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Sample records for parasites clonorchis sinensis

  1. Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Park, Hong-Seog; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development, bile chemotaxis, and

  2. Current status and perspectives of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, omics, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ze-Li; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing

    2016-07-06

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is an important food-borne parasitic disease and one of the most common zoonoses. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of C. sinensis infection, and over 15 million are infected worldwide. C. sinensis infection is closely related to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), fibrosis and other human hepatobiliary diseases; thus, clonorchiasis is a serious public health problem in endemic areas. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, disease burden and treatment of clonorchiasis as well as summarizes the techniques for detecting C. sinensis infection in humans and intermediate hosts and vaccine development against clonorchiasis. Newer data regarding the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis and the genome, transcriptome and secretome of C. sinensis are collected, thus providing perspectives for future studies. These advances in research will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

  3. Painless Jaundice Caused by Clonorchis sinensis Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhua; Bao, Wanguo; Jin, Meishan; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A man with only yellowing of the skin and eye sclera was diagnosed with clonorchiasis, which rarely manifested jaundice as the initial symptom. However, because of a lack of evidence for a diagnostic gold standard, the time until definitive diagnosis was more than a week. The diagnostic process relied on inquiring about the patient's history, including the place of residence, dietary habits, and symptoms, as well as on serological findings, an imaging examination, and pathological findings. MRCP and CT results showed mild dilatation of intrahepatic ducts and increased periductal echogenicity. The eggs were ultimately found in stool by water sedimentation method after the negative report through direct smear. DNA sequencing of PCR production of the eggs demonstrated 98-100% homology with ITS2 of Clonorchis sinensis. After anti-parasite medical treatment, the patient's symptoms were gradually relieved. Throughout the diagnostic procedure, besides routine examinations, the sedimentation method or concentration method could be used as a sensitive way for both light and heavy C. sinensis infection in the definite diagnosis.

  4. Cell-Free Expression and In Situ Immobilization of Parasite Proteins from Clonorchis sinensis for Rapid Identification of Antigenic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jung Won; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Shin, Hyun-Il; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards genetic sequencing of human parasites has provided the groundwork for a post-genomic approach to develop novel antigens for the diagnosis and treatment of parasite infections. To fully utilize the genomic data, however, high-throughput methodologies are required for functional analysis of the proteins encoded in the genomic sequences. In this study, we investigated cell-free expression and in situ immobilization of parasite proteins as a novel platform for the discovery of antigenic proteins. PCR-amplified parasite DNA was immobilized on microbeads that were also functionalized to capture synthesized proteins. When the microbeads were incubated in a reaction mixture for cell-free synthesis, proteins expressed from the microbead-immobilized DNA were instantly immobilized on the same microbeads, providing a physical linkage between the genetic information and encoded proteins. This approach of in situ expression and isolation enables streamlined recovery and analysis of cell-free synthesized proteins and also allows facile identification of the genes coding antigenic proteins through direct PCR of the microbead-bound DNA. PMID:26599101

  5. Clonorchis sinensis, an oriental liver fluke, as a human biological agent of cholangiocarcinoma: a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Jong-Bo; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases remain an unarguable public health problem worldwide. Liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is a high risk pathogenic parasitic helminth which is endemic predominantly in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the far eastern parts of Russia, and is still actively transmitted. According to the earlier 8th National Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in 2012, C. sinensis was revealed as the parasite with highest prevalence of 1.86% in general population among all parasite species surveyed in Korea. This fluke is now classified under one of the definite Group 1 human biological agents (carcinogens) by International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) along with two other parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma haematobium. C. sinensis infestation is mainly linked to liver and biliary disorders, especially cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). For the purposes of this mini-review, we will only focus on C. sinensis and review pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of clonorchiasis, disease condition by C. sinensis infestation, and association between C. sinensis infestation and CCA. In this presentation, we briefly consider the current scientific status for progression of CCA by heavy C. sinensis infestation from the food-borne trematode and development of CCA. PMID:27418285

  6. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  7. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

  9. Mitochondrial genomic comparison of Clonorchis sinensis from South Korea with other isolates of this species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daxi; Young, Neil D; Koehler, Anson V; Tan, Patrick; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Korhonen, Pasi K; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-02-22

    Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects >35 million people mainly in China, Vietnam, South Korea and some parts of Russia. The disease-causing agent, Clonorchis sinensis, is a liver fluke of humans and other piscivorous animals, and has a complex aquatic life cycle involving snails and fish intermediate hosts. Chronic infection in humans causes liver disease and associated complications including malignant bile duct cancer. Central to control and to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of the specific identity of the causative agent as well as genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species and that genetic variation within the species is limited, karyotypic variation within C. sinensis among China, Korea (2n=56) and Russian Far East (2n=14) suggests that this taxon might contain sibling species. Here, we assessed and applied a deep sequencing-bioinformatic approach to sequence and define a reference mitochondrial (mt) genome for a particular isolate of C. sinensis from Korea (Cs-k2), to confirm its specific identity, and compared this mt genome with homologous data sets available for this species. Comparative analyses revealed consistency in the number and structure of genes as well as in the lengths of protein-coding genes, and limited genetic variation among isolates of C. sinensis. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences predicted from mt genes showed that representatives of C. sinensis clustered together, with absolute nodal support, to the exclusion of other liver fluke representatives, but sub-structuring within C. sinensis was not well supported. The plan now is to proceed with the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a high quality draft nuclear genome of this defined isolate (Cs-k2) as a basis for a detailed investigation of molecular variation within C. sinensis from disparate

  10. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved in parasitic infections. To identify and characterize miRNAs expressed in adult C. sinensis residing chronically in the biliary tract, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing and bioinformatic predictions with stem-loop real-time PCR analysis. Results Here we report the use of this approach to identify and clone 6 new and 62,512 conserved C. sinensis miRNAs which belonged to 284 families. There was strong bias on families, family members and sequence nucleotides in C. sinensis. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 14 and 22, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle and end of conserved miRNAs. There was no significant "seed region" at the first and ninth positions which were commonly found in human, animals and plants. Categorization of conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs of C. sinensis were still innovated and concentrated along three branches of the phylogenetic tree leading to bilaterians, insects and coelomates. There were two miRNA strategies in C. sinensis for its parasitic life: keeping a large category of miRNA families of different animals and keeping stringent conserved seed regions with high active innovation in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end, which were perfect for the parasite to perform its complex life style and for host changes. Conclusions The present study represented the first large scale characterization of C. sinensis miRNAs, which have implications for understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as miRNA studies of other related species such as

  11. Comparison of ancient and modern Clonorchis sinensis based on ITS1 and ITS2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Qi; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Long, Xiao-Chun; Lei, Jia-Hui; Li, Yong-Long

    2007-02-01

    In 1975, an ancient corpse buried in 167 BC was found at Jiangling County, Hubei Province of China. The eggs of Clonorchis sinensis found in the gall bladder of the corpse were preserved well. In the present paper, we extracted the genomic DNA from the ancient eggs and modern eggs, respectively, and the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) at ribosomal RNA genes were studied. The results show that ITS2 sequences from the ancient sample were identical with those from modern samples, but in ITS1 differences in 15 nucleotide positions were found between the ancient and modern samples. The results demonstrated that it is possible to extract and sequence DNA from ancient parasite eggs. The ITS1 sequence obtained differed from all modern ones available to date. This might indicate sequence divergence through time, or might reflect a sequence polymorphism that may eventually be found also in modern samples.

  12. Comparative biochemical and functional properties of two leucine aminopeptidases of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ju, Jung-Won; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Tong-Soo; Bahk, Young-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAP; EC 3.4.11.1) are a group of metalloexopeptidases, which catalyze the sequential removal of leucine amino acids from the N-termini of the polypeptides or proteins. In this study, we identified two novel genes that encode LAPs of Clonorchis sinensis (CsLAP1 and CsLAP2) and characterized their biochemical and functional properties. Multiple sequence alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 with those of other organisms revealed that typical metal-binding coordinating and active site residues for LAPs were well conserved in CsLAP1 and CsLAP2. Recombinant CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 showed similar biochemical properties such as pH optima at pH 8.0 and stability at neutral pHs. Both enzymes were specifically inhibited by bestatin and showed preferential substrate specificity for Leu-MCA. However, the enzymes differed in that they required different metal ions for maximum activity. Expressions of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 were detected throughout the various developmental stages of C. sinensis, and their transcription levels increased gradually in accordance with the maturation of the parasite. Both enzymes were identified in soluble worm extract of C. sinensis, but not in excretory and secretory products. Immunolocalization studies showed that both enzymes were co-localized to the intestinal epithelial cells and gastrodermis of the parasite. These results collectively suggest that CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 are synthesized in the intestinal epithelial and gastrodermal cells of C. sinensis and may be involved in the final digestion of peptides that hydrolyzed within intestinal lumen followed by absorbed into gastrodermal cells of the parasite.

  13. Molecular differentiation of Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis eggs by multiplex real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4±0.09℃ and 85.9±0.08℃ for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens.

  14. Genetic diversity of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis from Russia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Chelomina, Galina N; Tatonova, Yulia V; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ngo, Ha Duy

    2014-10-01

    Clonorchiasis is a parasitic disease of high public health importance in many countries in southeastern Asia and is caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, the genetic structure and demographic history of its populations has not been sufficiently studied throughout the geographic range of the species and available data are based mainly on partial gene sequencing. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of the complete 1560 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence for geographically isolated C. sinensis populations in Russia and Vietnam, to our knowledge for the first time. The results demonstrated low nucleotide and high haplotype differentiation within and between the two compared regions and a clear geographical vector for the distribution of genetic diversity patterns among the studied populations. These results suggest a deep local adaptation of the parasite to its environment including intermediate hosts and the existence of gene flow across the species' range. Additionally, we have predicted an amino acid substitution in the functional site of the COX1 protein among the Vietnamese populations, which were reported to be difficult to treat with praziquantel. The haplotype networks consisted of several region-specific phylogenetic lineages, the formation of which could have occurred during the most extensive penultimate glaciations in the Pleistocene Epoch. The patterns of genetic diversity and demographics are consistent with population growth of the liver fluke in the late Pleistocene following the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating the lack of a population bottleneck during the recent past in the species' history. The data obtained have important implications for understanding the phylogeography of C. sinensis, its host-parasite interactions, the ability of this parasite to evolve drug resistance, and the epidemiology of clonorchiasis under global climate change.

  15. Clonorchis sinensis Infestation Promotes Three-Dimensional Aggregation and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jihee; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Sun Min; Shin, Yoojin; Chung, Seok; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM). Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs) gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM. PMID:25340585

  16. Interleukin-13 is involved in the formation of liver fibrosis in Clonorchis sinensis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanquan; Liang, Pei; Bian, Meng; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Jinsi; Shang, Mei; Qu, Hongling; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-07-01

    Clonorchiasis is a chronic infection disease often accompanied by formation of liver fibrosis. Previous study has identified that Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) infection and CsRNASET2 (a member of CsESPs) immunization can drive Th2 immune response. IL-13, a multifunctional Th2 cytokine, has been widely confirmed to be profibrotic mediator. We want to determine whether IL-13 is involved in the generation of liver fibrosis during C. sinensis infection. A part of mice were infected with C. sinensis or immunized with CsRNASET2, respectively. Another part of mice were intravenously injected with rIL-13. Liver tissues of C. sinensis-infected mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome, respectively. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of infected mice and rIL-13-treated mice were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, splenocytes of C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice were isolated, respectively. The levels of IL-13 in splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Our results displayed that the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice had serious chronic inflammation and collagen deposition. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice were obviously increased. Splenocytes from both C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice expressed high levels of IL-13. Moreover, rIL-13 treatment markedly promoted the transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1. These data implied that hepatic fibrosis was formed in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice, and IL-13 induced by C. sinensis infection and CsRNASET2 immunization might favor this progression.

  17. STUDIES ON CHEMOTHERAPY AND SERODIAGNOSIS FOR CLONORCHIS SINENSIS INFECTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS, *SERODIAGNOSIS, PARASITIC DISEASES , CHEMOTHERAPY, PARASITIC DISEASES , DOSAGE, TOXICITY, BODY WEIGHT, PATHOLOGY, MORTALITY RATE, HEMATOLOGY, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, BIOASSAY, JAPAN.

  18. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-08-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. The zoonotic, fish-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini.

    PubMed

    Petney, Trevor N; Andrews, Ross H; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Wenz-Mücke, Alexandra; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-11-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini are the three most important liver flukes involved in human health, infecting more than 45 million people worldwide. Both C. sinensis and O. viverrini, and possibly O. felineus, can induce human cholangiocarcinoma as well as inducing other hepatobiliary pathology. Although the life cycles of all three species are similar, only that of O. felineus in Europe remains predominantly zoonotic, while O. felineus in Asia and C. sinensis have a stronger mixture of zoonotic and anthroponotic components in their life cycles. Opisthorchis viverrini from the Mekong area of southeastern Asia is predominantly anthroponotic. Here we discuss the comparative epidemiology of these three taxa comparing in detail the use of first, second and final animal hosts, and consider the potential role of humans in spreading these pathogens. In addition we discuss the genetic structure of all three species in relation to potentially cryptic species complexes.

  20. Inducible nitric oxide synthase response and associated cytokine gene expression in the spleen of mice infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ji-Qing; Yang, Qing-Li; Xue, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-05-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne parasite that induces a permanent increase of nitrosation in the body upon infection. The spleen is an important secondary lymphoid organ for the regulation of immune responses locally and in the whole body. However, the functions and mechanisms of the spleen in nitric oxide (NO) responses after C. sinensis infection remain unknown. In this study, BALB/c mice were infected with 20, 40, and 80 C. sinensis metacercariae to simulate mild, moderate, and severe infections, respectively. We examined the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the spleen and the relevant cytokine transcription in splenocytes from the mice infected with different amounts of metacercariae. The iNOS of the mice infected with 80 metacercariae was expressed in the spleen as early as 10 days post-infection (dpi) and gradually increased until 90 dpi. The iNOS expression in the mice infected with 40 metacercariae was detected only at 45 and 90 dpi, but not in the mice infected with 20 metacercariae. The level of interferon (IFN)-γ messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription in splenocytes significantly increased at 10 and 20 dpi (P < 0.05) in response to mild/moderate infection but gradually decreased to normal levels after 45 dpi. The level of IL-12p35 mRNA transcription did not change at 10 and 20 dpi but significantly decreased after 45 dpi under moderate/severe infection (P < 0.05/0.01/0.001). The level of IL-18 mRNA transcription significantly increased at 10 dpi (P < 0.05/0.01) but significantly decreased after 20 dpi (P < 0.05/0.01/0.001). These results suggest that spleen is an important organ for iNOS/NO responses, which correspond to the severity of C. sinensis infection, but cannot be attributed to the expression of the Th1 cytokines.

  1. [Detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the ground gallbladder stones by microscopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Qiao, Tie; Luo, Xiao-Bing

    2012-08-30

    Sera, feces, bile and gallbladder stones were collected from 179 patients who accepted gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy during the period of January to June 2010 at the general surgery department in the Second People's Hospital of Panyu District in Guangzhou. Rapid colloidal gold immunochromatography was used to detect IgG against Clonorchis sinensis. C. sinensis eggs were examined by fecal direct smear, and in bile sediments and ground gallbladder stones. The results showed that the positive rate of rapid colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay for IgG was 51.4%, and the egg positive rate in feces, bile sediments and gallbladder stones was 30.7%, 44.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The detection rate of fecal direct smear was the lowest, while that of the gallbladder stone examination was the highest (P < 0.05). Those patients with egg-positive feces and/or bile sediments were all with egg-positive gallbladder stones.

  2. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  3. [The reagents kit to detect Metyorchis biis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus--agents of opisthorchiasis using technique of polymerase chain reaction in real-time].

    PubMed

    Seredina, T A; Petrenko, V A; Tronin, A V; Sazonov, A Iu; Sapugol'tseva, O B; Katokhin, A V; Odintsova, E S

    2014-08-01

    The helminths Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis, Metorchis bilis are the agents of opisthorchiasis. The actual diagnostic of parasitic diseases based on microscope analysis of samples of human feces to detect presence of ova of parasites suffers of many shortcomings, in particular low sensitivity especially at earlier stages. The purpose of this study was to compare results of detection of parasites using both classical technique and technique of specific differentiation based on extraction of nucleic acids from samples of human feces and implementation of reaction of amplification of the chosen fragment of DNA with detection of products of polymerase chain reaction in the real time. The study detected 150 out of 165 positive samples and also 6 out of 37 negative samples both validated by coproovoscopy.

  4. Cell-free translational screening of an expression sequence tag library of Clonorchis sinensis for novel antigen discovery.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Devi; Catherine, Christy; Lee, Seung-Won; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Yu Jung; Ro Lee, Myeong; Ju, Jung Won; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2017-01-27

    The rapidly evolving cloning and sequencing technologies have enabled understanding of genomic structure of parasite genomes, opening up new ways of combatting parasite-related diseases. To make the most of the exponentially accumulating genomic data, however, it is crucial to analyze the proteins encoded by these genomic sequences. In this study, we adopted an engineered cell-free protein synthesis system for large-scale expression screening of an expression sequence tag (EST) library of Clonorchis sinensis to identify potential antigens that can be used for diagnosis and treatment of clonorchiasis. To allow high-throughput expression and identification of individual genes comprising the library, a cell-free synthesis reaction was designed such that both the template DNA and the expressed proteins were co-immobilized on the same microbeads, leading to microbead-based linkage of the genotype and phenotype. This reaction configuration allowed streamlined expression, recovery, and analysis of proteins. This approach enabled us to identify 21 antigenic proteins. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017.

  5. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis and the carcinogen dimethylnitrosamine on the proliferation and cell cycle modulation of human epithelial HEK293T cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Min; Kim, June-Sung; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae; Bae, Young Mee

    2008-09-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is one of the most prevalent parasitic helminths in Korea. Although cholangiocarcinoma can be induced by C. sinensis infection, the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. To assess the role of C. sinensis infection in carcinogenesis, an in vitro system was established using the human epithelial cell line HEK293T. In cells exposed to the excretory/secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis and the carcinogen dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), cellular proliferation and the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase increased. Moreover, the expression of the cell cycle proteins E2F1, p-pRb, and cyclin B was dramatically increased when ESP and DMN were added together. Similarly, the transcription factor E2F1 showed its highest level of activity when ESP and DMN were added simultaneously. These findings indicate that DMN and ESP synergistically affect the regulation of cell cycle-related proteins. Our results suggest that exposure to C. sinensis and a small amount of a carcinogen such as DMN can promote carcinogenesis in the bile duct epithelium via uncontrolled cellular proliferation and the upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins.

  6. Investigation on oxidative stress of nitric oxide synthase interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bian, Meng; Xu, Qingxia; Xu, Yanquan; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sheng, Jiahe; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Numerous evidences indicate that excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from liver flukes trigger the generation of free radicals that are associated with the initial pathophysiological responses in host cells. In this study, we first constructed a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs)-infected BALB/c mouse model and examined relative results respectively at 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased with lastingness of infection, while the transcriptional level of inducible NOS (iNOS) significantly increased. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in sera of infected mouse significantly increased versus the healthy control group. These results showed that the liver of C. sinensis-infected mouse was in a state with elevated levels of oxidation stress. Previously, C. sinensis NOS interacting protein coding gene (named CsNOSIP) has been isolated and recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) has been expressed in Escherichia coli, which has been confirmed to be a component present in CsESPs and confirmed to play important roles in immune regulation of the host. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of rCsNOSIP on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activated RAW264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. We found that endotoxin-free rCsNOSIP significantly promoted the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) after pretreated with rCsNOSIP, while the level of SOD decreased. Furthermore, rCsNOSIP could also increase the level of lipid peroxidation MDA. Taken together, these results suggested that CsNOSIP was a key molecule which was involved in the production of nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates, and played an important role in oxidative stress during C. sinensis infection.

  7. Epidemiological study on Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area of Zhujiang delta in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renli; Gao, Shitong; Geng, Yijie; Huang, Dana; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Shunxiang; Cheng, Jingquan; Fu, Yucai

    2007-06-01

    To study the transmission route and epidemiological features of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area, which is the biggest immigration city in the south of China, we examined 1,473 individuals (710 males and 763 females) to assess the current status of C. sinensis infection among the people in a village of Shenzhen in Zhujiang delta of Guangdong province, China. Freshwater snails, 630, of different species known as the first intermediate host of C. sinensis were collected and examined for cercaria infection, and 430 freshwater fishes of different species as the second intermediate host were examined for metacercaria infection. Among 1,473 people examined, 70 (4.75%) were found infected with C. sinensis. By counting eggs per gram feces (EPG), it was found that the intensity of infection in males was stronger than that of females, and the average EPG was 41.87 in all population. Snails, 1.15%, were infected with cercariae of C. sinensis. The average infection rate of freshwater fishes of 15 species with metacercariae of C. sinensis was 16.97%, and the carps reached the highest infection rate (40.74%). A questionnaire was designed with 12 questions covering socioeconomic conditions and human behavior, contamination of the environment, and fishponds. Of 1,473 interviewees, 54% did not know about fluke disease or its transmission route, 12% of those who knew about the fluke believed that the infection causes no harm or only slight harm to their health. Of the interviewees, 27%, ate raw fish at least one to two times per month. Of families, 5% used the same utensils for both raw fish and cooked food. Of the fishpond owners, 40% fed their fishes with feces of domestic animals and humans. All these factors of unhealthy behaviors, poor knowledge, inappropriate farming/fishery practices, and eating raw fish have made the prevalence of clonorchiasis increase in humans in the Shenzhen area. It is urgent to perform a control program, including health education

  8. Systemic and local mucosal immune responses induced by orally delivered Bacillus subtilis spore expressing leucine aminopeptidase 2 of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hongling; Xu, Yanquan; Sun, Hengchang; Lin, Jinsi; Yu, Jinyun; Tang, Zeli; Shen, Jiqing; Liang, Chi; Li, Shan; Chen, Wenjun; Li, Xuerong; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-08-01

    Human clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) has been increasingly prevalent in recent years so that an effective measure is essential and urgent to control the infectious disease. Oral delivery of antigens from C. sinensis may be an important approach to effectively induce both systemic and local immune responses to anti-infection of the parasite. In the current study, we used Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores as a delivery vehicle to introduce leucine aminopeptidase 2 of C. sinensis (CsLAP2), an excretory/secretory antigen with high immunogenicity, expressing on their surface. SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and flow cytometry indicated that CsLAP2 was successfully expressed on the surface of B. subtilis spores (CotC-CsLAP2 spores). BALB/c mice were treated with spores intragastrically. On day 31 after the treatment, we found that mice intragastrically treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores exhibited higher IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA level in sera as well as higher sIgA level in bile and intestinal lavage fluid compared to mice orally administrated with spores not expressing CsLAP2 (CotC spores) and naïve mice. The peak titer of IgG/IgA presented on day 31/49 after oral administration. IgG1 level was lower than IgG2a in group administrated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores. sIgA-secreting cells were obviously observed in intestinal epithelium of mice orally treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores. After incubated with CotC-CsLAP2, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNF significantly increased in the supernatant of splenocytes isolated from mice orally treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores, while there was no statistically significant difference of IL-4 level representing Th2 response among the groups. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of CsLAP2 delivered by B. subtilis spore elicited obvious systemic and local mucosal immunity. Secretory IgA and Th1-Th17 cellular immunity might involved in mechanisms of the immune response.

  9. Epidemiological investigation of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in the Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daixiong; Chen, Jieyun; Huang, Ji; Chen, Xueying; Feng, Dana; Liang, Baofang; Che, Yuchuan; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhu, Cuihua; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Haoxian

    2010-09-01

    Pearl River Delta region is a high clonorchiasis-endemic area in China. However, no complete epidemiological data exist regarding its infection in freshwater fishes, an important epidemic factor for Clonorchis sinensis. The present study collected freshwater fishes and shrimps from 32 sites of nine cities in the Pearl River Delta, and the encysted metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected by digesting these specimens with artificial gastric juice. The mean infection rate of freshwater fishes was 37.09% (2,160/5,824) with a mean number of 14.269 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.460 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. Of these freshwater fishes, 5,219 were domesticated, and the infection rate was 36.69% with a mean number of 10.743 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.312 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat; the other 605 were wild, and the infection rate was 40.50% with a mean number of 41.829 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 8.812 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. A total of 228 shrimps were examined, and 3.07% of them were infected with a mean number of 1.00 encysted metacercariae in every infected shrimp. Pseudorasbora parva and Ctenopharyngodon idellus had the highest infection rate and degree of infection in the fishes studied. The results demonstrated a high incidence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes and shrimps within Pearl River Delta region and a great difference in the infection rate among different collection sites and different fish species.

  10. Molecular identification and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase 2, an excretory-secretory product of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chuanhuan; Sun, Jiufeng; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Lexun; Hu, Xuchu; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Lv, Xiaoli; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Yan; Li, Ran; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2012-10-01

    Aminopeptidases serve vital roles in metabolism of hormones, neurotransmission, turnover of proteins and immunological regulations. Leucine aminopeptidases catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-acid residues from the N-terminus of proteins and peptides. In the present study, leucine aminopeptidase 2 (LAP2) gene of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) was isolated and identified from an adult cDNA library of C. sinensis. Recombinant CsLAP2 was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli BL21. The open reading frame of LAP2 contains 1,560 bp equivalent to 519 amino acids, a similarity analysis showed a relatively low homology with Homo sapiens (19.0 %), Trypanosoma cruzi (18.0 %), Mus musculus (19.3 %), and relatively high homology with Schistosoma mansoni (65.6 %). The optimum condition of rCsLAP2 enzyme activity was investigated using a fluorescent substrate of Leu-MCA at 37 °C and pH 7.5. The K (m) and V (max) values of rCsLAP2 were 18.2 μM and 10.7 μM/min, respectively. CsLAP2 gene expression can be detected at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis using real-time PCR, no difference was observed at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria and egg. However, CsLAP2 showed a higher expression level at the stage of excysted metacercaria than the adult worm (3.90-fold), metacercaria (4.60-fold) and egg (4.59-fold). Histochemistry analysis showed that CsLAP2 was located at the tegument and excretory vesicle of metacercaria, and the tegument and intestine of adult worm. The immune response specific to rCsLAP2 was characterized by a mixed response patterns of Th1 and Th2, indicating a compounded humoral and cellular immune response. The combined results from the present study indicate that CsLAP2 was an important antigen exposed to host immune system, and probably implicated as potential role in interaction with host cells in clonorchiasis.

  11. The Dynamics of Treg/Th17 and the Imbalance of Treg/Th17 in Clonorchis sinensis-Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Hua, Hui; Li, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Qian; Li, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Ying; Pan, Wei; Liu, Xiang-Ye; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells (Th17) may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI) but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC) mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and RORγt for Th17) were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis.

  12. The Dynamics of Treg/Th17 and the Imbalance of Treg/Th17 in Clonorchis sinensis-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Hui; Li, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Qian; Li, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Ying; Pan, Wei; Liu, Xiang-Ye; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells (Th17) may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI) but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC) mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and RORγt for Th17) were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis. PMID:26599407

  13. Effectiveness of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis in rats and Paragonimus westermani in dogs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Li-li, Xu; Zhang, Yong-nian; Qiang, Hui-qing

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the effect of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis and Paragonimus westermani. For anti-C. sinensis study, a total of 71 rats were divided into four batches for oral infection of each rat with 50 C. sinensis metacercariae. Five to 7 weeks post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally with mefloquine at single doses or multiple daily doses while infected, but untreated rats served as control. All treated rats were euthanized 2 weeks post-treatment for assessment of efficacy. For anti-P. westermani study, two batches of eight and ten dogs were each infected intraperitoneally with 100 P. westermani metacercariae. Eighty-five to 96 days post-infection, groups of two or three dogs were treated orally with mefloquine and groups of two dogs were treated with praziquantel at a single dose or multiple doses. In each batch of test, three untreated but infected dogs served as control. All treated dogs were euthanized 26-30 days post-treatment for evaluation of efficacy. In rats infected with C. sinensis and treated orally with mefloquine at a single dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg, no effect against C. sinensis was observed. When the dose of mefloquine was increased to 250 mg/kg, one third (five out of 15) rats died 3-5 days post-treatment. Although the mean worm burden was lower than that of the control, the difference between the treated and control groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05) with worm burden reduction of 22.4%. Whereas, the group of infected rats received mefloquine at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 3 days, one out of five rats died after the last administration. The mean worm burden was significantly lower than that of the control with worm burden reduction of 67.6% (P<0.01). In the first test of mefloquine against P. westermani, three infected dogs received two oral doses of the drug, 50 mg/kg, given at a 4-h interval, the mean worm burden were similar to that of the control. While other two dogs were treated with

  14. Sequences and gene organization of the mitochondrial genomes of the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis (Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Cai, X Q; Liu, G H; Song, H Q; Wu, C Y; Zou, F C; Yan, H K; Yuan, Z G; Lin, R Q; Zhu, X Q

    2012-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are important trematodes infecting humans and animals, belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae. In the present study, we sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA (mtDNA) sequences of O. viverrini from Laos, obtained the complete mtDNA sequences of C. sinensis from China and Korea, and revealed their gene annotations and genome organizations. The mtDNA sequences of O. viverrini, C. sinensis (China isolate), C. sinensis (Korea isolate) were 13,510, 13,879, and 13,877 bp in size, respectively. Each of the three mt genomes comprises 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes coding for proteins, two genes for rRNA, and 20 genes (O. viverrini) or 22 genes (C. sinensis) for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of Fasciola hepatica, and Paragonimus westermani, but distinct from Schistosoma spp. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in T. The contents of A + T of the mt genomes were 59.39% for O. viverrini, 60.03% for C. sinensis (China isolate), and 59.99% for C. sinensis (Korea isolate). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms [maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis], all revealed distinct groups with high statistical support, indicating that O. viverrini and C. sinensis represent sister taxa. These data provide additional novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of the two liver flukes and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in humans and animals.

  15. Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini using real-time PCR and high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Li, Rong; Yue, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Jian-Shan; Deng, Yan; Qiu, De-Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA extracted from the two flukes yielded specific amplification and their identity was confirmed by sequencing, having the accuracy of 100% in reference to conventional methods. The assay was proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit below 1 pg of purified genomic DNA, 5 EPG, or 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis. Moreover, C. sinensis and O. viverrini were able to be differentiated by their HRM profiles. The method can reduce labor of microscopic examination and the contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Moreover, it can differentiate these two flukes which are difficult to be distinguished using other methods. The established method provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, and duplex detection of C. sinensis and O. viverrini.

  16. Molecular and Structural Characterization of the Tegumental 20.6-kDa Protein in Clonorchis sinensis as a Potential Druggable Target

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Jung; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Ju, Jung-Won

    2017-01-01

    The tegument, representing the membrane-bound outer surface of platyhelminth parasites, plays an important role for the regulation of the host immune response and parasite survival. A comprehensive understanding of tegumental proteins can provide drug candidates for use against helminth-associated diseases, such as clonorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, little is known regarding the physicochemical properties of C. sinensis teguments. In this study, a novel 20.6-kDa tegumental protein of the C. sinensis adult worm (CsTegu20.6) was identified and characterized by molecular and in silico methods. The complete coding sequence of 525 bp was derived from cDNA clones and encodes a protein of 175 amino acids. Homology search using BLASTX showed CsTegu20.6 identity ranging from 29% to 39% with previously-known tegumental proteins in C. sinensis. Domain analysis indicated the presence of a calcium-binding EF-hand domain containing a basic helix-loop-helix structure and a dynein light chain domain exhibiting a ferredoxin fold. We used a modified method to obtain the accurate tertiary structure of the CsTegu20.6 protein because of the unavailability of appropriate templates. The CsTegu20.6 protein sequence was split into two domains based on the disordered region, and then, the structure of each domain was modeled using I-TASSER. A final full-length structure was obtained by combining two structures and refining the whole structure. A refined CsTegu20.6 structure was used to identify a potential CsTegu20.6 inhibitor based on protein structure-compound interaction analysis. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. In C. sinensis, CsTegu20.6 mRNAs were abundant in adult and metacercariae, but not in the egg. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CsTegu20.6 localized to the surface of the tegument in the adult fluke. Collectively, our results contribute to a

  17. Molecular and Structural Characterization of the Tegumental 20.6-kDa Protein in Clonorchis sinensis as a Potential Druggable Target.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jung; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Ju, Jung-Won

    2017-03-04

    The tegument, representing the membrane-bound outer surface of platyhelminth parasites, plays an important role for the regulation of the host immune response and parasite survival. A comprehensive understanding of tegumental proteins can provide drug candidates for use against helminth-associated diseases, such as clonorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, little is known regarding the physicochemical properties of C. sinensis teguments. In this study, a novel 20.6-kDa tegumental protein of the C. sinensis adult worm (CsTegu20.6) was identified and characterized by molecular and in silico methods. The complete coding sequence of 525 bp was derived from cDNA clones and encodes a protein of 175 amino acids. Homology search using BLASTX showed CsTegu20.6 identity ranging from 29% to 39% with previously-known tegumental proteins in C. sinensis. Domain analysis indicated the presence of a calcium-binding EF-hand domain containing a basic helix-loop-helix structure and a dynein light chain domain exhibiting a ferredoxin fold. We used a modified method to obtain the accurate tertiary structure of the CsTegu20.6 protein because of the unavailability of appropriate templates. The CsTegu20.6 protein sequence was split into two domains based on the disordered region, and then, the structure of each domain was modeled using I-TASSER. A final full-length structure was obtained by combining two structures and refining the whole structure. A refined CsTegu20.6 structure was used to identify a potential CsTegu20.6 inhibitor based on protein structure-compound interaction analysis. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. In C. sinensis, CsTegu20.6 mRNAs were abundant in adult and metacercariae, but not in the egg. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CsTegu20.6 localized to the surface of the tegument in the adult fluke. Collectively, our results contribute to a

  18. Clonorchis sinensis ferritin heavy chain triggers free radicals and mediates inflammation signaling in human hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qiang; Xie, Zhizhi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Ren, Mengyu; Shang, Mei; Lei, Huali; Tian, Yanli; Li, Shan; Liang, Pei; Chen, Tingjin; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-02-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct and continuous contact with Clonorchis sinensis, is associated with hepatobiliary damage, inflammation, periductal fibrosis, and the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells respond to liver injury through production of proinflammatory mediators which drive fibrogenesis; however, their endogenous sources and pathophysiological roles in host cells were not determined. C. sinensis ferritin heavy chain (CsFHC) was previously confirmed as a component of excretory/secretory products and exhibited a number of extrahepatic immunomodulatory properties in various diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and biological role of CsFHC in C. sinensis. CsFHC was expressed throughout life stages of C. sinensis. More importantly, we found that treatment of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 with CsFHC triggered the production of free radicals via time-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The increase in free radicals substantially promoted the degradation of cytosolic IκBα and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits (p65 and p50). CsFHC-induced NF-κB activation was markedly attenuated by preincubation with specific inhibitors of corresponding free radical-producing enzyme or the antioxidant. In addition, CsFHC induced an increased expression level of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, in NF-κB-dependent manner. Our results indicate that CsFHC-triggered free radical-mediated NF-κB signaling is an important factor in the chronic inflammation caused by C. sinensis infection.

  19. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Free Radical Generation in Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-Secretory Product-Treated Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bahk, Young Yil; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct contact with Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), is associated with chronic inflammation, malignant changes in bile ducts, and even cholangiocarcinogenesis. Our previous report revealed that intracellular free radicals enzymatically generated by C. sinensis ESPs cause NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1). Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the role of upstream Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the initial host innate immune responses to infection. We found that treatment of HuCCT1 cells with native ESPs induced changes in TLR mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, concomitant with the generation of free radicals. ESP-mediated free radical generation was markedly attenuated by preincubation of the cells with TLR1-4-neutralizing antibodies, indicating that at least TLR1 through 4 participate in stimulation of the host innate immune responses. These findings indicate that free radicals triggered by ESPs are critically involved in TLR signal transduction. Continuous signaling by this pathway may function in initiating C. sinensis infection-associated inflammation cascades, a detrimental event leading to progression to more severe hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:27853127

  20. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Free Radical Generation in Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-Secretory Product-Treated Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Young Yil; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-10-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct contact with Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), is associated with chronic inflammation, malignant changes in bile ducts, and even cholangiocarcinogenesis. Our previous report revealed that intracellular free radicals enzymatically generated by C. sinensis ESPs cause NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1). Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the role of upstream Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the initial host innate immune responses to infection. We found that treatment of HuCCT1 cells with native ESPs induced changes in TLR mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, concomitant with the generation of free radicals. ESP-mediated free radical generation was markedly attenuated by preincubation of the cells with TLR1-4-neutralizing antibodies, indicating that at least TLR1 through 4 participate in stimulation of the host innate immune responses. These findings indicate that free radicals triggered by ESPs are critically involved in TLR signal transduction. Continuous signaling by this pathway may function in initiating C. sinensis infection-associated inflammation cascades, a detrimental event leading to progression to more severe hepatobiliary diseases.

  1. Adult Opisthorchis felineus major protein fractions deduced from transcripts: comparison with liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Pomaznoy, Mikhail; Tatkov, Sergey; Katokhin, Alexey; Afonnikov, Dmitry; Babenko, Vladimir; Furman, Dagmara; Brusentsov, Ilya; Belavin, Pavel; Najakshin, Alexandr; Guselnikov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Gennady; Sivkov, Anton; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiologically important liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis are of interest to health professionals, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. Recently the transcriptomes of the latter two species were intensively investigated. However our knowledge on molecular biology of O. felineus is scarce. We report the first results of the O. felineus transcriptome analysis. We isolated and annotated a total of 2560 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from adult O. felineus (deposited within the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST), under accession numbers GenBank: JK624271-JK626790, JK006511-JK006547, JK649790-JK649792). Clustering and analysis resulted in the detection of 267 contigs. Of the protein sequences deduced from these, 82% had homologs in the NCBI (nr) protein database and 63% contained conserved domains, allowing the functions to be interpreted using the Gene Ontology terms. Comprehensive analysis of Opisthorchiidae- and Trematoda-specific substitutions within amino acid sequences deduced for the proteins myoglobin, vitelline precursor protein, cathepsin F, and 28kDa glutathione transferase was carried out. The gene set of the 32 ribosomal proteins for the three Opisthorchiidae species with the addition of available Schistosoma and Fasciola orthologs was created and is provided in the supplementary. The orthologous gene set created was used for inferring phylogeny within the Trematoda with special attention to interrelations within the Opisthorchiidae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between C. sinensis and O. viverrini and some divergence of O. felineus from either O. viverrini or C. sinensis.

