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Sample records for parasitic barnacles crustacea

  1. Phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies of the parasitic barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Glenner, Henrik; Hebsgaard, Martin Bay

    2006-12-01

    The barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia) consist of three well-defined orders: the conventional filter-feeding barnacles (Thoracica), the burrowing barnacles (Acrothoracica), and the parasitic barnacles (Rhizocephala). Thoracica and Acrothoracica feed by catching food particles from the surrounding seawater using their thoracic appendages while members of Rhizocephala are exclusively parasitic. The parasite consists of a sac-shaped, external reproductive organ situated on the abdomen of its crustacean host and a nutrient-absorbing root system embedded into the heamolymph of the host. In order to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of the order Rhizocephala and elucidate the evolution of the different life history strategies found within the Rhizocephala, we have performed the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group. Our results indicate that Rhizocephala is monophyletic with a filter-feeding barnacle-like ancestor. The host-infective stage, the kentrogon larva, inserted in the lifecycle of the rhizocephalan suborder, Kentrogonida, is shown to be ancestral and most likely a homologue of the juvenile stage of a conventional thoracican barnacle. The mode of host inoculation found in the suborder Akentrogonida, where the last pelagic larval stage directly injects the parasitic material into the heamolymph of the host is derived, and has evolved only once within the Rhizocephala. Lastly, our results show that the ancestral host for extant rhizocephalans appears to be the anomuran crustaceans (Anomura), which includes hermit crabs and squat lobsters.

  2. vasa-related genes and their expression in stem cells of colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Golovnina, Kseniya A; Baiborodin, Sergei I; Gunbin, Konstantin V; Blinov, Alexander G; Isaeva, Valeria V

    2007-02-01

    vasa (vas)-related genes are members of the DEAD-box protein family and are expressed in the germ cells of many Metazoa. We cloned vasa-related genes (PpVLG, CpVLG) and other DEAD-box family related genes (PpDRH1, PpDRH2, CpDRH, AtDRHr) from the colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea, the non-colonial Clistosaccus paguri (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala), and the parasitic isopodan Athelgis takanoshimensis (Crustacea: Isopoda). The colonial Polyascus polygenea, a parasite of the coastal crabs Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Hemigrapsus longitarsis was used as a model object for further detailed investigations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PpVLG and CpVLG are closely related to vasa-like genes of other Arthropoda. The rest of the studied genes form their own separate branch on the phylogenetic tree and have a common ancestry with the p68 and PL10 subfamilies. We suppose this group may be a new subfamily of the DEAD-box RNA helicases that is specific for parasitic Crustacea. We found PpVLG and PpDRH1 expression products in stem cells from stolons and buds of internae, during asexual reproduction of colonial P. polygenea, and in germ cells from sexually reproducing externae, including male spermatogenic cells and female oogenic cells.

  3. The cypris larvae of the parasitic barnacle Heterosaccus lunatus (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala): some laboratory observations.

    PubMed

    Walker; Lester

    2000-11-20

    Heterosaccus lunatus parasitizes the portunid crab, Charybdis callianassa in Moreton Bay, Australia. With the host crabs maintained at 22.5 degrees C this sacculinid rhizocephalan released larval broods every 6-7 days. During July-August 1996 and particularly August 1999 such broods showed the change-over from male only larvae in the early broods to females only in the later broods. As the host crabs were maintained under similar aquarium conditions in both years it is concluded that the light/dark cycle is the principal cue triggering this larval sex reversal. Oogenesis in the parasite externa is somehow controlled to produce two different sized ova - male larvae develop from large ova and females from small ova. A working hypothesis outlining how sex is probably determined for the larvae of sacculinids is erected. H. lunatus is considered the ideal sacculinid for the further experimental work necessary to verify the proposed sex-determining mechanism and its control processes. Measurements of the maximum swimming speeds of H. lunatus male and female cyprids showed the larger males to be the faster in absolute terms (27.95 compared with 17.60 mm s(-1), respectively), however, the calculated relative speeds were almost identical at approximately 90 body lengths s(-1). Settlement experiments confirmed that female H. lunatus cyprids settle only on the gills of C. callianassa; these cyprids needed to be at least 2 days old before they were able to settle.

  4. On a New Species of Parasitic Barnacle (Crustacea: Rhizocephala), Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov., Parasitizing Japanese Mud Shrimps Upogebia spp. (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Upogebiidae), Including a Description of a Novel Morphological Structure in the Rhizocephala.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Jørgen; Itani, Gyo; Jespersen, Åse; Hong, Jae-Sang; Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The rhizocephalan Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov. parasitizes three species of Upogebia in Japan. It is described morphologically and compared with another Upogebia parasite, Sacculina upogebiae Shiino, 1943 from Japan and Korea. These two species are the only sacculinids that parasitize mud shrimps. DNA analyses clearly show the two species to be separate and not closely related. The cuticle differs in being provided with close-set, branched, and spiny excrescences in S. shiinoi, while it lacks excrescences, but forms small scales in S. upogebiae. In S. upogebiae, the bulbous sperm-producing part and the narrow receptacle duct are separated by a compartmentalized mid portion, which is missing in S. shiinoi. A ridge, having a thickened, fluffy cuticle with a U-shaped course, passes across the visceral mass between the two receptacle openings in S. shiinoi. Such a structure has never been described in other rhizocephalans, and its function is uncertain.

  5. On a New Species of Parasitic Barnacle (Crustacea: Rhizocephala), Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov., Parasitizing Japanese Mud Shrimps Upogebia spp. (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Upogebiidae), Including a Description of a Novel Morphological Structure in the Rhizocephala.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Jørgen; Itani, Gyo; Jespersen, Åse; Hong, Jae-Sang; Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The rhizocephalan Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov. parasitizes three species of Upogebia in Japan. It is described morphologically and compared with another Upogebia parasite, Sacculina upogebiae Shiino, 1943 from Japan and Korea. These two species are the only sacculinids that parasitize mud shrimps. DNA analyses clearly show the two species to be separate and not closely related. The cuticle differs in being provided with close-set, branched, and spiny excrescences in S. shiinoi, while it lacks excrescences, but forms small scales in S. upogebiae. In S. upogebiae, the bulbous sperm-producing part and the narrow receptacle duct are separated by a compartmentalized mid portion, which is missing in S. shiinoi. A ridge, having a thickened, fluffy cuticle with a U-shaped course, passes across the visceral mass between the two receptacle openings in S. shiinoi. Such a structure has never been described in other rhizocephalans, and its function is uncertain. PMID:27032686

  6. On the origin of a novel parasitic-feeding mode within suspension-feeding barnacles.

    PubMed

    Rees, David John; Noever, Christoph; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Ommundsen, Anders; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-06-16

    In his monograph on Cirripedia from 1851, Darwin pointed to a highly unusual, plateless, and most likely parasitic barnacle of uncertain phylogenetic affinity. Darwin's barnacle was Anelasma squalicola, found on deep-water sharks of the family Etmopteridae, or lantern sharks. The barnacle is uncommon and is therefore rarely studied. Recent observations by us have shown that they occur at an unusually high prevalence on the velvet belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax, in restricted fjord areas of western Norway. A phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal DNA data (16S, 18S, and 28S) from 99 selected barnacle species, including all available pedunculate barnacle sequences from GenBank, shows that A. squalicola is most closely related (sister taxon) to the pedunculate barnacle Capitulum mitella. Both C. mitella and species of Pollicipes, situated one node higher in the tree, are conventional suspension feeders from the rocky intertidal. Our phylogenetic analysis now makes it possible to establish morphological homologies between A. squalicola and its sister taxon and provides the evolutionary framework to explain the unprecedented transition from a filter-feeding barnacle to a parasitic mode of life.

  7. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  8. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  9. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters.

  10. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  11. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  12. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny K. K.; Chen, H. -N.; Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  13. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  14. Cypris morphology in the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas (Crustacea: Cirripedia Thoracica) implications for cirripede evolution.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny K K; Chan, Karen; Jensen, Peter Gram; Pérez-Losada, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe cypris morphology in species of the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas, both of which are pivotal in understanding cirripede evolution. In Ibla, we also studied late naupliar stages with video and SEM. Special emphasis was put on the lattice organs, the antennules and the thorax and telson. In Paralepas we had settled specimens only and could therefore only investigate the carapace with the lattice organs. Cyprids of Ibla quadrivalvis and Paralepas dannevigi have five sets of lattice organs, grouped as two anterior and three posterior pairs. The organs are of the pore-field type and the terminal pore is situated anteriorly in the first pair, just as in the Rhizocephala and the Thoracica. In Ibla the armament of antennular sensilla resembles that found in the Thoracica but differs from the Rhizocephala. The absence of setules on the A and B setae sited terminally on the fourth antennular segment is a similarity with the Acrothoracica. The attachment disc is angled rather than facing distally and is encircled by a low cuticular velum. The thoracopods have two-segmented endopods and exopods as in the Thoracica, but the number, shape, and position of thoracopodal setae differ somewhat from other species of that superorder. Both Ibla and Paralepas cyprids have a deeply cleaved telson, but no independent abdominal part. In cypris morphology, Ibla and Paralepas show several synapomorphies with the clade comprising Rhizocephala and Thoracica and there are no specific apomorphies with either the Acrothoracica, the Rhizocephala or any particular subgroup within the Thoracica. This is in agreement with recent molecular evidence that Ibla (Ibliformes) is the sister taxon to all other Thoracica and the ibliforms therefore become the outgroup of choice for studying character evolution within the superorder. Paralepas, and other pedunculated barnacles without shell plates, are apparently not primitive but are secondarily evolved

  15. Evolution of sex determination and sexually dimorphic larval sizes in parasitic barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Høeg, Jens T; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-04-21

    The parasitic (rhizocephalan) barnacles include species of which larval sex is determined by the mother (genetic sex determination, GSD), male larvae are larger than female larvae, and a female accepts only two dwarf males who sire all the eggs laid by her. In contrast, other species of parasitic barnacles exhibit monomorphic larvae that choose to become male or female depending on the condition of the host they settle (environmental sex determination, or ESD), and a female accepts numerous dwarf males. Here, we ask why these set of traits are observed together, by examining the evolution of sex determination and the larval size. ESD has an advantage over GSD because each larva has a higher chance of encountering a suitable host. On the other hand, GSD has two advantages over ESD: the larval size can be chosen differently between sexes, and their larvae can avoid spending time for sex determination on the host. We conclude that, in species whose female accepts only two males, the male larvae engage in intense contest competition for reproductive opportunities, and male's success-size relation is very different from female's. Then, larvae with predetermined sex (GSD) with sexually dimorphic larvae is more advantageous than ESD. In contrast, in species whose females accept many dwarf males, the competition among males is less intense, and producing larvae with undetermined sex should evolve. We also discuss the condition for females to evolve receptacles to limit the number of males she accepts.

  16. Growth and molting in epizoic pedunculate barnacles genus Octolasmis (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology were used to study growth in species of the pedunculate barnacle genus Octolasmis (O. angulata, O. cor, O. californiana, O. mülleri). These species are epizoic in the gill chamber of portunid crabs and have highly reduced capitular shell plates, with large areas of general cuticle in between. The external integument grows by means of a system of narrow growth zones, one encircling the peduncle and a Y-shaped system on either side of the capitulum. Growth is by a regular series of molts, but shedding of old cuticle and production of new layers is entirely restricted to the growth zones. Just prior to ecdysis, the new cuticle lies in a highly folded fashion beneath the old cuticle that is about to be shed. At ecdysis, the old cuticle breaks along the margins of the growth zones and the resulting scars remain as a system of "ecdysial lines" along either side of the zone. Once exposed after ecdysis, the new cuticle remains as a part of the permanent external integument. The growth zones divide the externa into five cuticular areas, two on the peduncle and three on the capitulum. The calcareous shell plates (carina, paired scuta, and, when present, paired terga) all lie within the capitular regions and the ecdysial lines pass across, not around, these mineralized areas. The number, relative spacing, and topology of the ecdysial lines form a record of the growth history of the specimen. These and other growth patterns demonstrate that size increase is due to the formation of new cuticle by molting in the growth zones, while expansion of the shell plates by mineralization follows only after production of the new cuticle. Thus, although specialized, growth in Octolasmis still complies with the general crustacean model, complicated only by the mineralization of parts of the capitular cuticle into shell plates. The results are compared with the very scarce information on molting in other barnacles. We argue that

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro).

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro). PMID:24397766

  19. Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Venn, Cynthia; Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Ricci, Pietrantonio; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Human activities involving water may result in a crime scene. Typically, death may be due to natural causes, homicide, or mass disasters. Decomposition in water is a complex process where many factors may interplay. Human remains in water are subject to many potential interactions, depending upon the remains themselves, the type of water and the characteristics of the water. A number of studies are focused on the decomposition process of the corpse in water, on the identification of the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and on the diagnosis of drowning, but very few studies consider the fate of floating remains in any aquatic environment. The following case describes a corpse found on a shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea (South West of Italy, Calabria Region). The corpse and the soles of his shoes were colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). The analyses of the barnacles present on the corpse aided in the evaluation of the floating time of the corpse which assisted in estimating the minimum time since death.

  20. Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Venn, Cynthia; Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Ricci, Pietrantonio; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Human activities involving water may result in a crime scene. Typically, death may be due to natural causes, homicide, or mass disasters. Decomposition in water is a complex process where many factors may interplay. Human remains in water are subject to many potential interactions, depending upon the remains themselves, the type of water and the characteristics of the water. A number of studies are focused on the decomposition process of the corpse in water, on the identification of the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and on the diagnosis of drowning, but very few studies consider the fate of floating remains in any aquatic environment. The following case describes a corpse found on a shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea (South West of Italy, Calabria Region). The corpse and the soles of his shoes were colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). The analyses of the barnacles present on the corpse aided in the evaluation of the floating time of the corpse which assisted in estimating the minimum time since death. PMID:25538026

  1. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification. PMID:25907711

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification.

  3. Metabolic effects of parasitization by the barnacle Polyascus plana (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) on a grapsid host, Metopograpsus thukuhar.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Jen; Wu, Yen-I; Tung, Tzu-An; Wang, Guan-Yi; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Liu, Shih-Ting; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2016-05-26

    Pathophysiological studies of rhizocephalan infections are rare. We describe differences in the levels of tissue and hemolymph metabolites between Polyascus plana-parasitized and unparasitized individuals of Metopograpsus thukuhar. Crabs were assigned to either a parasitized (carrying at least 1 externa, i.e. a protruding reproductive body) or an unparasitized (not carrying externae and determined to be rootlet-free by a barnacle 18S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction) group. Quantification of metabolites showed that muscle glycogen levels were significantly lower and hepatopancreas levels were significantly higher in parasitized crabs compared to unparasitized crabs; hepatopancreas triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher and hemolymph levels significantly lower in parasitized hosts, and there was no significant difference in muscle triacylglycerol levels between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose levels in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and hemolymph were all significantly higher in parasitized hosts. Significant levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and glycogen were present in the barnacle externae. In addition, levels of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the sinus glands were not significantly different between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose mobilized from the muscle is likely converted to glycogen and triacylglycerol in the rootlet-infiltrated hepatopancreas of parasitized hosts, and the eyestalk neuroendocrine system appears not to be significantly impaired, in terms of hormone production and storage, by parasitization. PMID:27225203

  4. Catoessa boscii (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) parasitic on Carangoides malabaricus (Pisces, Carangidae) from India. Taxonomy and host-parasite relationships.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy

    2012-06-01

    Catoessa boscii (Bleeker, 1857) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), is redescribed according to the type specimen observed by Schioedte and Meinert (1884) extant in the Rijksmuseum von Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden (RMNH) and from many additional specimens recently collected in India from Carangoides malabaricus (Pisces, Carangidae). This study allows an updating of the diagnosis of the genus Catoessa and of the species Catoessa boscii. Some parasite-host relationships were studied during the year. Prevalence and sex ratio of parasites varied according to the month, and the sex and size of hosts.

  5. Introduction to the symposium--barnacle biology: essential aspects and contemporary approaches.

    PubMed

    Zardus, John D

    2012-09-01

    Barnacles have evolved a number of specialized features peculiar for crustaceans: they produce a calcified, external shell; they exhibit sexual strategies involving dioecy and androdioecy; and some have become internal parasites of other Crustacea. The thoroughly sessile habit of adults also belies the highly mobile and complex nature of their larval stages. Given these and other remarkable innovations in their natural history, it is perhaps not surprising that barnacles present a spectrum of opportunities for study. This symposium integrates research on barnacles in the areas of larval biology, biofouling, reproduction, biogeography, speciation, population genetics, ecological genomics, and phylogenetics. Pioneering comparisons are presented of metamorphosis among barnacles from three major lineages. Biofouling is investigated from the perspectives of biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms. Tradeoffs in reproductive specializations are scrutinized through theoretical modeling and empirical validation. Patterns of endemism and diversity are delineated in Australia and intricate species boundaries in the genus Chthamalus are elucidated for the Indo-Pacific. General methodological concerns with population expansion studies in crustaceans are highlighted using barnacle models. Data from the first, draft barnacle genome are employed to examine location-specific selection. Lastly, barnacle evolution is framed in a deep phylogenetic context and hypothetical origins of defined characters are outlined and tested.

  6. Morphology of the cement apparatus and the cement of the buoy barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Von Byern, Janek; Kerbl, Alexandra; Leisch, Nikolaus; Staedler, Yannick; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie; Klepal, Waltraud

    2012-10-01

    Barnacles produce a proteinaceous adhesive called cement to attach permanently to rocks or to other hard substrata. The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis is of special interest as it produces a large amount of foam-like cement that can be used as a float. The morphology of the cement apparatus and of the polymerized cement of this species is almost unknown. The current study aims at filling these gaps in our knowledge using light and electron microscopy as well as x-ray microtomography. The shape of the cement gland cells changes from round to ovoid during barnacle development. The cytoplasm of the gland cells, unlike that of some other barnacles, does not have distinct secretory and storage regions. The cement canals, which transport the cement from the gland cells to the base of the stalk, end at different positions in juvenile and mature animals. With increasing size of the cement float, the exit of the cement canals shift from the centrally positioned attachment disk of the vestigial antennules to more lateral positions on the stalk. The bubbles enclosed in the foam-like float are most likely filled with CO(2) that diffuses from the hemolymph into the cement canal system and from there into the cement.

  7. A checklist of the barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica) of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman with nine new records.

    PubMed

    Shahdadi, Adnan; Sari, Alireza; Naderloo, Reza

    2014-03-28

    The present annotated checklist contains 43 species of thoracican barnacles known to date from the area, 33 and 26 from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, respectively. Nine species are new records for the area including Amphibalunus subalbidus (Henry, 1973), Armatobalanus allium (Darwin, 1854), Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818), Conchoderma hunteri (Owen, 1830), Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1767, Lithotrya valentiana Reinhardt, 1850, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854), Megabalanus occator (Darwin, 1854) and Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798), of which A. subalbidus and M. coccopoma are reported as alien species from the region.

  8. Parasite altered micro-distribution of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Calum; Fielding, Nina J; Hume, Kevin D; Dick, Jaimie T A; Elwood, Robert W; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2003-01-01

    In a river survey, Gammarus pulex amphipods both unparasitised and parasitised with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae were distributed similarly with respect to flow regimen, tending to be more abundant in faster, shallower, riffle patches. However, there was a higher prevalence of parasitism in faster, shallower areas than in slower, deeper areas and abundance correlated with macrophyte coverage for unparasitised but not parasitised amphipods, indicating subtle differences in habitat usage. A laboratory 'patch' simulation indicated that parasitism influenced micro-distribution. There were higher proportions of unparasitised amphipods in/under stone substrates and within weed. In contrast, there were higher proportions of parasitised amphipods in the water column and at the water surface. As the experiment progressed, unparasitised but not parasitised amphipod habitat usage shifted from those micro-habitats above the substrate and in the water column to those in/under the substrates. Experiments also demonstrated that parasitised amphipods were more active and had a greater preference for illumination. Previous studies of the effects of acanthocephalan parasitism of amphipod hosts have focussed on how drift behaviour is altered, now we show that subtle differences in micro-habitat usage could translate to greatly increased vulnerability to fish predation. We discuss how aggregation of parasitised individuals within specific habitats could promote parasite transmission. PMID:12547346

  9. Metamorphosis in balanomorphan, pedunculated, and parasitic barnacles: a video-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Maruzzo, Diego; Okano, Keiju; Glenner, Henrik; Chan, Benny K K

    2012-09-01

    Cypris metamorphosis was followed using video microscopy in four species of cirripeds representing the suspension-feeding pedunculated and sessile Thoracica and the parasitic Rhizocephala. Cirripede metamorphosis involves one or more highly complex molts that mark the change from a free cypris larva to an attached suspension feeder (Thoracica) or an endoparasite (Rhizocephala). The cyprids and juveniles are so different in morphology that they are functionally incompatible. The drastic reorganization of the body implicated in the process can therefore only commence after the cyprid has irreversibly cemented itself to a substratum. In both Megabalanus rosa and Lepas, the settled cyprid first passes through a quiescent period of tissue reorganization, in which the body is raised into a position vertical to the substratum. In Lepas, this is followed by extension of the peduncle. In both Lepas and M. rosa, the juvenile must free itself from the cypris cuticle by an active process before it can extend the cirri for suspension feeding. In M. rosa, the juvenile performs intensely pulsating movements that result in shedding of the cypris carapace ~8 h after settlement. Lepas sp. sheds the cypris cuticle ~2 days after settlement due to contractile movements of the peduncle. In Lepas anserifera, the juvenile actively breaks through the cypris carapace, which can thereafter remain for several days without impeding cirral feeding. Formation of the shell plates begins after 1-2 days under the cyprid carapace in Lepas. In M. rosa, the free juvenile retains its very thin cuticle and flexible shape for some time, and shell plates do not appear until sometime after shedding of the cypris cuticles. In Sacculina carcini, the cypris settles at the base of a seta on the host crab and remains quiescent and aligned at an angle of ~60° to the crab's cuticle. The metamorphosis involves two molts, resulting in the formation of an elongated kentrogon stage with a hollow injection stylet

  10. Two new species of the gorgonian inhabiting barnacle, Conopea (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica), from the Gulf of Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Carrison-Stone, Dana; Syoc, Robert Van; Williams, Gary; Simison, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Conopea (Say 1822) are described from the Gulf of Guinea: Conopea saotomensis sp. n.and Conopea fidelis sp. n. These two new species were collected from the historically isolated volcanic islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. The relationship between Conopea saotomensis sp. n., Conopea fidelis sp. n.and two other Atlantic barnacle species, Conopea calceola (Ellis 1758) and Conopea galeata (Linnaeus 1771), is examined. The methods employed are the construction of a molecular phylogeny using mitochondrial COI and nuclear H3 gene sequence data along with morphological comparisons of calcareous and cuticular body parts. It is found that Conopea saotomensis sp. n., Conopea fidelis sp. n.and Conopea calceola are most closely related to each other but the relationship among them is unresolved. Gorgonian hosts are identified. Preliminary observations show species level host specificity for Conopea fidelis sp. n. PMID:23730186

  11. Biochemical biomarkers in barnacles Balanus improvisus: pollution and seasonal effects.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Juliano; Monserrat, José Maria; Bianchini, Adalto

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical biomarkers were evaluated in the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. During winter, higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was recorded in the barnacles from the polluted sites, indicating environmental exposure to contaminants. Relatively low lipid peroxide levels (LPO) were also observed in barnacles from polluted sites, indicating that oxidative stress by lipid peroxidation was not a major threat in barnacles from those sites. Seasonal differences in the GST and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) could have contributed to the low LPO levels in the summer relative to the levels in the winter. Catalase activity and metallothionein levels were not affected by contamination or seasonality. The seasonal changes observed in biomarker responses were paralleled by the differences in temperature, which could have affected physiological responses, including the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants. PMID:25460064

  12. Biochemical biomarkers in barnacles Balanus improvisus: pollution and seasonal effects.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Juliano; Monserrat, José Maria; Bianchini, Adalto

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical biomarkers were evaluated in the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. During winter, higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was recorded in the barnacles from the polluted sites, indicating environmental exposure to contaminants. Relatively low lipid peroxide levels (LPO) were also observed in barnacles from polluted sites, indicating that oxidative stress by lipid peroxidation was not a major threat in barnacles from those sites. Seasonal differences in the GST and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) could have contributed to the low LPO levels in the summer relative to the levels in the winter. Catalase activity and metallothionein levels were not affected by contamination or seasonality. The seasonal changes observed in biomarker responses were paralleled by the differences in temperature, which could have affected physiological responses, including the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants.

  13. Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) along the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Robinson, Carlos J; Kawaguchi, So; Nicol, Stephen

    2010-02-17

    The diversity of parasites found on Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Order Euphausiacea) was compared during 10 oceanographic cruises made off both coasts of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that N. simplex has a more diverse parasitic assemblage than N. difficilis because it is a neritic species, has larger population abundance, and tends to form denser and more compact swarms than N. difficilis. These biological and behavioral features may enhance parasite transmission within swarms. We detected 6 types of ectoparasites: (1) epibiotic diatoms Licmophora sp.; (2) Ephelotidae suctorian ciliates; (3) Foettingeriidae exuviotrophic apostome ciliates; (4) an unidentified epicaridean cryptoniscus larvae (isopoda); and 2 castrators: (5) the ectoparasitic Dajidae isopod Notophryxus lateralis and (6) the ellobiopsid mesoparasite Thalassomyces fagei. We also detected 7 types of endoparasites: (1) an undescribed Collinia ciliate (Apostomatida); 3 types of Cestoda: (2) a Tetrarhynchobothruium sp. (Trypanorhyncha), (3) Echinobothrium sp. (Diphyllidea: Echinobothyriidae), and (4) unidentified metacestode; (5) a Trematoda Paronatrema-like metacercaria (Syncoeliidae); (6) the nematode Anisakis simplex (L3); and (7) Polymorphidae acantocephalan larvae (acanthor, acanthella, and cystacanth larval stages). N. simplex is affected by all types of parasites, except the isopod N. lateralis, having a considerably larger parasitic diversity and prevalence rates than N. difficilis, which is only infested with 3 types of ectoparasites and T. fagei. Euphausiid swarming is an adaptive behavior for reproduction, protection against predators, and increased efficiency in food searching, but has a negative effect due to parasitism. Although the advantages of aggregation must overcome the reduction of population and individual fitness induced by parasites, we demonstrated that all types of parasites can affect approximately 14% of N. simplex

  14. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O(2) consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment. PMID:17487466

  15. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided.

  16. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  17. Diverse, continuous, and plastic sexual systems in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Yoichi; Takemura, Mayuko; Sawada, Kota; Yamaguchi, Sachi

    2013-10-01

    Barnacles (Crustacea: Thoracica) show diverse sexual systems, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (hermaphrodites + males), and dioecy (females + males). When males occur, they are always much smaller (called dwarf males) than conspecific hermaphrodites or females. Ever since Darwin made this discovery, many scientists have been fascinated by such diversity. In this study, we provide an overview of (1) the diversity of sexual systems in barnacles, (2) the continuity between different sexual systems in some genera or species, and (3) the plasticity in sexual expression in several species. First, although most barnacles are hermaphroditic, both theoretical and empirical studies suggest that females and dwarf males tend to occur in species with small mating groups. Low sperm competition among hermaphrodites and little chance to act as a male are both associated with small group sizes and identified as the forces promoting the evolution of dwarf males and pure females, respectively. Second, in some groups of barnacles, the distinction between hermaphrodites and dwarf males is unclear because of the potential of dwarf males to become hermaphrodites. As many barnacle species tend toward protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (develop male function first and then add female function without discarding male function), the dwarf males in such cases are best described as potential hermaphrodites that arrest growth and emphasize male function much earlier because of attachment to conspecifics. This is presumably advantageous in fertilizing the eggs of the host individuals. The distinction between hermaphrodites and females may also be obscured in some species. Third, sex allocation and penial morphology are plastic in some species. We also report the results of a transplanting experiment on small individuals of the pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis angulata, which suggests that individuals transplanted onto conspecifics developed longer and broader penises than

  18. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens T

    2010-02-01

    Rhizocephalan parasites are dioecious organisms, in that one or several dwarf males are implanted into the external part of the female parasite soon after it emerges from the interior of the host animal. The structure of the female externa and its resident males is crucial for understanding both the reproductive biology and the taxonomy of these specialized parasites. We use scanning electron microscopy and histological methods to study the anatomy of juvenile and the mature externae of the rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus texanus parasitizing the blue crab Callinectes rathbunae. We put emphasis on the implantation of males and the histology of the female reproductive organs. In the virgin externae, male cyprids attach around a cuticular hood covering the mantle aperture, which is partially blocked by a plug of cuticle so only trichogon larvae, not cyprids, can access the mantle cavity. This resembles the situation known from Sacculina carcini. The mature externa is characterized by a visceral mass that contains the ovary, paired colleteric glands, a single male receptacle, but paired receptacle ducts. The proximal attachment of the visceral mass is located at some distance from the basal stalk, as is characteristic for the genus Loxothylacus. The internal anatomy of the mature externa of L. texanus is in most features similar to that seen in other species of the Sacculinidae, which comprises the majority of rhizocephalan species. However, the single receptacle creates a situation where the two implanted males cannot be kept separate as in most other rhizocephalans, but pass through spermatogenesis in a common chamber. This may have unknown effects on the reproductive biology such as male-male competition. PMID:19714752

  19. Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell structure and proteoglycan localization and functionality.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M S; Arias, J I; Neira-Carrillo, A; Arias, J L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative analyzes of biomineralization models have being crucial for the understanding of the functional properties of biominerals and the elucidation of the processes through which biomacromolecules control the synthesis and structural organization of inorganic mineral-based biomaterials. Among calcium carbonate-containing bioceramics, egg, mollusk and echinoderm shells, and crustacean carapaces, have being fairly well characterized. However, Thoraceca barnacles, although being crustacea, showing molting cycle, build a quite stable and heavily mineralized shell that completely surround the animal, which is for life firmly cemented to the substratum. This makes barnacles an interesting model for studying processes of biomineralization. Here we studied the main microstructural and ultrastructural features of Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell, characterize the occurrence of specific proteoglycans (keratan-, dermatan- and chondroitin-6-sulfate proteoglycans) in different soluble and insoluble organic fractions extracted from the shell, and tested them for their ability to crystallize calcium carbonate in vitro. Our results indicate that, in the barnacle model, proteoglycans are good candidates for the modification of the calcite crystal morphology, although the cooperative effect of some additional proteins in the shell could not be excluded.

