1 titers but produced more consistent, strain-transcending anti-DBPII inhibitory responses. In this study, we further characterized the immunogenicity of DEKnull, finding that immunization with recombinant DEKnull produced an immune response comparable to that obtained with native recombinant DBP alleles. Further investigation of DEKnull is necessary to enhance its immunogenicity and broaden its specificity. PMID:24964808

  4. Consistent Safety and Infectivity in Sporozoite Challenge Model of Plasmodium vivax in Malaria-Naive Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Solarte, Yezid; Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Echavarría, Juan Fernando; Rocha, Leonardo; Palacios, Ricardo; Ramírez, Óscar; Vélez, Juan D.; Epstein, Judith E.; Richie, Thomas L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    A safe and reproducible Plasmodium vivax infectious challenge method is required to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. Seventeen healthy Duffy (+) and five Duffy (−) subjects were randomly allocated into three (A–C) groups and were exposed to the bites of 2–4 Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium vivax derived from three donors. Duffy (−) subjects were included as controls for each group. Clinical manifestations of malaria and parasitemia were monitored beginning 7 days post-challenge. All Duffy (+) volunteers developed patent malaria infection within 16 days after challenge. Prepatent period determined by thick smear, was longer for Group A (median 14.5 d) than for Groups B and C (median 10 d/each). Infected volunteers recovered rapidly after treatment with no serious adverse events. The bite of as low as two P. vivax-infected mosquitoes provides safe and reliable infections in malaria-naive volunteers, suitable for assessing antimalarial and vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:21292872

  5. False-positive rapid plasma reagin testing in patients with acute Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Maves, Ryan C; Dean, Katherine; Gadea, Nilda; Halsey, Eric S; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-01-01

    Non-treponemal tests such as the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assay are mainstays of syphilis diagnosis, but false-positive tests are common. We identified false-positive RPR titers in 8.2% of patients with malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in northern Peru. Similar rates were not detected in patients with other acute febrile illnesses.

  6. Plasmodium vivax Sporozoite Challenge in Malaria-Naïve and Semi-Immune Colombian Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Forero-Peña, David A.; Rubiano, Kelly; Gómez-Hincapie, José; Martínez, Nora L.; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Palacios, Ricardo; Oñate, José Millán; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant progress has been recently achieved in the development of Plasmodium vivax challenge infections in humans, which are essential for vaccine and drug testing. With the goal of accelerating clinical development of malaria vaccines, the outcome of infections experimentally induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared. Methods Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16) were subjected to the bites of 2–4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations, and immune responses were assessed and compared. Results All volunteers developed infections as confirmed by microscopy and RT-qPCR. No significant difference in the pre-patent period (mean 12.5 and 12.8 days for malaria-naïve and malaria-exposed, respectively) was observed but naïve volunteers developed classical malaria signs and symptoms, while semi-immune volunteers displayed minor or no symptoms at the day of diagnosis. A malaria-naïve volunteer developed a transient low submicroscopic parasitemia that cured spontaneously. Infection induced an increase in specific antibody levels in both groups. Conclusion Sporozoite infectious challenge was safe and reproducible in semi-immune and naïve volunteers. This model will provide information for simultaneous comparison of the protective efficacy of P. vivax vaccines in naïve and semi-immune volunteers under controlled conditions and would accelerate P. vivax vaccine development. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01585077 PMID:24963662

  7. Molecular genetic analysis of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Eastern and Central Sudan using pvcsp and pvmsp-3α genes as molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Talha, Albadawi Abdelbagi; Pirahmadi, Sekineh; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Djadid, Navid Dinparast; Nour, Bakri Y M; Zakeri, Sedigheh

    2015-06-01

    In Sudan, Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 5-10% of malaria cases. This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversity of P. vivax population from Sudan by analyzing the polymorphism of P. vivax csp (pvcsp) and pvmsp-3α genes. Blood samples (n=76) were taken from suspected malaria cases from 2012-2013 in three health centers of Eastern and Central Sudan. Parasite detection was performed by microscopy and molecular techniques, and genotyping of both genes was performed by PCR-RFLP followed by DNA sequence for only pvcsp gene (n=30). Based on microscopy analysis, 76 (%100) patients were infected with P. vivax, whereas nested-PCR results showed that 86.8% (n=66), 3.9% (n=3), and 3.9% (n=3) of tested samples had P. vivax as well as Plasmodium falciparum mono- and mixed infections, respectively. Four out of 76 samples had no results in molecular diagnosis. All sequenced samples were found to be of VK210 (100%) genotype with six distinct amino acid haplotypes, and 210A (66.7%) was the most prevalent haplotype. The Sudanese isolates displayed variations in the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs) ranging from 17 to 19 with GDRADGQPA (PRM1), GDRAAGQPA (PRM2) and DDRAAGQPA (PRM3). Also, 54 polymorphic sites with 56 mutations were found in repeat and post-repeat regions of the pvcsp and the overall nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.02149±0.00539. A negative value of dN-dS (-0.0344) was found that suggested a significant purifying selection of Sudanese pvcsp, (Z test, P<0.05). Regarding pvmsp-3α, three types were detected: types A (94.6%, 52/55), type C (3.6%, 2/55), and type B (1.8%, 1/55). No multiclonal infections were detected, and RFLP analysis identified 13 (Hha I, A1-A11, B1, and C1) and 16 (Alu I, A1-A14, B1, and C1) distinct allelic forms. In conclusion, genetic investigation among Sudanese P. vivax isolates indicated that this antigen showed limited antigenic diversity.

  8. Efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Leang, Rithea; Barrette, Amy; Bouth, Denis Mey; Menard, Didier; Abdur, Rashid; Duong, Socheat; Ringwald, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    We describe here the results of antimalarial therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2010. A total of 15 studies in four sentinel sites were conducted using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection and chloroquine (CQ) and DP for the treatment of P. vivax infection. All studies were performed according to the standard World Health Organization protocol for the assessment of antimalarial treatment efficacy. Among the studies of DP for the treatment of P. falciparum, an increase in treatment failure was observed in the western provinces. In 2010, the PCR-corrected treatment failure rates for DP on day 42 were 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10 to 51%) in Pailin and 10.7% (95% CI = 4 to 23%) in Pursat, while the therapeutic efficacy of DP remained high (100%) in Ratanakiri and Preah Vihear provinces, located in northern and eastern Cambodia. For the studies of P. vivax, the day 28 uncorrected treatment failure rate among patients treated with CQ ranged from 4.4 to 17.4%; DP remained 100% effective in all sites. Further study is required to investigate suspected P. falciparum resistance to piperaquine in western Cambodia; the results of in vitro and molecular studies were not found to support the therapeutic efficacy findings. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in this region has likely put additional pressure on piperaquine. Although DP appears to be an appropriate new first-line treatment for P. vivax in Cambodia, alternative treatments are urgently needed for P. falciparum-infected patients in western Cambodia.

  9. A Library of Plasmodium vivax Recombinant Merozoite Proteins Reveals New Vaccine Candidates and Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Jessica B.; Sharma, Sumana; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Wright, Gavin J.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Rayner, Julian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A vaccine targeting Plasmodium vivax will be an essential component of any comprehensive malaria elimination program, but major gaps in our understanding of P. vivax biology, including the protein-protein interactions that mediate merozoite invasion of reticulocytes, hinder the search for candidate antigens. Only one ligand-receptor interaction has been identified, that between P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the erythrocyte Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC), and strain-specific immune responses to PvDBP make it a complex vaccine target. To broaden the repertoire of potential P. vivax merozoite-stage vaccine targets, we exploited a recent breakthrough in expressing full-length ectodomains of Plasmodium proteins in a functionally-active form in mammalian cells and initiated a large-scale study of P. vivax merozoite proteins that are potentially involved in reticulocyte binding and invasion. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 39 P. vivax proteins that are predicted to localize to the merozoite surface or invasive secretory organelles, some of which show homology to P. falciparum vaccine candidates. Of these, we were able to express 37 full-length protein ectodomains in a mammalian expression system, which has been previously used to express P. falciparum invasion ligands such as PfRH5. To establish whether the expressed proteins were correctly folded, we assessed whether they were recognized by antibodies from Cambodian patients with acute vivax malaria. IgG from these samples showed at least a two-fold change in reactivity over naïve controls in 27 of 34 antigens tested, and the majority showed heat-labile IgG immunoreactivity, suggesting the presence of conformation-sensitive epitopes and native tertiary protein structures. Using a method specifically designed to detect low-affinity, extracellular protein-protein interactions, we confirmed a predicted interaction between P. vivax 6-cysteine proteins P12 and P41, further

  10. Sequence polymorphism in two novel Plasmodium vivax ookinete surface proteins, Pvs25 and Pvs28, that are malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidates.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, T.; Kaslow, D. C.; Gozar, M. M.; Tachibana, M.; Cao, Y. M.; Torii, M.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many malarious regions outside of Africa, development of effective transmission-blocking vaccines will require coverage against both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Work on P. vivax transmission-blocking vaccines has been hampered by the inability to clone the vaccine candidate genes from this parasite. Materials and METHODS: To search for genes encoding the ookinete surface proteins from P. vivax, the DNA sequences of the eight known proteins in the P25 subfamily (Pfs25, Pgs25, Pys25, Pbs25) and in the P21/28 subfamily (Pfs28, Pgs28, Pys21, Pbs21) of zygote/ookinete surface proteins were aligned. Regions of highest identity were used to design degenerate PCR oligonucleotides. Genomic DNA from the Sal I strain of P. vivax and genomic and splinkerette DNA libraries were used as PCR templates. To characterize the polymorphisms of Pvs25 and Pvs28, these two genes were PCR amplified and the DNA sequences were determined from genomic DNA extracted from patients infected with P. vivax. RESULTS: Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of Pvs28 revealed a secretory signal sequence, four epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, six copies of the heptad amino acid repeat (GSGGE/D), and a short hydrophobic region. Because the fourth EGF-like domain has four rather than six cysteines, the gene designated Pvs28 is the presumed homologue of P21/28 subfamily members. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of Pvs25 revealed a similar structure to that of Pvs28. The presence of six rather than four cysteines in the fourth EGF-like domain suggested that Pvs25 is the homologue of P25 subfamily members. Several regions of genetic polymorphisms in Pvs25 and Pvs28 were identified in field isolates of P. vivax. CONCLUSIONS: The genes encoding two ookinete surface proteins, Pvs28 and Pvs25, from P. vivax have been isolated and sequenced. Comparison of the primary structures of Pvs25, Pvs28, Pfs25, and Pfs28 suggest that there are regions of genetic

  11. First imported relapse case of Plasmodium vivax malaria and analysis of its origin by CSP sequencing in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Hong-wei; Zhou, Rui-min; Yang, Cheng-yun; Qian, Dan; Zhao, Yu-ling; Xu, Bian-li

    2014-11-21

    In recent years, there has been a substantial increase of imported Plasmodium vivax incidence in Henan Province. As China is in a pre-elimination phase, the surveillance of imported malaria is essential, but there is no good way to distinguish imported cases from indigenous cases. This paper reports a case of a 39-year-old man who acquired P. vivax while staying in Indonesia for one month in 2013, and relapsed in Henan, China in 2014. This was diagnosed as vivax malaria based on rapid diagnostic test, Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear and Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR. The genetic sequence for the circumsporozoite protein genes was analysed and the genetic variations were compared with a previously constructed database of Chinese isolates. The results from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) gene sequence analysis centered on the repeat patterns showed that the imported cases had completely different sequences from any subtypes from Chinese isolates, but well matched with the countries travelled by the patient. The imported vivax cases were able to clearly distinguish from the indigenous vivax cases by detecting the CSP gene and were able to confim its origin by genotyping.

  12. Evolution of the Transmission-Blocking Vaccine Candidates Pvs28 and Pvs25 in Plasmodium vivax: Geographic Differentiation and Evidence of Positive Selection

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Omar E.; Durrego, Ester; Stanley, Craig E.; Castillo, Andreína I.; Herrera, Sócrates; Escalante, Ananias A.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission-blocking (TB) vaccines are considered an important tool for malaria control and elimination. Among all the antigens characterized as TB vaccines against Plasmodium vivax, the ookinete surface proteins Pvs28 and Pvs25 are leading candidates. These proteins likely originated by a gene duplication event that took place before the radiation of the known Plasmodium species to primates. We report an evolutionary genetic analysis of a worldwide sample of pvs28 and pvs25 alleles. Our results show that both genes display low levels of genetic polymorphism when compared to the merozoite surface antigens AMA-1 and MSP-1; however, both ookinete antigens can be as polymorphic as other merozoite antigens such as MSP-8 and MSP-10. We found that parasite populations in Asia and the Americas are geographically differentiated with comparable levels of genetic diversity and specific amino acid replacements found only in the Americas. Furthermore, the observed variation was mainly accumulated in the EGF2- and EGF3-like domains for P. vivax in both proteins. This pattern was shared by other closely related non-human primate parasites such as Plasmodium cynomolgi, suggesting that it could be functionally important. In addition, examination with a suite of evolutionary genetic analyses indicated that the observed patterns are consistent with positive natural selection acting on Pvs28 and Pvs25 polymorphisms. The geographic pattern of genetic differentiation and the evidence for positive selection strongly suggest that the functional consequences of the observed polymorphism should be evaluated during development of TBVs that include Pvs25 and Pvs28. PMID:27347876

  13. Use of a colorimetric (DELI) test for the evaluation of chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax resistance to available anti-malarial drugs represents a major drawback in the control of malaria and its associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoresistance profile of P. falciparum and P. vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in a malaria-endemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods The study was carried out in Manaus (Amazonas state), in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 88 P. falciparum and 178 P. vivax isolates was collected from 2004 to 2007. The sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates was determined to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine and artesunate and the sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was determined to chloroquine and mefloquine, by using the colorimetric DELI test. Results As expected, a high prevalence of P. falciparum isolates resistant to chloroquine (78.1%) was observed. The prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance or decreased sensitivity for quinine, mefloquine and artesunate was 12.7, 21.2 and 11.7%, respectively. In the case of P. vivax, the prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance for chloroquine and mefloquine was 9.8 and 28%, respectively. No differences in the frequencies of isolates with profile of resistance or geometric mean IC50s were seen when comparing the data obtained in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, for all tested anti-malarials. Conclusions The great majority of P. falciparum isolates in the Brazilian malaria-endemic area remain resistant to chloroquine, and the decreased sensitivity to quinine, mefloquine and artesunate observed in 10–20% of the isolates must be taken with concern, especially for artesunate. Plasmodium vivax isolates also showed a significant proportion of isolates with decreased sensitivity to chloroquine (first-line drug) and mainly to mefloquine. The data presented here also confirm the usefulness of the DELI test to generate results able to impact on public health

  14. Phase 1/2a Trial of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Candidate VMP001/AS01B in Malaria-Naive Adults: Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jason W.; Yadava, Anjali; Tosh, Donna; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Komisar, Jack; Ware, Lisa A.; McCarthy, William F.; Cowden, Jessica J.; Regules, Jason; Spring, Michele D.; Paolino, Kristopher; Hartzell, Joshua D.; Cummings, James F.; Richie, Thomas L.; Lumsden, Joanne; Kamau, Edwin; Murphy, Jittawadee; Lee, Cynthia; Parekh, Falgunee; Birkett, Ashley; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Polhemus, Mark E.; Vanloubbeeck, Yannick F.; Vekemans, Johan; Ockenhouse, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A vaccine to prevent infection and disease caused by Plasmodium vivax is needed both to reduce the morbidity caused by this parasite and as a key component in efforts to eradicate malaria worldwide. Vivax malaria protein 1 (VMP001), a novel chimeric protein that incorporates the amino- and carboxy- terminal regions of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and a truncated repeat region that contains repeat sequences from both the VK210 (type 1) and the VK247 (type 2) parasites, was developed as a vaccine candidate for global use. Methods We conducted a first-in-human Phase 1 dose escalation vaccine study with controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) of VMP001 formulated in the GSK Adjuvant System AS01B. A total of 30 volunteers divided into 3 groups (10 per group) were given 3 intramuscular injections of 15μg, 30μg, or 60μg respectively of VMP001, all formulated in 500μL of AS01B at each immunization. All vaccinated volunteers participated in a P. vivax CHMI 14 days following the third immunization. Six non-vaccinated subjects served as infectivity controls. Results The vaccine was shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic. All volunteers generated robust humoral and cellular immune responses to the vaccine antigen. Vaccination did not induce sterile protection; however, a small but significant delay in time to parasitemia was seen in 59% of vaccinated subjects compared to the control group. An association was identified between levels of anti-type 1 repeat antibodies and prepatent period. Significance This trial was the first to assess the efficacy of a P. vivax CSP vaccine candidate by CHMI. The association of type 1 repeat-specific antibody responses with delay in the prepatency period suggests that augmenting the immune responses to this domain may improve strain-specific vaccine efficacy. The availability of a P. vivax CHMI model will accelerate the process of P. vivax vaccine development, allowing better selection of candidate vaccines for

  15. Exposure-Response Analyses for Tafenoquine after Administration to Patients with Plasmodium vivax Malaria.

    PubMed

    Tenero, David; Green, Justin A; Goyal, Navin

    2015-10-01

    Tafenoquine (TQ), a new 8-aminoquinoline with activity against all stages of the Plasmodium vivax life cycle, is being developed for the radical cure of acute P. vivax malaria in combination with chloroquine. The efficacy and exposure data from a pivotal phase 2b dose-ranging study were used to conduct exposure-response analyses for TQ after administration to subjects with P. vivax malaria. TQ exposure (i.e., area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) and region (Thailand compared to Peru and Brazil) were found to be statistically significant predictors of clinical response based on multivariate logistic regression analyses. After accounting for region/country, the odds of being relapse free at 6 months increased by approximately 51% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 25%, 82%) for each 25-U increase in AUC above the median value of 54.5 μg · h/ml. TQ exposure was also a significant predictor of the time to relapse of the infection. The final parametric, time-to-event model for the time to relapse, included a Weibull distribution hazard function, AUC, and country as covariates. Based on the model, the risk of relapse decreased by 30% (95% CI, 17% to 42%) for every 25-U increase in AUC. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the 300-mg dose of TQ would provide an AUC greater than the clinically relevant breakpoint obtained in a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis (56.4 μg · h/ml) in more than 90% of subjects and consequently result in a high probability of being relapse free at 6 months. This model-based approach was critical in selecting an appropriate phase 3 dose. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01376167.).

  16. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH): a rare but potentially fatal association with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Waqas; Abdullah, Hafez Mohammad Ammar; Qadir, Shayan; Shahzad, Muhammad Asim

    2016-01-01

    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal syndrome that is caused by an abnormal activation of the immune system. It can present as the primary syndrome or occur secondary to a variety of conditions such as malignancy, autoimmune diseases and infections. We present a case of a man who developed HLH secondary to Plasmodium vivax infection. He presented with symptoms of fever, chills and myalgias. Physical examination revealed significant hepatosplenomegaly. The presence of pancytopaenia, elevated ferritin levels and haemophagocytosis on bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of HLH (based on HLH-2004 criteria). There was a significant improvement after the initiation of intravenous antimalarials. No relapses were documented on follow-up. It is imperative that physicians should promptly recognise and treat this rare condition, as a timely intervention can be lifesaving. PMID:27298293

  17. Microgeographical Differences of Plasmodium vivax Relapse and Re-Infection in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Chuquiyauri, Raul; Peñataro, Pablo; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Fasabi, Manuel; Calderon, Maritza; Torres, Sonia; Gilman, Robert H.; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the magnitude of Plasmodium vivax relapsing malaria in rural Amazonia, we carried out a study in four sites in northeastern Peru. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of PvMSP-3α and tandem repeat (TR) markers were compared for their ability to distinguish relapse versus reinfection. Of 1,507 subjects with P. vivax malaria, 354 developed > 1 episode during the study; 97 of 354 (27.5%) were defined as relapse using Pvmsp-3α alone. The addition of TR polymorphism analysis significantly reduced the number of definitively defined relapses to 26 of 354 (7.4%) (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed that the probability of having > 1 infection was associated with the following: subjects in Mazan (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87, 3.51), 15–44 years of age (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.03, 2.15), traveling for job purposes (OR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.03, 2.06), and travel within past month (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.0, 2.14). The high discriminatory capacity of the molecular tools shown here is useful for understanding the micro-geography of malaria transmission. PMID:23836566

  18. Microgeographical differences of Plasmodium vivax relapse and re-infection in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Chuquiyauri, Raul; Peñataro, Pablo; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Fasabi, Manuel; Calderon, Maritza; Torres, Sonia; Gilman, Robert H; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2013-08-01

    To determine the magnitude of Plasmodium vivax relapsing malaria in rural Amazonia, we carried out a study in four sites in northeastern Peru. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of PvMSP-3α and tandem repeat (TR) markers were compared for their ability to distinguish relapse versus reinfection. Of 1,507 subjects with P. vivax malaria, 354 developed > 1 episode during the study; 97 of 354 (27.5%) were defined as relapse using Pvmsp-3α alone. The addition of TR polymorphism analysis significantly reduced the number of definitively defined relapses to 26 of 354 (7.4%) (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed that the probability of having > 1 infection was associated with the following: subjects in Mazan (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87, 3.51), 15-44 years of age (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.03, 2.15), traveling for job purposes (OR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.03, 2.06), and travel within past month (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.0, 2.14). The high discriminatory capacity of the molecular tools shown here is useful for understanding the micro-geography of malaria transmission.

  19. Population genetics structure of Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein during the elimination process in low and unstable malaria transmission areas, southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Samaneh Hemati; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Mortazavi, Yousef; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2016-08-01

    In Iran, the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has dropped after a national malaria elimination program was launched. To estimate the likelihood of success and to measure the outcome of malaria intervention tools during elimination programs (2008-2012), the population genetic surveys of Iranian P. vivax isolates (n=60) were carried out using the CSP genetic marker. The results were compared with a similar work that was carried out during a control phase (2000-2003) in the same study areas. Based on PCR-RFLP analysis, 49 (81.67%) of 60 studied samples were VK210 and 11 (18.33%) were VK247 with no mixed genotypes. However, 10.97% of P. vivax isolates of control phase harbored the mixed genotypes. Sequencing analysis of 50 pvcsp gene showed 14 distinct haplotypes, of which 11 and 3 were VK210 and VK247 types, respectively. However, during the control phase, 19 distinct subtypes (11 VK210 and 8 VK247) were reported. Also, 7 of 11 VK210 and the VK247F subtypes were new, and 3 out of 7 new VK210 and VK247F were isolated from the patients with Pakistani nationality. The lower nucleotide diversity per site (π=0.02017±0.00436 and π=0.04525±0.00255) and haplotype diversity (Hd=0.513±0.093 and Hd=0.691±0.128) as well as lower In/Del haplotype [Hd(i)=0.243 and 0] and nucleotide diversity [π(i)=0.00078 and 0] were recorded for VK210 and VK247of the elimination samples, respectively. In conclusion, the comparison of PRMs and RATs in CRR along with the polymorphism analysis of the sequence lengths, SNPs, and In/Del polymorphisms in all analyzed samples showed lower genetic diversity for PvCSP in the elimination samples. Also, although there is a turnover of P. vivax parasite genotypes in the study areas, reduction in genetic diversity and transmission was detected due to scaling-up of the intervention tools during an elimination program in Iran. This notable challenge of the elimination program must be taken into account and controlled by active

  20. Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses at a travel medicine centre in Rio de Janeiro, a non-endemic area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria is a potentially severe disease widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Clinically, the progression of the disease can be life-threatening if it is not promptly diagnosed and properly treated. Through treatment, the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection can be achieved, thus preventing potential relapses and the emergence of new cases outside the Amazon region in Brazil. Surveillance for therapeutic failure in non-endemic areas is advantageous, as it is unlikely that recurrence of the disease can be attributed to a new malaria infection in these regions. Methods An observational study of 53 cases of P. vivax and mixed (P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) malaria was conducted at a travel medicine centre between 2005 and 2011 in Rio de Janeiro and a descriptive analysis of the potential factors related to recurrence of P. vivax malaria was performed. Groups with different therapeutic responses were compared using survival analysis based on the length of time to recurrence and a set of independent variables thought to be associated with recurrence. Results Twenty-one relapses (39.6%) of P. vivax malaria were observed. The overall median time to relapse, obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method, was 108 days, and the survival analysis demonstrated an association between non-weight-adjusted primaquine dosing and the occurrence of relapse (p < 0.03). Primaquine total dose at 3.6 mg/kg gave improved results in preventing relapses. Conclusions A known challenge to individual cure and environmental control of malaria is the possibility of an inappropriate, non-weight-based primaquine dosing, which should be considered a potential cause of P. vivax malaria relapse. Indeed, the total dose of primaquine associated with non-occurrence of relapses was higher than recommended by Brazilian guidelines. PMID:22839416

  1. The Incidence and Differential Seasonal Patterns of Plasmodium vivax Primary Infections and Relapses in a Cohort of Children in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Amanda; Koepfli, Cristian; Schoepflin, Sonja; Timinao, Lincoln; Siba, Peter; Smith, Thomas; Mueller, Ivo; Felger, Ingrid; Tanner, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax has the ability to relapse from dormant parasites in the liver weeks or months after inoculation, causing further blood-stage infection and potential onward transmission. Estimates of the force of blood-stage infections arising from primary infections and relapses are important for designing intervention strategies. However, in endemic settings their relative contributions are unclear. Infections are frequently asymptomatic, many individuals harbor multiple infections, and while high-resolution genotyping of blood samples enables individual infections to be distinguished, primary infections and relapses cannot be identified. We develop a model and fit it to longitudinal genotyping data from children in Papua New Guinea to estimate the incidence and seasonality of P vivax primary infection and relapse. The children, aged one to three years at enrolment, were followed up over 16 months with routine surveys every two months. Blood samples were taken at the routine visits and at other times if the child was ill. Samples positive by microscopy or a molecular method for species detection were genotyped using high-resolution capillary electrophoresis for P vivax MS16 and msp1F3, and P falciparum msp2. The data were summarized as longitudinal patterns of success or failure to detect a genotype at each routine time-point (eg 001000001). We assume that the seasonality of P vivax primary infection is similar to that of P falciparum since they are transmitted by the same vectors and, because P falciparum does not have the ability to relapse, the seasonality can be estimated. Relapses occurring during the study period can be a consequence of infections occurring prior to the study: we assume that the seasonal pattern of primary infections repeats over time. We incorporate information from parasitological and entomology studies to gain leverage for estimating the parameters, and take imperfect detection into account. We estimate the force of P vivax primary

  2. Global database of matched Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence and prevalence records from 1985-2013.