  2. The characteristics of the expression of heat shock proteins and COX-2 in the liver of hamsters infected with Clonorchis sinensis, and the change of endocrine hormones and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Choi, WonHyung; Chu, JongPhil

    2012-12-01

    The liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Digenea) is a high-risk parasite that causes serious diseases such as cirrhosis, carcinogenic liver damage and clonorchiasis in East Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between stress/endocrine hormones and inflammation induced by infection as well as the expression of heat shock proteins (hsp-27, hsp-90), cox-2 and cytokines in the livers of hamsters infected with C. sinensis. The average body weight of infected hamsters decreased up to 25% compared with that of the control group, and bile duct hyperplasia with inflammation, liver fibrosis and hepatic necrosis were observed in C. sinensis-infected livers. The expression of hsp-27, hsp-90, and cox-2 was significantly increased in the livers of C. sinensis-infected hamsters compared with the control group. Moreover, the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-2, TGF-beta2 and IFN-alpha1) were markedly increased in the livers of the infected group compared with those of the control group. Consistently, plasma IL-3 and IL-6 levels gradually increased during the infection period, and the concentration levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), corticosterone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in C. sinensis-infected hamsters increased over 25%, compared with those of the uninfected normal group. These results demonstrate that C. sinensis infection may increase the expression of hsp27, hsp90 and cox-2 as well as it may cause periductal fibrosis, chronic inflammation and hepatic necrosis in the liver. Furthermore, the results indicate that C. sinensis infection induces not only stress-induced hormone imbalance but also the sustained secretion of inflammatory cytokines through chronic stress/stimuli.

  3. C3H/He Mice as an Incompatible Cholangiocarcinoma Model by Clonorchis sinensis, Dicyclanil and N-Nitrosodimethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Jang, Ja June; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a Group-I bio-carcinogen, associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The hamster is the only experimental model of C. sinensis-mediated CCA, but we oblige another animal model. The present study intended to develop a C. sinensis (Cs) mediated CCA model using C3H/He mice, co-stimulated with N-nitrosodimethyl-amine (NDMA) and dicyclanil (DC). The mice were divided into 8 groups with different combinations of Cs, NDMA, and DC. Six months later the mice were sacrificed and subjected to gross and histopathological examination. The body weights were significantly reduced among the groups treated with 2 or more agents (eg. Cs+NDMA, Cs+DC, NDMA+DC, and Cs+NDMA+DC). In contrast, liver weight percentages to body weight were increased in above groups by 4.1% to 4.7%. A Change of the spleen weight was observed only in Cs+NDMA group. Though C. sinensis infection is evident from hyperplastic changes, only 1 worm was recovered. T wo mice, 1 from Cs and the other from Cs+DC group, showed mass forming lesions; 1 (281.2 mm3) from the Cs group was a hepatocellular adenoma and the other (280.6 mm3) from the Cs+DC group was a cystic mass (peliosis). Higher prevalence of gray-white nodules was observed in Cs group (42.9%) followed by Cs+NDMA+DC group (21.4%). The mice of the Cs+NDMA+DC group showed hyper-proliferation of the bile duct with fibrotic changes. No characteristic change for CCA was recognized in any of the groups. In conclusion, C3H/He mice produce no CCA but extensive fibrosis when they are challenged by Cs, NDMA, and DC together. PMID:27417082

  4. Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Van Hien, Hoang; Dung, Do Trung; Maleewong, Wanchai; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-07-01

    We developed a single step duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis for the fast detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples. Two species of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2) DNA elements, the 165-bp nad2 product of C. sinensis and the 209-bp nad2 product of O. viverrini, were amplified by species-specific primers, and the fluorescence melting curve analyses were generated from hybrid of amplicons and two pairs of species-specific fluorophore-labeled probes. By their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures, both C. sinensis and O. viverrini eggs in infected human fecal samples were detected and differentiated with high (100%) sensitivity and specificity. Detection limit was as little as a single C. sinensis egg and two O. viverrini eggs in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasitosis, as well as from the well-defined genomic DNA of human leukocytes and other parasites. It can reduce labor time of microscopic examination and is not prone to carry over contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Our duplex real-time FRET PCR method would be useful to determine the accurate range of endemic areas and/or to discover the co-endemic areas of two liver flukes, C. sinensis and O. viverrini, in Asia. This method also would be helpful for the differential diagnosis of the suspected cases of liver fluke infections among travelers who had visited the endemic countries of those parasites.

  5. Immune response induced by oral delivery of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing enolase of Clonorchis sinensis in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongye; Chen, Tingjin; Sun, Hengchang; Tang, Zeli; Yu, Jinyun; Lin, Zhipeng; Ren, Pengli; Zhou, Xinyi; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B. subtilis spores surface expressing CsENO. In addition, immune-related genes expression was also measured by qRT-PCR. Grass carps orally treated with B. subtilis spores or normal forages were used as controls. The results of ELISA manifested that specific IgM levels of grass carps in CsENO group in sera, intestine mucus and skin mucus almost significantly increased from week 4 post the first oral administration when compared to the two control groups. The levels of specific IgM reached its peak in intestine mucus firstly, then in sera, and last in skin mucus. qRT-PCR results showed that 5 immune-related genes expression had different degree of rising trend in CsENO group when compared to the two control groups. Our study demonstrated that orally administrated with B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO induced innate and adaptive immunity, systemic and local mucosal immunity, and humoral and cellular immunity. Our work may pave the way to clarify the exact mechanisms of protective efficacy elicited by B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO and provide new ideas for vaccine development against C. sinensis infection.

  6. [A Study On The Fine Structure Of Clonorchis Sinensis, A Liver Fluke: II. The Alimentary Tract And The Excretory System

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kye Heon; Rim, Han Jong; Kim, Woo Kap; Kim, Chang Whan; Yang, He Young

    1980-06-01

    A morphological study on the ultrastructures of the alimentary tract and the excretory system of Clonorchis sinensis was conducted. The liver flukes were collected from rabbit liver six months after the experimental infection The worms were washed with 0.85% saline solution and immediately moved to cold 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The materials were dissected and fixed for two hours. The blocks were post-fixed in 1% osmium tetroxide. The blocks were embedded in Epon 812. Ultra thin sections were cut with Sovall MT-2 ultramicrotome and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Sections were then observed with Hitachi HS-7S electron microscope. The following results were obtained in a series of observations. The walls of oral cavity and esophagus comprised tegumental syncytium, basement membrane, loose connective tissue, muscular layer and parenchymal cells. The apical surface and the base of the syncytium were covered with a protoplasmic membrane for each forming numerous invaginations. Granular endoplasmic reticulum was developed in the epithelium of the oesophagus. The gastrodermis of Clonorchis sinensis comprised two types of cells in general. The first cell type was numerous one forming a single continuous layer of epithelial cells. Each of the cells had outfolded cytoplasm into the caecal lumen and lamellae along the cell surface. Among the above epithelial cells, no considerable differences in structure reflecting their functional states were identified. The second cell type was less differentiated in nature and lay within the gastrodermis above the basement membrane but not in contact with the caecal lumen, being overlapped by neighboring gastrodermal cells of the type described above. At this portion the gastrodermis seemed to be a pseudostratified epithelium. There were well-developed lamellae along the surface of epithelia of all canals or duct concerning evacuation. The excretory pore was 7.5 micrometer in diameter and dorso

  7. Development of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Clonorchis sinensis DNA in gallbladder bile and stone samples from patients with cholecystolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Zheng, Pei-Ming; Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Zhen-Liang

    2012-10-01

    High prevalence of cholecystolithiasis in parts of East Asia has been postulated to be associated with Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study describes the development of a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of C. sinensis DNA in gallbladder bile and stone samples from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Primers and probe targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA proved to be highly specific for C. sinensis and did not amplify other related heterogeneous DNA samples. The detection limit of this assay was 0.1 pg of adult C. sinensis genomic DNA. All of the egg-positive samples determined by microscopy yielded positive results by real-time PCR assay and that genetic testing of gallbladder stones using real-time PCR was considered as the most effective means for assessing C. sinensis infection status. This assay not only contributes to a greater understanding of stone pathogenesis but also benefits patients with cholecystolithiasis by facilitating effective diagnosis, treatment, and relapse prevention.

  8. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Seung Hyun; Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical

  9. Proteomic analysis of different period excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization, immunolocalization, and serological reactivity of two excretory secretory antigens-methionine aminopeptidase 2 and acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jingfang; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-03-01

    The excretory secretory products (ESP) of Clonorchis sinensis are the causative agents of clonorchiasis and biliary diseases. The parasites' ESP play important roles in host-parasite interactions. The protein compositions of ESP at different secretory times are different and have not been systemically investigated so far. In this study, we collected ESP from six different periods (0-3 h, 3-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h) from C. sinensis adults. Using a shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we found 187, 80, 103, 58, 248, and 383 proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, we selected methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP-2, presented in 24-36 h and 36-48 h ESP) and acid phosphatase (AP, presented in 3-6 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h ESP) for further study. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CsMAP-2 has metallopeptidase family M24, unique lysine residue-rich and acidic residue-rich domain, SGTS motif, and auto-cleavage point; and that CsAP has possible signal sequence cleavage site, acid phosphate domain, and two histidine acid phosphatases active regions. CsMAP-2 and CsAP's cDNA have 1,425 bp and1,410 bp ORF, encoding 475 and 470 amino acid proteins and weighing 55.3840 kDa and 55.2875 kDa, respectively. MAP-2 and AP were identified as antigens present in the ESP and circulating antigens by immunoblot analysis, which were also found expressing in the eggs, metacercaria, and adult stages of C. sinensis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that they were located in tegument and intestinal cecum of adult. MTT assay showed that they could inhibit hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) proliferation. These findings presented the compositions of different period excretory secretary products from C. sinensis adults.

  10. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products promote the migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by activating the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Bashir, Qudsia; Kim, In Ki; Hong, Sung-Jong; Maeng, Sejung; Bahk, Young Yil; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2017-03-08

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a slow-growing but highly metastatic cancer. Its metastatic potential largely explains its high mortality rate. A recognized risk factor for CCA development is infection with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis. We previously reported that the excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of C. sinensis promoted the three-dimensional aggregation and invasion of CCA cells. In the present study, a quantitative real-time PCR array of extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules was used to examine the regulatory mechanism of ESP-mediated CCA cell migration and invasion. In particular, the expression levels of integrin α isoforms and β4 were upregulated in response to ESPs. Increased expression of integrin β4 was probably correlated with activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the steroid receptor coactivator (Src) family kinase and the subsequent activation of two downstream focal adhesion molecules, paxillin and vinculin. Moreover, inhibition of FAK/Src activation reduced paxillin and vinculin phosphorylation and attenuated ESP-induced CCA cell migration and invasion. These findings suggest that the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling axis may play a crucial role in clonorchiasis-associated CCA metastasis during tumor progression.

  11. Free radicals enzymatically triggered by Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products cause NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Hyun; Moon, Ju Hyun; Kim, In Ki; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Hong, Sung-Jong; Ahn, Joong Ho; Chung, Jong Woo; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Chronic clonorchiasis, caused by direct and continuous contact with Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products, is associated with hepatobiliary damage, inflammation, periductal fibrosis and even development of cholangiocarcinoma. Our previous report revealed that intracellular reactive oxygen species were generated in C. sinensis excretory-secretory product-treated human cholangiocarcinoma cells; however, their endogenous sources and pathophysiological roles in host cells were not determined. In the present study, we found that treatment of human cholangiocarcinoma cells with excretory-secretory products triggered increases in free radicals via a time-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. This increase in free radicals substantially promoted the degradation of cytosolic IκB-α, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB subunits (RelA and p50), and increased κB consensus DNA-binding activity. Excretory-secretory product-induced nuclear factor-κB activation was markedly attenuated by preincubation with specific inhibitors of each free radical-producing enzyme or the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Moreover, excretory-secretory products induced an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, in an nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner, indicating that enzymatic production of free radicals in ESP-treated cells participates in nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammation. These findings provide new insights into the pathophysiological role of C. sinensis excretory-secretory products in host chronic inflammatory processes, which are initial events in hepatobiliary diseases.

  12. Increased hepatic Th2 and Treg subsets are associated with biliary fibrosis in different strains of mice caused by Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fan; Du, Ying; Ma, Rui; Li, Xiang-Yang; Yu, Qian; Meng, Di; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that CD4+T cells responses might be involved in the process of biliary fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanism resulting in biliary fibrosis caused by Clonorchis sinensis remains not yet fully elucidated. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the different profiles of hepatic CD4+T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells) and their possible roles in the biliary fibrosis of different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and FVB mice) induced by C. sinensis infection. C57BL/6, BALB/c and FVB mice were orally gavaged with 45 metacercariae. All mice were sacrificed on 28 days post infection in deep anesthesia conditions. The leukocytes in the liver were separated to examine CD4+T cell subsets by flow cytometry and the left lobe of liver was used to observe pathological changes, collagen depositions and the concentrations of hydroxyproline. The most serious cystic and fibrotic changes appeared in FVB infected mice indicated by gross observation, Masson’s trichrome staining and hydroxyproline content detection. In contrast to C57BL/6 infected mice, diffuse nodules and more intensive fibrosis were observed in the BALB/c infected mice. No differences of the hepatic Th1 subset and Th17 subset were found among the three strains, but the hepatic Th2 and Treg cells and their relative cytokines were dramatically increased in the BALB/c and FVB infected groups compared with the C57BL/6 infected group (P<0.01). Importantly, increased Th2 subset and Treg subset all positively correlated with hydroxyproline contents (P<0.01). This result for the first time implied that the increased hepatic Th2 and Treg cell subsets were likely to play potential roles in the formation of biliary fibrosis in C. sinensis-infected mice. PMID:28151995

  13. Genetic diversity of nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequence in Clonorchis sinensis Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda: Opisthorchidae) from the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Tatonova, Yulia V; Chelomina, Galina N; Besprosvannykh, Vladimir V

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined the molecular organisation and sequence variation in the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region, including the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S gene of the Clonorchis sinensis from the Russian Far East. The relevant sequences from other parts of this species' area were downloaded from GenBank. The results showed 100% identity for all investigated 5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequences. In contrast, two levels of intraspecific variations were revealed in the complete ITS1 sequences. The intra-genomic variation resulted from a C/T polymorphism in a single position. The inter-individual differences between the ITS1 sequences were both due to nucleotide and size polymorphisms resulting from a varying number of five-nucleotide repeats and followed by two ITS1 length variants. These variant frequencies correlate with the clonorchiasis level in some geographical localities. ITS1 differences, both in the mutation profile and mutation localisation, were revealed between northern and southern geographical samples. The presence of GC boxes that are identical to known regulatory motifs in eukaryotes was detected within the ITS1 sub-repeats. The predicted secondary structures for ITS1 consist of two large branches, one of which was invariable, while another depended on ITS1 length. The predicted secondary structure for ITS2 includes four helices around the core. The main differences between C. sinensis and other opisthorchids were localised on the tops of helices 2, 3, and 4. A phylogenetic MST reconstruction subdivided all ITS1 sequences into two well differentiated clusters, each with the major widespread ribotype, and showed that ribotype diversity in both Russia and Korea is much lower than in China. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of complete ITS1 sequences in C. sinensis population genetics and can be considered as a basis for further studies of the parasite infection because they may help to elucidate the molecular

  14. [Studies on the immunodiagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis II. Immunoaffinity purification of whole worm antigen and characterization of egg, metacercaria and adult antigens of Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Ran; Chung, Pyung Rim; Nam, Hae Seon

    1988-06-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of crude and affinity-purified antigens of Clonorchis sinensis obtained from the infected rabbits were studied. Stage-specific antigenic proteins from the eggs, metacercariae and adult worms were characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) The results were as follows: The antibody-binding antigen (ABA) purified from whole worm crude antigen (WWA) by CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography made 4 specific bands against rabbit anti-sera on Ouchterlony gel diffusion plate, while WWA made 7 bands. Major WWA protein bands by SDS-PAGE were found at 16,300-18,500 and 28,000-29,000 daltons, while major ABA protein bands were at 18,000-21,000 and 29,000-31,000 daltons. The reactivity of ABA with rabbit anti-sera in ELISA was remarkably less sensitive than that of WWA. Molecular weights of egg antigen (EGA), metacercarial antigen (MEA) and adult worm antigen (WWA) of C. sinensis ranged from 15,000-200,000 daltons, 15,000-100,000 daltons and 11,000-80,000 daltons, respectively. Major WWA proteins consisted mainly of polypeptide bands of low molecular weight, less than 31,000 daltons, while those of EGA and MEA consisted of higher molecular weights than 30,000 daltons. The ELISA reactivities of WWA to rabbit anti-sera were remarkably greater than those of MEA. EGA showed negative reaction throughout the experiments. WWA showed higher optical density (O.D.) than 1.0, when reacted with rabbit anti-sera obtained at 4-6 weeks after the infection. In the rabbit anti-sera later than 12 weeks after the infection, the O.D. reacting with WWA showed a plateau without variation. MEA showed relatively low O.D. values (<0.6), when reacted with anti-sera from lightly infected groups throughout the experiments, although there were some weak positive cases (O.D.>0.6) in heavily infected groups. MEA reacted with rabbit anti-sera showed negative results on Ouchterlony gel diffusion

  15. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products regulate migration and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/nuclear factor-κB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Shin, Jimin; Song, In-Sung; Shim, Sungbo; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. We have previously reported that excretory-secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. However, the regulatory mechanisms through which matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression affects cholangiocarcinoma development remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the potential role of excretory-secretory products in regulating the migration and invasion of various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. We demonstrated that excretory-secretory products significantly induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that excretory-secretory products induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by enhancing the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B. Moreover, excretory-secretory products induced the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B p65 nuclear translocation, which was regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Taken together, our findings indicated that the excretory-secretory product-dependent enhancement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and subsequent induction of IκBα and nuclear factor-kappa B activities may contribute to the progression of cholangiocarcinoma.

  16. Evolutionary course of CsRn1 long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon and its heterogeneous integrations into the genome of the liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-An

    2003-01-01

    The evolutionary course of the CsRn1 long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was predicted by conducting a phylogenetic analysis with its paralog LTR sequences. Based on the clustering patterns in the phylogenetic tree, multiple CsRn1 copies could be grouped into four subsets, which were shown to have different integration times. Their differential sequence divergences and heterogeneous integration patterns strongly suggested that these subsets appeared sequentially in the genome of C. sinensis. Members of recently expanding subset showed the lowest level of divergence in their LTR and reverse transcriptase gene sequences. They were also shown to be highly polymorphic among individual genomes of the trematode. The CsRn1 element exhibited a preference for repetitive, agenic chromosomal regions in terms of selecting integration targets. Our results suggested that CsRn1 might induce a considerable degree of intergenomic variation and, thereby, have influenced the evolution of the C. sinensis genome. PMID:14699262

  17. Classical and molecular cytogenetics of Khawia sinensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Orosová, Martina; Oros, Mikuláš

    2012-05-01

    Chromosomes of the invasive tapeworm Khawia sinensis (Caryophyllidea), the specific parasite of common carp, were analyzed by means of conventional Giemsa staining and using fluorescent DAPI and YOYO-1 dyes, silver staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe. The karyotype is composed of eight pairs of metacentric and telocentric chromosomes (2n = 16, n = 3m + 5t, TCL = 42.54 μm). Constitutive heterochromatin was located at pericentromeric regions of all pairs, except for the largest metacentric pair (no. 1), which possessed no DAPI-positive band. FISH with rDNA probe revealed that both homologues of chromosome pair no. 6 carry a cluster of ribosomal arrays, which were located interstitially close to the centromere. Present results are compared with previous cytogenetic data on Khawia spp., and comments are made on the karyotypes with respect to their phylogenetic links.

  18. Parasites and malignancies, a review, with emphasis on digestive cancer induced by Cryptosporidium parvum (Alveolata: Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    Benamrouz, S.; Conseil, V.; Creusy, C.; Calderon, E.; Dei-Cas, E.; Certad, G.

    2012-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) identifies ten infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites) able to induce cancer disease in humans. Among parasites, a carcinogenic role is currently recognized to the digenetic trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, leading to bladder cancer, and to Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis viverrini, which cause cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, several reports suspected the potential association of other parasitic infections (due to Protozoan or Metazoan parasites) with the development of neoplastic changes in the host tissues. The present work shortly reviewed available data on the involvement of parasites in neoplastic processes in humans or animals, and especially focused on the carcinogenic power of Cryptosporidium parvum infection. On the whole, infection seems to play a crucial role in the etiology of cancer. PMID:22348213

  19. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2016-06-13

    Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those parasitic mainly in cormorants (16%) and non-specific parasites (47%). Of the 19 species recorded, 100% were found in South Moravia, but only 47% of these 19 species in South Bohemia. The higher number of helminth species in cormorants from South Moravia and a higher proportion of non-specific species may be associated with the presence of the large Nové Mlýny water reservoir, in addition to better ecological and environmental conditions in this warmer region. Scanning electron microscopical examination of three common nematode species parasitising cormorants, Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Desmidocercella incognita Solonitsin, 1932 and Syncuaria squamata (von Linstow, 1883), revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the cephalic structures, numbers and distribution of male caudal papillae or the shapes of spicules.

  20. Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase inhibits TGF-β1-induced expression of pro-fibrogenic genes through attenuating the activations of Smad3, JNK2, and ERK1/2 in hepatic stellate cell line LX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lina; Shang, Mei; Shi, Mengchen; Zhao, Lu; Lin, Zhipeng; Chen, Tingjin; Wu, Yinjuan; Tang, Zeli; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Jinyun; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-02-01

    Liver fibrosis is a wound healing response associated with chronic liver injury. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation is a key event in the development of liver fibrosis. Since helminths have the ability to live for decades in the host by establishing an adaptive relationship in the interplay with its hosts, we hypothesize that whether Clonochis sinensis LysophospholipaseA (CsLysoPLA), a component of excretory/secretory proteins, can attenuate the fibrogenic response by inhibiting activation of LX-2 cells, thereby balancing the pro-fibrotic and anti-fibrotic response during the Clonochis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection. In the present study, LX-2 cells were stimulated with CsLysoPLA in the presence of TGF-β1, and the expressions of collagen type I (COL1A1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) were decreased. In addition, CsLysoPLA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of LX-2 cells stimulated by TGF-β1. Pretreatment of LX-2 cells with CsLysoPLA attenuated the phosphorylation of Smad3 as well as JNK2 and ERK1/2 in response to the stimulation of TGF-β1. For the first time, our results showed an anti-fibrogenic effect of CsLysoPLA by attenuating the response of LX-2 cells to TGF-β1 through inhibiting the activations of Smad3, ERK1/2, and JNK2.

  1. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Conlan, James V; Sripa, Banchob; Attwood, Stephen; Newton, Paul N

    2011-11-24

    Parasitic zoonoses are common and widely distributed in the Southeast Asian region. However, the interactions between parasites, hosts and vectors are influenced by environmental, socio-cultural and livestock production changes that impact on the distribution, prevalence and severity of disease. In this review we provide an update on new knowledge in the context of ongoing changes for the food-borne pig associated zoonoses Taenia solium and Trichinella spp., the food-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the water-borne trematodes Schistosoma spp., the vector-borne zoonotic protozoa Plasmodium knowlesi and Leishmania spp. and the soil-borne zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. These various changes need to be considered when assessing or developing regional control programs or devising new research initiatives in a changing SE Asia.

  2. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea.

  3. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  4. Intestinal parasites among Indochinese refugees and Mexican immigrants resettled in Contra Costa County, California.

    PubMed

    Arfaa, F

    1981-02-01

    Stool examinations of 186 Indochinese refugees and 90 immigrants from Mexico resettled in Contra Costa, County, California, have shown that 60 percent of refugees and 39 percent of immigrants are infected with one or more species of pathogenic protozoa and helminths. The mean prevalences of infections among refugees and immigrants, respectively, were: hookworms, 25 and 2 percent; whipworm, 22 and 12 percent; Ascaris, 20 and 12 percent; Giardia lamblia, 11 and 11 percent; Strongyloides, 9 and 1 percent; and Entamoeba histolytica, 2 and 4 percent. clonorchis sinensis was found in 13 percent of refugees and dwarf tapeworm in 9 percent of immigrants. Rates of infection varied with age and sex. Treatment of these parasitic infections is important and justified because: the prevalence is high; some species are highly pathogenic and directly transmittable; most species have long life spans; and safe broad-spectrum drugs are now available.

  5. Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where to Find Further Information on Parasitic Diseases Public Health Image Library Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Explore Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Education and Training Healthy Water Travelers Health Laboratory ... Science Parasites About Parasites Animals ...

  6. Specific diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting parasite microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and other food-borne trematode infections are major health problems in Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Cambodia. Differential diagnosis of O. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where Clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used for detection and identification of trematode for its simple method that is useful in low-resource or field settings. We have reported ITS1-LAMP assay to detect O. viverrini infection from human feces. The sensitivity and specificity of the test was 100% and 61.5%. The sensitivity of the test appeared to be higher than microscopic egg examination; however non-specific amplification from other parasites could not be ruled out. We therefore targeted microsatellites of O. viverrini that is a species specific sequence. By using hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB)-LAMP, O. viverrini microsatellite 6 (OVMS6) could specifically amplify DNA from O. viverrini genome, but not other parasites such as C. sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus, Centrocestus caninus, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola gigantica and Haplorchoodes sp. The detection limit of the test is 1 ng genomic DNA, which was 1000 times lower than the ITS1-LAMP, but targeting microstellites showed more specific detection of O. viverrini. In addition, the colorimetric LAMP assay was simple and effective; this makes it potentially applicable for point-of-care diagnosis.

  7. Sarcocystis sinensis is an ultrastructurally distinct parasite of water buffalo that can cause foodborne illness but cannot complete its life-cycle in human beings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinwen; Zuo, Yangxian; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; He, Yongshu; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2011-05-31

    In this study, we compared the morphology of Sarcocystis sinensis and Sarcocystis hominis, and assessed the infectiousness of S. sinensis for human volunteers. The cysts of S. sinensis were from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and those of S. hominis were from cattle (Bos taurus). Transmission electron microscopy of S. sinensis cysts revealed that the cyst wall had leaning, finger-like protrusions measuring 1.44-5.08 μm in length and without invaginations on the tip surface of the protrusions. In contrast, the cyst wall of S. hominis had upright, finger-like protrusions measuring 9.43 μm×2.42 μm and with vesicle-like invaginations on the tip surface of the protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surface of the protrusions was arranged as rectangles in S. sinensis, as compared to tongue-shaped in S. hominis. Other distinguishing features of S. sinensis include a thin ground substrate (GS) zone with microtubules and small, circle-like structures located at the base of the protrusions. Human volunteers, after consuming S. sinensis cysts, produced no sporocysts or oocysts in feces, suggesting that humans could not serve as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. By contrast, many sporocysts and oocysts were passed in feces of a human volunteer 11-29 days after ingestion of S. hominis cysts. These results showed that S. sinensis and S. hominis are separate species and S. sinensis cannot use human being as the definitive host.

  8. Intra- and interspecific density-dependent effects on growth in helminth parasites of the cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Volponi, S; Beltrami, I; Poulin, R

    2002-05-01

    The action of intra- and interspecific competition, mediated by density-dependent effects on growth, was investigated among the 3 helminth species found in the alimentary tract of 104 cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Intraspecific density-dependent effects on worm sizes were observed in the abundant nematode Contracaecum rudolphii, as shown by a negative correlation between mean worm size and intensity of infection. Higher intensities of infection by C. rudolphii were also associated with more variable worm sizes in the nematode Syncuaria squamata, suggesting a one-sided and density-dependent interspecific effect. There was also clear evidence of some form of negative interaction between the nematode S. squamata and the acanthocephalan Southwellina hispida from two fronts. First, there was a strong negative correlation between the intensities of infection of the 2 species across hosts. Second, sizes of worms of 1 species became more variable as the number of worms of the other species per host increased, and vice versa. This interspecific density-dependent effect on growth was thus apparently symmetrical. We also found evidence that worm size is a predictor of egg output in the 3 helminth species, indicating that intra- and interspecific density-dependent effects on growth can affect population dynamics in these worms. These results illustrate the complex nature of density dependence in helminth growth, and how its effects can act both within and among species.

  9. Identification of parasite DNA in common bile duct stones by PCR and DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Sun; Kim, Kyung Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2007-01-01

    We attempted to identify parasite DNA in the biliary stones of humans via PCR and DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from each of 15 common bile duct (CBD) stones and 5 gallbladder (GB) stones. The patients who had the CBD stones suffered from cholangitis, and the patients with GB stones showed acute cholecystitis, respectively. The 28S and 18S rDNA genes were amplified successfully from 3 and/or 1 common bile duct stone samples, and then cloned and sequenced. The 28S and 18S rDNA sequences were highly conserved among isolates. Identity of the obtained 28S D1 rDNA with that of Clonorchis sinensis was higher than 97.6%, and identity of the 18S rDNA with that of other Ascarididae was 97.9%. Almost no intra-specific variations were detected in the 28S and 18S rDNA with the exception of a few nucleotide variations, i.e., substitution and deletion. These findings suggest that C. sinensis and Ascaris lumbricoides may be related with the biliary stone formation and development. PMID:18165713

  10. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GASTRIC WALL IN CHINESE ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR SINENSIS INFECTED WITH ORTLEPPASCARIS SINENSIS (NEMATODA: ASCARIDOIDEA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Chaopin

    2015-09-01

    Crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive Alligator sinensis. The histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammation in submucous layer at entire gastric walls of the Alligator sinensis. Our findings also confirm that development of Ortleppascaris sinensis is in close association with the wall of the stomach.

  11. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection.

  12. Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a non-cyst-forming parasitic nematode from the root of ramie Boehmeria nivea in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, K; Wang, H H; Ye, W; Peng, D L; Liao, J L

    2014-12-01

    Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. is described from ramie (Boehmeria nivea) based on the morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA small subunit (SSU), D2D3 expansion domains of large subunit (LSU D2D3) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). This new species is characterized by oval females with a distinct subcrystalline layer and pronounced and protruding vulval lip, distinctly concave vulva-anus profile and a vulva-anus distance of 29.5-35.8 μm. Males possess two annuli in the lip region, a stylet 27-32.5 μm in length with round knobs sloping slightly posteriorly, lateral fields with three lines, spicules 20-28 μm long and the presence of a short cloacal tube. Second-stage juveniles possess three lip annuli, a stylet 28-31 μm in length with well-developed knobs projected anteriorly and three lines along the lateral field. The pointed tail, 52-65 μm long, possesses a mucro-like tip and a hyaline region, 24.5-35 μm long. Large phasmids with a lens-like structure are located 2-6 annuli posterior to the anus. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the species has unique SSU, LSU D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships of the three rDNA sequences of C. sinensis n. sp. and other cystoid/cyst nematodes are analysed together with a comparison of other species within the genus Cryphodera.

  13. Intestinal parasite co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis cases without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural county in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47-6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17-5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03-10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  14. Elucidating the transcriptome of Fasciola hepatica - a key to fundamental and biotechnological discoveries for a neglected parasite.

    PubMed

    Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Jex, Aaron R; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2010-01-01

    Liver flukes of animals are parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of major socioeconomic importance in many countries. Key representatives, such as Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, cause "liver fluke disease" (= fascioliasis), which is of major animal health significance worldwide. In particular, F. hepatica is a leading cause of production losses to the livestock (mainly sheep and cattle) and meat industries due to clinical disease, reduced weight gain and milk production, and deaths. This parasite is also a major food-borne pathogen of humans throughout parts of the Middle East, Asia and South America. Currently, there is a significant focus on the development of new approaches for the prevention and control of fascioliasis in livestock. Recent technological advances in genomics and bioinformatics provide unique opportunities for the identification and prevalidation of drug targets and vaccines through a better understanding of the biology of F. hepatica and related species as well as their relationship with their hosts at the molecular level. Surprisingly, despite the widespread socioeconomic impact of fascioliasis, genomic datasets for F. hepatica are scant, limiting the molecular biological research of this parasite. The present article explores specifically the transcriptome of the adult stage of F. hepatica using an integrated genomic-bioinformatic platform. The analysis of the current data reveals numerous molecules of biological relevance, some of which are inferred to be involved in key biological processes or pathways that could serve as targets for new trematocidal drugs or vaccines. Improved insights into the transcriptome of F. hepatica should pave the way for future, comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of other developmental stages of this and related parasites, such as F. gigantica, cancer-causing flatworms (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini) and blood flukes (Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum). Prediction of the

  15. Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Ondračková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, Jiří; Vojtek, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk

    2012-04-01

    Lesions ranging from surface wounds to deep tissue wounds caused by cormorant predation were observed on several species of the farmed fish in Pohořelice, Czech Republic. Two-year-old stocked common carp Cyprinus carpio harvested in late March were examined for ectoparasites and endoparasites, injuries extent, and lysozyme concentration in skin mucus. Additionally, three body condition indices were measured. Endoparasite infection occurred only scarcely. Wounded fish were more susceptible to the ectoparasites Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. (Monogenea), and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora). The intensity of infection of other ectoparasites Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea), Argulus spp. (Branchiura) and trichodinids (Ciliophora) did not significantly differ between wounded and control groups of fish. Lysozyme concentration in fish mucus was significantly higher in wounded fish and was positively associated with both the extent of damaged epithelium and Gyrodactylus spp. abundance. There were no differences in Fulton's condition factor and lipid content in muscle and liver tissues between wounded and non-wounded fish. Higher values of spleen-somatic index in wounded fish corresponded to increased intensity of parasite infection, most likely reflecting changes in immune system of infected fish. Although our results did not show any significant effect of cormorant attacks on fish condition, the wounded fish had significantly higher parasite numbers which could impact the growth or survival of the fish throughout the production season.

  16. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting Eight Parasites Customized to the Korean Population: Potential Use for Detection in Diarrheal Stool Samples from Gastroenteritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kee, Seung Jung; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Chai, Jong Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook; Shin, Myung Geun

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases occur worldwide and can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis; however, their diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in low-endemism countries. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of eight intestinal parasites and prospectively evaluated it for patients with gastroenteritis. The assay targeted Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Gymnophalloides seoi. Performance characteristics were evaluated based on recovery after DNA extraction, analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and interference characteristics. Clinical performance was validated against microscopy on 123 diarrheal samples. The assay demonstrated strong correlations between DNA concentrations and Ct values (R2, 0.9924–0.9998), and had a high PCR efficiency (83.3%–109.5%). Polymerase chain reactions detected as few as 10–30 copies of genomic DNA, and coefficient of variance was 0–7%. There was no cross-reactivity to the other 54 microorganisms tested. Interference occurred only in presence of high concentrations of erythrocytes or leukocytes. This assay had a higher correct identification rate (100.0% vs. 90.2%) and lower incorrect ID rate (0.0% vs. 9.8%) when compared to microscopy. Overall, this assay showed a higher sensitivity (100.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 80.5–100.0) than microscopy (29.4%; 95% CI 10.31–55.96), and the specificity levels were comparable for both methods (100.0%; 95% CI 96.58–100.0). This newly developed multiplex real-time PCR assay offers a potential use for detecting intestinal parasitic pathogens customized to the Korean population. PMID:27861635

  17. A review of the control of clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Qian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yixin; Hong, Qingbiao

    2012-11-01

    Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of infection, 15-20 million people are infected, and 1.5-2 million show symptoms or complications. In China, it is relatively heavily transmitted in Zhujiang River Delta, including Hong Kong and Macao, and Northeast China, where many Korean people live. The transmission is related to the unhealthy habits of residents who like to have raw fish or half-raw fish. The infection of Clonorchis sinensis could result in serious liver and biliary system damages, and chronic cases may induce liver and bile duct cancers. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is distributed around the world except the areas where the residents have a taboo against pork for religious reasons. Recent years, the urban inhabitants infected with T. solium/Cysticercus are increasing in China. T. solium results in intestinal diseases, and cysticercosis is a very serious disease, especially nervous system cysticercosis. Its symptoms include headache, epilepsy, sudden death, etc. Health education and health promotion, environmental reconstruction, and chemotherapy are the main control measures for these diseases. Through several decades of efforts in China, the achievements of control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are great. For example, in one of the main clonorchiasis-endemic provinces, Shandong Province, clonorchiasis has been controlled. In 31 T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis-endemic counties of Henan Province, through a 6-year control program, the decline rates of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis were 90.8 and 96.8 %, respectively. This paper reviews the researches on the control of clonorchiasis and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China past decades so as to provide references for other countries

  18. Investigation and analysis of microbiological communities in natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Guo, Lian-Xian; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that parasitizes caterpillars, and more than 30 species of filamentous fungi have been isolated from its fruiting body. However, its microbiological diversity remains unclear. Based on the clone library and quantitative PCR techniques, the bacterial flora and mycobiota of 3 different samples (larva, stromata/sclerotia, and surface soil) from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using primer sets that targeted the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. The results showed that the abundance of bacterial and fungal communities in the soil attached to the surface of O. sinensis was (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10(6) and (6.0 ± 0.3) × 10(7) copies/g dry matter, respectively, which was the highest compared with that in the larva and stromal samples. The main groups of bacteria in the O. sinensis samples were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while Ascomycota was the most dominant fungal group in the 3 samples. At the genus level, Geomyces, Phoma, and Trichocladium were the dominant genera in the larval sample, while Geomyces and Cladosporium were the dominant genera in the stromal sample. In conclusion, a great number of bacterial and fungal species were present in naturally occurring O. sinensis specimens, and there was a high diversity of bacterial and fungal communities. These findings contribute to the understanding of the bacterial and fungal community structure of this valuable medicinal fungus and lay the foundation for the future discovery of new medicinal microorganism resources.

  19. [A study on the fine structure of Clonorchus sinensis, a liver Fluke V. The mature spermatozoa

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kye Heon; Rim, Han Jong

    1984-06-01

    An ultrastructural study on the mature spermatozoa of Clonorchis sinensis was carried out. For this study, the liver flukes were collected from the livers of rabbits and rats artificially infected with the metacercariae obtained from the fresh water fish, Pseudorasbora parva. Six-month old worms were used. The collected liver flukes were washed with 0.85 percent saline solution and then immediately moved to cold 2 percent glutaraldehyde buffered with 0.l M Millonig's phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The materials were dissected into appropriate pieces in the fixative about 30 minutes after beginning of the fixation. Two hours later the materials containing the seminal receptacle were rinsed several times with the buffer and were secondarily fixed with cold, buffered 1 percent osmium tetroxide for 2 hours. The fully fixed tissue blocks were dehydrated in a series of graded concentrations of acetone and were embedded in Epon 812 mixture. Thin sections obtained from LKB-5 ultramicrotome were stained with uranyl acetate and Reynold's lead citrate. Observations of the sections were carried out with JEM-100CX II electron microscope. In general, the mature sperm was long thread-like form with a sickle-shaped head. According to the longitudinal sectioned view of the sperm tail, the nucleus seemed to be spirally coiled and run a little far along the tail. The acrosome was not observed. The cytoplasm of the tail was biflagellated as usual in trematodes. Unlike other platyhelminth spermatozoa, the sperm tail of Clonorchis sinensis showed the [9+2] pattern in the microtubular arrangement. The mitochondria with poorly developed cristae were observed throughout the middle piece. The middle piece of the tail showed dull ladder or triangular shapes with the two flagella at the bottom. But, the principal piece of the tail was slightly flattened cylindrical shape with two flagella within the cytoplasm. The end piece was uniflagellated. It was not clearly identified whether the end piece

  20. Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2).