  20. Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell structure and proteoglycan localization and functionality.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M S; Arias, J I; Neira-Carrillo, A; Arias, J L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative analyzes of biomineralization models have being crucial for the understanding of the functional properties of biominerals and the elucidation of the processes through which biomacromolecules control the synthesis and structural organization of inorganic mineral-based biomaterials. Among calcium carbonate-containing bioceramics, egg, mollusk and echinoderm shells, and crustacean carapaces, have being fairly well characterized. However, Thoraceca barnacles, although being crustacea, showing molting cycle, build a quite stable and heavily mineralized shell that completely surround the animal, which is for life firmly cemented to the substratum. This makes barnacles an interesting model for studying processes of biomineralization. Here we studied the main microstructural and ultrastructural features of Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell, characterize the occurrence of specific proteoglycans (keratan-, dermatan- and chondroitin-6-sulfate proteoglycans) in different soluble and insoluble organic fractions extracted from the shell, and tested them for their ability to crystallize calcium carbonate in vitro. Our results indicate that, in the barnacle model, proteoglycans are good candidates for the modification of the calcite crystal morphology, although the cooperative effect of some additional proteins in the shell could not be excluded. PMID:26276577

  1. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, & Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was taken on Sol 3. Barnacle Bill, the small rock at left, and Yogi, the large rock at upper right, have been examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument and the rover's cameras. Barnacle Bill has the chemical composition of an andesitic volcanic rock, but may have been produced by sedimentation processes or meteorite impact. The lander's rear ramp which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface is at lower left, and a portion of deflated airbag is at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  2. Barnacle removal process and product

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, T.L.

    1984-07-24

    Barnacles from marine vessels are removed by spraying the surfaces thereof with a mixture the active ingredients of which are a hydrocarbon liquid oil; a surfactant; alcohol; a metal hypochlorite; and an alkyl, dialkyl benzyl ammonium salt. After the solution has been applied to the surfaces for about 20 minutes, the barnacles are removed by power spraying the surfaces with water.

  3. [Ultrastructural study of Palavascia sphaeromae (Trichomycetes Eccrinales) parasite of the proctodeum of Sphaeroma serratum (Crustacea Isopoda) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Manier, J F

    1979-01-01

    All stages of development of Palavascia sphaeromae parasite of the proctodeum of Sphaeroma serratum, are studied for the first time under the electron microscope. The formation of the holdfast, cell walls and septa is followed. In the coiled apex of the mature thalli, the septa form two catogeries of unisporates sporangia leading to two types of spores. Type 1, a multinucleate spore giving birth in situ to several microthalli. Type 2, a uninucleate at first and then quadrinucleate spore, representing the only propagative elements of the species. This study proves that the Palavasciae are well integrated among the Eccrinales order. It also opens a new discussion concerning the phyletic affinities that can exist between the Eccrinales and the other three orders of Trichomycetes.

  4. Barnacles and biofouling.

    PubMed

    Holm, Eric R

    2012-09-01

    Biofouling, the attachment and growth of organisms on submerged, man-made surfaces, has plagued ship operators for at least 2500 years. Accumulation of biofouling, including barnacles and other sessile marine invertebrates, increases the frictional resistance of ships' hulls, resulting in an increase in power and in fuel consumption required to make speed. Scientists and engineers recognized over 100 years ago that in order to solve the biofouling problem, a deeper understanding of the biology of the organisms involved, particularly with regard to larval settlement and metamorphosis and adhesives and adhesion, would be required. Barnacles have served as an important tool in pursuing this research. Over the past 20 years, the pace of these studies has accelerated, likely driven by the introduction of environmental regulations banning the most effective biofouling control products from the market. Research has largely focused on larval settlement and metamorphosis, the development of new biocides, and materials/surface science. Increased research has so far, however, failed to result in commercial applications. Two recent successes (medetomidine/Selektope(®), surface-bound noradrenaline) build on our improving understanding of the role of the larval nervous system in mediating settlement and metamorphosis. New findings with regard to the curing of barnacle adhesives may pave the way to additional successes. Although the development of most current biofouling control technologies remains largely uninfluenced by basic research on, for example, the ability of settling larvae to perceive surface cues, or the nature of the interaction between organismal adhesives and the substrate, newly-developed materials can serve as useful probes to further our understanding of these processes.

  5. Darwin and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Jean

    2010-02-01

    In this essay, I discuss the origin of Charles Darwin's interest in cirripedes (barnacles). Indeed, he worked intensively on cirripedes during the years in which he was developing the theory that eventually led to the publication of The Origin of Species. In the light of our present knowledge, I present Darwin's achievements in the morphology, systematics and biology of these small marine invertebrates, and also his mistakes. I suggest that the word that sheds the most light here is homology, and that his mistakes were due to following Richard Owen's method of determining homologies by reference to an ideal archetype. I discuss the ways in which his studies on cirripedes influenced the writing of The Origin. PMID:20338525

  6. Darwin and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Jean

    2010-02-01

    In this essay, I discuss the origin of Charles Darwin's interest in cirripedes (barnacles). Indeed, he worked intensively on cirripedes during the years in which he was developing the theory that eventually led to the publication of The Origin of Species. In the light of our present knowledge, I present Darwin's achievements in the morphology, systematics and biology of these small marine invertebrates, and also his mistakes. I suggest that the word that sheds the most light here is homology, and that his mistakes were due to following Richard Owen's method of determining homologies by reference to an ideal archetype. I discuss the ways in which his studies on cirripedes influenced the writing of The Origin.

  7. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  8. Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... CME and CNE for clinicians... Parasitic Disease and Malaria Strategic Priorities: 2015—2020... Cyclosporiasis: Most U.S. cases ... R S T U V W X Y Z Malaria An ancient disease that affects millions of people ...

  9. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering.

  10. Helminth parasites of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: first data from the native range of this invader of European wetlands.

    PubMed

    Redon, Stella; Berthelemy, Nicole J; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Amat, Francisco; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the first survey on the role of Artemia franciscana Kellogg as intermediate host of helminth parasites in its native geographical range in North America (previous studies have recorded nine cestode and one nematode species from this host in its invasive habitats in the Western Mediterranean). Samples of Artemia franciscana were collected from four sites in the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, across several months (June-September 2009). A. franciscana serves as intermediate host of five helminth species in this lake. Four of them are cestodes: three hymenolepidids, i.e. Confluaria podicipina (Szymanski, 1905) (adults parasitic in grebes), Hymenolepis (sensu lato) californicus Young, 1950 (adults parasitic in gulls), Wardium sp. (definitive host unknown, probably charadriiform birds), and one dilepidid, Fuhrmannolepis averini Spassky et Yurpalova, 1967 (adults parasitic in phalaropes). In addition, an unidentified nematode of the family Acuariidae was recorded. Confluaria podicipina is the most prevalent and abundant parasite at all sampling sites, followed by H. (s. l.) californicus. The species composition of the parasites and the spatial variations in their prevalence and abundance reflect the abundance and distribution of aquatic birds serving as their definitive hosts. The temporal dynamics of the overall helminth infections exhibits the highest prevalence in the last month of study at each site (August or September). This native population of A. franciscana from GSL is characterised with higher prevalence, intensity and abundance of the overall cestode infection compared to the introduced populations of this species in the Palaearctic Region. The values of the infection descriptors in the native population of A. franciscana are slightly lower or in some cases similar to those of the Palaearctic species Artemia parthenogenetica Barigozzi (diploid populations) and Artemia salina (Linnaeus) in their native habitats. PMID:26040582

  11. APXS on Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The image was taken by a camera aboard the Sojourner rover on Sol 4. Portions of the rover's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are visible studying Barnacle Bill.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. The complete mitogenome of the whale shark parasitic copepod Pandarus rhincodonicus norman, Newbound & Knott (Crustacea; Siphonostomatoida; Pandaridae)--a new gene order for the copepoda.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Croft, Laurence J; Meekan, Mark G; Pierce, Simon J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the parasitic copepod Pandarus rhincodonicus was obtained from a partial genome scan using the HiSeq sequencing system. The Pandarus rhincodonicus mitogenome has 14,480 base pairs (62% A+T content) made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a putative 384 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This Pandarus mitogenome sequence is the first for the family Pandaridae, the second for the order Siphonostomatoida and the sixth for the Copepoda.

  13. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this color image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  14. A new genus and family of copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) parasitic on polychaetes of the genus Jasmineira Langerhans, 1880 (family Sabellidae) in the northeastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoff A; O'Reilly, Myles; Sikorski, Andrey; Summerfield, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of copepod, Jasmineiricola mackiei n. gen. et n. sp., parasitic on at least three species of the sabellid polychaete genus Jasmineira Langerhans, 1880 is described. The adult female is mesoparasitic, living with part of its body (the endosoma) embedded within the host and part (the ectosoma) protruding through the host's body wall. The endosoma consists of a well defined head region carried anteriorly on the trunk which has paired lateral lobes housing the ovaries. The head bears a rosette-like array of eight slender lobes, which are probably derived from the mouthparts. The only limbs present on the trunk are the subchelate maxillipeds positioned immediately posterior to the head. The ectosoma consists of a posterior genito-abdominal lobe bearing paired genital apertures. The male is unknown. The new genus cannot be placed in any of the five existing families of mesoparasitic copepods on polychaete hosts and is treated as the type of a new monotypic family, the Jasmineiricolidae. The new species occurs over a depth range from 19 to 279 m, and is widely distributed from UK coastal waters to Norwegian waters inside the Arctic Circle. PMID:26624049

  15. [Larvae of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) in the White sea plankton].

    PubMed

    Poltarukha, O P

    2003-01-01

    The barnacle fauna in the White Sea is briefly described. The morphology of barnacle larvae in this water body is comparatively analyzed. The characters important for the larvae identification are given particular attention. A classification key was developed for the nauplius and cyprid larvae of barnacles in the White Sea.

  16. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, Yogi, & Couch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At center, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill is to the left of Sojourner, and the large rock Yogi is at upper right. On the horizon sits the rock dubbed 'Couch.' A deflated airbag sits at lower right.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Sojourner's APXS studies Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner's first analysis of a rock on Mars began on Sol 3 with the study of Barnacle Bill, a nearby rock named for its rough surface. The Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be used to determine the elements that make up the rocks and soil on Mars. A full study using the APXS takes approximately ten hours, and can measure all elements except hydrogen at any time of the Martian day or night. The APXS will conduct its studies by bombarding rocks and soil samples with alpha particle radiation -- charged particles equivalent to the nucleus of a helium atom, consisting of two protons and two neutrons.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  18. Barnacles resist removal by crack trapping.

    PubMed

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Long, Rong; Wahl, Kathryn J; Everett, Richard K

    2011-06-01

    We study the mechanics of pull-off of a barnacle adhering to a thin elastic layer which is bonded to a rigid substrate. We address the case of barnacles having acorn shell geometry and hard, calcarious base plates. Pull-off is initiated by the propagation of an interface edge crack between the base plate and the layer. We compute the energy release rate of this crack as it grows along the interface using a finite element method. We also develop an approximate analytical model to interpret our numerical results and to give a closed-form expression for the energy release rate. Our result shows that the resistance of barnacles to interfacial failure arises from a crack-trapping mechanism.

  19. Barnacles resist removal by crack trapping

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Long, Rong; Wahl, Kathryn J.; Everett, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the mechanics of pull-off of a barnacle adhering to a thin elastic layer which is bonded to a rigid substrate. We address the case of barnacles having acorn shell geometry and hard, calcarious base plates. Pull-off is initiated by the propagation of an interface edge crack between the base plate and the layer. We compute the energy release rate of this crack as it grows along the interface using a finite element method. We also develop an approximate analytical model to interpret our numerical results and to give a closed-form expression for the energy release rate. Our result shows that the resistance of barnacles to interfacial failure arises from a crack-trapping mechanism. PMID:21208968

  20. The tempo and mode of barnacle evolution.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Harp, Margaret; Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Watanabe, Hiromi; Crandall, Keith A

    2008-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic attempts at resolving barnacle evolutionary relationships are few and have relied on limited taxon sampling. Here we combine DNA sequences from three nuclear genes (18S, 28S and H3) and 44 morphological characters collected from 76 thoracican (ingroup) and 15 rhizocephalan (outgroup) species representing almost all the Thoracica families to assess the tempo and mode of barnacle evolution. Using phylogenetic methods of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference and 14 fossil calibrations, we found that: (1) Iblomorpha form a monophyletic group; (2) pedunculated barnacles without shell plates (Heteralepadomorpha) are not ancestral, but have evolved, at least twice, from plated forms; (3) the ontogenetic pattern with 5-->6-->8-->12+ plates does not reflect Thoracica shell evolution; (4) the traditional asymmetric barnacles (Verrucidae) and the Balanomorpha are each monophyletic and together they form a monophyletic group; (5) asymmetry and loss of a peduncle have evolved twice in the Thoracica, resulting in neither the Verrucomorpha nor the Sessilia forming monophyletic groups in their present definitions; (6) the Scalpellomorpha are not monophyletic; (7) the Thoracica suborders evolved since the Early Carboniferous (340mya) with the final radiation of the Sessilia in the Upper Jurassic (147mya). These results, therefore, reject many of the underlying hypotheses about character evolution in the Cirripedia Thoracica, stimulate a variety of new thoughts on thoracican radiation, and suggest the need for a major rearrangement in thoracican classification based on estimated phylogenetic relationships.

  1. For the Classroom: Filter Feeding in Barnacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Lois

    1983-01-01

    Provided is a high school activity in which students observe the filter feeding of barnacles and the effects of a variety of changing parameters upon their feeding process. Includes list of materials needed and procedures necessary to accomplish the activity. (JN)

  2. Super Resolution Anaglyph of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image and [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. Preventing Growth Of Barnacles On Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Kemp L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible to prevent barnacles and other marine life from obtaining firm bonds on propellers and other metal parts by coating parts with NEDOX (or equivalent) cavitation-resistant material. Available in several forms; one that works best is mold-release coating. Also provides improved surface hardness, protection against electrolysis, better resistance to abrasion, and less friction between propellers and water.

  4. Predaceous Feeding in Two Common Gooseneck Barnacles.

    PubMed

    Howard, G K; Scott, H C

    1959-03-13

    Lepas anatifera and Mitella polymerus, while relatively unselective omnivores, behave at times like predatory macrophagous carnivores. Observations suggest a greater range of food size for gooseneck barnacles than is generally suspected and clearly indicate that large organisms, when available, are effectively captured and handled.

  5. Parasitic castration: the evolution and ecology of body snatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2009-01-01

    Castration is a response to the tradeoff between consumption and longevity faced by parasites. Common parasitic castrators include larval trematodes in snails, and isopod and barnacle parasites of crustaceans. The infected host (with its many unique properties) is the extended phenotype of the parasitic castrator. Because an individual parasitic castrator can usurp all the reproductive energy from a host, and that energy is limited, intra- and interspecific competition among castrators is generally intense. These parasites can be abundant and can substantially depress host density. Host populations subject to high rates of parasitic castration appear to respond by maturing more rapidly.

  6. Some insights into how barnacles survive as sessile organisms.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Reeves, Jessica M

    2009-12-01

    During routine chemical analyses of the stalked ibliform barnacle Chaetolepas calcitergum Buckeridge & Newman 2006, peaks of more than 7% (by dry mass) of bromine were detected. Although bromine ions occur in seawater (up to 66 ppm), this level of accumulation, in the soft tissue of the barnacle, is extraordinary. Organic concentration of bromine compounds occurs in a number of invertebrates, such as algae and sponges, but this is the first record of elevated bromine in goose barnacles. The high accumulation of bromine compound(s) is most likely a defense mechanism. The present paper includes a review of the mechanisms deployed by barnacles to repel predators.

  7. Biomineral Structure and Strength of Barnacle Exoskeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Studying the construction of organic-inorganic compound structures through biomineralization is potentially very useful. During biomineral formation, organisms restructure naturally occurring minerals in conjunction with their own organically produced minerals to create new structures. While there is extensive knowledge about material properties and structure of the raw minerals themselves, insight into how specific biomineral structures and compounds contribute to an object's mechanical properties is lacking. In this study, the exoskeletons of barnacles from the genus Balanus were examined, both for their physical structure (how they're put together) and for their mechanical properties (strength, hardness, and elasticity). Scanning electron microscopy produced close-up, detailed images of the inner shell structure to determine what type of structure barnacles build during exoskeleton formation. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to map the elemental components of the shells. Nanoindentation tested the mechanical properties of these mapped structures to determine how certain characteristics of the exoskeleton contribute to its mechanical properties.

  8. Darwin's "beloved barnacles": tough lessons in variation.

    PubMed

    Mannouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    In 1846, burdened by insecurity and self-doubt, and having been convinced that he needed to study some group of organisms closely, Darwin embarked on an eight-year odyssey in the protean and perplexing world of barnacles. At the time, he was searching for evidence in support of his theory of evolution by natural selection. In the course of his long study of barnacles, however, he was not just validating his preexisting theoretical system, but was also modifying his views on such fundamental aspects as the universality of individual variation, which is the focus of this paper. According to this notion, the members of any population of living things are expected to exhibit sufficient differences from one another for natural selection to operate. By emphasizing the theoretical value of the barnacle project, my analysis contributes to the historiographic tradition which highlights the significance of the period between the first comprehensive formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1844 and its urgent publication in the late 1850s. In the course of these years, Darwin's theory was not just accumulating empirical laurels, but was also expected to adapt to a changing conceptual landscape. PMID:21789955

  9. Darwin's "beloved barnacles": tough lessons in variation.

    PubMed

    Mannouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    In 1846, burdened by insecurity and self-doubt, and having been convinced that he needed to study some group of organisms closely, Darwin embarked on an eight-year odyssey in the protean and perplexing world of barnacles. At the time, he was searching for evidence in support of his theory of evolution by natural selection. In the course of his long study of barnacles, however, he was not just validating his preexisting theoretical system, but was also modifying his views on such fundamental aspects as the universality of individual variation, which is the focus of this paper. According to this notion, the members of any population of living things are expected to exhibit sufficient differences from one another for natural selection to operate. By emphasizing the theoretical value of the barnacle project, my analysis contributes to the historiographic tradition which highlights the significance of the period between the first comprehensive formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1844 and its urgent publication in the late 1850s. In the course of these years, Darwin's theory was not just accumulating empirical laurels, but was also expected to adapt to a changing conceptual landscape.

  10. Barnacle-induced corrosion of high-alloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Koryakova, M.D.; Filonenko, N.Yu.; Kaplin, Yu.M.

    1995-03-01

    Local corrosion of two sorts of high-alloyed steels under the action of acorn barnacles (Balanuses) has been studied. It has been shown that in natural seawater at anaerobic conditions beneath living and dead barnacles, metabolic activity of bacteria may be considered as a primary cause for local surface depassivation.

  11. New occurrence of parasitic isopods from Indian fishes.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Sivasubramanian, Kanagasabapathy; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2013-04-01

    Until now, 36 species belonging to the family Cymothoidae (Crustacea, Isopoda) were recorded from Indian fishes. In this study, ten additional cymothoids are reported in India, most of them for the first time. They parasitize nine fish species, several of them being new host species.

  12. Trace metals in barnacles: the significance of trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2005-05-01

    Barnacles have very high accumulated trace metal body concentrations that vary with local trace metal bioavailabilities and represent integrated measures of the supply of bioavailable metals. Pioneering work in Chinese waters in Hong Kong highlighted the potential value of barnacles (particularly Balanus amphitrite) as trace metal biomonitors in coastal waters, identifying differences in local trace metal bioavailabilities over space and time. Work in Hong Kong has also shown that although barnacles have very high rates of trace metal uptake from solution, they also have very high trace metal assimilation efficiencies from the diet. High assimilation efficiencies coupled with high ingestion rates ensure that trophic uptake is by far the dominant trace metal uptake route in barnacles, as verified for cadmium and zinc. Kinetic modelling has shown that low efflux rate constants and high uptake rates from the diet combine to bring about accumulated trace metal concentrations in barnacles that are amongst the highest known in marine invertebrates.

  13. Flow over Barnacles-Characterization of Barnacle Geometry and Some Initial Flow Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Schultz, Michael; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-11-01

    Macrobiofouling is a serious concern for the marine industry, costing billions in preventive and control measures. Accurate modelling of flows over surfaces with such complex geometry and wide range of length scales is still a huge challenge. Such simulations are required in predicting the effects of fouling, like surface drag and also forces experienced by individual barnacles. DNS or wall resolved LES are impractical due to constraints imposed by the nature of the geometry. We aim to develop and test a computational tool for accurate simulation of such flows. The method being proposed incorporates generalized dynamic wall models along with sharp-interface Immersed Boundary Methods. The results from these simulations will help us understand the effects on surface drag caused by variations in parameters like roughness density, roughness heights, spatial heterogeneity etc. Along with this, detailed studies on a single barnacle will help us in understanding flow structures in the presence of boundary layers. In this talk we will give a brief overview of the problem and some results from our investigation on the characterization of Barnacle geometries and on the characteristics of flow over a single barnacle. This research is supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At right, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill and the rear ramp is to the left of Sojourner.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Imaging Active Surface Processes in Barnacle Adhesive Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joel P; Burden, Daniel K; Fears, Kenan P; Barlow, Daniel E; So, Christopher R; Burns, Justin; Miltenberg, Benjamin; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittshof, Daniel; Spillmann, Christopher M; Wahl, Kathryn J; Tender, Leonard M

    2016-01-19

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) and voltammetry were used simultaneously to monitor Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite barnacles reattached and grown on gold-coated glass slides in artificial seawater. Upon reattachment, SPRI revealed rapid surface adsorption of material with a higher refractive index than seawater at the barnacle/gold interface. Over longer time periods, SPRI also revealed secretory activity around the perimeter of the barnacle along the seawater/gold interface extending many millimeters beyond the barnacle and varying in shape and region with time. Ex situ experiments using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed that reattachment of barnacles was accompanied by adsorption of protein to surfaces on similar time scales as those in the SPRI experiments. Barnacles were grown through multiple molting cycles. While the initial reattachment region remained largely unchanged, SPRI revealed the formation of sets of paired concentric rings having alternately darker/lighter appearance (corresponding to lower and higher refractive indices, respectively) at the barnacle/gold interface beneath the region of new growth. Ex situ experiments coupling the SPRI imaging with optical and FTIR microscopy revealed that the paired rings coincide with molt cycles, with the brighter rings associated with regions enriched in amide moieties. The brighter rings were located just beyond orifices of cement ducts, consistent with delivery of amide-rich chemistry from the ducts. The darker rings were associated with newly expanded cuticle. In situ voltammetry using the SPRI gold substrate as the working electrode revealed presence of redox active compounds (oxidation potential approx 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl) after barnacles were reattached on surfaces. Redox activity persisted during the reattachment period. The results reveal surface adsorption processes coupled to the complex secretory and chemical activity under barnacles as they construct

  16. Imaging Active Surface Processes in Barnacle Adhesive Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joel P; Burden, Daniel K; Fears, Kenan P; Barlow, Daniel E; So, Christopher R; Burns, Justin; Miltenberg, Benjamin; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittshof, Daniel; Spillmann, Christopher M; Wahl, Kathryn J; Tender, Leonard M

    2016-01-19

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) and voltammetry were used simultaneously to monitor Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite barnacles reattached and grown on gold-coated glass slides in artificial seawater. Upon reattachment, SPRI revealed rapid surface adsorption of material with a higher refractive index than seawater at the barnacle/gold interface. Over longer time periods, SPRI also revealed secretory activity around the perimeter of the barnacle along the seawater/gold interface extending many millimeters beyond the barnacle and varying in shape and region with time. Ex situ experiments using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed that reattachment of barnacles was accompanied by adsorption of protein to surfaces on similar time scales as those in the SPRI experiments. Barnacles were grown through multiple molting cycles. While the initial reattachment region remained largely unchanged, SPRI revealed the formation of sets of paired concentric rings having alternately darker/lighter appearance (corresponding to lower and higher refractive indices, respectively) at the barnacle/gold interface beneath the region of new growth. Ex situ experiments coupling the SPRI imaging with optical and FTIR microscopy revealed that the paired rings coincide with molt cycles, with the brighter rings associated with regions enriched in amide moieties. The brighter rings were located just beyond orifices of cement ducts, consistent with delivery of amide-rich chemistry from the ducts. The darker rings were associated with newly expanded cuticle. In situ voltammetry using the SPRI gold substrate as the working electrode revealed presence of redox active compounds (oxidation potential approx 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl) after barnacles were reattached on surfaces. Redox activity persisted during the reattachment period. The results reveal surface adsorption processes coupled to the complex secretory and chemical activity under barnacles as they construct

  17. Ion and neuropharmacological studies of barnacle settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittschof, Dan; Maki, James; Mitchell, Ralph; Costlow, John D.

    Experiments tested effects of altering ion concentrations and the effects of additions of biologically active substances in the media surrounding settling stage barnacle larvae. Alteration of ionic concentrations did not result in induction of metamorphosis. Excess potassium ion, magnesium ion and calcium ion inhibited settlement. Potassium ion affected young cyprids while other cations had more pronounced effects on older cyprids. Replacement of one cation by another reduced the inhibitory effects of all but calcium. Excess magnesium was routinely inhibitory while lowered magnesium had little effect. Calcium ion could be increased 50% by lowering magnesium concentrations without affecting settlement. However, low calcium ion concentrations inhibited settlement. Of the biologically active substances tested, only soluble barnacle settlement factor and dibuteryl cAMP induced metamorphosis. SITS, a calcium channel blocker, inhibited settlement and negated the effects SF +. Most of the other compounds inhibited settlement at millimolar concentrations and had no effect when tested at lower concentrations. Picrotoxin, a compound that interferes with chloride ion movement (and membrane depolarization) strongly inhibited metamorphosis with an EC 50 of 10 -6 mol.

  18. Fouling acorn barnacles in China—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhao; Yan, Tao; Li, Zufu; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-01

    We review the species composition, distribution, and seasonal variation of fouling acorn barnacles in Chinese waters—from Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea to East and South China Seas. Thirty-two species of acorn barnacles were found, of which, the dominant species are Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. reticulatus, A. variegates, Balanus trigonus, Fistulobalanus kondakovi, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Eurapha withersi in the fouling communities. A. amphitrite is the dominant species in the coastal waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and A. reticulatus is dominant in the East and South China Seas. The settlement period of fouling acorn barnacles is usually in summer and autumn. From north to south with the decrease of latitude, their settlement period obviously extends, even to the whole year, and the species number also increases. Other environmental factors, such as salinity and distance from shore, also play an important role in the distribution of fouling acorn barnacles.