    PubMed

    Battle, Katherine E; Guerra, Carlos A; Golding, Nick; Duda, Kirsten A; Cameron, Ewan; Howes, Rosalind E; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Baird, J Kevin; Reiner, Robert C; Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-01-01

    Measures of clinical incidence are necessary to help estimate the burden of a disease. Incidence is a metric not commonly measured in malariology because the longitudinal surveys required are costly and labour intensive. This database is an effort to collate published incidence records obtained using active case detection for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The literature search methods, data abstraction procedures and data processing procedures are described here. A total of 1,680 spatio-temporally unique incidence records were collected for the database: 1,187 for P. falciparum and 493 for P. vivax. These data were gathered to model the relationship between clinical incidence and prevalence of infection and can be used for a variety of modelling exercises including the assessment of change in disease burden in relation to age and control interventions. The subset of data that have been used for such modelling exercises are described and identified.

  3. Global database of matched Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence and prevalence records from 1985–2013

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Katherine E.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Golding, Nick; Duda, Kirsten A.; Cameron, Ewan; Howes, Rosalind E.; Elyazar, Iqbal R.F.; Baird, J. Kevin; Reiner, Robert C.; Gething, Peter W.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of clinical incidence are necessary to help estimate the burden of a disease. Incidence is a metric not commonly measured in malariology because the longitudinal surveys required are costly and labour intensive. This database is an effort to collate published incidence records obtained using active case detection for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The literature search methods, data abstraction procedures and data processing procedures are described here. A total of 1,680 spatio-temporally unique incidence records were collected for the database: 1,187 for P. falciparum and 493 for P. vivax. These data were gathered to model the relationship between clinical incidence and prevalence of infection and can be used for a variety of modelling exercises including the assessment of change in disease burden in relation to age and control interventions. The subset of data that have been used for such modelling exercises are described and identified. PMID:26306203

  4. A chimeric protein-based malaria vaccine candidate induces robust T cell responses against Plasmodium vivax MSP119

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Singh, Balwan; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; da Costa Lima-Junior, Josué; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio; Lozano, Jose Manuel; Moreno, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The most widespread Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, poses a significant public health threat. An effective vaccine is needed to reduce global malaria burden. Of the erythrocytic stage vaccine candidates, the 19 kDa fragment of the P. vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (PvMSP119) is one of the most promising. Our group has previously defined several promiscuous T helper epitopes within the PvMSP1 protein, with features that allow them to bind multiple MHC class II alleles. We describe here a P. vivax recombinant modular chimera based on MSP1 (PvRMC-MSP1) that includes defined T cell epitopes genetically fused to PvMSP119. This vaccine candidate preserved structural elements of the native PvMSP119 and elicited cytophilic antibody responses, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells capable of recognizing PvMSP119. Although CD8+ T cells that recognize blood stage antigens have been reported to control blood infection, CD8+ T cell responses induced by P. falciparum or P. vivax vaccine candidates based on MSP119 have not been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first time a protein based subunit vaccine has been able to induce CD8+ T cell against PvMSP119. The PvRMC-MSP1 protein was also recognized by naturally acquired antibodies from individuals living in malaria endemic areas with an antibody profile associated with protection from infection. These features make PvRMC-MSP1 a promising vaccine candidate. PMID:27708348

  5. Genetic polymorphism and effect of natural selection at domain I of apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung-Ung; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kang, Jung-Mi; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Park, Yun-Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lin, Khin; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2010-05-01

    Malaria is endemic or hypoendemic in Myanmar and the country still contributes to the high level of malaria deaths in South-East Asia. Although information on the nature and extent of population diversity within malaria parasites in the country is essential not only for understanding the epidemic situation but also to establish a proper control strategy, very little data is currently available on the extent of genetic polymorphisms of the malaria parasites in Myanmar. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at domain I of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) among Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates. A total of 34 distinguishable haplotypes were identified among the 76 isolates sequenced. Comparison with the previously available PvAMA-1 sequences in the GenBank database revealed that 21 of them were new haplotypes that have never been reported till date. The difference between the rate of nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) mutations was positive (dN-dS, 0.013+/-0.005), suggesting the domain I is under positive natural selection. The Tajima's D statistics was found to be -0.74652, suggesting that the gene has evolved under population size expansion and/or positive selection. The minimum recombination events were also high, indicating that recombination may occur within the domain I resulting in allelic diversity of PvAMA-1. Our results collectively suggest that PvAMA-1 displays high genetic polymorphism among Myanmar P. vivax isolates with highly diversifying selection at domain I. These results have significant implications in understanding the nature of P. vivax population circulating in Myanmar as well as providing useful information for malaria vaccine development based on this antigen.

  6. A Reduced Risk of Infection with Plasmodium vivax and Clinical Protection against Malaria Are Associated with Antibodies against the N Terminus but Not the C Terminus of Merozoite Surface Protein 1†

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Paulo Afonso; Piovesan Alves, Fabiana; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Pein, Oliver; Rodrigues Santos, Neida; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando; Plessman Camargo, Erney; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2006-01-01

    Progress towards the development of a malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, will require a better understanding of the immune responses that confer clinical protection to patients in regions where malaria is endemic. The occurrence of clinical protection in P. vivax malaria in Brazil was first reported among residents of the riverine community of Portuchuelo, in Rondônia, western Amazon. We thus analyzed immune sera from this same human population to determine if naturally acquired humoral immune responses against the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax, PvMSP1, could be associated with reduced risk of infection and/or clinical protection. Our results demonstrated that this association could be established with anti-PvMSP1 antibodies predominantly of the immunoglobulin G3 subclass directed against the N terminus but not against the C terminus, in spite of the latter being more immunogenic and capable of natural boosting. This is the first report of a prospective study of P. vivax malaria demonstrating an association of reduced risk of infection and clinical protection with antibodies against an antigen of this parasite. PMID:16622209

  7. Identification of Immunodominant B-cell Epitope Regions of Reticulocyte Binding Proteins in Plasmodium vivax by Protein Microarray Based Immunoscreening.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Hee; Li, Jian; Wang, Bo; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Na, Sunghun; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.

  8. Efficacy of Artesunate-mefloquine for Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Malaysia: An Open-label, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, Matthew J.; William, Timothy; Menon, Jayaram; Barber, Bridget E.; Wilkes, Christopher S.; Rajahram, Giri S.; Edstein, Michael D.; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium vivax is increasingly reported throughout southeast Asia. The efficacy of CQ and alternative artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for vivax malaria in Malaysia is unknown. Methods. A randomized, controlled trial of CQ vs artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) for uncomplicated vivax malaria was conducted in 3 district hospitals in Sabah, Malaysia. Primaquine was administered on day 28. The primary outcome was the cumulative risk of treatment failure by day 28 by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results. From 2012 to 2014, 103 adults and children were enrolled. Treatment failure by day 28 was 61.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.8–75.6) after CQ and 0% (95% CI, 0–.08) following AS-MQ (P < .001), of which 8.2% (95% CI, 2.5–9.6) were early treatment failures. All patients with treatment failure had therapeutic plasma CQ concentrations at day 7. Compared with CQ, AS-MQ was associated with faster parasite clearance (normalized clearance slope, 0.311 vs 0.127; P < .001) and fever clearance (mean, 19.0 vs 37.7 hours; P = .001) and with lower risk of anemia at day 28 (odds ratio = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.5–9.3; P = .005). Gametocytes were present at day 28 in 23.8% (10/42) of patients following CQ vs none with AS-MQ (P < .001). AS-MQ resulted in lower bed occupancy: 4037 vs 6510 days/1000 patients (incidence rate ratio 0.62; 95% CI, .60–.65; P < .001). One patient developed severe anemia not regarded as related to their AS-MQ treatment. Conclusions. High-grade CQ-resistant P. vivax is prevalent in eastern Malaysia. AS-MQ is an efficacious ACT for all malaria species. Wider CQ-efficacy surveillance is needed in vivax-endemic regions with earlier replacement with ACT when treatment failure is detected. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01708876. PMID:27107287

  9. Population genetics and natural selection in the gene encoding the Duffy binding protein II in Iranian Plasmodium vivax wild isolates.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Vahideh; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2014-01-01

    Region II of Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) is one of the most promising blood-stage vaccine candidate antigens against Plasmodium vivax and having knowledge of the nature and genetic polymorphism of PvDBP-II among global P. vivax isolates is important for developing a DBP-based vaccine. By using PCR and sequencing, the present molecular population genetic approach was carried out to investigate sequence diversity and natural selection of dbp-II gene in 63 P. vivax isolates collected from unstable and low transmission malaria-endemic areas of Iran during 2008-2012. Also, phylogenetic analysis, the diversifying natural selection, and recombination across the pvdbp-II gene, including regions containing B-cell epitopes were analyzed using the DnaSP and MEGA4 programs. Twenty two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, including 20 non-synonymous and 2 synonymous) were identified in PvDBP-II, resulting in 16 different PvDBP-II haplotypes among the Iranian P. vivax isolates. High binding inhibitory B-cell epitope (H3) overlapping with intrinsically unstructured/disordered region (aa: 384-392) appeared to be highly polymorphic (D384G/E385K/ K386N/Q/R390H), and positive selective pressure acted on this region. Most of the polymorphic amino acids, which are located on the surface of the protein, are under selective pressure that implies increased recombination events and exposure to the human immune system. In summary, PvDBP-II gene displays genetic polymorphism among Iranian P. vivax isolates and it is under selective pressure. Mutations, recombination, and positive selection seem to play a role in the resulting genetic diversity, and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences demonstrates that Iranian isolates represent a sample of the global population. These results are useful for understanding the nature of the P. vivax population in Iran and also for development of PvDBP-II-based malaria vaccine.

  10. Contrasting ex vivo efficacies of "reversed chloroquine" compounds in chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax isolates.

    PubMed

    Wirjanata, Grennady; Sebayang, Boni F; Chalfein, Ferryanto; Prayoga; Handayuni, Irene; Noviyanti, Rintis; Kenangalem, Enny; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Burgess, Steven J; Peyton, David H; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta

    2015-09-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) has been the mainstay of malaria treatment for more than 60 years. However, the emergence and spread of CQ resistance now restrict its use to only a few areas where malaria is endemic. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a novel combination of a CQ-like moiety and an imipramine-like pharmacophore can reverse CQ resistance ex vivo. Between March to October 2011 and January to September 2013, two "reversed chloroquine" (RCQ) compounds (PL69 and PL106) were tested against multidrug-resistant field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum (n = 41) and Plasmodium vivax (n = 45) in Papua, Indonesia, using a modified ex vivo schizont maturation assay. The RCQ compounds showed high efficacy against both CQ-resistant P. falciparum and P. vivax field isolates. For P. falciparum, the median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were 23.2 nM for PL69 and 26.6 nM for PL106, compared to 79.4 nM for unmodified CQ (P < 0.001 and P = 0.036, respectively). The corresponding values for P. vivax were 19.0, 60.0, and 60.9 nM (P < 0.001 and P = 0.018, respectively). There was a significant correlation between IC50s of CQ and PL69 (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [r s] = 0.727, P < 0.001) and PL106 (rs = 0.830, P < 0.001) in P. vivax but not in P. falciparum. Both RCQs were equally active against the ring and trophozoite stages of P. falciparum, but in P. vivax, PL69 and PL106 showed less potent activity against trophozoite stages (median IC50s, 130.2 and 172.5 nM) compared to ring stages (median IC50s, 17.6 and 91.3 nM). RCQ compounds have enhanced ex vivo activity against CQ-resistant clinical isolates of P. falciparum and P. vivax, suggesting the potential use of reversal agents in antimalarial drug development. Interspecies differences in RCQ compound activity may indicate differences in CQ pharmacokinetics between the two Plasmodium species.

  11. Cells and mediators of inflammation (C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, platelets and neutrophils) in the acute and convalescent phases of uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Pereira, Virgínia Araújo; Storer, Fábio Luiz; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Fabrino, Daniela Leite; Santos, Fátima; Banic, Dalma Maria; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli de

    2012-12-01

    The haematological changes and release of soluble mediators, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO), during uncomplicated malaria have not been well studied, especially in Brazilian areas in which the disease is endemic. Therefore, the present study examined these factors in acute (day 0) and convalescent phase (day 15) patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Haematologic parameters were measured using automated cell counting, CRP levels were measured with ELISA and NO plasma levels were measured by the Griess reaction. Our data indicate that individuals with uncomplicated P. vivax and P. falciparum infection presented similar inflammatory profiles with respect to white blood cells, with high band cell production and a considerable degree of thrombocytopaenia during the acute phase of infection. Higher CRP levels were detected in acute P. vivax infection than in acute P. falciparum infection, while higher NO was detected in patients with acute and convalescent P. falciparum infections. Although changes in these mediators cannot predict malaria infection, the haematological aspects associated with malaria infection, especially the roles of platelets and band cells, need to be investigated further.

  12. Genomic Analysis Reveals a Common Breakpoint in Amplifications of the Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance 1 Locus in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Auburn, Sarah; Serre, David; Pearson, Richard D.; Amato, Roberto; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; To, Sheren; Handayuni, Irene; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Drury, Eleanor; Stalker, Jim; Miotto, Olivo; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Nosten, Francois; Price, Ric N.

    2016-01-01

    In regions of coendemicity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax where mefloquine is used to treat P. falciparum infection, drug pressure mediated by increased copy numbers of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) may select for mefloquine-resistant P. vivax. Surveillance is not undertaken routinely owing in part to methodological challenges in detection of gene amplification. Using genomic data on 88 P. vivax samples from western Thailand, we identified pvmdr1 amplification in 17 isolates, all exhibiting tandem copies of a 37.6–kilobase pair region with identical breakpoints. A novel breakpoint-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was designed to detect the amplification. The assay demonstrated high sensitivity, identifying amplifications in 13 additional, polyclonal infections. Application to 132 further samples identified the common breakpoint in all years tested (2003–2015), with a decline in prevalence after 2012 corresponding to local discontinuation of mefloquine regimens. Assessment of the structure of pvmdr1 amplification in other geographic regions will yield information about the population-specificity of the breakpoints and underlying amplification mechanisms. PMID:27456706

  13. Genomic Analysis Reveals a Common Breakpoint in Amplifications of the Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance 1 Locus in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Sarah; Serre, David; Pearson, Richard D; Amato, Roberto; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; To, Sheren; Handayuni, Irene; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Drury, Eleanor; Stalker, Jim; Miotto, Olivo; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Nosten, Francois; Price, Ric N

    2016-10-15

    In regions of coendemicity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax where mefloquine is used to treat P. falciparum infection, drug pressure mediated by increased copy numbers of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) may select for mefloquine-resistant P. vivax Surveillance is not undertaken routinely owing in part to methodological challenges in detection of gene amplification. Using genomic data on 88 P. vivax samples from western Thailand, we identified pvmdr1 amplification in 17 isolates, all exhibiting tandem copies of a 37.6-kilobase pair region with identical breakpoints. A novel breakpoint-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was designed to detect the amplification. The assay demonstrated high sensitivity, identifying amplifications in 13 additional, polyclonal infections. Application to 132 further samples identified the common breakpoint in all years tested (2003-2015), with a decline in prevalence after 2012 corresponding to local discontinuation of mefloquine regimens. Assessment of the structure of pvmdr1 amplification in other geographic regions will yield information about the population-specificity of the breakpoints and underlying amplification mechanisms. PMID:27456706

  14. Genomic Analysis Reveals a Common Breakpoint in Amplifications of the Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance 1 Locus in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Sarah; Serre, David; Pearson, Richard D; Amato, Roberto; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; To, Sheren; Handayuni, Irene; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Drury, Eleanor; Stalker, Jim; Miotto, Olivo; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Nosten, Francois; Price, Ric N

    2016-10-15

    In regions of coendemicity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax where mefloquine is used to treat P. falciparum infection, drug pressure mediated by increased copy numbers of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) may select for mefloquine-resistant P. vivax Surveillance is not undertaken routinely owing in part to methodological challenges in detection of gene amplification. Using genomic data on 88 P. vivax samples from western Thailand, we identified pvmdr1 amplification in 17 isolates, all exhibiting tandem copies of a 37.6-kilobase pair region with identical breakpoints. A novel breakpoint-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was designed to detect the amplification. The assay demonstrated high sensitivity, identifying amplifications in 13 additional, polyclonal infections. Application to 132 further samples identified the common breakpoint in all years tested (2003-2015), with a decline in prevalence after 2012 corresponding to local discontinuation of mefloquine regimens. Assessment of the structure of pvmdr1 amplification in other geographic regions will yield information about the population-specificity of the breakpoints and underlying amplification mechanisms.

  15. Spatial variation in genetic diversity and natural selection on the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein locus of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP).

    PubMed

    Kosuwin, Rattiporn; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2014-01-01

    Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) of malaria parasites is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito's salivary gland and vertebrate's hepatocyte; thereby, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. TRAP of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP) exhibits sequence heterogeneity among isolates, an issue relevant to vaccine development. To gain insights into variation in the complete PvTRAP sequences of parasites in Thailand, 114 vivax malaria patients were recruited in 2006-2007 from 4 major endemic provinces bordering Myanmar (Tak in the northwest, n = 30 and Prachuap Khirikhan in the southwest, n = 25), Cambodia (Chanthaburi in the east, n = 29) and Malaysia (Yala and Narathiwat in the south, n = 30). In total, 26 amino acid substitutions were detected and 9 of which were novel, resulting in 44 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were lowest in southern P. vivax population while higher levels of diversities were observed in other populations. Evidences of positive selection on PvTRAP were demonstrated in domains II and IV and purifying selection in domains I, II and VI. Genetic differentiation was significant between each population except that between populations bordering Myanmar where transmigration was common. Regression analysis of pairwise linearized Fst and geographic distance suggests that P. vivax populations in Thailand have been isolated by distance. Sequence diversity of PvTRAP seems to be temporally stable over one decade in Tak province based on comparison of isolates collected in 1996 (n = 36) and 2006-2007. Besides natural selection, evidences of intragenic recombination have been supported in this study that could maintain and further generate diversity in this locus. It remains to be investigated whether amino acid substitutions in PvTRAP could influence host immune responses although several predicted variant T cell epitopes drastically altered the epitope scores. Knowledge

  16. Spatial Variation in Genetic Diversity and Natural Selection on the Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein Locus of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP)

    PubMed Central

    Kosuwin, Rattiporn; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2014-01-01

    Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) of malaria parasites is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito’s salivary gland and vertebrate’s hepatocyte; thereby, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. TRAP of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP) exhibits sequence heterogeneity among isolates, an issue relevant to vaccine development. To gain insights into variation in the complete PvTRAP sequences of parasites in Thailand, 114 vivax malaria patients were recruited in 2006–2007 from 4 major endemic provinces bordering Myanmar (Tak in the northwest, n = 30 and Prachuap Khirikhan in the southwest, n = 25), Cambodia (Chanthaburi in the east, n = 29) and Malaysia (Yala and Narathiwat in the south, n = 30). In total, 26 amino acid substitutions were detected and 9 of which were novel, resulting in 44 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were lowest in southern P. vivax population while higher levels of diversities were observed in other populations. Evidences of positive selection on PvTRAP were demonstrated in domains II and IV and purifying selection in domains I, II and VI. Genetic differentiation was significant between each population except that between populations bordering Myanmar where transmigration was common. Regression analysis of pairwise linearized Fst and geographic distance suggests that P. vivax populations in Thailand have been isolated by distance. Sequence diversity of PvTRAP seems to be temporally stable over one decade in Tak province based on comparison of isolates collected in 1996 (n = 36) and 2006–2007. Besides natural selection, evidences of intragenic recombination have been supported in this study that could maintain and further generate diversity in this locus. It remains to be investigated whether amino acid substitutions in PvTRAP could influence host immune responses although several predicted variant T cell epitopes drastically altered the epitope scores

  17. Prospective Study of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Recurrence after Radical Treatment with a Chloroquine-Primaquine Standard Regimen in Turbo, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Zuluaga-Idárraga, Lina; Blair, Silvia; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Marcet, Paula L; Escalante, Ananias A; Alexander, Neal; Rojas, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax recurrences help maintain malaria transmission. They are caused by recrudescence, reinfection, or relapse, which are not easily differentiated. A longitudinal observational study took place in Turbo municipality, Colombia. Participants with uncomplicated P. vivax infection received supervised treatment concomitantly with 25 mg/kg chloroquine and 0.25 mg/kg/day primaquine for 14 days. Incidence of recurrence was assessed over 180 days. Samples were genotyped, and origins of recurrences were established. A total of 134 participants were enrolled between February 2012 and July 2013, and 87 were followed for 180 days, during which 29 recurrences were detected. The cumulative incidence of first recurrence was 24.1% (21/87) (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6 to 33.7%), and 86% (18/21) of these events occurred between days 51 and 110. High genetic diversity of P. vivax strains was found, and 12.5% (16/128) of the infections were polyclonal. Among detected recurrences, 93.1% (27/29) of strains were genotyped as genetically identical to the strain from the previous infection episode, and 65.5% (19/29) of infections were classified as relapses. Our results indicate that there is a high incidence of P. vivax malaria recurrence after treatment in Turbo municipality, Colombia, and that a large majority of these episodes are likely relapses from the previous infection. We attribute this to the primaquine regimen currently used in Colombia, which may be insufficient to eliminate hypnozoites. PMID:27185794

  18. [From malaria parasite point of view--Plasmodium falciparum evolution].

    PubMed

    Zerka, Agata; Kaczmarek, Radosław; Jaśkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which have arguably exerted the greatest selection pressure on humans in the history of our species. Besides humans, different Plasmodium parasites infect a wide range of animal hosts, from marine invertebrates to primates. On the other hand, individual Plasmodium species show high host specificity. The extraordinary evolution of Plasmodium probably began when a free-living red algae turned parasitic, and culminated with its ability to thrive inside a human red blood cell. Studies on the African apes generated new data on the evolution of malaria parasites in general and the deadliest human-specific species, Plasmodium falciparum, in particular. Initially, it was hypothesized that P. falciparum descended from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi, after the human and the chimp lineage diverged about 6 million years ago. However, a recently identified new species infecting gorillas, unexpectedly showed similarity to P. falciparum and was therefore named P. praefalciparum. That finding spurred an alternative hypothesis, which proposes that P. falciparum descended from its gorilla rather than chimp counterpart. In addition, the gorilla-to-human host shift may have occurred more recently (about 10 thousand years ago) than the theoretical P. falciparum-P. reichenowi split. One of the key aims of the studies on Plasmodium evolution is to elucidate the mechanisms that allow the incessant host shifting and retaining the host specificity, especially in the case of human-specific species. Thorough understanding of these phenomena will be necessary to design effective malaria treatment and prevention strategies.

  19. Characteristics of Travel-Related Severe Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Individuals Hospitalized at a Tertiary Referral Center in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Llanos-Chea, Fiorella; Martínez, Dalila; Rosas, Angel; Samalvides, Frine; Vinetz, Joseph M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is uncommon in South America. Lima, Peru, while not endemic for malaria, is home to specialized centers for infectious diseases that admit and manage patients with severe malaria (SM), all of whom contracted infection during travel. This retrospective study describes severe travel-related malaria in individuals admitted to one tertiary care referral hospital in Lima, Peru; severity was classified based on criteria published by the World Health Organization in 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records of patients with SM admitted to Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 2006 to 2011. Of 33 SM cases with complete clinical data, the mean age was 39 years and the male/female ratio was 2.8. Most cases were contracted in known endemic regions within Peru: Amazonia (47%), the central jungle (18%), and the northern coast (12%); cases were also found in five (15%) travelers returning from Africa. Plasmodium vivax was most commonly identified (71%) among the severe infections, followed by P. falciparum (18%); mixed infections composed 11% of the group. Among the criteria of severity, jaundice was most common (58%), followed by severe thrombocytopenia (47%), hyperpyrexia (32%), and shock (15%). Plasmodium vivax mono-infection predominated as the etiology of SM in cases acquired in Peru.