  1. Review of Naturopathy of Medical Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps Sinensis, in Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, and has long been used as medicine to treat many illnesses and promote longevity in Chinese society. Previous investigations have shown that O. sinensis has many pharmacological activities. This review has focused on illustrating that O. sinensis can enhance libido and sexual performance, and can restore impaired reproductive functions, such as impotency or infertility, in both sexes. PMID:27041868

  2. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  3. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  4. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  5. Seasonal trends, sampling plans and parasitoid complex of the Chinese wax scale, Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio (Hemiptera: Coccidae), in Mediterranean citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Campos-Rivela, J M; Verdú, M J

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal trends and the parasitoid complex of Chinese wax scale (Ceroplastes sinensis) was studied from July 2010 to February 2013. Six commercial citrus groves located in northeastern Spain were sampled fortnightly. Chinese wax scale completed a single annual generation. Egg oviposition started in May and continued until mid-July. Egg hatching began in mid-June, and in the first quarter of August, the maximum percentage of hatched eggs was reached. In the same groves, the parasitoid species of C. sinensis were determined together with their seasonal trends, relative abundance and occurrence on C. sinensis. Four hymenoptera were found parasitizing C. sinensis, mainly on third instars and females: Coccophagus ceroplastae (Aphelinidae), Metaphycus helvolus (Encyrtidae), Scutellista caerulea (Pteromalidae) and Aprostocetus ceroplastae (Eulophidae). The most abundant species was A. ceroplastae, corresponding to 54% of the parasitoids emerged. Coccophagus ceroplastae and M. helvolus represented 19%, whereas S. caerulea comprised 8% of the total. This study is the first published record of C. ceroplastae in Spain and the first record of M. helvolus on C. sinensis in Spain. Concerning the economical thresholds normally used, sampling plans developed for the management of C. sinensis in citrus groves should target population densities of around 12-20% of invaded twigs, equivalent to 0.2-0.5 females per twig. The sample size necessary to achieve the desired integrated pest management precision is 90-160 twigs per grove for the enumerative plan and about 160-245 twigs per grove for the binomial plan.

  6. Parasitic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  7. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, ... Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can ...

  8. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  9. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-02-22

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  10. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  11. Parasitic Apologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatolo, Renata; Ursi, Biagio; Bongelli, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The action of apologizing can be accomplished as the main business of the interaction or incidentally while participants are doing something else. We refer to these apologies as "parasitic apologies," because they are produced "en passant" (Schegloff, 2007), and focus our analysis on this type of apology occurring at the…

  12. Sequence structure and intragenomic variability of ribosomal ITS2 in monozoic tapeworms of the genus Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-10-01

    The sequence structure of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) was determined for six species of Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish in the Holarctic Region. Homologous intragenomic ITS2 structure was found in Khawia armeniaca, Khawia baltica, and Khawia rossittensis; whereas divergent intragenomic ITS2 copies were detected in Chinese, Japanese, and Slovak isolates of Khawia sinensis and in Khawia japonensis, both parasitic in common carp, and in Khawia saurogobii, recently described from Chinese lizard gudgeon in China. Despite distinct morphological differences between K. saurogobii and K. sinensis, both species display very high level of molecular homogeneity. Variation in number of short repetitive motifs [(GCCT)(n) (GCCC)(n)], [(GTG)(n)], [(ATAC)(n)], [ACGTGT (TCGTGT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], and [(ACCT)(n) (GCCT)(n)] resulted in assortment of ITS2 sequences in four ITS2 variants in K. saurogobii from China, three in Chinese and Japanese isolates of K. sinensis, and five ITS2 variants in K. sinensis from Slovakia. In K. japonensis, the structure and arrangement of microsatellites was different from those of K. sinensis and K. saurogobii. The heterogeneity in the number of two microsatellite regions [(TG)(n); (TTG)(n)] divided ITS2 clones into two variants-first ITS2 variant (472 bp) with (TG)(5) and (TTG)(6), and second variant with (TG)(7) and (TTG)(2) (465 bp). Sequence identity of K. saurogobii with all but one (K. sinensis) congeneric species ranged between 49.5 and 69.2%, which corresponds to the interspecific differences. In contrast, sequence identity of K. saurogobii and K. sinensis (87.6-95.0%) failed into the range of intraspecific variation determined for K. sinensis samples. This close genetic similarity indicates that recently described K. saurogobii may have undergone morphological divergence as a result of ongoing sympatric speciation by host switching.

  13. Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a fungus that parasitizes on the larva of Lepidoptera, has been used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), and particularly focused on its anticancer and antimetastatic actions. Based on in vitro studies, we report that WECS showed an anticancer action, and this action was antagonized by an adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, this anticancer action of WECS was promoted by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. These results suggest that one of the components of WECS with an anticancer action might be an adenosine or its derivatives. Therefore, we focused on cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) as one of the active ingredients of WECS. According to our experiments, cordycepin showed an anticancer effect through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor, followed by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation and cyclin D1 suppression. Cordycepin also showed an antimetastatic action through inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by cancer cells and suppressing the invasiveness of cancer cells via inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and accelerating the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 from cancer cells. In conclusion, cordycepin, an active component of WECS, might be a candidate anticancer and antimetastatic agent.

  14. Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Haidee

    2016-02-01

    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-07-07

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  17. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-11-22

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas.

  18. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. PMID:27874103

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

  20. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  1. Equine immunity to parasites.

    PubMed

    Klei, T R

    2000-04-01

    Helminths are among the most significant parasites of horses in developed countries. This article examines immune responses against helminth parasites and the implications that immunologic investigations have on vaccine development, improvement of diagnostic procedures, and disease eradication.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ki Whang; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    In general, gastrointestinal tract is the primary involvement site of parasites during their life cycle. In this article, we will describe amebiasis, ascariasis, and anisakiasis among the many common intestinal parasitic diseases. We will review the epidemiology, life cycles, clinical manifestations and complications, and illustrate detailed imaging findings of intestinal parasites. Recognizing features of parasitic infection is important to establish an early diagnosis that leads to prompt treatment and helps avoid unnecessary surgery.

  3. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment.

  4. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  5. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30 cm s- 1. The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  6. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-15

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30cms(-1). The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  7. Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis, the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui), is a herb used in Chinese medicine to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and modulate the immune system. It is also used to treat chronic constipation of the elderly and debilitated as well as menstrual disorders. Research has demonstrated that Danggui and its active ingredients, as anti-arthrosclerotic, anti-hypertensive, antioxidant anti-inflammatory agents which would limit platelet aggregation, are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores. PMID:21867503

  8. Parasites and supernormal manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Holen, Ø. H.; Saetre, G. P.; Slagsvold, T.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2001-01-01

    Social parasites may exploit their hosts by mimicking other organisms that the hosts normally benefit from investing in or responding to in some other way. Some parasites exaggerate key characters of the organisms they mimic, possibly in order to increase the response from the hosts. The huge gape and extreme begging intensity of the parasitic common cuckoo chick (Cuculus canorus) may be an example. In this paper, the evolutionary stability of manipulating hosts through exaggerated signals is analysed using game theory. Our model indicates that a parasite's signal intensity must be below a certain threshold in order to ensure acceptance and that this threshold depends directly on the rate of parasitism. The only evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) combination is when hosts accept all signallers and parasites signal at their optimal signal intensity, which must be below the threshold. Supernormal manipulation by parasites is only evolutionarily stable under sufficiently low rates of parasitism. If the conditions for the ESS combination are not satisfied, rejector hosts can invade using signal intensity as a cue for identifying parasites. These qualitative predictions are discussed with respect to empirical evidence from parasitic mimicry systems that have been suggested to involve supernormal signalling, including evicting avian brood parasites and insect-mimicking Ophrys orchids. PMID:11749709

  9. The Japanese ladybirds, Coccinula crotchi and Coccinula sinensis, are infected with very closely related strains of male-killing Flavobacterium.

    PubMed

    Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan; Majerus, Michael E N

    2014-12-01

    Male-killing is 1 of 4 known strategies that inherited parasitic endosymbionts have evolved to manipulate their host's reproduction. In early male-killing, infected male offspring are killed early in embryogenesis. Within the Insecta, male-killing bacteria have been found in a wide range of hosts. The Coccinellidae families of beetles, better known as ladybirds, are particularly prone to male-killer invasion. In samples of the coccinellid, Coccinula crotchi, from Japan, a new male-killing bacterium was revealed by phenotypic assay. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the identity to be a tetracycline-sensitive Flavobacterium that causes female-biased offspring sex ratio. Furthermore, that Flavobacterium strain was found to be closely related to the Flavobacterium causing male-killing in the congeneric Japanese coccinellid, Coccinula sinensis, which was collected from the same region. However, we found slightly different Flavobacterium strains infecting C. sinensis from regions with different environmental conditions. This may be an indication of horizontal transmission of male-killing Flavobacterium between these 2 ladybird spices. Finally, environmental conditions may affect the spread of male-killing bacteria among their hosts.

  10. Preliminary report on the intestinal parasites and their diversity in captive Chinese alligators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Zhou, Yongkang; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Tang, Xiaoniu; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-20

    Objetivo: Aunque los parásitos intestinales son comúnmente detectados en los cocodrilos salvajes o en criados en cautividad en otras partes del mundo, existen muy pocos informes el caso concreto del caimán chino criado en cautividad (Alligator sinensis), ya que sólo están distribuidos en las zonas del sur del río Yangtze. El presente trabajo fue realizado para investigar los parásitos intestinales y su diversidad en las especies de cocodrilo chino. Métodos: En mayo y octubre de 2013, se recopilaron aleatoriamente un total de 328 muestras fecales de caimanes chinos en cautividad de un centro de cría en el sur de la provincia de Anhui. Resultados: Fueron identificados tres géneros de protozoos (Entaoeba, Eimeria e Isospora), cinco géneros de nematodos (Ascaris, Dujardin Ascaris, Capillaria, Toxocara y Strongylus), dos géneros de trematodos (Echinostoma y Clonorchis) y dos familias de trematodos (Schistosomatidae y Cryptogonimidae), de los cuales la mayor prevalencia correspondió a Dujardin Ascaris y producían la mayor tasa de infección (14,33%); entaoeba se situó en el segundo puesto (13,11%). El número de especies, índice de riqueza, índice de diversidad y de equitatividad fue superior en los meses de julio y agosto, y éstos, relativamente más para caimanes jóvenes y sub-adultos. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados apuntan la prevalencia de la infección por parásitos intestinales en caimanes chinos en cautividad y ello exige nuestra atención, ya sea para controlar o prevenir la propagación de la enfermedad parasitaria intestinal a los seres humanos, o para la conservación de esta especie en peligro de extinción.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A

    2004-03-01

    Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications.

  12. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  13. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID

  14. Malaria parasite clearance.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J

    2017-02-23

    Following anti-malarial drug treatment asexual malaria parasite killing and clearance appear to be first order processes. Damaged malaria parasites in circulating erythrocytes are removed from the circulation mainly by the spleen. Splenic clearance functions increase markedly in acute malaria. Either the entire infected erythrocytes are removed because of their reduced deformability or increased antibody binding or, for the artemisinins which act on young ring stage parasites, splenic pitting of drug-damaged parasites is an important mechanism of clearance. The once-infected erythrocytes returned to the circulation have shortened survival. This contributes to post-artesunate haemolysis that may follow recovery in non-immune hyperparasitaemic patients. As the parasites mature Plasmodium vivax-infected erythrocytes become more deformable, whereas Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes become less deformable, but they escape splenic filtration by sequestering in venules and capillaries. Sequestered parasites are killed in situ by anti-malarial drugs and then disintegrate to be cleared by phagocytic leukocytes. After treatment with artemisinin derivatives some asexual parasites become temporarily dormant within their infected erythrocytes, and these may regrow after anti-malarial drug concentrations decline. Artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum reflects reduced ring stage susceptibility and manifests as slow parasite clearance. This is best assessed from the slope of the log-linear phase of parasitaemia reduction and is commonly measured as a parasite clearance half-life. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of anti-malarial drug effects on parasite clearance has proved useful in predicting therapeutic responses and in dose-optimization.

  15. Parasites: evolution's neurobiologists.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley Anne

    2013-01-01

    For millions of years, parasites have altered the behaviour of their hosts. Parasites can affect host behaviour by: (1) interfering with the host's normal immune-neural communication, (2) secreting substances that directly alter neuronal activity via non-genomic mechanisms and (3) inducing genomic- and/or proteomic-based changes in the brain of the host. Changes in host behaviour are often restricted to particular behaviours, with many other behaviours remaining unaffected. Neuroscientists can produce this degree of selectivity by targeting specific brain areas. Parasites, however, do not selectively attack discrete brain areas. Parasites typically induce a variety of effects in several parts of the brain. Parasitic manipulation of host behaviour evolved within the context of the manipulation of other host physiological systems (especially the immune system) that was required for a parasite's survival. This starting point, coupled with the fortuitous nature of evolutionary innovation and evolutionary pressures to minimize the costs of parasitic manipulation, likely contributed to the complex and indirect nature of the mechanisms involved in host behavioural control. Because parasites and neuroscientists use different tactics to control behaviour, studying the methods used by parasites can provide novel insights into how nervous systems generate and regulate behaviour. Studying how parasites influence host behaviour will also help us integrate genomic, proteomic and neurophysiological perspectives on behaviour.

  16. [Cordyceps sinensis, a fungi used in the Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-12-31

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is an ascomycete fungus known in China since antiquity, which is still being used today. A summary, showing relevant papers about this fungus, regarding habitat, history, marketing, consumption, nomenclature, pharmacological composition, culture and medical use, is presented.

  17. Sphingolipids in parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Bangs, James D.; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The surface of most protozoan parasites relies heavily upon lipid-anchored molecules, to form protective barriers and play critical functions required for infectivity. Sphingolipids (SLs) play important roles through their abundance and involvement in membrane microdomain formation, as well as serving as the lipid anchor for many of these molecules, and in some but possibly not all species, as important signaling molecules. Interactions of parasite sphingolipid metabolism with that of the host may potentially contribute to parasite survival and/or host defense. In this chapter we summarize current knowledge of SL structure, synthesis and function in several of the major parasitic protozoan groups. PMID:20919659

  18. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  19. Habitats and Distribution of Anopheles Sinensis and Associated Anopheles Hyrcanus Group in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    SCIENTIFIC NOTE HABITATS AND DISTRffiUTION OF ANOPHELES SINENSIS AND ASSOCIATED ANOPHELES HYRCANUS GROUP IN JAPAN LEOPOLDO M. RUEDA.’ MASASHIRO IWAKAMI.2.b...collections were carried out in August 2002 and July 2003 in Japan . Anopheles sinensis of the Hyrcanus Group. Myzomyia Series of Anopheles. was the...Anopheles sinensis. Hyrcanus Group, Aedes, Clllex, Uranotaenia. Japan . Culicidae The Anopheles Hyrcanus Group consists of sev- eral species that are vectors

  20. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  1. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  2. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M.; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis’ anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis) based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, β-tubulin, TEF-1α, and ATP6). The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C) and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature. PMID:28046129

  3. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-08-28

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed.

  4. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  5. Peroxiredoxins in Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gretes, Michael C.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Parasite survival and virulence relies on effective defenses against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the host immune system. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous enzymes now thought to be central to such defenses and, as such, have potential value as drug targets and vaccine antigens. Recent Advances: Plasmodial and kinetoplastid Prx systems are the most extensively studied, yet remain inadequately understood. For many other parasites our knowledge is even less well developed. Through parasite genome sequencing efforts, however, the key players are being discovered and characterized. Here we describe what is known about the biochemistry, regulation, and cell biology of Prxs in parasitic protozoa, helminths, and fungi. At least one Prx is found in each parasite with a sequenced genome, and a notable theme is the common patterns of expression, localization, and functionality among sequence-similar Prxs in related species. Critical Issues: The nomenclature of Prxs from parasites is in a state of disarray, causing confusion and making comparative inferences difficult. Here we introduce a systematic Prx naming convention that is consistent between organisms and informative about structural and evolutionary relationships. Future Directions: The new nomenclature should stimulate the crossfertilization of ideas among parasitologists and with the broader redox research community. The diverse parasite developmental stages and host environments present complex systems in which to explore the variety of roles played by Prxs, with a view toward parlaying what is learned into novel therapies and vaccines that are urgently needed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 608–633. PMID:22098136

  6. Reduction of parasitic lasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A technique was developed which carefully retro-reflects precisely controlled amounts of light back into a laser system thereby intentionally forcing the laser system components to oscillate in a new resonator called the parasitic oscillator. The parasitic oscillator uses the laser system to provide the gain and an external mirror is used to provide the output coupling of the new resonator. Any change of gain or loss inside the new resonator will directly change the lasing threshold of the parasitic oscillator. This change in threshold can be experimentally measured as a change in the absolute value of reflectivity, provided by the external mirror, necessary to achieve lasing in the parasitic oscillator. Discrepancies between experimental data and a parasitic oscillator model are direct evidence of optical misalignment or component performance problems. Any changes in the optical system can instantly be measured as a change in threshold for the parasitic oscillator. This technique also enables aligning the system for maximum parasitic suppression with the system fully operational.

  7. Chemical Examination of Citrus sinensis Flavedo Variety Pineapple

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Geeta; Yadav, Lalita; Kalidhar, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical examination of Citrus sinensis flavedo var. Pineapple resulted in the isolation of six compounds characterized as tetracosane, ethyl pentacosanoate, tetratriacontanoic acid, tangertin, β-sitosteryl-β-D-glucoside and 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxy flavanone 3-O-β-glucoside. Of these 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxy flavanone 3-O-β-glucoside is a hitherto unreported compound. PMID:20376223

  8. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-05-13

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption.

  9. Anthocyanins from red flower tea (Benibana-cha), Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Terahara, N; Takeda, Y; Nesumi, A; Honda, T

    2001-02-01

    Three anthocyanins were isolated from the leaves of red flower tea (Benibana-cha), Camellia sinensis, and their structures were determined by means of chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Two are the anthocyanins, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactosides, respectively. Whereas the third, delphinidin 3-0-beta-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaryl)galactopyranoside. The anthocyanins were also contained in the flowers of Benibana-cha in different compositions.

  10. Bird brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2013-10-21

    For many animals, the effort to rear their young is considerable. In birds, this often includes building nests, incubating eggs, feeding the chicks, and protecting them from predators. Perhaps for this reason, about 1% of birds (around 100 species) save themselves the effort and cheat instead. They are obligate brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species and leaving the hosts or foster parents to rear the foreign chicks for them. Some birds also cheat on individuals of the same species (intraspecific brood parasitism). Intraspecific brood parasitism has been reported in around 200 species, but is likely to be higher, as it can often only be detected by genetic analyses.

  11. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Rui-Heng; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Ke; Liang, De-Quan; Liang, Fan; Cao, De-Ming; Zhou, Fan; Wen, Ge; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    As part of a genome sequencing project for Ophiocordyceps sinensis, strain 1229, a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was assembled as a single circular dsDNA of 157,510 bp, one of the largest reported for fungi. Conserved genes including the large and small rRNA subunits, 27 tRNA and 15 protein-coding genes, were identified. In addition, 58 non-conserved open reading frames (ncORFs) in the intergenic and intronic regions were also identified. Transcription analyses using RNA-Seq validated the expression of most conserved genes and ncORFs. Fifty-two introns (groups I and II) were found within conserved genes, accounting for 68.5% of the genome. Thirty-two homing endonucleases (HEs) with motif patterns LAGLIDADG (21) and GIY-YIG (11) were identified in group I introns. The ncORFs found in group II introns mostly encoded reverse transcriptases (RTs). As in other hypocrealean fungi, gene contents and order were found to be conserved in the mt genome of O. sinensis, but the genome size was enlarged by longer intergenic regions and numerous introns. Intergenic and intronic regions were composed of abundant repetitive sequences usually associated with mobile elements. It is likely that intronic ncORFs, which encode RTs and HEs, may have contributed to the enlarged mt genome of O. sinensis. PMID:26370521

  13. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  14. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    DOE PAGES

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; ...

    2015-04-23

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how theymore » interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. In conclusion, different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis.« less

  15. Metabolomics and protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Paget, Timothy; Haroune, Nicolas; Bagchi, Sushmita; Jarroll, Edward

    2013-06-01

    In this review, we examine the state-of-the-art technologies (gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, etc.) in the well-established area of metabolomics especially as they relate to protozoan parasites.

  16. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... make it easier to diagnose certain infections/diseases. Protozoa: Single-celled, microscopic organisms that can perform all necessary functions of metabolism and reproduction. Some protozoa are free-living, while others parasitize other organisms ...

  17. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travelers Women Health Professionals Public Health Departments Laboratory Science ... Infection with Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite found in undercooked meat, cat feces, soil, and untreated water can lead to severe brain ...

  18. Cytoskeleton of Apicomplexan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Morrissette, Naomi S.; Sibley, L. David

    2002-01-01

    The Apicomplexa are a phylum of diverse obligate intracellular parasites including Plasmodium spp., the cause of malaria; Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum, opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised individuals; and Eimeria spp. and Theileria spp., parasites of considerable agricultural importance. These protozoan parasites share distinctive morphological features, cytoskeletal organization, and modes of replication, motility, and invasion. This review summarizes our current understanding of the cytoskeletal elements, the properties of cytoskeletal proteins, and the role of the cytoskeleton in polarity, motility, invasion, and replication. We discuss the unusual properties of actin and myosin in the Apicomplexa, the highly stereotyped microtubule populations in apicomplexans, and a network of recently discovered novel intermediate filament-like elements in these parasites. PMID:11875126

  19. Parasites and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of human evolutionary and population history can be advanced by ecological and evolutionary studies of our parasites. Many parasites flourish only in the presence of very specific human behaviors and in specific habitats, are wholly dependent on us, and have evolved with us for thousands or millions of years. Therefore, by asking when and how we first acquired those parasites, under which environmental and cultural conditions we are the most susceptible, and how the parasites have evolved and adapted to us and we in response to them, we can gain considerable insight into our own evolutionary history. As examples, the tapeworm life cycle is dependent on our consumption of meat, the divergence of body and head lice may have been subsequent to the development of clothing, and malaria hyperendemicity may be associated with agriculture. Thus, the evolutionary and population histories of these parasites are likely intertwined with critical aspects of human biology and culture. Here I review the mechanics of these and multiple other parasite proxies for human evolutionary history and discuss how they currently complement our fossil, archeological, molecular, linguistic, historical, and ethnographic records. I also highlight potential future applications of this promising model for the field of evolutionary anthropology.

  20. Parasites in marine food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  1. [Main parasitic skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, C; Monsel, G; Delaunay, P; Do-Pham, G; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Chosidow, O

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.

  2. Plants, endosymbionts and parasites

    PubMed Central

    Nagamune, Kisaburo; Xiong, Liming; Chini, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    It was recently discovered that the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii produces and uses the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), for communication. Following intracellular replication, ABA production influences the timing of parasite egress from the host cell. This density-dependent signal may serve to coordinate exit from the host cell in a synchronous manner by triggering calcium-dependent activation of motility. In the absence of ABA production, parasites undergo differentiation to the semidormant, tissue cyst. The pathway for ABA production in T. gondii may be derived from a relict endosymbiont, acquired by ingestion of a red algal cell. Although the parasite has lost the capacity for photosynthesis, the plant-like nature of this signaling pathway may be exploited to develop new drugs. In support of this idea, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis protected mice against lethal infection with T. gondii. Here, we compare the role of ABA in parasites to its activities in plants, where it is know to control development and stress responses. PMID:19513200

  3. Niche metabolism in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Michael L

    2006-01-29

    Complete or partial genome sequences have recently become available for several medically and evolutionarily important parasitic protozoa. Through the application of bioinformatics complete metabolic repertoires for these parasites can be predicted. For experimentally intractable parasites insight provided by metabolic maps generated in silico has been startling. At its more extreme end, such bioinformatics reckoning facilitated the discovery in some parasites of mitochondria remodelled beyond previous recognition, and the identification of a non-photosynthetic chloroplast relic in malarial parasites. However, for experimentally tractable parasites, mapping of the general metabolic terrain is only a first step in understanding how the parasite modulates its streamlined, yet still often puzzlingly complex, metabolism in order to complete life cycles within host, vector, or environment. This review provides a comparative overview and discussion of metabolic strategies used by several different parasitic protozoa in order to subvert and survive host defences, and illustrates how genomic data contribute to the elucidation of parasite metabolism.

  4. Ecosystem consequences of fish parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    In most aquatic ecosystems, fishes are hosts to parasites and, sometimes, these parasites can affect fish biology. Some of the most dramatic cases occur when fishes are intermediate hosts for larval parasites. For example, fishes in southern California estuaries are host to many parasites. The most common of these parasites, Euhaplorchis californiensis, infects the brain of the killifish Fundulus parvipinnis and alters its behaviour, making the fish 10–30 times more susceptible to predation by the birds that serve as its definitive host. Parasites like E. californiensis are embedded in food webs because they require trophic transmission. In the Carpinteria Salt Marsh estuarine food web, parasites dominate the links and comprise substantial amount of biomass. Adding parasites to food webs alters important network statistics such as connectance and nestedness. Furthermore, some free-living stages of parasites are food items for free-living species. For instance, fishes feed on trematode cercariae. Being embedded in food webs makes parasites sensitive to changes in the environment. In particular, fishing and environmental disturbance, by reducing fish populations, may reduce parasite populations. Indirect evidence suggests a decrease in parasites in commercially fished species over the past three decades. In addition, environmental degradation can affect fish parasites. For these reasons, parasites in fishes may serve as indicators of environmental impacts.

  5. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  6. Malaria Parasites: The Great Escape

    PubMed Central

    Rénia, Laurent; Goh, Yun Shan

    2016-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:27872623

  7. Microarray in parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Misra, Shubham; Anand, Namrata; Sharma, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Modern biology and genomic sciences are rooted in parasitic disease research. Genome sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of new biological information that promises to have a major impact on our understanding of parasites. Microarrays provide one of the major high-throughput platforms by which this information can be exploited in the laboratory. Many excellent reviews and technique articles have recently been published on applying microarrays to organisms for which fully annotated genomes are at hand. However, many parasitologists work on organisms whose genomes have been only partially sequenced. This review is mainly focused on how to use microarray in these situations. PMID:23508469

  8. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  9. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  10. Digenean fauna of the great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach, 1798) in the brackish waters of the Vistula Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk (Poland).

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Sitko, Jilji; Rolbiecki, Leszek; Rokicki, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    The great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach, 1798) is one of the most important birds in the Vistula Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk area. As a typical piscivore, the bird plays a significant part in life cycles of parasites in aquatic ecosystems. Within January 2000-June 2001, a complete helminthological examination was performed on great cormorants collected in the nesting area at Katy Rybackie on the Vistula Spit (80 specimens) and in the Vistula Lagoon (10 specimens). The infection prevalence, mean intensity, and intensity range were 92.2%, 376.5, and 1-4524, respectively. The presence of 9 digenean species (Paryphostomum radiatum (Dujardin, 1845), Petasiger exaeretus Dietz, 1909, P. phalacrocoracis (Yamaguti, 1939), Mesorchis pseudoechinatus (Olsson, 1876), Metorchis xanthosomus (Creplin, 1846), Cryptocotyle concavum (Creplin, 1825), Hysteromorpha triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), and Holostephanus dubinini Vojtek et Vojtkova, 1968) was recorded, P. phalacrocoracis being the most common parasite (prevalence 92.2%, mean intensity 323.8). Tylodelplhys clavata proved a parasite new for the great cormorant moreover the records of P. phalacrocoracis, H. triloba, and H. dubinini are the first in Poland, while C. concavum and M. pseudoechinatus were for the first time recorded in the great cormorant in Poland.

  11. Ungulate malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Thomas J.; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium. PMID:26996979

  12. Genomics of apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Lakshmipuram Seshadri; Parkinson, John

    2017-02-22

    The increasing prevalence of infections involving intracellular apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium (the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively) represent a significant global healthcare burden. Despite their significance, few treatments are available; a situation that is likely to deteriorate with the emergence of new resistant strains of parasites. To lay the foundation for programs of drug discovery and vaccine development, genome sequences for many of these organisms have been generated, together with large-scale expression and proteomic datasets. Comparative analyses of these datasets are beginning to identify the molecular innovations supporting both conserved processes mediating fundamental roles in parasite survival and persistence, as well as lineage-specific adaptations associated with divergent life-cycle strategies. The challenge is how best to exploit these data to derive insights into parasite virulence and identify those genes representing the most amenable targets. In this review, we outline genomic datasets currently available for apicomplexans and discuss biological insights that have emerged as a consequence of their analysis. Of particular interest are systems-based resources, focusing on areas of metabolism and host invasion that are opening up opportunities for discovering new therapeutic targets.

  13. A Passion for Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    I knew nothing and had thought nothing about parasites until 1971. In fact, if you had asked me before then, I might have commented that parasites were rather disgusting. I had been at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine for three years, and I was on the lookout for a new project. In 1971, I came across a paper in the Journal of Molecular Biology by Larry Simpson, a classmate of mine in graduate school. Larry's paper described a remarkable DNA structure known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), isolated from a parasite. kDNA, the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids, is a DNA network composed of several thousand interlocked DNA rings. Almost nothing was known about it. I was looking for a project on DNA replication, and I wanted it to be both challenging and important. I had no doubt that working with kDNA would be a challenge, as I would be exploring uncharted territory. I was also sure that the project would be important when I learned that parasites with kDNA threaten huge populations in underdeveloped tropical countries. Looking again at Larry's paper, I found the electron micrographs of the kDNA networks to be rather beautiful. I decided to take a chance on kDNA. Little did I know then that I would devote the next forty years of my life to studying kDNA replication. PMID:25336639

  14. [Discrimination of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ji, Peng; Wei, Yan-Ming; Hua, Yong-Li; Zhang, Wen-quan

    2014-05-01

    A new rapid and nondestructive method for identifying polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was developed, and this method was based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine, unprocessed Angelica sinensis(UAS) is of ten used after processed, the common processed products are Angelica sinensis parched with wine(WAS), Angelica sinensis parched with soil(SAS), Angelica sinensis parched with oil(OAS) and Charred Angelica sinensis(CAS). In order to use polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its processed products effectively and reasonably in clinic, it is very necessary to identify them. FTIR of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was determined, and then it was decomposed by discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The high frequency information in scale 2, 3 and 4 was selected as feature information, from which the each wavelet entropy was extracted as characteristic value. BP neural network was trained with these characteristic values. The trained BP neural network was used to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products. According to 30 prediction samples, the correct rate for recognition was 93. 3%, which indicates that: it has better feasibility to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products by this method, which is based on FTIR, discrete wavelet transform and BP neural network

  15. A newly found cadmium accumulator--Malva sinensis Cavan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shirong; Chen, Mingying; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Deng, Liangji

    2010-01-15

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg(-1)) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg(-1), respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg(-1). The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 microg pot(-1), respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  16. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the hemocyte apoptosis of Eriocheir sinensis *

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai-sheng; Lyu, Sun-jian; Xu, Jie-hao; Lu, Bin-jie; Zhao, Jing; Li, Song; Li, Yi-qun; Chen, Yu-yin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible toxicity mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from Gram-negative bacteria in Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes. Apoptotic hemocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the LPS were monitored by the combination of flow cytometry and microscope observation. It was shown that LPS induced serious damage on the DNA and morphological changes in hemocytes, including cell shrinkage, fracture of nucleus membrane, margination, condensation and fragmentation of chromatin, and formation of apoptotic bodies indicating obvious hemocyte apoptosis. As compared with the control group, the apoptotic cell ratio increased to 30.61% and 39.01% after 1-h exposure and 57.72% and 75.01% after 2-h exposure to 1 and 10 μg/ml LPS, respectively (P<0.05). Significant outburst of ROS production was observed in LPS-treated hemocytes with approximately 176.6% of relative dichlorofluorescein mean fluorescence at 1-h exposure, followed by a drastic decline (P<0.05). These results indicated that LPS would induce oxidative stress on hemocytes from E. sinensis and cause ROS burst, DNA damage, and subsequently apoptosis. The process of ROS-mediated apoptosis might be one of the potential toxicity mechanisms of LPS on crustacean hemocytes. PMID:26642180

  17. A transcriptome analysis of mitten crab testes (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wan, Haolei; Jiang, Hui; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2011-01-01

    The identification of expressed genes involved in sexual precocity of the mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is critical for a better understanding of its reproductive development. To this end, we constructed a cDNA library from the rapid developmental stage of testis of E. sinensis and sequenced 3,388 randomly picked clones. After processing, 2,990 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered into 2,415 unigenes including 307 contigs and 2,108 singlets, which were then compared to the NCBI non-redundant (nr) protein and nucleotide (nt) database for annotation with Blastx and Blastn, respectively. After further analysis, 922 unigenes were obtained with concrete annotations and 30 unigenes were found to have functions possibly related to the process of reproduction in male crabs – six transcripts relevant to spermatogenesis (especially Cyclin K and RecA homolog DMC1), two transcripts involved in nuclear protein transformation, two heat-shock protein genes, eleven transcription factor genes (a series of zinc-finger proteins), and nine cytoskeleton protein-related genes. Our results, besides providing valuable information related to crustacean reproduction, can also serve as a base for future studies of reproductive and developmental biology. PMID:21637557

  18. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases.

  19. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E.

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases. PMID:23392243

  20. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E

    2013-03-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.

  1. [EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR THE LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE PATHOGENS OF PARASITIC DISEASES AS AN ELEMENT FOR IMPROVING THE POSTGRADUATE TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Malakhov, V N; Serdyuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D; Gorbunova, Yu P; Pautova, E A; Prodeus, T V; Semenova, T A; Fedyanina, L V

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Federal External Quality Assessment (EQA) System and in the context of postgraduate training improvement for health workers in 2010-2014, specialists from the laboratories of the therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and institutions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare were examined for their professional competence in microscopically identifying the pathogens of parasitic diseases in feces. The virtual remote educational computer technology tools that included different combinations of 16 helminthic species, 5 intestinal protozoan species, and a number of artefacts, were used. The specialists from 984 laboratories of multidisciplinary therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and hygiene and epidemiology centers in all Federal Districts of the Russian Federation were covered. A total of 8245 replies were analyzed. The detection rate for helminths was 64.0%, including those by a taxonomic group (nematodes, 65.0%; cestodes, 72.0%; trematodes, 55.1%). There was a dynamic decrease in the above indicators. There were low detection rates for trematodes parasitizing the small intestine (Metagonimus, 10.2%; Nanophyetus, 26.2%) and hepatobiliary organs (Fasciola, 59.6%; Clonorchis, 34.9%). The similar trend was seen in the detection rates for the pathogens of geohelminthisms (ascariasis, trichocephaliasis, etc.) and contagious helminthisms (enterobiasis, hymenolepiasis). The level of competence in detecting and identifying intestinal protozoa was much lower than the similar rates for helminthism pathogens. EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases, by using the virtual tools is a leading element of the postgraduate training system for laboratory specialists. The results of EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases are a basic material for the development, and improvement of training modernization programs, by applying a modular

  2. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  3. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. P.; Meena, H. S.; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  4. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg and Evolution Analysis within the Malvales Order

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhan, Di-Feng; Jia, Xian; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp) genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A. sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A. sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A. sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A. sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A. sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A. sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional medicinal

  5. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg and Evolution Analysis within the Malvales Order.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhan, Di-Feng; Jia, Xian; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp) genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A. sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A. sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A. sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A. sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A. sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A. sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional medicinal

  6. Protein moonlighting in parasitic protists.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Reductive evolution during the adaptation to obligate parasitism and expansions of gene families encoding virulence factors are characteristics evident to greater or lesser degrees in all parasitic protists studied to date. Large evolutionary distances separate many parasitic protists from the yeast and animal models upon which classic views of eukaryotic biochemistry are often based. Thus a combination of evolutionary divergence, niche adaptation and reductive evolution means the biochemistry of parasitic protists is often very different from their hosts and to other eukaryotes generally, making parasites intriguing subjects for those interested in the phenomenon of moonlighting proteins. In common with other organisms, the contribution of protein moonlighting to parasite biology is only just emerging, and it is not without controversy. Here, an overview of recently identified moonlighting proteins in parasitic protists is provided, together with discussion of some of the controversies.

  7. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding.

  8. Variation of theanine, phenolic, and methylxanthine compounds in 21 cultivars of Camellia sinensis harvested in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Redfern, Sally P; Kirkup, Don; Porter, Elaine A; Kite, Geoffrey C; Terry, Leon A; Berry, Mark J; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study to use chemometric methods to differentiate among 21 cultivars of Camellia sinensis from China and between leaves harvested at different times of the year using 30 compounds implicated in the taste and quality of tea. Unique patterns of catechin derivatives were observed among cultivars and across harvest seasons. C. sinensis var. pubilimba (You 510) differed from the cultivars of C. sinensis var. sinensis, with higher levels of theobromine, (+)-catechin, gallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate and theasinensin B, and lower levels of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), respectively. Three cultivars of C. sinensis var. sinensis, Fuyun 7, Qiancha 7 and Zijuan contained significantly more caffeoylquinic acids than others cultivars. A Linear Discriminant Analysis model based on the abundance of 12 compounds was able to discriminate amongst all 21 tea cultivars. Harvest time impacted the abundance of EGC, theanine and afzelechin gallate.

  9. Studies on Anopheles sinensis, the vector species of vivax malaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Extensive previous studies on taxonomy, behavior/bionomics and control of Anopheles sinensis are reviewed and summarized. Recent molecular identification revealed that the population of An. sinensis complex includes An. sinensis, An. pullus, An. lesteri and at least two new species, and An. yatsushiroensis is synonmy of An. pullus. An. sinensis is the main vector specie of vivax malaria in Korea. Larvae of An. sinensis breed in wide range of habitats which are naturally-made clean water, stagnant or flowing; main habitats include rice fields, ditches, streams, irrigation cannals, marshes, ponds, ground pools, etc. Their host preferences are highly zoophilic. Human blood rate is very low (0.7-1.7%); nevertheless An. sinensis readily feeds on man when domestic animals are not found near by. They feed on hosts throughout the night from dusk to dawn with a peak period of 02:00-04:00 hours; they are slightly more exophagic (biting outdoors); much larger numbers come into the room when light is on. Main resting places are outdoors such as grasses, vegetable fields and rice fields. A mark-release-recapture study resulted that 37.1% was recaptured within 1 km, 29.4% at 1-3 km, 21.1% at 3-6 km, 10.3% at 6-9 km and 2.1% at 9-12 km distance. An. sinensis hibernate outdoors (mostly under part of dense grasses) during October-March. At the end of the hibernation period (March-April) they feed on cows at daytime. Until today any single measure to effectively control An. sinensis population has not been found. Indoor residual spray with a long-lasting insecticide can not reduce vector population densities, but shorten their life spans in some degree, so contributes to malaria control. PMID:16192749

  10. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Parasites and Foodborne Illness Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  11. Parasitic Myoma After Morcellation

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Lakhotia, Smita; Kadam, Pratima; Rao, Gayatri; Mahajan, Chaitali

    2009-01-01

    We report an interesting case of parasitic fibroid which developed from a morcellation remnant following laparoscopic myomectomy. The patient presented with incidental finding of pelvic mass in 2005. She underwent laparoscopic myomectomy for a myoma extending from the Pouch of Douglas to both sides of broad ligament. She subsequently presented with abdominal pain 3 years later in 2008. She underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy with removal of broad ligament fibroids. During her hysterectomy, a right lumbar mass attached to the omentum was detected, which was excised laparoscopically. Histopathology of the mass confirmed it to be consistent with leiomyoma. This mass could probably be a morcellation remnant that has grown to this size taking blood supply from the omentum. We report this case to emphasize that all tissue pieces that are morcellated should be diligently removed. Even small bits displaced into the upper abdomen can result in parasitic fibroids. Thus, it can be concluded that parasitic myomas can arise from morcellated remnants and grow depending on the blood supply. PMID:22442523

  12. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  13. Systematic revelation of the protective effect and mechanism of Cordycep sinensis on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma with proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Li, Wen-Tai; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Pan, Tai-Long

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has been reported to treat liver diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of C. sinensis on hepatocarcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model with functional proteome tools. In the DEN-exposed group, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased while C. sinensis application remarkably inhibited the activities of these enzymes. Histopathological analysis also indicated that C. sinensis could substantially restore hypertrophic hepatocytes caused by DEN, suggesting that C. sinensis is effective in preventing DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. We therefore comprehensively delineated the global protein alterations using a proteome platform. The most meaningful changes were found among proteins involved in oxidative stress and detoxification. Meanwhile, C. sinensis application could attenuate the carbonylation level of several enzymes as well as chaperone proteins. Network analysis implied that C. sinensis could obviously alleviate hepatocarcinoma via modulating redox imbalance, protein ubiquitination and tumor growth–associated transcription factors. Our findings provide new insight into the potential effects of C. sinensis in preventing carcinogenesis and might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-induced hepatocarcinoma. PMID:27531890

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaolin; Tian, Hua; Zhu, Bin; Chang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Chinese sturgeon mitochondrial DNA is a circular molecule (16,688 bp in length) with the typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mtDNA, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Its control region contains 4.5 copies of unit with 82 bp long at 5' end, which has been reported before for this species. Phylogenetic tree based on 13 protein-coding genes confirmed that the complete mtDNA sequence of Chinese sturgeon was reported here for the first time.