  19. Modeling variation in interaction strength between barnacles and fucoids.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Rebecca L; Dudgeon, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The strength by which species interact can vary throughout their ontogeny, as environments vary in space and time, and with the density of their populations. Characterizing strengths of interaction in situ for even a small number of species is logistically difficult and may apply only to those conditions under which the estimates were derived. We sought to combine data from field experiments estimating interaction strength of life stages of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, on germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum, with a model that explored the consequences of variability at per capita and per population levels to the abundance of year-old algal recruits. We further simulated how this interaction affected fucoid germling abundance as the timing of their respective settlements varied relative to one another, as occurs regionally across the Gulf of Maine, USA. Juvenile S. balanoides have a weak estimated per capita effect on germlings. Germling populations are sensitive to variation in per capita effects of juvenile barnacles because of the typically large population sizes of the latter. However, high mortality of juvenile barnacles weakens the population interaction strength over time. Adult barnacles probably weakly facilitate fucoid germlings, but greater survival of adults sustains the strength of that interaction at the population level. Germling abundance is positively associated with densities of adult barnacles and negatively associated with that of juvenile barnacles. Metamorphosing cyprid larvae have the strongest per capita effect on germling abundance, but the interaction between the two stages is so short-lived that germling abundance is altered little. Variation in the timing of barnacle and A. nodosum settlement relative to one another had very little influence on the abundance of yearling germlings. Interactions between barnacles and germlings may influence the demographic structure of A. nodosum populations and the persistence of fucoid

  20. Localization of Phosphoproteins within the Barnacle Adhesive Interface.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Yang, Xu; Wu, Fanghui; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Beniash, Elia

    2016-06-01

    Barnacles permanently adhere to nearly any inert substrate using proteinaceous glue. The glue consists of at least ten major proteins, some of which have been isolated and sequenced. Questions still remain about the chemical mechanisms involved in adhesion and the potential of the glue to serve as a platform for mineralization of the calcified base plate. We tested the hypothesis that barnacle glue contains phosphoproteins, which have the potential to play a role in both adhesion and mineralization. Using a combination of phosphoprotein-specific gel staining and Western blotting with anti-phosphoserine antibody, we identified multiple phosphorylated proteins in uncured glue secretions from the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite The protein composition of the glue and the quantity and abundance of phosphoproteins varied distinctly among individual barnacles, possibly due to cyclical changes in the glue secretion over time. We assessed the location of the phosphoproteins within the barnacle glue layer using decalcified barnacle base plates and residual glue deposited by reattached barnacles. Phosphoproteins were found throughout the organic matrix of the base plate and within the residual glue. Staining within the residual glue appeared most intensely in regions where capillary glue ducts, which are involved in cyclical release of glue, had been laid down. Lastly, mineralization studies of glue proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that proteins identified as phosphorylated possibly induce mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These results contribute to our understanding of the protein composition of barnacle glue, and provide new insights into the potential roles of phosphoproteins in underwater bioadhesives. PMID:27365418

  1. Modeling variation in interaction strength between barnacles and fucoids

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The strength by which species interact can vary throughout their ontogeny, as environments vary in space and time, and with the density of their populations. Characterizing strengths of interaction in situ for even a small number of species is logistically difficult and may apply only to those conditions under which the estimates were derived. We sought to combine data from field experiments estimating interaction strength of life stages of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, on germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum, with a model that explored the consequences of variability at per capita and per population levels to the abundance of year-old algal recruits. We further simulated how this interaction affected fucoid germling abundance as the timing of their respective settlements varied relative to one another, as occurs regionally across the Gulf of Maine, USA. Juvenile S. balanoides have a weak estimated per capita effect on germlings. Germling populations are sensitive to variation in per capita effects of juvenile barnacles because of the typically large population sizes of the latter. However, high mortality of juvenile barnacles weakens the population interaction strength over time. Adult barnacles probably weakly facilitate fucoid germlings, but greater survival of adults sustains the strength of that interaction at the population level. Germling abundance is positively associated with densities of adult barnacles and negatively associated with that of juvenile barnacles. Metamorphosing cyprid larvae have the strongest per capita effect on germling abundance, but the interaction between the two stages is so short-lived that germling abundance is altered little. Variation in the timing of barnacle and A. nodosum settlement relative to one another had very little influence on the abundance of yearling germlings. Interactions between barnacles and germlings may influence the demographic structure of A. nodosum populations and the persistence of fucoid

  2. Unraveling the evolutionary radiation of the thoracican barnacles using molecular and morphological evidence: a comparison of several divergence time estimation approaches.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A

    2004-04-01

    The Thoracica includes the ordinary barnacles found along the sea shore and is the most diverse and well-studied superorder of Cirripedia. However, although the literature abounds with scenarios explaining the evolution of these barnacles, very few studies have attempted to test these hypotheses in a phylogenetic context. The few attempts at phylogenetic analyses have suffered from a lack of phylogenetic signal and small numbers of taxa. We collected DNA sequences from the nuclear 18S, 28S, and histone H3 genes and the mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes (4,871 bp total) and data for 37 adult and 53 larval morphological characters from 43 taxa representing all the extant thoracican suborders (except the monospecific Brachylepadomorpha). Four Rhizocephala (highly modified parasitic barnacles) taxa and a Rhizocephala + Acrothoracica (burrowing barnacles) hypothetical ancestor were used as the outgroup for the molecular and morphological analyses, respectively. We analyzed these data separately and combined using maximum likelihood (ML) under "hill-climbing" and genetic algorithm heuristic searches, maximum parsimony procedures, and Bayesian inference coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under mixed and homogeneous models of nucleotide substitution. The resulting phylogenetic trees answered key questions in barnacle evolution. The four-plated Iblomorpha were shown as the most primitive thoracican, and the plateless Heteralepadomorpha were placed as the sister group of the Lepadomorpha. These relationships suggest for the first time in an invertebrate that exoskeleton biomineralization may have evolved from phosphatic to calcitic. Sessilia (nonpedunculate) barnacles were depicted as monophyletic and appear to have evolved from a stalked (pedunculate) multiplated (5+) scalpelloidlike ancestor rather than a five-plated lepadomorphan ancestor. The Balanomorpha (symmetric sessile barnacles) appear to have the following relationship: (Chthamaloidea

  3. The invasive barnacle species, Austrominius modestus: Its status and competition with indigenous barnacles on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mary Catherine; Davenport, John; Gregory, Susan; McAllen, Rob; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The invasive barnacle Austrominius (= Elminius) modestus has been present in Europe since the 1940s, and has recently been recorded to outnumber native barnacle species at some locations, including an Irish marine nature reserve. It has been suggested that these increases in abundance following a lag phase since establishment, represent the awakening of an 'ecological sleeper', due to changes in environmental conditions. Austrominius modestus was first recorded on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland in 1955, and was reported to be well established on the island by 2007. Since this location is close to the northern limit of the invaded range of A. modestus, it has been chosen as a site for the long term monitoring of this species. Quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys of the abundance of A. modestus, together with the native barnacle species Chthamalus montagui and Semibalanus balanoides, have been made on the island on a biannual basis since 2009. This study examined changes in the abundances of these three species from 2009 to 2013, and reports on the present status of this invasive species on the island. Austrominius modestus was found at all sites surveyed, but did not outnumber native barnacle species at any site. Semibalanus balanoides, a cold water boreal species, was the most abundant barnacle species at most sites from 2009 to 2013. All three barnacle species underwent a decline in 2011, but had increased in abundance by 2013. Despite undergoing the smallest increase in abundance between 2011 and 2013, S. balanoides remains the dominant barnacle species on the Isle of Cumbrae. Nearly sixty years after its initial discovery on the island, A. modestus is widespread, however it has not outnumbered native species, which continue to recruit at high densities. This competitive pressure makes it unlikely that A. modestus will outnumber native barnacle species at this location, close to its northern limit, in the near future.

  4. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  5. [Senescence of Moina macrocopa (Cladocera, Crustacea)].

    PubMed

    Makrushin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Natural death of Moina macrocopa (Cladocera, Crustacea) takes place prior to the loss of reproductive abilities. Therefore, animals possess a mechanism reducing life span along with vitauct mechanism prolonging it. PMID:21809616

  6. Australian barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica), distributions and biogeographical affinities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana S

    2012-09-01

    Currently, 279 barnacle species are recognized in Australia waters. The barnacle fauna of tropical Australia exhibits high species diversity (221), with a high incidence of tropical species (87 Indo-west Pacific [IWP], 16 West Pacific and 65 Indo-Malayan), a low species endemicity (8), and 44 cosmopolitan and 1 Australasian species. Conversely, that of temperate Australia shows lower species diversity (129), with a lower incidence of tropical species (26 IWP, 10 West Pacific and 25 Indo-Malayan), higher species endemicity (23), 37 cosmopolitan, 6 Australasian species, and 3 Australasian/Antarctic species. Distributions corroborate the general patterns demonstrated by the shallow-water biota of northern tropical and southern temperate Australian biogeographic provinces. Tropical and temperate provinces grade into each other in a broad overlap zone along both the western and eastern Australian coasts. This overlap zone is essentially a transitional region, with the gradual replacement of a tropical barnacle fauna in the north by a predominantly temperate barnacle fauna in the south. Both western and eastern Australian coasts are bounded by major poleward-flowing warm currents that have considerable influence on the marine flora and fauna, distributing tropical species of many taxa much farther south than could be predicted by latitude. Currently, 16 barnacle species introduced into Australian waters are identified, although this number may increase in the future due to new port developments and increased shipping arrivals.

  7. Intersexuality in Crustacea: an environmental issue?

    PubMed

    Ford, Alex T

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to give a historical overview of current understanding about intersexuality in crustaceans, assesses gaps in our knowledge and asks whether it should be an environmental concern. The oldest known cases of intersexuality come from 70 million year old fossil crabs whilst the oldest published case of intersex crustacean stems from a 1730 Royal Society report of a gynandromorph lobster. Many crustacean species are sequential hermaphroditic or simultaneous hermaphrodites. Consequently, there has been confusion as to whether accounts of intersex in the literature are correct. Intersexuality is fairly common throughout the Crustacea and it has been suggested that intersex may arise through different mechanisms. For example, sexual gynandromorphism may arise through disruption in early embryonic development whereas intersexuality may also arise through perturbations of androgenic gland hormone and sexual differentiation in later development. The causes of intersex are multifaceted and can occur through a number of mechanisms including parasitism, environmental sex determination, genetic abnormalities and increasingly pollution is being implicated. Despite many studies on the effects of endocrine disrupters on crustaceans, very few have focussed on wild populations or male related endpoints; rather many laboratory studies have been attempting to assess biomarkers of feminisation. This is surprising as many of the seminal papers on endocrine disruption focussed on effects found in the wild and male specimens. This paper argues that we might have been addressing the right questions (i.e. pollution induced intersex), but in the wrong way (feminisation); and therefore gives recommendations for future directions for research. Biomarker development has been hampered by paucity of genomic and endocrine knowledge of many crustacean model species; however this is rapidly changing with the advent of cheaper affordable genomic techniques and high throughput sequencing.

  8. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  9. Calcium Efflux from Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J. M.; Blaustein, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Calcium-45 was injected into single giant barnacle muscle fibers, and the rate of efflux was measured under a variety of conditions. The rate constant (k) for 45Ca efflux into standard seawater averaged 17 x 10–4 min–1 which corresponds to an efflux of about 1–2 pmol/cm2·s. Removal of external Ca (Cao) reduced the efflux by 50%. In most fibers about 40% of the 45Ca efflux into Ca-free seawater was dependent on external Na (Nao); treatment with 3.5 mM caffeine increased the magnitude of the Nao-dependent efflux. In a few fibers removal of Nao, in the absence of Cao, either had no effect or increased k; caffeine (2–3.5 mM) unmasked an Nao-dependent efflux in these fibers. The Nao-dependent Ca efflux had a Q10 of about 3.7. The data are consistent with the idea that a large fraction of the Ca efflux may be carrier-mediated, and may involve both Ca-Ca and Na-Ca counterflow. The relation between the Nao-dependent Ca efflux and the external Na concentration is sigmoid, and suggests that two, or more likely three, external Na+ ions may activate the efflux of one Ca+2. With a three-for-one Na-Ca exchange, the Na electrochemical gradient may be able to supply sufficient energy to maintain the Ca gradient in these fibers. Other, more complex models are not excluded, however, and may be required to explain some puzzling features of the Ca efflux such as the variable Nao-dependence. PMID:4812633

  10. Sexual systems and life history of barnacles: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Charnov, Eric L; Sawada, Kota; Yusa, Yoichi

    2012-09-01

    Thoracican barnacles show one of the most diverse sexual systems in animals: hermaphroditism, dioecy (males and females), and androdioecy (males and hermaphrodites). In addition, when present, male barnacles are very small and are called "dwarf males". The diverse sexual systems and male dwarfism in this taxon have attracted both theoretical and empirical biologists. In this article, we review the theoretical studies on barnacles' sexual systems in the context of sex allocation and life history theories. We first introduce the sex allocation models by Charnov, especially in relation to the mating group size, and a new expansion of his models is also proposed. We then explain three studies by Yamaguchi et al., who have studied the interaction between sex allocation and life history in barnacles. These studies consistently showed that limited mating opportunity favors androdioecy and dioecy over hermaphroditism. In addition, other factors, such as rates of survival and availability of food, are also important. We discuss the importance of empirical studies testing these predictions and how empirical studies interact with theoretical constructs.

  11. Modelling boundary layer flow over barnacle-fouled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Macro-biofouling is a critical concern for the marine industry. However, there is little data on flow and drag over such surfaces. Accurate modelling of such multi-scale flows remains a big challenge. Such simulations are vital in providing insights into the fundamental flow physics, and they can be used to estimate the timing, need and effectiveness of measures used to counteract bio-fouling. This talk focuses on the use of a sharp-interface immersed boundary method coupled with a wall model and large-eddy simulations to carry out accurate simulations of a turbulent boundary layer flow over macro-fouled surfaces. For the current study, high resolution scans of barnacles were used to create simple geometrical representations. Simulations were then carried out to test how well these simpler geometric models mimic the flow over actual barnacles. Simulations of array of modeled barnacles, with different barnacle densities have also been carried out and we present results on the effect distribution density on the flow physics and drag on the surfaces. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582.

  12. Effects of barnacle epibionts on the periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, C.; Reise, K.

    1999-08-01

    In a sandy bay with mussel beds in the Wadden Sea (Island of Sylt, eastern North Sea), periwinkles Littorina littorea (L.) were often strongly overgrown with the barnacle Balanus crenatus Bruguière in the lower intertidal zone. Consequences of this epibiosis on mobility, reproduction and mortalityof the snail were examined. B. crenatus growing on L. littorea increased snail volume up to 4-fold and weight up to 3.5-fold and crawling speed of fouled L. littorea was significantly slowed down. The epibiotic structure also caused a decrease in reproductive output. In laboratory experiments, egg production of fouled L. littorea was significantly lower than in snails free of barnacles. Presumably, copulation of the periwinkles is hampered by the voluminous and prickly cover of barnacles. Field studies demonstrated an increased mortality of overgrown L. littorea. A decrease in reproductive output and a lower survival of snails with a cover of barnacles suggest that B. crenatus epibionts may have a significant impact on the population of L. littorea.

  13. The chemistry of stalked barnacle adhesive (Lepas anatifera)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Morrison, Liam; Lynch, Edward P.; Grunwald, Ingo; von Byern, Janek; Power, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first chemical analysis of the adhesive of Lepas anatifera, a stalked barnacle, are presented. A variety of elements were identified in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of the adhesive, including Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, S, Al, Si, K and Fe; however, protein–metal interactions were not detected in Raman spectra of the adhesive. Elemental signatures from SEM-EDS of L. anatifera adhesive glands were less varied. Phosphorous was mostly absent in adhesive samples; supporting previous studies showing that phosphoserines do not play a significant role in adult barnacle adhesion. Disulfide bridges arising from Cys dimers were also investigated; Raman analysis showed weak evidence for S–S bonds in L. anatifera. In addition, there was no calcium carbonate signal in the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of L. anatifera adhesive, unlike several previous studies in other barnacle species. Significant differences were observed between the Raman spectra of L. anatifera and Balanus crenatus; these and a range of Raman peaks in the L. anatifera adhesive are discussed. Polysaccharide was detected in L. anatifera adhesive but the significance of this awaits further experiments. The results demonstrate some of the diversity within barnacle species in the chemistry of their adhesives. PMID:25657841

  14. The First Record of Argulus foliacesus (Crustacea: Branchiura) Infestation on Lionhead Goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noaman, V; Chelongar, Y; Shahmoradi, AH

    2010-01-01

    Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus), taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administration, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran. PMID:22347247

  15. Invasion and morphological variation of the non-indigenous barnacle Chthamalus challengeri (Hoek, 1883) in Yangshan Port and its surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Junzeng; Lin, Junda; Wu, Huixian

    2015-06-01

    Invasive species generally possess unique characteristics that allow them to survive the invasion process in order to establish and spread in new habitats. Successful invaders must resist both physical and physiological stresses associated with the changing environment. A common littoral barnacle, Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, 1883 (Crustacea, Cirripedia), which is native to Japan, South Korea and northern China, has become established in the high-littoral zone adjacent to Yangshan Port, Shanghai, China. A comparison of the morphology of Chthamlus species from Zhoushan archipelago with previous description indicates the occurrence of C. challengeri. The new immigrant becomes a dominant species in certain high-intertidal habitats of the adjacent area to of Yangshan Port. C. challengeri was found in part of sampling sites in Zhoushan in 2010; however, it dispersed to all the eleven sampling sites in 2012. Densities of C.challengeri had increased over 10 times in the last 2 years, with the highest mean value reaching 39533 ± 6243 ind. m-2 in the new habitat. The specific ratios of both operculum area ( Sa) to base area ( SA) and average height of parietal plates ( H) to length of base ( L) revealed that C. challengeri displays morphological changes to resist stronger currents in the new habitats for invasion.

  16. Memristive Model of the Barnacle Giant Muscle Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, Maheshwar Pd.; Kim, Hyongsuk; Eroglu, Abdullah; Chua, Leon

    The generation of action potentials (oscillations) in biological systems is a complex, yet poorly understood nonlinear dynamical phenomenon involving ions. This paper reveals that the time-varying calcium ion and the time-varying potassium ion, which are essential for generating action potentials in Barnacle giant muscle fibers are in fact generic memristors in the perspective of electrical circuit theory. We will show that these two ions exhibit all the fingerprints of memristors from the equations of the Morris-Lecar model of the Barnacle giant muscle fibers. This paper also gives a textbook reference to understand the difference between memristor and nonlinear resistor via analysis of the potassium ion-channel memristor and calcium ion-channel nonlinear resistor. We will also present a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the generation of action potentials (oscillations) in memristive Morris-Lecar model using small-signal circuit model and the Hopf bifurcation theorem.

  17. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Mai; Kitaura, Jun; Kawane, Masako; Ozaki, Yuki; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Høeg, Jens T

    2012-03-01

    How and why diverse sexual systems evolve are fascinating evolutionary questions, but few empirical studies have dealt with these questions in animals. Pedunculate (gooseneck) barnacles show such diversity, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, coexistence of dwarf males and hermaphrodites (androdioecy), and coexistence of dwarf males and females (dioecy). Here, we report the first phylogenetically controlled test of the hypothesis that the ultimate cause of the diverse sexual systems and presence of dwarf males in this group is limited mating opportunities for non-dwarf individuals, owing to mating in small groups. Within the pedunculate barnacle phylogeny, dwarf males and females have evolved repeatedly. Females are more likely to evolve in androdioecious than hermaphroditic populations, suggesting that evolution of dwarf males has preceded that of females in pedunculates. Both dwarf males and females are associated with a higher proportion of solitary individuals in the population, corroborating the hypothesis that limited mating opportunities have favoured evolution of these diverse sexual systems, which have puzzled biologists since Darwin.

  18. [Metazoan parasites of Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostean Sparidae) in the "Golfe du Lion", faunistic and ecology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Renaud, F; Romestand, B; Trilles, J P

    1980-01-01

    A global study of the Metazoan parasites of Boops boops (L., 1758) have been made in the "golfe du Lion". Fourteen different species (eight Platyhelmintha, one Nematoda and five Crustacea) have been inventorized. Their respective localisation on the hosts, globals and specifics corresponding prevalences as well as their variations according to the size of the fish, and their abundance have been precised. Parasitics associations have also been examined. PMID:7458171

  19. Effect of ultrasound on cyprids and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi Feng; Lee, Heow Pueh; Chaw, Kuan Chun; Miklas, Jason; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Dickinson, Gary H; Birch, William R; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2011-02-01

    Settlement inhibition of barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) cypris larvae resulting from exposure to ultrasound was measured at three frequencies (23, 63, and 102 kHz), applied at three acoustic pressure levels (9, 15, and 22 kPa) for exposure times of 30, 150, and 300 s. The lowest settlement was observed for 23 kHz, which also induced the highest cyprid mortality. Cyprid settlement following exposure to 23 kHz at 22 kPa for 30 s was reduced by a factor of two. Observing surface exploration by the cyprids revealed an altered behaviour following exposure to ultrasound: step length was increased, while step duration, walking pace, and the fraction of cyprids exploring the surface were significantly reduced with respect to control cyprids. The basal area of juvenile barnacles, metamorphosed from ultrasound-treated cyprids was initially smaller than unexposed individuals, but normalised over two weeks' growth. Thus, ultrasound exposure effectively reduced cyprid settlement, yet metamorphosed barnacles grew normally.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in edible barnacles exposed to natural contamination.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, M; Costa, A; Rodrigues, A

    2013-04-01

    The giant barnacle Megabalanus azoricus is a popular seafood in the Azores. It is mainly caught in coastal environments and sold for domestic human consumption. This species is a filter feeder and can be used as a biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities. To investigate consumption safety, the concentrations of 10 trace metals - As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn - were evaluated in 3 body tissues of M. azoricus from 3 sites on 2 islands. There were no significant differences between the metal loads of the barnacles from the different sites. However, the concentrations of the total trace metal loads revealed significant differences among the tissues (cirrus, muscles and ovaries). The concentrations of some metals in the body were not within the safety levels for consumers, based on the allowable standard levels for crustaceans issued by the European Union and of legislations in several countries. Alarming levels of As and Cd were found. Considering the absence of heavy industry in the region, a non-anthropogenic volcanic source was assumed to be the reason for the observed metal levels. Barnacles, in particular M. azoricus, seem to be useful as bioindicators in this peculiar environment.

  1. Precise tuning of barnacle leg length to coastal wave action.

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, D. J.; Marchinko, K. B.; Palmer, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    Both spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions can favour intraspecific plasticity in animal form. But how precise is such environmental modulation? Individual Balanus glandula Darwin, a common northeastern Pacific barnacle, produce longer feeding legs in still water than in moving water. We report here that, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, the magnitude and the precision of this phenotypic variation is impressive. First, the feeding legs of barnacles from protected bays were nearly twice as long (for the same body mass) as those from open ocean shores. Second, leg length varied surprisingly precisely with wave exposure: the average maximum velocities of breaking waves recorded in situ explained 95.6-99.5% of the variation in average leg length observed over a threefold range of wave exposure. The decline in leg length with increasing wave action was less than predicted due to simple scaling, perhaps due to changes in leg shape or material properties. Nonetheless, the precision of this relationship reveals a remarkably close coupling between growth environment and adult form, and suggests that between-population differences in barnacle leg length may be used for estimating differences in average wave exposure easily and accurately in studies of coastal ecology. PMID:11600079

  2. Parasite communities and feeding ecology of the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) over its range of distribution.

    PubMed

    Kleinertz, Sonja; Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry W

    2012-03-01

    The metazoan parasite fauna and feeding ecology of 165 Sprattus sprattus (L., 1758) was studied from different geographic regions (Baltic Sea, North Sea, English Channel, Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea). A total of 13 metazoan parasite species were identified including six Digenea, one Monogenea, two Cestoda, two Nematoda and two Crustacea. Didymozoidae indet., Lecithocladium excisum and Bomolochidae indet. represent new host records. The parasite species richness differed according to regions and ranged between 3 and 10. The most species-rich parasite fauna was recorded for sprats from the Bay of Biscay (North Atlantic), and the fishes from the Baltic Sea contained the lowest number of parasite species. More closely connected geographical regions, the North Sea, English Channel and Bay of Biscay, showed more similar parasite component communities compared with more distant regions. From the examined stomachs of S. sprattus, a total of 11 different prey items were identified, including Mollusca, Annelida, Crustacea and Tunicata. The highest number of prey organisms belonged to the crustaceans. The variety of prey items in the stomach was reflected by the parasite community differences and parasite species richness from the different regions. The feeding ecology of the fish at the sampled localities was responsible for the observed parasite composition and, secondarily, the zoogeographical distribution of the parasites, questioning the use of the recorded sprat parasites as biological indicators for environmental conditions and change.

  3. The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2013-09-01

    The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles was documented using high speed photography. Using spark generated bubbles, the interaction between barnacle and cavitation bubble was examined in detail. The liquid jet generated by the bubble collapse was observed to be directed towards barnacle at different impact intensities, which is related to the dimensionless distance H' (H'=H/Rm), where H is the distance between bubble formation point and the top of barnacle, and Rm is the maximum bubble radius. At lower values of H', higher speed liquid jet was produced; consequently a larger impact pressure was generated. In general, barnacles are more easily removed at a younger stage. In older barnacles, the liquid jet impact was only able to remove the barnacle shells, leaving the base plate attached to the surface. This study indicates that cavitation can be used to remove attached barnacles, and it would be more efficient if it is applied during early stages of fouling, before the formation of hard calcareous structures.

  4. ESR dating pleistocene barnacles from BC and Maine: a new method for tracking sea level change.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bonnie A B; Gong, J J J; Skinner, Anne R; Blais-Stevens, Andrée; Nelson, Robert E; Blickstein, Joel I B

    2010-02-01

    Barnacles have never been successfully dated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Living mainly in the intertidal zone, barnacles die when sea level changes cause their permanent exposure. Thus, dating the barnacles dates past sea level changes. From this, we can measure apparent sea level changes that occur due to ocean volume changes, crustal isostasy, and tectonics. ESR can date aragonitic mollusc shells ranging in age from 5 ka to at least 500 ka. By modifying the standard ESR method for molluscs to chemically dissolve 20 microm from off the shells, six barnacle samples from Norridgewock, Maine, and Khyex River, British Columbia, were tested for suitability for ESR dating. Due to Mn2+ interference peaks, the four Maine barnacle samples were not datable by ESR. Two barnacles from BC, which lacked Mn2+ interference, yielded a mean ESR age of 15.1 +/- 1.0 ka. These ages agree well with 14C dates on the barnacles themselves and wood in the overlying glaciomarine sediment. Although stability tests to calculate the mean dating signal lifetime and more ESR calibration tests against other barnacles of known age are needed to ensure the method's accuracy, ESR can indeed date Balanus, and thus, sea level changes.

  5. Loggerhead turtle movements reconstructed from 18O and 13C profiles from commensal barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killingley, John S.; Lutcavage, Molly

    1983-03-01

    Commensal barnacles, Chelonibia testudinaria, from logger-head turtles have 18O and 13C variations in their calcitic shells that record the environments in which the turtles live. Isotopic profiles from the barnacle shells can thus be interpreted to reconstruct movements of the host turtle between open ocean and brackish-water regimes.

  6. Comparative analysis of barnacle tropomyosin: divergence from decapod tropomyosins and role as a potential allergen.

    PubMed

    Suma, Yota; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Lu, Ying; Ushio, Hideki; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-06-01

    Tropomyosin, a myofibrillar protein of 35-38 kDa, represents a major and cross-reactive allergen in decapod crustaceans. This study was initiated to clarify whether decapod-allergic patients also recognize tropomyosins of barnacles, crustaceans phylogenetically remote from decapods, which are locally consumed as a delicacy. On SDS-PAGE, a 37 kDa protein was observed in all the heated extracts prepared from two species of decapods (American lobster Homarus americanus and black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon) and two species of barnacles (acorn barnacle Balanus rostratus and goose barnacle Capitulum mitella). In immunoblotting, the 37 kDa protein was found to react with monoclonal antibodies against American lobster tropomyosin and hence identified as tropomyosin. The patient sera reacted to tropomyosins from both decapods and barnacles and the reactivity was abolished by preincubation with American lobster tropomyosin, demonstrating that barnacle tropomyosins are allergens cross-reactive with decapod tropomyosins. However, the amino acid sequence of acorn barnacle tropomyosin, deduced by cDNA cloning experiments, shares higher sequence identity with abalone tropomyosins than with decapod tropomyosins. In accordance with this, the phylogenetic tree made for tropomyosins from various animals showed that the acorn barnacle tropomyosin is evolutionally classified not into the decapod tropomyosin family but into the molluscan tropomyosin family.

  7. PCR-cloning of cadmium-inducible peptides in the barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Togi, Akiko; Kamino, Kei; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

    2002-04-01

    A 340 bp DNA fragment was amplified from barnacle (Megabalanus volcano) cDNA by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed based on the amino acid sequences of barnacle cadmium-inducible peptides CdlP1 and CdlP2. The whole sequence was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding 71 amino acid residues and the sequences for CdlP1 and CdlP2 were found to be located in the center of this coding region. Although CdlP1 and CdlP2 had been detected only in the cadmium-exposed barnacles, their mRNA was present both in cadmium-exposed barnacles and in unexposed barnacles. These results suggest that posttranslational proteolytic processing may be induced in the presence of cadmium.