  20. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Benzecry, Silvana Gomes; Alexandre, Márcia Almeida; Vítor-Silva, Sheila; Salinas, Jorge Luis; de Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Marinho, Helyde Albuquerque; Paes, Ângela Tavares; de Siqueira, André Machado; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Leite, Heitor Pons

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence linking micronutrient deficiencies and malaria incidence arising mostly from P. falciparum endemic areas. We assessed the impact of micronutrient deficiencies on malaria incidence and vice versa in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated children <10 years old living in rural communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from May 2010 to May 2011. All children were assessed for sociodemographic, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, including vitamin A, beta-carotene, zinc and iron serum levels at the beginning of the study (May 2010) and one year later (May 2011). Children were followed in between using passive surveillance for detection of symptomatic malaria. Those living in the study area at the completion of the observation period were reassessed for micronutrient levels. Univariate Cox-proportional Hazards models were used to assess whether micronutrient deficiencies had an impact on time to first P. vivax malaria episode. We included 95 children median age 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.3–6.6), mostly males (60.0%) and with high maternal illiteracy (72.6%). Vitamin A deficiencies were found in 36% of children, beta-carotene deficiency in 63%, zinc deficiency in 61% and iron deficiency in 51%. Most children (80%) had at least one intestinal parasite. During follow-up, 16 cases of vivax malaria were diagnosed amongst 13 individuals. Micronutrient deficiencies were not associated with increased malaria incidence: vitamin A deficiency [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.51; P-value: 0.45]; beta-carotene [HR: 0.47; P-value: 0.19]; zinc [HR: 1.41; P-value: 0.57] and iron [HR: 2.31; P-value: 0.16]). Upon reevaluation, children with al least one episode of malaria did not present significant changes in micronutrient levels. Conclusion Micronutrient serum levels were not associated with a higher malaria incidence nor the malaria episode influenced micronutrient levels. Future studies

  1. Invasion-inhibitory antibodies elicited by immunization with Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast.

    PubMed

    Vicentin, Elaine C; Françoso, Kátia S; Rocha, Mariana V; Iourtov, Dmitri; Dos Santos, Fernanda L; Kubrusly, Flávia S; Sakauchi, Maria A; Raw, Isaias; Nosten, Francois; Rénia, Laurent; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Russell, Bruce; Soares, Irene S

    2014-03-01

    In a recent vaccine trial performed with African children, immunization with a recombinant protein based on Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) conferred a significant degree of strain-specific resistance against malaria. To contribute to the efforts of generating a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax malaria, we expressed the ectodomain of P. vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1) as a secreted soluble protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Recognized by a high percentage of sera from individuals infected by P. vivax, this recombinant protein was found to have maintained its antigenicity. The immunogenicity of this protein was evaluated in mice using immunization protocols that included homologous and heterologous prime-boost strategies with plasmid DNA and recombinant protein. We used the following formulations containing different adjuvants: aluminum salts (Alum), Bordetella pertussis monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), flagellin FliC from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, saponin Quil A, or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The formulations containing the adjuvants Quil A or IFA elicited the highest IgG antibody titers. Significant antibody titers were also obtained using a formulation developed for human use containing MPLA or Alum plus MPLA. Recombinant PvAMA-1 produced under "conditions of good laboratory practice" provided a good yield, high purity, low endotoxin levels, and no microbial contaminants and reproduced the experimental immunizations. Most relevant for vaccine development was the fact that immunization with PvAMA-1 elicited invasion-inhibitory antibodies against different Asian isolates of P. vivax. Our results show that AMA-1 expressed in P. pastoris is a promising antigen for use in future preclinical and clinical studies.

  2. On the diversity of malaria parasites in African apes and the origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos.

    PubMed

    Krief, Sabrina; Escalante, Ananias A; Pacheco, M Andreina; Mugisha, Lawrence; André, Claudine; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Krief, Jean-Michel; Kasenene, John M; Crandfield, Mike; Cornejo, Omar E; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Lin, Clara; Letourneur, Franck; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; McCutchan, Thomas F; Rénia, Laurent; Snounou, Georges

    2010-02-12

    The origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most dangerous forms of human malaria, remains controversial. Although investigations of homologous parasites in African Apes are crucial to resolve this issue, studies have been restricted to a chimpanzee parasite related to P. falciparum, P. reichenowi, for which a single isolate was available until very recently. Using PCR amplification, we detected Plasmodium parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples. In addition to P. reichenowi, three other hitherto unknown lineages were found in the chimpanzees. One is related to P. vivax and two to P. falciparum that are likely to belong to distinct species. In the bonobos we found P. falciparum parasites whose mitochondrial genomes indicated that they were distinct from those present in humans, and another parasite lineage related to P. malariae. Phylogenetic analyses based on this diverse set of Plasmodium parasites in African Apes shed new light on the evolutionary history of P. falciparum. The data suggested that P. falciparum did not originate from P. reichenowi of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), but rather evolved in bonobos (Pan paniscus), from which it subsequently colonized humans by a host-switch. Finally, our data and that of others indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos maintain malaria parasites, to which humans are susceptible, a factor of some relevance to the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria.

  3. Costs Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a Low Endemic Area Where Plasmodium vivax Predominates

    PubMed Central

    Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Bardají, Azucena; dos Santos Campos, Giselane; Fernandes, Silke; Hanson, Kara; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor Ernestina; Menéndez, Clara; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods/Principal Findings Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at a tertiary referral hospital and at a primary health care centre in the Manaus metropolitan area, Amazonas state. Pregnant and post-partum women diagnosed with malaria were interviewed after an outpatient consultation or at discharge after admission. Seventy-three interviews were included in the analysis. Ninety-six percent of episodes were due to P. vivax and 4% to Plasmodium falciparum. In 2010, the total median costs from the patient perspective were estimated at US $45.91 and US $216.29 for an outpatient consultation and an admission, respectively. When multiple P. vivax infections during the same pregnancy were considered, patient costs increased up to US $335.85, representing the costs of an admission plus an outpatient consultation. Provider direct and overhead cost data were obtained from several sources. The provider cost associated with an outpatient case, which includes several consultations at the tertiary hospital was US $103.51 for a P. vivax malaria episode and US $83.59 for a P. falciparum malaria episode. The cost of an inpatient day and average admission of 3 days was US $118.51 and US $355.53, respectively. Total provider costs for the diagnosis and treatment of all malaria cases reported in pregnant women in Manaus in 2010 (N = 364) were US $17,038.50, of which 92.4% (US$ 15,741.14) due to P. vivax infection. Conclusion Despite being an area of low risk malaria transmission, MiP is responsible for a significant economic burden in Manaus. Especially when multiple infections are considered, costs associated with P. vivax are higher than costs associated with P

  4. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Robertson, Joel D; Keele, Brandon F; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Shaw, George M; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2010-09-23

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here we develop a single-genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in faecal samples from wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed and almost always made up of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas comprised parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla origin and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.

  5. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Robertson, Joel D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Shaw, George M.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here, we developed a novel polymerase chain reaction based single genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in fecal samples of wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed, and almost always comprised of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas was comprised of parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin. PMID:20864995

  6. Identification of Plasmodium vivax Proteins with Potential Role in Invasion Using Sequence Redundancy Reduction and Profile Hidden Markov Models

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Montoya, Daniel; Becerra, David; Carvajal-Patiño, Juan G.; Mongui, Alvaro; Niño, Luis F.; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study describes a bioinformatics approach designed to identify Plasmodium vivax proteins potentially involved in reticulocyte invasion. Specifically, different protein training sets were built and tuned based on different biological parameters, such as experimental evidence of secretion and/or involvement in invasion-related processes. A profile-based sequence method supported by hidden Markov models (HMMs) was then used to build classifiers to search for biologically-related proteins. The transcriptional profile of the P. vivax intra-erythrocyte developmental cycle was then screened using these classifiers. Results A bioinformatics methodology for identifying potentially secreted P. vivax proteins was designed using sequence redundancy reduction and probabilistic profiles. This methodology led to identifying a set of 45 proteins that are potentially secreted during the P. vivax intra-erythrocyte development cycle and could be involved in cell invasion. Thirteen of the 45 proteins have already been described as vaccine candidates; there is experimental evidence of protein expression for 7 of the 32 remaining ones, while no previous studies of expression, function or immunology have been carried out for the additional 25. Conclusions The results support the idea that probabilistic techniques like profile HMMs improve similarity searches. Also, different adjustments such as sequence redundancy reduction using Pisces or Cd-Hit allowed data clustering based on rational reproducible measurements. This kind of approach for selecting proteins with specific functions is highly important for supporting large-scale analyses that could aid in the identification of genes encoding potential new target antigens for vaccine development and drug design. The present study has led to targeting 32 proteins for further testing regarding their ability to induce protective immune responses against P. vivax malaria. PMID:21984903

  7. Therapeutic response of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in southern Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, A; Siswantoro, H; Kenangalem, E; Wuwung, M; Brockman, A; Edstein, M D; Laihad, F; Ebsworth, E P; Anstey, N M; Tjitra, E; Price, R N

    2007-04-01

    To determine the level of antimalarial drug resistance in southern Papua, Indonesia, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ+SP) for Plasmodium falciparum infections as well as CQ monotherapy for P. vivax infections. Patients with P. falciparum failing therapy were re-treated with unsupervised quinine+/-doxycycline therapy and those with P. vivax with either unsupervised quinine+/-doxycycline or amodiaquine. In total, 143 patients were enrolled in the study (103 treated with CQ+SP and 40 with CQ). Early treatment failures occurred in four patients (4%) with P. falciparum and six patients (15%) with P. vivax. The failure rate by Day 28 for P. vivax was 65% (95% CI 49-81). After PCR correction for re-infections, the Day 42 recrudescence rate for P. falciparum infections was 48% (95% CI 31-65). Re-treatment with unsupervised quinine+/-doxycycline resulted in further recurrence of malaria in 48% (95% CI 31-65) of P. falciparum infections and 70% (95% CI 37-100) of P. vivax infections. Eleven patients with recurrent P. vivax were re-treated with amodiaquine; there were no early or late treatment failures. In southern Papua, a high prevalence of drug resistance of P. falciparum and P. vivax exists both to first- and second-line therapies. Preliminary data indicate that amodiaquine retains superior efficacy compared with CQ for CQ-resistant P. vivax.

  8. Protective Efficacy of Plasmodium vivax Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoites in Colombian Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vásquez-Jiménez, Juan M.; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Vallejo, Andrés F.; Amado-Garavito, Andrés B.; Céspedes, Nora; Castellanos, Angélica; Molina, Karen; Trejos, Johanna; Oñate, José; Epstein, Judith E.; Richie, Thomas L.; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PvRAS immunization. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted. Duffy positive (Fy+; Pv susceptible) individuals were enrolled: 14 received bites from irradiated (150 ± 10 cGy) Pv-infected Anopheles mosquitoes (RAS) and 7 from non-irradiated non-infected mosquitoes (Ctl). An additional group of seven Fy- (Pv refractory) volunteers was immunized with bites from non-irradiated Pv-infected mosquitoes. A total of seven immunizations were carried out at mean intervals of nine weeks. Eight weeks after last immunization, a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with non-irradiated Pv-infected mosquitoes was performed. Nineteen volunteers completed seven immunizations (12 RAS, 2 Ctl, and 5 Fy-) and received a CHMI. Five of 12 (42%) RAS volunteers were protected (receiving a median of 434 infective bites) compared with 0/2 Ctl. None of the Fy- volunteers developed infection by the seventh immunization or after CHMI. All non-protected volunteers developed symptoms 8–13 days after CHMI with a mean pre-patent period of 12.8 days. No serious adverse events related to the immunizations were observed. Specific IgG1 anti-PvCS response was associated with protection. Conclusion Immunization with PvRAS was safe, immunogenic, and induced sterile immunity in 42% of the Fy+ volunteers. Moreover, Fy- volunteers were refractory to Pv malaria. Trial registration Identifier: NCT01082341. PMID:27760143

  9. Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Temperature is a key determinant of environmental suitability for transmission of human malaria, modulating endemicity in some regions and preventing transmission in others. The spatial modelling of malaria endemicity has become increasingly sophisticated and is now central to the global scale planning, implementation, and monitoring of disease control and regional efforts towards elimination, but existing efforts to model the constraints of temperature on the malaria landscape at these scales have been simplistic. Here, we define an analytical framework to model these constraints appropriately at fine spatial and temporal resolutions, providing a detailed dynamic description that can enhance large scale malaria cartography as a decision-support tool in public health. Results We defined a dynamic biological model that incorporated the principal mechanisms of temperature dependency in the malaria transmission cycle and used it with fine spatial and temporal resolution temperature data to evaluate time-series of temperature suitability for transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax throughout an average year, quantified using an index proportional to the basic reproductive number. Time-series were calculated for all 1 km resolution land pixels globally and were summarised to create high-resolution maps for each species delineating those regions where temperature precludes transmission throughout the year. Within suitable zones we mapped for each pixel the number of days in which transmission is possible and an integrated measure of the intensity of suitability across the year. The detailed evaluation of temporal suitability dynamics provided by the model is visualised in a series of accompanying animations. Conclusions These modelled products, made available freely in the public domain, can support the refined delineation of populations at risk; enhance endemicity mapping by offering a detailed, dynamic, and biologically driven alternative to the

  10. Identification of a reticulocyte-specific binding domain of Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte-binding protein 1 that is homologous to the PfRh4 erythrocyte-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Wang, Bo; Muh, Fauzi; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Na, Sunghun; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Hong, Seok-Ho; Park, Won Sun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Han, Eun-Taek

    2016-01-01

    The Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte-binding protein (RBP) family was identified based on the annotation of adhesive ligands in the P. vivax genome. Reticulocyte-specific interactions with the PvRBPs (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) were previously reported. Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 4 (PfRh4, a homologue of PvRBP1) was observed to possess erythrocyte-binding activity via complement receptor 1 on the erythrocyte surface. However, the reticulocyte-binding mechanisms of P. vivax are unclear because of the large molecular mass of PvRBP1 (>326 kDa) and the difficulty associated with in vitro cultivation. In the present study, 34 kDa of PvRBP1a (PlasmoDB ID: PVX_098585) and 32 kDa of PvRBP1b (PVX_098582) were selected from a 30 kDa fragment of PfRh4 for reticulocyte-specific binding activity analysis. Both PvRBP1a and PvRBP1b were found to be localized at the microneme in the mature schizont-stage parasites. Naturally acquired immune responses against PvRBP1a-34 and PvRBP1b-32 were observed lower than PvDBP-RII. The reticulocyte-specific binding activities of PvRBP1a-34 and PvRBP1b-32 were significantly higher than normocyte binding activity and were significantly reduced by chymotrypsin treatment. PvRBP1a and 1b, bind to reticulocytes and that this suggests that these ligands may have an important role in P. vivax merozoite invasion. PMID:27244695

  11. Genetic Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Dihydrofolate Reductase and Dihydropteroate Synthase in Isolates from the Philippines, Bangladesh, and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thongdee, Pimwan; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Dumre, Shyam Prakash; Espino, Effie; Noedl, Harald; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-04-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of pvdhfr and pvdhps genes of Plasmodium vivax were investigated in 83 blood samples collected from patients in the Philippines, Bangladesh, and Nepal. The SNP-haplotypes of the pvdhfr gene at the amino acid positions 13, 33, 57, 58, 61, 117, and 173, and that of the pvdhps gene at the positions 383 and 553 were analyzed by nested PCR-RFLP. Results suggest diverse polymorphic patterns of pvdhfr alone as well as the combination patterns with pvdhps mutant alleles in P. vivax isolates collected from the 3 endemic countries in Asia. All samples carried mutant combination alleles of pvdhfr and pvdhps. The most prevalent combination alleles found in samples from the Philippines and Bangladesh were triple mutant pvdhfr combined with single mutant pvdhps allele and triple mutant pvdhfr combined with double wild-type pvdhps alleles, respectively. Those collected from Nepal were quadruple mutant pvdhfr combined with double wild-type pvdhps alleles. New alternative antifolate drugs which are effective against sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)-resistant P. vivax are required.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to the repeat epitope of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium vivax in San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mota, J; Coreño, O; Cochrane, A H; Ramos, C

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against the repeat epitope of the circumsporozoite protein (cs) of the standard (PV210) and variant (PVK247) strain of Plasmodium vivax was determined by ELISA in 1170 sera from individual residents of seven localities of the Region Huasteca of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The capture antigens were the synthetic peptides DDAAD and (ANGAGNQPG) that correspond to the repeats of the PV210 and PVK247 cs proteins, respectively. Of the analyzed serum samples, 34.1% (400/1170) were positive with one or both of these antigens. Of the sera, 18.2% (214/1170) reacted with the DDAAD peptide and 6.6% (78/1170) were positive with the variant synthetic peptide. Additionally, 9.2% (108/1170) of the samples reacted with both peptides. A sample of 10% of positive sera for the variant cs repeat (18/78) was tested with the cs repeat peptide of P. malariae/P. brasilianum (NAAG); almost all of them (16/18, 89%) being positive. These results confirm that the transmission of the variant strain of P. vivax is a common phenomenon in endemic regions in Latin America, as well as in other tropical regions of the world. These findings may have implications for the development of aP. vivax vaccine since that based on the standard cs repeat only would not be universally protective.

  13. Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Malaria Vaccine Target Antigen P48/45 in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum and Cross-Boosting of Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Bansal, Geetha P; Merino, Kristen; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2016-01-01

    In general, malaria immunity has been suggested to be species specific with very little, if any, known cross-reactivity between Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum, both of which are responsible for >90% of human malaria, and co-endemic in many countries. It is therefore believed that species-specific immunity may be needed to target different species of Plasmodium. Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 are well established targets in the sexual stages of the malaria parasites, and are being pursued for the development of transmission blocking vaccines. Comparison of their sequences reveals 61% and 55% identity at the DNA and protein level, respectively raising the possibility that these two target antigens might share cross-reacting epitopes. Having succeeded in expressing recombinant Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 proteins, we hypothesized that these proteins will not only exhibit immunological cross-reactivity but also cross-boost immune responses. Mice were immunized with purified recombinant proteins using CFA, Montanide ISA-51 and alum as adjuvants, and the sera were analyzed by ELISA, Western blotting and indirect fixed and live IFA to address the hypothesis. Our studies revealed that Pvs48/45-immune sera showed strong cross-reactivity to full length Pfs48/45 protein, and the majority of this cross reactivity was in the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal sub-fragments of Pfs48/45. In cross-boosting experiments Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 antigens were able to cross-boost each other in mouse immunization studies. Additionally we also noticed an effect of adjuvants in the overall magnitude of observed cross-reactivity. These studies may have significant implications for immunity targeting transmission of both the species of malaria parasites. PMID:27438603

  14. Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Malaria Vaccine Target Antigen P48/45 in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum and Cross–Boosting of Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Bansal, Geetha P.; Merino, Kristen; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2016-01-01

    In general, malaria immunity has been suggested to be species specific with very little, if any, known cross-reactivity between Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum, both of which are responsible for >90% of human malaria, and co-endemic in many countries. It is therefore believed that species-specific immunity may be needed to target different species of Plasmodium. Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 are well established targets in the sexual stages of the malaria parasites, and are being pursued for the development of transmission blocking vaccines. Comparison of their sequences reveals 61% and 55% identity at the DNA and protein level, respectively raising the possibility that these two target antigens might share cross-reacting epitopes. Having succeeded in expressing recombinant Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 proteins, we hypothesized that these proteins will not only exhibit immunological cross–reactivity but also cross-boost immune responses. Mice were immunized with purified recombinant proteins using CFA, Montanide ISA-51 and alum as adjuvants, and the sera were analyzed by ELISA, Western blotting and indirect fixed and live IFA to address the hypothesis. Our studies revealed that Pvs48/45-immune sera showed strong cross-reactivity to full length Pfs48/45 protein, and the majority of this cross reactivity was in the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal sub-fragments of Pfs48/45. In cross-boosting experiments Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 antigens were able to cross-boost each other in mouse immunization studies. Additionally we also noticed an effect of adjuvants in the overall magnitude of observed cross-reactivity. These studies may have significant implications for immunity targeting transmission of both the species of malaria parasites. PMID:27438603

  15. Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Amodiaquine and Desethylamodiaquine in Women with Plasmodium vivax Malaria during and after Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chotsiri, Palang; Jullien, Vincent; Rijken, Marcus J.; Bergstrand, Martin; Cammas, Mireille; McGready, Rose; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, Francois; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Amodiaquine is effective for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but there is little information on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of amodiaquine in pregnant women with malaria. This study evaluated the population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of amodiaquine and its biologically active metabolite, desethylamodiaquine, in pregnant women with P. vivax infection and again after delivery. Twenty-seven pregnant women infected with P. vivax malaria on the Thai-Myanmar border were treated with amodiaquine monotherapy (10 mg/kg/day) once daily for 3 days. Nineteen women, with and without P. vivax infections, returned to receive the same amodiaquine dose postpartum. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine. Amodiaquine plasma concentrations were described accurately by lagged first-order absorption with a two-compartment disposition model followed by a three-compartment disposition of desethylamodiaquine under the assumption of complete in vivo conversion. Body weight was implemented as an allometric function on all clearance and volume parameters. Amodiaquine clearance decreased linearly with age, and absorption lag time was reduced in pregnant patients. Recurrent malaria infections in pregnant women were modeled with a time-to-event model consisting of a constant-hazard function with an inhibitory effect of desethylamodiaquine. Amodiaquine treatment reduced the risk of recurrent infections from 22.2% to 7.4% at day 35. In conclusion, pregnancy did not have a clinically relevant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of amodiaquine or desethylamodiaquine. No dose adjustments are required in pregnancy. PMID:22926572

  16. In Vivo Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Chloroquine against Plasmodium vivax: A Randomized Open Label Trial in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Reithinger, Richard; Tekleyohannes, Samuel Girma; Takele Teshi; Birhanu, Sintayehu Gebresillasie; Demeke, Leykun; Hoos, David; Melaku, Zenebe; Kassa, Moges; Jima, Daddi; Malone, Joseph L.; Nettey, Henry; Green, Michael; Poe, Amanda; Akinyi, Sheila; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Kachur, S. Patrick; Filler, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background In vivo efficacy assessments of antimalarials are essential for ensuring effective case management. In Ethiopia, chloroquine (CQ) without primaquine is the first-line treatment for Plasmodium vivax in malarious areas, but artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is also commonly used. Methods and Findings In 2009, we conducted a 42-day efficacy study of AL or CQ for P. vivax in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Individuals with P. vivax monoinfection were enrolled. Primary endpoint was day 28 cure rate. In patients with recurrent parasitemia, drug level and genotyping using microsatellite markers were assessed. Using survival analysis, uncorrected patient cure rates at day 28 were 75.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 66.8–82.5) for AL and 90.8% (95% CI 83.6–94.9) for CQ. During the 42 days of follow-up, 41.6% (47/113) of patients in the AL arm and 31.8% (34/107) in the CQ arm presented with recurrent P. vivax infection, with the median number of days to recurrence of 28 compared to 35 days in the AL and CQ arm, respectively. Using microsatellite markers to reclassify recurrent parasitemias with a different genotype as non-treatment failures, day 28 cure rates were genotype adjusted to 91.1% (95% CI 84.1–95.1) for AL and to 97.2% (91.6–99.1) for CQ. Three patients (2.8%) with recurrent parasitemia by day 28 in the CQ arm were noted to have drug levels above 100 ng/ml. Conclusions In the short term, both AL and CQ were effective and well-tolerated for P. vivax malaria, but high rates of recurrent parasitemia were noted with both drugs. CQ provided longer post-treatment prophylaxis than AL, resulting in delayed recurrence of parasitemia. Although the current policy of species-specific treatment can be maintained for Ethiopia, the co-administration of primaquine for treatment of P. vivax malaria needs to be urgently considered to prevent relapse infections. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01052584 PMID:23717423

  17. Naturally Acquired Antibody Responses to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP1) C-Terminal 19 kDa Domains in an Area of Unstable Malaria Transmission in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinghui; Zhao, Zhenjun; Zhang, Xuexing; Li, Xuelian; Zhu, Min; Li, Peipei; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Ying; Yan, Guiyun; Shang, Hong; Cao, Yaming; Fan, Qi; Cui, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding naturally acquired immunity to infections caused by Plasmodia in different malaria endemicity settings is needed for better vaccine designs and for exploring antibody responses as a proxy marker of malaria transmission intensity. This study investigated the sero-epidemiology of malaria along the international border between China and Myanmar, where malaria elimination action plans are in place. This study recruited 233 P. vivax and 156 P. falciparum infected subjects with acute malaria at the malaria clinics and hospitals. In addition, 93 and 67 healthy individuals from the same endemic region or from non-endemic region, respectively, were used as controls. Acute malaria infections were identified by microscopy. Anti-recombinant PfMSP119 and PvMSP119 antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Antibody responses to respective MSP119 were detected in 50.9% and 78.2% patients with acute P. vivax and P. falciparum infections, respectively. There were cross-reacting antibodies in Plasmodium patients against these two recombinant proteins, though we could not exclude the possibility of submicroscopic mixed-species infections. IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 were the major subclasses. Interestingly, 43.2% of the healthy endemic population also had antibodies against PfMSP119, whereas only 3.9% of this population had antibodies against PvMSP119. Higher antibody levels were correlated with age and parasite density, but not with season, gender or malaria history. Both total IgG and individual IgG subclasses underwent substantial declines during the convalescent period in three months. This study demonstrated that individuals in a hypoendemic area with coexistence of P. vivax and P. falciparum can mount rapid antibody responses against both PfMSP119 and PvMSP119. The significantly higher proportion of responders to PfMSP119 in the healthy endemic population indicates higher prevalence of P. falciparum in the recent past. Specific antibodies against PvMSP119 could serve as a

  18. Detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in human saliva and urine: loop-mediated isothermal amplification for malaria diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Akhlaghi, Lame; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Farivar, Leila; Razmjou, Elham

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in urine and saliva of malaria patients. From May to November 2011, 108 febrile patients referred to health centers in Sistan and Baluchestan Province of south-eastern Iran participated in the study. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were analyzed with nested PCR and LAMP targeting the species-specific nucleotide sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) of P. falciparum and P. vivax and evaluated for diagnostic accuracy by comparison to blood nested PCR assay. When nested PCR of blood is used as standard, microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and urine samples showed sensitivity of 97.2%, 89.4% and 71% and specificity of 100%, 97.3% and 100%, respectively. LAMP sensitivity of blood, saliva, and urine was 95.8%, 47% and 29%, respectively, whereas LAMP specificity of these samples was 100%. Microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and LAMP of blood were comparable to nested PCR of blood (к=0.95, 0.83, and 0.94, respectively), but agreement for nested PCR of urine was moderate (к=0.64) and poor to fair for saliva LAMP and urine LAMP (к=0.38 and 0.23, respectively). LAMP assay showed low sensitivity for detection of Plasmodium DNA in human saliva and urine compared to results with blood and to nested PCR of blood, saliva, and urine. However, considering the advantages of LAMP technology and of saliva and urine sampling, further research into the method is worthwhile. LAMP protocol and precise preparation protocols need to be defined and optimized for template DNA of saliva and urine.

  19. Virulence and transmission success of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Rhian E.; Tiwari, Bela; Piper, Karen P.; Baruch, Dror I.; Day, Karen P.