  15. Acoustic signals of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis): social communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianyan; Wang, Ding; Wu, Xiaobing; Wang, Renping; Wang, Chaolin

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the first systematic study of acoustic signals during social interactions of the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis). Sound pressure level (SPL) measurements revealed that Chinese alligators have an elaborate acoustic communication system with both long-distance signal-bellowing-and short-distance signals that include tooting, bubble blowing, hissing, mooing, head slapping and whining. Bellows have high SPL and appear to play an important role in the alligator's long range intercommunion. Sounds characterized by low SPL are short-distance signals used when alligators are in close spatial proximity to one another. The signal spectrographic analysis showed that the acoustic signals of Chinese alligators have a very low dominant frequency, less than 500 Hz. These frequencies are consistent with adaptation to a habitat with high density vegetation. Low dominant frequency sound attenuates less and could therefore cover a larger spatial range by diffraction in a densely vegetated environment relative to a higher dominant frequency sound.

  16. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  17. Anti-TB Polyynes from the roots of Angelica sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shixin; Wang, Yuehong; Inui, Taichi; Chen, Shao-Nong; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott G.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2008-01-01

    Following chemotaxonomic evidence, the PE and CHCl3 extracts of the roots of the botanical Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Dang Gui) were investigated for in vitro anti-TB activity, in parallel to studying their serotonergic and GABAergic potential. The activities were confirmed to chemically overlap with the neurotropic active principles present in medium lipophilic fractions. Phytochemical investigations led to the isolation of five polyynes: falcarindiol (1), 9Z,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol,1-acetate (2), oplopandiol (3), heptadeca-1-ene-9,10-epoxy-4,6-diyne-3,8-diol (4), and the new polyyne 8-hydroxy-1-methoxy-(Z)-9-heptadecene-4,6-diyn-3-one (5), as characterized by spectroscopic techniques including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-MS. All compounds were tested against two pathogenic strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and Erdman) in vitro in a microplate Alamar Blue assay (MABA). The most potent anti-TB constituents were 1 and 2, exhibiting MIC values of 1.4-26.7 μg/ml; 3 showed moderate MICs (49.5 and 50.2 μg/ml, respectively) while 4 and 5 were weakly active (MIC> 60 μg/ml). Notably, none of the five compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against VERO cells. These findings not only reveal a new potential area of therapeutic value for A. sinensis, but also underline the role of polyynes as anti-TB active principles in ethnobotanical preparations, and as lead compounds. PMID:18567055

  18. Nutrition and parasite interaction.

    PubMed

    Coop, R L; Holmes, P H

    1996-01-01

    This overview focuses on the interaction between nutritional status and gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants and considers: (i) the influence of the parasite on host metabolism; and (ii) the effect of host nutrition on the establishment and survival of parasite populations, the development of the host-immune response and the pathophysiology of infection. Gastrointestinal nematodes reduce voluntary feed intake and efficiency of feed utilisation, a key feature being an increased endogenous loss of protein into the gastrointestinal tract. Overall there is movement of protein from productive processes into repair of the gastrointestinal tract, synthesis of plasma proteins and mucoprotein production. Although reduction in feed intake is a major factor contributing to the reduced performance of parasitised ruminants, the underlying mechanisms of the anorexia are poorly understood. Supplementation of the diet with additional protein does not appear to affect initial establishment of nematode infections but the pathophysiological consequences are generally more severe on lower planes of protein nutrition. The main effect of protein supplementation is to increase the rate of acquisition of immunity and increase resistance to reinfection and this has been associated with an enhanced cellular immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The unresponsiveness of the young lamb can be improved by dietary protein supplementation. Recent trials have shown that growing sheep offered a free choice between a low and a high protein ration are able to modify their diet selection in order to alleviate the increase in protein requirements which result from gastrointestinal nematode infection. Studies on the influence of nutrition on the expression of genotype have shown that the benefits of a superior genotype are not lost on a low protein diet whereas a high protein diet can partially emeliorate the disadvantages of an inferior genotype. In addition to dietary protein

  19. Immune Responses in Parasitic Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley, M.D. September 1982 (July 1974 - December 1979...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Report July 1977 - Dec. 1979 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER S 4 7. AUTNIOR(a) 6...DAMD 17-74-C-4136 AD_______________ IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley

  20. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  1. Unexpected hosts: imaging parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carnero, Pablo; Hernández Mateo, Paula; Martín-Garre, Susana; García Pérez, Ángela; Del Campo, Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. We include malaria, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, ascariasis, anisakiasis, dracunculiasis, and strongyloidiasis. The aim of this review is to help radiologists when dealing with these diseases or in cases where they are suspected. Teaching Points • Incidence of parasitic diseases is increasing due to migratory movements and travelling. • Some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain regions in Europe. • Parasitic diseases can have complex life cycles often involving different hosts. • Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential for patient management in parasitic diseases. • Radiologists should be able to recognise and suspect the most relevant parasitic diseases.

  2. [Parasitic dead-end: update].

    PubMed

    Magnaval, J F

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic dead-ends occur when a parasite is unable to establish a permanent interaction in an unnatural host. Although the likelihood of successful reproduction by the pathogenic agent is nul, parasitic dead-end heralds capture of new parasites and therefore expansion of the host range. Angiostrongyliasis due to A. cantonensis or A. costaricensis, anisakiasis, Ancylostoma caninum infection, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis are undoubtedly emerging zoonoses of particular medical interest. Prevention of these diseases relies on abstinence from eating raw meat from invertebrates or cold-blooded (poikilotherm) vertebrates (e.g. used in exotic dishes). These guidelines must be included in recommendations to travelers.

  3. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    GJERDE, Bjørn; HILALI, Mosaad

    2016-01-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8–10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3–100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  4. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  5. Parasitism and calfhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Herlich, H; Douvres, F W

    1977-02-01

    That animals can and do acquire an effective immunity against helminth parasites has been demonstrated extensively experimentally, and the fact that domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses become adults while maintaining good health in spite of constant exposure to reinfection long has suggested that immunity must be important to such survival. Although our attempts to date to vaccinate calves against helminth parasites have either failed or been unsatisfactory because of the pathosis induced by the experimental vaccines, the results are not surprising or discouraging. In contrast to the long history of immunization research on bacterial and viral diseases, only within a relatively short time have serious efforts been directed at exploiting hostal immunity for prevention and control of helminthic diseases. Unlike the comparatively simple structures of viruses and bacteria, helminths are complex multicellular animals with vast arrays of antigens and complicated physiological and immunological interactions with their hosts. Much more fundamental information on helminth-bovine interactions, on helminth antigens, and on cattle antibody systems must be developed before progress on control of cattle helminths by vaccination can be meaningful.

  6. Digestive enzyme activities in mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renxie; Hong, Wanshu; Zhang, Qiyong

    2010-07-01

    The mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis occupy the intertidal zone. However, both species have their own unique diet. The former is an herbivore and the latter is a carnivore. In order to reveal the relationship between digestive enzyme activities and diets in the two species, the activities of protease (P), non-specific bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) and α-amylase (A) were determined in the stomach and intestine of adult mudskipper B. pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper B. sinensis. The results showed that the activities of protease, BAL and α-amylase in the intestine of B. pectinirostris were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in the stomach. In B. sinensis, gastric protease activity was not different from the intestinal protease ( P>0.05), while BAL and α-amylase activities of the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those of the stomach. The activity of gastric protease in B. sinensis was significantly ( P<0.05) higher than that in B. pectinirostris, while the activities of intestinal protease were not different between the two fish species ( P>0.05). BAL activities of the stomach and intestine in B. sinensis were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in B. pectinirostris, while α-amylase activities of the stomach and intestine in B. pectinirostris were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in B. sinensis. The ratios of P/BAL, A/P and A/BAL of the digestive tract in B. pectinirostris were 1.5, 107.3 and 158.6, respectively; and those in B. sinensis were 0.2, 1.6 and 0.2, respectively. It can be concluded that food digestion in the adult B. pectinirostris is mainly carried out in the intestine, whereas in the adult B. sinensis it is initiated in the stomach and finishes in the intestine. The activities of BAL and α-amylase in B. pectinirostris and B. sinensis are well correlated with their diets. However, a clear-cut correlation between protease activity and diets is

  7. Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating women's ailments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Janis Y X; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Chen, J P; Du, Crystal Y Q; Dong, Tina T X; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-05-01

    Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat women's diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang's function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction.

  8. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  9. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lindsay V; Stewart, J Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J

    2015-07-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.

  10. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; ...

    2015-01-24

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicatedmore » a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. Ultimately, these results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.« less

  11. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  12. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats.

  13. Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level.

  14. [The mechanical wound transcriptome of three-year-old Aquilaria sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Gao, Zhi-hui; Wei, Jian-he; Xu, Yan-hong; Li, Ying; Yang, Yun; Meng, Hui; Sui, Chun; Wang, Meng-xi

    2012-08-01

    Chinese agarwood is formed in the aromatic resinous wood formed in Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (botanical family: Thymelaeaceae). Only when suffering stress of wound, etc, can A. sinensis produce sesquiterpenes etc. compounds of agarwood around wounds. However, little is known about how wound induced the biosynthesis pathway of sesquiterpenes. To reveal the molecular mechanism of wound-induced agarwood formation, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to investigate the profile of gene expression in A. sinensis treated by mechanical wounding and elucidate its functional gene. A total of 40,295 ESTs with an average read length of 305 bp were generated and 22 095 unigenes were formed by initial gene splicing. 61.6% of these unigenes (13 611) were annotated using BLAST searches against the SwissProt, KEGG, Nr and Nt databases. Twenty-six unigenes (encoding 7 enzymes) were found to be involved in sesquiterpene of agarwood biosynthesis by bioinformatic tools of Gene Ontology and KEGG. Novel genes that are potentially involved in sesquiterpenes biosynthesis were identified in A. sinensis, providing data for further sesquiterpenes biosynthesis pathway by molecular methods and the EST data establish a foundation for future studies in the molecular mechanisms of wound-induce agarwood formation in A. sinensis.

  15. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (P<0.05), while MPO activity was also significantly reduced. Proinflammatory cytokine level was also reduced in treated group as compared to both other groups. On the basis of this study we concluded that the use of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats. PMID:26261562

  16. Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level. PMID:26588704

  17. Malaria, microscopic view of cellular parasites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Malaria is a disease caused by parasites that are carried by mosquitoes. Once in the bloodstream, the parasite inhabits the red blood cell (RBC). This picture shows purple-stained malaria parasites inside red blood cells.

  18. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  19. Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin.

    PubMed

    Polley, Lydden

    2005-10-01

    Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for 'emerging' and 're-emerging', and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper also introduces the concepts of 'parasite webs' and 'parasite flow', provides a context for parasites, relative to other infectious agents, as causes of emerging human disease, and discusses drivers of disease emergence and re-emergence, especially changes in biodiversity and climate. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Caribbean and the southern United States, Baylisascaris procyonis in California and Georgia, Plasmodium knowlesi in Sarawak, Malaysia, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sarcoptes scabiei in carnivores, and Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma in marine ecosystems are presented as examples of wildlife-derived zoonotic parasites of particular recent interest. An ecological approach to disease is promoted, as is a need for an increased profile for this approach in undergraduate and graduate education in the health sciences. Synergy among scientists and disciplines is identified as critical for the study of parasites and parasitic disease in wildlife populations. Recent advances in techniques for the investigation of parasite fauna of wildlife are presented and monitoring and surveillance systems for wildlife disease are discussed. Some of the limitations inherent in predictions for the emergence and re-emergence of infection and disease associated with zoonotic parasites of wildlife are identified. The importance of public awareness and public education in the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infection and disease are emphasised. Finally, some thoughts for the future are presented.

  20. Limnoithona sinensis as refuge for bacteria: protection from UV radiation and chlorine disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Cai, Bo; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we tested the potential of Limnoithona sinensis to provide its attached bacteria refuge against disinfection. The experimental results indicated that in water devoid of zooplankton, both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection significantly decreased the viability of free-living bacteria. In the presence of L. sinensis, however, the attached bacteria could survive and rapidly recover from disinfection. This demonstrated that L. sinensis provided protection from external damage to various aquatic bacteria that were attached to its body. The surviving bacteria remained on L. sinensis after disinfection exposure, which enabled a rapid increase in the bacterial population followed by their subsequent release into the surrounding water. Compared with UV radiation, chlorine disinfection was more effective in terms of inactivating attached bacteria. Both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection had little effect in terms of preventing the spread of undesirable bacteria, due to the incomplete inactivation of the bacteria associated with L. sinensis.

  1. How have fisheries affected parasite communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively removing the largest, most heavily parasitized individuals. After controlling for size, the effect of fishing on parasite abundance varied according to whether the host was fished and the parasite's life cycle. Parasites of unfished hosts were more likely to increase in abundance in response to fishing than were parasites of fished hosts, possibly due to compensatory increases in the abundance of unfished hosts. While complex life cycle parasites tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, directly transmitted parasites tended to increase. Among complex life cycle parasites, those with fished hosts tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, while those with unfished hosts tended to increase. However, among directly transmitted parasites, responses did not differ between parasites with and without fished hosts. This work suggests that parasite assemblages are likely to change substantially in composition in increasingly fished ecosystems, and that parasite life history and fishing status of the host are important in predicting the response of individual parasite species or groups to fishing.

  2. Extraction of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides using ultrasound-assisted way and its bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yongyong; Yang, Huixin; Mao, Lijuan

    2016-07-01

    In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as ultrasound power (140-180W), the ratio of liquid to solid (5-7), extraction time (40-50min) and extraction temperature (80-100°C) and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). Based on contour plots and variance analysis, optimum operational conditions for maximizing polysaccharides yield were found to be 180w, 7, 45min and 90°C. Under the optimum operating conditions determined, 6.96% polysaccharides were achieved. In addition, the results showed that A. sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) could increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease the MDA levels in the skeletal muscle of exhaustive exercise rats. This study provides strong evidence that A. sinensis polysaccharides supplementation possessed protective effects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Metabolic fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis during growth using UPLC-TOFMS and chemometrics data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The radix of Angelica sinensis is widely used as a medicinal herbal and metabolomics research of this plant during growth is necessary. Results Principal component analysis of the UPLC-QTOFMS data showed that these 27 samples could be separated into 4 different groups. The chemical markers accounting for these separations were identified from the PCA loadings plot. These markers were further verified by accurate mass tandem mass and retention times of available reference standards. The study has shown that accumulation of secondary metabolites of Angelica sinensis is closely related to the growth periods. Conclusions The UPLC-QTOFMS based metabolomics approach has great potential for analysis of the alterations of secondary metabolites of Angelica sinensis during growth. PMID:23453085

  4. The extract of Cordyceps sinensis inhibited airway inflammation by blocking NF-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Ya-Ling; Lin, Ching-Yuang

    2012-06-01

    Aiming the extract of Cordyceps sinensis significantly inhibits airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and the infiltration of eosinophils in the airway of rats and may be related to the modulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cells functions. The mechanisms of C. sinensis involved in modulation of suppression inflammation are not yet determined. In this study, the mechanism involved in the extract of C. sinensis-C.S.3-modulated suppression of inflammation was investigated in vivo and in vitro systems. The results showed that C.S.3 reduced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice. Furthermore, we found C.S.3 could decrease extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway to suppress activity of nuclear factor-κB in lung cells and cultured airway smooth muscle cells. Conclusion C.S.3 may provide clinical applications for asthma in the future.

  5. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rosalind J; Jackson, Kim G; Minihane, Anne M

    2009-12-01

    The health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins are becoming increasingly recognised. Amongst the proposed benefits are the maintenance of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis and an associated reduction in atherogenesis and CVD risk. The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, one of the most abundant and widely studied catechin found in green tea, will be prominent in the present review. Since there is a substantial inconsistency in the published data with regards to the impact of green tea catechins on vascular function, evaluation and interpretation of the inter- and intra-study variability is included. In conclusion, a positive effect of green tea catechins on vascular function is becoming apparent. Further studies in animal and cell models using physiological concentrations of catechins and their metabolites are warranted in order to gain some insight into the physiology and molecular basis of the observed beneficial effects.

  6. Functional Characterization of a New Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flavonoid Glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianqian; Wang, Peiqiang; Li, Mingzhuo; Wang, Yeru; Jiang, Xiaolan; Cui, Lilan; Qian, Yumei; Zhuang, Juhua; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao

    2017-03-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important commercial crop, in which the high content of flavonoids provides health benefits. A flavonoid glycosyltransferase (CsUGT73A20), belonging to cluster IIIa, was isolated from tea plant. The recombinant CsUGT73A20 in Escherichia coli exhibited a broad substrate tolerance toward multiple flavonoids. Among them, kaempferol was the optimal substrate compared to quercetin, myricetin, naringenin, apigenin, and kaempferide. However, no product was detected when UDP-galactose was used as the sugar donor. The reaction assay indicated that rCsUGT73A20 performed multisite glycosidation toward flavonol compounds, mainly forming 3-O-glucoside and 7-O-glucoside in vitro. The biochemical characterization analysis of CsUGT73A20 showed more K7G product accumulated at pH 8.0, but K3G was the main product at pH 9.0. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that high pH repressed the glycosylation reaction at the 7-OH site in vitro. Besides, the content of five flavonol-glucosides was increased in CsUGT73A20-overexpressing tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum).

  7. Spermiogenesis in soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Han, Xiang-Kun; Li, Mei-Ying; Bao, Hui-Jun; Chen, Qiu-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    Spermiogenesis in the soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The process includes nuclear elongation, chromatin condensation, acrosomal and flagellar development, and elimination of excess cytoplasm. In stage I, the proacrosomal vesicle occurs next to a shallow fossa of the nucleus, and a dense acrosomal granule forms beneath it. A smaller subacrosomal granule in the middle of the fibrous layer is related to the development of intranuclear tubules. The nucleus begins to move eccentrically. In stage II, the round proacrosomal vesicle is flattened by protrusion of the nuclear fossa, and the dense acrosomal granule diffuses into the vesicle, as the fibrous layer forms the subacrosomal cone. Circular manchettes develop around the nucleus, and the chromatin coagulates into small granules. The movement of the nucleus causes rearrangement of the cytoplasm. In stage III, the front of the elongating nucleus protrudes out of the spermatid and is covered by the flat acrosome; coarse granules replace the small ones within the nucleus. At the posterior pole of the head, mitochondria move backward. Numerous microtubules begin to assemble the axoneme of flagellum. In stage IV, the chromatin concentrates to dense homogeneous phase. The circular manchette is reorganized longitudinally. The Sertoli process covers the acrosome and the residues of the cytoplasmic lobes are eliminated. In stage V, the sperm head matures. After dissolution of the longitudinal manchette, the mitochondria arrange themselves around the proximal and distal centrioles. Caudal to the mitochondrial mass, a fibrous sheath surrounds the proximal portion of the flagellum.

  8. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  9. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  10. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  11. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  12. Malaria parasite development in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Beier, J C

    1998-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles transmit malaria parasites to humans. Anopheles mosquito species vary in their vector potential because of environmental conditions and factors affecting their abundance, blood-feeding behavior, survival, and ability to support malaria parasite development. In the complex life cycle of the parasite in female mosquitoes, a process termed sporogony, mosquitoes acquire gametocyte-stage parasites from blood-feeding on an infected host. The parasites carry out fertilization in the midgut, transform to ookinetes, then oocysts, which produce sporozoites. Sporozoites invade the salivary glands and are transmitted when the mosquito feeds on another host. Most individual mosquitoes that ingest gametocytes do not support development to the sporozoite stage. Bottle-necks occur at every stage of the cycle in the mosquito. Powerful new techniques and approaches exist for evaluating malaria parasite development and for identifying mechanisms regulating malaria parasite-vector interactions. This review focuses on those interactions that are important for the development of new approaches for evaluating and blocking transmission in nature.

  13. Chinese liver flukes in latrine sediments from Wong Nim's property, San Bernardino, California: archaeoparasitology of the Caltrans District Headquarters.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto; Sianto, Luciana; Costello, Julia G; Swope, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Parasitological analysis of 5 sediment samples from San Bernardino, California latrine deposits spanning the time period from about 1880 to the 1930s are presented. Two sediment samples are from a latrine used by European-Americans. Three sediment samples are from latrines used by Chinese-Americans on the property of Wong Nim, an important member of the Chinese community. Two of the Chinese latrines were positive for human parasites. The human parasites encountered include the human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), the giant intestinal roundworm (Ascaris lubricoides, c.f.), and the Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis). Evidence of the liver fluke is especially important. This parasite cannot complete its life cycle outside of its endemic range in Asia because suitable intermediate hosts are not present in the American continents. Its presence signals that at least some of the Chinese-Americans who used the latrines were immigrants who were infected in Asia and then sustained infections while in the Americas.

  14. Identification of chemical markers in Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work.

  15. Congenital parasitic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine; Deloron, Philippe; Peyron, François

    2012-02-01

    This review defines the concepts of maternal-fetal (congenital) and vertical transmissions (mother-to-child) of pathogens and specifies the human parasites susceptible to be congenitally transferred. It highlights the epidemiological features of this transmission mode for the three main congenital parasitic infections due to Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium sp. Information on the possible maternal-fetal routes of transmission, the placental responses to infection and timing of parasite transmission are synthesized and compared. The factors susceptible to be involved in parasite transmission and development of congenital parasitic diseases, such as the parasite genotypes, the maternal co-infections and parasitic load, the immunological features of pregnant women and the capacity of some fetuses/neonates to overcome their immunological immaturity to mount an immune response against the transmitted parasites are also discussed and compared. Analysis of clinical data indicates that parasitic congenital infections are often asymptomatic, whereas symptomatic newborns generally display non-specific symptoms. The long-term consequences of congenital infections are also mentioned, such as the imprinting of neonatal immune system and the possible trans-generational transmission. The detection of infection in pregnant women is mainly based on standard serological or parasitological investigations. Amniocentesis and cordocentesis can be used for the detection of some fetal infections. The neonatal infection can be assessed using parasitological, molecular or immunological methods; the place of PCR in such neonatal diagnosis is discussed. When such laboratory diagnosis is not possible at birth or in the first weeks of life, standard serological investigations can also be performed 8-10 months after birth, to avoid detection of maternal transmitted antibodies. The specific aspects of treatment of T. gondii, T. cruzi and Plasmodium congenital infections are

  16. Predictability of helminth parasite host range using information on geography, host traits and parasite community structure.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Tad; Park, Andrew W; Drake, John M

    2017-02-01

    Host-parasite associations are complex interactions dependent on aspects of hosts (e.g. traits, phylogeny or coevolutionary history), parasites (e.g. traits and parasite interactions) and geography (e.g. latitude). Predicting the permissive host set or the subset of the host community that a parasite can infect is a central goal of parasite ecology. Here we develop models that accurately predict the permissive host set of 562 helminth parasites in five different parasite taxonomic groups. We developed predictive models using host traits, host taxonomy, geographic covariates, and parasite community composition, finding that models trained on parasite community variables were more accurate than any other covariate group, even though parasite community covariates only captured a quarter of the variance in parasite community composition. This suggests that it is possible to predict the permissive host set for a given parasite, and that parasite community structure is an important predictor, potentially because parasite communities are interacting non-random assemblages.

  17. Glomerulopathy Associated with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    van Velthuysen, M.-L. F.; Florquin, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although parasitic infections do not usually present with disturbance in renal function, glomerular lesions can be seen in most of these infections. The glomerular lesions observed in parasitic infections cover the whole range of glomerular lesions known, but most of them are proliferative. Little is known of the exact pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we try to explain the glomerular lesions associated with parasitic infections in terms of the specific immunologic events observed during these diseases against the background of recent developments in the general knowledge of the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. PMID:10627491

  18. Parasites as probes for biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Gardner, S L; Campbell, M L

    1992-08-01

    Cestodes of the genus Linstowia, parasitic in marsupials, show patterns of coevolution and ancient historical-ecological connections. Correlated with the breakup of the austral landmasses (Gondwanaland) of the Neotropical and Australian regions from the Antarctic continent, the age of this host-parasite community is estimated to be between 60 and 70 million years old. Based on the data from the survey of parasites of mammals from throughout Bolivia and from the phylogenetic analysis of the cestodes, we urge the planners of biodiversity preserves in the neotropics to consider the Yungas of Bolivia as a region that supports an ancient ecological community worthy of consideration as a biopreserve.

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing of Chemically Induced Aquilaria sinensis to Identify Genes Related to Agarwood Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wei; Wu, Hongqing; He, Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Weimin; Li, Haohua; Fan, Yunfei; Tan, Guohui; Liu, Taomei; Gao, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Agarwood is a traditional Chinese medicine used as a clinical sedative, carminative, and antiemetic drug. Agarwood is formed in Aquilaria sinensis when A. sinensis trees are threatened by external physical, chemical injury or endophytic fungal irritation. However, the mechanism of agarwood formation via chemical induction remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of different parts of a chemically induced A. sinensis trunk sample with agarwood. The Illumina sequencing platform was used to identify the genes involved in agarwood formation. Methodology/Principal Findings A five-year-old Aquilaria sinensis treated by formic acid was selected. The white wood part (B1 sample), the transition part between agarwood and white wood (W2 sample), the agarwood part (J3 sample), and the rotten wood part (F5 sample) were collected for transcriptome sequencing. Accordingly, 54,685,634 clean reads, which were assembled into 83,467 unigenes, were obtained with a Q20 value of 97.5%. A total of 50,565 unigenes were annotated using the Nr, Nt, SWISS-PROT, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. In particular, 171,331,352 unigenes were annotated by various pathways, including the sesquiterpenoid (ko00909) and plant–pathogen interaction (ko03040) pathways. These pathways were related to sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and defensive responses to chemical stimulation. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptome data of the different parts of the chemically induced A. sinensis trunk provide a rich source of materials for discovering and identifying the genes involved in sesquiterpenoid production and in defensive responses to chemical stimulation. This study is the first to use de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly for different parts of chemically induced A. sinensis. Results demonstrate that the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway and WRKY transcription factor play important roles in agarwood formation via chemical induction. The comparative analysis of

  20. Isosmotic points and their ecological significance for juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Zhuang, P; Zhang, T; Wang, Y; Hou, J; Liu, J; Zhang, L

    2015-04-01

    Serum osmolality and ion concentrations were measured in juvenile Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis at different salinities to determine the isosmotic point. Isosmotic and isoionic concentrations were calculated from the regressions for serum and ambient osmolality, with Na(+) , Cl(-) and K(+) as salinities 9·19, 8·17, 7·89 and 9·70, respectively. These values were consistent with the salinity of the habitat where juvenile A. sinensis occur in the Yangtze Estuary, suggesting that an isosmotic salinity is an important factor driving their habitat choice.

  1. Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of two common Gleditsia sinensis fruits using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Zhonggui; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Guo, Ava J Y; Zhu, Kevin Y; Zhang, Wendy L; Zhan, Janis Y X; Dong, Tina T X; Su, Ziren; Tsim, Karl W K

    2013-12-01

    Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis and Gleditsiae Sinensis Fructus are obtained from different developmental stages of fruits from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Leguminosae). The possible interchangeable usage of the two fruits, however, has long been very controversial. Here, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was developed to explore their chemical fingerprinting profiles. Besides, the amounts of aglycones of saponin compounds, echinocystic acid and oleanolic acid in both fruits were quantified. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the content of aglycones from the two types of fruits. However, their chromatographic fingerprints showed distinct characteristics. Therefore, the interchangeable application of these fruits has to be taken with a specific precaution.

  2. Citrus essential oil of Nigeria. Part V: Volatile constituents of sweet orange leaf oil (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Kasali, Adeleke A; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Eshilokun, Adeolu O; Olaniyan, Abayomi A; Opoku, Andy R; Setzer, William N

    2011-06-01

    The volatile oils extracted from leaves of eight cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck were comprehensively analysed by a combination of GC and GC-MS. Fifty four constituents accounting for 82.3-98.2% were identified. Sabinene (20.9-49.1%), delta-3-carene (0.3-14.3%), (E)-beta-ocimene (4.4-12.6%), linalool (3.7-11.1%) and terpinen-4-ol (1.7-12.5%) were the major constituents that are common to all the volatile oils. In addition, a cluster analysis was carried out and indicated at least four different chemotypes for the C. sinensis cultivars.

  3. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Mohammad M.; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  4. Parasites in pet reptiles.

    PubMed

    Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Lindtner-Knific, Renata; Vlahović, Ksenija; Mavri, Urška; Dovč, Alenka

    2011-05-30

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  5. Myxozoan parasitism in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Jerri L; Atkinson, Stephen D; Hallett, Sascha L; Lowenstine, Linda J; Garner, Michael M; Gardiner, Chris H; Rideout, Bruce A; Keel, M Kevin; Brown, Justin D

    2008-08-01

    Myxozoans are spore-forming, metazoan parasites common in cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates, especially fishes, with alternate life cycle stages developing in invertebrates. We report nine cases of infection in free-flying native and captive exotic ducks (Anseriformes: Anatidae) from locations across the United States and describe the first myxozoan in birds, Myxidium anatidum n. sp. We found developmental stages and mature spores in the bile ducts of a Pekin duck (domesticated Anas platyrhynchos). Spores are lens-shaped in sutural view, slightly sigmoidal in valvular view, with two polar capsules, and each valve cell has 14-16 longitudinal surface ridges. Spore dimensions are 23.1 microm x 10.8 microm x 11.2 microm. Phylogenetic analysis of the ssrRNA gene revealed closest affinity with Myxidium species described from chelonids (tortoises). Our novel finding broadens the definition of the Myxozoa to include birds as hosts and has implications for understanding myxozoan evolution, and mechanisms of geographical and host range extension. The number of infection records indicates this is not an incidental occurrence, and the detection of such widely dispersed cases suggests more myxozoans in birds will be encountered with increased surveillance of these hosts for pathogens.

  6. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness.

  7. Parasites in pet reptiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners. PMID:21624124

  8. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain.

  9. Tropical parasitic diseases and women.

    PubMed

    Okwa, O O

    2007-12-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio-economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review.

  10. Pregnancy, nutrition and parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Steketee, Richard W

    2003-05-01

    In the developing world, young women, pregnant women, and their infants and children frequently experience a cycle where undernutrition (macronutrient and micronutrient) and repeated infection, including parasitic infections, lead to adverse consequences that can continue from one generation to the next. Among parasitic infections, malaria and intestinal helminths coexist widely with micronutrient deficiencies and contribute importantly to anemia and this cycle of retarded growth and development. In somewhat more limited or focal geographic settings, other parasitic diseases (e.g., schistosomiasis, filariasis) contribute similarly to this cycle. It is undoubtedly much better to enter a pregnancy free of infection and nutritionally replete than the various alternatives. Existing intervention strategies for micronutrient support and for the control of common parasitic infections before or during pregnancy, particularly malaria and intestinal helminths, should be followed. However, further research to identify barriers and priority approaches to achieving this goal remain very important in resource-poor settings where targeted public health efforts are required.

  11. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly.

  12. Immunomodulation by Hibiscus rosa-sinensis: effect on the humoral and cellular immune response of Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Tandon, Vijay Lakshmi; Gupta, Rekha

    2012-03-15

    In West India, the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is traditionally used as tea as a natural diuretic. Extract of this plant contains Vitamin C and is used traditionally as a mild medicine. In spite of a long history of traditional medicinal value of H. rosa-sinensis still no data are available for immunomodulatory activity. In present investigation, aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis (AEHrs) (500 mg kg(-1) BW) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected to the male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate the immunomodulatory property of extract. In addition for evaluation of phytochemical constituents of flowers of H. rosa-sinensis HPTLC was performed. The crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis has immunomodulatory activity. After the 15 days treatment, the number of plaque forming cells increased by 0.6%, antibody titre was increased 38.15% and significant increase of 52% was observed in DTH response. At the same concentration of dose the level of serum IL-1alpha enhanced significantly (14.27%) whereas a considerable decrease (32.70%) in the concentration of IL-2 was observed among AEHrs treated mice in comparison to the control mice. HPTLC chromatogram revealed that H. rosa-sinensis posses alkaloid (Rf 0.93) and flavonoids (Rf 0.02, 0.06, 0.14) on the basis of Rf values. Results of investigation supports for the immunomodulatory activity of H. rosa-sinensis aqueous extract.

  13. Parasites and altruism: converging roads.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Marlene; Borrello, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    W.D. Hamilton was most known for his work on two topics: social evolution and parasites. Although at first glance these seem to be disparate interests, they share many attributes and have logical connections within evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, Hamilton's contributions in these areas met with very different receptions, with his place in the field of social evolution assured, but his work on the role of parasites perceived as more specialized. We take an historical approach to examine the reasons for this difference.

  14. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis.

  15. Pervasiveness of Parasites in Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Sophie E. F.; Roberts, Katherine E.; Laurenson, Lynn; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Hui, Jeffrey; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Smith, Judith E.; Budge, Giles; Hughes, William O. H.

    2012-01-01

    Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees) in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris) and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris), as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities. PMID:22347356

  16. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    PubMed

    Evison, Sophie E F; Roberts, Katherine E; Laurenson, Lynn; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Hui, Jeffrey; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Smith, Judith E; Budge, Giles; Hughes, William O H

    2012-01-01

    Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees) in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris) and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris), as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities.

  17. [Water and intestinal parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, N A; Belova, E G; Baburina, L V; Novosil'tsev, G I; Chernyshenko, A I

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents data on the rates of Lamblia cyst dissemination of surface water sources in foreign countries, the Russian Federation, Moscow, and the Moscow Region. It shows a role of drinking water in the spread of intestinal parasitic diseases. In accordance with parasitological parameters, specific data on improvement of methodological control of water quality are presented. The dosages of ultraviolet radiation are given in relation to water decontamination of parasitic disease germs.

  18. Microsatellite analysis of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Brandi, Michelle C; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites have been increasingly used to investigate the population structure of malaria parasites, to map genetic loci contributing to phenotypes such as drug resistance and virulence in laboratory crosses and genome-wide association studies and to distinguish between treatment failures and new infections in clinical trials. Here, we provide optimized protocols for genotyping highly polymorphic microsatellites sampled from across the genomes of the human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax that have been extensively used in research laboratories worldwide.

  19. Parasitic Effects on Memristor Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Chua, Leon O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that parasitic elements have a significant effect on the dynamics of memristor circuits. We first show that certain 2-terminal elements such as memristors, memcapacitors, and meminductors can be used as nonvolatile memories, if the principle of conservation of state variables hold by open-circuiting, or short-circuiting, their terminals. We also show that a passive memristor with a strictly-increasing constitutive relation will eventually lose its stored flux when we switch off the power if there is a parasitic capacitance across the memristor. Similarly, a memcapacitor (resp., meminductor) with a positive memcapacitance (resp., meminductance) will eventually lose their stored physical states when we switch off the power, if it is connected to a parasitic resistance. We then show that the discontinuous jump that circuit engineers assumed to occur at impasse points of memristor circuits contradicts the principles of conservation of charge and flux at the time of the discontinuous jump. A parasitic element can be used to break an impasse point, resulting in the emergence of a continuous oscillation in the circuit. We also define a distance, a diameter, and a dimension, for each circuit element in order to measure the complexity order of the parasitic elements. They can be used to find higher-order parasitic elements which can break impasse points. Furthermore, we derived a memristor-based Chua’s circuit from a three-element circuit containing a memristor by connecting two parasitic memcapacitances to break the impasse points. We finally show that a higher-order parasitic element can be used for breaking the impasse points on two-dimensional and three-dimensional constrained spaces.

  20. Evolution: Causality and the Origin of Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Janouskovec, Jan; Keeling, Patrick J

    2016-02-22

    The first comparison of parasitic trypanosomatids to their free-living relatives reveals that some characteristics once linked to parasitism actually predate it. Parallel comparisons of other parasites suggest we need to rethink the drivers and consequences of the parasitic lifestyle.

  1. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24995332

  2. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites.

  3. Lipids and the malarial parasite*

    PubMed Central

    Holz, George G.

    1977-01-01

    Merozoite endocytosis initiates Plasmodium development in a vacuole bounded by an erythrocyte-derived membrane, whose asymmetrical distribution of lipids and proteins is reversed in its orientation with respect to the parasite plasma membrane. Reorientation may accompany the proliferation of the membrane associated with the parasite's growth and phagocytic and pinocytic feeding. Increases in the membrane surface area of the parasite, and in some cases of the erythrocyte, parallel parasite growth and segmentation. Augmentation of all the membrane systems of the infected erythrocyte causes the lipid content to rise rapidly, but the parasite lipid composition differs from that of the erythrocyte in many respects: it is higher in diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, polyglycerol phosphatides, diacylglycerols, unesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols, and hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids and lower in sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, alkoxy phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Active lipid metabolism accompanies the membrane proliferation associated with feeding, growth, and reproduction. Plasmodium is incapable of de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol; however, it can fabricate its glycerides and phosphoglycerides with host-supplied fatty acids, nitrogenous bases, alcohols, ATP, and coenzyme A, and can generate the glyceryl moiety during glycolysis. Cholesterol is obtained from the host but nothing is known of sphingolipid origins. Lipid metabolism of the parasite may be associated with alterations in the amounts of octadecenoic fatty acids and cholesterol in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, which in turn are responsible for changes in permeability and fragility. PMID:412602

  4. rDNA-targeted PCR primers and FISH probe in the detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis hyphae and conidia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Peng, Qingyun; Qi, Lili; Lei, Wei; Liu, Xin

    2010-11-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sung, Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora (syn. Cordyceps sinensis) one of the entomopathogenic fungi, is a rare Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods are necessary to identify the mycelia or spores of O. sinensis from its habitat and to monitor its dispersal, colonization and infectivity. To develop both primers and probe specific to O. sinensis, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplified with universal primers from O. sinensis genomic DNA and seven closely related fungi were sequenced. According to these sequences, the upper and lower primers (OsT-F and OsT-R) were designed within internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and flanked by universal primers ITS5 and ITS4, respectively. The designed primers were used for general PCR, touchdown PCR, or both together with the universal primers for nested-touchdown PCR. The results showed that only the extracted DNA of O. sinensis was specifically amplified. The sensitivity of nested-touchdown PCR with extracted DNA of O. sinensis is as low as 10(-14)g (10 fg) and at least 1000 times higher than the other PCR methods. In addition, Cy5-labeled probe (OsLSU) for cytoplasmic LSU rRNA was hybridized with the ascospores of O. sinensis. It showed a strong red fluorescence throughout the whole cell but did not cross-react with other entomopathogenic fungi. Taken together, these methods were useful for studying the biology and ecology of O. sinensis.