  8. [Metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Durusu (Terkos)].

    PubMed

    Karatoy, Emine; Soylu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Durusu (Terkos) were investigated between June 2002 and May 2003. During this study, a total of 67 bream were examined for the presence of metazoan parasites. Ten species of parasites were found on 64 of the 67 fish examined. These parasites are: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878) and D. distinguendus (Nybelin, 1936) Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) Cestoidea, Tetracotyle sp, Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832) metacercaria Trematoda, Eustrongylides excisus (Jagerskiöld, 1909) Nematoda, Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus, 1758) Hirudinea, glochidia of mollusk, Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) Crustacea. Diplostomum sp., Dactylogyrus sphyrna and D. distinguendus were found to be the dominant parasites of A. brama. Both the prevalence and intensity of other parasites were not found to be high. All identified parasites are a new finding for A. brama in the Lake Durusu. This is the first time that D. distinguendus has been identified in Turkey.

  9. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa).

  10. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  11. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  12. Barnacle Bill and Surrounding from Super-Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an image from the super-pan sequence. Of importance are some of the features around the rock nicknamed Barnacle Bill in the left foreground. The rock shows a 'streamlined tail' composed of particles deposited by wind on the leeward (downwind) side of the rock. Also seen is a 'moat' around the opposite (windward) side of the rock where either erosion (or non-deposition) of fine sediment has occurred. Mars Pathfinder scientist believe that the wind blowing over and around rocks like Barnacle Bill creates an airflow pattern wherein a buffer zone is formed immediately upwind of the rock and airflow patterns keep sediment from being deposited directly upwind of Barnacle Bill. On the downwind side, however, the airflow is complex and a small wake and tapered 'dead air zone' form. Sediment can be deposited within this region, the shape of the formed deposit corresponds to the airflow patterns that exist behind the rock. Similar features have been observed at the Viking landing sites, and are thought to form under high wind conditions during the autumn and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. This image mosaic was processed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the NASA/JPL Mars Pathfinder Mars Mission.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  13. Mitochondrial evolution across lineages of the vampire barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus.

    PubMed

    Wares, John P

    2015-02-01

    Eight whole mitochondrial genomes from the barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus, with one from the northern lineage and seven from the divergent southern lineage, are presented. The annotated and aligned data were analyzed for signals of non-neutral evolution. Overall, these data are consistent with purifying selection operating on the protein-coding regions of the mitochondrion. However, a notable region of nonsynonymous substitution at the 3' end of the ND2 gene region, along with unusual site frequency spectra in two other gene regions, was identified.

  14. Antifouling Block Copolymer Surfaces that Resist Settlement of Barnacle Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Weinman,C.; Krishnan, S.; Park, D.; Paik, M.; Wong, K.; Fischer, D.; Handlin, D.; Kowalke, G.; Wendt, D.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Marine biofouling is a serious problem caused by the accumulation and settlement of barnacles, macroalgae, and microbial slimes on the hulls of seafaring vessels. Biofouling can significantly increase drag, leading to startling consequences with regards to fuel consumption. Environmentally compatible solutions to biofouling are being sought as traditional metal-based systems of fouling control are being phased out due to their inherent toxicity. Further exasperating the problem of biofouling is the vast range of fouling organisms and environmental conditions experienced throughout the world. This renders the development of a universal biofouling coating a significant challenge.

  15. The impact of desiccation on the adhesion of barnacles attached to non-stick coatings.

    PubMed

    Wiegemann, Maja; Watermann, Burkard

    2004-06-01

    Fouling-release coatings prevent fouling of ships' hulls through hydrodynamic forces generated as the ship moves through the water. The effectiveness of such coatings may be evaluated by measuring the adhesion strength of settled organisms, e.g. barnacles. The influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive on such measurements was investigated. Shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Balanus increased during the course of desiccation up to the point when the barnacles suddenly self-detached. The increase was thought to be due to the rising cohesive strength of the adhesive. Growing tensile forces within the weakly cross-linked adhesive, however, are suggested to have led to self-detachment. The shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Elminius were generally low and did not differ significantly during the course of desiccation. The different results may be attributed to specific base morphologies. It was concluded that measuring the adhesion strength of members of the Balanidae on non-stick surfaces in air could produce flawed results due to the influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive. The investigations have also provided new insights into the characteristics of barnacle adhesive.

  16. Effect of ultrasound on cyprid footprint and juvenile barnacle adhesion on a fouling release material.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Zhong, Shaoping; Lim, Chwee Teck; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-03-01

    In our earlier studies, we have demonstrated that low and high intensity ultrasound can prevent barnacle cyprid settlement. In this study, we found that ultrasound treatment reduced the adhesion of newly metamorphosed barnacles up to 2 days' old. This was observed in the reduction of adhesion strength of the newly settled barnacles from ultrasound treated cyprids on silicone substrate compared to the adhesion strength of barnacles metamorphosed from cyprids not exposed to ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the effect of ultrasound on barnacle cyprid footprints (FPs), which are protein adhesives secreted when the larvae explore surfaces. The ultrasound treated cyprids were found to secrete less FPs, which appeared to spread a larger area than those generated by untreated cyprids. The evidence from this study suggests that ultrasound treatment results in a reduced cyprid settlement and footprint secretion, and may affect the subsequent recruitment of barnacles onto fouling release surfaces by reducing the ability of early settlement stage of barnacles (up to 2 days' old) from firmly adhering to the substrates. Ultrasound therefore can be used in combination with fouling release coatings to offer a more efficient antifouling strategy.

  17. Incorporation of silicone oil into elastomers enhances barnacle detachment by active surface strain.

    PubMed

    Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Cao, Changyong; Orihuela, Beatriz; Levering, Vrad; Zhao, Xuanhe; Rittschof, Daniel; López, Gabriel P

    2016-10-01

    Silicone-oil additives are often used in fouling-release silicone coatings to reduce the adhesion strength of barnacles and other biofouling organisms. This study follows on from a recently reported active approach to detach barnacles, which was based on the surface strain of elastomeric materials, by investigating a new, dual-action approach to barnacle detachment using Ecoflex®-based elastomers incorporated with poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based oil additives. The experimental results support the hypothesis that silicone-oil additives reduce the amount of substratum strain required to detach barnacles. The study also de-coupled the two effects of silicone oils (ie surface-activity and alteration of the bulk modulus) and examined their contributions in reducing barnacle adhesion strength. Further, a finite element model based on fracture mechanics was employed to qualitatively understand the effects of surface strain and substratum modulus on barnacle adhesion strength. The study demonstrates that dynamic substratum deformation of elastomers with silicone-oil additives provides a bifunctional approach towards management of biofouling by barnacles. PMID:27560712

  18. Antifouling properties of tough gels against barnacles in a long-term marine environment experiment.

    PubMed

    Murosaki, T; Noguchi, T; Hashimoto, K; Kakugo, A; Kurokawa, T; Saito, J; Chen, Y M; Furukawa, H; Gong, J P

    2009-10-01

    In the marine environment, the antifouling (AF) properties of various kinds of hydrogels against sessile marine organisms (algae, sea squirts, barnacles) were tested in a long-term experiment. The results demonstrate that most hydrogels can endure at least 2 months in the marine environment. In particular, mechanically tough PAMPS/PAAm DN and PVA gels exhibited AF activity against marine sessile organisms, especially barnacles, for as long as 330 days. The AF ability of hydrogels toward barnacles is explained in terms of an 'easy-release' mechanism in which the high water content and the elastic modulus of the gel are two important parameters.

  19. How do coral barnacles start their life in their hosts?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennie Chien Wen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-06-01

    Coral-associated invertebrates are the most significant contributors to the diversity of reef ecosystems, but no studies have examined how larvae manage to settle and grow in their coral hosts. Video recordings were used to document this process in the coral barnacle Darwiniella angularis associated with the coral Cyphastrea chalcidicum Settlement and metamorphosis in feeding juveniles lasted 8-11 days and comprised six phases. The settling cyprid starts by poking its antennules into the tissue of the prospective host (I: probing stage). The coral releases digestive filaments for defence, but tolerating such attack the cyprid penetrates further (II: battling stage). Ecdysis is completed 2 days after settlement (III: carapace detachment). The barnacle becomes embedded deep in the coral tissue while completing metamorphosis between 4 and 6 days (IV: embedding stage), but reappears as a feeding juvenile 8-11 days after settlement (V: emerging stage; VI: feeding stage). Cyprids preferably settle in areas between the coral polyps, where they have a much higher survival rate than on the polyp surfaces.

  20. Accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd by crabs and barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.

    1985-11-01

    The crab Carcinus maenas (L.) and the barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin were exposed to a range of dissolved concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd for 21 days in artificial seawater. Accumulation of Zn and Cu by crabs has been interpreted in terms of the presence of a regulation mechanism to maintain constant body concentrations (83·2 ± 19·4 μg Zn g -1 dry wt.; 39·8 ± 9·8 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.) under varying external dissolved metal levels, until a threshold dissolved metal concentration ( c. 400 μg Zn l -1; c. 170 μg Cu l -1) beyond which net accumulation of metal begins. Cadium appears to be accumulated by C. maenas at all exposures with no evidence for regulation of body cadmium concentrations. Exposure of E. modestus to Zn, Cu or Cd caused net accumulation of the respective metal in the bodies of the barnacles, with no evidence for regulation of body metal concentrations.

  1. How do coral barnacles start their life in their hosts?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennie Chien Wen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-06-01

    Coral-associated invertebrates are the most significant contributors to the diversity of reef ecosystems, but no studies have examined how larvae manage to settle and grow in their coral hosts. Video recordings were used to document this process in the coral barnacle Darwiniella angularis associated with the coral Cyphastrea chalcidicum Settlement and metamorphosis in feeding juveniles lasted 8-11 days and comprised six phases. The settling cyprid starts by poking its antennules into the tissue of the prospective host (I: probing stage). The coral releases digestive filaments for defence, but tolerating such attack the cyprid penetrates further (II: battling stage). Ecdysis is completed 2 days after settlement (III: carapace detachment). The barnacle becomes embedded deep in the coral tissue while completing metamorphosis between 4 and 6 days (IV: embedding stage), but reappears as a feeding juvenile 8-11 days after settlement (V: emerging stage; VI: feeding stage). Cyprids preferably settle in areas between the coral polyps, where they have a much higher survival rate than on the polyp surfaces. PMID:27330170

  2. Barnacle reproductive hotspots linked to nearshore ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Heather M; Breck, Erin N; Chan, Francis; Lubchenco, Jane; Menge, Bruce A

    2005-07-26

    Coastal marine ecosystems provide important ecosystem services to human populations worldwide. Understanding the contexts in which a species has markedly higher reproductive output is vital for effective management and conservation of these valuable and highly impacted systems. We documented reproductive hotspots along the Oregon coast for an ecologically significant marine invertebrate, the intertidal barnacle Balanus glandula. Greater larval production in both natural and experimental populations was associated with higher primary productivity in the adjacent nearshore ocean, providing strong evidence for bottom-up forcing. Mean cumulative larval production per 100 cm2 in natural barnacle populations in the region of higher primary productivity was almost 5x that of populations in the less productive region. Mean estimated larval production per individual in experimental populations in the region of higher primary productivity was >2x that of populations in the region of lower productivity, and mean larval production per 100 cm2 was >120x greater in the region of higher productivity. Our results highlight the importance of spatial heterogeneity in reproduction and other ecological processes in the marine environment and provide a mechanistic basis for evaluating the relative contributions of different sites when designing marine reserves and other protected areas. Our findings also advance the understanding of the role of bottom-up influences on population and community dynamics and contribute data for the next generation of models of marine community dynamics.

  3. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Mai; Kitaura, Jun; Kawane, Masako; Ozaki, Yuki; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Høeg, Jens T.

    2012-01-01

    How and why diverse sexual systems evolve are fascinating evolutionary questions, but few empirical studies have dealt with these questions in animals. Pedunculate (gooseneck) barnacles show such diversity, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, coexistence of dwarf males and hermaphrodites (androdioecy), and coexistence of dwarf males and females (dioecy). Here, we report the first phylogenetically controlled test of the hypothesis that the ultimate cause of the diverse sexual systems and presence of dwarf males in this group is limited mating opportunities for non-dwarf individuals, owing to mating in small groups. Within the pedunculate barnacle phylogeny, dwarf males and females have evolved repeatedly. Females are more likely to evolve in androdioecious than hermaphroditic populations, suggesting that evolution of dwarf males has preceded that of females in pedunculates. Both dwarf males and females are associated with a higher proportion of solitary individuals in the population, corroborating the hypothesis that limited mating opportunities have favoured evolution of these diverse sexual systems, which have puzzled biologists since Darwin. PMID:21881138

  4. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances.

  5. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances. PMID:26715248

  6. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  7. Release characteristics of reattached barnacles to non-toxic silicone coatings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Nyren-Erickson, Erin; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2008-01-01

    Release mechanisms of barnacles (Amphibalanus amphitrite or Balanus amphitrite) reattached to platinum-cured silicone coatings were studied as a function of coating thickness (210-770 microm), elastic modulus (0.08-1.3 MPa), and shear rate (2-22 microm s(-1)). It was found that the shear stress of the reattached, live barnacles necessary to remove from the silicone coatings was controlled by the combined term (E/t)(0.5) of the elastic modulus (E) and thickness (t). As the ratio of the elastic modulus to coating thickness decreased, the barnacles were more readily removed from the silicone coatings, showing a similar release behavior to pseudobarnacles (epoxy glue). The barnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.017 to 0.055 MPa whereas the pseudobarnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.022 to 0.095 MPa.

  8. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal.

    PubMed

    Gil, Michael A; Pfaller, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai'i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris. PMID:26813348

  9. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal.

    PubMed

    Gil, Michael A; Pfaller, Joseph B

    2016-01-27

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai'i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris.

  10. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Michael A.; Pfaller, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai’i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris. PMID:26813348

  11. Migrations of california gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles.

    PubMed

    Killingley, J S

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships. PMID:17796007

  12. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships.

  13. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Insurance Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the 'Insurance Pan' frames taken while the IMP camera was still in its stowed position on sol2. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The right eye composite consists of 5 frames, taken with different color filters, the left eye consists of only 1 frame. The resultant image from each eye was enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars.

    The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument.

  14. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  15. Prawns, barnacles, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: effect modifiers or diagnostic confounders [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; González-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V; Armisén, M

    2007-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with no history of atopy reported several episodes of generalized urticaria and shortness of breath after eating shellfish (prawns and barnacles) but with good tolerance of the same foods between episodes. Skin prick tests (SPTs), serum enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST) for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, Western blot and inhibition assays, and oral challenge tests with prawns, barnacles, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and alcohol as potential effect modifiers were performed. Specific IgE to both barnacle and prawn were detected by SPTs and EAST. Results from a Western blot of raw prawn revealed an IgE binding band of 37 kDa and IgE binding bands of 143, 83, 38, 32, and 20 kDa appeared in the raw barnacle assay. Oral challenge tests were positive with prawns and prawn extract only if preceded by NSAIDs. Oral challenges with NSAIDs alone, prawns alone, barnacles with or without NSAIDs and alcohol led to no reaction. A synergistic effect of NSAIDs in inducing anaphylaxis after prawn intake was confirmed. No similar effect was achieved with barnacles despite the presence of specific IgE. Additional factors needed to elicit a clinical reaction in food allergy may not be obvious and several oral challenge protocols are mandatory in such cases.

  16. The identification and role of a novel eicosanoid in the reproductive behaviour of barnacles (Balanus balanus).

    PubMed

    Maskrey, Ben H; Taylor, Graham W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2006-02-01

    Post-copulatory behaviour in barnacles involves a violent rocking movement of the opercular valves, which is thought to contribute to the expulsion of oocytes through the oviduct into the mantle cavity where they are fertilised. We demonstrate in this study that the seminal vesicles/testis of the subtidal barnacle Balanus balanus produce a biologically active factor, barnacle muscle stimulatory factor (BMSF), which causes a significant increase in cirral and body muscular activity. BMSF was identified using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry as a novel eicosanoid/oxylipin, 8,13-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. This is rapidly inactivated under mild acid conditions to form a complex range of triene and pentaene chromophore-containing products that have only been partially identified. Injection of purified BMSF into the mantle cavity of barnacles caused the rocking movements of the opercular valves as reported following fertilisation. In excised barnacles, it also caused muscular contractions of the whole body mass. The breakdown products of BMSF, however, were without such activities. The function of BMSF in facilitating fertilisation in barnacles is comparable to the role of other eicosanoids in human reproduction, reinforcing the view that these compounds have conserved activities in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  17. Prolonged morphometric study of barnacles grown on soft substrata of hydrogels and elastomers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nafees; Murosaki, Takayuki; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Kakugo, Akira; Yashima, Shintaro; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-01-01

    A long-term investigation of the shell shape and the basal morphology of barnacles grown on tough, double-network (DN) hydrogels and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer was conducted in a laboratory environment. The elastic modulus of these soft substrata varied between 0.01 and 0.47 MPa. Polystyrene (PS) (elastic modulus, 3 GPa) was used as a hard substratum control. It was found that the shell shape and the basal plate morphology of barnacles were different on the rigid PS substratum compared to the soft substrata of PDMS and DN hydrogels. Barnacles on the PS substratum had a truncated cone shape with a flat basal plate while on soft PDMS and DN gels, barnacles had a pseudo-cylindrical shape and their basal plates showed curvature. In addition, a large adhesive layer was observed under barnacles on PDMS, but not on DN gels. The effect of substratum stiffness is discussed in terms of barnacle muscle contraction, whereby the relative stiffness of the substratum compared to that of the muscle is considered as the key parameter.

  18. 'Flying barnacles': implications for the spread of non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Chan, Benny K K; Koskinen, Hannu; Høeg, Jens T

    2010-07-01

    The presence of adult barnacles of Fistulobalanus pallidus (Darwin) and Fistulobalanus albicostatus (Pilsbry) attached to field-readable plastic leg rings on the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus in Northern Europe is reported. L. fuscus is a long-distance palaearctic migrant, breeding in temperate areas spreading widely over inland and marine habitats outside the breeding season. The species is known to perform long-distance migration to Africa and the Middle East. Combining present knowledge on the birds' migratory pattern and the home range of the barnacle species, it is concluded that the cypris larvae of F. pallidus must have settled in African waters, whereas the area where F. albicostatus settled on the bird leg rings is less certain. The barnacles were of adult size and must thus have been attached for a period of no less than 2 months. More than 30 individual barnacles could occur together on a single field-readable plastic leg ring. The barnacles could therefore, if ported alive to a new area, reproduce successfully and thus either introduce the species or genetically affect other native populations. This may pose a new and wholly unexpected transportation pathway for barnacles as invasive species.

  19. Larval vision contributes to gregarious settlement in barnacles: adult red fluorescence as a possible visual signal.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Gregarious settlement, an essential behavior for many barnacle species that can only reproduce by mating with a nearby barnacle, has long been thought to rely on larval ability to recognize chemical signals from conspecifics during settlement. However, the cyprid, the settlement stage larva in barnacles, has one pair of compound eyes that appear only at the late nauplius VI and cyprid stages, but the function(s) of these eyes remains unknown. Here we show that cyprids of the intertidal barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite can locate adult barnacles even in the absence of chemical cues, and prefer to settle around them probably via larval sense of vision. We also show that the cyprids can discriminate color and preferred to settle on red surfaces. Moreover, we found that shells of adult B. amphitrite emit red auto-fluorescence and the adult extracts with the fluorescence as a visual signal attracted cyprid larvae to settle around it. We propose that the perception of specific visual signals can be involved in behavior of zooplankton including marine invertebrate larvae, and that barnacle auto-fluorescence may be a specific signal involved in gregarious larval settlement.

  20. Increased algal fouling on mussels with barnacle epibionts: a fouling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    If the external surfaces of epibionts are more suitable to other fouling species than those of their basibionts, a 'fouling cascade' might occur where epibionts facilitate secondary colonization by other epibionts. Here we evaluate whether the presence of epibiotic barnalces (Balanus glandula) influences the probability of mussel (Brachidontes rodriguezii) fouling by ephemeral red algae (Porphyra sp.) in a Southwestern Atlantic rocky shore. Mussels with barnacle epibionts showed a higher prevalence of Porphyra sp. fouling (32-40% depending on sampling date) than mussels without them (3-7%). Two lines of evidence indicate that barnacles facilitate Porphyra sp. fouling. First, most Porphyra sp. thalli in mussels with barnacle epibionts were attached to barnacle shells (75-92% of cases). Secondly, Porphyra sp. associated with mussels with barnacle epibionts in a proportion that significantly exceeded that expected under random co-occurrence. These results suggest the occurrence of a fouling cascade where barnacle epibiosis on mussels facilitates subsequent algal fouling. Recognizing the occurrence of such fouling cascades is important because they might explain the non-random aggregation of multiple epibiotic species onto a proportionally few individuals of the host species.

  1. Significance of trophic transfer in predicting the high concentration of zinc in barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Qui, J.W.; Qian, P.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Barnacles are known to accumulate Zn to a phenomenal concentration, but physiological processes governing Zn accumulation are poorly defined. The authors determined the assimilation efficiency and efflux rate constant of Zn in barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) using radiotracer technique. Assimilation efficiency of Zn from ingested food ranged between 76 and 87% for the diatom diets and between 86 and 98% for the zooplankton preys. These AEs were the highest measured among aquatic invertebrates. Varying distribution in the soft tissues of zooplankton did not account for the variability of Zn AE observed among different zooplankton preys. Most Zn was distributed in the guts of the animals, presumably associated with the numerous granules beneath the gut epithelium. The efflux rate constant was 0.003 d{sup {minus}1}, and the calculated biological retention half-time was about 230 days. Using a simple bioenergetic-based kinetic model, the authors demonstrated that trophic transfer can account for such a high Zn concentration in barnacles. The predicted Zn concentrations in barnacles were directly comparable to the concentrations measured in Hong Kong coastal waters {micro}g. The high Zn concentration is related to its very efficient assimilation in barnacles coupled with a very low efflux rate. Biological variability must be fully appreciated before barnacles can be designated as an appropriate biomonitor of Zn contamination in coastal waters. The authors study suggests that metal concentration in aquatic animals can be predicted only when both physiological and geochemical processes are considered.

  2. Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Maleschlijski, Stojan; Bauer, Stella; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Barnacle cyprids exhibit a complex swimming and exploratory behaviour on surfaces and settlement is a consequence of extensive surface probing and selection of suitable settlement sites. In this work, the behaviour of cyprids in their pre-settlement phase was studied by three-dimensional video stereoscopy. With this technique, three-dimensional trajectories were obtained that were quantitatively analysed. The velocity during vertical sinking of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite was used with a modified form of Stokes' law to calculate their mean body density. Furthermore, a classification of the swimming patterns allowed the extension of existing models describing cyprid locomotion and swimming behaviour. The patterns were characterized with respect to their occurrence, transition between patterns and their velocity distribution, and motions were identified that led to surface contacts. This analysis provides a classification framework, which can assist future attempts to identify behavioural responses of cyprids to specific settlement cues. PMID:25551141

  3. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  4. Antifouling activity of synthetic alkylpyridinium polymers using the barnacle model.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-04-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC₅₀) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC₅₀: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC₅₀ of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  5. Reactivity of IgE antibodies with crustacea and oyster allergens: evidence for common antigenic structures.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L

    1987-08-01

    IgE-antibody reactivity to oysters and crustacea of sera from six oyster-sensitive, seven oyster- and crustacea-sensitive, and 12 crustacea-sensitive subjects was investigated. All six subjects with a history of only oyster sensitivity had minimal RAST reactivity (ratios 2 to 5) to extracts of raw or boiled oysters. Three of the seven oyster- and crustacea-sensitive subjects and six of the 12 crustacea-sensitive, oyster-tolerant or unexposed subjects had elevated RAST ratios to oyster (14 to 41). Generally, elevated oyster RAST correlated with skin prick test reactivity to oyster but not with total serum IgE levels. The oyster RAST values of the 19 crustacea-sensitive subjects (with or without oyster sensitivity) correlated with crustacea RAST reactivity (crab RAST, most significant; shrimp RAST, least significant). Rabbit antisera to crustacea extracts detected precipitating antigens present in extracts of raw or boiled oysters. Significant inhibition of the oyster RAST was obtained with oyster or crustacea extracts. These studies suggest that in the diagnosis of oyster sensitivity the RAST may not be useful and that oyster and crustacea contain common antigenic structures.

  6. Factors associated with parasite dominance in fishes from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amarante, Cristina Fernandes do; Tassinari, Wagner de Souza; Luque, Jose Luis; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim

    2016-06-14

    The present study used regression models to evaluate the existence of factors that may influence the numerical parasite dominance with an epidemiological approximation. A database including 3,746 fish specimens and their respective parasites were used to evaluate the relationship between parasite dominance and biotic characteristics inherent to the studied hosts and the parasite taxa. Multivariate, classical, and mixed effects linear regression models were fitted. The calculations were performed using R software (95% CI). In the fitting of the classical multiple linear regression model, freshwater and planktivorous fish species and body length, as well as the species of the taxa Trematoda, Monogenea, and Hirudinea, were associated with parasite dominance. However, the fitting of the mixed effects model showed that the body length of the host and the species of the taxa Nematoda, Trematoda, Monogenea, Hirudinea, and Crustacea were significantly associated with parasite dominance. Studies that consider specific biological aspects of the hosts and parasites should expand the knowledge regarding factors that influence the numerical dominance of fish in Brazil. The use of a mixed model shows, once again, the importance of the appropriate use of a model correlated with the characteristics of the data to obtain consistent results. PMID:27304524

  7. Factors associated with parasite dominance in fishes from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amarante, Cristina Fernandes do; Tassinari, Wagner de Souza; Luque, Jose Luis; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim

    2016-06-14

    The present study used regression models to evaluate the existence of factors that may influence the numerical parasite dominance with an epidemiological approximation. A database including 3,746 fish specimens and their respective parasites were used to evaluate the relationship between parasite dominance and biotic characteristics inherent to the studied hosts and the parasite taxa. Multivariate, classical, and mixed effects linear regression models were fitted. The calculations were performed using R software (95% CI). In the fitting of the classical multiple linear regression model, freshwater and planktivorous fish species and body length, as well as the species of the taxa Trematoda, Monogenea, and Hirudinea, were associated with parasite dominance. However, the fitting of the mixed effects model showed that the body length of the host and the species of the taxa Nematoda, Trematoda, Monogenea, Hirudinea, and Crustacea were significantly associated with parasite dominance. Studies that consider specific biological aspects of the hosts and parasites should expand the knowledge regarding factors that influence the numerical dominance of fish in Brazil. The use of a mixed model shows, once again, the importance of the appropriate use of a model correlated with the characteristics of the data to obtain consistent results. PMID:27334824

  8. Parasitic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  9. Fish parasites in the Arctic deep-sea: Poor diversity in pelagic fish species vs. heavy parasite load in a demersal fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry Wilhelm; Busch, Markus Wilhelm; Kellermanns, Esra; Rückert, Sonja

    2006-07-01

    A total of 219 deep-sea fishes belonging to five families were examined for the parasite fauna and stomach contents. The demersal fish Macrourus berglax, bathypelagic Bathylagus euryops, and mesopelagic Argentina silus, Borostomias antarcticus, Chauliodus sloani, and Lampanyctus macdonaldi were caught at 243-708 m trawling depth in the Greenland and the Irminger Sea in 2002. A total of 21 different parasite species, six Digenea, one Monogenea, two Cestoda, seven Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, and four Crustacea, were found. The parasite diversity in the meso- and bathypelagic environment was less diverse in comparison to the benthal. Macrourus berglax had the highest diversity (20 species), usually carrying 4-10 different parasite species (mean 7.1), whereas Bathylagus euryops harbored up to three and Argentina silus, Borostomias antarcticus, Chauliodus sloani and Lampanyctus macdonaldi each up to two species. Most Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, and Crustacea are known from a wide host range. Several of the encountered parasites occurred at a very low prevalence (<10%), indicating that the studied deep-sea fishes are most probably not instrumental to complete the parasite life cycles in the area of investigation. It is suggested that the lack of nutrients in the meso- and bathypelagial limits the abundance of potential first intermediate hosts of nematodes and cestodes, resulting in low infestation rates even of widely distributed, non-specific species. In contrast, the higher biomass in the benthic deep-sea environment increases the availability of potential intermediate hosts, such as molluscs for the digeneans, resulting in increased parasite diversity. Because many deep-sea fish have a generalistic feeding behavior, the observed different parasite diversity reflects a different depth range of the fish and not necessarily a specific fish feeding ecology.