    1999-01-01

    Virulence of Plasmodium falciparum is associated with the expression of variant surface antigens designated PfEMP1 (P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) that are encoded by a family of var genes. Data presented show that the transmission stages of P. falciparum also express PfEMP1 variants. Virulence in this host–parasite system can be considered a variable outcome of optimizing the production of sexual transmission stages from the population of disease-inducing asexual stages. Immunity to PfEMP1 will contribute to the regulation of this trade-off by controlling the parasite population with potential to produce mature transmission stages. PMID:10200302

  20. Variation in Complexity of Infection and Transmission Stability between Neighbouring Populations of Plasmodium vivax in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Getachew, Sisay; To, Sheren; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Thriemer, Kamala; Clark, Taane G.; Petros, Beyene; Aseffa, Abraham; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background P. vivax is an important public health burden in Ethiopia, accounting for almost half of all malaria cases. Owing to heterogeneous transmission across the country, a stronger evidence base on local transmission dynamics is needed to optimise allocation of resources and improve malaria interventions. Methodology and Principal Findings In a pilot evaluation of local level P. vivax molecular surveillance in southern Ethiopia, the diversity and population structure of isolates collected between May and November 2013 were investigated. Blood samples were collected from microscopy positive P. vivax patients recruited to clinical and cross-sectional surveys from four sites: Arbaminch, Halaba, Badawacho and Hawassa. Parasite genotyping was undertaken at nine tandem repeat markers. Eight loci were successfully genotyped in 197 samples (between 36 and 59 per site). Heterogeneity was observed in parasite diversity and structure amongst the sites. Badawacho displayed evidence of unstable transmission, with clusters of identical clonal infections. Linkage disequilibrium in Badawacho was higher (IAS = 0.32, P = 0.010) than in the other populations (IAS range = 0.01–0.02) and declined markedly after adjusting for identical infections (IAS = 0.06, P = 0.010). Other than Badawacho (HE = 0.70), population diversity was equivalently high across the sites (HE = 0.83). Polyclonal infections were more frequent in Hawassa (67%) than the other populations (range: 8–44%). Despite the variable diversity, differentiation between the sites was low (FST range: 5 x 10−3–0.03). Conclusions Marked variation in parasite population structure likely reflects differing local transmission dynamics. Parasite genotyping in these heterogeneous settings has potential to provide important complementary information with which to optimise malaria control interventions. PMID:26468643

  1. Increased interleukin-10 and interferon-γ levels in Plasmodium vivax malaria suggest a reciprocal regulation which is not altered by IL-10 gene promoter polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In human malaria, the naturally-acquired immune response can result in either the elimination of the parasite or a persistent response mediated by cytokines that leads to immunopathology. The cytokines are responsible for all the symptoms, pathological alterations and the outcome of the infection depends on the reciprocal regulation of the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. IL-10 and IFN-gamma are able to mediate this process and their production can be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on gene of these cytokines. In this study, the relationship between cytokine IL-10/IFN-gamma levels, parasitaemia, and their gene polymorphisms was examined and the participation of pro-inflammatory and regulatory balance during a natural immune response in Plasmodium vivax-infected individuals was observed. Methods The serum levels of the cytokines IL-4, IL-12, IFN-gamma and IL-10 from 132 patients were evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The polymorphism at position +874 of the IFN-gamma gene was identified by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) method, and the polymorphism at position -1082 of the IL-10 gene was analysed by PCR-RFLP (PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Results The levels of a pro- (IFN-gamma) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were significantly higher in P. vivax-infected individuals as compared to healthy controls. The IFN-gamma levels in primoinfected patients were significantly higher than in patients who had suffered only one and more than one previous episode. The mutant alleles of both IFN-gamma and IL-10 genes were more frequent than the wild allele. In the case of the IFNG+874 polymorphism (IFN-gamma) the frequencies of the mutant (A) and wild (T) alleles were 70.13% and 29.87%, respectively. Similar frequencies were recorded in IL-10-1082, with the mutant (A) allele returning a frequency of 70.78%, and the wild (G) allele a frequency of 29.22%. The frequencies

  2. Antibody-Mediated and Cellular Immune Responses Induced in Naive Volunteers by Vaccination with Long Synthetic Peptides Derived from the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Soto, Liliana; Perlaza, Blanca Liliana; Céspedes, Nora; Vera, Omaira; Lenis, Ana Milena; Bonelo, Anilza; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. We describe the characterization of specific immune responses induced in 21 malaria-naive volunteers vaccinated with long synthetic peptides derived from the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720. Both antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses were analyzed. Antibodies were predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, recognized parasite proteins on the immunofluorescent antibody test, and partially blocked sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cell lines in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from most volunteers (94%) showed IFN-γ production in vitro upon stimulation with both long signal peptide and short peptides containing CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The relatively limited sample size did not allow conclusions about HLA associations with the immune responses observed. In summary, the inherent safety and tolerability together with strong antibody responses, invasion blocking activity, and the IFN-γ production induced by these vaccine candidates warrants further testing in a phase II clinical trial. PMID:21292876

  3. An Antibody Screen of a Plasmodium vivax Antigen Library Identifies Novel Merozoite Proteins Associated with Clinical Protection

    PubMed Central

    França, Camila T.; Hostetler, Jessica B.; Sharma, Sumana; White, Michael T.; Lin, Enmoore; Kiniboro, Benson; Waltmann, Andreea; Darcy, Andrew W.; Li Wai Suen, Connie S. N.; Siba, Peter; King, Christopher L.; Rayner, Julian C.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Background Elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria would be greatly facilitated by the development of an effective vaccine. A comprehensive and systematic characterization of antibodies to P. vivax antigens in exposed populations is useful in guiding rational vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated antibodies to a large library of P. vivax entire ectodomain merozoite proteins in 2 Asia-Pacific populations, analysing the relationship of antibody levels with markers of current and cumulative malaria exposure, and socioeconomic and clinical indicators. 29 antigenic targets of natural immunity were identified. Of these, 12 highly-immunogenic proteins were strongly associated with age and thus cumulative lifetime exposure in Solomon Islanders (P<0.001–0.027). A subset of 6 proteins, selected on the basis of immunogenicity and expression levels, were used to examine antibody levels in plasma samples from a population of young Papua New Guinean children with well-characterized individual differences in exposure. This analysis identified a strong association between reduced risk of clinical disease and antibody levels to P12, P41, and a novel hypothetical protein that has not previously been studied, PVX_081550 (IRR 0.46–0.74; P<0.001–0.041). Conclusion/Significance These data emphasize the benefits of an unbiased screening approach in identifying novel vaccine candidate antigens. Functional studies are now required to establish whether PVX_081550 is a key component of the naturally-acquired protective immune response, a biomarker of immune status, or both. PMID:27182597

  4. Clinical profile of concurrent dengue fever and Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: case series of 11 hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Belisa M L; Alexandre, Márcia A A; Siqueira, André M; Melo, Gisely C; Gimaque, João B L; Bastos, Michele S; Figueiredo, Regina M P; Carvalho, Ricardo C; Tavares, Michel A; Naveca, Felipe G; Alonso, Pedro; Bassat, Quique; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Mourão, Maria P G

    2012-12-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide. This study aims to describe the clinical profile of patients with molecular diagnosis of concurrent malaria and dengue fever in a tropical-endemic area. Eleven patients with concurrent dengue virus (DENV) and Plasmodium vivax infection are reported. Similar frequencies of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 were found, including DENV-3/DENV-4 co-infection. In eight patients, the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for severe malaria could be fulfilled (jaundice being the most common). Only one patient met severe dengue criteria, but warning signs were present in 10. Syndromic surveillance systems must be ready to identify this condition to avoid misinterpretation of severity attributed to a single disease.

  5. A new ELISA kit which uses a combination of Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens as an alternative to IFAT for detection of malaria antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Doderer, Cecile; Heschung, Aurelie; Guntz, Phillippe; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Hansmann, Yves; Senegas, Alexandre; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2007-01-01

    Background The methods most commonly used to measure malarial antibody titres are the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT), regarded as the gold standard, and the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The objective here was to assess the diagnostic performance, i.e. the sensitivity and specificity, of a new malaria antibody ELISA kit in comparison to IFAT. This new ELISA kit, the ELISA malaria antibody test (DiaMed), uses a combination of crude soluble Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens. Methods Two groups were used: 95 samples from malaria patients to assess the clinical sensitivity and 2,152 samples from blood donors, who had not been exposed to malaria, to assess the clinical specificity. Results The DiaMed ELISA test kit had a clinical sensitivity of 84.2% and a clinical specificity of 99.6% as compared with 70.5% and 99.6% respectively, using the IFAT method. The ELISA method was more sensitive than the IFAT method for P. vivax infections (75% vs. 25%). However, in 923 malaria risk donors the analytical sensitivity of the ELISA test was 40% and its specificity 98.3%, performances impaired by large numbers of equivocal results non-concordant between ELISA and IFAT. When the overall analytical performances of ELISA was compared to IFAT, the ELISA efficiency J index was 0.84 versus 0.71 for IFAT. Overall analytical sensitivity was 93.1% and the analytical specificity 96.7%. Overall agreement between the two methods reached 0.97 with a reliability k index of 0.64. Conclusion The DiaMed ELISA test kit shows a good correlation with IFAT for analytical and clinical parameters. It may be an interesting method to replace the IFAT especially in blood banks, but further extensive investigations are needed to examine the analytical performance of the assay, especially in a blood bank setting. PMID:17313669

  6. Polysome profiling of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lacsina, Joshua R; LaMonte, Gregory; Nicchitta, Christopher V; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2011-09-01

    In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, global studies of translational regulation have been hampered by the inability to isolate malaria polysomes. We describe here a novel method for polysome profiling in P. falciparum, a powerful approach which allows both a global view of translation and the measurement of ribosomal loading and density for specific mRNAs. Simultaneous lysis of infected erythrocytes and parasites releases stable, intact malaria polysomes, which are then purified by centrifugation through a sucrose cushion. The polysomes are resuspended, separated by velocity sedimentation and then fractionated, yielding a characteristic polysome profile reflecting the global level of translational activity in the parasite. RNA isolated from specific fractions can be used to determine the density of ribosomes loaded onto a particular transcript of interest, and is free of host ribosome contamination. Thus, our approach opens translational regulation in malaria to genome-wide analysis.

  7. The Effects of Plasmodium vivax Gestational Malaria on the Clinical and Immune Status of Pregnant Women in Northwestern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Douglas Jay; Corredor, Mauricio; Yanow, Stephanie; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Maestre, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objetive: The study explored the effects of Plasmodium vivax infection on the balance of pro- versus anti- inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and their relationship with some clinical and epidemiology outcomes. Methods: Thirty-five pregnant women were recruited. Of these, 15 subjects had malaria at delivery (GM+), and 20 had no exposition to infection throughout the pregnancy (GM-) and at delivery. Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded after reviewing the clinical records. At delivery, whole blood from the mother as well as placental tissue was collected. Diagnosis of infection was performed by thick smear and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured by a real time PCR. Results: The clinical and epidemiological variables explored were similar in both groups, with the exception of gestational age. When comparing the GM+ group with the GM- group, it is clear that although the differences generally are not significant, pro- inflammatory cytokines are elevated in both maternal blood and placental; anti-inflammatory ones are elevated in the mother and reduced in the placenta, and the chemokines are reduced in both compartments, except for MCP-1 which is elevated in all. Conclusion: The results appear to be strongly affected by the small number of women with GM by P. vivax at childbirth. Additional studies are needed with larger groups in this and other regions of the country PMID:24892615

  8. SYBR Green Real-Time PCR-RFLP Assay Targeting the Plasmodium Cytochrome B Gene – A Highly Sensitive Molecular Tool for Malaria Parasite Detection and Species Determination

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiping; Morris, Ulrika; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Shakely, Delér; Petzold, Max; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for reliable detection of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings is the availability of ultra-sensitive and high-throughput molecular tools. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (cytb-qPCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene of the four major human Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale) for parasite detection and species determination with DNA extracted from dried blood spots collected on filter paper. The performance of cytb-qPCR was first compared against four reference PCR methods using serially diluted Plasmodium samples. The detection limit of the cytb-qPCR was 1 parasite/μl (p/μl) for P. falciparum and P. ovale, and 2 p/μl for P. vivax and P. malariae, while the reference PCRs had detection limits of 0.5–10 p/μl. The ability of the PCR methods to detect low-density Plasmodium infections was then assessed using 2977 filter paper samples collected during a cross-sectional survey in Zanzibar, a malaria pre-elimination setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Field samples were defined as ‘final positive’ if positive in at least two of the five PCR methods. Cytb-qPCR preformed equal to or better than the reference PCRs with a sensitivity of 100% (65/65; 95%CI 94.5–100%) and a specificity of 99.9% (2910/2912; 95%CI 99.7–100%) when compared against ‘final positive’ samples. The results indicate that the cytb-qPCR may represent an opportunity for improved molecular surveillance of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings. PMID:25774805

  9. SYBR Green real-time PCR-RFLP assay targeting the plasmodium cytochrome B gene--a highly sensitive molecular tool for malaria parasite detection and species determination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiping; Morris, Ulrika; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Shakely, Delér; Petzold, Max; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for reliable detection of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings is the availability of ultra-sensitive and high-throughput molecular tools. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (cytb-qPCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene of the four major human Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale) for parasite detection and species determination with DNA extracted from dried blood spots collected on filter paper. The performance of cytb-qPCR was first compared against four reference PCR methods using serially diluted Plasmodium samples. The detection limit of the cytb-qPCR was 1 parasite/μl (p/μl) for P. falciparum and P. ovale, and 2 p/μl for P. vivax and P. malariae, while the reference PCRs had detection limits of 0.5-10 p/μl. The ability of the PCR methods to detect low-density Plasmodium infections was then assessed using 2977 filter paper samples collected during a cross-sectional survey in Zanzibar, a malaria pre-elimination setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Field samples were defined as 'final positive' if positive in at least two of the five PCR methods. Cytb-qPCR preformed equal to or better than the reference PCRs with a sensitivity of 100% (65/65; 95%CI 94.5-100%) and a specificity of 99.9% (2910/2912; 95%CI 99.7-100%) when compared against 'final positive' samples. The results indicate that the cytb-qPCR may represent an opportunity for improved molecular surveillance of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings.

  10. Activation of minority-variant Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites following artesunate + amodiaquine treatment in a 23-year old man with relapsing malaria in Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax relapses are difficult to distinguish from new infections. Genotyping of patients who experience relapse after returning to a malaria-free area can be used to explore the nature of hypnozoite activation and relapse. This paper describes a person who developed P. vivax malaria for the first time after travelling to Boriziny in the malaria endemic coastal area of Madagascar, then suffered two P. vivax relapses 11 weeks and 21 weeks later despite remaining in Antananarivo in the malaria-free central highlands area. He was treated with the combination artesunate + amodiaquine according to the national malaria policy in Madagascar. Genotyping by PCR-RFLP at pvmsp-3α as well as pvmsp1 heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) showed the same dominant genotype at each relapse. Multiple recurring minority variants were also detected at each relapse, highlighting the propensity for multiple hypnozoite clones to activate simultaneously to cause relapse. PMID:23721298

  11. Activation of minority-variant Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites following artesunate + amodiaquine treatment in a 23-year old man with relapsing malaria in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy; Lin, Jessica T; Golden, Christopher; Juliano, Jonathan J; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona

    2013-05-31

    In endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax relapses are difficult to distinguish from new infections. Genotyping of patients who experience relapse after returning to a malaria-free area can be used to explore the nature of hypnozoite activation and relapse. This paper describes a person who developed P. vivax malaria for the first time after travelling to Boriziny in the malaria endemic coastal area of Madagascar, then suffered two P. vivax relapses 11 weeks and 21 weeks later despite remaining in Antananarivo in the malaria-free central highlands area. He was treated with the combination artesunate + amodiaquine according to the national malaria policy in Madagascar. Genotyping by PCR-RFLP at pvmsp-3α as well as pvmsp1 heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) showed the same dominant genotype at each relapse. Multiple recurring minority variants were also detected at each relapse, highlighting the propensity for multiple hypnozoite clones to activate simultaneously to cause relapse.

  12. Evaluation of the Sensitivity of a pLDH-Based and an Aldolase-Based Rapid Diagnostic Test for Diagnosis of Uncomplicated and Severe Malaria Caused by PCR-Confirmed Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J.; Piera, Kim; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi can cause severe and fatal human malaria in Southeast Asia. Rapid diagnosis of all Plasmodium species is essential for initiation of effective treatment. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are sensitive for detection of uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria but have not been systematically evaluated in knowlesi malaria. At a tertiary referral hospital in Sabah, Malaysia, we prospectively evaluated the sensitivity of two combination RDTs for the diagnosis of uncomplicated and severe malaria from all three potentially fatal Plasmodium species, using a pan-Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) RDT (First Response) and a pan-Plasmodium aldolase-PfHRP2 RDT (ParaHIT). Among 293 hospitalized adults with PCR-confirmed Plasmodium monoinfection, the sensitivity of the pLDH component of the pLDH-PfHRP2 RDT was 74% (95/129; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65 to 80%), 91% (110/121; 95% CI, 84 to 95%), and 95% (41/43; 95% CI, 85 to 99%) for PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax infections, respectively, and 88% (30/34; 95% CI, 73 to 95%), 90% (38/42; 95% CI, 78 to 96%), and 100% (12/12; 95% CI, 76 to 100%) among patients tested before antimalarial treatment was begun. Sensitivity in severe malaria was 95% (36/38; 95% CI, 83 to 99), 100% (13/13; 95% CI, 77 to 100), and 100% (7/7; 95% CI, 65 to 100%), respectively. The aldolase component of the aldolase-PfHRP2 RDT performed poorly in all Plasmodium species. The pLDH-based RDT was highly sensitive for the diagnosis of severe malaria from all species; however, neither the pLDH- nor aldolase-based RDT demonstrated sufficiently high overall sensitivity for P. knowlesi. More sensitive RDTs are needed in regions of P. knowlesi endemicity. PMID:23345297

  13. Evaluation of the sensitivity of a pLDH-based and an aldolase-based rapid diagnostic test for diagnosis of uncomplicated and severe malaria caused by PCR-confirmed Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Piera, Kim; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2013-04-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi can cause severe and fatal human malaria in Southeast Asia. Rapid diagnosis of all Plasmodium species is essential for initiation of effective treatment. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are sensitive for detection of uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria but have not been systematically evaluated in knowlesi malaria. At a tertiary referral hospital in Sabah, Malaysia, we prospectively evaluated the sensitivity of two combination RDTs for the diagnosis of uncomplicated and severe malaria from all three potentially fatal Plasmodium species, using a pan-Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) RDT (First Response) and a pan-Plasmodium aldolase-PfHRP2 RDT (ParaHIT). Among 293 hospitalized adults with PCR-confirmed Plasmodium monoinfection, the sensitivity of the pLDH component of the pLDH-PfHRP2 RDT was 74% (95/129; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65 to 80%), 91% (110/121; 95% CI, 84 to 95%), and 95% (41/43; 95% CI, 85 to 99%) for PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax infections, respectively, and 88% (30/34; 95% CI, 73 to 95%), 90% (38/42; 95% CI, 78 to 96%), and 100% (12/12; 95% CI, 76 to 100%) among patients tested before antimalarial treatment was begun. Sensitivity in severe malaria was 95% (36/38; 95% CI, 83 to 99), 100% (13/13; 95% CI, 77 to 100), and 100% (7/7; 95% CI, 65 to 100%), respectively. The aldolase component of the aldolase-PfHRP2 RDT performed poorly in all Plasmodium species. The pLDH-based RDT was highly sensitive for the diagnosis of severe malaria from all species; however, neither the pLDH- nor aldolase-based RDT demonstrated sufficiently high overall sensitivity for P. knowlesi. More sensitive RDTs are needed in regions of P. knowlesi endemicity.

  14. Recognition of Human Erythrocyte Receptors by the Tryptophan-Rich Antigens of Monkey Malaria Parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Kriti; Gupta, Deepali; Saini, Ekta; Choudhary, Shilpa; Jamwal, Abhishek; Alam, Mohd. Shoeb; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh K.; Sharma, Yagya D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi also infect humans. There is a lack of information on the molecular mechanisms that take place between this simian parasite and its heterologous human host erythrocytes leading to this zoonotic disease. Therefore, we investigated here the binding ability of P. knowlesi tryptophan-rich antigens (PkTRAgs) to the human erythrocytes and sharing of the erythrocyte receptors between them as well as with other commonly occurring human malaria parasites. Methods Six PkTRAgs were cloned and expressed in E.coli as well as in mammalian CHO-K1 cell to determine their human erythrocyte binding activity by cell-ELISA, and in-vitro rosetting assay, respectively. Results Three of six PkTRAgs (PkTRAg38.3, PkTRAg40.1, and PkTRAg67.1) showed binding to human erythrocytes. Two of them (PkTRAg40.1 and PkTRAg38.3) showed cross-competition with each other as well as with the previously described P.vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs) for human erythrocyte receptors. However, the third protein (PkTRAg67.1) utilized the additional but different human erythrocyte receptor(s) as it did not cross-compete for erythrocyte binding with either of these two PkTRAgs as well as with any of the PvTRAgs. These three PkTRAgs also inhibited the P.falciparum parasite growth in in-vitro culture, further indicating the sharing of human erythrocyte receptors by these parasite species and the biological significance of this receptor-ligand interaction between heterologous host and simian parasite. Conclusions Recognition and sharing of human erythrocyte receptor(s) by PkTRAgs with human parasite ligands could be part of the strategy adopted by the monkey malaria parasite to establish inside the heterologous human host. PMID:26393350

  15. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (≥38°C) at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/μL. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/μL for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%), indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162) compared to P. falciparum (36/118). The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and PCR positive P

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of alternative primaquine regimens to standard treatment in preventing relapses by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo Perez, María-Eulalia; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens currently used to prevent relapses by P. vivax. Methods: A systematic review was carried out to identify clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety to prevent malaria recurrences by P. vivax of primaquine regimen 0.5 mg/kg/ day for 7 or 14 days compared to standard regimen of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Efficacy of primaquine according to cumulative incidence of recurrences after 28 days was determined. The overall relative risk with fixed-effects meta-analysis was estimated. Results: For the regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/7 days were identified 7 studies, which showed an incidence of recurrence between 0% and 20% with follow-up 60-210 days; only 4 studies comparing with the standard regimen 0.25 mg/kg/day/14 days and no difference in recurrences between both regimens (RR= 0.977, 95% CI= 0.670 to 1.423) were found. 3 clinical trials using regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/14 days with an incidence of recurrences between 1.8% and 18.0% during 330-365 days were identified; only one study comparing with the standard regimen (RR= 0.846, 95% CI= 0.484 to 1.477). High risk of bias and differences in handling of included studies were found. Conclusion: Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether currently PQ regimens used as alternative rather than standard treatment have better efficacy and safety in preventing relapse of P. vivax. Clinical trials are required to guide changes in treatment regimen of malaria vivax. PMID:26848199

  17. Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP). The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII), which is the most variable segment of the protein. Methods To test whether diversifying natural selection has shaped the nucleotide diversity of PvDBPII in Brazilian populations, this region was sequenced in 122 isolates from six different geographic areas. A Bayesian method was applied to test for the action of natural selection under a population genetic model that incorporates recombination. The analysis was integrated with a structural model of PvDBPII, and T- and B-cell epitopes were localized on the 3-D structure. Results The results suggest that: (i) recombination plays an important role in determining the haplotype structure of PvDBPII, and (ii) PvDBPII appears to contain neutrally evolving codons as well as codons evolving under natural selection. Diversifying selection preferentially acts on sites identified as epitopes, particularly on amino acid residues 417, 419, and 424, which show strong linkage disequilibrium. Conclusions This study shows that some polymorphisms of PvDBPII are present near the erythrocyte-binding domain and might serve to elude antibodies that inhibit cell invasion. Therefore, these polymorphisms should be taken into account when designing vaccines aimed at eliciting antibodies to inhibit erythrocyte invasion. PMID:21092207

  18. Parasite-induced permeation of nucleosides in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Upston, J M; Gero, A M

    1995-06-14

    A mechanism which mediates the transport of the nonphysiological nucleoside, L-adenosine, was demonstrated in Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes and naturally released merozoites. L-Adenosine was not a substrate for influx in freed intraerythrocytic parasites or in normal human erythrocytes nor was L-adenosine transported in a variety of cell types including other parasitic protozoa such as Crithidia luciliae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia intestinalis, or the mammalian cells, Buffalo Green Monkey and HeLa cells. L-Adenosine transport in P. falciparum infected cells was nonsaturable, with a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.01 pmol/microliter cell water per s per microM L-adenosine, yet the transport was inhibited by furosemide, phloridzin and piperine with IC50 values between 1-13 microM, distinguishing the transport pathway from simple diffusion. The channel-like permeation was selective as disaccharides were not permeable to parasitised cells. In addition, an unusual metabolic property of parasitic adenosine deaminase was found in that L-adenosine was metabolised to L-inosine by both P. falciparum infected erythrocytes and merozoites, an activity which was inhibited by 50 nM deoxycoformycin. No other cell type examined displayed this enzymic activity. The results further substantiate that nucleoside transport in P. falciparum infected cells was significantly altered compared to uninfected erythrocytes and that L-adenosine transport and metabolism was a biochemical property of Plasmodium infected cells and merozoites and not found in normal erythrocytes nor any of the other cell types investigated.