  5. [Sterol extracts from Begonia Sinensis Rhizome against respiratory inflammation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yu-shan

    2015-08-01

    The acute and chronic respiratory tract inflammation models were made to investigate the effect and mechanism of sterol extracts from Begonia Sinensis Rhizome (BSR). The first model of acute lung injury was made with Kunming mice by inhaling cigarette smoke, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, TNF-alpha/MPO were detected by Elisa, and cPLA2 protein were, detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, lung sheet became real, alveolar space shrank or disappeared, alveolar septum was thickened, plenty of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, capillary blood vessels were congestive and the expression of TNF-α, MPO, cPLA2 increased; after administration, a small amount of inflammatory cells were infiltrated, alveolar septum became obvious, capillary congestion status was significantly relieved and the expression of TNF-α, MPO, cPLA2 decreased (P < 0.05). The second model of chronic respiratory tract inflammation in BALB/c mice with bronchial asthma was induced by OVA, then the mice were treated with different concentrations of BSR sterol extracts. Lung tissue morphology was detected by HE staining, indexes such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 were detected by Elisa, and the cPLA2 protein expression was detected by Western blotting respectively. Results showed that in model group, a lot of inflammatory cells around lung vessels and bronchi exuded, bronchial goblet cells proliferated and the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 increased; after administration, inflammatory and goblet cell hyperplasia reduced, the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, cPLA2 also decreased (P < 0.05). The above results showed BSR sterol extracts could resist against respiratory inflammation by inhibiting cPLA2 in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Evaluation of Hirsutella sinensis mycelium for antifatigue effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Yung-Liang; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Chun; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM) has any antifatigue effect, using a forced swimming model in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups, each containing eight animals. The control group received 2 ml/kg body weight of distilled water and a positive control group was administered 1.13 ml/kg Quaker Essence of Chicken. The treated swimming groups were administered HSM powder manufactured by Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Ltd., at doses of 63 mg/kg, 189 mg/kg or 378 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for a period of six weeks. The above experiment was repeated with another 40 rats but for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the experiments, rats were placed in a swimming apparatus and the total swimming time until exhaustion was recorded. Pre-/post-exercise concentrations of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid were also determined. There were no deaths during the study. Physical and behavioral examinations did not reveal any treatment-related adverse effects after dosing. Changes in lactate levels were dose-dependent for the 8- but not the 6-week treatment. BUN levels were more affected by the 8-week treatment of HSM but not significantly altered in the 6-week treatment groups. The 8-week treatment groups showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion compared to the control groups, which was not dose-dependent. For the 6-week treatment, only the middle and high doses increased swimming time to exhaustion. Conjugated diene contents were significantly higher in rats treated at any HSM dose for 8-weeks than the control groups. Swimming did not alter levels of liver glycogen when compared to the control sub-groups. Results of this study demonstrate that HSM improves physical endurance, which may be beneficial in treating conditions where fatigue is a factor and other antifatigue treatments are contraindicated.

  7. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Pucu, Elisa; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  8. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  9. Parasites that cause problems in Malaysia: soil-transmitted helminths and malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Cox-Singh, J

    2001-12-01

    Malaysia is a developing country with a range of parasitic infections. Indeed, soil-transmitted helminths and malaria parasites continue to have a significant impact on public health in Malaysia. In this article, the prevalence and distribution of these parasites, the problems associated with parasitic infections, the control measures taken to deal with these parasites and implications for the future will be discussed.

  10. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Sun, Jianghao; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Chen, Pei

    2013-05-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels ("Danggui" in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism, and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the US markets. However, no study have been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which can analyze each sample in 2 min, compared with 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements.

  11. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis. PMID:27782129

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium mesophilicum Strain SR1.6/6, Isolated from Citrus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Marinho Almeida, Diogo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Jucá Ramos, Rommel Thiago; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Oliveira de Souza Lima, André; Caracciolo Gomes de Sá, Pablo Henrique; Ribeiro Barbosa, Maria Silvanira

    2013-01-01

    Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from a surface-sterilized Citrus sinensis branch. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of this bacterium, such as the genes involved in its association with the host plant and the primary oxidation of methanol, were annotated in the draft genome. PMID:23788544

  13. Volatile compounds of healthy and insect-damaged Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis in natural and planted forests.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Zhou, Jiao; Liu, Shujing

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds of healthy and insect-damaged stems of Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis were analysed using dynamic headspace and thermal-desorption cold-trap injector gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (TCT-GC/MS). Sixteen compounds, belonging to alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, and ethers, were identified in the stems of healthy H. rhamnoides sinensis; the compounds in H. rhamnoides sinensis occurring naturally or cultivated in plantations were similar, but the relative contents were significantly different. In plants damaged by Holcocerus hippophaecolus, the nature and content of the volatile compounds were greatly changed. Butanedione and butyl glyoxylate were newly generated after damage by the pest, and the relative levels of pentanal, heptanal, eucalyptol, terpineol, and camphor were sharply increased in both naturally occurring and plantation-grown plants. n-Decane, trans-2-nonen-1-ol, and n-hexadecane levels increased in plants cultivated in the plantation and decreased in natural forests, whereas the levels of other types were reduced. Thus, both the nature and the content of volatile compounds of H. rhamnoides sinensis are affected by H. hippophaecolus damage, providing a theoretical basis to identify the mechanism of pest destruction.

  14. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Song, Zhenqiao; Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Li, Xingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis. PMID:27376077

  15. Inflorescence architecture affects pollinator behaviour and mating success in Spiranthes sinensis (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tatsunori; Nagasaki, Osamu; Ishii, Hiroshi S; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2012-01-01

    • Despite the wide inflorescence diversity among angiosperms, the effects of inflorescence architecture (three-dimensional flower arrangement) on pollinator behaviour and mating success have not been sufficiently studied in natural plant populations. • Here, we investigated how inflorescence architecture affected inter- and intra-plant pollinator movements and consequent mating success in a field population of Spiranthes sinensis var. amoena (S. sinensis). In this species, the flowers are helically arranged around the stem, and the degree of twisting varies greatly among individuals. The large variation in inflorescence architecture in S. sinensis results from variation in a single structural parameter, the helical angle (the angular distance between neighbour-flower directions). • The numbers of visits per inflorescence and successive probes per visit by leaf-cutting bees decreased with helical angle, indicating that individual flowers of tightly twisted inflorescences received less visitations. As expected from pollinator behaviour, pollinia removal and fruit set of individual flowers decreased with helical angle. Meanwhile, geitonogamy decreased in tightly twisted inflorescences. • Our novel findings demonstrate that natural variation in inflorescence architecture significantly affects pollinator behaviour and reproductive success, suggesting that inflorescence architecture can evolve under pollinator-mediated natural selection in plant populations. We also discuss how diverse inflorescence architectures may have been maintained in S. sinensis populations.

  16. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of angelica sinensis (Oliv.) diels dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (“Danggui” in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases. There are a lo...

  17. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  18. Hematology and plasma biochemistry values of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nestlings.

    PubMed

    Minias, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Markowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and plasma biochemistry values were determined in 92 free-living Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) chicks at Jeziorsko reservoir, central Poland. Percentage distribution of leukocytes, packed cell volume, plasma concentrations of hemoglobin and basic biochemical parameters were evaluated. These values may be treated as reference ranges for free-living Great Cormorant nestlings.

  19. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  20. A Nucleotide Signature for the Identification of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui) and Its Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lili; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify Angelicae sinensis radix (Danggui) when it is processed into Chinese patent medicines. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is not sufficient to resolve heavily processed materials. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed materials is urgently needed. In this study, 265 samples of Angelicae sinensis radix and adulterants were collected. The ITS2 region was sequenced, and based on one single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) site unique to Angelica sinensis, a nucleotide signature consisting of 37-bp (5′-aatccgcgtc atcttagtga gctcaaggac ccttagg-3′) was developed. It is highly conserved and specific within Angelica sinensis while divergent among other species. Then, we designed primers (DG01F/DG01R) to amplify the nucleotide signature region from processed materials. 15 samples procured online were analysed. By seeking the signature, we found that 7 of them were counterfeits. 28 batches of Chinese patent medicines containing Danggui were amplified. 19 of them were found to contain the signature, and adulterants such as Ligusticum sinense, Notopterygium incisum, Angelica decursiva and Angelica gigas were detected in other batches. Thus, this nucleotide signature, with only 37-bp, will broaden the application of DNA barcoding to identify the components in decoctions, Chinese patent medicines and other products with degraded DNA. PMID:27713564

  1. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  2. Parasites, pets, and people.

    PubMed

    Marx, M B

    1991-03-01

    It is important for the family physician to understand that patients' relationships with their pets play an important role in helping maintain mental and physical health yet provide the potential for causing illness in the patient. Toxocara canis (dog roundworm) and Toxocara cati (cat roundworm) are the ascarids most commonly responsible for VLM and ocular larva migrans in humans. These roundworms live in their adult stage in the small intestine of the dog and cat where their eggs are passed in the feces. The eggs containing the infective larva are very sticky, thus an infant crawling around on the floor can easily pick these up on fingers that almost invariably end up in the mouth. Infections are usually mild and asymptomatic but with a persistent eosinophilia. Ocular larva migrans is the form usually occurring in older children and adults. Some public health veterinarians recommend that a puppy or kitten should not be obtained as a companion for a child who is not old enough to read, thus bypassing the crawling and toddler stages. Hookworm eggs, shed in the feces of infected dogs or cats, develop into the infective second stage within a week. Humans are usually infected when bare areas of skin such as bare feet or the torso come in contact with soil contaminated with the larvae. The second-stage larvae are able to penetrate the intact skin of humans and the foot pads of dogs and cats. In the United States, the common dog hookworm, A. caninum, is a widespread parasite. Human intestinal ancylostomiasis caused by this species is rare, with only six cases recorded in the literature. Infection in humans or animals by the common tapeworm of dogs and cats (Dipylidium caninum) requires ingestion of the intermediate host, the dog or cat flea containing the larva (cysticercoids) of the agent. Many cases in humans are asymptomatic. Dipylidiasis affects mainly infants and young children who may swallow a flea that hops up while the infant is crawling on the floor or fondling

  3. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  4. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis. Results The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin) were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. Conclusions This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy

  5. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  6. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  7. Leptin, a tool of parasites?

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Moalem, Sharon; Björklund, Mats

    2012-01-01

    One common physiological phenomenon that is involved both in infectious and in malignant processes is the reduction in appetite: disease anorexia. An increase in plasma levels of leptin with inflammation is thought to be involved in this process. However, from an evolutionary perspective, in certain cases, it would be more adaptive for an internal parasite to stimulate the appetite of the host instead of causing its suppression. We tested whether a parasitic infection with the larvae of the helminth parasite Taenia taeniaformis affects the levels of appetite-regulating proteins, such as leptin, ghrelin and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) in wild yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). We found that infected mice had lower plasma levels of leptin and increased levels of NPY than the uninfected subjects. Ghrelin levels were not associated with the occurrence of the parasites; however, these levels strongly correlated with the levels of NPY. This study suggests a possible manipulation by parasitic larvae of appetite regulation in infected subjects. PMID:22740641

  8. The oldest record of Alligator sinensis from the Late Pliocene of Western Japan, and its biogeographic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Masaya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    The late Cenozoic fossil record of alligators in East Asia is crucial in understanding the origin and past distribution of Asian alligators that are now represented by a single species, Alligator sinensis. This study reports a partial skeleton of A. sinensis from the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.0 Ma) of western Japan. This Japanese A. sinensis is large in size (>200 cm total length), comparable to the maximum size of extant individuals. It demonstrates the oldest record of A. sinensis and wider distribution of this species in the past. Tectonic and geographic history of East Asia suggests that alligators presumably dispersed into Japan before 25 Ma or after 10 Ma, yet finally were wiped out from Japan due to the semi-isolated condition of the Japanese island arc and the deteriorated climate during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  9. Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.

    PubMed

    Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

    2013-10-01

    This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described.

  10. Anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Rajeshwari; Ullal, Sheetal Dinkar; Karkala, Shreyas; Rai, Seema; Gadgade, Akash

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate anxiolytic effect of Camellia sinensis (CS) and possible mechanism on acute and chronic administration in rats. Materials and Methods: Eight groups of rats with six in each group were used. Group I served as control. Group II received diazepam (1 mg/kg). Groups III, IV, and V received CS in doses of 3.3, 16.5, and 33 mg/kg, respectively. Three pharmacologically validated experimental models – elevated plus maze (EPM), light and dark box (LDB), and open field tests (OFT) – were employed. Each animal was tested initially in the EPM and then in the LDB, followed by the OFT in a single setting. In EMP, number of entries into, time spent in, and number of rears in each arm in a 5-min period were noted. In LDB, number of entries and time spent in bright arena, number of rears, and duration of immobility were noted. In OFT, number of peripheral and central squares crossed, time spent, and number of rears in central squares were observed for a 5-min period. One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc least significant difference test was performed. Results: In EPM and LDB, CS at 3.3, 16.5, and 33 mg/kg (acute and chronic models) increased the number of entries and time spent and rearing in the open arms and bright arena, respectively, compared to control. In the OFT, CS at 16.5 and 33 mg/kg significantly increased the number of squares crossed, time spent, and the number of rears in the central squares compared to control. Anxiolytic effect was dose dependent in EPM and LDB and CS at 33 mg/kg showed better anxiolytic activity compared to diazepam (1 mg/kg) in all models. Flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg) and bicuculline (1 mg/kg) completely inhibited while picrotoxin (1 mg/kg) partially inhibited the anxiolytic effect of CS. Diazepam and CS at 33 mg/kg reduced the locomotor activity in rats. Conclusion: CS has dose-dependent anxiolytic activity which is comparable to diazepam. Anxiolytic action of CS is likely mediated through GABAA

  11. Parasitic diseases of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  12. Isoprenoid metabolism in apicomplexan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Imlay, Leah; Odom, Audrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites include some of the most prevalent and deadly human pathogens. Novel antiparasitic drugs are urgently needed. Synthesis and metabolism of isoprenoids may present multiple targets for therapeutic intervention. The apicoplast-localized methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis is distinct from the mevalonate (MVA) pathway used by the mammalian host, and this pathway is apparently essential in most Apicomplexa. In this review, we discuss the current field of research on production and metabolic fates of isoprenoids in apicomplexan parasites, including the acquisition of host isoprenoid precursors and downstream products. We describe recent work identifying the first MEP pathway regulator in apicomplexan parasites, and introduce several promising areas for ongoing research into this well-validated antiparasitic target. PMID:25893156

  13. Parasites, emerging disease and wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A; Lymbery, A J; Smith, A

    2010-08-15

    In this review some emerging issues of parasite infections in wildlife, particularly in Australia, are considered. We discuss the importance of understanding parasite biodiversity in wildlife in terms of conservation, the role of wildlife as reservoirs of parasite infection, and the role of parasites within the broader context of the ecosystem. Using a number of parasite species, the value of undertaking longitudinal surveillance in natural systems using non-invasive sampling and molecular tools to characterise infectious agents is illustrated in terms of wildlife health, parasite biodiversity and ecology.

  14. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  15. Cordyceps sinensis preserves intestinal mucosal barrier and may be an adjunct therapy in endotoxin-induced sepsis rat model: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guo-Sheng; Ren, Jian-An; Li, Guan-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis), a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits various pharmacological activities such as reparative, antioxidant, and apoptosis inhibitory effects. Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of sepsis. We aimed to explore the effect of C. sinensis on the gut barrier and evaluate its efficacy in sepsis. Methods: A murine model of gut barrier dysfunction was created by intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin. C. sinensis or saline was administered orally after the induction of sepsis. Alterations of intestinal barrier were evaluated and compared in terms of epithelial cell apoptosis, proliferation index (PI), intercellular tight junction (TJ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: C. sinensis significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and promoted mucosal cells proliferation indicated by enhanced PI and PCNA expression in the intestinal mucosa compared to control group. The TJs between epithelial cells which were disrupted in septic rats were also restored by treatment of C. sinensis. In survival studies, C. sinensis was demonstrated to confer a protection against the lethal effect of sepsis. Conclusion: These results suggest that C. sinensis has gut barrier-protection effect in endotoxin-induced sepsis by promoting the proliferation and inhibiting the apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells, as well as restoring the TJs of intestinal mucosa. C. sinensis may have the potential to be a useful adjunct therapy for sepsis. PMID:26221273

  16. Morphological Observations and Fatty Acid Composition of Indoor-Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis at a High-Altitude Laboratory on Sejila Mountain, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a caterpillar entomopathogenic fungus-host larva complex, is a rare medicinal herb found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding high-altitude areas. The alternation of generations in the life cycle, whatever the fungus or its host insect, requires special growth conditions. However, it is difficult to simulate the growth conditions of C. sinensis, which hinders its artificial cultivation. In this work, the life cycle from the host larva to C. sinensis was observed in an indoor-cultivation laboratory at 4,200 m a.s.l. on Sejila Mountain, Tibet. Comparative examinations between indoor-cultivated and wild C. sinensis demonstrated that the indoor-cultivated C. sinensis preferred to germinate multiple long, slim stromata at diverse positions on dead larvae, including but not limited to their heads. Their fatty acid composition shows a significant difference in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In indoor-cultivated C. sinensis, PUFAs constituted 24.59% and 49.43%, respectively, of neutral and polar lipids; meanwhile, in wild C. sinensis, PUFAs represented 34.34% and 61.25% of neutral and polar lipids, respectively. These observations and fatty acid data suggest that environmental factors, particularly temperature, soil pressure and light intensity, strongly affect the growth of C. sinensis. Our new findings may provide important information for improving techniques for the large-scale artificial cultivation of C. sinensis. PMID:25938484

  17. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Malaria is a disease caused by parasites. This picture shows dark orange-stained malaria parasites inside red blood cells (a) and outside the cells (b). Note the large cells that look like targets; ...

  19. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  20. Biology Today: Parasites and Human Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1984-01-01

    Offers various reasons why the study of parasites and the diseases they cause should be incorporated into classroom biology discussions. Examples of several parasitic diseases and their ecological significance are provided. (JN)

  1. Antimicrobial peptide action on parasites.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Marc; Pulido, David; Rivas, Luis; Andreu, David

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by protozoan parasites can pose a severe thread to human health and are behind some serious neglected tropical diseases like malaria and leishmaniasis. Though several different drugs have been developed in order to eradicate these diseases, a successful candidate has not yet been discovered. Among the most active compounds tested, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are particularly appealing because of their wide spectrum of action. AMPs have been described to perturb protozoan homeostasis by disrupting the cellular membranes but also by interfering with key processes in the parasite metabolism. In this review we describe the diverse mechanisms of action of AMPs on protozoan targets and how they can be exploited to treat diseases. Moreover, we describe with detail the antimicrobial action of AMPs on two major parasitical infections: leishmaniasis and malaria. All the features reviewed here show that AMPs are promising drugs to target protozoan parasites and that further understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds will lead to improved drugs that could be worth to test in a clinical phase.

  2. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  3. One Health: parasites and beyond.

    PubMed

    Blake, Damer P; Betson, Martha

    2017-01-01

    The field of parasitism is broad, encompassing relationships between organisms where one benefits at the expense of another. Traditionally the discipline focuses on eukaryotes, with the study of bacteria and viruses complementary but distinct. Nonetheless, parasites vary in size and complexity from single celled protozoa, to enormous plants like those in the genus Rafflesia. Lifecycles range from obligate intracellular to extensive exoparasitism. Examples of parasites include high-profile medical and zoonotic pathogens such as Plasmodium, veterinary pathogens of wild and captive animals and many of the agents which cause neglected tropical diseases, stretching to parasites which infect plants and other parasites (e.g. Kikuchi et al. 2011; Hotez et al. 2014; Blake et al. 2015; Hemingway, 2015; Meekums et al. 2015; Sandlund et al. 2015). The breadth of parasitology has been matched by the variety of ways in which parasites are studied, drawing upon biological, chemical, molecular, epidemiological and other expertise. Despite such breadth bridging between disciplines has commonly been problematic, regardless of extensive encouragement from government agencies, peer audiences and funding bodies promoting multidisciplinary research. Now, progress in understanding and collaboration can benefit from establishment of the One Health concept (Zinsstag et al. 2012; Stark et al. 2015). One Health draws upon biological, environmental, medical, veterinary and social science disciplines in order to improve human, animal and environmental health, although it remains tantalizingly difficult to engage many relevant parties. For infectious diseases traditional divides have been exacerbated as the importance of wildlife reservoirs, climate change, food production systems and socio-economic diversity have been recognized but often not addressed in a multidisciplinary manner. In response the 2015 Autumn Symposium organized by the British Society for Parasitology (BSP; https

  4. Parasite control in transhumant situations.

    PubMed

    Eckert, J; Hertzberg, H

    1994-08-01

    Transhumance is defined as 'seasonal moving of livestock to regions of different climate'. It is an integral part of livestock production in many parts of the world and takes several forms including moving of livestock from lowland to mountainous pastures or from dry to humid areas. The impact of transhumance on parasite populations of livestock and on parasite control is described, mainly using examples from Europe. The epidemiology of trichostrongylidosis of cattle, mainly caused by Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, is characterised by prolonged survival of overwintered infective larvae until the end of June. Cattle moved to such contaminated pastures in a transhumant grazing system are exposed to these larvae and may be protected, during the second half of the grazing season until autumn, by a late application (June/July) of an intraruminal drug-release device. Community pastures used in a transhumant system with mixed grazing of young cattle originating from various farms may enhance transmission of dictyocaulosis. Therefore, specific prophylactic measures are required. Hill sheep nematode populations may differ from those in lowland sheep in that Haemonchus contortus generally plays a minor role in hill sheep in which Ostertagia circumcincta and Nematodirus spp. predominate. Infections with Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum can be acquired on mountainous pastures by cattle, sheep and other livestock grazing in a transhumant system as intermediate hosts of these parasites may find suitable habitats in these regions. There is evidence that in the prealpine and alpine area both parasites are mainly transmitted in two-season cycles. Further examples for the impact of transhumance on parasite-host inter-relationships include cysticercosis in cattle, echinococcosis, psoroptic manage in sheep, tick-borne fever of cattle, and hypodermosis in cattle. These are described and discussed.

  5. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

    PubMed Central

    Correia da Costa, José M.; Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria J.; Botelho, Mónica C.; Sripa, Banchob; Santos, Lúcio L.; Santos, Júlio H.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g., oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc.) metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of O. viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e., urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture. PMID:25566326

  6. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2014-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  7. Parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Brandt, L J

    1999-08-01

    Parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Increased international travel means that gastroenterologists are now more likely to care for patients with parasitic diseases. This article reviews various aspects of the more common intestinal parasites and their infections, including epidemiology, life cycle, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  8. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  9. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  10. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  11. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  12. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  13. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the endangered species Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Chen, H F; Wang, Z F; Zhang, S

    2016-08-19

    Bretschneidera sinensis is an endangered species that is mainly distributed in South China. As a tertiary relict and the single species in the Bretschneideraceae family, it has a high conservation value. To investigate the influence of human disturbance on its mating system, 63 new microsatellites were developed using restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing and their polymorphisms were tested on 30 samples from one population. Among the 63 microsatellites, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 16. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.133 to 0.967 and from 0.127 to 0.912, respectively. These microsatellites may be used for studying the mating system of B. sinensis as well as the within-population hereditary structure.

  14. [Effect of wound to growth of larva of host to Ophiocordyceps sinensis during artificial breeding].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, De-li; Zeng, Wei; Li, Li; Luo, Qing-ming; Tu, Yong-qin; Chen, Shi-jiang; Yin, Ding-hua

    2015-01-01

    To clear the effect of the wound to the growth of the larva of the host to the Ophiocordyceps sinensis, the wounds of same severity at the same position were made artificially to the larva and which were artificial fed at the same environment and condition. The results indicated that, over the winter, the survival rate of the wounded of the infection larva was lower than that of the healthy larva, but the weight had no significant difference between the wounded and the healthy larva. The survival rate of the wounded of the no infection larva was lower than that of the healthy larva, but except with black skin, the wounded larva with offwhite and dusty red had no influence on the variety of the weight. In summery, wound had no advantage to the survival rate, but had no influence to the weight. The result had provided theoretical basis to the reforming of the system of the artificial culture O. sinensis.

  15. Gliocyte and Synapse Analyses in Cerebral Ganglia of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir Sinensis: Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Yu, P.; Zhong, S.; Ge, T.; Peng, S.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, X.

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia. In addition, three types of synapses were present in the cerebral ganglia, including unidirectional synapses, bidirectional synapses, and combined type synapses. PMID:27734995

  16. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  17. A novel sesquiterpene alcohol from Fimetariella rabenhorstii, an endophytic fungus of Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mei-Hua; Yan, Jian; Wei, Xiao-Yi; Li, Dong-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2011-06-01

    A novel sesquiterpene alcohol, named frabenol (1), was isolated from liquid cultures of Fimetariella rabenhorstii A20, an endophytic fungus of the agarwood-forming plant Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The finding of a sesquiterpenoid compound in F. rabenhorstii A20 implied that endophytic fungi of agarwood-producing plants could also contribute to the generation of fragrant chemicals during the agarwood formation processes.

  18. Four new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives from withered wood of Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yagura, Toru; Ito, Michiho; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Honda, Gisho; Shimada, Yasuo

    2003-05-01

    Four new chromone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (1), 6-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)chromone (2), 8-chloro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5,6,7-trihydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone (3), 6,7-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone (4) were isolated from the MeOH extract of withered wood of Aquilaria sinensis, together with seven known constituents of agarwood.

  19. Qinanmer, a new compound from Chinese agarwood 'Qi-Nan' originating from Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hang; Kong, Fan-Dong; Wang, Hao; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2017-01-02

    Qinanmer (1), a new compound comprising 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone and sesquiterpene moieties, together with two known 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives (2-3), was isolated from the high-quality Chinese agarwood "Qi-Nan" originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Glig. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR), MS analyses, ECD spectra analyses, and quantum (13)C NMR calculations.

  20. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, W. L. N. V. Vara; Srilatha, Ch.; Sailaja, N.; Raju, N. K. B.; Jayasree, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies. Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity. Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage. PMID:27956790

  1. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases.

  2. Transcriptome using Illumina sequencing reveals the traits of spermatogenesis and developing testes in Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has the spermatozoa with typical aflagellate, decondensed chromatin, cup-shaped nuclei, and radial arms. However, the mechanism of spermatogenesis during which the specific spermatozoa are generated in this species is yet unclear. Here, the transcriptome of developing testis in E. sinensis was analyzed using the ways of RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis to identify candidate genes potentially involved in development of testis and spermatogenesis. The Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing of three replicons of samples produced a total of 145.19 M clean reads representing with a total of 21.34 Gb bases and 45.48% GC content. 56.30% clean reads were mapped to the draft genome of E. sinensis. The assembly of the transcriptome yielded contigs of 5691802 sequences and unigenes of 406527 sequences. Total 24246 and 40793 transcripts were annotated using Swissprot and Nr database, respectively. There were 48213 (70.31%) and 7858 (46.25%) transcripts with identity of more than 99 matching to mature testis unigenes in the databases of Nr and EST, respectively. The analytic results of KOG, GO and KEGG showed wide potential molecular functions of transcripts in the developing testes. KEGG analysis of unigenes yielded total 9422 predicted genes. Those predicted genes were involved in total 216 KEGG pathways related to the physiological activities of developing testis. 1975 predicted genes were involved in cellular and subcellular structural alteration of male germ cells. There were important roles of some pathways in the processes of morphological and structural biogenesis pertaining to testis development and spermatogenesis. Other 583 unigenes encoding the genetic and epigenetic factors also be found, which might contribute to the decondensation and stability of decondensed nuclei in the spermatozoa. These predicted events provide a view of the potential molecular mechanisms of development of testis and spermatogenesis in E. sinensis. PMID

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Captopril, Pentoxifylline, and Cordyceps Sinensis in Pre-Hepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed F.; El-Maraghy, Nabila N.; Ghaney, Rasha H. Abdel; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Patients and Methods: Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Results: Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level. PMID:22626797

  4. Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism?

    PubMed

    Leung, Tommy L F

    2017-02-01

    Parasites are common in many ecosystems, yet because of their nature, they do not fossilise readily and are very rare in the geological record. This makes it challenging to study the evolutionary transition that led to the evolution of parasitism in different taxa. Most studies on the evolution of parasites are based on phylogenies of extant species that were constructed based on morphological and molecular data, but they give us an incomplete picture and offer little information on many important details of parasite-host interactions. The lack of fossil parasites also means we know very little about the roles that parasites played in ecosystems of the past even though it is known that parasites have significant influences on many ecosystems. The goal of this review is to bring attention to known fossils of parasites and parasitism, and provide a conceptual framework for how research on fossil parasites can develop in the future. Despite their rarity, there are some fossil parasites which have been described from different geological eras. These fossils include the free-living stage of parasites, parasites which became fossilised with their hosts, parasite eggs and propagules in coprolites, and traces of pathology inflicted by parasites on the host's body. Judging from the fossil record, while there were some parasite-host relationships which no longer exist in the present day, many parasite taxa which are known from the fossil record seem to have remained relatively unchanged in their general morphology and their patterns of host association over tens or even hundreds of millions of years. It also appears that major evolutionary and ecological transitions throughout the history of life on Earth coincided with the appearance of certain parasite taxa, as the appearance of new host groups also provided new niches for potential parasites. As such, fossil parasites can provide additional data regarding the ecology of their extinct hosts, since many parasites have

  5. Postcolonial Ecologies of Parasite and Host: Making Parasitism Cosmopolitan.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2016-04-01

    The interest of F. Macfarlane Burnet in host-parasite interactions grew through the 1920s and 1930s, culminating in his book, Biological Aspects of Infectious Disease (1940), often regarded as the founding text of disease ecology. Our knowledge of the influences on Burnet's ecological thinking is still incomplete. Burnet later attributed much of his conceptual development to his reading of British theoretical biology, especially the work of Julian Huxley and Charles Elton, and regretted he did not study Theobald Smith's Parasitism and Disease (1934) until after he had formulated his ideas. Scholars also have adduced Burnet's fascination with natural history and the clinical and public health demands on his research effort, among other influences. I want to consider here additional contributions to Burnet's ecological thinking, focusing on his intellectual milieu, placing his research in a settler society with exceptional expertise in environmental studies and pest management. In part, an ''ecological turn'' in Australian science in the 1930s, derived to a degree from British colonial scientific investments, shaped Burnet's conceptual development. This raises the question of whether we might characterize, in postcolonial fashion, disease ecology, and other studies of parasitism, as successful settler colonial or dominion science.

  6. Chasing ghosts: Allopolyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) from its only diploid congener and an unknown ancestor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Hu, Quanjun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qian; Abbott, Richard J; Liu, Jianquan

    2017-03-12

    Reconstructing the origin of a polyploid species is particularly challenging when an ancestor has become extinct. Under such circumstances the extinct donor of a genome found in the polyploid may be treated as a 'ghost' species in that its prior existence is recognised through the presence of its genome in the polyploid. In this study, we aimed to determine the polyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (2n=40) for which only one congeneric species is known, i.e. diploid O. digyna (2n=14). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), transcriptome, phylogenetic and demographic analyses, and ecological niche modeling were conducted for this purpose. GISH revealed that O. sinensis comprised 14 chromosomes from O. digyna and 26 chromosomes from an unknown ancestor. Transcriptome analysis indicated that following divergence from O. digyna, involving genome duplication around 12 million years ago (Ma), a second genome duplication occurred approximately 6 Ma to give rise to O. sinensis. Oxyria sinensis was shown to contain homologous gene sequences divergent from those present in O. digyna in addition to a set that clustered with those in O. digyna. Coalescent simulations indicated that O. sinensis expanded its distribution approximately 6-7 Ma, possibly following the second polyploidization event, whereas O. digyna expanded its range much later. It was also indicated that the distributions of both species contracted and re-expanded during the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Ecological niche modeling similarly suggested that both species experienced changes in their distributional ranges in response to Quaternary climatic changes. The extinction of the unknown 'ghost' tetraploid species implicated in the origin of O. sinensis could have resulted from superior adaptation of O. sinensis to repeated climatic changes in the region where it now occurs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, decreases nitrogenous excretion, reduces urea synthesis and suppresses ammonia production during emersion.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Lee, Serene M L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 6 days of emersion on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. Despite having a soft shell with a cutaneous surface that is known to be water permeable, P. sinensis lost only ~2% of body mass and was able to maintain its hematocrit and plasma osmolality, [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] during 6 days of emersion. During emersion, it ameliorated water loss by reducing urine output, which led to a reduction (by 29-76%) in ammonia excretion. In comparison, there was a more prominent reduction (by 82-99%) in urea excretion during emersion due to a lack of water to flush the buccopharyngeal epithelium, which is known to be the major route of urea excretion. Consequently, emersion resulted in an apparent shift from ureotely to ammonotely in P. sinensis. Although urea concentration increased in several tissues, the excess urea accumulated could only account for 13-22% of the deficit in urea excretion. Hence, it can be concluded that a decrease (~80%) in urea synthesis occurred in P. sinensis during the 6 days of emersion. Indeed, emersion led to significant decreases in the activity of some ornithine-urea cycle enzymes (argininosuccinate synthetase/argininosuccinate lyase and arginase) from the liver of P. sinensis. As a decrease in urea synthesis occurred without the accumulation of ammonia and total free amino acids, it can be deduced that ammonia production through amino acid catabolism was suppressed with a proportional reduction in proteolysis in P. sinensis during emersion. Indeed, calculated results revealed that there could be a prominent decrease (~88%) in ammonia production in turtles after 6 days of emersion. In summary, despite being ureogenic and ureotelic in water, P. sinensis adopted a reduction in ammonia production, instead of increased urea synthesis, as the major strategy to ameliorate ammonia toxicity and problems associated with dehydration during

  8. Oral Administration of a Hot Water Extract of the Softshell Turtle (Trionyx sinensis) Improves Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harwanto, Dicky; Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater softshell turtle (Trionyx sinensis) extract has been used traditionally as a tonic soup, and to recover from physical fatigue. To support these claims, the forelimb grip strength of mice was measured after feeding a soft-shell turtle extract for 7 days. The T. sinensis extract significantly increased the grip strength to 1.25±0.07 N (P<0.01), which is 16.8% higher than the force on day 0. After exercising, the blood glucose levels in extract-fed mice were 202% higher and urea levels were 73% lower, which were both significantly different than the levels observed after control treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher by 314%, and glutathione peroxidase increased by 165%. In addition, the obesity markers, serum triglyceride and cholesterol, decreased to 62% and 49%, respectively, after mice were fed the extract. These data show that the T. sinensis extract provided more energy for forelimb exercise, prevented protein catabolism and muscle fatigue, and decreased the oxidative stress caused by an exhaustive workout. PMID:26176001

  9. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity.

  10. Short communication: in vitro assessment of antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of peel of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Basharat; Dar, Kamran Khurshid; Ali, Shaukat; Awan, Uzma Azeem; Nayyer, Abdul Qayyum; Ghous, Tahseen; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial effect of Citrus sinensis peel extracts was evaluated against several pathogenic bacteria associated with human and fish infections viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcesnces, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium and Serratia odorifera. Methanol, ethanol, chloroform and diethyl ether solvents were used for extraction. In vitro antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well and agar disc diffusion methods. It was found that ethanol extract showed highly significant inhibition of E. coli and K. pneumonia (12.6±0.94 mm and 11.6±1.2 mm) whereas methanol extract of C. sinensis also showed high zone of inhibition of S. odorifera (10.0±2.16 mm). The potential activity of active extracts was assessed and also compared with standard antibiotics through activity index formulation. The order of antioxidant activity through ABTS·+ and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was ethanol>methanol>chloroform>diethyl ether. Phytochemical screening of all solvents had determined the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and flavonoids. It was also found that Chloroform/Methanol (5:5) and Butanol/Ethanol/Water (4:1:2.2) solvent systems showed significant separation of active phytochemical constituents. These findings reveal the potential use of C. sinensis peel to treat infectious diseases, which are being caused by microorganisms.

  11. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-You; Han, Chun-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. PMID:19948751

  12. Relationship between knockdown resistance, metabolic detoxification and organismal resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Daibin; Chang, Xuelian; Zhou, Guofa; He, Zhengbo; Fu, Fengyang; Yan, Zhentian; Zhu, Guoding; Xu, Tielong; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Wang, Mei-Hui; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is the most important vector of malaria in Southeast Asia, including China. Currently, the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission relies on vector control through the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. Extensive use of insecticides poses strong selection pressure on mosquito populations for resistance. Resistance to insecticides can arise due to mutations in the insecticide target site (target site resistance), which in the case of pyrethroids is the para-type sodium channel gene, and/or the catabolism of the insecticide by detoxification enzymes before it reaches its target (metabolic detoxification resistance). In this study, we examined deltamethrin resistance in An. sinensis from China and investigated the relative importance of target site versus metabolic detoxification mechanisms in resistance. A high frequency (>85%) of nonsynonymous mutations in the para gene was found in populations from central China, but not in populations from southern China. Metabolic detoxification as measured by the activity of monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) was detected in populations from both central and southern China. Monooxygenase activity levels were significantly higher in the resistant than the susceptible mosquitoes, independently of their geographic origin. Stepwise multiple regression analyses in mosquito populations from central China found that both knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations and monooxygenase activity were significantly associated with deltamethrin resistance, with monooxygenase activity playing a stronger role. These results demonstrate the importance of metabolic detoxification in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis, and suggest that different mechanisms of resistance could evolve in geographically different populations.

  13. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-04-23

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. In conclusion, different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis.

  14. [Cloning and expression analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from Aquilaria sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Wei, Jian-He; Liu, Juan; Xu, Yan-Hong

    2013-10-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) is one of the key rate-limiting enzymes in the sesquiterpene metabolic pathways. In this study, the open reading frame (ORF) of FPS was cloned by PCR based on the transcript sequence of AsFPS1 from the Aquilaria sinensis transcriptome database and sequenced. Total RNA was extracted from the root, stem and leaves of three-year-old A. sinensis, and from healthy and wounded A. sinensis calli, and then reverse-transcribed into single-stranded cDNA as a template for real-time PCR, to detect the expression specificity of AsFPSI in different tissues and its expression profile in responding to different treatments. The result showed that the full length of AsFPS1 was 1 342 bp with the ORF 1 029 bp, encoding 342 amino acids. Tissue expression analysis indicated that AsFPS1 was mainly expressed in root and stem, and was lower in leaves. Inducible-experiments showed that the genes was induced by mechanical wound as well as chemical liquid induction, and reached the highest expression level at 6 h and 12 h, respectively. The full-length cDNA clone of AsFPSI and its expression patterns analysis will provide a foundation for follow-up study on its biological function and agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis mechanism.