  10. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under the McMurdo Ice Shelf using Antarctic barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the potential of barnacles for paleoceanographic reconstruction and, in particular, of the Antarctic species Bathylasma corolliforme to reconstruct past conditions under ice shelves. Like other barnacle species, this Antarctic barnacle secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth over a number of years (30-50 in samples studied here). The Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and became entrained at the grounding line of a coastal ice shelf in McMurdo Sound, offering potential as an archive of changing conditions in this difficult to access environment under the McMurdo ice shelf. Nine barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ 18O and δ 13C analysis. These samples were dated with 14C and U-Th techniques, although the later did not yield useful age information due to open-system behaviour of barnacle calcite. Measured δ 18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater. One older sample (≈ 200 ka) has similar δ 18O and δ 13C values as the eight Holocene samples, suggesting that barnacle calcite is not prone to significant diagenesis in this setting. Apparent isotope equilibrium and lack of diagenesis make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Cycles of δ 18O observed within each sample sometimes correlate with the external growth ridges, but not always, and have amplitudes of typically 0.6‰. This magnitude of variation suggests shell growth during a significant portion of the year, although it remains unclear whether growth continues throughout the year. However, the prominent growth bands suggest at least a signficant seasonal slowing in growth rate. Variations in barnacle δ 18O within each plate and between plates are too large to be caused by temperature, and instead reflect changes in δ 18O of the seawater, allowing some assessment of seawater

  11. Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Nozawa, Yoko; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2014-08-01

    Coral-inhabiting barnacles (Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) are obligatory symbionts of scleractinian and fire corals. We attempted to reconstruct the phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles using a multi-locus approach (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, H3 and RP gene sequences, total 3532bp), which recovered a paraphyletic pattern. The fire-coral inhabiting barnacle Wanella milleporae occupied a basal position with respect to the other coral inhabiting barnacles. Pyrgomatids along with the coral-inhabiting archaeobalanid Armatobalanus nested within the same clade and this clade was subdivided into two major lineages: Armatobalanus+Cantellius with species proposed to be the ancestral stock of extant coral barnacles, and the other comprising the remaining genera studied. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) suggested multiple independent fusions and separations of shell plates and opercular valves in coral barnacle evolution, which counters the traditional hypothesis founded on a scheme of morphological similarities. Most of the coral barnacles are restricted to one or two coral host families only, suggesting a trend toward narrow host range and more specific adaptation. Furthermore, there is a close linkage between coral host usage and phylogenetic relationships with sister taxa usually being found on the same coral host family. This suggests that symbiotic relationships in coral-inhabiting barnacles are phylogenetically conserved and that host associated specialization plays an important role in their diversification. PMID:24636895

  12. Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Nozawa, Yoko; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2014-08-01

    Coral-inhabiting barnacles (Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) are obligatory symbionts of scleractinian and fire corals. We attempted to reconstruct the phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles using a multi-locus approach (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, H3 and RP gene sequences, total 3532bp), which recovered a paraphyletic pattern. The fire-coral inhabiting barnacle Wanella milleporae occupied a basal position with respect to the other coral inhabiting barnacles. Pyrgomatids along with the coral-inhabiting archaeobalanid Armatobalanus nested within the same clade and this clade was subdivided into two major lineages: Armatobalanus+Cantellius with species proposed to be the ancestral stock of extant coral barnacles, and the other comprising the remaining genera studied. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) suggested multiple independent fusions and separations of shell plates and opercular valves in coral barnacle evolution, which counters the traditional hypothesis founded on a scheme of morphological similarities. Most of the coral barnacles are restricted to one or two coral host families only, suggesting a trend toward narrow host range and more specific adaptation. Furthermore, there is a close linkage between coral host usage and phylogenetic relationships with sister taxa usually being found on the same coral host family. This suggests that symbiotic relationships in coral-inhabiting barnacles are phylogenetically conserved and that host associated specialization plays an important role in their diversification.

  13. Something Darwin didn't know about barnacles: spermcast mating in a common stalked species.

    PubMed

    Barazandeh, Marjan; Davis, Corey S; Neufeld, Christopher J; Coltman, David W; Palmer, A Richard

    2013-03-01

    Most free-living barnacles are hermaphroditic, and eggs are presumed to be fertilized either by pseudo-copulation or self-fertilization. Although the common northeast Pacific intertidal gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes polymerus, is believed only to cross-fertilize, some isolated individuals well outside penis range nonetheless bear fertilized eggs. They must therefore either self-fertilize or-contrary to all prior expectations about barnacle mating-obtain sperm from the water. To test these alternative hypotheses, we collected isolated individuals bearing egg masses, as well as isolated pairs where at least one parent carried egg masses. Using 16 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we confirmed that a high percentage of eggs were fertilized with sperm captured from the water. Sperm capture occurred in 100 per cent of isolated individuals and, remarkably, even in 24 per cent of individuals that had an adjacent partner. Replicate subsamples of individual egg masses confirmed that eggs fertilized by captured sperm occurred throughout the egg mass. Sperm capture may therefore be a common supplement to pseudo-copulation in this species. These observations (i) overturn over a century of beliefs about what barnacles can (or cannot) do in terms of sperm transfer, (ii) raise doubts about prior claims of self-fertilization in barnacles, (iii) raise interesting questions about the capacity for sperm capture in other species (particularly those with short penises), and (iv) show, we believe for the first time, that spermcast mating can occur in an aquatic arthropod.

  14. Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Christopher J; Palmer, A Richard

    2008-05-01

    For their size, barnacles possess the longest penis of any animal (up to eight times their body length). However, as one of few sessile animals to copulate, they face a trade-off between reaching more mates and controlling ever-longer penises in turbulent flow. We observed that penises of an intertidal barnacle (Balanus glandula) from wave-exposed shores were shorter than, stouter than, and more than twice as massive for their length as, those from nearby protected bays. In addition, penis shape variation was tightly correlated with maximum velocity of breaking waves, and, on all shores, larger barnacles had disproportionately stouter penises. Finally, field experiments confirmed that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity: barnacles transplanted to a wave-exposed outer coast produced dramatically shorter and wider penises than counterparts moved to a protected harbour. Owing to the probable trade-off between penis length and ability to function in flow, and owing to the ever-changing wave conditions on rocky shores, intertidal barnacles appear to have acquired the capacity to change the size and shape of their penises to suit local hydrodynamic conditions. This dramatic plasticity in genital form is a valuable reminder that factors other than the usual drivers of genital diversification--female choice, sexual conflict and male-male competition--can influence genital form.

  15. Mating group size and evolutionarily stable pattern of sexuality in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Urano, Satoru; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2008-07-01

    Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have various patterns of sexuality depending on species including simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (hermaphrodites and dwarf males), and dioecy (females and dwarf males). We develop a model that predicts the pattern of sexuality in barnacles by two key environmental factors: (i) food availability and (ii) the fraction of larvae that settle on the sea floor. Populations in the model consist of small individuals and large ones. We calculate the optimal resource allocation toward male function, female function and growth for small and large barnacles that maximizes each barnacle's lifetime reproductive success using dynamic programming. The pattern of sexuality is defined by the combination of the optimal resource allocations. In our model, the mating group size is a dependent variable and we found that sexuality pattern changes with the food availability through the mating group size: simultaneous hermaphroditism appears in food-rich environments, where the mating group size is large, protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism appears in intermediate food environments, where the mating group size also takes intermediate value, the other sexuality patterns, androdioecy, dioecy, and sex change are observed in food-poor environments, where the mating group size is small. Our model is the first one where small males can control their growth to large individuals, and hence has ability to explain a rich spectrum of sexual patterns found in barnacles.

  16. Evaluation of a fully automated method to measure the critical removal stress of adult barnacles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    A computer-controlled force gauge designed to measure the adhesive strength of barnacles on test substrata is described. The instrument was evaluated with adult barnacles grown in situ on Silastic T2(R)-coated microscope slides and epoxy replicas adhered to the same substratum with synthetic adhesive. The force per unit area required to detach the barnacles (critical removal stress) using the new automated system was comparable to that obtained with ASTM D5618 (1994) (0.19 and 0.28 MPa compared with 0.18 and 0.27 MPa for two batches of barnacles). The automated method showed a faster rate of force development compared with the manual spring force gauge used for ASTM D5618 (1994). The new instrument was as accurate and precise at determining surface area as manual delineation used with ASTM D5618 (1994). The method provided significant advantages such as higher throughput speed, the ability to test smaller barnacles (which took less time to grow) and to control the force application angle and speed. The variability in measurements was lower than previously reported, suggesting an improved ability to compare the results obtained by different researchers.

  17. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  18. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate.

    PubMed

    Burden, Daniel K; Spillmann, Christopher M; Everett, Richard K; Barlow, Daniel E; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Fears, Kenan P; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery.

  19. Identification of crustacea allergens by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L; Salvaggio, J E

    1985-01-01

    Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) detected 18 precipitating antigens in extracts of shrimp. Of these antigens, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis (CLIE) of shrimp extract demonstrated that 5 cross-reacted with crayfish, 3 with lobster and 1 with crab extract. Allergens present in the shrimp CIE plates were identified by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) using sera from 6 study subjects who were skin-test and RAST positive to shrimp extract. Of the 7 allergens detected, 3 (precipitins 1, 3 and 6) reacted with most of the 6 sera tested from shrimp-sensitive subjects. Precipitins 1 and 6 appear to be common crustacea allergens (present in shrimp, crayfish, lobster and crab) whereas precipitin 3 may be a specific allergen since it is present only in shrimp.

  20. Chloride Fluxes in Isolated Dialyzed Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    DiPolo, R.

    1972-01-01

    Chloride outflux and influx has been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle under constant internal composition by means of a dialysis perfusion technique. Membrane potential was continually recorded. The chloride outfluxes and influxes were 143 and 144 pmoles/cm2-sec (mean resting potential: 58 mv, temperature: 22°–24°C) with internal and external chloride concentrations of 30 and 541 mM, respectively. The chloride conductance calculated from tracer measurements using constant field assumptions is about fourfold greater than that calculated from published electrical data. Replacing 97% of the external chloride ions by propionate reduces the chloride efflux by 51%. Nitrate ions applied either to the internal or external surface of the membrane slows the chloride efflux. The external pH dependence of the chloride efflux follows the external pH dependence of the membrane conductance, in the range pH 3.9–4.7, increasing with decreasing pH. In the range pH 5–9, the chloride efflux increased with increasing pH, in a manner similar to that observed in frog muscle fibers. The titration curve for internal pH changes in the range 4.0–7.0 was quantitatively much different from that for external pH change, indicating significant asymmetry in the internal and external pH dependence of the chloride efflux. PMID:5074810

  1. Genetic diversity of hydrothermal-vent barnacles in Manus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouviez, Sophie; Schultz, Thomas F.; McGinnis, Gwendolyn; Minshall, Halle; Rudder, Meghan; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I genetic diversity of two barnacle species (Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis, Vulcanolepas cf. parensis) at three sites in Manus Basin (Solwara 1, South Su, Solwara 8). There was no evidence for within-site or between-site genetic differentiation for either species. While E. ohtai manusensis showed limited genetic variation, V. cf. parensis showed greater variation, with sequences distributed between two divergent groups. Assuming the cytochrome oxidase I gene is not under selection, significantly negative Tajima's D in E. ohtai manusensis is consistent with a recent population expansion due to a bottleneck or founder effect, whereas V. cf. parensis (combined groups) did not depart from a stable effective population size. Considering the groups separately, V. cf. parensis Group 1 (but not Group 2) showed a negative Tajima's D, indicating these groups may have encountered different historical demographic conditions. Data reported here are part of a baseline study against which recovery of genetic diversity following mineral extraction at Solwara 1 can be measured.

  2. A potassium contribution to the response of the barnacle photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, M; Shaw, C

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular recording from photoreceptors in the lateral eye of the barnacle show a brief negative-going 'dip' shortly after the onset of the late receptor potential. This phase can sometimes result in a hyperpolarization relative to the resting membrane potential. 2. The dip is prominent in light-adapted cells and is reduced by dark-adaptation. Low extracellular Ca2+ also reduces it. 3. The amplitude of the dip changes inversely with the K+ concentration in the saline. 4. The amplitude of the dip depends on the membrane potential, with a reversal potential near - 80 mV. 5. K+ blocking agents such as quinine and quinidine reduce or abolish the dip. 6. These observations indicate that the dip is due to a brief increase in K+ conductance which may be dependent on an influx of Ca ions. The fast decay of this phase may be brought about by a rapid uptake of Ca2+ by an intracellular mechanism. PMID:915767

  3. Sodium and Potassium Fluxes in Isolated Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brinley, F. J.

    1968-01-01

    Sodium and potassium influxes and outfluxes have been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle both by microinjection and by external loading. The sodium influxes and outfluxes were 49 and 39 pmoles /cm2-sec (temperature = 15–16°C) respectively. The potassium influxes and outfluxes were 28 and 60 pmoles/cm2-sec (temperature = 13–16°C) respectively. Replacement of external sodium by lithium reduced sodium outflux by 67% but had no effect on potassium outflux. Removal of external potassum reduced the sodium outflux by 51% but had no effect on potassium outflux. External strophanthidin (10–30 µM) reduced sodium outflux by 80–90% and increased potassium outflux by 40% in normal fibers. The time constant for sodium exchange increased linearly with internal sodium concentration, as did the fraction of sodium outflux insensitive to a maximally inhibitory concentration of external strophanthidin in the range of 10 tO 80 mM internal sodium. The strophanthidin-sensitive component of sodium outflux could be related to the internal sodium concentration by the following empirical formula: See PDF for Equation PMID:5651768

  4. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under ice in the Ross Sea and in the Southern Ocean using barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimate archives that capture annual and subannual resolution marine conditions outside the tropics are not common but would be highly desirable. This study demonstrates the potential of barnacles for such purposes and applies them to paleoceanographic reconstruction under the McMurdo ice shelf and in the Southern Ocean. Most of the Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and range in age between modern samples (used for calibration) and Holocene samples which were collected on the surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, having been entrained at the grounding line and moved through the ice by surface ablation and further basal freezing. Like other barnacles, this species secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth durations of several decades. Barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ18O and δ13C analysis and dated by 14C. Measured δ18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater and those of old (>200kyr) samples suggest little or no diagenesis. These features make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Variations in barnacle δ18O within each plate and between plates reflect changes in δ18O of the seawater, and allow some assessment of the salinity under the ice shelf. Salinities are lowered by addition of meltwaters, but the barnacle data suggest this lowering does not go below 33‰. Salinity near the grounding line shows both temporal and spatial variability. These data indicate that Bathylasma can provide valuable paleoclimate information at subannual resolution for shallow/intermediate water depths and regions such as Antarctica that play an important role in the climate system. We are now exploring this potential to investigate intermediate water conditions in the South Pacific during the last glacial using samples from seamounts on the Macquarie Ridge and south of

  5. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The

  6. Reversible antifouling effect of the cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles.

    PubMed

    Göransson, Ulf; Sjögren, Martin; Svangård, Erika; Claeson, Per; Bohlin, Lars

    2004-08-01

    Cycloviolacin O2, a plant peptide of the cyclotide family, is shown to have potent effects against fouling barnacles (Balanus improvisus), with complete inhibition of settlement at a concentration of 0.25 microM. The effect of cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles is reversible and nontoxic in the bioassay employed in these studies. Cycloviolacin O2 was isolated from the terrestrial plant Viola odorata by strong cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry following aminoethylation and enzymatic cleavage.

  7. Decremental conduction of the visual signal in barnacle lateral eye

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephen R.

    1972-01-01

    1. There are problems associated with the notion that slow potentials alone are used to transmit information in the early stages of some visual systems. This idea and alternatives have been tested on the barnacle lateral ocellus, a simple eye with only three photoreceptors, each with its own axon about 1 cm long. 2. All of the receptors have very similar properties including spectral sensitivity, and are also electrically coupled together. Impulses cannot be recorded from any of the cell bodies, all of which have been impaled as shown by dye marking. 3. No impulses can be recorded externally from most of the ocellar nerve or intracellularly from the receptor axon terminals. Impulses driven by light, sometimes recorded in the final part of the nerve, are believed to originate in other axons. 4. During illumination of the eye, current enters the receptor soma and leaves via the rest of the axon. This is consistent with the idea that the axon acts as a purely passive cable. The passive behaviour was also demonstrated in a comparison of the relative attenuation down the axon, of hyperpolarizations and depolarizations. 5. Calculations based on the supposed electrical constants of the somas showed that the slow potential itself was unlikely to be the visual signal, since it would be enormously attenuated by passive spread down the long thin axons. To check this, the axon terminals in the supraoesophageal ganglion were penetrated and identified by electrical and dye-marking criteria. In fact, the slow potential was attenuated in the most favourable case only by a factor of about three, indicating an axon membrane resistance in the range of 105 Ω. cm2. 6. This resistance may be substantially higher than that of the soma surface membrane, corrected for increased surface area. The sheath around each axon probably does not influence the electrical properties, judged by its permeability to the small molecule of Procion Yellow. 7. The minimal loss of voltage in the axon and

  8. Analysis of the Behaviours Mediating Barnacle Cyprid Reversible Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, Nick; Høeg, Jens T.; Maruzzo, Diego; Clare, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    When exploring immersed surfaces the cypris larvae of barnacles employ a tenacious and rapidly reversible adhesion mechanism to facilitate their characteristic ‘walking’ behaviour. Although of direct relevance to the fields of marine biofouling and bio-inspired adhesive development, the mechanism of temporary adhesion in cyprids remains poorly understood. Cyprids secrete deposits of a proteinaceous substance during surface attachment and these are often visible as ‘footprints’ on previously explored surfaces. The attachment structures, the antennular discs, of cyprids also present a complex morphology reminiscent of both the hairy appendages used by some terrestrial invertebrates for temporary adhesion and a classic ‘suction cup’. Despite the numerous analytical approaches so-far employed, it has not been possible to resolve conclusively the respective contributions of viscoelastic adhesion via the proteinaceous ‘temporary adhesive’, ‘dry’ adhesion via the cuticular villi present on the disc and the behavioural contribution by the organism. In this study, high-speed photography was used for the first time to capture the behaviour of cyprids at the instant of temporary attachment and detachment. Attachment is facilitated by a constantly sticky disc surface – presumably due to the presence of the proteinaceous temporary adhesive. The tenacity of the resulting bond, however, is mediated behaviourally. For weak attachment the disc is constantly moved on the surface, whereas for a strong attachment the disc is spread out on the surface. Voluntary detachment is by force, requiring twisting or peeling of the bond – seemingly without any more subtle detachment behaviours. Micro-bubbles were observed at the adhesive interface as the cyprid detached, possibly an adaptation for energy dissipation. These observations will allow future work to focus more specifically on the cyprid temporary adhesive proteins, which appear to be fundamental to adhesion

  9. Parasites and commensals of the West Indian manatee from Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Beck, C.A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Williams, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Metazoan parasites and commensals were collected from dead manatees salvaged in Puerto Rico. Thirty-five manatees were examined between 1980 and 1998. Parasites and commensals were identified in 20 (57%) manatees and included 3 species of helminths, 1 nematode (Heterocheilus tunicatus) and 2 digeneans (Chiorchis fabaceus and Cochleotrema cochleotrema). Two species of commensals were also associated with manatees: a barnacle (Chelonibia manati) and a fish (whitefin remora, Echeneis neucratoides). The 3 species of helminths found in manatees constitute the first records of these parasite-host relationships for the study area. The record of C. manati is the first for the Caribbean, and thus the species is not endemic to the Gulf of Mexico as previously described. The speculation that West Indian manatees closer to the center of their geographic distribution would have a greater diversity of parasites was found not true for these insular specimens but perhaps could be true for continental South American specimens.

  10. The impact of coating hardness on the anti-barnacle efficacy of an embedded antifouling biocide.

    PubMed

    Pinori, Emiliano; Elwing, Hans; Berglin, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of antifouling coatings designed to minimise the release of biocide, either by embedded (non-covalent) or tethered (covalently bonded) biocides, relies on sufficient bioavailability of the active compound upon contact between the organism and the coating. This investigation is focused on whether coating hardness affects the efficacy of embedded coating systems. Two experimental, non-eroding and waterborne latex paint formulations composed mainly of polystyrene (PS) or polyvinyl versatate (PV) were chosen for their difference in mechanical properties measured in terms of Buchholz indentation resistance. Ivermectin was added to both formulations to a final concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and the steady state release rate was measured according to ISO 15181 at between 34 and 70 ng cm(-2) day(-1) for both formulations. Field trials conducted over 3 months showed significant differences in anti-barnacle efficacy between the formulations despite their similar release profiles. The softer PV coating showed complete anti-barnacle efficacy, ie no barnacles were detected, while the harder PS coating showed no efficacy against barnacle colonisation during the same time period. The results indicate a new antifouling strategy whereby a route of intoxication is triggered by the organism itself upon interaction with the coating and its embedded biocide. This finding opens new possibilities in controlling macrofouling by low emission antifouling coatings.

  11. Characterization of metalloproteinase-like activities in barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) nauplii.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Canesi, Laura; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Gallo, Gabriella; Geraci, Sebastiano

    2003-05-01

    The presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes was investigated in naupliar stages of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin. The results of substrate gel-zymography and quantitative assays demonstrated that naupliar extracts contain several protease activities that are specific towards gelatin substrates; some caseinolytic activity was also detected. Substrate specificity was observed in all naupliar stages (II-VI). The gelatinolytic activities showed dependence on both Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) and inhibition by EDTA, EGTA, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Also Mg(2+) partially activated the enzymes, whereas Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were inhibitory. The thermal denaturation profile was significantly different in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). Overall, the results indicate that the Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-dependent gelatinase activities in barnacle nauplii belong to the subfamily of matrix metalloproteases. Barnacle larvae MMPs showed biochemical characteristics different from those of vertebrate MMPs but common to other gelatinases from marine invertebrates: they were unaffected by several protease inhibitors and insensitive to specific activators/inhibitors of vertebrate MMPs. The presence of MMP-like activities in different naupliar stages suggests a constitutive role for these enzymes in ECM remodeling during barnacle larvae growth and development. PMID:12781969

  12. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan M; Overstreet, Robin M; Raga, Juan A; Aznar, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration.

  13. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Goodwin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed "microplastic," have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the "rafting assemblage," are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem.

  14. Sexual systems and dwarf males in barnacles: integrating life history and sex allocation theories.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Sawada, Kota; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Barnacles, which are sedentary marine crustaceans, have diverse sexual systems that include simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (coexistence of hermaphrodites and males) and dioecy (females and males). In dioecious and androdioecious species, the males are very small and are thus called dwarf males. These sexual systems are defined by two factors: sex allocation of non-dwarf individuals and the presence or absence of dwarf males. We constructed an ESS model treating sex allocation and life history simultaneously to explain sexual systems in barnacles. We analyzed the evolutionarily stable size-dependent resource allocation strategy to male reproductive function, female reproductive function and growth in non-dwarf barnacles, and the ESS proportion of dwarf males, under conditions of varying mortality and food availability. Sex allocation in non-dwarf individuals (hermaphrodites or females) is affected by mate availability and the proportion of dwarf males. When hermaphrodites appear, all hermaphrodites become protandric simultaneous hermaphrodites. Furthermore, high mortality and poor resource availability favor dwarf males because of their early maturation and weakened sperm competition. In conclusion, we showed that combining sex allocation and life history theories is a useful way to understand various sexual systems in barnacles and perhaps in other organisms as well.

  15. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Robin M.; Raga, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration. PMID:26083019

  16. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Goodwin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed "microplastic," have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the "rafting assemblage," are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem. PMID:24167779

  17. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan M; Overstreet, Robin M; Raga, Juan A; Aznar, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration. PMID:26083019

  18. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed “microplastic,” have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the “rafting assemblage,” are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem. PMID:24167779

  19. Parasitic colitides.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joel E

    2007-02-01

    Parasitic infections are a major worldwide health problem, and they account for millions of infections and deaths each year. Most of the infections as well as the morbidity and mortality from these diseases occur in the developing world in rural regions. However, these diseases have become more common in Western countries and in big cities over the past 25 years. These changing disease patterns can be attributed to emigration from the third world to developed countries and migration of rural populations to the big cities in developing nations. These parasitic infections have protean manifestations and consequences. The medical problems range from chronic asymptomatic carrier to fulminant infections and even death. Several factors such as the host immune status, the infecting organism, and the availability of treatment all play key roles in the outcomes of parasitic colitides. The two major classes of parasites causing these infections are the helminthes (ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, and schistosomiasis) and the protozoa (Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Trypanosoma cruzi, Giardia lamblia, and Balantidium coli). This article summarizes the salient features of each parasite with respect to epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The vast majority of these infections have a self-limited clinical course or are easily treated with medical management, and surgery is rarely needed. PMID:20011360

  20. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:25602032

  1. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems.

  2. Multiple origins and incursions of the Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus proteus in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Zardus, John D; Hadfield, Michael G

    2005-10-01

    Chthamalus proteus, a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic, was introduced to the Pacific within the last few decades. Using direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (COI), we characterized genetic variation in native and introduced populations and searched for genetic matches between regions to determine if there were multiple geographical sources and introduction points for this barnacle. In the native range, we found great genetic differences among populations (max. F(ST) = 0.613) encompassing four lineages: one endemic to Panama, one endemic to Brazil, and two occurring Caribbean-wide. All four lineages were represented in the Pacific, but not equally; the Brazilian lineage was most prevalent and the Panamanian least common. Twenty-one individuals spread among nearly every island from where the barnacle is known in the Pacific, exactly matched six haplotypes scattered among Curaçao, the Netherlands Antilles; St John, US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; and Brazil, confirming a multigeographical origin for the Pacific populations. Significant genetic differences were also found in introduced populations from the Hawaiian Islands (F(CT) = 0.043, P < 0.001), indicating introduction events have occurred at more than one locality. However, the sequence, timing and number of arrival events remains unknown. Possible reasons for limited transport of this barnacle through the Panama Canal are discussed. This and a preponderance of Brazilian-type individuals in the Pacific suggest an unexpected route of entry from around Cape Horn, South America. Unification in the Pacific of historically divergent lineages of this barnacle raises the possibility for selection of 'hybrids' with novel ecological adaptations in its new environment. PMID:16202091

  3. Parasitic Apologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatolo, Renata; Ursi, Biagio; Bongelli, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The action of apologizing can be accomplished as the main business of the interaction or incidentally while participants are doing something else. We refer to these apologies as "parasitic apologies," because they are produced "en passant" (Schegloff, 2007), and focus our analysis on this type of apology occurring at the…

  4. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  5. Transformation of signals by interneurones in the barnacle's visual pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Donata; Stuart, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    1. The photoreceptors of the median eye of the giant barnacle drive decrementally-conducting neurones in the supraoesophageal ganglion termed `inverting cells' (I-cells) which in turn drive impulse-producing neurones termed `amplifying cells' (A-cells). Using intracellular recording techniques we have studied the role of I-cells in visual processing. 2. Horseradish peroxidase injections show that I-cells are interneurones whose processes are confined to the regions of the photoreceptor terminals on both sides of the bilaterally symmetrical ganglion. 3. In the dark, I-cell membrane potentials (-45 mV) are considerably less negative than those of other ganglion cells (-60 to -70 mV). At the onset of a maintained light, I-cells undergo a transient peak hyperpolarization which declines to a steady-state response. Both response components are graded with light intensity. 4. The reversal potential of the peak of the I-cell light response depends on the external K+ concentration more strongly than does the dark resting potential (3-30 mm-K+). This evidence indicates that the hyperpolarization results from an increase in the cell's permeability to K+ ions. 5. At the offset of light an I-cell undergoes a transient depolarization that overshoots the dark membrane potential. Dimming of a background light can also cause the I-cell membrane potential to overshoot its dark resting value. This overshoot is associated with a large depolarizing synaptic potential in A-cells. 6. An overshoot of the dark resting potential can also be elicited by the break of a hyperpolarizing pulse of current injected into an I-cell. The amplitude of this overshoot increases with pulse duration over a time course of seconds. 7. In the presence of external tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) and tetrodotoxin, (TTX), the break of a hyperpolarizing pulse or the onset of a depolarizing pulse can evoke in an I-cell an action potential whose rate of rise and amplitude depend on the external Ca concentration. This

  6. An annotated checklist of the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Kotov, Alexey A; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2015-11-20

    Based on the revision of available literature on the Colombian Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), we present an annotated checklist, with taxonomical comments for all taxa recorded since the start of research on this group in the country in 1913. We have listed 101 valid taxa, of which most records belong to the Caribbean region of Colombia. The situation in Colombian Cladocera taxonomy is, at present, unfavorable for any realistic conclusions on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography.