  19. Combining parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based and histidine-rich protein 2-based rapid tests to improve specificity for diagnosis of malaria Due to Plasmodium knowlesi and other Plasmodium species in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Barber, Bridget E; Parameswaran, Uma; Bird, Elspeth; Piera, Kim; Aziz, Ammar; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2014-06-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria in Malaysia. Microscopic misdiagnosis is common and may delay appropriate treatment. P. knowlesi can cross-react with "species-specific" parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) monoclonal antibodies used in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax. At one tertiary-care hospital and two district hospitals in Sabah, we prospectively evaluated two combination RDTs for malaria diagnosis by using both a pan-Plasmodium-pLDH (pan-pLDH)/P. falciparum-specific-pLDH (Pf-pLDH) RDT (OptiMAL-IT) and a non-P. falciparum VOM-pLDH/Pf-HRP2 RDT (CareStart). Differential cross-reactivity among these combinations was hypothesized to differentiate P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium monoinfections. Among 323 patients with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi (n = 193), P. falciparum (n = 93), and P. vivax (n = 37) monoinfections, the VOM-pLDH individual component had the highest sensitivity for nonsevere (35%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 43%) and severe (92%; CI, 81 to 100%) P. knowlesi malaria. CareStart demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 42% (CI, 34 to 49%) and specificity of 74% (CI, 65 to 82%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 83% (CI, 66 to 93%) and specificity of 71% (CI, 65 to 76%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 97% (CI, 90 to 99%) and specificity of 99% (CI, 97 to 100%). OptiMAL-IT demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 32% (CI, 25 to 39%) and specificity of 21% (CI, 15 to 29%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 60% (CI, 42 to 75%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 94 to 99%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 82% (CI, 72 to 89%) and specificity of 39% (CI, 33 to 46%). The combination of CareStart plus OptiMAL-IT for P. knowlesi using predefined criteria gave a sensitivity of 25% (CI, 19 to 32%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 92 to 99%). Combining two RDT combinations was highly specific for P. knowlesi malaria diagnosis; however, sensitivity was poor. The specificity of pLDH RDTs was decreased for P. vivax and P

  20. Genetic diversity and natural selection of three blood-stage 6-Cys proteins in Plasmodium vivax populations from the China-Myanmar endemic border.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Ma, An; Chen, Shen-Bo; Yang, Ying-Chao; Chen, Jun-Hu; Yin, Ming-Bo

    2014-12-01

    Pv12, Pv38 and Pv41, the three 6-Cys family proteins which are expressed in the blood-stage of vivax malaria, might be involved in merozoite invasion activity and thus be potential vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium vivax. However, little information is available concerning the genetic diversity and natural selection of these three proteins. In the present study, we analyzed the amino acid sequences of P. vivax blood-stage 6-Cys family proteins in comparison with the homologue proteins of Plasmodium cynomolgi strain B using bioinformatic methods. We also investigated genetic polymorphisms and natural selection of these three genes in P. vivax populations from the China-Myanmar endemic border. The three P. vivax blood-stage 6-Cys proteins were shown to possess a signal peptide at the N-terminus, containing two s48/45 domains, and Pv12 and Pv38 have a GPI-anchor motif at the C-terminus. Then, 22, 21 and 29 haplotypes of pv12, pv38 and pv41 were identified out of 45, 38 and 40 isolates, respectively. The dN/dS values for Domain II of pv38 and pv41 were 3.33880 and 5.99829, respectively, suggesting positive balancing selection for these regions. Meanwhile, the C-terminus of pv41 showed high nucleotide diversity, and Tajima's D test suggested that this fragment could be under positive balancing selection. Overall, our results have significant implications, providing a genetic basis for blood-stage malaria vaccine development based on these three 6-Cys proteins.

  1. Evaluation of the Naturally Acquired Antibody Immune Response to the Pv200L N-terminal Fragment of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 in Four Areas of the Amazon Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Storti-Melo, Luciane M.; Souza-Neiras, Wanessa C.; Cassiano, Gustavo C.; Taveira, Leonardo C.; Cordeiro, Antônio J.; Couto, Vanja S. C. A.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Cunha, Maristela G.; Echeverry, Diana M.; Rossit, Andréa R. B.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates; Machado, Ricardo L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency and levels of IgG antibodies to an N-terminal fragment of the Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 (Pv200L) protein, in individuals naturally exposed to malaria in four endemic areas of Brazil, were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma samples of 261 P. vivax-infected individuals from communities of Macapá, Novo Repartimento, Porto Velho, and Plácido de Castro in the Amazonian region with different malaria transmission intensities. A high mean number of studied individuals (89.3%) presented with antibodies to the Pv200L that correlated with the number of previous malaria infections; there were significant differences in the frequency of the responders (71.9–98.7) and in the antibody levels (1:200–1:51,200) among the four study areas. Results of this study provide evidence that Pv200L is a naturally immunogenic fragment of the PvMSP-1 and is associated with the degree of exposure to parasites. The fine specificity of antibodies to Pv200L is currently being assessed. PMID:21292879

  2. Unusual Presentation of Vivax Malaria with Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia, Jaundice, Renal Disturbance, and Melena: A Report from Malang, a Nonendemic Area in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Sardjono, Teguh Wahju; Hermansyah, Bagus; Candradikusuma, Didi; Berens-Riha, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Most of the complications of malaria such as anaemia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, and renal failure are commonly found in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the incidence of severe and complicated vivax malaria tends to be increasing. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria from Malang, a nonendemic area in Indonesia. Patients exhibited anaemia, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, renal disturbance, and melena. Microscopic peripheral blood examination and amplification of parasite 18s rRNA by polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of P. vivax and absence of P. falciparum. All patients responded well to antimalarial drugs. PMID:24490093

  3. Killing the hypnozoite – drug discovery approaches to prevent relapse in Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Brice; Vandal, Omar; Wesche, David L.; Burrows, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    The eradication of malaria will only be possible if effective, well-tolerated medicines kill hypnozoites in vivax and ovale malaria, and thus prevent relapses in patients. Despite progress in the 8-aminoquinoline series, with tafenoquine in Phase III showing clear benefits over primaquine, the drug discovery challenge to identify hypnozoiticidal or hypnozoite-activating compounds has been hampered by the dearth of biological tools and assays, which in turn has been limited by the immense scientific and logistical challenges associated with accessing relevant human tissue and sporozoites. This review summarises the existing drug discovery series and approaches concerning the goal to block relapse. PMID:25891812

  4. Visualization of Malaria Parasites in the Skin Using the Luciferase Transgenic Parasite, Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Ryuta; Arai, Meiji; Hirai, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    We produced a transgenic rodent malaria parasite (Plasmodium berghei) that contained the luciferase gene under a promoter region of elongation factor-1α. These transgenic (TG) parasites expressed luciferase in all stages of their life cycle, as previously reported. However, we were the first to succeed in observing sporozoites as a mass in mouse skin following their deposition by the probing of infective mosquitoes. Our transgenic parasites may have emitted stronger bioluminescence than previous TG parasites. The estimated number of injected sporozoites by mosquitoes was between 34 and 775 (median 80). Since luciferase activity diminished immediately after the death of the parasites, luciferase activity could be an indicator of the existence of live parasites. Our results indicated that sporozoites survived at the probed site for more than 42 hours. We also detected sporozoites in the liver within 15 min of the intravenous injection. Bioluminescence was not observed in the lung, kidney or spleen. We confirmed the observation that the liver was the first organ in which malaria parasites entered and increased in number.

  5. Adaptation of a visualized loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique for field detection of Plasmodium vivax infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a high performance method for detecting DNA and holds promise for use in the molecular detection of infectious pathogens, including Plasmodium spp. However, in most malaria-endemic areas, which are often resource-limited, current LAMP methods are not feasible for diagnosis due to difficulties in accurately interpreting results with problems of sensitive visualization of amplified products, and the risk of contamination resulting from the high quantity of amplified DNA produced. In this study, we establish a novel visualized LAMP method in a closed-tube system, and validate it for the diagnosis of malaria under simulated field conditions. Methods A visualized LAMP method was established by the addition of a microcrystalline wax-dye capsule containing the highly sensitive DNA fluorescence dye SYBR Green I to a normal LAMP reaction prior to the initiation of the reaction. A total of 89 blood samples were collected on filter paper and processed using a simple boiling method for DNA extraction, and then tested by the visualized LAMP method for Plasmodium vivax infection. Results The wax capsule remained intact during isothermal amplification, and released the DNA dye to the reaction mixture only when the temperature was raised to the melting point following amplification. Soon after cooling down, the solidified wax sealed the reaction mix at the bottom of the tube, thus minimizing the risk of aerosol contamination. Compared to microscopy, the sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were 98.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.1-99.7%) and 100% (95% CI: 88.3-100%), and were in close agreement with a nested polymerase chain reaction method. Conclusions This novel, cheap and quick visualized LAMP method is feasible for malaria diagnosis in resource-limited field settings. PMID:21693031

  6. Mutant pfcrt "SVMNT" haplotype and wild type pfmdr1 "N86" are endemic in Plasmodium vivax dominated areas of India under high chloroquine exposure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chloroquine resistance (CQR) phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes. Mutations at amino acid position 72-76 of pfcrt gene, here defined as pfcrt haplotype are associated with the geographic origin of chloroquine resistant parasite. Here, mutations at 72-76 and codon 220 of pfcrt gene and N86Y pfmdr-1 mutation were studied in blood samples collected across 11 field sites, inclusive of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas in India. Any probable correlation between these mutations and clinical outcome of CQ treatment was also investigated. Methods Finger pricked blood spotted on Whatman No.3 papers were collected from falciparum malaria patients of high and low P. falciparum prevalent areas. For pfcrt haplotype investigation, the parasite DNA was extracted from blood samples and used for PCR amplification, followed by partial sequencing of the pfcrt gene. For pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation, the PCR product was subjected to restriction digestion with AflIII endonuclease enzyme. Results In 240 P. falciparum isolates with reported in vivo CQ therapeutic efficacy, the analysis of mutations in pfcrt gene shows that mutant SVMNT-S (67.50%) and CVIET-S (23.75%) occurred irrespective of clinical outcome and wild type CVMNK-A (7.91%) occurred only in adequate clinical and parasitological response samples. Of 287 P. falciparum isolates, SVMNTS 192 (66.89%) prevailed in all study sites and showed almost monomorphic existence (98.42% isolates) in low P. falciparum prevalent areas. However, CVIETS-S (19.51%) and CVMNK-A (11.84%) occurrence was limited to high P. falciparum prevalent areas. Investigation of pfmdr-1 N86Y mutation shows no correlation with clinical outcomes. The wild type N86 was prevalent in all the low P. falciparum prevalent areas (94.48%). However, mutant N86Y was comparably higher in numbers at the high P. falciparum prevalent areas (42.76%). Conclusions The wild type pfcrt gene is linked to chloroquine

  7. High levels of IgG3 anti ICB2-5 in Plasmodium vivax-infected individuals who did not develop symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax has the potential to infect 2.85 billion individuals worldwide. Nevertheless, the limited number of studies investigating the immune status of individuals living in malaria-endemic areas, as well as the lack of reports investigating serological markers associated with clinical protection, has hampered development of vaccines for P. vivax. It was previously demonstrated that naturally total IgG against the N-terminus of P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (Pv-MSP1) was associated with reduced risk of malarial infection. Methods Immune response against Pv-MSP1 (N-terminus) of 313 residents of the Rio Pardo rural settlement (Amazonas State, Brazil) was evaluated in a cross-sectional and longitudinal follow up over two months (on site) wherein gold standard diagnosis by thick blood smear and rRNA gene-based nested real-time PCR were used to discriminate symptomless Plasmodium vivax-infected individuals who did not develop clinical symptoms during a 2-months from those uninfected ones or who have had acute malaria. The acquisition of antibodies against Pv-MSP1 was also evaluated as survival analysis by prospective study over a year collecting information of new malaria infections in surveillance database. Results The majority of P. vivax-infected individuals (52-67%) showed immune recognition of the N-terminus of Pv-MSP1. Interesting data on infected individuals who have not developed symptoms, total IgG levels against the N-terminus Pv-MSP1 were age-dependent and the IgG3 levels were significantly higher than levels of subjects had acute malaria or those uninfected ones. The total IgG anti ICB2-5 was detected to be an important factor of protection against new malaria vivax attacks in survival analysis in a prospective survey (p = 0.029). Conclusions The study findings illustrate the importance of IgG3 associated to 2-months of symptomless in P. vivax infected individuals and open perspectives for the rationale of malaria vaccine

  8. In silico screening of novel inhibitors of M17 Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) of Plasmodium vivax as therapeutic candidate.

    PubMed

    Rout, Subhashree; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta

    2016-08-01

    M17 LAP (Leucine Amino Peptidase) plays an important role in the hydrolysis of amino acids essential for growth and development of Plasmodium vivax (Pv), the pathogen causing malaria. In this paper a homology model of PvLAP was generated using MODELLER v9.15. From different in-silico methods such as structure based, ligand based and de novo drug designing a total of 90 compounds were selected for docking studies. A final list of 10 compounds was prepared. The study reported the identification of 2-[(3-azaniumyl-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoyl) amino]-4-methylpentanoate as the best inhibitor in terms of docking score and pharmacophoric features. The reliability of the binding mode of the inhibitor is confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study with GROMACS software for a simulation time of 20ns in water environment. Finally, in silico ADMET analysis of the inhibitors using MedChem Designer v3 evaluated the drug likeness of the best hits to be considered for industrial pharmaceutical research.

  9. Structure of C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 from Plasmodium vivax determined by homology modeling and molecular dynamics refinement.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María Luisa; Pérez, Hilda A; Medina, J D

    2006-12-15

    One current vaccine candidate against Plasmodium vivax targeting asexual blood stage is the major merozoite surface protein-1 of P. vivax (PvMSP-1). Vaccine trials with PvMSP-1(19) and PvMSP-1(33) have succeeded in protecting monkeys and a large proportion of individuals, naturally exposed to P. vivax transmission, develop specific antibodies to PvMSP-1(19). This study presents a model for the three-dimensional structure of the C-terminal 19kDa fragment of P. vivax MSP-1 determined by means of homology modeling and molecular dynamics refinement. The structure proved to be consistent with MSP-1(19) of known crystal or solution structures. The presence of a main binding pocket, well suited for protein-protein interactions, was determined by CASTp. Corrections reported to the sequence of PvMSP-1(19) Belem strain were also inspected. Our model is currently used as a basis to understand antibody interactions with PvMSP-1(19).

  10. Plasmodium vivax drug resistance genes; Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o polymorphisms in relation to chloroquine sensitivity from a malaria endemic area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Muhamad, Poonuch; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the possible molecular markers of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates in Thailand. A total of 30 P. vivax isolates were collected from a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border in Mae Sot district of Thailand. Dried blood spot samples were collected for analysis of Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o polymorphisms. Blood samples (100 μl) were collected by finger-prick for in vitro chloroquine susceptibility testing by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Based on the cut-off IC50 of 100 nM, 19 (63.3%) isolates were classified as chloroquine resistant P. vivax isolates. Seven non-synonymous mutations and 2 synonymous were identified in Pvmdr1 gene. Y976F and F1076L mutations were detected in 7 (23.3%) and 16 isolates (53.3%), respectively. Analysis of Pvcrt-o gene revealed that all isolates were wild-type. Our results suggest that chloroquine resistance gene is now spreading in this area. Monitoring of chloroquine resistant molecular markers provide a useful tool for future control of P. vivax malaria.

  11. Human Host-Derived Cytokines Associated with Plasmodium vivax Transmission from Acute Malaria Patients to Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Shira R.; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Tong, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes by humans is not always successful in the setting of patent gametocytemia. This study tested the hypothesis that pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with transmission of Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in experimental infection. Blood from adults with acute, non-severe P. vivax malaria was fed to laboratory-reared F1 An. darlingi mosquitoes. A panel of cytokines at the time of mosquito infection was assessed in patient sera and levels compared among subjects who did and did not infect mosquitoes. Overall, blood from 43 of 99 (43%) subjects led to mosquito infection as shown by oocyst counts. Levels of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in vivax infection and normalized 3 weeks later. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in nontransmitters compared with top transmitters but was not in TNF-α and IFN-γ. The IL-10 elevation during acute malaria was associated with P. vivax transmission blocking. PMID:23478585

  12. Human host-derived cytokines associated with Plasmodium vivax transmission from acute malaria patients to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abeles, Shira R; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Tong, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2013-06-01

    Infection of mosquitoes by humans is not always successful in the setting of patent gametocytemia. This study tested the hypothesis that pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with transmission of Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in experimental infection. Blood from adults with acute, non-severe P. vivax malaria was fed to laboratory-reared F1 An. darlingi mosquitoes. A panel of cytokines at the time of mosquito infection was assessed in patient sera and levels compared among subjects who did and did not infect mosquitoes. Overall, blood from 43 of 99 (43%) subjects led to mosquito infection as shown by oocyst counts. Levels of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in vivax infection and normalized 3 weeks later. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in nontransmitters compared with top transmitters but was not in TNF-α and IFN-γ. The IL-10 elevation during acute malaria was associated with P. vivax transmission blocking.

  13. Age of the last common ancestor of extant Plasmodium parasite lineages.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Toshiyuki; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Hikosaka, Kenji; Arisue, Nobuko; Matsui, Atsushi; Horii, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect all classes of amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles) and display host specificity in their infections. It is therefore generally believed that Plasmodium parasites co-evolved intimately with their hosts. Here, we report that based on an evolutionary analysis using 22 genes in the nuclear genome, extant lineages of Plasmodium parasites originated roughly in the Oligocene epoch after the emergence of their hosts. This timing on the age of the common ancestor of extant Plasmodium parasites suggest the importance of host switches and lends support to the evolutionary scenario of a "malaria big bang" that was proposed based on the evolutionary analysis using the mitochondrial genome. PMID:22555021

  14. Rediscovery and redescription of Plasmodium pifanoi and description of two additional Plasmodium parasites of Venezuelan lizards.

    PubMed

    Telford, Sam R; Telford, Sam R

    2003-04-01

    Plasmodium pifanoi Scorza and Dagert B., known only from the type host, Ameiva ameiva, is redescribed from Kentropyx calcarata collected in Territorio Amazonas, Venezuela. Schizonts, 6.2 x 4.5 (4-8 x 3-6), produce on average 11.9 (7-16) merozoites. Gametocytes average 12.4 x 6.0 (8-16 x 4-10), with length x width (LW) 72.9 (52-112) and L/W 2.18 (1.1-3.3), and always contain 1-5 prominent vacuoles. Macrogametocytes in active infection are longer than microgametocytes, with greater LW, but gametocytes in chronic infection are not sexually dimorphic in dimension and are slightly smaller. Two additional malarial parasites are described from K. calcarata. Plasmodium lepidoptiformis has small schizonts, 4.6 x 3.2 (3-6 x 2.5-3), that produce 5.1 (4-8) merozoites and commonly resemble a butterfly in appearance. Gametocytes are elongate, 9.0 x 4.3 (7-10 x 3-6), with LW 38.3 (24-51) and L/W 2.2 (1.3-3.3), and sexually dimorphic, with macrogametocytes longer than microgametocytes, with greater LW. Plasmodium minasense calcaratae is characterized by very small, usually fan-shaped, schizonts. 3.4 x 2.6 (2.5-4.5 x 2.0-3.0), that produce 3.9 (3-4) merozoites. Gametocytes are spherical or ovoid, 6.7 x 5.0 (4.5-9.0 x 3.0-7.0), with LW 33.7 (15-54) and L/W 1.4 (1.0-2.3), with no sexual dimorphism in dimensions. PMID:12760655

  15. A focus of hyperendemic Plasmodium malariae—P. vivax with no P. falciparum in a primitive population in the Peruvian Amazon jungle

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, Alexander J.; Cantella, Raul; Colichon, Alejandro; Gleason, Neva N.; Walls, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Findings in a sample population in southeastern Peru with a very high rate of malaria infection, due to Plasmodium malariae and P. vivax with apparently no P. falciparum, are described. The proportion of persons with P. malariae in this sample population, as determined by slide examination, appears to be the greatest ever reported for any area before the introduction of control measures. Although very few P. vivax were found on stained slides, results of the indirect immunofluorescence test indicated that this species was probably as prevalent as P. malariae; the absence of P. falciparum was supported by results of serologic tests. Possible reasons for this focus of malaria with no P. falciparum are discussed. PMID:779996

  16. Plasmodium Drug Targets Outside the Genetic Control of the Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Drug development often seeks to find “magic bullets” which target microbiologic proteins while not affecting host proteins. Paul Ehrlich tested methylene blue as an antimalarial but this dye was not superior to quinine. Many successful antimalarial therapies are “magic shotguns” which target many Plasmodium pathways with little interference in host metabolism. Two malaria drug classes, the 8-aminoquinolines and the artemisinins interact with cytochrome P450s and host iron protoporphyrin IX or iron, respectively, to generate toxic metabolites and/or radicals, which kill the parasite by interference with many proteins. The non 8-amino antimalarial quinolines like quinine or piperaquine bind heme to inhibit the process of heme crystallization, which results in multiple enzyme inhibition and membrane dysfunction. The quinolines and artemisinins are rapidly parasiticidal in contrast to metal chelators, which have a slower parasite clearance rate with higher drug concentrations. Iron chelators interfere with the artemisinins but otherwise represent a strategy of targeting multiple enzymes containing iron. Interest has been revived in antineoplastic drugs that target DNA metabolism as antimalarials. Specific drug targeting or investigation of the innate immunity directed to the more permeable trophozoite or schizont infected erythrocyte membrane has been under explored. Novel drug classes in the antimalarial development pipeline which either target multiple proteins or unchangeable cellular targets will slow the pace of drug resistance acquisition. PMID:22973888

  17. Genetic Diversity and Selection in Three Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 7 (Pvmsp-7) Genes in a Colombian Population

    PubMed Central

    Garzón-Ospina, Diego; López, Carolina; Forero-Rodríguez, Johanna; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    A completely effective vaccine for malaria (one of the major infectious diseases worldwide) is not yet available; different membrane proteins involved in parasite-host interactions have been proposed as candidates for designing it. It has been found that proteins encoded by the merozoite surface protein (msp)-7 multigene family are antibody targets in natural infection; the nucleotide diversity of three Pvmsp-7 genes was thus analyzed in a Colombian parasite population. By contrast with P. falciparum msp-7 loci and ancestral P. vivax msp-7 genes, specie-specific duplicates of the latter specie display high genetic variability, generated by single nucleotide polymorphisms, repeat regions, and recombination. At least three major allele types are present in Pvmsp-7C, Pvmsp-7H and Pvmsp-7I and positive selection seems to be operating on the central region of these msp-7 genes. Although this region has high genetic polymorphism, the C-terminus (Pfam domain ID: PF12948) is conserved and could be an important candidate when designing a subunit-based antimalarial vaccine. PMID:23049905

  18. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Brazilian Amazon and the Risk Factors Associated with Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Silva dos Santos, Mônica Caroline; Lopes Simplício, Janicéia; Menezes de Medeiros, Jandira; Barroso Gomes, Kelly Cristina; de Carvalho Costa, Isabel Cristina; Batista-Silva, Eva; Teixeira do Nascimento, Cristiana; da Silva Chagas, Eda Cristina; Jardim Sardinha, José Felipe; Simões de Santana Filho, Franklin; Brock, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria species in the American region. Brazil accounts for the higher number of the malaria cases reported in pregnant women in the Americas. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon and the risk factors associated with prematurity and low birth weight (LBW). Methods/Principal Findings Between December 2005 and March 2008, 503 pregnant women with malaria that attended a tertiary health centre were enrolled and followed up until delivery and reported a total of 1016 malaria episodes. More than half of study women (54%) were between 20–29 years old, and almost a third were adolescents. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 59%. Most women (286/503) reported more than one malaria episode and most malaria episodes (84.5%, 846/1001) were due to P. vivax infection. Among women with only P. vivax malaria, the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight decreased in multigravidae (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16–0.82]; p = 0.015 and OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.10–0.58]; p = 0.001, respectively). The risk of preterm birth decreased with higher maternal age (OR 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19–0.95]; p = 0.037) and among those women who reported higher antenatal care (ANC) attendance (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.15–0.70]; p = 0.005). Conclusion This study shows that P. vivax is the prevailing species among pregnant women with malaria in the region and shows that vivax clinical malaria may represent harmful consequences for the health of the mother and their offsprings particularly on specific groups such as adolescents, primigravidae and those women with lower ANC attendance. PMID:26675007

  19. Plasmodium vivax malaria elimination: should innovative ideas from the past be revisited?

    PubMed Central

    Val, Fernando Fonseca; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Cassera, Maria Belén; Andrade, Raquel Tapajós; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    In the 1950s, the strategy of adding chloroquine to food salt as a prophylaxis against malaria was considered to be a successful tool. However, with the development of Plasmodium resistance in the Brazilian Amazon, this control strategy was abandoned. More than 50 years later, asexual stage resistance can be avoided by screening for antimalarial drugs that have a selective action against gametocytes, thus old prophylactic measures can be revisited. The efficacy of the old methods should be tested as complementary tools for the elimination of malaria. PMID:25184997

  20. Reduced Risk of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Papua New Guinean Children with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis in Two Cohorts and a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Laurens; Rarau, Patricia; Laman, Moses; Senn, Nicolas; Grimberg, Brian T.; Tavul, Livingstone; Stanisic, Danielle I.; Robinson, Leanne J.; Aponte, John J.; Dabod, Elijah; Reeder, John C.; Siba, Peter; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Davis, Timothy M. E.; King, Christopher L.; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte polymorphism, Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) (which results from a 27-base pair deletion in the erythrocyte band 3 gene, SLC4A1Δ27) protects against cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum; however, it is unknown whether this polymorphism also protects against P. vivax infection and disease. Methods and Findings The association between SAO and P. vivax infection was examined through genotyping of 1,975 children enrolled in three independent epidemiological studies conducted in the Madang area of Papua New Guinea. SAO was associated with a statistically significant 46% reduction in the incidence of clinical P. vivax episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.54, 95% CI 0.40–0.72, p<0.0001) in a cohort of infants aged 3–21 months and a significant 52% reduction in P. vivax (blood-stage) reinfection diagnosed by PCR (95% CI 22–71, p = 0.003) and 55% by light microscopy (95% CI 13–77, p = 0.014), respectively, in a cohort of children aged 5–14 years. SAO was also associated with a reduction in risk of P. vivax parasitaemia in children 3–21 months (1,111/µl versus 636/µl, p = 0.011) and prevalence of P. vivax infections in children 15–21 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% CI 0.23–0.67, p = 0.001). In a case-control study of children aged 0.5–10 years, no child with SAO was found among 27 cases with severe P. vivax or mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax malaria (OR = 0, 95% CI 0–1.56, p = 0.11). SAO was associated with protection against severe P. falciparum malaria (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15–0.87, p = 0.014) but no effect was seen on either the risk of acquiring blood-stage infections or uncomplicated episodes with P. falciparum. Although Duffy antigen receptor expression and function were not affected on SAO erythrocytes compared to non-SAO children, high level (>90% binding inhibition) P. vivax Duffy binding protein–specific binding inhibitory antibodies were

  1. Vivax malaria: neglected and not benign.

    PubMed

    Price, Ric N; Tjitra, Emiliana; Guerra, Carlos A; Yeung, Shunmay; White, Nicholas J; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2007-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax threatens almost 40% of the world's population, resulting in 132-391 million clinical infections each year. Most of these cases originate from Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific, although a significant number also occurs in Africa and South America. Although often regarded as causing a benign and self-limiting infection, there is increasing evidence that the overall burden, economic impact, and severity of disease from P. vivax have been underestimated. Malaria control strategies have had limited success and are confounded by the lack of access to reliable diagnosis, emergence of multidrug resistant isolates, the parasite's ability to transmit early in the course of disease and relapse from dormant liver stages at varying time intervals after the initial infection. Progress in reducing the burden of disease will require improved access to reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of both blood-stage and latent parasites, and more detailed characterization of the epidemiology, morbidity, and economic impact of vivax malaria. Without these, vivax malaria will continue to be neglected by ministries of health, policy makers, researchers, and funding bodies.