  15. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity. PMID:25914445

  16. Comparison of the functional features of the pump organs of Anopheles sinensis and Aedes togoi

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Seung-Chul; Seo, Seung-Jun; Ryu, Jeongeun; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as vectors for severe tropical diseases. Mosquito-borne diseases are affected by various factors such as environmental conditions, host body susceptibility, and mosquito feeding behavior. Among these factors, feeding behavior is affected by the feeding pump system located inside the mosquito head and also depends on the species of mosquito. Therefore, the 3D morphological structures of the feeding pumps of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis were comparatively investigated using synchrotron X-ray microscopic computed tomography. In addition, the feeding behaviors of their pumping organs were also investigated using a 2D X-ray micro-imaging technique. An. sinensis, a malarial vector mosquito, had a larger feeding pump volume than Ae. togoi in the static or resting position. Interestingly, the two species of mosquitoes exhibited different feeding behaviors. Ae. togoi had a higher feeding frequency and expansion ratio than An. sinensis. Ae. togoi also exhibited F-actin localization more clearly. These distinctive variations in feeding volumes and behaviors provide essential insight into the blood-feeding mechanisms of female mosquitoes as vectors for tropical diseases. PMID:26464043

  17. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  18. De novo assembly, characterization and annotation for the transcriptome of Sarcocheilichthys sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuankun; Pan, Zhengjun; Wang, Hui; Chang, Guoliang; Wu, Nan; Ding, Huaiyu

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese lake gudgeon Sarcocheilichthys sinensis is a small cyprinid fish with great aquaculture potential both for its edible and ornamental values. Nevertheless, available genomic and transcriptomic information for this fish is extremely deficient. In this study, a normalized cDNA library was constructed using 13 mixed tissues of an adult male S. sinensis, and was sequenced by the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. De novo assembly was performed using 38,911,511 obtained clean reads, and a total of 147,282 unigenes with an average length of 900 bp were finally achieved. 96.2% of these unigenes were annotated in 9 public databases, and 16 segments of growth-related genes were identified for future studies. In addition, 28,493 unigenes were assigned to 61 subcategories of Gene Ontology (GO), and 10,483 unigenes were assigned to 25 categories of Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG). Moreover, 14,943 unigenes were classified into 225 pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. A total of 30,666 microsatellites were detected from 17,627 unigenes with an average distribution density of 1:2405 bp. This transcriptome data set will be valuable for researches on discovery, expression and evolution on genes of interest. Meanwhile, the identified microsatellites would be useful tools for genetic and genomic studies in S. sinensis. PMID:28196101

  19. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development. PMID:23569938

  1. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  2. [Parasitic diseases in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Nawa, Yukifumi

    2005-11-01

    Along with the drastic decrease of soil-transmitted intestinal helminthiases, parasitic diseases in general are ignored, or considered as the disease of the past, in Japan. However, due to the Japanese food culture of eating raw materials, food-borne parasitic diseases are still present in Japan. The majority of food-borne parasitic diseases are zoonotic, and caused by ectopic migration of parasite larvae. They accidentally migrate into CNS to cause deleterious conditions. Clinicians should always remind about the possibility of parasitic diseases when they make differential diagnosis for CNS diseases.

  3. Transcriptomics exposes the uniqueness of parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Mutuku, J Musembi; Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2015-07-01

    Parasitic plants have the ability to obtain nutrients directly from other plants, and several species are serious biological threats to agriculture by parasitizing crops of high economic importance. The uniqueness of parasitic plants is characterized by the presence of a multicellular organ called a haustorium, which facilitates plant-plant interactions, and shutting down or reducing their own photosynthesis. Current technical advances in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics have allowed us to dissect the molecular mechanisms behind the uniqueness of parasitic plants at the genome-wide level. In this review, we summarize recent key findings mainly in transcriptomics that will give us insights into the future direction of parasitic plant research.

  4. Host Sexual Dimorphism and Parasite Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    In species with separate sexes, parasite prevalence and disease expression is often different between males and females. This effect has mainly been attributed to sex differences in host traits, such as immune response. Here, we make the case for how properties of the parasites themselves can also matter. Specifically, we suggest that differences between host sexes in many different traits, such as morphology and hormone levels, can impose selection on parasites. This selection can eventually lead to parasite adaptations specific to the host sex more commonly encountered, or to differential expression of parasite traits depending on which host sex they find themselves in. Parasites adapted to the sex of the host in this way can contribute to differences between males and females in disease prevalence and expression. Considering those possibilities can help shed light on host–parasite interactions, and impact epidemiological and medical science. PMID:22389630

  5. Moonlighting enzymes in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Collingridge, Peter W; Brown, Robert W B; Ginger, Michael L

    2010-08-01

    Enzymes moonlight in a non-enzymatic capacity in a diverse variety of cellular processes. The discovery of these non-enzymatic functions is generally unexpected, and moonlighting enzymes are known in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Importantly, this unexpected multi-functionality indicates that caution might be needed on some occasions in interpreting phenotypes that result from the deletion or gene-silencing of some enzymes, including some of the best known enzymes from classic intermediary metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of enzyme moonlighting in parasitic protists. Unequivocal and putative examples of moonlighting are discussed, together with the possibility that the unusual biological characteristics of some parasites either limit opportunities for moonlighting to arise or perhaps contribute to the evolution of novel proteins with clear metabolic ancestry.

  6. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas’ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503

  7. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas' disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  8. Parasitic gastroenteritis in lambs widespread.

    PubMed

    2015-01-24

    Parasitic gastroenteritis diagnosed in lambs by all veterinary investigation centres, Clostridium perfringens epsilon enterotoxaemia suspected in two cows, Comparative quarterly porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome diagnoses reach a 10-year peak, Failure of an entire colony of gulls in Cumbria, Endoparasitism the predominant feature in exotic farmed animals, These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for September 2014.

  9. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in parasites.

    PubMed

    Yen Le, T T; Rijsdijk, Laurie; Sures, Bern; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-08-01

    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to various stressors, including parasites and pollutants, that may interact with each other. Research on the accumulation of organic compounds in host-parasite systems is scant compared to studies on parasite-metal interactions and mainly focuses on intestinal endoparasites. We reviewed factors that determine the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in host-parasite systems. The wet/dry weight-based concentration of POPs in these parasites is usually lower than that in host tissues because of lower lipid contents in the parasites. However, the fractionation of the pollutants into parasites and their hosts may vary, depending on developmental stages in the life cycle of the parasites. Developmental stages determine the trophic relationship and the taxon of the parasite in the host-parasite systems because of different feeding strategies between the stages. Lipid-corrected concentrations of organic chemicals in the host are usually higher than those in the endoparasites studied. This phenomenon is attributed to a number of physiological and behavioural processes, such as feeding selectivity and strategy and excretion. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between the accumulation factor (i.e. the ratio between the lipid-corrected concentrations in parasites and in their hosts) for polychlorinated biphenyls and either hydrophobicity or molecular size. At the intermediate hydrophobicity, larger and more lipophilic compounds are accumulated at higher levels in both parasites and the host than smaller and less lipophilic compounds. The bioaccumulation of POPs in parasites is affected by some other abiotic, e.g. temperature, and biotic factors, e.g. the number of host species infected by parasites.

  10. Parasite biodiversity revisited: frontiers and constraints.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Although parasites are widely touted as representing a large fraction of the Earth's total biodiversity, several questions remain about the magnitude of parasite diversity, our ability to discover it all and how it varies among host taxa or areas of the world. This review addresses four topical issues about parasite diversity. First, we cannot currently estimate how many parasite species there are on Earth with any accuracy, either in relative or absolute terms. Species discovery rates show no sign of slowing down and cryptic parasite species complicate matters further, rendering extrapolation methods useless. Further, expert opinion, which is also used as a means to estimate parasite diversity, is shown here to be prone to serious biases. Second, it seems likely that we may soon not have enough parasite taxonomists to keep up with the description of new species, as taxonomic expertise appears to be limited to a few individuals in the latter stages of their career. Third, we have made great strides toward explaining variation in parasite species richness among host species, by identifying basic host properties that are universal predictors of parasite richness, whatever the type of hosts or parasites. Fourth, in a geographical context, the main driver of variation in parasite species richness across different areas is simply local host species richness; as a consequence, patterns in the spatial variation of parasite species richness tend to match those already well-documented for free-living species. The real value of obtaining good estimates of global parasite diversity is questionable. Instead, our efforts should be focused on ensuring that we maintain sufficient taxonomic resources to keep up with species discovery, and apply what we know of the variation in parasite species richness among host species or across geographical areas to contribute to areas of concern in the ecology of health and in conservation biology.

  11. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  12. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Rodney A.; Hunt, David; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Scholz, Tomaš; Harris, Philip D.; Bakke, Tor A.; Pojmanska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, Vasyl; Bain, Odile; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Gibbons, Lynda; Moravec, František; Petter, Annie; Dimitrova, Zlatka M.; Buchmann, Kurt; Valtonen, E. Tellervo; de Jong, Yde

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea), Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended. PMID:25349520

  13. Cardiac manifestations of parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Guimarães Júnior, Milton Henriques; Diamantino, Adriana Costa; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu

    2017-03-11

    The heart may be affected directly or indirectly by a variety of protozoa and helminths. This involvement may manifest in different ways, but the syndromes resulting from impairment of the myocardium and pericardium are the most frequent. The myocardium may be invaded by parasites that trigger local inflammatory response with subsequent myocarditis or cardiomyopathy, as occurs in Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and infection with free-living amoebae. In amoebiasis and echinococcosis, the pericardium is the structure most frequently involved with consequent pericardial effusion, acute pericarditis, cardiac tamponade or constrictive pericarditis. Chronic hypereosinophilia due to helminth infections, especially filarial infections, has been associated with the development of tropical endomyocardial fibrosis, a severe form of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Schistosomiasis-associated lung vasculature involvement may cause pulmonary hypertension (PH) and cor pulmonale Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, which is characterised by progressive interstitial fibrosis and restrictive lung disease, may lead to PH and its consequences may occur in the course of filarial infections. Intracardiac rupture of an Echinococcus cyst can cause membrane or secondary cysts embolisation to the lungs or organs supplied by the systemic circulation. Although unusual causes of cardiac disease outside the endemic areas, heart involvement by parasites should be considered in the differential diagnosis especially of myocardial and/or pericardial diseases of unknown aetiology in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. In this review, we updated and summarised the current knowledge on the major heart diseases caused by protozoan and metazoan parasites, which either involve the heart directly or otherwise influence the heart adversely.

  14. Fauna europaea: helminths (animal parasitic).

    PubMed

    Gibson, David I; Bray, Rodney A; Hunt, David; Georgiev, Boyko B; Scholz, Tomaš; Harris, Philip D; Bakke, Tor A; Pojmanska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, Vasyl; Bain, Odile; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Gibbons, Lynda; Moravec, František; Petter, Annie; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Buchmann, Kurt; Valtonen, E Tellervo; de Jong, Yde

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea), Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  15. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, excretes urea mainly through the mouth instead of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Ip, Yuen K; Loong, Ai M; Lee, Serene M L; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2012-11-01

    The Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, is well adapted to aquatic environments, including brackish swamps and marshes. It is ureotelic, and occasionally submerges its head into puddles of water during emersion, presumably for buccopharyngeal respiration. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the buccophyaryngeal cavity constitutes an important excretory route for urea in P. sinensis. Results indicate that a major portion of urea was excreted through the mouth instead of the kidney during immersion. When restrained on land, P. sinensis occasionally submerged their head into water (20-100 min), during which urea excretion and oxygen extraction occurred simultaneously. These results indicate for the first time that buccopharyngeal villiform processes (BVP) and rhythmic pharyngeal movements were involved in urea excretion in P. sinensis. Urea excretion through the mouth was sensitive to phloretin inhibition, indicating the involvement of urea transporters (UTs). In addition, saliva samples collected from the buccopharyngeal surfaces of P. sinensis injected intraperitoneally with saline contained ~36 mmol N l(-1) urea, significantly higher than that (~2.4 mmol N l(-1)) in the plasma. After intraperitoneal injection with 20 μmol urea g(-1) turtle, the concentration of urea in the saliva collected from the BVP increased to an extraordinarily high level of ~614 μmol N ml(-1), but the urea concentration (~45 μmol N ml(-1)) in the plasma was much lower, indicating that the buccopharyngeal epithelium of P. sinensis was capable of active urea transport. Subsequently, we obtained from the buccopharyngeal epithelium of P. sinensis the full cDNA sequence of a putative UT, whose deduced amino acid sequence had ~70% similarity with human and mouse UT-A2. This UT was not expressed in the kidney, corroborating the proposition that the kidney had only a minor role in urea excretion in P. sinensis. As UT-A2 is known to be a facilitative urea

  16. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation and GC/MS Fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica Root Components for Antifungal and Mosquito Deterrent Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica sinensis and A. archangelica belong to the Umbelliferae and both are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gynecological and intestinal disorders. In this study, oils from three different A. sinensis collections and one A. archangelica root were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The domin...

  17. Parasites as prey in aquatic food webs: implications for predator infection and parasite transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieltges, David W.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Lafferty, Levin D.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Preston, Daniel L.; Reise, Karsten; Zander, C. Dieter; Poulin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    While the recent inclusion of parasites into food-web studies has highlighted the role of parasites as consumers, there is accumulating evidence that parasites can also serve as prey for predators. Here we investigated empirical patterns of predation on parasites and their relationships with parasite transmission in eight topological food webs representing marine and freshwater ecosystems. Within each food web, we examined links in the typical predator–prey sub web as well as the predator–parasite sub web, i.e. the quadrant of the food web indicating which predators eat parasites. Most predator– parasite links represented ‘concomitant predation’ (consumption and death of a parasite along with the prey/host; 58–72%), followed by ‘trophic transmission’ (predator feeds on infected prey and becomes infected; 8–32%) and predation on free-living parasite life-cycle stages (4–30%). Parasite life-cycle stages had, on average, between 4.2 and 14.2 predators. Among the food webs, as predator richness increased, the number of links exploited by trophically transmitted parasites increased at about the same rate as did the number of links where these stages serve as prey. On the whole, our analyses suggest that predation on parasites has important consequences for both predators and parasites, and food web structure. Because our analysis is solely based on topological webs, determining the strength of these interactions is a promising avenue for future research.

  18. Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Erianthus arundinaceus and Miscanthus sinensis: Comparative Genomics and Evolution of the Saccharum Complex

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Shin-ichi; Ebina, Masumi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Takahashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The genera Erianthus and Miscanthus, both members of the Saccharum complex, are of interest as potential resources for sugarcane improvement and as bioenergy crops. Recent studies have mainly focused on the conservation and use of wild accessions of these genera as breeding materials. However, the sequence data are limited, which hampers the studies of phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and evolution of these grasses. Here, we determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences of Erianthus arundinaceus and Miscanthus sinensis by using 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. Alignment of the E. arundinaceus and M. sinensis chloroplast genome sequences with the known sequence of Saccharum officinarum demonstrated a high degree of conservation in gene content and order. Using the data sets of 76 chloroplast protein-coding genes, we performed phylogenetic analysis in 40 taxa including E. arundinaceus and M. sinensis. Our results show that S. officinarum is more closely related to M. sinensis than to E. arundinaceus. We estimated that E. arundinaceus diverged from the subtribe Sorghinae before the divergence of Sorghum bicolor and the common ancestor of S. officinarum and M. sinensis. This is the first report of the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships inferred from maternally inherited variation in the Saccharum complex. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the phylogenetic relatedness of the economically important genera Erianthus, Miscanthus, and Saccharum. PMID:28125648

  19. Effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) on wound healing activity: a preclinical study in a Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Sivachandra Raju, S; Orette, F A; Chalapathi Rao, A V

    2007-06-01

    Hibiscus rosa sinensis (H rosa sinensis), a plant product, has been used for the treatment of a variety of diseases as well as to promote wound healing. The wound-healing activity of the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis flower was determined in rats, using excision, incision, and dead space wound models and is presented in this report. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6 each in all the models. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis orally by mixing in drinking water (120 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, tensile strength (skin breaking strength), granulation tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content. The antimicrobial activity of the flower extract against selected microorganisms that infect the wounds was also assessed. Animals treated with the extract exhibited an 86% reduction in the wound area compared with controls, who exhibited a 75% reduction. The extract-treated animals were found to epithelize their wounds significantly faster than controls (P < .002) and have shown significantly higher skin-breaking strength than controls (P < .002). The dry and wet weight of granulation tissue and hydroxyproline content were also increased significantly when compared with controls. The reported observations suggest H rosa sinensis aids wound healing in the rat model.

  20. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kelly Y C; Chan, Gallant K L; Xin, Gui-Zhong; Xu, Hong; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Chen, Jian-Ping; Yao, Ping; Lin, Huang-Quan; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-15

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously affects the therapeutic effects or even leads to life-threatening poisoning. Here, we aim to identify Cordyceps by DNA sequencing technology. Two different DNA-based approaches were compared. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) were developed here to authenticate different species of Cordyceps. Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of C. sinensis from others. The application of the two methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, the SCAR markers derived from the RAPD results provide a new method for quick authentication of Cordyceps.

  1. Fossil Crustaceans as Parasites and Hosts.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous crustacean lineages have independently moved into parasitism as a mode of life. In modern marine ecosystems, parasitic crustaceans use representatives from many metazoan phyla as hosts. Crustaceans also serve as hosts to a rich diversity of parasites, including other crustaceans. Here, we show that the fossil record of such parasitic interactions is sparse, with only 11 examples, one dating back to the Cambrian. This may be due to the limited preservation potential and small size of parasites, as well as to problems with ascribing traces to parasitism with certainty, and to a lack of targeted research. Although the confirmed stratigraphic ranges are limited for nearly every example, evidence of parasitism related to crustaceans has become increasingly more complete for isopod-induced swellings in decapods so that quantitative analyses can be carried out. Little attention has yet been paid to the origin of parasitism in deep time, but insight can be generated by integrating data on fossils with molecular studies on modern parasites. In addition, there are other traces left by parasites that could fossilize, but have not yet been recognized in the fossil record.

  2. Introduced species and their missing parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, Mark E.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2003-01-01

    Damage caused by introduced species results from the high population densities and large body sizes that they attain in their new location. Escape from the effects of natural enemies is a frequent explanation given for the success of introduced species. Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new parasites can experience a demographic release and become a pest. To test whether introduced species are less parasitized, we have compared the parasites of exotic species in their native and introduced ranges, using 26 host species of molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Here we report that the number of parasite species found in native populations is twice that found in exotic populations. In addition, introduced populations are less heavily parasitized (in terms of percentage infected) than are native populations. Reduced parasitization of introduced species has several causes, including reduced probability of the introduction of parasites with exotic species (or early extinction after host establishment), absence of other required hosts in the new location, and the host-specific limitations of native parasites adapting to new hosts.

  3. Cleaning symbioses from the parasites' perspective.

    PubMed

    Grutter, A S

    2002-01-01

    Cleaning behaviour has generally been viewed from the cleaner or client's point of view. Few studies, however, have examined cleaning behaviour from the parasites' perspective, yet they are the equally-important third players in such associations. All three players are likely to have had their evolution affected by the association. As cleaner organisms are important predators of parasites, cleaners are likely to have an important effect on their prey. Little, however, is known of how parasites are affected by cleaning associations and the strategies that parasites use in response to cleaners. I examine here what parasites are involved in cleaning interactions, the effect cleaners have on parasites, the potential counteradaptations that parasites have evolved against the predatory activities of cleaner organisms, the potential influence of cleaners on the life history traits of parasites, and other factors affected by cleaners. I have found that a wide range of ectoparasites from diverse habitats have been reported to interact with a wide range of cleaner organisms. Some of the life history traits of parasites are consistent with the idea that they are in response to cleaner predation. It is clear, however, that although many cleaning systems exist their ecological role is largely unexplored. This has likely been hindered by our lack of information on the parasites involved in cleaning interactions.

  4. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with

  5. Genetic variations of ND5 gene of mtDNA in populations of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vector in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles sinensis is a principal vector for Plasmodium vivax malaria in most parts of China. Understanding of genetic structure and genetic differentiation of the mosquito should contribute to the vector control and malaria elimination in China. Methods The present study investigated the genetic structure of An. sinensis populations using a 729 bp fragment of mtDNA ND5 among 10 populations collected from seven provinces in China. Results ND5 was polymorphic by single mutations within three groups of An. sinensis that were collected from 10 different geographic populations in China. Out of 140 specimens collected from 10 representative sites, 84 haplotypes and 71 variable positions were determined. The overall level of genetic differentiation of An. sinensis varied from low to moderate across China and with a FST range of 0.00065 – 0.341. Genealogy analysis clustered the populations of An. sinensis into three main clusters. Each cluster shared one main haplotype. Pairwise variations within populations were higher (68.68%) than among populations (31.32%) and with high fixation index (FST = 0.313). The results of the present study support population growth and expansion in the An. sinensis populations from China. Three clusters of An. sinensis populations were detected in this study with each displaying different proportion patterns over seven Chinese provinces. No correlation between genetic and geographic distance was detected in overall populations of An. sinensis (R2 = 0.058; P = 0.301). Conclusions The results indicate that the ND5 gene of mtDNA is highly polymorphic in An. sinensis and has moderate genetic variability in the populations of this mosquito in China. Demographic and spatial results support evidence of expansion in An. sinensis populations. PMID:24192424

  6. When parasites disagree: Evidence for parasite-induced sabotage of host manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Nina; Milinski, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Host manipulation is a common parasite strategy to alter host behavior in a manner to enhance parasite fitness usually by increasing the parasite's transmission to the next host. In nature, hosts often harbor multiple parasites with agreeing or conflicting interests over host manipulation. Natural selection might drive such parasites to cooperation, compromise, or sabotage. Sabotage would occur if one parasite suppresses the manipulation of another. Experimental studies on the effect of multi-parasite interactions on host manipulation are scarce, clear experimental evidence for sabotage is elusive. We tested the effect of multiple infections on host manipulation using laboratory-bred copepods experimentally infected with the trophically transmitted tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. This parasite is known to manipulate its host depending on its own developmental stage. Coinfecting parasites with the same aim enhance each other's manipulation but only after reaching infectivity. If the coinfecting parasites disagree over host manipulation, the infective parasite wins this conflict: the noninfective one has no effect. The winning (i.e., infective) parasite suppresses the manipulation of its noninfective competitor. This presents conclusive experimental evidence for both cooperation in and sabotage of host manipulation and hence a proof of principal that one parasite can alter and even neutralize manipulation by another. PMID:25643621

  7. Random parasite encounters coupled with condition-linked immunity of hosts generate parasite aggregation.

    PubMed

    Morrill, André; Forbes, Mark R

    2012-06-01

    Parasite aggregation is viewed as a natural law in parasite-host ecology but is a paradox insofar as parasites should follow the Poisson distribution if hosts are encountered randomly. Much research has focused on whether parasite aggregation in or on hosts is explained by aggregation of infective parasite stages in the environment, or by heterogeneity within host samples in terms of host responses to infection (e.g., through representation of different age classes of hosts). In this paper, we argue that the typically aggregated distributions of parasites may be explained simply. We propose that aggregated distributions can be derived from parasites encountering hosts randomly, but subsequently by parasites being 'lost' from hosts based on condition-linked escape or immunity of hosts. Host condition should be a normally distributed trait even among otherwise homogeneous sets of hosts. Our model shows that mean host condition and variation in host condition have different effects on the different metrics of parasite aggregation. Our model further predicts that as host condition increases, parasites become more aggregated but numbers of attending parasites are reduced overall and this is important for parasite population dynamics. The effects of deviation from random encounter are discussed with respect to the relationship between host condition and final parasite numbers.

  8. When parasites disagree: evidence for parasite-induced sabotage of host manipulation.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Nina; Milinski, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Host manipulation is a common parasite strategy to alter host behavior in a manner to enhance parasite fitness usually by increasing the parasite's transmission to the next host. In nature, hosts often harbor multiple parasites with agreeing or conflicting interests over host manipulation. Natural selection might drive such parasites to cooperation, compromise, or sabotage. Sabotage would occur if one parasite suppresses the manipulation of another. Experimental studies on the effect of multi-parasite interactions on host manipulation are scarce, clear experimental evidence for sabotage is elusive. We tested the effect of multiple infections on host manipulation using laboratory-bred copepods experimentally infected with the trophically transmitted tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. This parasite is known to manipulate its host depending on its own developmental stage. Coinfecting parasites with the same aim enhance each other's manipulation but only after reaching infectivity. If the coinfecting parasites disagree over host manipulation, the infective parasite wins this conflict: the noninfective one has no effect. The winning (i.e., infective) parasite suppresses the manipulation of its noninfective competitor. This presents conclusive experimental evidence for both cooperation in and sabotage of host manipulation and hence a proof of principal that one parasite can alter and even neutralize manipulation by another.

  9. Quantitative analysis of marker compounds in Angelica gigas, Angelica sinensis, and Angelica acutiloba by HPLC/DAD.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su Yang; Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Kyu Ha; Kim, Kyu Yeob; Huang, Dae Sun; Kim, Jong Hwan; Seong, Rack Seon

    2015-01-01

    Although Danggui is the root of Angelica gigas NAKAI in the Korean Pharmacopoeia, it is determined that Danggui is also the root of Angelica sinensis (OLIV.) DIELS in China and Hong Kong, as well as the root of Angelica acutiloba KITAGAWA in Japan. Accordingly, we tried to develop an identification method using the main compounds in A. gigas, A. sinensis, and A. acutiloba through HPLC/diode-array detector (DAD). This method was fully validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and robustness. Multivariate analysis was also implemented after pattern analysis and monitoring. As a result, each compound pattern of A. gigas, A. sinensis, and A. acutiloba was identified, making it possible to distinguish them from each other.

  10. Parasitic diseases in the abdomen: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the liver and biliary tract include echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis, clonorchiasis, and opisthorchiasis, affecting millions people in some endemic areas. Amebiasis and ascariasis are believed to be the most common bowel lumen indwelling parasitic diseases, affecting billions people worldwide, but sometimes these parasites migrate inadvertently to the liver and biliary tract, resulting in liver abscess or obstructive jaundice. Imaging findings of these parasitic diseases are fairly characteristic and easy to recognize if radiologists are aware of the findings, especially in endemic areas. Because of increased immigration and frequent travelling, some patients with "exotic" parasitic diseases may be encountered in non-endemic areas, and the diagnosis may be delayed or difficult, and it is often made only after operation. This feature section was designed to provide the detailed imaging features of common parasitic diseases affecting the abdominal organs and peritoneal cavity, based on pathology-image correlation.

  11. [Anisakiasis - a little-known parasitic zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Bardoň, Jan; Harna, Jiří; Pijáček, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Parasites of the family Anisakidae cause enteric parasitic zoonoses developing after consumption of inadequately cooked marine fish. Cases of such diseases are reported mainly from Japan or other countries where raw or uncooked fish are traditionally consumed. The presented short communication briefly reports detection of larvae of Pseudoterranova spp., parasites of the family Anisakidae, in a fresh chilled angler-fish (Lophius piscatorius) bought at a retail store in the Czech Republic.

  12. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05) was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide

  13. High resolution genetic mapping by genome sequencing reveals genome duplication and tetraploid genetic structure of the diploid Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Jensen, Elaine; Alexandrov, Nickolai; Troukhan, Maxim; Zhang, Liping; Thomas-Jones, Sian; Farrar, Kerrie; Clifton-Brown, John; Donnison, Iain; Swaller, Timothy; Flavell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7), presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms of Drought-Stress-Induced Decreases in Camellia sinensis Leaf Quality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidong; Xin, Huahong; Wang, Mingle; Ma, Qingping; Wang, Le; Kaleri, Najeeb A.; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Xinghui

    2016-01-01

    The tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important commercial crop rich in bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids, which the quality of tea leaves depends on. Drought is the most important environmental stress affecting the yield and quality of this plant. In this study, the effects of drought stress on the phenotype, physiological characteristics and major bioactive ingredients accumulation of C. sinensis leaves were examined, and the results indicated that drought stress resulted in dehydration and wilt of the leaves, and significant decrease in the total polyphenols and free amino acids and increase in the total flavonoids. In addition, HPLC analysis showed that the catechins, caffeine, theanine and some free amino acids in C. sinensis leaves were significantly reduced in response to drought stress, implying that drought stress severely decreased the quality of C. sinensis leaves. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to amino acid metabolism and secondary metabolism were identified and quantified in C. sinensis leaves under drought stress using high-throughput Illumina RNA-Seq technology, especially the key regulatory genes of the catechins, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways. The expression levels of key regulatory genes were consistent with the results from the HPLC analysis, which indicate a potential molecular mechanism for the above results. Taken together, these data provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the change in the quality of C. sinensis leaves under environmental stress, which involve changes in the accumulation of major bioactive ingredients, especially catechins, caffeine, theanine and other free amino acids. PMID:27066035

  15. Parasites in bloom: flowers aid dispersal and transmission of pollinator parasites within and between bee species

    PubMed Central

    Graystock, Peter; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O. H.

    2015-01-01

    The dispersal of parasites is critical for epidemiology, and the interspecific vectoring of parasites when species share resources may play an underappreciated role in parasite dispersal. One of the best examples of such a situation is the shared use of flowers by pollinators, but the importance of flowers and interspecific vectoring in the dispersal of pollinator parasites is poorly understood and frequently overlooked. Here, we use an experimental approach to show that during even short foraging periods of 3 h, three bumblebee parasites and two honeybee parasites were dispersed effectively onto flowers by their hosts, and then vectored readily between flowers by non-host pollinator species. The results suggest that flowers are likely to be hotspots for the transmission of pollinator parasites and that considering potential vector, as well as host, species will be of general importance for understanding the distribution and transmission of parasites in the environment and between pollinators. PMID:26246556

  16. Parasites in bloom: flowers aid dispersal and transmission of pollinator parasites within and between bee species.

    PubMed

    Graystock, Peter; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O H

    2015-08-22

    The dispersal of parasites is critical for epidemiology, and the interspecific vectoring of parasites when species share resources may play an underappreciated role in parasite dispersal. One of the best examples of such a situation is the shared use of flowers by pollinators, but the importance of flowers and interspecific vectoring in the dispersal of pollinator parasites is poorly understood and frequently overlooked. Here, we use an experimental approach to show that during even short foraging periods of 3 h, three bumblebee parasites and two honeybee parasites were dispersed effectively onto flowers by their hosts, and then vectored readily between flowers by non-host pollinator species. The results suggest that flowers are likely to be hotspots for the transmission of pollinator parasites and that considering potential vector, as well as host, species will be of general importance for understanding the distribution and transmission of parasites in the environment and between pollinators.

  17. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  18. Effects of a hurricane on fish parasites.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, R M

    2007-09-01

    Hurricanes, also called tropical cyclones, can dramatically affect life along their paths, including a temporary losing or reducing in number of parasites of fishes. Hurricane Katrina in the northern Gulf of Mexico in August 2005 provides many examples involving humans and both terrestrial and aquatic animals and plants. Fishes do not provide much of an indicator of hurricane activity because most species quickly repopulate the area. Fish parasites, however, serve as a good indicator of the overall biodiversity and environmental health. The reasons for the noted absence or reduction of parasites in fishes are many, and specific parasites provide indications of different processes. The powerful winds can produce perturbations of the sediments harboring intermediate hosts. The surge of high salinity water can kill or otherwise affect low salinity intermediate hosts or free-living stages. Both can introduce toxicants into the habitat and also interfere with the timing and processes involved with host-parasite interrelationships. All these have had a major influence on fish parasite populations of fishes in coastal Mississippi, especially for those parasites incorporating intermediate hosts in their life cycles. The length of time for a parasite to become re-established can vary considerably, depending on its life cycle as well as the associated biota, habitat, and environmental conditions, and each parasite provides a special indicator of environmental health.

  19. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities. PMID:21062457

  20. [Discussion on the usage of terminology of some parasites and parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-quan; Cui, Jing

    2006-04-30

    According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the Standardized Nomenclature of Animal Parasitic Diseases (SNOAPAD), and considering the new advances in parasitology, the usage of the terminology of some parasites and parasitic diseases (such as Trichinella and trichinellosis, filariae and filariasis, Echinococcus and echinococcosis, etc.) was discussed.

  1. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans

    PubMed Central

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Ribas, Augusto Cesar de Aquino; Morais, Drausio Honorio; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts’ phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts’ phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts’ clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains. PMID:26473593

  2. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Ribas, Augusto Cesar de Aquino; Morais, Drausio Honorio; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  3. Identification and functional characterization of three type III polyketide synthases from Aquilaria sinensis calli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhongxiu; Dong, Xianjuan; Feng, Yingying; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Bowen; Wang, Jinling; Zhang, Le; Wang, Juan; Shi, Shepo; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-03-30

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) play an important role in biosynthesis of various plant secondary metabolites and plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Aquilaria sinensis is the main plant species for production of agarwood, little is known about the PKS family. In this study, AsCHS1 and two new type III PKSs, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2, were isolated and characterized in Aquilaria sinensis calli. The comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 belong to non-CHS group different from AsCHS1. The recombinant AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 produced the lactone-type products, suggesting different enzyme activities with AsCHS1. Three PKS genes had a tissues-specific pattern in A. sinensis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of three PKS genes in calli under different abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. AsCHS1 transcript was significantly induced by salt stress, AsPKS1 abundance was most remarkably enhanced by CdCl2 treatment, while AsPKS2 expression was most significantly induced by mannitol treatment. Furthermore, AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 transcript were enhanced upon gibberellins (GA3), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) treatments, while three PKS genes displayed low transcript levels at the early stage under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. In addition, three GFP:PKSs fusion proteins were localized in the cytoplasm and cell wall in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. These results indicated the multifunctional role of three type III PKSs in polyketide biosynthesis, plant resistance in abiotic stresses and signal transduction.

  4. Cloning, expression, and characterization of Fe-SOD from Isöetes sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Dai, X L; Liu, B D; Wang, Q X

    2016-11-03

    Although the palynology and sporophyte stage of Isöetes sinensis have been well studied, the biology of its gametophyte and embryo is less well understood. To date, the functions of several genes of I. sinensis and the molecular mechanisms of enzymes encoded by them remain to be studied. In the present study, the Fe-SOD gene of I. sinensis was successfully cloned using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and termed IsFeSOD. IsFeSOD has certain reference value in the classification of system evolution. The study also accumulated data for further research on the SOD gene. Bioinformatic analysis was employed to compare IsFeSOD with gene sequences obtained from other plants present in the GenBank. Furthermore, the recombinant pET32-FeSOD plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 for expression. IsFeSOD was observed to have 1469 nucleotides that were predicted to encode 247 amino acids. The bioinformatic analysis revealed that IsFeSOD contained conserved TGGGA sequences, similar to eight other species, in addition to five other conserved sequences. The recombinant protein was about 43 kDa. Recombinant FeSOD was expressed, purified, and confirmed by western blotting. Alignment of complete Fe-SOD mRNA sequences from 9 species revealed several conserved sequences. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA4.1 and ClustalX multiple-sequence alignment programs. This study could be helpful in further characterization of SOD genes and for classification of system evolution status.

  5. Calmodulin is a stress and immune response gene in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Jia, Zirui; Li, Xuejing; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

    2014-09-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional calcium sensor protein that participates in various cellular processes under normal, stress and pathological conditions. In crabs, however, the involvement of CaM in response to environmental stress and immune challenges has not been revealed yet. In the present study, a CaM cDNA (EsCaM) was identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and its mRNA expression patterns in response to ambient (salinity and pH) stress and immune challenges was examined. EsCaM encodes a 149-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 16.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.09. In unstimulated healthy E. sinensis, EsCaM mRNA transcript was detected in all tested tissues with predominant expression in hepatopancreas and the lowest expression in haemocytes. Ambient salinity (15‰ and 30‰ salinities) and pH (pH 6 and 8.5) stress significantly altered EsCaM mRNA expression in gill, hepatopancreas, haemocytes, intestine and muscle in Chinese mitten crab. In addition, EsCaM gene expression was significantly and rapidly induced as early as 2 h after LPS and Poly(I:C) immune stimulations in haemocytes in vitro. Furthermore, EsCaM expression was significantly up-regulated in E. sinensis haemocytes, gill, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle in response to Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum challenges. Collectively, our findings suggest that EsCaM is an important stress and immune response gene in Chinese mitten crab.

  6. Phylogeography and genetic structure of a Tertiary relict tree species, Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae): implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinju; Li, Zuozhou; Fritsch, Peter W.; Tian, Hua; Yang, Aihong; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The phylogeography of plant species in sub-tropical China remains largely unclear. This study used Tapiscia sinensis, an endemic and endangered tree species widely but disjunctly distributed in sub-tropical China, as a model to reveal the patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographical history of Tertiary relict plant species in this region. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to its conservation management. Methods Samples were taken from 24 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of T. sinensis. Genetic structure was investigated by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed with maximum parsimony and haplotype network methods. Historical population expansion events were tested with pairwise mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Species potential range was deduced by ecological niche modelling (ENM). Key Results A low level of genetic diversity was detected at the population level. A high level of genetic differentiation and a significant phylogeographical structure were revealed. The mean divergence time of the haplotypes was approx. 1·33 million years ago. Recent range expansion in this species is suggested by a star-like haplotype network and by the results from the mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Conclusions Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have had pronounced effects on the extant distribution of Tapiscia relative to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Spatial patterns of molecular variation and ENM suggest that T. sinensis may have retreated in south-western and central China and colonized eastern China prior to the LGM. Multiple montane refugia for T. sinense existing during the LGM are inferred in central and western China. The populations adjacent to or within these refugia of T. sinense should be given high priority in the development of

  7. Comparative effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole on serum T4, T3 and TSH levels

    PubMed Central

    Uduak, Okon Akpan; Ani, Elemi John; Etoh, Emmauel Columba Inyang; Macstephen, Adienbo Ologbagno

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are previous independent reports on the anti-thyroid property of Citrus sinensis. This isoflavones and phenolic acid-rich natural agent is widely consumed as dietary supplement, thus the need to investigate its comparative effect with a standard anti-thyroid drug on T4, T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Objective: To compare the effect of Citrus sinensis and carbimazole (CARB) on blood levels of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and TSH. Materials and Methods: Male wistar albino rats weighing 100-150 g were employed in this research. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats per group. Group I served as control and were administered distilled water while groups II-IV were administered with 1500 mg/kg of Citrus sinensis (fresh orange juice; FOJ), 0.1 μg/g of levothyroxine (LVT) and 0.01 mg/g of CARB, respectively, per oral once daily for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and blood sample collected by cardiac puncture and processed by standard method to obtain serum. TSH, T4 and T3 were assayed with the serum using ARIA II automated radioimmunoassay instrument. Results: The results showed that TSH level was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in LVT treated group compared with the FOJ group. T4 was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the FOJ and CARB groups compared with the control and LVT groups. LVT significantly increased T4 when compared with FOJ group. T3 was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the CARB group compared with the control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that FOJ alters thyroid hormones metabolism to reduce their serum levels with a compensatory elevations of TSH level in a direction similar to CARB. PMID:25013255

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviya, S.; Santhanalakshmi, J.; Viswanathan, B.; Muthumary, J.; Srinivasan, K.