  7. Predation on barnacles of intertidal and subtidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Balanids are the numerically dominant epibionts on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Near the island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea), Semibalanus balanoides dominated intertidally and Balanus crenatus subtidally. Field experiments were conducted to test the effects of predation on the density of barnacle recruits. Subtidally, predator exclusion resulted in significantly increased abundances of B. crenatus, while predator exclusion had no significant effects on the density of S. balanoides intertidally. It is suggested that recruitment of B. crenatus to subtidal mussel beds is strongly affected by adult shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and juvenile starfish ( Asterias rubens), whereas recruits of S. balanoides in the intertidal zone are mainly influenced by grazing and bulldozing of the very abundant periwinkle Littorina littorea, which is rare subtidally. Thus, not only do the barnacle species differ between intertidal and subtidal mussel beds, but the biotic control factors do so as well.

  8. Synergistic roles for lipids and proteins in the permanent adhesive of barnacle larvae.

    PubMed

    Gohad, Neeraj V; Aldred, Nick; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Jong Lee, Young; Cicerone, Marcus T; Orihuela, Beatriz; Clare, Anthony S; Rittschof, Dan; Mount, Andrew S

    2014-07-11

    Thoracian barnacles rely heavily upon their ability to adhere to surfaces and are environmentally and economically important as biofouling pests. Their adhesives have unique attributes that define them as targets for bio-inspired adhesive development. With the aid of multi-photon and broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies, we report that the larval adhesive of barnacle cyprids is a bi-phasic system containing lipids and phosphoproteins, working synergistically to maximize adhesion to diverse surfaces under hostile conditions. Lipids, secreted first, possibly displace water from the surface interface creating a conducive environment for introduction of phosphoproteins while simultaneously modulating the spreading of the protein phase and protecting the nascent adhesive plaque from bacterial biodegradation. The two distinct phases are contained within two different granules in the cyprid cement glands, implying far greater complexity than previously recognized. Knowledge of the lipidic contribution will hopefully inspire development of novel synthetic bioadhesives and environmentally benign antifouling coatings.

  9. New alien barnacles in the Azores and some remarks on the invasive potential of Balanidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Paulo; Costa, Ana Cristina; Dionísio, Maria Ana

    2012-12-01

    Global homogenization of biota is underway through worldwide introduction and establishment of non-indigenous (exotic) species. Organisms fouling ship hulls are continually in transit and can affect communities through biodiversity loss and serious damage to economy and public health. In the Azores, for the first time, underwater alien species prospection was conducted in marinas and recreational harbours, at São Miguel Island. Populations of three locally previously unknown barnacle species were found: Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus eburneus and Perforatus perforatus. These species account for the more than 50% of alien barnacles worldwide that belong to Balanidae family. Hence, some considerations about morphology and life cycle of this family are advanced, discussed and related to their invasive potential.

  10. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) in the lower Amazon River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea); Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda); Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea); and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea). The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus. PMID:27334815

  11. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae) in the lower Amazon River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea); Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda); Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea); and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea). The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus. PMID:27304520

  12. The effect of boldness on decision-making in barnacle geese is group-size-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Adamczyk, Vena M A P; van Wieren, Sipke E; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-07-01

    In group-living species, decisions made by individuals may result in collective behaviours. A central question in understanding collective behaviours is how individual variation in phenotype affects collective behaviours. However, how the personality of individuals affects collective decisions in groups remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of boldness on the decision-making process in different-sized groups of barnacle geese. Naive barnacle geese, differing in boldness score, were introduced in a labyrinth in groups with either one or three informed demonstrators. The demonstrators possessed information about the route through the labyrinth. In pairs, the probability of choosing a route prior to the informed demonstrator increased with increasing boldness score: bolder individuals decided more often for themselves where to go compared with shyer individuals, whereas shyer individuals waited more often for the demonstrators to decide and followed this information. In groups of four individuals, however, there was no effect of boldness on decision-making, suggesting that individual differences were less important with increasing group size. Our experimental results show that personality is important in collective decisions in pairs of barnacle geese, and suggest that bolder individuals have a greater influence over the outcome of decisions in groups.

  13. The origins and evolution of dwarf males and habitat use in thoracican barnacles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Høeg, Jens T; Yusa, Yoichi; Chan, Benny K K

    2015-10-01

    Barnacles are exceptional in having various sexual systems (androdioecy, hermaphroditism, dioecy) and with a high morphological diversity of males, though these are always minute (dwarf) compared to their female or hermaphrodite partners. For the first time, we use a multiple DNA marker-based phylogeny to elucidate the ancestral states and evolution of (1) dwarf males, (2) their morphology when present, (3) their attachment site on the partner, and (4) habitat use in thoracican barnacles. Our taxon sampling was especially rich in rare deep-sea Scalpelliformes and comprised species with diverse sexual systems and dwarf male morphologies. Within the thoracican barnacles dwarf male evolution is subject to extensive convergence, but always correlated to similar ecological conditions. Males evolved convergently at least four times from purely hermaphroditic ancestors, in each case correlated with the invasion into habitats with low mating group sizes. The independent evolution of dwarf males in these lineages dovetails with the males having different morphologies and occurring in several different locations on their sexual partner.

  14. Ecology and Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity in the Penis and Cirri of Barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, J Matthew; Schneck, Daniel T; Neufeld, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Most barnacles are sessile, simultaneous hermaphrodites that reproduce by copulation. This is achieved through the extension of a muscular penis, famous for being the proportionally largest in the animal kingdom. The penis is a long cylindrical or conical organ, composed of a series of folded rings, allowing it to stretch to great lengths. The penises are covered with chemosensory setae allowing them to seek out receptive neighbors. For many species, the condition of the penis changes seasonally. In the most extreme circumstances, it degenerates and is shed during the first post-mating molt and is re-grown for the next mating season. Barnacle penises have been shown to exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to many different challenges. When exposed to heavy waves, diameter is increased by thickening both the cuticle and muscles. When mates are far, length increases by adding ringed annulations. Experiments have shown that these plastic traits are modular, capable of changing independently from each other and that they improve mating ability. Alternate strategies to increase reproductive ability by barnacles include the production of dwarf and complemental males, sperm casting and sperm leakage, and aerial copulation. All of these mating strategies may have important implications for the study of reproductive biology, life history, and sex allocation theory.

  15. Quantitative proteomics study of larval settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite.

  16. Bivalve and barnacle larvae distribution driven by water temperature in a Mediterranean lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ziadi, Boutheina; Dhib, Amel; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between the distribution of some meroplanktonic species and water temperature. Meroplankton larvae abundance of bivalves, and barnacles and water temperature fluctuations were studied from February 2011 to January 2012 at five stations in Ghar El Melh lagoon (GML) Mediterranean Sea, northern Tunisia). According to redundancy analysis (RDA), a significant difference was found in the distribution of larvae among the seasons (F = 10.28, p < 0.001); summer and autumn appear to be the period of bivalve larvae development, whereas the arrival of barnacle larvae coincided with winter and spring. The generalized additive models (GAMs) show strong correlation of bivalve larvae with high temperature (F = 23.2; p < 0.001) and the affinity of barnacle larvae to low temperature values (F = 8.41; p = 0.004). This environmental parameter accounted for 26 % of the deviance in variability in larvae abundance. The development process of many generations of larvae may therefore have been predetermined by temperature.

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Study of Larval Settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite. PMID:24551147

  18. The origins and evolution of dwarf males and habitat use in thoracican barnacles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Høeg, Jens T; Yusa, Yoichi; Chan, Benny K K

    2015-10-01

    Barnacles are exceptional in having various sexual systems (androdioecy, hermaphroditism, dioecy) and with a high morphological diversity of males, though these are always minute (dwarf) compared to their female or hermaphrodite partners. For the first time, we use a multiple DNA marker-based phylogeny to elucidate the ancestral states and evolution of (1) dwarf males, (2) their morphology when present, (3) their attachment site on the partner, and (4) habitat use in thoracican barnacles. Our taxon sampling was especially rich in rare deep-sea Scalpelliformes and comprised species with diverse sexual systems and dwarf male morphologies. Within the thoracican barnacles dwarf male evolution is subject to extensive convergence, but always correlated to similar ecological conditions. Males evolved convergently at least four times from purely hermaphroditic ancestors, in each case correlated with the invasion into habitats with low mating group sizes. The independent evolution of dwarf males in these lineages dovetails with the males having different morphologies and occurring in several different locations on their sexual partner. PMID:25979758

  19. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations. PMID:25237772

  20. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  1. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations.

  2. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-06-13

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling.

  3. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E.; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M.

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual’s origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma−Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  4. Compounds from Silicones Alter Enzyme Activity in Curing Barnacle Glue and Model Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Daniel; Orihuela, Beatriz; Harder, Tilmann; Stafslien, Shane; Chisholm, Bret; Dickinson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity. Methodology/Principal Findings GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents. Conclusions/Significance Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management. PMID:21379573

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S S; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the acorn barnacle family Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Tetraclitoidea): validity of shell morphology and arthropodal characteristics in the systematics of Tetraclitid barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    Shell structure is a crucial aspect of barnacle systematics. Within Tetraclitidae, the diametric and monometric growth patterns and number of rows of parietal tubes in the shells are key characteristics used to infer evolutionary trends. We used molecular analysis based on seven genes (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, RPII, H3, and 18S rRNA) to test two traditional phylogenetic hypothesis: (1) Tetraclitid barnacles are divided into two major lineages, which are distinguished according to monometric and diametric shell growth patterns, and (2) the evolutionary trend in shell parietal development began with a solid shell, which developed into a single tubiferous shell, which then developed into multitubiferous shells. The results indicated that Tetraclitinae and Newmanellinae are not monophyletic, but that Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitellinae are. The phylogram based on the genetic data suggested that Bathylasmatidae is nested within the Tetraclitidae, forming a sister relationship with the Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade. Within the Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade, the genera Tetraclita (multitubiferous shell), Tesseropora (single tubiferous shell), and Yamaguchiella (multitubiferous shell) are polyphyletic. The results suggested that shell morphology and growth patterns do not reflect the evolutionary history of Tetraclitidae, whereas the arthropodal characteristics are informative. PMID:25263422

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the acorn barnacle family Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Tetraclitoidea): validity of shell morphology and arthropodal characteristics in the systematics of Tetraclitid barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    Shell structure is a crucial aspect of barnacle systematics. Within Tetraclitidae, the diametric and monometric growth patterns and number of rows of parietal tubes in the shells are key characteristics used to infer evolutionary trends. We used molecular analysis based on seven genes (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, RPII, H3, and 18S rRNA) to test two traditional phylogenetic hypothesis: (1) Tetraclitid barnacles are divided into two major lineages, which are distinguished according to monometric and diametric shell growth patterns, and (2) the evolutionary trend in shell parietal development began with a solid shell, which developed into a single tubiferous shell, which then developed into multitubiferous shells. The results indicated that Tetraclitinae and Newmanellinae are not monophyletic, but that Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitellinae are. The phylogram based on the genetic data suggested that Bathylasmatidae is nested within the Tetraclitidae, forming a sister relationship with the Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade. Within the Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade, the genera Tetraclita (multitubiferous shell), Tesseropora (single tubiferous shell), and Yamaguchiella (multitubiferous shell) are polyphyletic. The results suggested that shell morphology and growth patterns do not reflect the evolutionary history of Tetraclitidae, whereas the arthropodal characteristics are informative.

  9. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Daniel K.; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Everett, Richard K.; Barlow, Daniel E.; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Fears, Kenan P.; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery. PMID:25115515

  10. Some biological consequences of environmental change: a study using barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and gum trees (Angiospermae: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2010-06-01

    Uniformitarianism permits understanding of the past on the basis of the present, and modeling the future through consideration of the fossil record. The present paper addresses the impact environmental (climatic) change has had on acorn barnacles and eucalyptus trees. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the K/T mass-extinction event. In the Paleogene, rapid radiation resulted in their occupying most marine environments. That balanomorphs survived both the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to adapt to opportunities; they are known from the littoral (Chamaesipho) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this from diverse substrates: rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with most larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the late Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in their diversity, distribution and biomass. Barnacles are contrasted with the Australian Myrtaceae: plants ranging from woody shrubs to tall trees. The most significant is Eucalyptus sensu lato, which typifies Australia's flora, and is characterized by aromatic leaves that produce eucalyptol. Eucalyptus has evolved strategies that result in its domination of Australian open woodlands: these include production of highly flammable eucalyptol oil (with a flashpoint of 49 °C) and an unprecedented ability to regenerate following forest fires. Gum trees and barnacles first appear in the Paleogene, their earliest records are Australasian, and they both demonstrate extraordinary resilience when environmental conditions are optimal. PMID:21392330

  11. Some biological consequences of environmental change: a study using barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and gum trees (Angiospermae: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2010-06-01

    Uniformitarianism permits understanding of the past on the basis of the present, and modeling the future through consideration of the fossil record. The present paper addresses the impact environmental (climatic) change has had on acorn barnacles and eucalyptus trees. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the K/T mass-extinction event. In the Paleogene, rapid radiation resulted in their occupying most marine environments. That balanomorphs survived both the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to adapt to opportunities; they are known from the littoral (Chamaesipho) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this from diverse substrates: rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with most larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the late Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in their diversity, distribution and biomass. Barnacles are contrasted with the Australian Myrtaceae: plants ranging from woody shrubs to tall trees. The most significant is Eucalyptus sensu lato, which typifies Australia's flora, and is characterized by aromatic leaves that produce eucalyptol. Eucalyptus has evolved strategies that result in its domination of Australian open woodlands: these include production of highly flammable eucalyptol oil (with a flashpoint of 49 °C) and an unprecedented ability to regenerate following forest fires. Gum trees and barnacles first appear in the Paleogene, their earliest records are Australasian, and they both demonstrate extraordinary resilience when environmental conditions are optimal.

  12. An illustrated catalogue of the scalpellid barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Scalpellidae) collected during the HMS "challenger" expedition and deposited in the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Shalaeva, Kate; Boxshall, Geoff

    2014-05-29

    For the first time since 1883, the "Challenger" collection of scalpellids stored in the Natural History Museum (London) and studied by Hoek, has been reviewed. It comprises 40 species now assigned to 17 genera and three subfamilies within the family Scalpellidae. A checklist of published records, type status, sources of supplementary descriptive information, updated distributions and known depth records is given. New photographs are included which may be useful for species identification and for any future systematic rearrangement of the scalpellids. Trianguloscalpellum weltnerianum (Pilsbry, 1911) is recognised as a junior subjective synonym of Trianguloscalpellum album (Hoek, 1883).

  13. Surface-Piercing Activities of the Humpback Whale, Megaptera, Related to Parasites and Mechanics}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2006-12-01

    Humpback whales leap out of the water (breach), strike the water surface with their long fins (flipper), strike the water surface with their tail (lobtail), and hold motionless in a vertical position with their heads above water (spyhop). These four surface-piercing activities were known to early whalers, but their explanations remain uncertain. A whale breaches by swimming from depth toward the water surface at an oblique angle, propelling himself into the air at an angle to the water's surface (0 to 70 degrees), rotating about his long axis, and landing on his back, belly up to the sky. Rotation requires applying angular momentum to the whale's trunk, which photographs suggest comes from flinging out the flipper on the side rotating upward, and keeping the downward-rotating flipper closer to the trunk. The humpback has unusually long flippers (long moment arms) up to 30 percent of trunk length. Its generic name, Megaptera, can translate as `long flipper'. Continued use of one flipper as the moment arm raises the possibility of right-handed or left-handed whales, but Whitehead's (1985) data do not support that result. Parasites as a cause of breaching is a hypothesis at least as old as Beale (1839), but in the last half of the 20th century, breaching, flippering, and lobtailing came to be understood as social activities of whales. Whitehead's work in the 1980s provides much data on humpback activities, as well as a prevailing social interpretation of the data. External parasites (loosely defined) include whale lice (fingernail-sized crablike animals) and barnacles (both fixed shell and flexible goosenecked species). Thousands of these animals may inhabit a single whale. Whale lice populate crevices of the jaws and eyes, the pleats in the throat pouch under the jaw, and shelter at fixed barnacles. Fixed barnacles thrive on exposed bumps on the whale's head and flippers. Gooseneck barnacles appear in photos attached to trailing edges of fins and tail. Some parasites

  14. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and greenhouse operations, as defined in 40 CFR 170.3, which includes seeding, potting and..., Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1071 Section 180... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of...

  19. Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Haidee

    2016-02-01

    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the

  20. Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Haidee

    2016-02-01

    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the

  1. Collecting and Preserving Marine and Freshwater Isopoda (Crustacea: Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Isopoda are the most diverse Crustacea. In order to encourage the study of isopod crustaceans and their use in biodiversity studies, systematics, ecology, physiology and more, one needs to know who the isopods are and where to find them. New information This is a short “how to” guide focusing on the free-living marine and freshwater isopods: where they live and how to collect and preserve them. The tools and techniques described here are simple, but invaluable in accessing the natural history of these remarkable creatures. PMID:26023284

  2. Amyloid-like conformation and interaction for the self-assembly in barnacle underwater cement.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Kamino, Kei

    2015-01-27

    Barnacles are unique marine sessile crustaceans and permanently attach to various foreign surfaces during most of their lifespan. The protein complex secreted from their body and used to attach their calcareous shell to almost all surfaces in water has long fascinated us because we have limited technology with which to attach materials in water. Unraveling the mechanism of underwater attachment by barnacles is thus important for interface science, for the understanding of the biology and physiology of barnacles, and for the development of technology to prevent fouling. Previous studies have indicated that the intermolecular interactions optimized by conformations of the adhesive proteins are crucial in the self-assembly and/or curing of the adhesive. This study aimed to identify the possible structural determinants responsible for the self-assembly. Thioflavin T binding screening of peptides designed on the basis of the primary structure of a bulk 52 kDa cement protein indicated the presence of some amyloidogenic motifs in the protein. The conformation of the peptide was transformed to a β-sheet by an increase in either pH or ionic strength, resulting in its self-assembly. Thioflavin T binding was inhibited by small polyphenolic molecules, suggesting the contribution of aromatic interactions during self-assembly. The occurrence of amyloid-like units in the protein implies that the protein conformation is an important factor contributing to the self-assembly of the cement, the first event of the curing, as the adhesive material is secreted into the seawater out of the animal's body.

  3. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle

    PubMed Central

    Granhag, Lena M.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9–2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime. PMID:27463968

  4. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Granhag, Lena M; Jonsson, Per R

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9-2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime. PMID:27463968

  5. Cytoplasmic Solvent Structure of Single Barnacle Muscle Cells Studied by Electron Spin Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Fred; Latorre, Ramon

    1974-01-01

    A free radical probe was introduced into single barnacle muscle cells, and its freedom of motion inferred from the spin resonance spectra. The probe reported an average local viscosity of 5-10 cp compared with 1 cp for pure water. From a comparison of the temperature dependence of the probe's tumbling rate in model aqueous systems and in the muscle we concluded that in the muscle the probe was undergoing fast exchange between sites of different mobility. Thus 10 cp must be taken as an upper limit for the viscosity of most cell water. PMID:4364470

  6. Photoreception in a barnacle: electrophysiology of the shadow reflex pathway in Balanus cariosus.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, R; Gwilliam, G F

    1972-08-01

    The photoreceptors in the median ocellus of the rock barnacle depolarize when illuminated. This depolarization spreads passively to the axon terminals in the supraesophageal ganglion. A small number of cells in the supraesophageal ganglion hyperpolarize when the median ocellus is illuminated and depolarize when it is shadowed. Nerve impulses are superimposed on the slow depolarization of the ganglion cells. Impulse activity in response to shadowing the median ocellus is recorded in a few fibers of the circumesophageal connectives. Picrotoxin blocks this shadow-induced activity. A model of the shadow reflex pathway is presented. PMID:4339616

  7. Intraspecific variation in the turtle barnacle, Cylindrolepas sinica Ren, 1980 (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Coronuloidea), with brief notes on habitat selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens of the turtle barnacle Cylindrolepas sinica Ren, 1980 were collected from sea turtles in Japanese waters. The specimens were hexagonal in shape and were found burrowing into the sea turtle plastron. Specimens were dissected and the hard and soft parts were compared with the original description. PMID:24167420

  8. The dark brown integumentary pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus). A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Barden, H; Koulish, S

    1983-01-01

    A histochemical analysis involving tinctorial and solubility tests was pursued in conjunction with electron microscopy for the purpose of identifying the dark brown epidermal pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus) as melanin and/or ommochrome. Histochemically, comparisons were made with other brown pigments located in the subcarapal epidermis of another crustacean, the fiddler crab (Uca pugilator), the dorsal skin of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), the liver and testis of a slider turtle (Chrysemys sp.) and the substantia nigra of human brain. The solubility properties of the pigment of the two crustacean invertebrates were in general similar to one another and markedly different from the pigment of the three vertebrates. Insolubility in appropriate solvents classified the vertebrate pigment as melanin. The invertebrate pigment, however, which was soluble in the ommochrome solvents, concentrated sulfuric and formic acids and 2-chloroethanol, remained insoluble in the ommochrome solvents, dilute aqueous and methanolic hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid. On the basis of these solubilities, an unequivocal classification of the invertebrate pigment as either melanin or ommochrome did not appear possible. The tinctorial and electron microscopic properties of the barnacle pigment were also equally ambiguous in regard to its specific classification.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance.

  10. Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey Matthew; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases toward an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula. The ratio of male to female allocation did not increase with the number of competitors for either species. However, both species showed increased allocation to male function (estimated as total mass of sex-specific tissues) with increased crowding. Allocation to female function seemed to be limited by other factors and did not vary with mating group size as predicted. Allocation to male and female function were both positively related to body size, but a trade-off between male and female function, a key assumption of prior models, was not observed.

  11. Opportunism and the resilience of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2012-06-01

    Cirripede-like organisms have their origins in the Palaeozoic, but until the Cainozoic, were represented primarily by pedunculated forms, such as the Scalpelliformes. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. During the late Palaeogene, rapid radiation of cirripedes resulted in sufficient diversification for them to occupy most marine environments. That they survived both the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to rapidly adapt to opportunities. The wide habitat distribution of balanomorphs in particular is unparalleled; they are known from the upper littoral (Chthamalus) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this attached to rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in this diversity, distribution and biomass. All cirripedes are, nonetheless, at risk, from rapid habitat change, competition, pollution and, especially in light of their sessile habit, from predation. This paper assesses the viability of a number of cirripedes and concludes that the Lepadiformes, Scalpelliformes and Balanomorpha are the most resilient, and will most quickly adapt to occupy new niches when opportunities arise.

  12. Phylogenetic position and evolutionary history of the turtle and whale barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Coronuloidea).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryota; Chan, Benny K K; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Levy, Yaniv; Shuto, Takuho; Achituv, Yair

    2013-04-01

    Barnacles of the superfamily Coronuloidea are obligate epibionts of various marine mammals, marine reptiles and large crustaceans. We used five molecular markers: 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and Histone 3 to infer phylogenetic relationships among sixteen coronuloids, representing most of the recent genera of barnacles of this superfamily. Our analyses confirm the monophyly of Coronuloidea and that this superfamily and Tetraclitoidea are sister groups. The six-plated Austrobalanus clusters with these two superfamilies. Based on BEAST and ML trees, Austrobalanus is basal and sister to the Coronuloidea, but the NJ tree places Austrobalanus within the Tetraclitoidae, and in the MP tree it is sister to both Coronuloidea and Tetraclitoidae. Hence the position of Austrobalanus remains unresolved. Within the Coronuloidea we identified four clades. Chelonibia occupies a basal position within the Coronuloidea which is in agreement with previous studies. The grouping of the other clades does not conform to previous studies. Divergence time analyses show that some of the time estimates are congruent with the fossil record while some others are older, suggesting the possibility of gaps in the fossil record.

  13. Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Aldred, Nick; Emami, Kaveh; Enander, Karin; Ederth, Thomas; Clare, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Gregarious settlement in barnacle larvae (cyprids) is induced by a contact pheromone, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). The SIPC has been identified both in the cuticle of adult barnacles and in the temporary adhesive secretion (footprint) of cyprids. Besides acting as a settlement inducer, the presence of the SIPC in footprints points to its additional involvement in the adhesion process. SIPC adsorption behaviour was therefore investigated on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by surface plasmon resonance at the pH of seawater (8.3). Fibrinogen and α2-macroglobulin (A2M) (blood complement protease inhibitors with which the SIPC shares 29% sequence homology) were used in the adsorption experiments as positive and negative standards, respectively. The mass uptake of the SIPC was comparable to that of fibrinogen, with adsorption observed even on the protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) surface. Notably, on the positively charged SAM the SIPC showed a kinetic overshoot, indicating a metastable configuration causing the amount of adsorbed protein to temporarily exceed its equilibrium value. A2M adsorption was low or negligible on all SAMs tested, except for the positively charged surface, indicating that A2M adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatics. Evaluation of SIPC non-specific adsorption kinetics revealed that it adsorbed irreversibly and non-cooperatively on all surfaces tested. PMID:25657832

  14. Barnacle: detecting and characterizing tandem duplications and fusions in transcriptome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chimeric transcripts, including partial and internal tandem duplications (PTDs, ITDs) and gene fusions, are important in the detection, prognosis, and treatment of human cancers. Results We describe Barnacle, a production-grade analysis tool that detects such chimeras in de novo assemblies of RNA-seq data, and supports prioritizing them for review and validation by reporting the relative coverage of co-occurring chimeric and wild-type transcripts. We demonstrate applications in large-scale disease studies, by identifying PTDs in MLL, ITDs in FLT3, and reciprocal fusions between PML and RARA, in two deeply sequenced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) RNA-seq datasets. Conclusions Our analyses of real and simulated data sets show that, with appropriate filter settings, Barnacle makes highly specific predictions for three types of chimeric transcripts that are important in a range of cancers: PTDs, ITDs, and fusions. High specificity makes manual review and validation efficient, which is necessary in large-scale disease studies. Characterizing an extended range of chimera types will help generate insights into progression, treatment, and outcomes for complex diseases. PMID:23941359

  15. Plastic Sexual Expression in the Androdioecious Barnacle Octolasmis warwickii (Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Wijayanti, Hendry; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Most barnacles are simultaneous hermaphrodites, but dwarf males are also found attached to hermaphrodites in several species. This biologically rare phenomenon of the coexistence of males and hermaphrodites is termed androdioecy. To test whether the hermaphrodite and male sexes are fixed or plastic in the androdioecious pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis warwickii, we conducted a series of 22-day-long transplanting experiments to evaluate the effects of a) the original site (attached to the conspecific vs. attached directly to the substrate) and b) the transplanting site (conspecific-attached vs. substrate-attached). Penis length (as an index of male function), the presence or absence of egg mass (female function), and growth rate were investigated. As with natural dwarf males, individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics developed longer penises than did those that were transplanted onto the substrate. The original site of attachment also affected penis length. However, no significant effects of the original site or the transplanting were detected in egg-laying activities, as only one experimental individual laid eggs. Individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics grew less than those that were attached to the substrate. These results indicate that individual sexual expression is affected by the environment in O. warwickii. PMID:26896177

  16. Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Aldred, Nick; Emami, Kaveh; Enander, Karin; Ederth, Thomas; Clare, Anthony S

    2015-02-01

    Gregarious settlement in barnacle larvae (cyprids) is induced by a contact pheromone, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). The SIPC has been identified both in the cuticle of adult barnacles and in the temporary adhesive secretion (footprint) of cyprids. Besides acting as a settlement inducer, the presence of the SIPC in footprints points to its additional involvement in the adhesion process. SIPC adsorption behaviour was therefore investigated on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by surface plasmon resonance at the pH of seawater (8.3). Fibrinogen and α2-macroglobulin (A2M) (blood complement protease inhibitors with which the SIPC shares 29% sequence homology) were used in the adsorption experiments as positive and negative standards, respectively. The mass uptake of the SIPC was comparable to that of fibrinogen, with adsorption observed even on the protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) surface. Notably, on the positively charged SAM the SIPC showed a kinetic overshoot, indicating a metastable configuration causing the amount of adsorbed protein to temporarily exceed its equilibrium value. A2M adsorption was low or negligible on all SAMs tested, except for the positively charged surface, indicating that A2M adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatics. Evaluation of SIPC non-specific adsorption kinetics revealed that it adsorbed irreversibly and non-cooperatively on all surfaces tested. PMID:25657832

  17. Characterization of Arginine Kinase in the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite and Its Role in the Larval Settlement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Yan, Guo-Yong; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Wong, Yue-Him; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Energy metabolism is a key process in larval settlement of barnacles, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ambiguous. Arginine kinase (AK) mainly participates in energy metabolism in invertebrates. So far, its roles in barnacles have not been studied. In the present study, we raised an antibody against AK from Amphibalanus amphitrite Darwin to characterize the roles of AK in the larval settlement process. Among the developmental stages, AK was highly expressed during the cypris stage. Along with the aging process in cyprids, the level of AK decreased. The immunostaining results showed that AK was localized to muscular tissues in cyprids, including antennules, antennular muscles, and thoracic limbs. The larval settlement rate decreased and larval movement was inhibited in response to treatments with high concentrations of AK inhibitors (rutin and quercetin). These results demonstrated that AK was involved in the larval settlement of A. amphitrite through mediating energy supply in muscle tissues. Moreover, further analysis indicated that both the p38 MAPK and NO/cGMP pathways positively mediated the expression of AK in cyprids. PMID:27245369

  18. Significance of the conformation of building blocks in curing of barnacle underwater adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei; Nakano, Masahiro; Kanai, Satoru

    2012-05-01

    Barnacles are a unique sessile crustacean that attach irreversibly and firmly to foreign underwater surfaces. Its biological underwater adhesive is a peculiar extracellular multi-protein complex. Here we characterize one of the two major proteins, a 52 kDa protein found in the barnacle cement complex. Cloning of the cDNA revealed that the protein has no homolog in the nonredundant database. The primary structure consists of four long sequence repeats. The process of dissolving the protein at the adhesive joint of the animal by various treatments was monitored in order to obtain insight into the molecular mechanism involved in curing of the adhesive bulk. Treatments with protein denaturant, reducing agents and/or chemical-specific proteolysis in combination with 2D diagonal PAGE indicated no involvement of the protein in intermolecular cross-linkage/polymerization, including formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds. As solubilization of the proteins required high concentrations of denaturing agents, it appears that both the conformation of the protein as building blocks and non-covalent molecular interactions between the building blocks, possibly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, are crucial for curing of the cement. It was also suggested that the protein contributes to surface coupling by an anchoring effect to micro- to nanoscopic roughness of surfaces.