  2. Serum levels of thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in the acute phase of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, K

    1999-02-01

    Elevated plasma or serum levels of thrombomodulin (TM), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin have been reported in several diseases. However, plasma or serum levels of TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin have not been investigated in the acute phase of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Serum TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and creatinine levels were determined in six Japanese patients in the acute phase of vivax malaria and in seven healthy Japanese controls. Parasitemias of the peripheral blood were < 0.1% in five patients and 0.8% in one patient. The patients' mean +/- SD serum levels of TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin were 5.7 +/- 1.3 Fujirebio units/ml, 709 +/- 397 ng/ml, 2,112 +/- 782 ng/ml, and 99 +/- 28 ng/ml, respectively, and all were significantly greater than those in the controls (TM; P < 0.005, ICAM-1; P < 0.025, VCAM-1; P < 0.005, E-selectin; P < 0.025). However, no significant difference was identified between patients and controls for serum creatinine values. The serum levels of TM and VCAM-1 were not related to parasitemia. The elevation of serum TM levels suggests that endothelial cell damage occurs in the acute phase of vivax malaria.

  3. Serological detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria using recombinant proteins corresponding to the 19-kDa C-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria Helena C; Cunha, Maristela G; Machado, Ricardo LD; Ferreira, Orlando C; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

    2003-01-01

    Background Serological tests to detect antibodies specific to Plasmodium vivax could be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies, for screening blood donors in areas where the malaria is not endemic and for diagnosis of infected individuals. Because P. vivax cannot be easily obtained in vitro, ELISA assays using total or semi-purified antigens are rarely used. Based on this limitation, we tested whether recombinant proteins representing the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein-1 of P. vivax (MSP119) could be useful for serological detection of malaria infection. Methods Three purified recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli (GST-MSP119, His6-MSP119 and His6-MSP119-PADRE) and one in Pichia pastoris (yMSP119-PADRE) were compared for their ability to bind to IgG antibodies of individuals with patent P. vivax infection. The method was tested with 200 serum samples collected from individuals living in the north of Brazil in areas endemic for malaria, 53 serum samples from individuals exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection and 177 serum samples from individuals never exposed to malaria. Results Overall, the sensitivity of the ELISA assessed with sera from naturally infected individuals was 95%. The proportion of serum samples that reacted with recombinant proteins GST-MSP119, His6-MSP119, His6-MSP119-PADRE and yMSP119-PADRE was 90%, 93.5%, 93.5% and 93.5%, respectively. The specificity values of the ELISA determined with sera from healthy individuals and from individuals with other infectious diseases were 98.3% (GST-MSP119), 97.7% (His6-MSP119 and His6-MSP119-PADRE) or 100% (yMSP119-PADRE). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that for the Brazilian population, an ELISA using a recombinant protein of the MSP119 can be used as the basis for the development of a valuable serological assay for the detection of P. vivax malaria. PMID:14617378

  4. Contrasting Transmission Dynamics of Co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum: Implications for Malaria Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Noviyanti, Rintis; Coutrier, Farah; Utami, Retno A. S.; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Tirta, Yusrifar K.; Trianty, Leily; Kusuma, Andreas; Sutanto, Inge; Kosasih, Ayleen; Kusriastuti, Rita; Hawley, William A.; Laihad, Ferdinand; Lobo, Neil; Marfurt, Jutta; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Outside of Africa, P. falciparum and P. vivax usually coexist. In such co-endemic regions, successful malaria control programs have a greater impact on reducing falciparum malaria, resulting in P. vivax becoming the predominant species of infection. Adding to the challenges of elimination, the dormant liver stage complicates efforts to monitor the impact of ongoing interventions against P. vivax. We investigated molecular approaches to inform the respective transmission dynamics of P. falciparum and P. vivax and how these could help to prioritize public health interventions. Methodology/ Principal Findings Genotype data generated at 8 and 9 microsatellite loci were analysed in 168 P. falciparum and 166 P. vivax isolates, respectively, from four co-endemic sites in Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan, Sumba and West Timor). Measures of diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure were used to gauge the transmission dynamics of each species in each setting. Marked differences were observed in the diversity and population structure of P. vivax versus P. falciparum. In Bangka, Kalimantan and Timor, P. falciparum diversity was low, and LD patterns were consistent with unstable, epidemic transmission, amenable to targeted intervention. In contrast, P. vivax diversity was higher and transmission appeared more stable. Population differentiation was lower in P. vivax versus P. falciparum, suggesting that the hypnozoite reservoir might play an important role in sustaining local transmission and facilitating the spread of P. vivax infections in different endemic settings. P. vivax polyclonality varied with local endemicity, demonstrating potential utility in informing on transmission intensity in this species. Conclusions/ Significance Molecular approaches can provide important information on malaria transmission that is not readily available from traditional epidemiological measures. Elucidation of the transmission dynamics circulating in a given

  5. A new human Duffy blood group specificity defined by a murine monoclonal antibody. Immunogenetics and association with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A new Duffy specificity, Fy6, defined by a murine monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 kappa class, is related to susceptibility to malarial invasion. In humans, Fy6 is present on the red cells of all persons except those of the Fy(a-b-) type, a distribution resembling that of Fy3. However proteolytic enzyme treatment of red cells enhances the reactivity of Fy3, whereas Fy6, like Fya and Fyb, is susceptible to degradation by this process. The number of Fy6 sites on human red cells was found to be 12,200 per cell, in close agreement with earlier estimates of the number of Fya sites. Anti-Fy6 reacted in western blots with a membrane glycoprotein of approximately 46,000 Mr, not significantly different from that of a molecule known to bear the Fya determinant. The Fy6 epitope is shown to be present on the red cells of some but not all nonhuman primate species, where it has a distribution not only distinctly different from Fya, Fyb, and Fy3, but in close accordance with susceptibility to penetration by Plasmodium vivax. Thus, the red cells of two species of macaques (Macaca mulatta and M. fascicularis), which are invaded by Plasmodium knowlesi but not by P. vivax are shown to have other Duffy antigens but to be devoid of Fy6. It appears, therefore, that the red cell epitopes used by these closely related species are distinct, and that susceptibility to P. vivax merozoite penetration is dependent on the presence of Fy6. PMID:2442291

  6. Enlightening the malaria parasite life cycle: bioluminescent Plasmodium in fundamental and applied research

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Giulia; Alano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The unicellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium impose on human health worldwide the enormous burden of malaria. The possibility to genetically modify several species of malaria parasites represented a major advance in the possibility to elucidate their biology and is now turning laboratory lines of transgenic Plasmodium into precious weapons to fight malaria. Amongst the various genetically modified plasmodia, transgenic parasite lines expressing bioluminescent reporters have been essential to unveil mechanisms of parasite gene expression and to develop in vivo imaging approaches in mouse malaria models. Mainly the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent parasite P. berghei have been engineered to express bioluminescent reporters in almost all the developmental stages of the parasite along its complex life cycle between the insect and the vertebrate hosts. Plasmodium lines expressing conventional and improved luciferase reporters are now gaining a central role to develop cell based assays in the much needed search of new antimalarial drugs and to open innovative approaches for both fundamental and applied research in malaria. PMID:26029172

  7. Therapeutic Assessment of Chloroquine-Primaquine Combined Regimen in Adult Cohort of Plasmodium vivax Malaria from Primary Care Centres in Southwestern India

    PubMed Central

    Saravu, Kavitha; Kumar, Rishikesh; Ashok, Herikudru; Kundapura, Premananda; Kamath, Veena; Kamath, Asha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Several reports of chloroquine treatment failure and resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria from Southeast Asian countries have been published. Present study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ) combined regimen for the treatment of P. vivax malaria patients who were catered by the selected primary health centres (PHCs) of Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Method Five PHCs were selected within Udupi taluk based on probability proportional to size. In-vivo therapeutic efficacy assessment of CQ (1500 mg over three days) plus PQ (210 mg over 14 days) regimen was carried out in accordance with the World Health Organization’s protocol of 28 days follow-up among microscopically diagnosed monoinfection P. vivax cohort. Results In total, 161 participants were recruited in the study of which, 155 (96.3%) participants completed till day 28 follow-up, fully complied with the treatment regimen and showed adequate clinical and parasitological response. Loss to follow up was noted with 5 (3.1%) participants and non-compliance with treatment regimen occurred with one participant (0.6%). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd, <30% of normal mean activity) was noted among 5 (3.1%) participants and one of them did develop PQ induced dark-brown urination which subsided after PQ discontinuation. G6PDd patients were treated with PQ 45 mg/week for eight weeks while PQ was discontinued in one case with G6PD 1.4 U/g Hb due to complaint of reddish-brown coloured urine by 48 hours of PQ initiation. Nested polymerase chain reaction test revealed 45 (28%) cases as mixed (vivax and falciparum) malaria. Conclusions The CQ-PQ combined regimen remains outstandingly effective to treat uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Udupi taluk and thus it should continue as first line regimen. For all P. vivax cases, G6PD screening before PQ administration must be mandatory and made available in all PHCs. PMID:27315280

  8. Mechanistic binding insights for 1-deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate synthase, the enzyme catalyzing the first reaction of isoprenoid biosynthesis in the malaria-causing protists, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Matthew R; Shoji, Christopher; Handa, Sumit; Breydo, Leonid; Merkler, David J

    2016-04-01

    We have successfully truncated and recombinantly-expressed 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) from both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. We elucidated the order of substrate binding for both of these ThDP-dependent enzymes using steady-state kinetic analyses, dead-end inhibition, and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence titrations. Both enzymes adhere to a random sequential mechanism with respect to binding of both substrates: pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. These findings are in contrast to other ThDP-dependent enzymes, which exhibit classical ordered and/or ping-pong kinetic mechanisms. A better understanding of the kinetic mechanism for these two Plasmodial enzymes could aid in the development of novel DXS-specific inhibitors that might prove useful in treatment of malaria.

  9. Anopheles gambiae Immune Responses to Human and Rodent Plasmodium Parasite Species

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuemei; Aguilar, Ruth; Xi, Zhiyong; Warr, Emma; Mongin, Emmanuel; Dimopoulos, George

    2006-01-01

    Transmission of malaria is dependent on the successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the Anopheles vector. Major obstacles are encountered in the midgut tissue, where most parasites are killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the present study, DNA microarray analyses have been used to compare Anopheles gambiae responses to invasion of the midgut epithelium by the ookinete stage of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent experimental model pathogen P. berghei. Invasion by P. berghei had a more profound impact on the mosquito transcriptome, including a variety of functional gene classes, while P. falciparum elicited a broader immune response at the gene transcript level. Ingestion of human malaria-infected blood lacking invasive ookinetes also induced a variety of immune genes, including several anti-Plasmodium factors. Twelve selected genes were assessed for effect on infection with both parasite species and bacteria using RNAi gene silencing assays, and seven of these genes were found to influence mosquito resistance to both parasite species. An MD2-like receptor, AgMDL1, and an immunolectin, FBN39, showed specificity in regulating only resistance to P. falciparum, while the antimicrobial peptide gambicin and a novel putative short secreted peptide, IRSP5, were more specific for defense against the rodent parasite P. berghei. While all the genes that affected Plasmodium development also influenced mosquito resistance to bacterial infection, four of the antimicrobial genes had no effect on Plasmodium development. Our study shows that the impact of P. falciparum and P. berghei infection on A. gambiae biology at the gene transcript level is quite diverse, and the defense against the two Plasmodium species is mediated by antimicrobial factors with both universal and Plasmodium-species specific activities. Furthermore, our data indicate that the mosquito is capable of sensing infected blood constituents in the absence of invading

  10. Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuemei; Aguilar, Ruth; Xi, Zhiyong; Warr, Emma; Mongin, Emmanuel; Dimopoulos, George

    2006-06-01

    Transmission of malaria is dependent on the successful completion of the Plasmodium lifecycle in the Anopheles vector. Major obstacles are encountered in the midgut tissue, where most parasites are killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the present study, DNA microarray analyses have been used to compare Anopheles gambiae responses to invasion of the midgut epithelium by the ookinete stage of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent experimental model pathogen P. berghei. Invasion by P. berghei had a more profound impact on the mosquito transcriptome, including a variety of functional gene classes, while P. falciparum elicited a broader immune response at the gene transcript level. Ingestion of human malaria-infected blood lacking invasive ookinetes also induced a variety of immune genes, including several anti-Plasmodium factors. Twelve selected genes were assessed for effect on infection with both parasite species and bacteria using RNAi gene silencing assays, and seven of these genes were found to influence mosquito resistance to both parasite species. An MD2-like receptor, AgMDL1, and an immunolectin, FBN39, showed specificity in regulating only resistance to P. falciparum, while the antimicrobial peptide gambicin and a novel putative short secreted peptide, IRSP5, were more specific for defense against the rodent parasite P. berghei. While all the genes that affected Plasmodium development also influenced mosquito resistance to bacterial infection, four of the antimicrobial genes had no effect on Plasmodium development. Our study shows that the impact of P. falciparum and P. berghei infection on A. gambiae biology at the gene transcript level is quite diverse, and the defense against the two Plasmodium species is mediated by antimicrobial factors with both universal and Plasmodium-species specific activities. Furthermore, our data indicate that the mosquito is capable of sensing infected blood constituents in the absence of invading

  11. Plasmodium falciparum myosins: transcription and translation during asexual parasite development.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Olaya, Jacqueline; Margos, Gabriele; Coles, Deborah J; Dluzewski, Anton R; Mitchell, Graham H; Wasserman, Moisés M; Pinder, Jennifer C

    2005-04-01

    Six myosins genes are now annotated in the Plasmodium falciparum Genome Project. Malaria myosins have been named alphabetically; accordingly, we refer to the two latest additions as Pfmyo-E and Pfmyo-F. Both new myosins contain regions characteristic of the functional motor domain of "true" myosins and, unusually for P. falciparum myosins, Pfmyo-F encodes two consensus IQ light chain-binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of the 17 currently known apicomplexan myosins together with one representative of each myosin class clusters all but one of the apicomplexan sequences together in Class XIV. This refines the earlier definition of the Class XIV Subclasses XIVa and XIVb. RT-PCR on blood stage parasite mRNA amplifies a specific product for all six myosins and each shows developmentally regulated transcription. Thus: Pfmyo-A and Pfmyo-B genes are transcribed throughout development; Pfmyo-C is predominant in trophozoites; Pfmyo-D occurs in trophozoites and schizonts; Pfmyo-E though barely present in earlier stages is abundant in schizonts; Pfmyo-F increases steadily throughout development and maturation. It is known that Pfmyo-A and Pfmyo-B are synthesised during late schizogony and we now show that Pfmyo-D expression is also temporally regulated to late trophozoites and schizonts where it distributes close to segregating nuclei. Thus, in asexual stages myosin synthesis does not always parallel transcript accumulation, showing that translation is also regulated. The implication is that the mRNAs are either subjected to turnover, synthesised and degraded, or that they are sequestered in an inactivate form until required for protein synthesis.

  12. Reduced erythrocyte susceptibility and increased host clearance of young parasites slows Plasmodium growth in a murine model of severe malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, David S.; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E.; James, Kylie R.; Sebina, Ismail; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-05-01

    The best correlate of malaria severity in human Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection is the total parasite load. Pf-infected humans could control parasite loads by two mechanisms, either decreasing parasite multiplication, or increasing parasite clearance. However, few studies have directly measured these two mechanisms in vivo. Here, we have directly quantified host clearance of parasites during Plasmodium infection in mice. We transferred labelled red blood cells (RBCs) from Plasmodium infected donors into uninfected and infected recipients, and tracked the fate of donor parasites by frequent blood sampling. We then applied age-based mathematical models to characterise parasite clearance in the recipient mice. Our analyses revealed an increased clearance of parasites in infected animals, particularly parasites of a younger developmental stage. However, the major decrease in parasite multiplication in infected mice was not mediated by increased clearance alone, but was accompanied by a significant reduction in the susceptibility of RBCs to parasitisation.

  13. Parasite-induced ER stress response in hepatocytes facilitates Plasmodium liver stage infection.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Patricia; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Ruivo, Margarida T G; Falkard, Brie; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Rooijers, Koos; Mann, Matthias; Mair, Gunnar; Fidock, David A; Mota, Maria M

    2015-08-01

    Upon infection of a mammalian host, Plasmodium parasites first replicate inside hepatocytes, generating thousands of new parasites. Although Plasmodium intra-hepatic development represents a substantial metabolic challenge to the host hepatocyte, how infected cells respond to and integrate this stress remains poorly understood. Here, we present proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, revealing that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in host hepatocytes upon Plasmodium berghei infection. The expression of XBP1s--the active form of the UPR mediator XBP1--and the liver-specific UPR mediator CREBH is induced by P. berghei infection in vivo. Furthermore, this UPR induction increases parasite liver burden. Altogether, our data suggest that ER stress is a central feature of P. berghei intra-hepatic development, contributing to the success of infection. PMID:26113366

  14. Parasite-induced ER stress response in hepatocytes facilitates Plasmodium liver stage infection

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Patricia; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Ruivo, Margarida TG; Falkard, Brie; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Rooijers, Koos; Mann, Matthias; Mair, Gunnar; Fidock, David A; Mota, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Upon infection of a mammalian host, Plasmodium parasites first replicate inside hepatocytes, generating thousands of new parasites. Although Plasmodium intra-hepatic development represents a substantial metabolic challenge to the host hepatocyte, how infected cells respond to and integrate this stress remains poorly understood. Here, we present proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, revealing that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in host hepatocytes upon Plasmodium berghei infection. The expression of XBP1s—the active form of the UPR mediator XBP1—and the liver-specific UPR mediator CREBH is induced by P. berghei infection in vivo. Furthermore, this UPR induction increases parasite liver burden. Altogether, our data suggest that ER stress is a central feature of P. berghei intra-hepatic development, contributing to the success of infection. PMID:26113366

  15. Parasite-induced ER stress response in hepatocytes facilitates Plasmodium liver stage infection.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Patricia; Zuzarte-Luís, Vanessa; Ruivo, Margarida T G; Falkard, Brie; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Rooijers, Koos; Mann, Matthias; Mair, Gunnar; Fidock, David A; Mota, Maria M

    2015-08-01

    Upon infection of a mammalian host, Plasmodium parasites first replicate inside hepatocytes, generating thousands of new parasites. Although Plasmodium intra-hepatic development represents a substantial metabolic challenge to the host hepatocyte, how infected cells respond to and integrate this stress remains poorly understood. Here, we present proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, revealing that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in host hepatocytes upon Plasmodium berghei infection. The expression of XBP1s--the active form of the UPR mediator XBP1--and the liver-specific UPR mediator CREBH is induced by P. berghei infection in vivo. Furthermore, this UPR induction increases parasite liver burden. Altogether, our data suggest that ER stress is a central feature of P. berghei intra-hepatic development, contributing to the success of infection.

  16. Persistent ICT malaria P.f/P.v panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false-positive diagnoses of Plasmodium vivax in convalescence.

    PubMed

    Tjitra, E; Suprianto, S; McBroom, J; Currie, B J; Anstey, N M

    2001-03-01

    A problem with rapid Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detection tests for malaria is the persistence of antigen in blood after the disappearance of asexual-stage parasitemia and clinical symptoms, resulting in false-positive (FP) test results following treatment. The ICT P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test detects both HRP2 and a panmalarial antigen (PMA) found in both P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. To examine posttreatment antigen persistence with this test and whether persistent sexual-stage forms (gametocytes) are a cause of FP tests after treatment, we compared serial antigen test results with microscopy results from patients symptomatic with P. falciparum malaria in Indonesia for 28 days following treatment with chloroquine (CQ; n = 66), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; n = 36), and artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART + SP; n = 15). Persistent FP antigenemia following SP treatment occurred in 29% (HRP2) and 42% (PMA) of the patients on day 7 and in 10% (HRP2) and 23% (PMA) on day 14. The high rates of persistent HRP2 and PMA antigenemia following CQ and SP treatment were strongly associated with the presence of gametocytemia, with the proportion with gametocytes on day 7 posttreatment being significantly greater in those with FP results than in those with true-negative PMA and HRP2 results. Gametocyte frequency on day 14 post-SP treatment was also greater in those with FP PMA results. Following SP treatment, PMA persisted longer than HRP2, giving an FP diagnosis of P. vivax in up to 16% of patients on day 14, with all FP P. vivax diagnoses having gametocytemia. In contrast, PMA was rapidly cleared following ART + SP treatment in association with rapid clearance of gametocytemia. Gametocytes appear to be an important cause of persistent posttreatment panmalarial antigenemia in areas of endemicity and may also contribute in part to persistent HRP2 antigenemia following treatment. PMID:11230422

  17. A Toxoplasma gondii Ortholog of Plasmodium GAMA Contributes to Parasite Attachment and Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Vern B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii and its Plasmodium kin share a well-conserved invasion process, including sequential secretion of adhesive molecules for host cell attachment and invasion. However, only a few orthologs have been shown to be important for efficient invasion by both genera. Bioinformatic screening to uncover potential new players in invasion identified a previously unrecognized T. gondii ortholog of Plasmodium glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored micronemal antigen (TgGAMA). We show that TgGAMA localizes to the micronemes and is processed into several proteolytic products within the parasite prior to secretion onto the parasite surface during invasion. TgGAMA from parasite lysate bound to several different host cell types in vitro, suggesting a role in parasite attachment. Consistent with this function, tetracycline-regulatable TgGAMA and TgGAMA knockout strains showed significant reductions in host cell invasion at the attachment step, with no defects in any of the other stages of the parasite lytic cycle. Together, the results of this work reveal a new conserved component of the adhesive repertoire of apicomplexan parasites. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is a successful human pathogen in the same phylum as malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. Invasion of a host cell is an essential process that begins with secretion of adhesive proteins onto the parasite surface for attachment and subsequent penetration of the host cell. Conserved invasion proteins likely play roles that were maintained through the divergence of these parasites. Here, we identify a new conserved invasion protein called glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored micronemal antigen (GAMA). Tachyzoites lacking TgGAMA were partially impaired in parasite attachment and invasion of host cells, yielding the first genetic evidence of a specific role in parasite entry into host cells. These findings widen our appreciation of the repertoire of conserved proteins that apicomplexan parasites employ for

  18. Transport of lactate and pyruvate in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J L; Saliba, K J; Kirk, K

    2001-01-01

    The mature, intraerythrocytic form of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is reliant on glycolysis for its energetic requirements. It produces large quantities of lactic acid, which have to be removed from the parasite's cytosol to maintain the cell's integrity and metabolic viability. Here we show that the monocarboxylates lactate and pyruvate are both transported across the parasite's plasma membrane via a H(+)/monocarboxylate symport process that is saturable and inhibited by the bioflavonoid phloretin. The results provide direct evidence for the presence at the parasite surface of a H(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter with features in common with members of the MCT (monocarboxylate transporter) family of higher eukaryotes. PMID:11311136

  19. Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein promotes the development of the liver stages of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Agam Prasad; Buscaglia, Carlos A; Wang, Qian; Levay, Agata; Nussenzweig, Daniel R; Walker, John R; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Fujii, Hodaka; Fontoura, Beatriz M A; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2007-11-01

    The liver stages of malaria are clinically silent but have a central role in the Plasmodium life cycle. Liver stages of the parasite containing thousands of merozoites grow inside hepatocytes for several days without triggering an inflammatory response. We show here that Plasmodium uses a PEXEL/VTS motif to introduce the circumsporozoite (CS) protein into the hepatocyte cytoplasm and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) to enter its nucleus. CS outcompetes NFkappaB nuclear import, thus downregulating the expression of many genes controlled by NFkappaB, including those involved in inflammation. CS also influences the expression of over one thousand host genes involved in diverse metabolic processes to create a favorable niche for the parasite growth. The presence of CS in the hepatocyte enhances parasite growth of the liver stages in vitro and in vivo. These findings have far reaching implications for drug and vaccine development against the liver stages of the malaria parasite.