    2011-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved by a novel, simple green chemistry procedure using citrus sinensis peel extract as a reducing and a capping agent. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. The successful formation of silver nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDAX, FESEM and TEM analysis and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) has been studied. The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent.

  10. Genetic differentiation within Eriochoir sinensis (milne, edwards) revealed by allozyme and RAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhao-Xia; Xiang, Jian-Hai; Song, Lin-Sheng; Zhou, Ling-Hua; Shi, Wei-Liang

    2000-09-01

    We analyzed 17 allozymes, and 20 primers in order to detect the genetic differentiation between commercial populations (Changjiang River, Liaohe River) of Eriochoir sinensis. Ten allozymes (LDH, MDH, ME, IDH, EST, ALP, AAT, CTL, POD, SOD) showed 21 loci by vertically discontinuos buffer system polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RAPD profiles generated by 12 ten-base primers showed 63 loci. The percentage of polymorphic loci and the expected heterozygosity obtained by using allozyme analysis were lower than those obtained by RAPD. The index of similarity between these two populations were 0.955 and 0.932 as revealed by allozyme analysis and RAPD technology. There was gene flow between the above populations.

  11. Caffeine in tea Camellia sinensis--content, absorption, benefits and risks of consumption.

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, A

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic properties of tea Camellia sinensis are of particular interest since it has been consumed for ages and was always regarded as safe beverage. Tea is most popular beverage in the world because of its attractive aroma, exceptional taste, health promoting and pharmaceutical potential. Current results showed that antioxidative, antibacterial and other health effects are attributed to its caffeine content and caffeine - polyphenols interactions. An overview is given on caffeine content in different tea leaves beverage. Special attention is drawn to caffeine physiological effect on human organism. Controversies concerning the possible caffeine influence on human physical and psychological health are briefly summarized and presented.

  12. Vanadium-Enriched Cordyceps sinensis, a Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianyou; Li, ChangYu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Jiahui

    2011-01-01

    This article studies a contemporary treatment approach toward both diabetes and depression management by vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS). Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were used in the study. After the rats were administered with VECS, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels was seen (P < .05) and the levels of serum insulin increased significantly (P < .05). At the same time, the study revealed a significant decrease in immobility with a corresponding increase in the swimming and climbing behavior in hyperglycemic rats following VECS treatment. The results described herein demonstrate that VECS is a contemporary treatment approach that advocates an aggressive stance toward both diabetes and depression management. PMID:21799679

  13. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NFκB (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor-α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor-β. Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NFκB and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NFκB levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia. PMID:24063008

  14. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy.

  15. Parasites and cancers: parasite antigens as possible targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Darani, Hossein Yousofi; Yousefi, Morteza

    2012-12-01

    An adverse relationship between some parasite infections and cancer in the human population has been reported by different research groups. Anticancer activity of some parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis, Acantamoeba castellani and Plasmodium yoelii has been shown in experimental animals. Moreover, it has been shown that cancer-associated mucin-type O-glycan compositions are made by parasites, therefore cancers and parasites have common antigens. In this report anticancer activities of some parasites have been reviewed and the possible mechanisms of these actions have also been discussed.

  16. Malaria Parasite Liver Infection and Exoerythrocytic Biology.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ashley M; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2017-02-27

    In their infection cycle, malaria parasites undergo replication and population expansions within the vertebrate host and the mosquito vector. Host infection initiates with sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes, followed by a dramatic parasite amplification event during liver stage parasite growth and replication within hepatocytes. Each liver stage forms up to 90,000 exoerythrocytic merozoites, which are in turn capable of initiating a blood stage infection. Liver stages not only exploit host hepatocyte resources for nutritional needs but also endeavor to prevent hepatocyte cell death and detection by the host's immune system. Research over the past decade has identified numerous parasite factors that play a critical role during liver infection and has started to delineate a complex web of parasite-host interactions that sustain successful parasite colonization of the mammalian host. Targeting the parasites' obligatory infection of the liver as a gateway to the blood, with drugs and vaccines, constitutes the most effective strategy for malaria eradication, as it would prevent clinical disease and onward transmission of the parasite.

  17. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L

    2011-12-12

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment--lethal and non-lethal--across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date.

  18. Realizing the promise of parasite genomics.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, James D

    2014-07-01

    Genomes and genomics are now part of the popular imagination and culture. Understanding what these massively long strings of As, Gs, Cs, and Ts actually mean is a challenge that has been taken up by many working on parasites. Our understanding of parasite biology and future treatment strategies has been significantly improved because of these genomes.

  19. Infectious diseases and parasites of ratites.

    PubMed

    Shane, S M

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses infectious and parasitic disease conditions in the three ratite species. Diseases and parasitic conditions are reviewed in relation to etiology, transmission, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. To ensure optimum reproduction and growth of birds on large production units, a veterinarian must understand management in relation to biosecurity and disease problems.

  20. The parasite connection in ecosystems and macroevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seilacher, Adolf; Reif, Wolf-Ernst; Wenk, Peter

    2007-03-01

    In addition to their obvious negative effects (“pathogens”), endoparasites of various kinds play an important role in shaping and maintaining modern animal communities. In the long-term, parasites including pathogens are indispensable entities of any ecosystem. To understand this, it is essential that one changes the viewpoint from the host’s interests to that of the parasite. Together with geographic isolation, trophic arms race, symbiosis, and niche partitioning, all parasites (including balance strategists, i.e. seemingly non-pathogenic ones) modulate their hosts’ population densities. In addition, heteroxenic parasites control the balance between predator and prey species, particularly if final and intermediate hosts are vertebrates. Thereby, such parasites enhance the bonds in ecosystems and help maintain the status quo. As the links between eukaryotic parasites and their hosts are less flexible than trophic connections, parasite networks probably contributed to the observed stasis and incumbency of ecosystems over geologic time, in spite of continuous Darwinian innovation. Because heteroxenic parasites target taxonomic levels above that of the species (e.g. families), these taxa may have also become units of selection in global catastrophies. Macroevolutionary extrapolations, however, are difficult to verify because endoparasites cannot fossilize.

  1. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  2. The parasite connection in ecosystems and macroevolution.

    PubMed

    Seilacher, Adolf; Reif, Wolf-Ernst; Wenk, Peter

    2007-03-01

    In addition to their obvious negative effects ("pathogens"), endoparasites of various kinds play an important role in shaping and maintaining modern animal communities. In the long-term, parasites including pathogens are indispensable entities of any ecosystem. To understand this, it is essential that one changes the viewpoint from the host's interests to that of the parasite. Together with geographic isolation, trophic arms race, symbiosis, and niche partitioning, all parasites (including balance strategists, i.e. seemingly non-pathogenic ones) modulate their hosts' population densities. In addition, heteroxenic parasites control the balance between predator and prey species, particularly if final and intermediate hosts are vertebrates. Thereby, such parasites enhance the bonds in ecosystems and help maintain the status quo. As the links between eukaryotic parasites and their hosts are less flexible than trophic connections, parasite networks probably contributed to the observed stasis and incumbency of ecosystems over geologic time, in spite of continuous Darwinian innovation. Because heteroxenic parasites target taxonomic levels above that of the species (e.g. families), these taxa may have also become units of selection in global catastrophies. Macroevolutionary extrapolations, however, are difficult to verify because endoparasites cannot fossilize.

  3. First report of Orobanche ludoviciana parasitizing sunflowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broomrape is the common name given to a group of flowering plants belonging to the genus Orobanche that parasitize the roots of higher dicotyledonous plants. More than 100 species of Orobanche have been identified, all of which are obligate parasites that lack chlorophyll and depend upon their host ...

  4. A hypermedia system for parasite identification.

    PubMed

    Lalle, C

    1996-06-01

    In this paper a hypermedia system for parasite identification is described. The knowledge base is relative to the class of the Trematoda parasites and reports agent, vector, disease, related category of the International Classification of Diseases and geographic area. A graphic user-friendly human-machine interface has been realized for this system.

  5. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field. PMID:27958200

  6. Microstrip antenna arrays with parasitic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kai-Fong

    1996-01-01

    This research was concerned with using parasitic elements to improve the bandwidth, gain and axial ratio characteristics of microstrip antennas and arrays. Significant improvements in these characteristics were obtained using stacked and coplanar parasitic elements. Details of the results are described in a total of 16 journal and 17 conference papers. These are listed in Section four of this report.

  7. Parasites in terrestrial, freshwater and marine systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasites are ubiquitous and diverse members of all biological communities. Macroparasites (worms and arthropods) and microparasites (viruses, bacteria and protozoans) have at least one life stage that must live on or in another species, or host, which is usually free-living. Parasites can have sub...

  8. Interactions of microfungi and plant parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant parasitic nematodes and microfungi inhabit many of the same ecological habitats and interact in almost every conceivable way. Nematodes can feed on fungi, and conversely fungi can use nematodes as a food source. Fungi have been widely studied as biological controls of plant parasitic nematod...

  9. Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

  10. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  11. From Fossil Parasitoids to Vectors: Insects as Parasites and Hosts.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Christina; Haug, Joachim T

    2015-01-01

    Within Metazoa, it has been proposed that as many as two-thirds of all species are parasitic. This propensity towards parasitism is also reflected within insects, where several lineages independently evolved a parasitic lifestyle. Parasitic behaviour ranges from parasitic habits in the strict sense, but also includes parasitoid, phoretic or kleptoparasitic behaviour. Numerous insects are also the host for other parasitic insects or metazoans. Insects can also serve as vectors for numerous metazoan, protistan, bacterial and viral diseases. The fossil record can report this behaviour with direct (parasite associated with its host) or indirect evidence (insect with parasitic larva, isolated parasitic insect, pathological changes of host). The high abundance of parasitism in the fossil record of insects can reveal important aspects of parasitic lifestyles in various evolutionary lineages. For a comprehensive view on fossil parasitic insects, we discuss here different aspects, including phylogenetic systematics, functional morphology and a direct comparison of fossil and extant species.

  12. Trichinella spiralis: the evolution of adaptation and parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitism among nematodes has occurred in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and a...

  13. Parasites can enhance infections of fish with bacterial pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aquaculture systems, fish are commonly infected by multiple pathogens, including parasites. Parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) and bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri are two common pathogens of cultured channel catfish. The objectives were to 1) evaluate the susceptibility of Ich parasitize...

  14. Why does infection with some helminths cause cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Paul J.; da Costa, José M. Correia; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium are classified as Group 1 biological carcinogens: definitive causes of cancer. These worms are metazoan eukaryotes, unlike the other Group 1 carcinogens including human papilloma virus, hepatitis C virus, and Helicobacter pylori. By contrast, infections with phylogenetic relatives of these helminths, also trematodes of the phylum Platyhelminthes and major human pathogens, are not carcinogenic. These inconsistencies prompt several questions, including how might these infections cause cancer? And why is infection with only a few helminth species carcinogenic? Here we present an interpretation of mechanisms contributing to the carcinogenicity of these helminth infections, including roles for catechol estrogen- and oxysterol-metabolites of parasite origin as initiators of carcinogenesis. PMID:26618199

  15. Collection methods of trematode eggs using experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Mikami, Fusako; Shibata, Katsumasa; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Koichi; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2016-10-01

    Although observing the eggs of human parasitic helminth is essential for medical education in parasitology, opportunities for collection of the eggs are limited. Collection of the eggs using experimental animal models is needed for a sustainable supply. The metacercariae of three trematode species, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai, were collected from the second intermediate hosts: freshwater crabs and fishes, which were obtained using online shopping in Japan, and inoculated to experimental animal rat and dog. Consequently, eggs of the three trematode species were obtained abundantly from the feces of the animals. The eggs are being used for student training in several Japanese universities. In this article, we introduce the collection procedures for trematode eggs.

  16. PARASITES AND POVERTY: THE CASE OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS

    PubMed Central

    King, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly-measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. PMID:19962954

  17. Subversion of complement by hematophagous parasites

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Hélène; Skelly, Patrick; Zipfel, Peter F.; Losson, Bertrand; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The complement system is a crucial part of innate and adaptive immunity which exerts a significant evolutionary pressure on pathogens. It has selected for those pathogens, mainly micro-organisms but also parasites, that have evolved countermeasures. The characterization of how pathogens evade complement attack is a rapidly developing field of current research. In recent years, multiple complement evasion strategies have been characterized. In this review, we focus on complement escape mechanisms expressed by hematophagous parasites, a heterogeneous group of metazoan parasites that share the property of ingesting the whole blood of their host. Complement inhibition is crucial for parasite survival within the host tissue or to facilitate blood feeding. Finally, complement inhibition by hematophagous parasites may also contribute to their success as pathogen vectors. PMID:18762211

  18. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them.

  19. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  20. A novel method of rejection of brood parasitic eggs reduces parasitism intensity in a cowbird host

    PubMed Central

    De Mársico, María C.; Gloag, Ros; Ursino, Cynthia A.; Reboreda, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    The hosts of brood parasitic birds are under strong selection pressure to recognize and remove foreign eggs from their nests, but parasite eggs may be too large to be grasped whole and too strong to be readily pierced by the host's bill. Such operating constraints on egg removal are proposed to force some hosts to accept parasite eggs, as the costs of deserting parasitized clutches can outweigh the cost of rearing parasites. By fitting microcameras inside nests, we reveal that the Neotropical baywing (Agelaioides badius), a host of the screaming cowbird (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) and shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), instead circumvents such constraints by kicking parasite eggs out of the nest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a passerine bird using its feet to remove objects from the nest. Kick-ejection was an all-or-nothing response. Baywings kick-ejected parasite eggs laid before their own first egg and, if heavily parasitized, they ejected entire clutches and began again in the same nest. Few baywings were able to rid their nests of every parasite egg, but their novel ejection method allowed them to reduce the median parasitism intensity by 75 per cent (from four to one cowbird eggs per nest), providing an effective anti-parasite defence. PMID:23485877

  1. When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Marcogliese, David J.; Memmott, Jane; Orlofske, Sarah A.; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent efforts to include parasites in food webs have drawn attention to a previously ignored facet of foraging ecology: parasites commonly function as prey within ecosystems. Because of the high productivity of parasites, their unique nutritional composition and their pathogenicity in hosts, their consumption affects both food-web topology and disease risk in humans and wildlife. Here, we evaluate the ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological significance of feeding on parasites, including concomitant predation, grooming, predation on free-living stages and intraguild predation. Combining empirical data and theoretical models, we show that consumption of parasites is neither rare nor accidental, and that it can sharply affect parasite transmission and food web properties. Broader consideration of predation on parasites will enhance our understanding of disease control, food web structure and energy transfer, and the evolution of complex life cycles.

  2. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  3. Parasite threat to panda conservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Daszak, Peter; Huang, Hua-Li; Yang, Guang-You; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Zhang, Shuyi

    2008-03-01

    The giant panda is a global symbol of wildlife conservation that is threatened by historic and current habitat loss. Despite a great deal of research on the physiology, reproductive biology, and diet of pandas in the wild and in captivity, there is little information on wild panda mortality. Here we integrate previously unavailable data on the mortality of wild pandas. We report on three recent phases of panda mortality: deaths due to bamboo flowering in the 1970s and 1980s, surprisingly extensive poaching in the 1980s and 1990s, and a parasitic infection over the past few years. Our analyses suggest that the current most significant threat to wild panda survival is disease due to extraintestinal migration (visceral larval migrans) by an ascarid nematode. We demonstrate that the probability of death of wild pandas being caused by this disease increased significantly between 1971 and 2005 and discuss the possible factors leading to the emergence of this disease.

  4. The Berkeley parasitic SETI program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.; Zeitlin, G.; Tarter, J.; Lampton, M.; Welch, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Parasitic programs for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), carried out concurrently with conventional radio astronomical observing programs, can be an attractive and cost-effective means of exploring the large multidimensional search space intrinsic to this effort. A microprocessor-based automated SETI acquisition system is described which searches for, and records, spectra of narrowband signals in the IF band of an observatory receiver. Data taken with this system over 35 days at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory at 1612 MHz are discussed. Out of approximately 100,000 spectra processed during this period, 4000 were identified by the system as containing narrowband signals and were recorded. Subsequent analysis indicates that over 3900 of these are due to local RF contamination. The remainder are undergoing further investigation.

  5. Ecology of avian brood parasitism at an early interfacing of host and parasite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), a brood parasite, has recently spread into the Greater Antilles from South America via the Lesser Antilles. This species is a host generalist and upon reaching Puerto Rico exploited avian communities with no history of social parasitism. Forty-two percent of the resident non-raptorial land bird species were parasitized in mangrove habitat study areas. Cowbird parasitism affected hosts by (1) depressing nest success an average of 41 percent below non-parasitized nests, and (2) reducing host productivity. Parasitized hosts produced 12 percent fewer eggs and fledged 67 percent fewer of their own chicks than non-parasitized pairs. Growth rates of chicks of some host species were lower in parasitized nests compared with non-parasitized nests while growth of others was not affected by brood parasitism. Cowbird chick growth varied directly with host size; i.e., cowbird chicks grew faster and attained greater fledging weight and body size in nests of larger hosts. Factors important in shiny cowbird host selection were examined within the mangrove study community. Cowbirds did not parasitize avian species in proportion to their abundance. The cowbird breeding season coincided with that of its major hosts, which were high quality foster species, and did not extend into other periods even though nests of poor quality species were available. Food habits and egg size of cowbirds were similar to those of their hosts, suggesting that cowbirds choose hosts partly on the basis of this alignment. Cowbirds locate nests by cryptically watching activities of birds in likely habitat. Despite the recency of the cowbird's arrival in Puerto Rico, some nesting species have effective anti-parasite strategies, including alien egg rejection and nest guarding. Behavior effective in avoiding parasitism is similar to that used by certain birds in evading nest predators. It is suggested that anti-predator behavior is preadaptive to countering cowbird

  6. Anti-Osteoporotic Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Extract on Ovariectomized Rats and Its Oral Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai

    2014-01-01

    Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis as well as toxicity of the extract after repeated oral administration. The OVX rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg i.p. once daily) or A. sinensis extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) for four weeks. The bone (femur) mineral density (BMD) of rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control, reaching BMD of the estradiol group. Markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis, serum alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, were significantly decreased in the extract group. The body and uterus weight and serum estradiol concentration were not affected, and no treatment-related toxicity was observed during extract administration in rats. The results obtained indicate that A. sinensis extract can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats via estrogen-independent mechanism. PMID:25325255

  7. The first fossil skull of Alligator sinensis from the Pleistocene, Taiwan, with a paleogeographic implication of the species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsi-yin, Shan; Yen-nien, Cheng; Xiao-chun, Wu

    2013-06-01

    A nearly complete fossil skull of Alligatoridae from the Pleistocene, Penghu Channel, east of Taiwan, is reported. It can be referred to the most latest clade of Alligatorinae, which includes Alligator sinensis, Alligator mississippiensis and Alligator mefferdi, on the basis of the following features: the splenial is excluded from the mandibular symphysis; the anterior tip of the splenial passes dorsal to the Meckelian groove; and the mandible is gently curved between the fourth alveoli and the mid dentary. It differs from A. mississippiensis and A. mefferdi mainly in the following characters: the breadth between the supratemporal fenestrae is approximately equal to the interorbital width, the snout is about half the length of the skull; and the anterior part of the snout is subtriangular in dorsal view. These features suggest that the Penghu alligator is most probably referable to A. sinensis. This is the only fossil skull of A. sinensis known. The discovery of the skull in Penghu Channel not only provides the first solid fossil evidence to indicate that the geological distribution of A. sinensis extended farther southeast than the historical/archeological range of the species but also adds new information on the biodiversity of the Penghu fauna.

  8. Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Improves Health-Related Quality of Life in Moderate-to-Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningqun; Li, Jie; Chen, Wenqiang; Chen, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-to-severe asthma has a substantial impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of the patients. Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that is evaluated clinically for the treatment of many diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, and lung fibrosis. In order to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis on patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma, 120 subjects were randomized to receive Corbin capsule containing Cordyceps sinensis for 3 months (treatment group, n = 60), whereas the control group (n = 60) did not receive treatment with Corbin capsule. Inhaled corticosteroid and as-needed β-agonists were used in the treatment of both groups. HR-QOL was measured with the Juniper's Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The incidence of asthma exacerbation, pulmonary function testing, and serum measurements of inflammatory mediators were also evaluated. The results showed that the treatment group indicated a significant increase in AQLQ scores and lung function compared with the control group. The expression levels of the inflammation markers IgE, ICAM-1, IL-4, and MMP-9 in the serum were decreased and IgG increased in the treatment group compared with the control group. Therefore, the conclusion was reached that a formulation of Cordyceps sinensis improved the HR-QOL, asthma symptoms, lung function, and inflammatory profile of the patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IPC-16008730. PMID:28050193

  9. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Results: Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Conclusion: Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:24632844

  10. Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Improves Health-Related Quality of Life in Moderate-to-Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningqun; Li, Jie; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wenqiang; Chen, Yujing

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-to-severe asthma has a substantial impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of the patients. Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that is evaluated clinically for the treatment of many diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, and lung fibrosis. In order to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis on patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma, 120 subjects were randomized to receive Corbin capsule containing Cordyceps sinensis for 3 months (treatment group, n = 60), whereas the control group (n = 60) did not receive treatment with Corbin capsule. Inhaled corticosteroid and as-needed β-agonists were used in the treatment of both groups. HR-QOL was measured with the Juniper's Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The incidence of asthma exacerbation, pulmonary function testing, and serum measurements of inflammatory mediators were also evaluated. The results showed that the treatment group indicated a significant increase in AQLQ scores and lung function compared with the control group. The expression levels of the inflammation markers IgE, ICAM-1, IL-4, and MMP-9 in the serum were decreased and IgG increased in the treatment group compared with the control group. Therefore, the conclusion was reached that a formulation of Cordyceps sinensis improved the HR-QOL, asthma symptoms, lung function, and inflammatory profile of the patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IPC-16008730.

  11. CHINESE MITTEN CRABS (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) IN THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER (CANADA): NEW RECORDS AND RISK OF INVASION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is an internationally renowned aquatic invader. Native to China and North/South Korea, this catadromous crab has successfully invaded several rivers and estuaries in eleven countries in Western Europe as well as the San Francisco Bay ...

  12. Cloning, purification and characterization of a 90kDa heat shock protein from Citrus sinensis (sweet orange).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Yuri A; Ramos, Carlos H I

    2012-01-01

    Protein misfolding is stimulated by stress, such as heat, and heat shock proteins (Hsps) are the first line of defense against these undesirable situations. Plants, which are naturally sessile, are perhaps more exposed to stress factors than some other organisms, and consequently, the role of Hsps is crucial to maintain homeostasis. Hsp90, because of its key role in infection and other stresses, is targeted in therapies that improve plant production by increasing resistance to both biotic and abiotic stress. In addition, Hsp90 is a primary factor in the maintenance of homeostasis in plants. Therefore, we cloned and purified Hsp90 from Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). Recombinant C. sinensis Hsp90 (rCsHsp90) was produced and measured by circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. rCsHsp90 formed a dimer in solution with a Stokes radius of approximately 62Å. In addition, it was resistant to thermal unfolding, was able to protect citrate synthase from aggregation, and Western blot analysis demonstrated that CsHsp90 was constitutively expressed in C. sinensis cells. Our analysis indicated that CsHsp90 is conformationally similar to that of yeast Hsp90, for which structural information is available. Therefore, we showed that C. sinensis expresses an Hsp90 chaperone that has a conformation and function similar to other Hsp90s.

  13. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  14. Fragile Sites of 'Valencia' Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Chromosomes Are Related with Active 45s rDNA.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hong; Chen, Chun-Li; Miao, Yin; Yu, Chang-Xiu; Guo, Wen-Wu; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Citrus sinensis chromosomes present a morphological differentiation of bands after staining by the fluorochromes CMA and DAPI, but there is still little information on its chromosomal characteristics. In this study, the chromosomes in 'Valencia' C. sinensis were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomere DNA and the 45S rDNA gene as probes combining CMA/DAPI staining, which showed that there were two fragile sites in sweet orange chromosomes co-localizing at distended 45S rDNA regions, one proximally locating on B-type chromosome and the other subterminally locating on D-type chromosome. While the chromosomal CMA banding and 45S rDNA FISH mapping in the doubled haploid line of 'Valencia' C. sinensis indicated six 45S rDNA regions, four were identified as fragile sites as doubled comparing its parental line, which confirmed the cytological heterozygosity and chromosomal heteromorphisms in sweet orange. Furthermore, Ag-NOR identified two distended 45S rDNA regions to be active nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) in diploid 'Valencia' C. sinensis. The occurrence of quadrivalent in meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) in 'Valencia' sweet orange further confirmed it was a chromosomal reciprocal translocation line. We speculated this chromosome translocation was probably related to fragile sites. Our data provide insights into the chromosomal characteristics of the fragile sites in 'Valencia' sweet orange and are expected to facilitate the further investigation of the possible functions of fragile sites.

  15. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-02-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  16. Comparing photosynthetic characteristics of Isoetes sinensis Palmer under submerged and terrestrial conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is widespread in terrestrial and aquatic species, plastic in response to environmental changes. Isoetes L. is one of the earliest basal vascular plants and CAM is popular in this genus. Isoetes sinensis Palmer is an amphibious species, alternating frequently between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Given this, we investigated and compared photosynthetic characteristics over a diurnal cycle under submerged condition (SC) and terrestrial condition (TC). The results suggest that I. sinensis possesses a stronger CAM capacity under SC. Compared with under TC, titratable acidity levels and organic acid concentrations were more enriched under SC, whereas soluble sugar or starch and protein levels were lower under SC. Transcript analyses for nine photosynthetic genes revealed that CAM-associated genes possessed high transcripts under SC, but C3-related transcripts were highly expressed under TC. In addition, the enzyme activity measurements demonstrated that PEPC activity over a diurnal cycle was slightly higher under SC, whereas Rubisco activity during the daytime was greater under TC. This comprehensive study probably facilitates general understandings about the CAM photosynthetic characteristics of Isoetes in response to the environmental changes. PMID:26634994

  17. Molecular cloning, computational and expression analysis of anthocyanidin reductase in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Muralidaran, Senguttuvan; Mandal, Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages rich in phenolic compounds, which includes epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin (EC) and catechin (C). Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) is responsible for catechin biosynthesis in plants, and analysis of its protein sequences and structures will be valuable for further research in the field. We have screened our dormant bud-specific complementary DNA (cDNA) library and reported 1,322-bp cDNA encoding CsANR. Analysis of the sequence revealed the presence of 1,011-bp open reading frame with coding capacity for a polypeptide of 337 amino acids, flanked by 1,123- and 196-bp 5' and 3' untranslated regions, respectively. Theoretical molecular weight (MW) and isoelectric point (pI) of the deduced ANR protein were predicted (using ProtParam) to be 36.4 kDa and 6.54. For the first time, we have reported 3D model of ANR from C. sinensis. Quality of the predicted model was analysed with PROCHECK analysis. Molecular docking of modelled ANR revealed similar binding pockets for both substrates and products. Expression analyses of CsANR and accumulation pattern of catechins were observed to be varied with developmental age of tissue and seasonal condition. Variation in accumulation pattern of catechins and its fractions was found to be correlated with expression pattern of ANR.

  18. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties.

  19. Three-dimensional structures of the tracheal systems of Anopheles sinensis and Aedes togoi pupae

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Young-Ran; Yeom, Eunseop; Ryu, Jeongeun; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for the transmission of disease. The World Health Organization has recommended strict control of mosquito larvae because of their “few, fixed, and findable” features. The respiratory system of mosquito larvae and pupae in the water has a weak point. As aquatic organisms, mosquito larvae and pupae inhale atmosphere oxygen. However, the mosquito pupae have a non-feeding stage, unlike the larvae. Therefore, detailed study on the tracheal system of mosquito pupae is helpful for understanding their survival strategy. In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) structures of the tracheal systems of Anopheles sinensis and Aedes togoi pupae were comparatively investigated using synchrotron X-ray microscopic computed tomography. The respiratory frequencies of the dorsal trunks were also investigated. Interestingly, the pupae of the two mosquito species possess special tracheal systems of which the morphological and functional features are distinctively different. The respiratory frequency of Ae. togoi is higher than that of An. sinensis. These differences in the breathing phenomena and 3D structures of the respiratory systems of these two mosquito species provide an insight into the tracheal systems of mosquito pupae. PMID:28287649

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Juvenile Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Hui, Min; Cui, Zhaoxia; Luo, Danli; Song, Chengwen; Li, Yingdong; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Sex-biased genes are considered to account for most of phenotypic differences between males and females. In order to explore the sex-biased gene expression in crab, we performed the whole-body transcriptome analysis in male and female juveniles of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis using next-generation sequencing technology. Of the 23,349 annotated unigenes, 148 were identified as sex-related genes. A total of 29 candidate genes involved in primary sex determination pathways were detected, indicating the sex determination cascade of the mitten crab might be more complex than previously supposed. Differential expression analysis showed 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two transcriptomes. Most of DEGs were involved in processes such as metabolism and immunity, and not associated with obvious sexual function. The pathway predominantly enriched for DEGs were related to lysosome, which might reflect the differences in metabolism between males and females. Of the immune DGEs, 18 up-regulated genes in females were humoral immune factors, and eight up-regulated genes in males were pattern recognition receptors, suggesting sex differences of immune defense might exist in the mitten crab. In addition, two reproduction-related genes, vitellogenin and insulin-like androgenic gland factor, were identified to express in both sexes but with significantly higher level in males. Our research provides the first whole-body RNA sequencing of sex-specific transcriptomes for juvenile E. sinensis and will facilitate further studies on molecular mechanisms of crab sexual dimorphism. PMID:26193085

  1. Hidden surface microstructures on Carboniferous insect Brodioptera sinensis (Megasecoptera) enlighten functional morphology and sensorial perception

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Jakub; Pecharová, Martina; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Megasecoptera are insects with haustellate mouthparts and petiolate wings closely related to Palaeodictyoptera and one of the few insect groups that didn’t survive the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Recent discovery of Brodioptera sinensis in early Pennsylvanian deposits at Xiaheyan in northern China has increased our knowledge of its external morphology using conventional optical stereomicroscopy. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of structures, such as antennae, mouthparts, wing surfaces, external copulatory organs and cerci have shed light on their micromorphology and supposed function. A comparative study has shown an unexpected dense pattern of setae on the wing membrane of B. sinensis. In addition, unlike the results obtained by stereomicroscopy it revealed that the male and female external genitalia clearly differ in their fine structure and setation. Therefore, the present study resulted in a closer examination of the microstructure and function of previously poorly studied parts of the body of Paleozoic insects and a comparison with homologous structures occurring in other Palaeodictyopteroida, Odonatoptera and Ephemerida. This indicates, that the role and presumptive function of these integumental protuberances is likely to have been a sensory one in the coordination of mouthparts and manipulation of stylets, escape from predators, enhancement of aerodynamic properties and copulatory behaviour. PMID:27321551

  2. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-02-23

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis.

  3. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant’s defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  4. Contents and compositions of policosanols in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol Ji; Park, Su Yeon; Park, Ji Su; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2016-08-01

    Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of health promoting bioactive long-chain aliphatic alcohols. Here, we report that green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves are the exceptionally rich plant-sources of PC. Young and tender leaves and old and turf leaves of C. sinensis were hand-picked in spring and autumn. The total contents of PC in the leaves were in the range of 726.2-1363.6mg/kg as determined by a GC-MS/MS. The compositions of PC in the leaves were different with harvest season and types. The total contents of PC in commercial green tea leaves were found to be in the range of 856.7-1435.1mg/kg. Interestingly, the infused green tea leaves contained the higher PC than the non-infused green tea product, reaching to 1629.4mg/kg. This represents the first report on the contents and compositions of PC in green tea leaves, showing unambiguous evidence of their potential as rich sources of PC.

  5. SSR-based genetic maps of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, and their comparison to sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changsoo; Zhang, Dong; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Jakob, Katrin; Kronmiller, Brent; Sacks, Erik J; Deuter, Martin; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-05-01

    We present SSR-based genetic maps from a cross between Miscanthus sacchariflorus Robustus and M. sinensis, the progenitors of the promising cellulosic biofuel feedstock Miscanthus × giganteus. cDNA-derived SSR markers were mapped by the two-way pseudo-testcross model due to the high heterozygosity of each parental species. A total of 261 loci were mapped in M. sacchariflorus, spanning 40 linkage groups and 1,998.8 cM, covering an estimated 72.7% of the genome. For M. sinensis, a total of 303 loci were mapped, forming 23 linkage groups and 2,238.3 cM, covering 84.9% of the genome. The use of cDNA-derived SSR loci permitted alignment of the Miscanthus linkage groups to the sorghum chromosomes, revealing a whole genome duplication affecting the Miscanthus lineage after the divergence of subtribes Sorghinae and Saccharinae, as well as traces of the pan-cereal whole genome duplication. While the present maps provide for many early research needs in this emerging crop, additional markers are also needed to improve map density and to further characterize the structural changes of the Miscanthus genome since its divergence from sorghum and Saccharum.

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Juvenile Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Hui, Min; Cui, Zhaoxia; Luo, Danli; Song, Chengwen; Li, Yingdong; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Sex-biased genes are considered to account for most of phenotypic differences between males and females. In order to explore the sex-biased gene expression in crab, we performed the whole-body transcriptome analysis in male and female juveniles of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis using next-generation sequencing technology. Of the 23,349 annotated unigenes, 148 were identified as sex-related genes. A total of 29 candidate genes involved in primary sex determination pathways were detected, indicating the sex determination cascade of the mitten crab might be more complex than previously supposed. Differential expression analysis showed 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two transcriptomes. Most of DEGs were involved in processes such as metabolism and immunity, and not associated with obvious sexual function. The pathway predominantly enriched for DEGs were related to lysosome, which might reflect the differences in metabolism between males and females. Of the immune DGEs, 18 up-regulated genes in females were humoral immune factors, and eight up-regulated genes in males were pattern recognition receptors, suggesting sex differences of immune defense might exist in the mitten crab. In addition, two reproduction-related genes, vitellogenin and insulin-like androgenic gland factor, were identified to express in both sexes but with significantly higher level in males. Our research provides the first whole-body RNA sequencing of sex-specific transcriptomes for juvenile E. sinensis and will facilitate further studies on molecular mechanisms of crab sexual dimorphism.

  7. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2014-12-01

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59 million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M = 3.36 × 10(-9) to 1.20 × 10(-6) , resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M. sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  8. Extraction and chemical characterization of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ai, Songtao; Fan, Xindong; Fan, Linfeng; Sun, Qi; Liu, Yu; Tao, Xiaofeng; Dai, Kerong

    2013-05-15

    In the present study, the Angelica sinensis polysaccharides (ASP) extraction procedure was optimized by an L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experimental design (OAD) with four factors at three levels. Under the optimal extraction condition (extraction time 180 min, ratio of water to solid 6, extraction temperature 100°C, and extraction number 4), extraction yield of ASP was 5.6%. Rabbits were fed for 40 days with A. sinensis polysaccharides at a dose of 150 or 300 mg/kg body weight, respectively. At the end of 40 days, animals received cerebral ischemia reperfusion operation. CT perfusion imaging (CTP) analysis showed that rCBF and rCBV were significantly increased, whereas rMTT and rTTP were decreased in the ischemia cerebral tissue compared to CIR group rabbits. ASP significantly decreased oxidative damage, and increased antioxidant enzymes activities in brains of CIR animals. Moreover, ASP significantly enhanced the Ach, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+),Mg2(+)-ATPase and glucose levels, decreased AChE activity in brain tissue of the experimental animals. These results suggest a potent role of ASP in protection of brain oxidative injury in CIR animals.

  9. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/. PMID:24489955

  10. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases. PMID:26839008

  11. Hirsutella sinensis mycelium attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Teng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M.; Lan, Ying-Wei; Martel, Jan; Young, John D.; Chong, Kowit-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM), the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. We previously reported that this fungus suppresses interleukin-1β and IL-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in human macrophages. However, whether HSM may be used to prevent lung fibrosis and the mechanism underlying this activity remain unclear. Our results show that pretreatment with HSM inhibits TGF-β1–induced expression of fibronectin and α-SMA in lung fibroblasts. HSM also restores superoxide dismutase expression in TGF-β1–treated lung fibroblasts and inhibits reactive oxygen species production in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, HSM pretreatment markedly reduces bleomycin–induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Accordingly, HSM reduces inflammatory cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and proinflammatory cytokines levels in lung tissues. The HSM extract also significantly reduces TGF-β1 in lung tissues, and this effect is accompanied by decreased collagen 3α1 and α-SMA levels. Moreover, HSM reduces expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and P2X7R in lung tissues, whereas it enhances expression of superoxide dismutase. These findings suggest that HSM may be used for the treatment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26497260

  12. Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2012-12-01

    Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Feixiang; Lin, Liming; Hu, Min; Qi, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of a polysaccharide fraction from Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The CSP1, one component of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP), was obtained after water extraction, deproteinization, de-colorization and purification with DEAE-cellulose 52. And a more homogeneous component CSP1-2 was obtained using Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. CSP1-2 mainly consisted of mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of about 2:2:1 and its average molecular weight was approximately 2.70×10(4)Da. Pharmacological tests showed that CSP1, in which the CSP1-2 was its main component, had antihypertensive effect by stimulating the secretion of vasodilator NO, decreasing the level of ET-1, epinephrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin II, inhibiting the increase of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and lowering the level of inflammatory mediator of C-reactive protein (CRP). These results suggested that CSP1 may possess high potential in treating hypertension.

  14. Enhancement of cordyceps polysaccharide production via biosynthetic pathway analysis in Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Baker, Peter James; Yi, Ming; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The addition of various sulfates for enhanced cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) production in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis was investigated, and manganese sulfate was found the most effective. 2mM of manganese sulfate on 0day (d) was investigated as the optimal adding condition, and the CP production reached optimum with 5.33%, increasing by 93.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the consumption of three main precursors of CP was studied over cultivation under two conditions. Intracellular mannose content decreased by 43.1% throughout 6days cultivation, which corresponded to CP accumulation rate sharply increased from 0 d to 6 d, and mannose was considered as the most preferred precursor for generating CP. Subsequently, mannose biosynthetic pathway was constructed and verified for the first time in H. sinensis, which constituted the important part of CP biosynthesis, and transcriptional levels of the biosynthetic genes were studied. Transcriptional level of gene cpsA was significantly up-regulated 5.35-fold and it was a key gene involved both in mannose and CP biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that manganese sulfate addition is an efficient and simple way to improve CP production. Transcriptional analysis based on biosynthetic pathway was helpful to find key genes and better understand CP biosynthesis.

  15. [Community structure and difference of endophtic bacteria in Aquilaria sinensis with and without agarwood].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Li; Kuang, Zao-Yuan; Song, Meng-Wei; Zhang, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Aquilaria sinensis can generate agarwood, which is closely related with endophyte. Up to now, studies mainly focused on the effects of endophytic fungi on agarwood formation, but studies about endophytic bacteria are rarely reported. In our research, the T-RFs and Shannon index of endophytic bacteria in samples of agarwood increase. The number of distinctive T-RFs fragments of corresponding samples in the same group accounted for more than 60% the number of total T-RFs fragments. In samples of no-agarwood, the dominant bacterial population are Anoxybacillus, Clostridium, Candidatus endobugula, Lysinibacillus. In samples of agarwood, the dominant bacterial population are Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Luteimonas, phytoplasma. Besides, there are. specific T-RFs fragment in samples of agarwood and no-agarwood respectively. When we perform cluster analysis, we found samples of agarwood highly gather together and samples of no-agarwood highly gather together. This means community of endophytic bacteria emerge significant and regular changes during agarwood formation, which may be result of agarwood production, or maybe it is important reason of agarwood production. In this paper, we obtain more comprehensive and accurate community of endophytic bacteria in Aquilaria sinensis and it's variation during agarwood formation using T-RFLP, which is first study of effects of endophytic bacteria on agarwood formation, and will help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria more reasonably.