  19. Opportunism and the resilience of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2012-06-01

    Cirripede-like organisms have their origins in the Palaeozoic, but until the Cainozoic, were represented primarily by pedunculated forms, such as the Scalpelliformes. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. During the late Palaeogene, rapid radiation of cirripedes resulted in sufficient diversification for them to occupy most marine environments. That they survived both the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to rapidly adapt to opportunities. The wide habitat distribution of balanomorphs in particular is unparalleled; they are known from the upper littoral (Chthamalus) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this attached to rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in this diversity, distribution and biomass. All cirripedes are, nonetheless, at risk, from rapid habitat change, competition, pollution and, especially in light of their sessile habit, from predation. This paper assesses the viability of a number of cirripedes and concludes that the Lepadiformes, Scalpelliformes and Balanomorpha are the most resilient, and will most quickly adapt to occupy new niches when opportunities arise. PMID:22691197

  20. Phylogenetic position of Antarctic Scalpelliformes (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Fitzcharles, Elaine; Sands, Chester J.; Buckeridge, John S.

    2013-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of seven Antarctic barnacle species, one verrucomorph and six scalpelliforms from the Scotia, Weddell and Ross seas were investigated using DNA sequences from two nuclear genes (18 S and 28 S) and one mitochondrial gene (COI), with a combined total length of 3,151 base pairs. Analyses of these new sequences, together with those of previously published ibliform, lepadiform, scalpelliform, balanomorph and verrucomorph species, confirm that the Scalpelliformes are not monophyletic. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses consistently recovered a monophyletic group which comprised Ornatoscalpellum stroemii (Sars) and the Southern Ocean scalpellomorphs; Arcoscalpellum sp. from the Weddell Sea, Arcoscalpellum africanum from Elephant Island, A. bouveti from Bouvet Island, the circum-Antarctic Litoscalpellum discoveryi, Litoscalpellum sp. from Shag Rocks and Scalpellum sp. from the Falkland Trough. We also used multiple fossil constraints in a relaxed clock Bayesian framework to estimate divergence times for the 18 S+28 S phylogeny. Our results indicate a mid Cretaceous divergence for the Weddell Sea Arcoscalpellum sp, followed by a late Cretaceous divergence from the North Atlantic O. stroemii. Subsequent to this, the Antarctic scalpellomorphs began to radiate at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Monophyly within the scalpellid genera Arcoscalpellum, Litoscalpellum and Scalpellum was strongly rejected by all loci. Our results show incongruence between taxonomy and molecular systematics and highlight the need for more species to be sequenced as well as taxonomic revisions to resolve uncertainties in the phylogenetic relationships of the stalked barnacles.

  1. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Melissa B; Bruce, Niel L; Nowak, Barbara F

    2016-01-01

    The genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 is revised for Australian waters. Cymothoa hermani Hadfield, Bruce & Smit, 2011, previously known from Tanzania on the host Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793) is new to Australian waters. Cymothoa carangi Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa epimerica Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa parupenei Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa propria Avdeev, 1979; Cymothoa rotunda Avdeev, 1979 and Cymothoa pulchrum Lanchester, 1902 are redescribed. Cymothoa curta Schioedte & Meinert, 1884, first described from the host Anableps anableps (Linnaeus, 1758); and Cymothoa plebeia Schioedte & Meinert, 1884, first described from Cape Verde; are redescribed and excluded from the Australian fauna. Cymothoa limbata Schioedte & Meinert, 1884 is placed into junior synonymy with Cymothoa eremita (Brünnich, 1783). A key to the Australian species of Cymothoa is presented. PMID:27395199

  2. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

  3. Vaccination against cestode parasites.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Rickard, M D

    1993-10-01

    Cestodes are tapeworm parasites. Infection in the intermediate host with larval (metacestode) parasites causes medically and economically important diseases known as hydatidosis and cysticercosis. Immunization against experimental infection with metacestode parasites has been highly successful, in marked contrast with the relative ineffectiveness of vaccines against infection with most parasitic organisms. High levels of immunity against a challenge infection with taeniid cestode eggs can be stimulated by immunization with extracts of the parasites, particularly with extracts of the oncosphere life-cycle stage. This led to the production of a recombinant antigen vaccine against infection in sheep with the parasite Taenia ovis, the first highly effective, non-living vaccine against a parasitic infection in animals or humans. This paper reviews immunity to the adult and metacestode life-cycle stages of cestode parasites, development and application of the T. ovis vaccine, and prospects for vaccines against other cestode infections.

  4. Barnacles, limpets and periwinkles: the effects of direct and indirect interactions on cyprid settlement and success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Sebastian P.; Walker, Graham; van der Meer, Jaap

    2005-02-01

    Conventionally, direct interactions between species are considered to be the most important biological factors determining community composition, structure and stability. However, it has been suggested that the indirect interactions occurring between species may be as important. One area of ecology where the direct effects of one species on another have been well studied is in the rocky intertidal. Examination of the effect of the presence of P. vulgata (limpets) and L. littorea (periwinkles) on the settlement and development of S. balanoides (cyprids/barnacles), over a cyprid settlement season and some six months later, in four different treatments (limpets only, limpets and periwinkles combined, periwinkles only and control (no animals)) revealed the following: (1) that the presence of limpets increased cyprid settlement and recruitment success above treatments containing no limpets; (2) that cyprid settlement and success were greatest on the limpets-only treatment, followed by the limpets-and-periwinkles treatment, then by the control treatment and then by the periwinkles-only treatment; (3) that the initial effects observed in the treatments were reflected in the long-term community structure; (4) that the effects of the treatments were independent of variations in algal biomass between treatments, i.e. the effects were not indirectly mediated through a second species (host); (5) that cyprid mortality was greatest on the periwinkles-only treatment; (6) that the source of the effect of limpets on cyprid settlement appeared to originate indirectly through the action of their residual pedal mucus trails. It is concluded that periwinkles can affect the settlement and success of barnacles directly through biological disturbance (i.e. surface ablation). However, although limpets may have a direct negative effect on barnacle settlement and success, at low to medium densities, limpets can positively indirectly influence the cyprid settlement and success. This effect

  5. Asymmetric coexistence: bidirectional abiotic and biotic effects between goose barnacles and mussels.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takashi; Tokeshi, Mutsunori

    2006-07-01

    1. Species coexistence depends on the net effect of interacting species, representing the sum of multiple interaction components that may act simultaneously and vary independently depending on ambient environmental conditions. Consequently, for a comprehensive understanding of the compound nature of species interactions and coexistence, a mechanistic approach that allows a separate evaluation of each interaction component is required. 2. Two sessile filter-feeders, the goose barnacle Capitulum mitella and the mussel Septifer virgatus, coexist on moderately wave-exposed rocky shores in south-western Japan. In the upper intertidal, Capitulum positively influenced Septifer survivorship and growth through amelioration of thermal stress and of physical disturbance. On the other hand, these species are potential competitors as they have similar body sizes and modes of resource utilization. These opposite processes, facilitation and competition, are based on abiotic characteristics and biotic functions of the two species, respectively. 3. In order to quantify the bidirectional abiotic, biotic and net effects, a series of experimental manipulations was conducted involving the use of living neighbours with both abiotic and biotic effects, and artificial mimics to simulate abiotic effects without biotic effects. 4. Capitulum had strong positive abiotic effects on the mussel survivorship in most experimental periods, while the biotic effect was negligible or weakly negative, suggesting that the net effect of Capitulum on mussel survival was largely attributable to the abiotic effect. In contrast, a significantly negative biotic effect on the mussel growth rate was always present, though this was cancelled out by the larger, positive abiotic effect. In the case of Septifer, its abiotic and biotic effects on the survivorship of goose barnacles were negligible, while those on the growth rate showed temporal variation. 5. With respect to the relationship between species

  6. Crawfish and lobster allergens: identification and structural similarities with other crustacea.

    PubMed

    Halmepuro, L; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1987-01-01

    Antigenic and allergenic components in crawfish and lobster extracts were studied using crossed immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis with rabbit antisera revealed 23 antigens in crawfish and 17 antigens in lobster extracts. Both extracts exhibited structural similarities in antigens mutually and with other crustacea in cross-line immunoelectrophoresis. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) demonstrated 6 crawfish and 4 lobster allergens when individual or pooled sera from radioallergosorbent test (RAST)-positive crustacea-sensitive subjects were used. Since radiostaining was also observed with sera from RAST-negative nonsensitive subjects, specificity of IgE binding was tested using CRIE-inhibition. Preincubation of RAST-positive sera with crawfish or lobster extract decreased radiostaining in CRIE, while no changes occurred when using control sera. These results confirmed the presence of IgE-mediated mechanisms in seafood allergy and demonstrated a number of shared antigenic determinants among crustacea allergens.

  7. Prevalence of the invasive Rhizocephalan parasite Loxothylacus panopaei in Eurypanopeus depressus in South Carolina and genetic relationships of the parasite in North and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Freshwater, D Wilson; Burge, Erin J

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei is a parasitic castrator of xanthid crabs that has invaded the U.S. Atlantic coast. It was transported to the Chesapeake Bay in the mid-1960s with mud crabs associated with Gulf coast oysters and has since spread north to Long Island Sound, New York, and south to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Here we report parasite prevalence at 3 South Carolina sites--2 from which the parasite had not been previously reported--and examine the genetic relationships of North and South Carolina L. panopaei populations relative to Gulf of Mexico and other Atlantic coast parasite populations. Total L. panopaei prevalence was 24.2% among all 3 sites, with monthly prevalence as high as 51.6% at Waties Island, South Carolina. Sequence analyses of North and South Carolina specimens revealed the presence of 4 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes--3 commonly found in other invasive populations and 1 new haplotype found in a single specimen from the Rachel Carson Reserve in Carteret County, North Carolina--and indicate that the Carolina populations are a result of range expansion from the original Atlantic coast invasion.

  8. Prevalence of the invasive Rhizocephalan parasite Loxothylacus panopaei in Eurypanopeus depressus in South Carolina and genetic relationships of the parasite in North and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Freshwater, D Wilson; Burge, Erin J

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei is a parasitic castrator of xanthid crabs that has invaded the U.S. Atlantic coast. It was transported to the Chesapeake Bay in the mid-1960s with mud crabs associated with Gulf coast oysters and has since spread north to Long Island Sound, New York, and south to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Here we report parasite prevalence at 3 South Carolina sites--2 from which the parasite had not been previously reported--and examine the genetic relationships of North and South Carolina L. panopaei populations relative to Gulf of Mexico and other Atlantic coast parasite populations. Total L. panopaei prevalence was 24.2% among all 3 sites, with monthly prevalence as high as 51.6% at Waties Island, South Carolina. Sequence analyses of North and South Carolina specimens revealed the presence of 4 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes--3 commonly found in other invasive populations and 1 new haplotype found in a single specimen from the Rachel Carson Reserve in Carteret County, North Carolina--and indicate that the Carolina populations are a result of range expansion from the original Atlantic coast invasion. PMID:24588508

  9. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. PMID:27105933

  10. Parasitic crustaceans as vectors of viruses, with an emphasis on three penaeid viruses.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Robin M; Jovonovich, Jean; Ma, Hongwei

    2009-08-01

    Parasitic crustaceans serve as both hosts and vectors of viruses as well as of parasites and other microbial pathogenic agents. Few of the presumably numerous associations are known, but many can be anticipated. Recently, branchiurans and gnathiid isopods have been documented to host helminths and blood parasites. Because the agents can be observed readily with a microscope, these are better recognized than are the smaller viral, bacterial, and fungal agents. Some agents are harmful to the host of the crustacean parasite and others are not. Viruses probably fit both these categories, since viruses that do not appear pathogenic are often seen in ultrastructural images from a range of invertebrate hosts, including crustaceans. Some viruses have been implicated in causing disease in the host, at least under appropriate conditions. For example, lymphocystis virus may possibly be transmitted to the dermis of its fish hosts by copepods and to the visceral organs by a cymothoid isopod. Similarly, argulid branchiurans seem to transmit the viral agent of spring viremia of carp as well as carp pox, and copepods have been implicated in transmitting infectious hematopoietic necrosis, infectious salmon anemia, and infectious pancreatic necrosis to salmon. Other viruses can be vectored to their hosts through an additional animal. We exposed three viruses, Taura syndrome virus (TSV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and yellowhead virus (YHV), all of which cause mortalities in wild and cultured penaeid shrimps, to crustacean parasites on fish and crabs. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we show that TSV in the cyclopoid copepod Ergasilus manicatus on the gill filaments of the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, the acorn barnacle Chelonibia patula on the carapace of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, and gooseneck barnacle Octolasmis muelleri on the gills of C. sapidus, can replicate for at least 2 weeks and establish what should be an infective dose. This

  11. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellioscaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellioscaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellioscaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment.

  12. The Permian-Triassic mass extinction: Ostracods (Crustacea) and microbialites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forel, Marie-Béatrice

    2013-04-01

    The end-Permian mass extinction (EPE), about 252 Myr ago, eradicated more than 90% of marine species. Following this event, microbial formations colonised the space left vacant after extinction of skeletonised metazoans. These post-extinction microbialites dominated shallow marine environments and were usually considered as devoid of associated fauna. Recently, several fossil groups were discovered together with these deposits and allow discussing the palaeoenvironmental conditions following the EPE. At the very base of the Triassic, abundant Ostracods (Crustacea) are systematically present, only in association with microbialites. Bacterial communities building the microbial mats should have served as an unlimited food supply. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria may also have locally provided oxygen to the supposedly anoxic environment: microbialites would have been refuges in the immediate aftermath of the EPE. Ostracods temporarily disappear together with microbialites during the Griesbachian.

  13. Parasites of the grouper fish Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae) as potential environmental indicators in Indonesian coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kleinertz, S; Palm, H W

    2015-01-01

    A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nematode Spirophilometra endangae (23.3-42.9%), the digenean Didymodiclinus sp. (2.9-40.0%), the nematodes Philometra sp. (22.6-34.3%) and Raphidascaris sp. (2.9-28.6%), and the isopod Alcirona sp. (6.7-31.4%). Regional differences for E. coioides were found in terms of endoparasite diversity, total diversity according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson index and Evenness. A comparison with published data from Sumatera revealed highest endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener: 1.86/1.67-2.04) and lowest ectoparasite/endoparasite ratio (0.73/0.57-0.88) off the Balinese coast, followed by Lampung Bay, Sumatera (1.84; 0.67), off the coast of Segara Anakan lagoon (1.71; 0.71), and in the lagoon (0.30/0.19-0.66; 0.85/0.67-1.00). The presented data demonstrate the natural range of these parameters and parasite prevalences according to habitat and region, allowing adjustment of the scale that has been used in the visual integration of the parasite parameters into a star graph. The parasite fauna of E. coioides in Segara Anakan lagoon 'improved' from 2004 until 2008/09, possibly related to earlier oil spill events in 2002 and 2004. The use of grouper fish parasites as an early warning system for environmental change in Indonesian coastal ecosystems is discussed.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance. PMID:26988415

  15. Spatial properties of the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential in barnacle photoreceptors. I. The induction process

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In invertebrate photoreceptors, when the light stimulus results in substantial net transfer of the visual pigment from the rhodopsin (R) to the metarhodopsin (M) state, the ordinary late receptor potential (LRP) is followed by a prolonged depolarizing afterpotential (PDA). The dependence of the amplitude of the PDA on the amount of pigment conversion is strongly supralinear, and the PDA duration also depends on this amount. These observations indicate an interaction among the elements of the PDA induction process and also make possible a test of the range of this interaction. The test consists of a comparison of the PDA after localized pigment conversion, obtained by strong spot illumination, to that after weaker diffuse illumination converting a comparable total amount of pigment. The experiment was performed on the barnacle lateral eye. The effective spot size was measured by the early receptor potential (ERP), in seawater saturated with CO2, which considerably reduced the electrical coupling between the photoreceptors. The ERP was also used to determine whether there is diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot. The spot illumination induced a PDA with small amplitude and long duration, while no detectable PDA was induced by the diffuse light. This indicates that the range of the PDA interaction is much smaller than the entire cell. In addition, the ERP results showed that there was no detectable diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot area over 30 min. This measurement, with a calculated correction for the microvillar geometry of the photoreceptor, enabled us to put an upper limit on the diffusion coefficient of the pigment molecules in the inact, unfixed barnacle photoreceptor of D less than 6 X 10(-9) cm2 s-1. PMID:3958692

  16. Passive signal propagation and membrane properties in median photoreceptors of the giant barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, A. J.; Poo, Mu Ming; Stuart, Ann E.

    1977-01-01

    1. The light-induced electrical responses of barnacle photoreceptors spread decrementally along the cells' axons. The decay of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the visual signal was studied by recording intracellularly from single receptor axons of the median ocellus of the giant barnacle. 2. The resistance of the photoreceptor neurone decreases markedly when the cell is depolarized with respect to its dark resting potential of -60 mV. This rectification results in differential attenuation of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the visual signal as they spread down the axon. Consequently, the visual signal entering the synaptic region is conspicuously distorted. 3. Bathing the photoreceptor axons in sodium-free or calcium-free saline or in isotonic sucrose does not significantly affect the spread of the visual signal to the terminals. Thus the signal is not amplified by an ionic mechanism along the axon. 4. Membrane characteristics of the photoreceptor for hyperpolarizing voltage changes were estimated from (a) the ratio of the amplitudes of the visual signals recorded simultaneously in the axon and in the soma, (b) the time constant, and (c) the input resistance of the cell. All three independent measurements are consistent with a length constant 1 to 2 times the total length of the cell (λ = 10-18 mm) and an unusually high membrane resistivity of about 300 kΩ cm2. This resistivity enables the receptor potential to spread passively to the terminal region. 5. Electron microscopic examination of receptor axons reveals an investment of glial lamellae, but demonstrates neither unusual structures which would lead to a high apparent membrane resistivity, nor junctions between cells which would seal off the extracellular space. Thus the observed high resistivity appears to be an intrinsic property of the receptor membrane. ImagesABCD PMID:592129

  17. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it

  18. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  19. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  20. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID

  1. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971–1980, 1991–2000, 2001–2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes

  2. Relationship between metal and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burden and health risks in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W; Zhang, Xiaohua; Pan, Ke; Guo, Cui; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Wenxiong; Liu, Hongbin; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-11-15

    In the present study, we employed the widespread and gregarious barnacle species Balanus amphitrite in a biomonitoring program to evaluate coastal pollution around three piers (i.e., Tso Wo Hang, Sai Kung and Hebe Haven) in Hong Kong. An integrated approach was used herein, combining both the chemical determination of contaminant concentrations, including metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and a suite of biological responses across the entire barnacle lifecycle (i.e., adult, nauplius, cyprid and juvenile). The analytical results revealed a distinct geographical distribution of metals and PBDEs. Adult physiological processes and larval behaviors varied significantly among the three piers. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated a specific suite of biological responses towards metal and PBDE exposure, likely resulting from their distinct modes of action. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the combination of chemical and biological tests provided an integrated measure for the comprehensive assessment of marine pollution. PMID:26320980

  3. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  4. Occurrence and diversity of barnacles on international ships visiting Osaka Bay, Japan, and the risk of their introduction.

    PubMed

    Otani, M; Oumi, T; Uwai, S; Hanyuda, T; Prabowo, R E; Yamaguchi, T; Kawai, H

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and diversity of barnacles attached to the hulls of two intercontinental bulk carriers were studied at the port in Osaka Bay, Japan, to assess the potential risk of introduction of exotic species to the inner part of the bay. Barnacles were sampled from the bulbous bows, near the midship draft marks, and around the propeller posts and rudders. Twenty-two species were found, with 14 of these not previously recorded in Osaka Bay, including four species not previously recorded elsewhere in Japan. From an assessment of environmental similarity between Osaka Bay and native ranges, of the 14 species, Elminius modestus and Amphibalanus variegatus were considered to have the highest risk of introduction to the inner part of the bay.

  5. Accessing transcriptomic data for ecologically important genes in the goose barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes), with particular focus on cement proteins.

    PubMed

    Perina, A; von Reumont, B M; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2014-06-01

    In this study 4310 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to identify potentially useful transcripts for future studies in the gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Gmelin, 1789). 119 ESTs were obtained in this work and 4191 were taken from Meusemann et al. (2010). The gooseneck barnacle is a sessile pedunculate cirripede of great economic importance that occurs in dense aggregations, and is harvested for human consumption. The assembly of these ESTs yielded 1805 unigenes (461 contigs and 1344 singlets). The identification of cement proteins in our data is particularly interesting for cirripedes. Only a small part of the assembled unigenes could be functionally annotated. However, our results greatly improve our understanding of the biological features of P. pollicipes. In addition to this, a large number of potentially interesting genes were identified in order to serve as the base for future evolutionary studies in P. pollicipes.

  6. The effect of water temperature and flow on respiration in barnacles: patterns of mass transfer versus kinetic limitation.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2014-06-15

    In aquatic systems, physiological processes such as respiration, photosynthesis and calcification are potentially limited by the exchange of dissolved materials between organisms and their environment. The nature and extent of physiological limitation is, therefore, likely to be dependent on environmental conditions. Here, we assessed the metabolic sensitivity of barnacles under a range of water temperatures and velocities, two factors that influence their distribution. Respiration rates increased in response to changes in temperature and flow, with an interaction where flow had less influence on respiration at low temperatures, and a much larger effect at high temperatures. Model analysis suggested that respiration is mass transfer limited under conditions of low velocity (<7.5 cm (-1)) and high temperature (20-25°C). In contrast, limitation by uptake reaction kinetics, when the biotic capacity of barnacles to absorb and process oxygen is slower than its physical delivery by mass transport, prevailed at high flows (40-150 cm s(-1)) and low temperatures (5-15°C). Moreover, there are intermediate flow-temperature conditions where both mass transfer and kinetic limitation are important. Behavioral monitoring revealed that barnacles fully extend their cirral appendages at low flows and display abbreviated 'testing' behaviors at high flows, suggesting some form of mechanical limitation. In low flow-high temperature treatments, however, barnacles displayed distinct 'pumping' behaviors that may serve to increase ventilation. Our results suggest that in slow-moving waters, respiration may become mass transfer limited as temperatures rise, whereas faster flows may serve to ameliorate the effects of elevated temperatures. Moreover, these results underscore the necessity for approaches that evaluate the combined effects of multiple environmental factors when examining physiological and behavioral performance.

  7. Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition in barnacle goose droppings was relatively uniform over samples, with a high abundance of the nutritious bulbils of Polygonum viviparum (Bistorta vivipara), suggesting that geese have a narrow habitat preference and feed selectively. Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among samples, suggesting a generalist approach in terms of food selection and the haphazard ingestion of plant propagules with foliage. The species composition of plant propagules in dung samples was different from that of the receiving plant communities (in terms of the Sørensen and Czekanowski dissimilarity indices), and dung deposition, especially by muskox, often brought new species to the receiving community. The results suggest that endozoochorous propagule dispersal in the Arctic has a great potential in the generation and maintenance of local species richness, albeit being little specialized. It is further suggested that endozoochory is an important means of long-distance dispersal and, thereby, of plant migration in response to climate change.

  8. Effects of Toxic Leachate from Commercial Plastics on Larval Survival and Settlement of the Barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Plastic pollution represents a major and growing global problem. It is well-known that plastics are a source of chemical contaminants to the aquatic environment and provide novel habitats for marine organisms. The present study quantified the impacts of plastic leachates from the seven categories of recyclable plastics on larval survival and settlement of barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. Leachates from plastics significantly increased barnacle nauplii mortality at the highest tested concentrations (0.10 and 0.50 m(2)/L). Hydrophobicity (measured as surface energy) was positively correlated with mortality indicating that plastic surface chemistry may be an important factor in the effects of plastics on sessile organisms. Plastic leachates significantly inhibited barnacle cyprids settlement on glass at all tested concentrations. Settlement on plastic surfaces was significantly inhibited after 24 and 48 h, but settlement was not significantly inhibited compared to the controls for some plastics after 72-96 h. In 24 h exposure to seawater, we found larval toxicity and inhibition of settlement with all seven categories of recyclable commercial plastics. Chemical analysis revealed a complex mixture of substances released in plastic leachates. Leaching of toxic compounds from all plastics should be considered when assessing the risks of plastic pollution.

  9. Regional variations of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of barnacles from the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Bojorquez-Leyva, H.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.

    1999-07-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, and Zn in soft and hard tissues of barnacles from eight sampling sites in six harbors on the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Some inter-regional differences in metal concentrations, especially concerning Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Pb, were identified. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ag were observed in the barnacle populations from Ceuta Lagoon, an uncontaminated site with rural agriculture and semi-intensive shrimp farms in the surroundings. Conversely, the highest concentrations of: (1) Zn, Cu, and Ag were found in the soft tissues of Balanus eburneus from Mazatlan piers; (2) Pb, Ni, and Cd in the soft tissue of Megabalanus coccopoma from Puerto Vallarta; (3) Fe in the hard tissue of Balanus sp. from Guaymas Harbour; and (4) Mn in the hard tissue of M. coccopoma from Mazatlan Harbour. Inter-comparison of the present data indicates that the soft (mainly Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the hard (mainly for Fe and Mn) tissues are useful in detecting areas of selected metallic contaminants. Barnacles such as B. eburneus, M. coccopoma, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians appear to be convenient biomonitors for identification of coastal waters exposed to Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Ag in the American region of the subtropical Pacific.

  10. Multidecadal signals within co-occurring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieszkowska, N.; Burrows, M. T.; Pannacciulli, F. G.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    Few links have been established between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and long-term dynamics of marine systems due to the scarcity of sustained biological time-series with sufficient multi-decadal coverage. The abundances of co-occurring boreal and Lusitanian species of barnacle have been recorded annually at a rocky shore in Devon, southwest England since 1953. Multidecadal cycles in relative abundances of the cold-water Semibalanus balanoides and warm-water Chthamalus spp. are strongly correlated with both local sea surface temperatures, and a ‘Warm Index' of barnacle abundance shows strong links to the basin-scale Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. In contrast there are weak or no observed relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation for either species. The shorter lifecycle of S. balanoides compared to the chthamalids and the increase in spring and summer temperatures to which newly settled S. balanoides recruits have been exposed during the last decade are likely mechanisms by which barnacle densities are responding to low-frequency temperature variability expressed in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  11. A protective coat of microorganisms on macroalgae: inhibitory effects of bacterial biofilms and epibiotic microbial assemblages on barnacle attachment.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Stratil, Stephanie B; Jacob, Katharina J; Wahl, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Effects of epibiotic bacteria associated with macroalgae on barnacle larval attachment were investigated. Eight bacterial isolates obtained from samples of three macroalga species were cultured as monospecies bacterial films and tested for their activity against barnacle (Amphibalanus improvisus) attachment in field experiments (Western Baltic Sea). Furthermore, natural biofilm communities associated with the surface of the local brown alga, Fucus vesiculosus, which were exposed to different temperatures (5, 15 and 20 °C), were harvested and subsequently tested. Generally, monospecies bacterial biofilms, as well as natural microbial assemblages, inhibited barnacle attachment by 20-67%. denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints showed that temperature treatment shifted the bacterial community composition and weakened the repellent effects at 20 °C. Repellent effects were absent when settlement pressure of cyprids was high. Nonviable bacteria tended to repel cyprids when compared to the unfilmed surfaces. We conclude that biofilms can have a repellent effect benefiting the host by preventing heavy fouling on its surface. However, severe settlement pressure, as well as stressful temperature, may reduce the protective effects of the alga's biofilm. Our results add to the notion that the performance of F. vesiculosus may be reduced by multiple stressors in the course of global warming.