  20. Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Plasmodium vivax CS Derived Long Synthetic Peptides Adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Fernández, Olga Lucía; Vera, Omaira; Cárdenas, William; Ramírez, Oscar; Palacios, Ricardo; Chen-Mok, Mario; Corradin, Giampietro; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a mixture of three synthetic peptides derived from the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51. Forty healthy malaria-naive volunteers were allocated to five experimental groups (A–E): four groups (A–D) were immunized intramuscularly with 50 and 100 μg/dose injections of a mixture of N, R, and C peptides formulated in the two different adjuvants at 0, 2, and 4 months and one group was administered placebo. Vaccines were immunogenic, safe, well tolerated, and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine occurred. Seroconversion occurred in > 90% of the vaccines and antibodies recognized the sporozoite protein on immunofluorescent antibody test. Vaccines in Montanide ISA 51 showed a higher sporozoite protein recognition and interferon production. Results encourage further testing of the vaccine protective efficacy. PMID:21292873

  1. Experimental, therapeutic and natural transmission of Plasmodium vivax tertian malaria: scientific and anecdotal data on the history of Dutch malaria studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    When Plasmodium vivax tertian malaria was prevalent in The Netherlands, the use of therapeutic malaria for the treatment of neurosyphilis patients presented an opportunity for biological studies of the parasite’s behaviour, in healthy volunteers. One unexplained phenomenon was the long latency between natural exposure to a single infected mosquito and the appearance of clinical signs (average 8 months). Dutch studies with volunteers and syphilis patients, suggested that hundreds of sporozoites transmitted by several mosquito bites were enough to provoke an early attack, known from tropical vivax-malaria. Sporozoites appeared to be programmed either to delay their pre-erythrocytic development or to proceed to an early attack within three weeks. The number of infectious bites also determined the relapse rate and the number of relapses after a primary attack. Analyses of primary cases and relapses from the previous year were used to predict the incidence for the next year. These historic findings fit well with recent studies on genotyping of blood stages during primary attacks and relapses. External factors (i.e. the milieu inside the human host) may trigger hypnozoites to reactivate, but predetermined periods of latency should also be considered. PMID:23332002

  2. Efficacy of three different regimens of primaquine for the prevention of relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Amazon Basin of Peru.

    PubMed

    Durand, Salomón; Cabezas, Cesar; Lescano, Andres G; Galvez, Mariela; Gutierrez, Sonia; Arrospide, Nancy; Alvarez, Carlos; Santolalla, Meddly L; Bacon, David J; Graf, Paul C F

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of three primaquine (PQ) regimes to prevent relapses with Plasmodium vivax through an open-label randomized trial in Loreto, Peru. Vivax monoinfections were treated with chloroquine for 3 days and PQ in three different regimes: 0.5 mg/kg per day for 5 days (150 mg total), 0.5 mg/kg per day for 7 days (210 mg total), or 0.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days (210 mg total). Biweekly fever assessments and bimonthly thick smears were taken for 210 days. Recurrences after 35 days were considered relapses. One hundred eighty cases were enrolled in each group; 90% of cases completed follow-up. There were no group-related differences in age, sex, or parasitemia. Relapse rates were similar in the 7- and 14-day regimes (16/156 = 10.3% and 22/162 = 13.6%, P = 0.361) and higher in the 5-day group (48/169 = 28.4%, P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The 7-day PQ regimen used in Peru is as efficacious as the recommended 14-day regimen and superior to 5 treatment days.

  3. Efficacy of Three Different Regimens of Primaquine for the Prevention of Relapses of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Amazon Basin of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Salomón; Cabezas, Cesar; Lescano, Andres G.; Galvez, Mariela; Gutierrez, Sonia; Arrospide, Nancy; Alvarez, Carlos; Santolalla, Meddly L.; Bacon, David J.; Graf, Paul C. F.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of three primaquine (PQ) regimes to prevent relapses with Plasmodium vivax through an open-label randomized trial in Loreto, Peru. Vivax monoinfections were treated with chloroquine for 3 days and PQ in three different regimes: 0.5 mg/kg per day for 5 days (150 mg total), 0.5 mg/kg per day for 7 days (210 mg total), or 0.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days (210 mg total). Biweekly fever assessments and bimonthly thick smears were taken for 210 days. Recurrences after 35 days were considered relapses. One hundred eighty cases were enrolled in each group; 90% of cases completed follow-up. There were no group-related differences in age, sex, or parasitemia. Relapse rates were similar in the 7- and 14-day regimes (16/156 = 10.3% and 22/162 = 13.6%, P = 0.361) and higher in the 5-day group (48/169 = 28.4%, P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The 7-day PQ regimen used in Peru is as efficacious as the recommended 14-day regimen and superior to 5 treatment days. PMID:24752682

  4. The changing dynamics of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in central India: trends over a 27-year period (1975--2002).

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeru; Kataria, Om; Singh, Mrigendra Pal

    2004-01-01

    The changing epidemiology of malaria since 1975 was studied in a tribal forested belt of central India, Chhattisgarh state, which is the second most highly malarious state in India. Chhattisgarh, which accounts for 2% of the total population of the country, contributed >16% of the total malaria cases, 23% of Plasmodium falciparum, and 7% of deaths due to malaria in the country. Retrospective analysis further revealed that, in 1975--76, P. vivax was the predominant species (58%); however, since 1979, P. falciparum showed a steady upward trend (50%), and in 2002. P. vivax reduced to 28%. Between 1986 and 2000, P. falciparum cases reported by the National Anti Malaria Programme have increased 500%, and the number of deaths also showed a similar alarming increase. From 2000 to 2002, though the number of malaria infections and number of deaths declined sharply as a result of intensive intervention measures (30% and 95%, respectively), which included new drugs like Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine and Arteether under Enhanced Malaria Control Programme, the proportion of P. falciparum has held steady without any decline. Moreover, along with Anopheles fluviatilis, the traditional vector in the forest, An. culicifacies has also established itself in the forest. The comeback of malaria and establishment of new vectors was largely due to the deterioration of health services along with emergence of resistance in P. falciparum to Chloroquine and in An. culicifacies to DDT. Therefore, a more diversified malaria control program might be needed for sustainable malaria control.

  5. Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Wiersch, S C; Maier, W A; Kampen, H

    2005-05-01

    The DNA sequence information on avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium is quite limited. At present, sequences of only 6 out of 34 valid species are available. However, sequence data of avian malaria parasites are particularly important with regard to the resolution of the phylogenetic relationships of the most virulent human malaria agent, Plasmodium falciparum. The question as to whether P. falciparum originates from avian or from mammalian parasites would contribute to our understanding of its biology and would probably facilitate the interpretation of experimental results. To add to the body of molecular data, we sequenced three genes (cytochrome b, 18 SSU rRNA, caseinolytic protease C) of different organellar origin of one of the most widespread avian malaria parasites, Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium, which once used to be an important laboratory in vivo model in human malaria research. The analysis of the new P. cathemerium sequences in direct comparison with the rodent parasite P. berghei and the four human malaria parasites by pairwise distance calculation do not suggest a closer relationship of P. cathemerium to P. falciparum than to the other species involved.

  6. Glutathione-deficient Plasmodium berghei parasites exhibit growth delay and nuclear DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Padín-Irizarry, Vivian; Colón-Lorenzo, Emilee E; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Castro, María Del R; González-Méndez, Ricardo; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Serrano, Adelfa E

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium parasites are exposed to endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress during their complex life cycle. To minimize oxidative damage, the parasites use glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx) as primary antioxidants. We previously showed that disruption of the Plasmodium berghei gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (pbggcs-ko) or the glutathione reductase (pbgr-ko) genes resulted in a significant reduction of GSH in intraerythrocytic stages, and a defect in growth in the pbggcs-ko parasites. In this report, time course experiments of parasite intraerythrocytic development and morphological studies showed a growth delay during the ring to schizont progression. Morphological analysis shows a significant reduction in size (diameter) of trophozoites and schizonts with increased number of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the pbggcs-ko parasites in comparison to the wild type (WT). Furthermore, the pbggcs-ko mutants exhibited an impaired response to oxidative stress and increased levels of nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage. Reduced GSH levels did not result in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage or protein carbonylations in neither pbggcs-ko nor pbgr-ko parasites. In addition, the pbggcs-ko mutant parasites showed an increase in mRNA expression of genes involved in oxidative stress detoxification and DNA synthesis, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism to allow for parasite proliferation. These results reveal that low GSH levels affect parasite development through the impairment of oxidative stress reduction systems and damage to the nDNA. Our studies provide new insights into the role of the GSH antioxidant system in the intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium parasites, with potential translation into novel pharmacological interventions. PMID:26952808

  7. Normocyte-binding protein required for human erythrocyte invasion by the zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi.

    PubMed

    Moon, Robert W; Sharaf, Hazem; Hastings, Claire H; Ho, Yung Shwen; Nair, Mridul B; Rchiad, Zineb; Knuepfer, Ellen; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Mohring, Franziska; Amir, Amirah; Yusuf, Noor A; Hall, Joanna; Almond, Neil; Lau, Yee Ling; Pain, Arnab; Blackman, Michael J; Holder, Anthony A

    2016-06-28

    The dominant cause of malaria in Malaysia is now Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic parasite of cynomolgus macaque monkeys found throughout South East Asia. Comparative genomic analysis of parasites adapted to in vitro growth in either cynomolgus or human RBCs identified a genomic deletion that includes the gene encoding normocyte-binding protein Xa (NBPXa) in parasites growing in cynomolgus RBCs but not in human RBCs. Experimental deletion of the NBPXa gene in parasites adapted to growth in human RBCs (which retain the ability to grow in cynomolgus RBCs) restricted them to cynomolgus RBCs, demonstrating that this gene is selectively required for parasite multiplication and growth in human RBCs. NBPXa-null parasites could bind to human RBCs, but invasion of these cells was severely impaired. Therefore, NBPXa is identified as a key mediator of P. knowlesi human infection and may be a target for vaccine development against this emerging pathogen. PMID:27303038

  8. Extracellular ATP triggers proteolysis and cytosolic Ca2+ rise in Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium has a complex cell biology and it is essential to dissect the cell-signalling pathways underlying its survival within the host. Methods Using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide substrate Abz-AIKFFARQ-EDDnp and Fluo4/AM, the effects of extracellular ATP on triggering proteolysis and Ca2+ signalling in Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii malaria parasites were investigated. Results The protease activity was blocked in the presence of the purinergic receptor blockers suramin (50 μM) and PPADS (50 μM) or the extracellular and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA (5 mM) and BAPTA/AM (25, 100, 200 and 500 μM), respectively for P. yoelii and P. berghei. Addition of ATP (50, 70, 200 and 250 μM) to isolated parasites previously loaded with Fluo4/AM in a Ca2+-containing medium led to an increase in cytosolic calcium. This rise was blocked by pre-incubating the parasites with either purinergic antagonists PPADS (50 μM), TNP-ATP (50 μM) or the purinergic blockers KN-62 (10 μM) and Ip5I (10 μM). Incubating P. berghei infected cells with KN-62 (200 μM) resulted in a changed profile of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) processing as revealed by western blot assays. Moreover incubating P. berghei for 17 h with KN-62 (10 μM) led to an increase in rings forms (82% ± 4, n = 11) and a decrease in trophozoite forms (18% ± 4, n = 11). Conclusions The data clearly show that purinergic signalling modulates P. berghei protease(s) activity and that MSP1 is one target in this pathway. PMID:22420332

  9. Characterization of class II apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activities in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Haltiwanger, B M; Karpinich, N O; Taraschi, T F

    2000-01-01

    We have reported that the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, repairs apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites on DNA by a long-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway. This biology is different from that in mammalian cells, which predominantly repair AP sites by a DNA-polymerase-beta-dependent, one-nucleotide patch BER pathway. As a starting point for the identification and biochemical characterization of the enzymes involved in the parasite DNA BER pathway, we chose characterization of the AP endonuclease activity in a P. falciparum cell-free lysate. Evidence is provided for the presence of class II, Mg(2+)-dependent and independent AP endonucleases in the parasite lysate. The investigation of the processing of AP sites in Plasmodium will provide new information about long-patch BER pathways; if they are different from those in the human host they might provide a new target for anti-malarial chemotherapy. PMID:10600642

  10. Sexual development in Plasmodium parasites: knowing when it's time to commit.

    PubMed

    Josling, Gabrielle A; Llinás, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is a devastating infectious disease that is caused by blood-borne apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. These pathogens have a complex lifecycle, which includes development in the anopheline mosquito vector and in the liver and red blood cells of mammalian hosts, a process which takes days to weeks, depending on the Plasmodium species. Productive transmission between the mammalian host and the mosquito requires transitioning between asexual and sexual forms of the parasite. Blood- stage parasites replicate cyclically and are mostly asexual, although a small fraction of these convert into male and female sexual forms (gametocytes) in each reproductive cycle. Despite many years of investigation, the molecular processes that elicit sexual differentiation have remained largely unknown. In this Review, we highlight several important recent discoveries that have identified epigenetic factors and specific transcriptional regulators of gametocyte commitment and development, providing crucial insights into this obligate cellular differentiation process. PMID:26272409

  11. Large-scale growth of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dalton, John P; Demanga, Corine G; Reiling, Sarah J; Wunderlich, Juliane; Eng, Jenny W L; Rohrbach, Petra

    2012-01-01

    We describe methods for the large-scale in vitro culturing of synchronous and asynchronous blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites in sterile disposable plastic bioreactors controlled by wave-induced motion (wave bioreactor). These cultures perform better than static flask cultures in terms of preserving parasite cell cycle synchronicity and reducing the number of multiple-infected erythrocytes. The straight-forward methods described here will facilitate the large scale production of malaria parasites for antigen and organelle isolation and characterisation, for the high throughput screening of compound libraries with whole cells or extracts, and the development of live- or whole-cell malaria vaccines under good manufacturing practice compliant standards.

  12. Geographic genetic differentiation of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Jennifer M; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Schall, Jos J

    2010-04-01

    Gene flow, and resulting degree of genetic differentiation among populations, will shape geographic genetic patterns and possibly local adaptation of parasites and their hosts. Some studies of Plasmodium falciparum in humans show substantial differentiation of the parasite in locations separated by only a few kilometers, a paradoxical finding for a parasite in a large, mobile host. We examined genetic differentiation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis, at 8 sites in northern California, with the use of variable microsatellite markers for both species. These lizards are small and highly territorial, so we expected local genetic differentiation of both parasite and lizard. Populations of P. mexicanum were found to be differentiated by analysis of 5 markers (F(st) values >0.05-0.10) over distances as short as 230-400 m, and greatly differentiated (F(st) values >0.25) for sites separated by approximately 10 km. In contrast, the lizard host had no, or very low, levels of differentiation for 3 markers, even for sites >40 km distant. Thus, gene flow for the lizard was great, but despite the mobility of the vertebrate host, the parasite was locally genetically distinct. This discrepancy could result if infected lizards move little, but their noninfected relatives were more mobile. Previous studies on the virulence of P. mexicanum for fence lizards support this hypothesis. However, changing prevalence of the parasite, without changes in density of the lizard, could also result in this pattern.

  13. Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Chebon, Lorna J.; Ngalah, Bidii S.; Ingasia, Luicer A.; Juma, Dennis W.; Muiruri, Peninah; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Opot, Benjamin; Mbuba, Emmanuel; Imbuga, Mabel; Akala, Hoseah M.; Bulimo, Wallace; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya. PMID:27611315

  14. Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites.

    PubMed

    Chebon, Lorna J; Ngalah, Bidii S; Ingasia, Luicer A; Juma, Dennis W; Muiruri, Peninah; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Opot, Benjamin; Mbuba, Emmanuel; Imbuga, Mabel; Akala, Hoseah M; Bulimo, Wallace; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya. PMID:27611315

  15. Mitochondrial genes support a common origin of rodent malaria parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most acute form of human malaria. Most recent studies demonstrate that it belongs to a monophyletic lineage specialized in the infection of great ape hosts. Several other Plasmodium species cause human malaria. They all belong to another distinct lineage of parasites which infect a wider range of primate species. All known mammalian malaria parasites appear to be monophyletic. Their clade includes the two previous distinct lineages of parasites of primates and great apes, one lineage of rodent parasites, and presumably Hepatocystis species. Plasmodium falciparum and great ape parasites are commonly thought to be the sister-group of all other mammal-infecting malaria parasites. However, some studies supported contradictory origins and found parasites of great apes to be closer to those of rodents, or to those of other primates. Results To distinguish between these mutually exclusive hypotheses on the origin of Plasmodium falciparum and its great ape infecting relatives, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on a data set of three mitochondrial genes from 33 to 84 malaria parasites. We showed that malarial mitochondrial genes have evolved slowly and are compositionally homogeneous. We estimated their phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods. Inferred trees were checked for their robustness to the (i) site selection, (ii) assumptions of various probabilistic models, and (iii) taxon sampling. Our results robustly support a common ancestry of rodent parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes. Conclusions Our results refute the most common view of the origin of great ape malaria parasites, and instead demonstrate the robustness of a less well-established phylogenetic hypothesis, under which Plasmodium falciparum and its relatives infecting great apes are closely related to rodent parasites. This study sheds light on the evolutionary history

  16. CRISPR-mediated genome editing of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Marcus Cs; Fidock, David A

    2014-01-01

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas system is revolutionizing genome editing in a variety of organisms. The system has now been used to manipulate the genome of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal malaria-causing species. The ability to generate gene deletions or nucleotide substitutions rapidly and economically promises to accelerate the analysis of novel drug targets and to help elucidate the function of specific genes or gene families, while complementing genome-wide association studies.

  17. Various pfcrt and pfmdr1 genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum cocirculate with P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax in northern Angola.

    PubMed

    Fançony, Cláudia; Gamboa, Dina; Sebastião, Yuri; Hallett, Rachel; Sutherland, Colin; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria has become widely available across Africa. Populations of Plasmodium falciparum that were previously dominated by chloroquine (CQ)-resistant genotypes are now under different drug selection pressures. P. malariae, P. ovale curtisi, and P. ovale wallikeri are sympatric with P. falciparum across the continent and are frequently present as coinfections. The prevalence of human Plasmodium species was determined by PCR using DNA from blood spots collected during a cross-sectional survey in northern Angola. P. falciparum was genotyped at resistance-associated loci in pfcrt and pfmdr1 by real-time PCR or by direct sequencing of amplicons. Of the 3,316 samples collected, 541 (16.3%) contained Plasmodium species infections; 477 (88.2%) of these were P. falciparum alone, 6.5% were P. falciparum and P. malariae together, and 1.1% were P. vivax alone. The majority of the remainder (3.7%) harbored P. ovale curtisi or P. ovale wallikeri alone or in combination with other species. Of 430 P. falciparum isolates genotyped for pfcrt, 61.6% carried the wild-type allele CVMNK at codons 72 to 76, either alone or in combination with the resistant allele CVIET. No other pfcrt allele was found. Wild-type alleles dominated at codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246 of the pfmdr1 locus among the sequenced isolates. In contrast to previous studies, P. falciparum in the study area comprises an approximately equal mix of genotypes associated with CQ sensitivity and with CQ resistance, suggesting either lower drug pressure due to poor access to treatment in rural areas or a rapid impact of the policy change away from the use of standard monotherapies.

  18. Malaria in a tertiary health care facility of Central India with special reference to severe vivax: implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Agrawal, Avyact; Singh, Neeru

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is now recognized as a cause of severe and fatal infection in many parts of the world. This prospective observational study was undertaken in a tertiary health setting to understand the spectrum of the disease burden and associated complications due to P. vivax malaria in central India. A malaria clinic under Regional Medical Research Centre for Tribals is operational at Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College and Hospital, Jabalpur in central India, where all fever cases and cases with history of fever were referred for screening of malaria parasite by microscopy and rapid diagnostic test kits. Confirmation of all the cases was done by PCR targeting 18s ribosomal RNA gene of the parasite to exclude mixed infection with P. falciparum. Severe vivax malaria was found in 22 (11.1%) out of 198 vivax patients. Cerebral malaria, seizures, severe malaria anaemia, and respiratory distress each were observed in 32% subjects. Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome was common (36%). Mortality was recorded in two patients and neurological sequelae were also observed in two patients at the time of discharge. This is the first report from Central India where P. vivax has been shown to be associated with severe signs of malaria. Severe vivax malaria is a relatively new clinical entity and further studies from different parts of the world are needed to understand clinical spectrum and burden of P. vivax not only for successful treatment, but also for designing and developing effective malaria control measures. PMID:24188240

  19. DNA repair mechanisms and their biological roles in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew H; Symington, Lorraine S; Fidock, David A

    2014-09-01

    Research into the complex genetic underpinnings of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is entering a new era with the arrival of site-specific genome engineering. Previously restricted only to model systems but now expanded to most laboratory organisms, and even to humans for experimental gene therapy studies, this technology allows researchers to rapidly generate previously unattainable genetic modifications. This technological advance is dependent on DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), specifically homologous recombination in the case of Plasmodium. Our understanding of DSBR in malaria parasites, however, is based largely on assumptions and knowledge taken from other model systems, which do not always hold true in Plasmodium. Here we describe the causes of double-strand breaks, the mechanisms of DSBR, and the differences between model systems and P. falciparum. These mechanisms drive basic parasite functions, such as meiosis, antigen diversification, and copy number variation, and allow the parasite to continually evolve in the contexts of host immune pressure and drug selection. Finally, we discuss the new technologies that leverage DSBR mechanisms to accelerate genetic investigations into this global infectious pathogen.

  20. High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa

    PubMed Central

    Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L.; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

    2013-01-01

    As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems—particularly as pollinators and insectivores—and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats. PMID:24101466

  1. Artesunate Tolerance in Transgenic Plasmodium falciparum Parasites Overexpressing a Tryptophan-Rich Protein▿†

    PubMed Central

    Deplaine, Guillaume; Lavazec, Catherine; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Natalang, Onguma; Perrot, Sylvie; Guillotte-Blisnick, Micheline; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Pradines, Bruno; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their rapid, potent action on young and mature intraerythrocytic stages, artemisinin derivatives are central to drug combination therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the evidence for emerging parasite resistance/tolerance to artemisinins in southeast Asia is of great concern. A better understanding of artemisinin-related drug activity and resistance mechanisms is urgently needed. A recent transcriptome study of parasites exposed to artesunate led us to identify a series of genes with modified levels of expression in the presence of the drug. The gene presenting the largest mRNA level increase, Pf10_0026 (PArt), encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was chosen for further study. Immunodetection with PArt-specific sera showed that artesunate induced a dose-dependent increase of the protein level. Bioinformatic analysis showed that PArt belongs to a Plasmodium-specific gene family characterized by the presence of a tryptophan-rich domain with a novel hidden Markov model (HMM) profile. Gene disruption could not be achieved, suggesting an essential function. Transgenic parasites overexpressing PArt protein were generated and exhibited tolerance to a spike exposure to high doses of artesunate, with increased survival and reduced growth retardation compared to that of wild-type-treated controls. These data indicate the involvement of PArt in parasite defense mechanisms against artesunate. This is the first report of genetically manipulated parasites displaying a stable and reproducible decreased susceptibility to artesunate, providing new possibilities to investigate the parasite response to artemisinins. PMID:21464256

  2. Human red blood cell-adapted Plasmodium knowlesi parasites: a new model system for malaria research

    PubMed Central

    Grüring, Christof; Moon, Robert W.; Lim, Caeul; Holder, Anthony A.; Blackman, Michael J.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite primarily infecting macaque species in Southeast Asia. Although its capacity to infect humans has been recognized since the early part of the last century, it has recently become evident that human infections are widespread and potentially life threatening. Historically, P. knowlesi has proven to be a powerful tool in early studies of malaria parasites, providing key breakthroughs in understanding many aspects of Plasmodium biology. However, the necessity to grow the parasite either in macaques or in vitro using macaque blood restricted research to laboratories with access to these resources. The recent adaptation of P. knowlesi to grow and proliferate in vitro in human red blood cells (RBCs) is therefore a substantial step towards revitalizing and expanding research on P. knowlesi. Furthermore, the development of a highly efficient transfection system to genetically modify the parasite makes P. knowlesi an ideal model to study parasite biology. In this review we elaborate on the importance of P. knowlesi in earlier phases of malaria research and highlight the future potential of the newly available human adapted P. knowlesi parasite lines. PMID:24506567

  3. High diversity of West African bat malaria parasites and a tight link with rodent Plasmodium taxa.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Juliane; Perkins, Susan L; Decher, Jan; Leendertz, Fabian H; Fahr, Jakob; Weber, Natalie; Matuschewski, Kai

    2013-10-22

    As the only volant mammals, bats are captivating for their high taxonomic diversity, for their vital roles in ecosystems--particularly as pollinators and insectivores--and, more recently, for their important roles in the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic viral diseases. Genome sequences have identified evidence for a striking expansion of and positive selection in gene families associated with immunity. Bats have also been known to be hosts of malaria parasites for over a century, and as hosts, they possess perhaps the most phylogenetically diverse set of hemosporidian genera and species. To provide a molecular framework for the study of these parasites, we surveyed bats in three remote areas of the Upper Guinean forest ecosystem. We detected four distinct genera of hemosporidian parasites: Plasmodium, Polychromophilus, Nycteria, and Hepatocystis. Intriguingly, the two species of Plasmodium in bats fall within the clade of rodent malaria parasites, indicative of multiple host switches across mammalian orders. We show that Nycteria species form a very distinct phylogenetic group and that Hepatocystis parasites display an unusually high diversity and prevalence in epauletted fruit bats. The diversity and high prevalence of novel lineages of chiropteran hemosporidians underscore the exceptional position of bats among all other mammalian hosts of hemosporidian parasites and support hypotheses of pathogen tolerance consistent with the exceptional immunology of bats.