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of caffeine in young Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (tea) leaves.

    PubMed

    van Breda, Shane V; van der Merwe, Chris F; Robbertse, Hannes; Apostolides, Zeno

    2013-03-01

    The anatomical localization of caffeine within young Camellia sinensis leaves was investigated using immunohistochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Preliminary fixation experiments were conducted with young C. sinensis leaves to determine which fixation procedure retained caffeine the best as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. High pressure freezing, freeze substitution, and embedding in resin was deemed the best protocol as it retained most of the caffeine and allowed for the samples to be sectioned with ease. Immunohistochemical localization with primary anti-caffeine antibodies and conjugated secondary antibodies on leaf sections proved at the tissue level that caffeine was localized and accumulated within vascular bundles, mainly the precursor phloem. With the use of a pressure bomb, xylem sap was collected using a micro syringe. The xylem sap was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and the presence of caffeine was determined. We hypothesize that caffeine is synthesized in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic cells and transported to vascular bundles where it acts as a chemical defense against various pathogens and predators. Complex formation of caffeine with chlorogenic acid is also discussed as this may also help explain caffeine's localization.

  17. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. SUMMARY Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed

  18. Chemical Factors in Development and Transmission of Human Parasites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PARASITES, *PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, *BIOCIDES, *REPELLENTS, HORMONES, TABLES(DATA), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI , BRAZIL, PARASITIC DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, INSECT REPELLENTS, CHAGAS DISEASE, TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.

  19. The Integration of Cellular and Humoral Responses to Protozoan Parasites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    IMMUNOLOGY, *PARASITES, * LEISHMANIA , *PLASMODIUM, *PROTOZOA, ISRAEL, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, RATS, MICE, MALARIA, IMMUNITY, CELLS(BIOLOGY), SEROLOGY, CULTURES(BIOLOGY), PARASITIC DISEASES, SPLEEN, HYPERSENSITIVITY.

  20. The MF6p/FhHDM-1 Major Antigen Secreted by the Trematode Parasite Fasciola hepatica Is a Heme-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Perteguer, María J.; Muiño, Laura; Guitián, Esteban; Gárate, Teresa; Ubeira, Florencio M.

    2014-01-01

    Blood-feeding parasites have developed biochemical mechanisms to control heme intake and detoxification. Here we show that a major antigen secreted by Fasciola hepatica, previously reported as MF6p, of unknown function (gb|CCA61804.1), and as FhHDM-1, considered to be a helminth defense molecule belonging to the family of cathelicidin-like proteins (gb|ADZ24001.1), is in fact a heme-binding protein. The heme-binding nature of the MF6p/FhHDM-1 protein was revealed in two independent experiments: (i) immunopurification of the secreted protein·heme complexes with mAb MF6 and subsequent analysis by C8 reversed-phase HPLC and MS/MS spectrometry and (ii) analysis of the binding ability of the synthetic protein to hemin in vitro. By immunohistochemistry analysis, we have observed that MF6p/FhHDM-1 is produced by parenchymal cells and transported to other tissues (e.g. vitellaria and testis). Interestingly, MF6p/FhHDM-1 is absent both in the intestinal cells and in the lumen of cecum, but it can be released through the tegumental surface to the external medium, where it binds to free heme molecules regurgitated by the parasite after hemoglobin digestion. Proteins that are close analogs of the Fasciola MF6p/FhHDM-1 are present in other trematodes, including Clonorchis, Opistorchis, Paragonimus, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium. Using UV-visible spectroscopy and immunoprecipitation techniques, we observed that synthetic MF6p/FhHDM-1 binds to hemin with 1:1 stoichiometry and an apparent Kd of 1.14 × 10−6 m−1. We also demonstrated that formation of synthetic MF6p/FhHDM-1·hemin complexes inhibited hemin degradation by hydrogen peroxide and hemin peroxidase-like activity in vitro. Our results suggest that MF6p/FhHDM-1 may be involved in heme homeostasis in trematodes. PMID:24280214

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

  2. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence. PMID:27555762

  3. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment. PMID:23248396

  4. Parasites in cultured and feral fish.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T

    1999-08-01

    Parasites, causing little apparent damage in feral fish populations, may become causative agents of diseases of great importance in farmed fish, leading to pathological changes, decrease of fitness or reduction of the market value of fish. Despite considerable progress in fish parasitology in the last decades, major gaps still exist in the knowledge of taxonomy, biology, epizootiology and control of fish parasites, including such 'evergreens' as the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a causative agent of white spot disease, or proliferative kidney disease (PKD), one of the most economically damaging diseases in the rainbow trout industry which causative agent remain enigmatic. Besides long-recognized parasites, other potentially severe pathogens have appeared quite recently such as amphizoic amoebae, causative agents of amoebic gill disease (AGD), the monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris which has destroyed salmon populations in Norway, or sea lice, in particular Lepeophtheirus salmonis that endanger marine salmonids in some areas. Recent spreading of some parasites throughout the world (e.g. the cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) has been facilitated through insufficient veterinary control during import of fish. Control of many important parasitic diseases is still far from being satisfactory and further research is needed. Use of chemotherapy has limitations and new effective, but environmentally safe drugs should be developed. A very promising area of future research seems to be studies on immunity in parasitic infections, use of molecular technology in diagnostics and development of new vaccines against the most pathogenic parasites.

  5. Systems analysis of host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Swann, Justine; Jamshidi, Neema; Lewis, Nathan E; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases caused by protozoan pathogens lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in addition to substantial suffering and socioeconomic decline for millions of people worldwide. The lack of effective vaccines coupled with the widespread emergence of drug-resistant parasites necessitates that the research community take an active role in understanding host-parasite infection biology in order to develop improved therapeutics. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and the rapid development of publicly accessible genomic databases for many human pathogens have facilitated the application of systems biology to the study of host-parasite interactions. Over the past decade, these technologies have led to the discovery of many important biological processes governing parasitic disease. The integration and interpretation of high-throughput -omic data will undoubtedly generate extraordinary insight into host-parasite interaction networks essential to navigate the intricacies of these complex systems. As systems analysis continues to build the foundation for our understanding of host-parasite biology, this will provide the framework necessary to drive drug discovery research forward and accelerate the development of new antiparasitic therapies.

  6. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  7. Evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, J G; Nadler, S A; Adams, B J

    2004-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity of free-living species, a comparatively small fraction of nematodes are parasites of plants. These parasites represent at least three disparate clades in the nematode tree of life, as inferred from rRNA sequences. Plant parasites share functional similarities regarding feeding, but many similarities in feeding structures result from convergent evolution and have fundamentally different developmental origins. Although Tylenchida rRNA phylogenies are not fully resolved, they strongly support convergent evolution of sedentary endoparasitism and plant nurse cells in cyst and root-knot nematodes. This result has critical implications for using model systems and genomics to identify and characterize parasitism genes for representatives of this clade. Phylogenetic studies reveal that plant parasites have rich and complex evolutionary histories that involve multiple transitions to plant parasitism and the possible use of genes obtained by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes. Developing a fuller understanding of plant parasitism will require integrating more comprehensive and resolved phylogenies with appropriate choices of model organisms and comparative evolutionary methods.

  8. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  9. Mechanisms of cellular invasion by intracellular parasites.

    PubMed

    Walker, Dawn M; Oghumu, Steve; Gupta, Gaurav; McGwire, Bradford S; Drew, Mark E; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-04-01

    Numerous disease-causing parasites must invade host cells in order to prosper. Collectively, such pathogens are responsible for a staggering amount of human sickness and death throughout the world. Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and malaria are neglected diseases and therefore are linked to socio-economical and geographical factors, affecting well-over half the world's population. Such obligate intracellular parasites have co-evolved with humans to establish a complexity of specific molecular parasite-host cell interactions, forming the basis of the parasite's cellular tropism. They make use of such interactions to invade host cells as a means to migrate through various tissues, to evade the host immune system, and to undergo intracellular replication. These cellular migration and invasion events are absolutely essential for the completion of the lifecycles of these parasites and lead to their for disease pathogenesis. This review is an overview of the molecular mechanisms of protozoan parasite invasion of host cells and discussion of therapeutic strategies, which could be developed by targeting these invasion pathways. Specifically, we focus on four species of protozoan parasites Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma, which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.

  10. Parasitism and phenotypic change in colonial hosts.

    PubMed

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Fontes, Inês; Okamura, Beth

    2013-09-01

    Changes in host phenotype are often attributed to manipulation that enables parasites to complete trophic transmission cycles. We characterized changes in host phenotype in a colonial host–endoparasite system that lacks trophic transmission (the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana and myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae). We show that parasitism exerts opposing phenotypic effects at the colony and module levels. Thus, overt infection (the development of infectious spores in the host body cavity) was linked to a reduction in colony size and growth rate, while colony modules exhibited a form of gigantism. Larger modules may support larger parasite sacs and increase metabolite availability to the parasite. Host metabolic rates were lower in overtly infected relative to uninfected hosts that were not investing in propagule production. This suggests a role for direct resource competition and active parasite manipulation (castration) in driving the expression of the infected phenotype. The malformed offspring (statoblasts) of infected colonies had greatly reduced hatching success. Coupled with the severe reduction in statoblast production this suggests that vertical transmission is rare in overtly infected modules. We show that although the parasite can occasionally infect statoblasts during overt infections, no infections were detected in the surviving mature offspring, suggesting that during overt infections, horizontal transmission incurs a trade-off with vertical transmission.

  11. Impacts of parasitic plants on natural communities.

    PubMed

    Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2005-06-01

    Parasitic plants have profound effects on the ecosystems in which they occur. They are represented by some 4000 species and can be found in most major biomes. They acquire some or all of their water, carbon and nutrients via the vascular tissue of the host's roots or shoots. Parasitism has major impacts on host growth, allometry and reproduction, which lead to changes in competitive balances between host and nonhost species and therefore affect community structure, vegetation zonation and population dynamics. Impacts on hosts may further affect herbivores, pollinators and seed vectors, and the behaviour and diversity of these is often closely linked to the presence and abundance of parasitic plants. Parasitic plants can therefore be considered as keystone species. Community impacts are mediated by the host range of the parasite (the diversity of species that can potentially act as hosts) and by their preference and selection of particular host species. Parasitic plants can also alter the physical environment around them--including soil water and nutrients, atmospheric CO2 and temperature--and so may also be considered as ecosystem engineers. Such impacts can have further consequences in altering the resource supply to and behaviour of other organisms within parasitic plant communities.

  12. Where are the parasites in food webs?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

  13. Parasite infracommunities of a specialized marine fish species in a compound community dominated by generalist parasites.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, A L; Rossin, M A; Timi, J T

    2009-12-01

    The structure and composition of parasite communities of Mullus argentinae were analysed under two alternative hypotheses in a sample of 75 specimens caught off Mar del Plata, Argentina (38 degrees 27'S, 57 degrees 90'W). The first, based on the dominance of trophically transmitted larval parasites of low host-specificity among fish species in the region, predicts that infracommunities will be random subsets of regionally available species. The second, based on previous studies on other mullids, predicts that infracommunities will be dominated by adult digeneans. The parasite fauna of goatfishes was mainly composed of endoparasites, with metacercariae of Prosorhynchus australis accounting for most individual parasites and greatly affecting infracommunity descriptors. Its importance was reinforced by the low number of trophically transmitted larval parasites. Both hypotheses were refuted; parasite communities were not dominated either by trophically transmitted larval parasites of low host-specificity or by adult digeneans. Prosorhynchus australis was the only species displaying any degree of phylogenetic specificity. Therefore, the influence of phylogenetic factors seems to exceed that of ecological ones in determining the observed structure of infracommunities. However, it is precisely host ecology that allows P. australis to become the determinant of infracommunity structure by constraining the acquisition of other parasites. Studies aiming to determine the relative importance of evolutionary and ecological processes as structuring forces of parasite communities should take into account not only the identity and specificity of their component parasites, but also their availability in the compound community.

  14. Potential Parasite Transmission in Multi-Host Networks Based on Parasite Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Pilosof, Shai; Morand, Serge; Krasnov, Boris R.; Nunn, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological networks are commonly used to explore dynamics of parasite transmission among individuals in a population of a given host species. However, many parasites infect multiple host species, and thus multi-host networks may offer a better framework for investigating parasite dynamics. We investigated the factors that influence parasite sharing – and thus potential transmission pathways – among rodent hosts in Southeast Asia. We focused on differences between networks of a single host species and networks that involve multiple host species. In host-parasite networks, modularity (the extent to which the network is divided into subgroups of rodents that interact with similar parasites) was higher in the multi-species than in the single-species networks. This suggests that phylogeny affects patterns of parasite sharing, which was confirmed in analyses showing that it predicted affiliation of individuals to modules. We then constructed “potential transmission networks” based on the host-parasite networks, in which edges depict the similarity between a pair of individuals in the parasites they share. The centrality of individuals in these networks differed between multi- and single-species networks, with species identity and individual characteristics influencing their position in the networks. Simulations further revealed that parasite dynamics differed between multi- and single-species networks. We conclude that multi-host networks based on parasite sharing can provide new insights into the potential for transmission among hosts in an ecological community. In addition, the factors that determine the nature of parasite sharing (i.e. structure of the host-parasite network) may impact transmission patterns. PMID:25748947

  15. [Laboratory tests for parasitic diseases in Israel].

    PubMed

    Marva, Esther; Grossman, Tamar

    2010-09-01

    Microscopic examination is still considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. In many clinical laboratories in hospitals and in health maintenance organizations ("Kupot Holim"), an excellent microscopic identification of parasites is performed. Microscopic examinations using wet mount preparations are performed for the detection of protozoan trophozoites and helmintic ova or larvae. Specific concentration techniques, including flotation and sedimentation procedures are further performed for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. However, microscopic examinations are time-consuming, non-sensitive and not always reliable. Furthermore, the diagnosis of certain infections is not always possible by searching for the parasites in host tissues or excreta since risky invasive techniques might be necessary to locate the parasites. Detection of antibodies can be very useful as an indication for infection with a specific parasite, especially in individuals with no exposure to the parasite prior to recent travel in a disease-endemic area. In addition to serology, there are other tests of high sensitivity which can be integrated with microscopy, such as antigen detection in stool and blood samples as well as the use of other molecular diagnosis methods. There are two main laboratories in Israel where parasitic diagnosis is available by integration of microscopy, serology, antigen detection and molecular methods: The Reference Laboratory for Parasitology in Jerusalem at the Central Laboratories of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Laboratory of Parasitology at Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva (SOR). There are also two special diagnostic units, one responsible for the identification of toxopLasma: Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv (Tox), and the other for the identification of Leishmaniasis: Kuvin Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Kuv). This article

  16. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized. PMID:23685826

  17. Parasitic Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jarque, Isidro; Salavert, Miguel; Pemán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. Increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complications in hematopoietic transplant recipients. In this review, we will focus on parasitic diseases occurring in this population especially those with major clinical relevance including toxoplasmosis, American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, and strongyloidiasis, among others, highlighting the diagnosis and management in hematopoietic transplant recipients. PMID:27413527

  18. Parasitic Cavities Losses in SPEAR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, Matt

    2016-12-19

    In PEP the large number of particles in a bunch, together with the small bunch length, may cause grievous energy loss from the beam to parasitic modes in the accelerating cavities. I have recently tried to estimate the parasitic cavity in PEP, based on a paper of Keil and I have obtained the result that the loss to parasitic modes will be about 10 MeV per particle per revolution for a bunch length of about 10 cm. In this note, I bring together some of the considerations that might bear on an experimental investigation of the loss using SPEAR-2.

  19. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation.

  20. B-cell lymphoma-2 localization in the female reproductive tract of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis and its relationship with sperm storage.

    PubMed

    Le, Yuan; Chen, Shaofan; Hu, Lisi; Zhang, Linli; Ullah, Shakeeb; Liu, Tengfei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qiusheng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and localization of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the oviduct of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, during the reproductive cycle to analyze the relationship between Bcl-2 and sperm storage. Bcl-2 expression was confirmed in the P. sinensis oviduct by western blot analysis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that female P. sinensis stored sperm from November to April of the following year. The oviduct showed positive immunostaining for Bcl-2 of epithelial ciliated cells, gland ducts, and gland cells. Bcl-2 expression in the oviduct was associated with sperm storage occurrence. This indicates that the survival factor Bcl-2 may play a role in P. sinensis sperm storage.

  1. Effects of Ilex latifolia and Camellia sinensis on cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian-Yang; Li, Na-Na; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is one of the risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Ilex latifolia or green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the levels of plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. We demonstrated that daily administration by gavage of I. latifolia or C. sinensis at doses of 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol levels and circulating immune complexes and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet compared with levels in the high-cholesterol diet control group. C. sinensis was more effective than I. latifolia. I. latifolia and C. sinensis could be used as food supplements to protect against the development of hypercholesterolaemia.

  2. Cordyceps sinensis biomass produced by submerged fermentation in high-fat diet feed rats normalizes the blood lipid and the low testosterone induced by diet

    PubMed Central

    Freire dos Santos, Leandro; Rubel, Rosália; Bonatto, Sandro José Ribeiro; Zanatta, Ana Lucia; Aikawa, Júlia; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Habu, Sascha; Prado, Karin Braun; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation obtained from submerged fermentation on blood lipid and low testosterone induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The experiments were carried out using a long-term intake of HFD and HFD plus Simvastatin or C. sinensis (4 months). Our results show that plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL were decreased by Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation (CSBS). A long-term intake of HFD caused a significant liver damage which has been reverted by CSBS. CSBS normalized decreasing testosterone levels observed in high-fat diet feed rats. All these findings lead us to suggest that C. sinensis was able to decrease blood lipid concentration, increase hepatoprotective activity and normalize testosterone levels. PMID:27847459

  3. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jorgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko; Sacks, Erik J.

    2015-01-24

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1-39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6-27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. Ultimately, these results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars.

  4. Blood parasites of Taiwan birds.

    PubMed

    Manwell, R D; Allen, C S; Kuntz, R E

    1976-11-01

    Blood films were examined from 1477 birds of Taiwan (193 species, 49 families). Haemoproteus Kruse was by far the commonest parasite, with Leucocytozoon Danilewski a not very close second. it is probable that some of the Haemoproteus infections represented new species, and 1 occurring in the Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica sonorivox Gould) seemed characteristic enough to justify recognition as such; the name Haemoproteus bambusicolae sp. n. is proposed for this organism. Malaria was found in 77 birds, the greatest number of infections occurring in the Bamboo Partridge. Most of them were caused by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, a pathogen of chickens, but a number were due to an undetermined species of Plasmodium. The Bamboo Partridge may be a reservoir host of the former. A few other identified species (P. rouxi Sergent & Sergent, P. hexamerium Huff, P. tenue Laveran & Mesnil) were seen, as well as some unidentified ones. Plasmodium tenue was seen in Garrulax canorus taewanus Swinhoe, a babbler: until now it was known only from the Pekin Robin (Leiothrix luteus Scopoli), also a babbler, in which we have found it extremely common. Sixty-four microfilarial infections were identified; they were especially frequent in the Button Quail (Turnix suscitator rostrata Swinhoe).

  5. Trypanosomatid parasites causing neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, K; Honek, J; Cadmus, C M C v C; Efferth, T

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic diseases such as Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis), Chagas disease human (American trypanosomiasis) and African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) are affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. They are categorized amongst the most important neglected diseases causing approximately 150,000 deaths annually. As no vaccination is available, treatment is solely dependent on chemotherapeutic drugs. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the treatment of Kala azar, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness. In addition to established drugs, novel small molecule- based therapeutic approaches are discussed. Drugs currently used for the treatment of Kala azar include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and Paromomycin. Liposomal formulations such as AmBisome provide promising alternatives. Furthermore, antiproliferative compounds might open new avenues in Kala azar treatment. Regarding Chagas disease, chemotherapy is based on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. However, sequencing of T. cruzi genome in the year 2005 raises a hope for new drug targets. Proteases, sterols and sialic acids are potential promising drug targets. Suramin, Pentamidine, Melarsporol and Eflornithine are well-established drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. New treatment options include combination therapy of Eflornithine and Nifurtimox, a Chagas disease therapeutic.. However, all approved chemotherapeutic compounds for trypanosomatid diseases suffer from high toxicity. Further, increasing resistance limits their efficacy and compliance.

  6. Parasite specialization in a unique habitat: hummingbirds as reservoirs of generalist blood parasites of Andean birds.

    PubMed

    Moens, Michaël A J; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Paca, Anahi; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Aguirre, Nikolay; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how parasites fill their ecological niches requires information on the processes involved in the colonization and exploitation of unique host species. Switching to hosts with atypical attributes may favour generalists broadening their niches or may promote specialization and parasite diversification as the consequence. We analysed which blood parasites have successfully colonized hummingbirds, and how they have evolved to exploit such a unique habitat. We specifically asked (i) whether the assemblage of Haemoproteus parasites of hummingbirds is the result of single or multiple colonization events, (ii) to what extent these parasites are specialized in hummingbirds or shared with other birds and (iii) how hummingbirds contribute to sustain the populations of these parasites, in terms of both prevalence and infection intensity. We sampled 169 hummingbirds of 19 species along an elevation gradient in Southern Ecuador to analyse the host specificity, diversity and infection intensity of Haemoproteus by molecular and microscopy techniques. In addition, 736 birds of 112 species were analysed to explore whether hummingbird parasites are shared with other birds. Hummingbirds hosted a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of generalist Haemoproteus lineages shared with other host orders. Among these parasites, Haemoproteus witti stood out as the most generalized. Interestingly, we found that infection intensities of this parasite were extremely low in passerines (with no detectable gametocytes), but very high in hummingbirds, with many gametocytes seen. Moreover, infection intensities of H. witti were positively correlated with the prevalence across host species. Our results show that hummingbirds have been colonized by generalist Haemoproteus lineages on multiple occasions. However, one of these generalist parasites (H. witti) seems to be highly dependent on hummingbirds, which arise as the most relevant reservoirs in terms of both prevalence and

  7. It's a predator-eat-parasite world: how characteristics of predator, parasite and environment affect consumption.

    PubMed

    Orlofske, Sarah A; Jadin, Robert C; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the effects of predation on disease dynamics is increasingly important in light of the role ecological communities can play in host-parasite interactions. Surprisingly, however, few studies have characterized direct predation of parasites. Here we used an experimental approach to show that consumption of free-living parasite stages is highly context dependent, with significant influences of parasite size, predator size and foraging mode, as well as environmental condition. Among the four species of larval trematodes and two types of predators (fish and larval damselflies) studied here, parasites with larger infective stages (size >1,000 μm) were most vulnerable to predation by fish, while small-bodied fish and damselflies (size <10 mm) consumed the most infectious stages. Small parasite species (size approx. 500 μm) were less frequently consumed by both fish and larval damselflies. However, these results depended strongly on light availability; trials conducted in the dark led to significantly fewer parasites consumed overall, especially those with a size of <1,000 μm, emphasizing the importance of circadian shedding times of parasite free-living stages for predation risk. Intriguingly, active predation functioned to help limit fishes' infection by directly penetrating parasite species. Our results are consistent with established theory developed for predation on zooplankton that emphasizes the roles of body size, visibility and predation modes and further suggest that consumer-resource theory may provide a predictive framework for when predators should significantly influence parasite transmission. These results contribute to our understanding of transmission in natural systems, the role of predator-parasite links in food webs and the evolution of parasite morphology and behavior.

  8. Biological invasions and host-parasite coevolution: different coevolutionary trajectories along separate parasite invasion fronts.

    PubMed

    Feis, Marieke E; Goedknegt, M Anouk; Thieltges, David W; Buschbaum, Christian; Wegner, K Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Host-parasite coevolution has rarely been observed in natural systems. Its study often relies on microparasitic infections introducing a potential bias in the estimation of the evolutionary change of host and parasite traits. Using biological invasions as a tool to study host-parasite coevolution in nature can overcome these biases. We demonstrate this with a cross-infection experiment in the invasive macroparasite Mytilicola intestinalis and its bivalve host, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. The invasion history of the parasite is well known for the southeastern North Sea and is characterised by two separate invasion fronts that reached opposite ends of the Wadden Sea (i.e. Texel, The Netherlands and Sylt, Germany) in a similar time frame. The species' natural history thus makes this invasion an ideal natural experiment to study host-parasite coevolution in nature. We infected hosts from Texel, Sylt and Kiel (Baltic Sea, where the parasite is absent) with parasites from Texel and Sylt, to form sympatric, allopatric and naïve infestation combinations, respectively. We measured infection rate, host condition and parasite growth to show that sympatric host-parasite combinations diverged in terms of pre- and post-infection traits within <100 generations since their introduction. Texel parasites were more infective and more efficient at exploiting the host's resources. Hosts on Texel, on the other hand, evolved resistance to infection, whereas hosts on Sylt may have evolved tolerance. This illustrates that different coevolutionary trajectories can evolve along separate invasion fronts of the parasite, highlighting the use of biological invasions in studies of host-parasite coevolution in nature.

  9. Determination of nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum by high performance liquid chromatography method

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masood Shah; Parveen, Rabea; Mishra, Kshipra; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nucleosides are supportive in the regulation and modulation of various physiological processes in body, they acts as precursors in nucleic acid synthesis, enhance immune response, help in absorption of iron and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum are well-known for its use in traditional medicine of China, Nepal and India. They are rich in nucleosides such as adenine, adenosine, cordycepin, etc. Hence, a simple, economic and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method was proposed for determination of adenine and adenosine for the quality control of plants. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic experiments were conducted on YL9100 HPLC system (South Korea). Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a C18 column with methanol and dihydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase in isocratic elution method at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 254 nm, which gives a sharp peak of adenine and adenosine at a retention time of 6.53 ± 0.02 min and 12.41 ± 0.02, respectively. Results and Discussion: Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 25–200 µg/mL for adenosine and 100–800 µg/mL for adenine with regression coefficient of 0.999 and 0.996, respectively. The adenine was found 0.16% and 0.71% w/w in G. lucidum and in C. sinensis, respectively, and adenosine was found to be 0.14% w/w in G. lucidum whereas absent in C. sinensis. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method for the quantification of adenosine and adenine can be used for the quality control and standardization of crude drug and for the different herbal formulations, in which adenine and adenosine are present as major constituents. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of adenosine and adenine with high precision and

  10. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  11. Parasitic diarrhea in normal and malnourished children.

    PubMed

    Gendrel, D; Treluyer, J M; Richard-Lenoble, D

    2003-04-01

    Diarrhea is only one of the many manifestations of intestinal parasites. Environmental influences are inescapable, regardless of an individual's state of health: in a highly endemic region, intestinal parasitic colonization is almost the rule. The clinical expression of the parasitoses, however, is largely determined by host defenses; and when they are weakened, parasitic diarrhea is frequent and severe. Protein-energy malnutrition is by far the most important cause of immune deficiency in developing countries. Diarrhea caused by Strongyloides or Giardia is common and severe in malnourished children, while well-nourished children remain healthy carriers. These parasites require specific treatment in the malnourished; and the well-nourished should have preventive treatment when they are to receive corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents. Diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium spp. may be severe in malnourished or immunodeficient children, and recovery is achieved only after renutrition or treatment of the immunodeficiency.

  12. Functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Hagen, J; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Kalinna, B H

    2012-01-01

    As research on parasitic helminths is moving into the post-genomic era, an enormous effort is directed towards deciphering gene function and to achieve gene annotation. The sequences that are available in public databases undoubtedly hold information that can be utilized for new interventions and control but the exploitation of these resources has until recently remained difficult. Only now, with the emergence of methods to genetically manipulate and transform parasitic worms will it be possible to gain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrition, metabolism, developmental switches/maturation and interaction with the host immune system. This review focuses on functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths that are currently used, to highlight potential applications of these technologies in the areas of cell biology, systems biology and immunobiology of parasitic helminths.

  13. Climate influences parasite-mediated competitive release.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Martin H; Jensen, K Thomas; Mouritsen, Kim N

    2011-09-01

    Parasitism is believed to play an important role in maintaining species diversity, for instance by facilitating coexistence between competing host species. However, the possibility that environmental factors may govern the outcome of parasite-mediated competition has rarely been considered. The closely related amphipods Corophium volutator and Corophium arenarium both serve as second intermediate host for detrimental trematodes. Corophium volutator is the superior competitor of the two, but also suffers from higher mortality when exposed to infective trematode stages. Here, we report parasite-mediated competitive release of C. arenarium in an intertidal habitat, in part triggered by unusually high temperatures linked to the North Atlantic climate oscillation (NAO). The elevated temperatures accelerated the transmission of cercariae from sympatric first intermediate hosts (mud snails) to amphipods, causing a local collapse of the parasite-sensitive C. volutator population and concordant increase in the abundance of the competitively inferior C. arenarium.

  14. Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF APTAMERS TO WATERBORNE PARASITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1996 mandates that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate public health risks associated with drinking water contaminants to include waterborne parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Additionally, the Agency est...

  16. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  17. A productivity model for parasitized, multibrooded songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Knutson, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    We present an enhancement of a simulation model to predict annual productivity for Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla); the model includes effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism. We used species-specific data from the Driftless Area Ecoregion of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa to parameterize the model as a case study. The simulation model predicted annual productivity of 2.03 ?? 1.60 SD for Wood Thrushes and 1.56 ?? 1.31 SD for American Redstarts. Our sensitivity analysis showed that high parasitism lowered Wood Thrush annual productivity more than American Redstart productivity, even though parasitism affected individual nests of redstarts more severely. Annual productivity predictions are valuable for habitat managers, but productivity is not easily obtained from field studies. Our model provides a useful means of integrating complex life history parameters to predict productivity for songbirds that experience nest parasitism. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  18. Parasites of the Raccoon, Procyon lotor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, G.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1959-01-01

    At least 76 species of parasites have been reported from raccoons. These include 4 species of protozoa, 27 nematodes, 20 trematodes, 7 cestodes, 3 acanthocephala, and 15 arthropods. In many cases these represent single reports. In other cases some of the parasites are known to be of frequent occurrence and broad geographical range on the basis of several surveys that have been conducted. During the past 30 years 260 raccoons have been examined for parasites at the Patuxent Research Refuge. While most of these animals were collected on the refuge, several were from other localities in Maryland and a few from outside this state. The known distribution and occurrence of parasites of the raccoon are presented on charts and representative specimens of some of those collected at the Patuxent Research Refuge are demonstrated.

  19. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M.; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:20204171

  20. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis cyclosporiasis Less Common amebiasis ... Page last updated: July 28, 2016 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  1. Soil transmitted parasites in Qualyobia Governorate.

    PubMed

    El Fakahany, Amany F; Younis, Mohamed S; Ali, Ali El-Said; El-Ghareeb, Azza S; Omar, Rabab El Sayed

    2013-08-01

    The study determined the relation between prevalence of intestinal parasites and soil-transmitted parasites among households in Shiblanga representing a rural area of Qualyobia Governorate and Benha City representing an urban area of the same Governorate. The effect of soil's type on the intensity of parasites and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of soil transmitted parasitic infections for future studies in this field. This study was conducted at Benha City and Shiblanga village representing the urban and rural areas of Qualyobia Governorate. Geoparasites were investigated in-doors, around houses, in the fields and the streets from both areas. One hundred soil samples from Benha city and one hundred soil samples from Shiblanga village were collected .each hundred soil samples was collected in the form of: 25 samples from the fields, 25 samples in-indoor yards, 25 samples the streets, 25 samples around houses. Approximately 200 g soil was collected in plastic bags at 2-10 cm depth from different parts. Stool samples from households in same areas were collected after taken oral consent. All soil samples were screened for parasites using different parasitological methods (Zinc sulphate flotation, ether sédimentation technique, modified Baerman's apparatus and modified Berlese technique). All stool samples were examined using direct smear, formalinether concentration techniques for detection of helminthes eggs, and modified acid-fast staining for detection of protozoa. The results showed that 86/200 soil samples were contaminated with different parasites, the prevalence rate of 43%. Soil samples from Shiblanga village showed higher level of parasitic contamination (56%) and Benha city showed a lower level of contamination by different parasites (30%). Soil samples obtained from Manshiet El-Nour district, Benha revealed the highest level of parasitic contamination. While, in Shiblanga, El-Mansheya district revealed the highest level of parasitic

  2. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.

  3. Role of parasitic vaccines in integrated control of parasitic diseases in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infections adversely affect animal’s health and threaten profitable animal production, thus affecting the economy of our country. These infections also play a major role in the spread of zoonotic diseases. Parasitic infections cause severe morbidity and mortality in animals especially those affecting the gastrointestinal system and thus affect the economy of livestock owner by decreasing the ability of the farmer to produce economically useful animal products. Due to all these reasons proper control of parasitic infection is critically important for sustained animal production. The most common and regularly used method to control parasitic infection is chemotherapy, which is very effective but has several disadvantages like drug resistance and drug residues. Integrated approaches to control parasitic infections should be formulated including grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts, and parasitic vaccines. India ranks first in cattle and buffalo population, but the majority of livestock owners have fewer herds, so other measures like grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts are not much practical to use. The most sustainable and economical approach to control parasitic infection in our country is to vaccinate animals, although vaccines increase the initial cost, but the immunity offered by the vaccine are long lived. Thus, vaccination of animals for various clinical, chronic, subclinical parasitic infections will be a cheaper and effective alternative to control parasitic infection for long time and improve animal production. PMID:27047140

  4. Brood parasite eggs enhance egg survivorship in a multiply parasitized host

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Fiorini, Vanina D.; Reboreda, Juan C.; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Despite the costs to avian parents of rearing brood parasitic offspring, many species do not reject foreign eggs from their nests. We show that where multiple parasitism occurs, rejection itself can be costly, by increasing the risk of host egg loss during subsequent parasite attacks. Chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus) are heavily parasitized by shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), which also puncture eggs in host nests. Mockingbirds struggle to prevent cowbirds puncturing and laying, but seldom remove cowbird eggs once laid. We filmed cowbird visits to nests with manipulated clutch compositions and found that mockingbird eggs were more likely to escape puncture the more cowbird eggs accompanied them in the clutch. A Monte Carlo simulation of this ‘dilution effect’, comparing virtual hosts that systematically either reject or accept parasite eggs, shows that acceptors enjoy higher egg survivorship than rejecters in host populations where multiple parasitism occurs. For mockingbirds or other hosts in which host nestlings fare well in parasitized broods, this benefit might be sufficient to offset the fitness cost of rearing parasite chicks, making egg acceptance evolutionarily stable. Thus, counterintuitively, high intensities of parasitism might decrease or even reverse selection pressure for host defence via egg rejection. PMID:22158956

  5. Eaten alive: cannibalism is enhanced by parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bunke, Mandy; Alexander, Mhairi E.; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Hatcher, Melanie J.; Paterson, Rachel; Dunn, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Cannibalism is ubiquitous in nature and especially pervasive in consumers with stage-specific resource utilization in resource-limited environments. Cannibalism is thus influential in the structure and functioning of biological communities. Parasites are also pervasive in nature and, we hypothesize, might affect cannibalism since infection can alter host foraging behaviour. We investigated the effects of a common parasite, the microsporidian Pleistophora mulleri, on the cannibalism rate of its host, the freshwater amphipod Gammarus duebeni celticus. Parasitic infection increased the rate of cannibalism by adults towards uninfected juvenile conspecifics, as measured by adult functional responses, that is, the rate of resource uptake as a function of resource density. This may reflect the increased metabolic requirements of the host as driven by the parasite. Furthermore, when presented with a choice, uninfected adults preferred to cannibalize uninfected rather than infected juvenile conspecifics, probably reflecting selection pressure to avoid the risk of parasite acquisition. By contrast, infected adults were indiscriminate with respect to infection status of their victims, probably owing to metabolic costs of infection and the lack of risk as the cannibals were already infected. Thus parasitism, by enhancing cannibalism rates, may have previously unrecognized effects on stage structure and population dynamics for cannibalistic species and may also act as a selective pressure leading to changes in resource use. PMID:26064614

  6. Immune Escape Strategies of Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Pollyanna S.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Rivera-Correa, Juan; Freire-De-Lima, Celio G.; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins, and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission. PMID:27799922

  7. Role of cholesterol in parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Devendra; Bhatti, Harinderpal Singh; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    The requirement of cholesterol for internalization of eukaryotic pathogens like protozoa (Leishmaniasis, Malaria and Toxoplasmosis) and the exchange of cholesterol along with other metabolites during reproduction in Schistosomes (helminths) under variable circumstances are poorly understood. In patients infected with some other helminthes, alterations in the lipid profile have been observed. Also, the mechanisms involved in lipid changes especially in membrane proteins related to parasite infections remain uncertain. Present review of literature shows that parasites induce significant changes in lipid parameters, as has been shown in the in vitro study where substitution of serum by lipid/cholesterol in medium and in experimental models (in vivo). Thus changes in lipid profile occur in patients having active infections with most of the parasites. Membrane proteins are probably involved in such reactions. All parasites may be metabolising cholesterol, but the exact relationship with pathogenic mechanism is not clear. So far, studies suggest that there may be some factors or enzymes, which allow the parasite to breakup and consume lipid/cholesterol. Further studies are needed for better understanding of the mechanisms involved in vivo. The present review analysis the various studies till date and the role of cholesterol in pathogenesis of different parasitic infections. PMID:15882457

  8. Eaten alive: cannibalism is enhanced by parasites.

    PubMed

    Bunke, Mandy; Alexander, Mhairi E; Dick, Jaimie T A; Hatcher, Melanie J; Paterson, Rachel; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-03-01

    Cannibalism is ubiquitous in nature and especially pervasive in consumers with stage-specific resource utilization in resource-limited environments. Cannibalism is thus influential in the structure and functioning of biological communities. Parasites are also pervasive in nature and, we hypothesize, might affect cannibalism since infection can alter host foraging behaviour. We investigated the effects of a common parasite, the microsporidian Pleistophora mulleri, on the cannibalism rate of its host, the freshwater amphipod Gammarus duebeni celticus. Parasitic infection increased the rate of cannibalism by adults towards uninfected juvenile conspecifics, as measured by adult functional responses, that is, the rate of resource uptake as a function of resource density. This may reflect the increased metabolic requirements of the host as driven by the parasite. Furthermore, when presented with a choice, uninfected adults preferred to cannibalize uninfected rather than infected juvenile conspecifics, probably reflecting selection pressure to avoid the risk of parasite acquisition. By contrast, infected adults were indiscriminate with respect to infection status of their victims, probably owing to metabolic costs of infection and the lack of risk as the cannibals were already infected. Thus parasitism, by enhancing cannibalism rates, may have previously unrecognized effects on stage structure and population dynamics for cannibalistic species and may also act as a selective pressure leading to changes in resource use.

  9. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  10. Immune Escape St