  4. Translational repression of the cpw-wpc gene family in the malaria parasite Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pavitra N; Santos, Jorge M; Pain, Arnab; Templeton, Thomas J; Mair, Gunnar R

    2016-10-01

    The technical challenges of working with the sexual stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium have hindered the characterization of sexual stage antigens in the quest for a successful malaria transmission-blocking vaccine. One such predicted and largely uncharacterized group of sexual stage candidate antigens is the CPW-WPC family of proteins. CPW-WPC proteins are named for a characteristic domain that contains two conserved motifs, CPxxW and WPC. Conserved across Apicomplexa, this family is also present earlier in the Alveolata in the free-living, non-parasitophorous, photosynthetic chromerids, Chromera and Vitrella. In Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei blood stage parasites, the transcripts of all nine cpw-wpc genes have been detected in gametocytes. RNA immunoprecipitation followed by reverse transcriptase-PCR reveals all P. berghei cpw-wpc transcripts to be bound by the translational repressors DOZI and CITH, and thus are likely under translational control prior to transmission from the rodent host to the mosquito vector in P. berghei. The GFP tagging of two endogenous P. berghei genes confirmed translational silencing in the gametocyte and translation in ookinetes. By establishing a luciferase transgene assay, we show that the 3' untranslated region of PF3D7_1331400 controls protein expression of this reporter in P. falciparum gametocytes. Our analyses suggest that cpw-wpc genes are translationally silenced in gametocytes across Plasmodium spp. and activated during ookinete formation and thus may have a role in transmission to the mosquito.

  5. Influence of Plasmodium vivax malaria on the relations between the osmotic stability of human erythrocyte membrane and hematological and biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas Netto, Rita de Cássia; Fabbri, Camila; de Freitas, Mariana Vaini; Bernardino Neto, Morun; Garrote-Filho, Mário Silva; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Lima, Emerson Silva; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the influence of infection by Plasmodium vivax on the relations between hematological and biochemical variables and the osmotic stability of the erythrocyte membrane in a Brazilian Amazon population. A total of 72 patients with P. vivax malaria were included in the study and invited to return after 14 days, post-treatment with chloroquine and primaquine, for clinical and laboratorial reevaluations. The osmotic stability of the erythrocyte membrane was analyzed by nonlinear regression of the dependency of the absorbance of hemoglobin, released with hemolysis, as a function of the salt concentration, and it was represented by the inverse of the salt concentration at the midpoint of the curve (1/H 50) and by the variation of salt concentration, which promotes lysis (dX). Bivariate and multivariate methods were used in the analysis of the results. Prior to treatment of the disease, the erythrocytes showed greater stability, probably due to the natural selection of young and also more stable erythrocytes. The bivariate analysis showed that 1/H 50 was positively correlated with red cell distribution width (RDW), urea, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, but negatively associated with albumin, HDL-cholesterol, and indirect bilirubin, while dX was negatively associated with the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These associations were confirmed by canonical correlation analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that albumin, urea, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol are the variables with the highest abilities of predicting erythrocyte stability. The bivariate analysis also showed that the hematological index RDW was related to elevated levels of bilirubin and decreased levels of albumin and urea, associated with liver damage resulting from malaria.

  6. Elimination of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in central part of the People's Republic of China: analysis and prediction based on modelling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Shi, Liang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Bergquist, Robert; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-11-01

    Five provinces in central People's Republic of China (P.R. China) have successfully reduced the burden of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in the last 7 years. The results of the Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (APCME) that commenced in 2010 are analysed against the background of the progress reached by the national malaria control programme (NMEP) that was launched in 2006. We examined the epidemiological changes in the number of autochthonous cases over time and discuss the feasibility of achieving the goal of malaria elimination by 2020. There was a total decline of 34,320 malaria cases between 2006 and 2012 arriving at an average annual incidence of 0.04 per 10,000 people by 2012. At the same time, the number of counties reporting autochthonous cases declined from 290 to 19. Spatial autocorrelation and Bayesian modelling were used to evaluate the datasets and predict the spatio-temporal pattern in the near future. The former approach showed that spatial clusters of P. vivax malaria existed in the study region during the study period, while the risk prediction map generated by the Bayesian model indicates that only sporadic malaria cases will appear during in the future. The results suggest that the initial NMEP approach and the follow-up APCME strategy have played a key role in reducing the threat of malaria in central P.R. China. However, to achieve the goal of malaria elimination by the end of the current decade, intervention plans must be adjusted with attention paid to those endemic counties still at risk according to the prediction map.

  7. Selective killing of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by a benzylthiazolium dye.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jane X; Winter, Rolf W; Braun, Theodore P; Osei-Agyemang, Myralyn; Hinrichs, David J; Riscoe, Michael K

    2007-06-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The most virulent form of the disease is caused by Plasmodium falciparum which infects hundreds of millions of people and is responsible for the deaths of 1-2 million individuals each year. An essential part of the parasitic process is the remodeling of the red blood cell membrane and its protein constituents to permit a higher flux of nutrients and waste products into or away from the intracellular parasite. Much of this increased permeability is due to a single type of broad specificity channel variously called the new permeation pathway (NPP), the nutrient channel, and the Plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC). This channel is permeable to a range of low molecular weight solutes both charged and uncharged, with a strong preference for anions. Drugs such as furosemide that are known to block anion-selective channels inhibit PSAC. In this study, we have investigated a dye known as benzothiocarboxypurine, BCP, which had been studied as a possible diagnostic aid given its selective uptake by P. falciparum infected red cells. We found that the dye enters parasitized red cells via the furosemide-inhibitable PSAC, forms a brightly fluorescent complex with parasite nucleic acids, and is selectively toxic to infected cells. Our study describes an antimalarial agent that exploits the altered permeability of Plasmodium-infected red cells as a means to killing the parasite and highlights a chemical reagent that may prove useful in high throughput screening of compounds for inhibitors of the channel.

  8. The Calcium Signaling Toolkit of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp

    PubMed Central

    Lourido, Sebastian; Moreno, Silvia N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites have complex life cycles, frequently split between different hosts and reliant on rapid responses as the parasites react to changing environmental conditions. Calcium ion (Ca2+) signaling is consequently essential for the cellular and developmental changes that support apicomplexan parasitism. Apicomplexan genomes reveal a rich repertoire of genes involved in calcium signaling, although many of the genes responsible for observed physiological changes remain unknown. There is evidence, for example, for the presence of a nifedipine-sensitive calcium entry mechanism in Toxoplasma, but the molecular components involved in Ca2+ entry in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, have not been identified. The major calcium stores are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the acidocalcisomes, and the plant-like vacuole in Toxoplasma, or the food vacuole in Plasmodium spp. Pharmacological evidence suggests that Ca2+ release from intracellular stores may be mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) or cyclic ADP ribose (cADPR) although there is no molecular evidence for the presence of receptors for these second messengers in the parasites. Several Ca2+-ATPases are present in apicomplexans and a putative mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ exchanger has been identified. Apicomplexan genomes contain numerous genes encoding Ca2+-binding proteins, with the notable expansion of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), whose study has revealed novel roles in gliding motility, microneme secretion, host cell invasion and egress, and parasite differentiation. Microneme secretion has also been shown to depend on the C2 domain containing protein DOC2 in both Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma, providing further evidence for the complex transduction of Ca2+ signals in these organisms. The characterization of these pathways could lead to the discovery of novel drug targets and to a better understanding of the role of Ca2+ in these parasites. PMID:25605521

  9. Genome editing in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Ghorbal, Mehdi; Gorman, Molly; Macpherson, Cameron Ross; Martins, Rafael Miyazawa; Scherf, Artur; Lopez-Rubio, Jose-Juan

    2014-08-01

    Genome manipulation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remains largely intractable and improved genomic tools are needed to further understand pathogenesis and drug resistance. We demonstrated the CRISPR-Cas9 system for use in P. falciparum by disrupting chromosomal loci and generating marker-free, single-nucleotide substitutions with high efficiency. Additionally, an artemisinin-resistant strain was generated by introducing a previously implicated polymorphism, thus illustrating the value of efficient genome editing in malaria research.

  10. An ancient protein phosphatase, SHLP1, is critical to microneme development in Plasmodium ookinetes and parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Guttery, David S; Poulin, Benoit; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Ferguson, David J P; Wall, Richard J; Brady, Declan; Holder, Anthony A; Szöőr, Balázs; Tewari, Rita

    2013-03-28

    Signaling pathways controlled by reversible protein phosphorylation (catalyzed by kinases and phosphatases) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium are of great interest, for both increased understanding of parasite biology and identification of novel drug targets. Here, we report a functional analysis in Plasmodium of an ancient bacterial Shewanella-like protein phosphatase (SHLP1) found only in bacteria, fungi, protists, and plants. SHLP1 is abundant in asexual blood stages and expressed at all stages of the parasite life cycle. shlp1 deletion results in a reduction in ookinete (zygote) development, microneme formation, and complete ablation of oocyst formation, thereby blocking parasite transmission. This defect is carried by the female gamete and can be rescued by direct injection of mutant ookinetes into the mosquito hemocoel, where oocysts develop. This study emphasizes the varied functions of SHLP1 in Plasmodium ookinete biology and suggests that it could be a novel drug target for blocking parasite transmission.

  11. Species concepts and malaria parasites: detecting a cryptic species of Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S L

    2000-11-22

    Species of malaria parasite (phylum Apicomplexa: genus Plasmodium) have traditionally been described using the similarity species concept (based primarily on differences in morphological or life-history characteristics). The biological species concept (reproductive isolation) and phylogenetic species concept (based on monophyly) have not been used before in defining species of Plasmodium. Plasmodium azurophilum, described from Anolis lizards in the eastern Caribbean, is actually a two-species cryptic complex. The parasites were studied from eight islands, from Puerto Rico in the north to Grenada in the south. Morphology of the two species is very similar (differences are indistinguishable to the eye), but one infects only erythrocytes and the other only white blood cells. Molecular data for the cytochrome b gene reveal that the two forms are reproductively isolated; distinct haplotypes are present on each island and are never shared between the erythrocyte-infecting and leucocyte-infecting species. Each forms a monophyletic lineage indicating that they diverged before becoming established in the anoles of the eastern Caribbean. This comparison of the similarity, biological and phylogenetic species concepts for malaria parasites reveals the limited value of using only similarity measures in defining protozoan species. PMID:11413654

  12. Towards genome-wide experimental genetics in the in vivo malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Joachim M.; Kooij, Taco W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium berghei was identified as a parasite of thicket rats (Grammomys dolichurus) and Anopheles dureni mosquitoes in African highland forests. Successful adaptation to a range of rodent and mosquito species established P. berghei as a malaria model parasite. The introduction of stable transfection technology, permitted classical reverse genetics strategies and thus systematic functional profiling of the gene repertoire. In the past 10 years following the publication of the P. berghei genome sequence, many new tools for experimental genetics approaches have been developed and existing ones have been improved. The infection of mice is the principal limitation towards a genome-wide repository of mutant parasite lines. In the past few years, there have been some promising and most welcome developments that allow rapid selection and isolation of recombinant parasites while simultaneously minimising animal usage. Here, we provide an overview of all the currently available tools and methods. PMID:25789828

  13. Towards genome-wide experimental genetics in the in vivo malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Matz, Joachim M; Kooij, Taco W A

    2015-03-01

    Plasmodium berghei was identified as a parasite of thicket rats (Grammomys dolichurus) and Anopheles dureni mosquitoes in African highland forests. Successful adaptation to a range of rodent and mosquito species established P. berghei as a malaria model parasite. The introduction of stable transfection technology, permitted classical reverse genetics strategies and thus systematic functional profiling of the gene repertoire. In the past 10 years following the publication of the P. berghei genome sequence, many new tools for experimental genetics approaches have been developed and existing ones have been improved. The infection of mice is the principal limitation towards a genome-wide repository of mutant parasite lines. In the past few years, there have been some promising and most welcome developments that allow rapid selection and isolation of recombinant parasites while simultaneously minimising animal usage. Here, we provide an overview of all the currently available tools and methods.

  14. Distinct Roles of Plasmodium Rhomboid 1 in Parasite Development and Malaria Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Coppens, Isabelle; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Invasion of host cells by the malaria parasite involves recognition and interaction with cell-surface receptors. A wide variety of parasite surface proteins participate in this process, most of which are specific to the parasite's particular invasive form. Upon entry, the parasite has to dissociate itself from the host-cell receptors. One mechanism by which it does so is by shedding its surface ligands using specific enzymes. Rhomboid belongs to a family of serine proteases that cleave cell-surface proteins within their transmembrane domains. Here we identify and partially characterize a Plasmodium berghei rhomboid protease (PbROM1) that plays distinct roles during parasite development. PbROM1 localizes to the surface of sporozoites after salivary gland invasion. In blood stage merozoites, PbROM1 localizes to the apical end where proteins involved in invasion are also present. Our genetic analysis suggests that PbROM1 functions in the invasive stages of parasite development. Whereas wild-type P. berghei is lethal to mice, animals infected with PbROM1 null mutants clear the parasites efficiently and develop long-lasting protective immunity. The results indicate that P. berghei Rhomboid 1 plays a nonessential but important role during parasite development and identify rhomboid proteases as potential targets for disease control. PMID:19148267

  15. Disruption of Parasite hmgb2 Gene Attenuates Plasmodium berghei ANKA Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lawson-Hogban, Nadou; Boisson, Bertrand; Soares, Miguel P.; Péronet, Roger; Smith, Leanna; Ménard, Robert; Huerre, Michel; Mécheri, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic high-mobility-group-box (HMGB) proteins are nuclear factors involved in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. When released into the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. We found that the Plasmodium genome encodes two genuine HMGB factors, Plasmodium HMGB1 and HMGB2, that encompass, like their human counterparts, a proinflammatory domain. Given that these proteins are released from parasitized red blood cells, we then hypothesized that Plasmodium HMGB might contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), a lethal neuroinflammatory syndrome that develops in C57BL/6 (susceptible) mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and that in many aspects resembles human cerebral malaria elicited by P. falciparum infection. The pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria was suppressed in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA lacking the hmgb2 gene (Δhmgb2 ANKA), an effect associated with a reduction of histological brain lesions and with lower expression levels of several proinflammatory genes. The incidence of ECM in pbhmgb2-deficient mice was restored by the administration of recombinant PbHMGB2. Protection from experimental cerebral malaria in Δhmgb2 ANKA-infected mice was associated with reduced sequestration in the brain of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, including CD8+ granzyme B+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, and, to some extent, neutrophils. This was consistent with a reduced parasite sequestration in the brain, lungs, and spleen, though to a lesser extent than in wild-type P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. In summary, Plasmodium HMGB2 acts as an alarmin that contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. PMID:25916985

  16. Disruption of Parasite hmgb2 Gene Attenuates Plasmodium berghei ANKA Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Briquet, Sylvie; Lawson-Hogban, Nadou; Boisson, Bertrand; Soares, Miguel P; Péronet, Roger; Smith, Leanna; Ménard, Robert; Huerre, Michel; Mécheri, Salah; Vaquero, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic high-mobility-group-box (HMGB) proteins are nuclear factors involved in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. When released into the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. We found that the Plasmodium genome encodes two genuine HMGB factors, Plasmodium HMGB1 and HMGB2, that encompass, like their human counterparts, a proinflammatory domain. Given that these proteins are released from parasitized red blood cells, we then hypothesized that Plasmodium HMGB might contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), a lethal neuroinflammatory syndrome that develops in C57BL/6 (susceptible) mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and that in many aspects resembles human cerebral malaria elicited by P. falciparum infection. The pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria was suppressed in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA lacking the hmgb2 gene (Δhmgb2 ANKA), an effect associated with a reduction of histological brain lesions and with lower expression levels of several proinflammatory genes. The incidence of ECM in pbhmgb2-deficient mice was restored by the administration of recombinant PbHMGB2. Protection from experimental cerebral malaria in Δhmgb2 ANKA-infected mice was associated with reduced sequestration in the brain of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, including CD8(+) granzyme B(+) and CD8(+) IFN-γ(+) cells, and, to some extent, neutrophils. This was consistent with a reduced parasite sequestration in the brain, lungs, and spleen, though to a lesser extent than in wild-type P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. In summary, Plasmodium HMGB2 acts as an alarmin that contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. PMID:25916985

  17. Disruption of Parasite hmgb2 Gene Attenuates Plasmodium berghei ANKA Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Briquet, Sylvie; Lawson-Hogban, Nadou; Boisson, Bertrand; Soares, Miguel P; Péronet, Roger; Smith, Leanna; Ménard, Robert; Huerre, Michel; Mécheri, Salah; Vaquero, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Eukaryotic high-mobility-group-box (HMGB) proteins are nuclear factors involved in chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. When released into the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. We found that the Plasmodium genome encodes two genuine HMGB factors, Plasmodium HMGB1 and HMGB2, that encompass, like their human counterparts, a proinflammatory domain. Given that these proteins are released from parasitized red blood cells, we then hypothesized that Plasmodium HMGB might contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), a lethal neuroinflammatory syndrome that develops in C57BL/6 (susceptible) mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and that in many aspects resembles human cerebral malaria elicited by P. falciparum infection. The pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria was suppressed in C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA lacking the hmgb2 gene (Δhmgb2 ANKA), an effect associated with a reduction of histological brain lesions and with lower expression levels of several proinflammatory genes. The incidence of ECM in pbhmgb2-deficient mice was restored by the administration of recombinant PbHMGB2. Protection from experimental cerebral malaria in Δhmgb2 ANKA-infected mice was associated with reduced sequestration in the brain of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, including CD8(+) granzyme B(+) and CD8(+) IFN-γ(+) cells, and, to some extent, neutrophils. This was consistent with a reduced parasite sequestration in the brain, lungs, and spleen, though to a lesser extent than in wild-type P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. In summary, Plasmodium HMGB2 acts as an alarmin that contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria.

  18. A genomic glimpse of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasmodium parasites are causative agents of malaria which affects >500 million people and claims ~2 million lives annually. The completion of Plasmodium genome sequencing and availability of PlasmoDB database has provided a platform for systematic study of parasite genome. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are pivotal enzymes for protein translation and other vital cellular processes. We report an extensive analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genome to identify and classify aaRSs in this organism. Results Using various computational and bioinformatics tools, we have identified 37 aaRSs in P. falciparum. Our key observations are: (i) fraction of proteome dedicated to aaRSs in P. falciparum is very high compared to many other organisms; (ii) 23 out of 37 Pf-aaRS sequences contain signal peptides possibly directing them to different cellular organelles; (iii) expression profiles of Pf-aaRSs vary considerably at various life cycle stages of the parasite; (iv) several PfaaRSs posses very unusual domain architectures; (v) phylogenetic analyses reveal evolutionary relatedness of several parasite aaRSs to bacterial and plants aaRSs; (vi) three dimensional structural modelling has provided insights which could be exploited in inhibitor discovery against parasite aaRSs. Conclusion We have identified 37 Pf-aaRSs based on our bioinformatics analysis. Our data reveal several unique attributes in this protein family. We have annotated all 37 Pf-aaRSs based on predicted localization, phylogenetics, domain architectures and their overall protein expression profiles. The sets of distinct features elaborated in this work will provide a platform for experimental dissection of this family of enzymes, possibly for the discovery of novel drugs against malaria. PMID:20042123

  19. A mathematical model for Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission: estimation of the impact of transmission-blocking immunity in an endemic area.

    PubMed Central

    De Zoysa, A. P.; Mendis, C.; Gamage-Mendis, A. C.; Weerasinghe, S.; Herath, P. R.; Mendis, K. N.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a multi-state mathematical model to describe the transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria; the model accommodates variable transmission-blocking/enhancing immunity during the course of a blood infection, a short memory for boosting immunity, and relapses. Using the model, we simulated the incidence of human malaria, sporozoite rates in the vector population, and the level of transmission-blocking immunity for the infected population over a period of time. Field data from an epidemiological study conducted in Kataragama in the south of Sri Lanka were used to test the results obtained. The incidence of malaria during the study period was simulated satisfactorily. The impact of naturally-acquired transmission-blocking immunity on malaria transmission under different vectorial capacities was also simulated. The results show that at low vectorial capacities, e.g., just above the threshold for transmission, the effect of transmission-blocking immunity is very significant; however, the effect is lower at higher vectorial capacities. PMID:1786621

  20. Analysis of Antibodies Directed against Merozoite Surface Protein 1 of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Woehlbier, Ute; Epp, Christian; Kauth, Christian W.; Lutz, Rolf; Long, Carole A.; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Kouyaté, Bocar; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates; Bujard, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The 190-kDa merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum, an essential component in the parasite's life cycle, is a primary candidate for a malaria vaccine. Rabbit antibodies elicited by the heterologously produced MSP-1 processing products p83, p30, p38, and p42, derived from strain 3D7, were analyzed for the potential to inhibit in vitro erythrocyte invasion by the parasite and parasite growth. Our data show that (i) epitopes recognized by antibodies, which inhibit parasite replication, are distributed throughout the entire MSP-1 molecule; (ii) when combined, antibodies specific for different regions of MSP-1 inhibit in a strictly additive manner; (iii) anti-MSP-1 antibodies interfere with erythrocyte invasion as well as with the intraerythrocytic growth of the parasite; and (iv) antibodies raised against MSP-1 of strain 3D7 strongly cross-inhibit replication of the heterologous strain FCB-1. Accordingly, anti-MSP-1 antibodies appear to be capable of interfering with parasite multiplication at more than one level. Since the overall immunogenicity profile of MSP-1 in rabbits closely resembles that found in sera of Aotus monkeys immunized with parasite-derived MSP-1 and of humans semi-immune to malaria from whom highly inhibiting antigen-specific antibodies were recovered, we consider the findings reported here to be relevant for the development of MSP-1-based vaccines against malaria. PMID:16428781

  1. Analysis of antibodies directed against merozoite surface protein 1 of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Woehlbier, Ute; Epp, Christian; Kauth, Christian W; Lutz, Rolf; Long, Carole A; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Kouyaté, Bocar; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates; Bujard, Hermann

    2006-02-01

    The 190-kDa merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum, an essential component in the parasite's life cycle, is a primary candidate for a malaria vaccine. Rabbit antibodies elicited by the heterologously produced MSP-1 processing products p83, p30, p38, and p42, derived from strain 3D7, were analyzed for the potential to inhibit in vitro erythrocyte invasion by the parasite and parasite growth. Our data show that (i) epitopes recognized by antibodies, which inhibit parasite replication, are distributed throughout the entire MSP-1 molecule; (ii) when combined, antibodies specific for different regions of MSP-1 inhibit in a strictly additive manner; (iii) anti-MSP-1 antibodies interfere with erythrocyte invasion as well as with the intraerythrocytic growth of the parasite; and (iv) antibodies raised against MSP-1 of strain 3D7 strongly cross-inhibit replication of the heterologous strain FCB-1. Accordingly, anti-MSP-1 antibodies appear to be capable of interfering with parasite multiplication at more than one level. Since the overall immunogenicity profile of MSP-1 in rabbits closely resembles that found in sera of Aotus monkeys immunized with parasite-derived MSP-1 and of humans semi-immune to malaria from whom highly inhibiting antigen-specific antibodies were recovered, we consider the findings reported here to be relevant for the development of MSP-1-based vaccines against malaria.

  2. Phylogeographic Evidence for 2 Genetically Distinct Zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Ruhani; Ahmed, Md Atique; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Sitam, Frankie Anak Thomas; Japning, J Rovie-Ryan; Snounou, Georges; Escalante, Ananias A; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-08-01

    Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and macaques in these regions. Haplotype network analyses of sequences from 2 P. knowlesi genes, type A small subunit ribosomal 18S RNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, showed 2 genetically distinct divergent clusters, 1 from each of the 2 regions of Malaysia. We propose that these parasites represent 2 distinct P. knowlesi types that independently became zoonotic. These types would have evolved after the sea-level rise at the end of the last ice age, which separated Malaysian Borneo from Peninsular Malaysia.

  3. Phylogeographic Evidence for 2 Genetically Distinct Zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Ruhani; Ahmed, Md Atique; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Sitam, Frankie Anak Thomas; Japning, J. Rovie-Ryan; Snounou, Georges; Escalante, Ananias A.

    2016-01-01

    Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and macaques in these regions. Haplotype network analyses of sequences from 2 P. knowlesi genes, type A small subunit ribosomal 18S RNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, showed 2 genetically distinct divergent clusters, 1 from each of the 2 regions of Malaysia. We propose that these parasites represent 2 distinct P. knowlesi types that independently became zoonotic. These types would have evolved after the sea-level rise at the end of the last ice age, which separated Malaysian Borneo from Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:27433965

  4. Large-scale growth of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dalton, John P; Demanga, Corine G; Reiling, Sarah J; Wunderlich, Juliane; Eng, Jenny W L; Rohrbach, Petra

    2012-01-01

    We describe methods for the large-scale in vitro culturing of synchronous and asynchronous blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites in sterile disposable plastic bioreactors controlled by wave-induced motion (wave bioreactor). These cultures perform better than static flask cultures in terms of preserving parasite cell cycle synchronicity and reducing the number of multiple-infected erythrocytes. The straight-forward methods described here will facilitate the large scale production of malaria parasites for antigen and organelle isolation and characterisation, for the high throughput screening of compound libraries with whole cells or extracts, and the development of live- or whole-cell malaria vaccines under good manufacturing practice compliant standards. PMID:22326740

  5. Phylogeographic Evidence for 2 Genetically Distinct Zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Ruhani; Ahmed, Md Atique; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Sitam, Frankie Anak Thomas; Japning, J Rovie-Ryan; Snounou, Georges; Escalante, Ananias A; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-08-01

    Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and macaques in these regions. Haplotype network analyses of sequences from 2 P. knowlesi genes, type A small subunit ribosomal 18S RNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, showed 2 genetically distinct divergent clusters, 1 from each of the 2 regions of Malaysia. We propose that these parasites represent 2 distinct P. knowlesi types that independently became zoonotic. These types would have evolved after the sea-level rise at the end of the last ice age, which separated Malaysian Borneo from Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:27433965

  6. Targeting of a Transporter to the Outer Apicoplast Membrane in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Christopher D.; McFadden, Geoffrey