  12. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  13. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-03-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the Central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  14. Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition in barnacle goose droppings was relatively uniform over samples, with a high abundance of the nutritious bulbils of Polygonum viviparum (Bistorta vivipara), suggesting that geese have a narrow habitat preference and feed selectively. Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among samples, suggesting a generalist approach in terms of food selection and the haphazard ingestion of plant propagules with foliage. The species composition of plant propagules in dung samples was different from that of the receiving plant communities (in terms of the Sørensen and Czekanowski dissimilarity indices), and dung deposition, especially by muskox, often brought new species to the receiving community. The results suggest that endozoochorous propagule dispersal in the Arctic has a great potential in the generation and maintenance of local species richness, albeit being little specialized. It is further suggested that endozoochory is an important means of long-distance dispersal and, thereby, of plant migration in response to climate change. PMID:17990003

  15. Multi-seasonal barnacle (Balanus improvisus) protection achieved by trace amounts of a macrocyclic lactone (ivermectin) included in rosin-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Pinori, Emiliano; Berglin, Mattias; Brive, Lena M; Hulander, Mats; Dahlström, Mia; Elwing, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Rosin-based coatings loaded with 0.1% (w/v) ivermectin were found to be effective in preventing colonization by barnacles (Balanus improvisus) both on test panels as well as on yachts for at least two fouling seasons. The leaching rate of ivermectin was determined by mass-spectroscopy (LC/MS-MS) to be 0.7 ng cm(-2) day(-1). This low leaching rate, as deduced from the Higuchi model, is a result of the low loading, low water solubility, high affinity to the matrix and high molar volume of the model biocide. Comparison of ivermectin and control areas of panels immersed in the field showed undisturbed colonisation of barnacles after immersion for 35 days. After 73 days the mean barnacle base plate area on the controls was 13 mm(2), while on the ivermectin coating it was 3 mm(2). After 388 days, no barnacles were observed on the ivermectin coating while the barnacles on the control coating had reached a mean of 60 mm(2). In another series of coated panels, ivermectin was dissolved in a cosolvent mixture of propylene glycol and glycerol formal prior to the addition to the paint base. This method further improved the anti-barnacle performance of the coatings. An increased release rate (3 ng cm(-2) day(-1)) and dispersion of ivermectin, determined by fluorescence microscopy, and decreased hardness of the coatings were the consequences of the cosolvent mixture in the paint. The antifouling mechanism of macrocyclic lactones, such as avermectins, needs to be clarified in further studies. Beside chronic intoxication as ivermectin is slowly released from the paint film even contact intoxication occurring inside the coatings, triggered by penetration of the coating by barnacles, is a possible explanation for the mode of action and this is under investigation.

  16. Livoneca sinuata (Crustacea; Isopoda; Cymothoidae) on Loligo vulgaris from Turkey, and unusual cymothoid associations.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Oktener, Ahmet

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, an unusual association of Livoneca sinuata (Crustacea; Isopoda; Cymothoidae) with the cephalopod Loligo vulgaris is reported for the first time from the Aegean sea coasts of Turkey. Moreover, a review of all the cases of unusual associations involving cymothoids is performed.

  17. Cystatins of parasitic organisms.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Christian; Ziegler, Thomas; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Hartmann, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily comprises several groups of protease inhibitors. In this chapter we will focus on I25 family members, which consist predominantly of the type 2 cystatins. Recently, a wealth of information on these molecules and their activities has been described. Parasite cystatins are shown to have dual functions via interaction with both parasite and host proteases. Thereby, parasite cystatins are not only essentially involved in the regulation of physiological processes during parasite development, but also represent important pathogenicity factors. Interestingly, some studies indicate that parasite cystatins evolved exceptional immuno-modulatory properties. these capacities could be exploited to interfere with unwanted immune responses in unrelated human inflammatory diseases. We highlight the different biological roles of parasite cystatins and the anticipated future developments.

  18. Parasites of urological importance.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, Elijah O; Anim, Jehoram T; Hira, Parsotam R

    2008-01-01

    With the world increasingly becoming a global village, transnational and transcontinental migration has become the order of the day. It is expected that migrants will take with them some diseases (including parasites) which are normally endemic in their countries of origin, to their host countries. Similarly, environmental changes that result from development of water resources, global warming, growth and migration of population can facilitate the spread of parasites. In this review we describe the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis and treatment options of parasites that urologists may encounter. Notably among these parasites are Schistosoma haematobium, Echinococcus granulosus, Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus.

  19. Patterns of distribution and abundance of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) in the central and southwest coast of continental Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alina; Jacinto, David; Penteado, Nélia; Martins, Pedro; Fernandes, Joana; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J.; Cruz, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is a cirriped crustacean that lives on very exposed rocky shores. This barnacle is the most important economical resource on intertidal rocky shores of continental Portugal. It is highly prized as food and heavily exploited (professional and recreational fishery), but fishery data are scarce and do not estimate the real pressure upon this resource. Despite its socio-economic interest, specific regulations on this fishery are recent and different along the Portuguese coast. Four regions with different regulation can be identified: the marine reserve “Reserva Natural das Berlengas” (RNB) and the marine park “Parque Marinho Prof. Luiz Saldanha” (PMLS) (both in central Portugal); the natural park located in SW Portugal (“Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina”, PNSACV); and the rest of the coast. The main objective of the present study was to study the spatial patterns of percentage cover, biomass, density and size structure of P. pollicipes in areas with different exploitation regimes, including harvested areas and no-take areas. Additionally, variability between mid shore and low shore barnacles was also analysed. Seven areas were sampled with a variable number of sites (a total of 24) randomly sampled in each area during 2011. Photographs and image analysis (percentage cover) and destructive sampling (density, biomass and size) were used. In general, percentage cover, biomass and density were higher in mid shore when compared to low shore, namely in harvested areas. Low shore barnacles had a higher proportion of adults with moderate and high commercial value, while juveniles were relatively more abundant at mid shore. There were no consistent differences in the patterns of distribution and abundance of P. pollicipes among areas subject to different exploitation regimes. The most different area was the harvested area by professional fishers in RNB, where the highest biomass within the study was

  20. Fish parasites in the bathyal zone: The halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther, 1878) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpel, S.; Palm, H. W.; Busch, M. W.; Kellermanns, E.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 42 Halosauropsis macrochir from a single position on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) were collected for studies on parasites and feeding ecology. A total of 9 different parasite species were found, with most of them belonging to the Digenea (4 species) and Nematoda (3). The host specific Degeneria halosauri, (Digenea) and Cystidicolidae indet. (Nematoda) were the predominant species, reaching a prevalence of 100.0% and 57.1% with intensities of infection of 1-12 and 1-10, respectively. Less host specific parasites such as Gonocerca phycidis (Digenea) and Tetraphyllidea indet. (Cestoda) occurred at low rates of infection. The parasite fauna of this bathyal fish can be described as predominantly adult and host specific, with larval and less host specific components. A total of 16 different food groups were identified, most of them of benthic origin or associated with the benthopelagial. The predominant prey organisms belonged to the Crustacea (e.g., Copepoda, Gammaridea, Amphipoda and Isopoda), which serve as main parasite vectors for H. macrochir. This deep-sea fish seems to follow a general pattern of fish parasites in the deep sea, with most isolated parasites belonging to the digeneans, nematodes and a cestode. The parasite composition is caused by the narrow depth range of the species and the restricted distribution of the fish family Halosauridae. The species richness was found to be lower than other demersal fish from the deep sea and shallow waters, however, higher than those from deep-sea fish living in the pelagial.

  1. Parasitic infections of Piaractus mesopotamicus and hybrid (P. mesopotamicus x Piaractus brachypomus) cultured in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Lidiane; Zago, Aline Cristina; Schalch, Sérgio Henrique Canello; Garcia, Fabiana; Romera, Daiane Mompean; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of parasitic infections in the "pacu" fish Piaractus mesopotamicus and the "patinga" hybrid (P. mesopotamicus x Piaractus brachypomus) in the northwest of São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish from the following three fish farms were evaluated every two months: A, a hatchery and larviculture farm (n = 16 pacu / n = 19 patinga), B, a growout farm (n = 35 patinga) and C, a fee-fishing property (n = 28 pacu / n = 7 patinga). Thirty-five fish from each property were collected from February 2010 to February 2011 and subjected to parasitological analysis. The parasites found were the following: Mymarothecium viatorum, Anacanthorus penilabiatus, Notozothecium janauachensis (Dactylogyridae, Monogenea), Trichodina spp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Chilodonella sp. (Protozoa), Myxobolus spp., Henneguya spp. (Myxozoa), Rondonia rondoni, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), and Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea). Of the fish examined, 62.9% from "A" and 100% from "B" and "C" were infested with at least one parasite species. Pacu fish (n = 44) showed a higher susceptibility to Anacanthorus penilabiatus infestations, whereas patinga (n = 61) were more susceptible to Mymarothecium viatorum (p < 0.05). Appropriate fish handling (nutrition, transport and storage), in conjunction with monitoring of water quality, can reduce the stress to which the farmed fish are exposed and is essential for pathogen control. PMID:24142174

  2. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  3. Where are the parasites?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Review by E. Post et al. (“Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change,” 11 September, p. 1355) paid little heed to parasites and other pathogens. The rapidly growing literature on parasites in arctic and subarctic ecosystems provides empirical and observational e...

  4. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  5. Ecology of marine parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, K.

    1984-03-01

    Important ecological aspects of marine parasites are discussed. Whereas effects of parasites on host individuals sometimes leading to death are known from many groups of parasites, effects on host populations have been studied much less. Mass mortalities have been observed mainly among hosts occurring in abnormally dense populations or after introduction of parasites by man. As a result of large-scale human activities, it becomes more and more difficult to observe effects of parasites on host populations under “natural” conditions. Particular emphasis is laid on ecological characteristics of parasites, such as host range and specificity, microhabitats, macrohabitats, food, life span, aggregated distribution, numbers and kinds of parasites, pathogenicity and mechanisms of reproduction and infection and on how such characteristics are affected by environment and hosts. It is stressed that host specificity indices which take frequency and/or intensity of infection into account, are a better measure of restriction of parasites to certain hosts than “host range” which simply is the number of host species found to be infected.

  6. Stool ova and parasites exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... stool sample. The parasites are associated with intestinal infections. ... An abnormal result means parasites or eggs are present in the stool. This is a sign of a parasitic infection, such as: Amebiasis Giardiasis Strongyloidiasis Taeniasis

  7. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity. PMID:27582433

  8. Modulation of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite Darwin) cyprid settlement behavior by sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine methacrylate polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Nick; Li, Guozhu; Gao, Ye; Clare, Anthony S; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2010-08-01

    Zwitterionic polymers such as poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) and poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (polyCBMA) have demonstrated impressive fouling-resistance against proteins and mammalian cells. In this paper, the effects of these surface chemistries on the settlement and behavior of an ubiquitous fouling organism, the cypris larva of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite (=Amphibalanus amphitrite), were studied in the laboratory. Conventional settlement assays and behavioral analysis of cyprids using Noldus Ethovision 3.1 demonstrated significant differences in settlement and behavior on different surfaces. Cyprids did not settle on the polySBMA or polyCBMA surfaces over the course of the assay, whereas settlement on glass occurred within expected limits. Individual components of cyprid behavior were shown to differ significantly between glass, polySBMA and polyCBMA. Cyprids also responded differently to the two zwitterionic surfaces. On polySBMA, cyprids were unwilling or unable to settle, whereas on polyCBMA cyprids did not attempt exploration and left the surface quickly. In neither case was toxicity observed. It is concluded that a zwitterionic approach to fouling-resistant surface development has considerable potential in marine applications. PMID:20658383

  9. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles. PMID:17681431

  10. Isolation and characterization of agglutinins from the hemolymph of an acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Muramoto, K; Goto, R

    1987-01-01

    Two agglutinins, MVA-1 and MVA-2, were isolated from the hemolymph of the acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano. They agglutinated human erythrocytes irrespective of the ABO blood group and also rabbit and sheep blood cells. Lactose and fetuin strongly inhibited the hemagglutinating activity. D-galactose, D-arabinose and N-acetylneuraminic acid were also moderate inhibitors. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, both MVA-1 and MVA-2 gave a single band corresponding to 38,000 daltons. It split into one major band with a molecular weight of 23,000 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The two agglutinins showed the same apparent molecular weight of 116,000 by gel filtration. In isoelectric focusing MVA-1 showed one band at pH 4.8, whereas MVA-2 gave a main band at pH 4.4 with few faint ones in the range between pH 4.0 and 4.8. The agglutinins were glycoproteins containing D-mannose and L-fucose as carbohydrate components. No precipitation reaction was observed in Ouchterlony immuno-diffusion tests using rabbit antisera against the agglutinins from the phylogenetically related Megabalanus rosa.

  11. Effect of temperature on membrane potential and ionic fluxes in intact and dialysed barnacle muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Dipolo, Reinaldo; Latorre, Ramón

    1972-01-01

    1. The temperature-dependent component of the resting potential in intact, cannulated and dialysed fibres from the muscle of the barnacle Balanus nubilus was studied under a variety of different experimental conditions. A decrease in temperature from 22 to 12° C produced a mean depolarization of 10 mV. 2. Neither addition of strophanthidin, nor replacement of external sodium by lithium affect the voltage shift induced by temperature. However, the magnitude of the voltage shift depends on the external chloride and potassium concentration. 3. The dialysis technique was applied to measure the potassium, chloride and sodium fluxes as a function of temperature. The Q10 for the passive fluxes of these ions was 1·9, 1·7, and 1·4 respectively. 4. The temperature-dependent changes in the passive ionic fluxes combined with the inability of inhibitors of the sodium pump to alter the temperature dependence of the resting potential suggest that the change induced by temperature on the resting potential is primarily caused by a change in the passive permeability ratios, and is not related to active ion transport. PMID:5074384

  12. Phylogeographic structure and northward range expansion in the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Bukša, Filip; Bockrath, Katherine; Wares, John P.; Pineda, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle Chthamalus fragilis is found along the US Atlantic seaboard historically from the Chesapeake Bay southward, and in the Gulf of Mexico. It appeared in New England circa 1900 coincident with warming temperatures, and is now a conspicuous member of rocky intertidal communities extending through the northern shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The origin of northern C. fragilis is debated. It may have spread to New England from the northern end of its historic range through larval transport by ocean currents, possibly mediated by the construction of piers, marinas, and other anthropogenic structures that provided new hard substrate habitat. Alternatively, it may have been introduced by fouling on ships originating farther south in its historic distribution. Here we examine mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequence diversity and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes of C. fragilis from 11 localities ranging from Cape Cod, to Tampa Bay, Florida. We found significant genetic structure between northern and southern populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three well-supported reciprocally monophyletic haplogroups, including one haplogroup that is restricted to New England and Virginia populations. While the distances between clades do not suggest cryptic speciation, selection and dispersal barriers may be driving the observed structure. Our data are consistent with an expansion of C. fragilis from the northern end of its mid-19th century range into Massachusetts. PMID:25945315

  13. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity. PMID:27582433

  14. Speciation and the establishment of zonation in an intertidal barnacle: specific settlement vs. selection.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L; Achituv, Y; Mokady, O

    2002-09-01

    The tropical barnacle Tetraclita forms a belt on hard substrates in the intertidal zone of the Red Sea. Based on morphological data, three distinct species were suggested to exist, occupying different vertical levels - T. barnesorum, T. rufotincta and T. achituvi. In this study we used molecular (12S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA) and ecological data to examine whether this morphological variability reflects genetic differences, or is a result of environmental factors. Adults and spats, collected from settlement plates, were censused and screened genotypically using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and settlement dynamics was recorded. We provide evidence for the existence of only two distinct species, and point out both phenotypic plasticity and convergence within and between the proposed species. Cyprids of T. achituvi settle specifically at the lower part of the Tetraclita belt, and feature one phenotype. In contrast, T. rufotincta, occupying the upper and middle portions of the Tetraclita belt, settles throughout the range, shows phenotypic plasticity (three variants), and presumably undergoes selection at the lower part. Thus, the vertical zonation of Tetraclita is produced by the combination of pre-settlement and post-settlement factors, in T. achituvi and T. rufotincta, respectively. The examined system may offer a model in which to study the mechanisms underlying sympatric speciation.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution of the chthamaloid barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A; Achituv, Yair

    2012-10-01

    The Chthamaloidea (Balanomorpha) present the most plesiomorphic characters in shell plates and cirri, mouthparts, and oral cone within the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia). Due to their importance in understanding both the origin and diversification of the Balanomorpha, the evolution of the Chthamaloidea has been debated since Darwin's seminal monographs. Theories of morphological and ontogenetic evolution suggest that the group could have evolved multiple times from pedunculated relatives and that shell plate number diminished gradually (8→6→4) from an ancestral state with eight wall plates surrounded by whorls of small imbricating plates; but this hypothesis has never been subjected to a rigorous phylogenetic test. Here we used multilocus sequence data and extensive taxon sampling to build a comprehensive phylogeny of the Chthamaloidea as a basis for understanding their morphological evolution. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses separate the Catophragmidae (eight shell plates and imbricating plates) from the Chthamalidae (8-4 shell plates and no imbricating plates), but do no support a gradual reduction in shell plates (8→6→4). This suggests that evolution at the base of the Balanomorpha involved a considerable amount of homoplasy.

  16. Can body burden in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite indicate seasonal variation in cadmium concentrations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2005-10-01

    Two three-month sampling programs measuring Cd in the environment and a biomonitor ( Balanus amphitrite) were undertaken in the austral winter of 2002 and summer of 2004 in Ross Creek, North Queensland, Australia. The objective was to test whether the burden of Cd in the biomonitor responded to any variation in the dissolved and particulate phase Cd concentrations in Ross Creek, caused by rainfall variation. The barnacles from the most Cd contaminated site were exposed to a total Cd concentration twice that in winter (93.6 ng L -1) than in summer (45.6 ng L -1). However, no significant variation was identified for the Cd concentration in the biomonitor between winter (8.4 mg kg -1) and summer (7.4 mg kg -1). A budget analysis based on a bioenergetic kinetic model indicated that Cd flux from food contributes >80% to the Cd concentration in B. amphitrite. A sensitivity analysis showed that physiological characteristics of the biomonitor are the key parameters controlling Cd accumulation in B. amphitrite, rather than the metal concentration in the dissolved or particulate phases. These two model's outcomes suggest that a tight coupling between Cd in the biomonitor and its availability in the environment does not occur.

  17. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted.

  18. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles.

  19. Water and electrolyte content of the myofilament phase in the chemically skinned barnacle fiber

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Muscle fibers from the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, were placed inside the lumen of a porous glass capillary and equilibrated for 48 h in an electrolyte solution containing 2% Tween. The glass capillary prevented the chemically "skinned" fiber from swelling with a water content beyond 80%. Isotope exchange studies using 22Na, 42K, and 36Cl indicated the existence of an intermediate rate constant and compartment which varied with pH. This intermediate rate was attributed to counter-ions and co-ions in the myofilament phase. Analysis of the electrolyte composition of the fiber at pH 8 predicts that the myofilaments contain about 0.3 of the fiber water, and that a -15 mV Donnan potential exists at the myofilament surface. An open-tipped (1- micrometer) microelectrode in the skinned fiber measured a potential (similar in magnitude to the Donnan potential), which decreased and reversed sign as the pH was lowered. The measured cation contents of the fiber between pH 5 and 8 were found to be similar to the cation contents predicted from the measured Donnan potentials. The net negative charge of the myofilaments at pH 7.5 and at ionic strength 0.56 is estimated to be 41 eq per 10(5) g of dry weight. PMID:7189772

  20. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV.

  1. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity.

  2. siRNA transfection in larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue Him; Yu, Li; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides an efficient and specific technique for functional genomic studies. Yet, no successful application of RNAi has been reported in barnacles. In this study, siRNA against p38 MAPK was synthesized and then transfected into A. amphitrite larvae at either the nauplius or cyprid stage, or at both stages. Effects of siRNA transfection on the p38 MAPK level were hardly detectable in the cyprids when they were transfected at the nauplius stage. In contrast, larvae that were transfected at the cyprid stage showed lower levels of p38 MAPK than the blank and reagent controls. However, significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) and reduced settlement rates were observed only in 'double transfections', in which larvae were exposed to siRNA solution at both the nauplius and cyprid stages. A relatively longer transfection time and more larval cells directly exposed to siRNA might explain the higher efficiency of double transfection experiments.

  3. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. PMID:26507313

  4. siRNA transfection in larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue Him; Yu, Li; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides an efficient and specific technique for functional genomic studies. Yet, no successful application of RNAi has been reported in barnacles. In this study, siRNA against p38 MAPK was synthesized and then transfected into A. amphitrite larvae at either the nauplius or cyprid stage, or at both stages. Effects of siRNA transfection on the p38 MAPK level were hardly detectable in the cyprids when they were transfected at the nauplius stage. In contrast, larvae that were transfected at the cyprid stage showed lower levels of p38 MAPK than the blank and reagent controls. However, significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) and reduced settlement rates were observed only in 'double transfections', in which larvae were exposed to siRNA solution at both the nauplius and cyprid stages. A relatively longer transfection time and more larval cells directly exposed to siRNA might explain the higher efficiency of double transfection experiments. PMID:26113139

  5. Phylogeographic structure and northward range expansion in the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Bukša, Filip; Bockrath, Katherine; Wares, John P; Pineda, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle Chthamalus fragilis is found along the US Atlantic seaboard historically from the Chesapeake Bay southward, and in the Gulf of Mexico. It appeared in New England circa 1900 coincident with warming temperatures, and is now a conspicuous member of rocky intertidal communities extending through the northern shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The origin of northern C. fragilis is debated. It may have spread to New England from the northern end of its historic range through larval transport by ocean currents, possibly mediated by the construction of piers, marinas, and other anthropogenic structures that provided new hard substrate habitat. Alternatively, it may have been introduced by fouling on ships originating farther south in its historic distribution. Here we examine mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequence diversity and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes of C. fragilis from 11 localities ranging from Cape Cod, to Tampa Bay, Florida. We found significant genetic structure between northern and southern populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three well-supported reciprocally monophyletic haplogroups, including one haplogroup that is restricted to New England and Virginia populations. While the distances between clades do not suggest cryptic speciation, selection and dispersal barriers may be driving the observed structure. Our data are consistent with an expansion of C. fragilis from the northern end of its mid-19th century range into Massachusetts. PMID:25945315

  6. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted. PMID:25261121

  7. Self-assembling peptide inspired by a barnacle underwater adhesive protein.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamino, Kei

    2007-06-01

    An underwater bioadhesive generally comprises a multiprotein complex that provides a molecular basis for self-assembly. We report here a new class of self-assembling peptide inspired by a 20 kDa barnacle cement protein. Studies on the chemically synthesized 24-residue peptide have revealed that (1) it underwent irreversible self-assembly upon the addition of salt, (2) the self-assembly was started at a salt concentration close to that of seawater with noncovalent intermolecular interactions, (3) the self-assembled material resembled a macroscopic membrane of interwoven nanofilaments, (4) incubation in an alkaline pH range formed the intramolecular disulfide bond of a peptide molecule, thus triggering a conformation change of the molecule, and (5) conformational change of the building block promoted the formation of a nanofiber, resulting in the display of a three-dimensional meshlike mesoscopic structure with defined pores having a diameter of approximately 200 nm. The peptide is likely to provide a suitable basis for further development of peptide-based materials.

  8. Kinetics of oxygen consumption after a flash of light in the lateral ocellus of the barnacle.

    PubMed

    Poitry, S; Widmer, H

    1988-10-01

    Until recently, polarographic methods for measuring the time course of transient changes in the rate of oxygen consumption (DeltaQO(2)) have been applied only to tissue preparations containing thousands of cells. Here, we describe DeltaQO(2) measurements on the lateral ocellus of the barnacle (Balanus eburneus) which contains only three photoreceptor cells. The decrement of partial pressure of oxygen (DeltaPO(2)) elicited by an 80 ms flash of light was measured near the cells with a microelectrode and the DeltaQO(2) was calculated from the DeltaPO(2) using a model of diffusion with spherical symmetry. As shown by mathematical simulation, the exact shape of the preparation is not crucial for our measurements of the time course of the DeltaQO(2). For a given DeltaQO(2), the model describes correctly the attenuation of the DeltaPO(2) measured at increased distances from the preparation. To know more about the mechanisms controlling the DeltaQO(2), we compared it with the electrical response of the photoreceptor cells: both responses have a similar spectral dependence, but only the DeltaQO(2) was abolished by a 10-min exposure to 50 muM dinitrophenol or to 3 mM amytal. We conclude that the DeltaQO(2) reflects an increase in mitochondrial respiration and that it is initiated by the phototransformation of rhodopsin, as was already found in the honeybee drone retina (Dimitracos and Tsacopoulos, 1985; Jones and Tsacopoulos, 1987).

  9. Changes and variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in fish, barnacles and crabs following an oil spill in a mangrove of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Neves, Roberta L; Aucélio, Ricardo; Van Der Ven, Paulo H; Pitombo, Fábio B; Mendes, Carla L T; Ziolli, Roberta L

    2010-08-01

    On April 26th, 2005, an accident caused a leak of 60,000L of Diesel Oil Type "B", freighted by train wagons upstream on a mangrove area within Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. After the accident, samples from animals with different biological requirements were collected in order to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations for the following 12months. Sessile, mobile, carnivorous, omnivorous, organic detritus feeders, planktivorous and suspension feeders were some of the attributes compared. Concentrations of PAHs did not vary in relation to different dietary habits and the best response was from the sessile suspensivorous barnacles. A background level of <50microgkg(-1) was suggested based on the reference site and on values observed in the following months after the accident. The highest values of PAH concentrations were observed in barnacles in the first month immediately after the spill, decreasing to background levels after few months. Barnacles are suggested as a sentinel species.

  10. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-06-22

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic.

  11. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic. PMID:26249902

  12. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  13. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Ana I; Dorda, Beatriz A; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  14. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  15. Reduction of parasitic lasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A technique was developed which carefully retro-reflects precisely controlled amounts of light back into a laser system thereby intentionally forcing the laser system components to oscillate in a new resonator called the parasitic oscillator. The parasitic oscillator uses the laser system to provide the gain and an external mirror is used to provide the output coupling of the new resonator. Any change of gain or loss inside the new resonator will directly change the lasing threshold of the parasitic oscillator. This change in threshold can be experimentally measured as a change in the absolute value of reflectivity, provided by the external mirror, necessary to achieve lasing in the parasitic oscillator. Discrepancies between experimental data and a parasitic oscillator model are direct evidence of optical misalignment or component performance problems. Any changes in the optical system can instantly be measured as a change in threshold for the parasitic oscillator. This technique also enables aligning the system for maximum parasitic suppression with the system fully operational.

  16. Peroxiredoxins in Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gretes, Michael C.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Parasite survival and virulence relies on effective defenses against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the host immune system. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous enzymes now thought to be central to such defenses and, as such, have potential value as drug targets and vaccine antigens. Recent Advances: Plasmodial and kinetoplastid Prx systems are the most extensively studied, yet remain inadequately understood. For many other parasites our knowledge is even less well developed. Through parasite genome sequencing efforts, however, the key players are being discovered and characterized. Here we describe what is known about the biochemistry, regulation, and cell biology of Prxs in parasitic protozoa, helminths, and fungi. At least one Prx is found in each parasite with a sequenced genome, and a notable theme is the common patterns of expression, localization, and functionality among sequence-similar Prxs in related species. Critical Issues: The nomenclature of Prxs from parasites is in a state of disarray, causing confusion and making comparative inferences difficult. Here we introduce a systematic Prx naming convention that is consistent between organisms and informative about structural and evolutionary relationships. Future Directions: The new nomenclature should stimulate the crossfertilization of ideas among parasitologists and with the broader redox research community. The diverse parasite developmental stages and host environments present complex systems in which to explore the variety of roles played by Prxs, with a view toward parlaying what is learned into novel therapies and vaccines that are urgently needed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 608–633. PMID:22098136

  17. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  18. [Drinking water and parasites].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P; Schoenen, D; Maier, W A; Seitz, H M

    1993-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, and Microsporidia spp. are cosmopolitan parasites. They often cause diarrheal diseases. The waterborn transmission of all these parasites is possible (41). Surface water supplies used for drinking water are potential sources of contamination. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. have received great attention in industrialized countries during the last years because they are the etiological agents of waterborne diseases. The life cycles of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium are described with a special reference to drinking water technologies aimed at removing these parasites. PMID:8253478

  19. Tropical parasitic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, V K

    2008-01-01

    Though parasitic lung diseases are frequently seen in tropical countries, these are being increasingly reported from many parts of the world due to globalisation and travel across the continents. In addition, the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the frequent use of immunosuppressive drugs in many diseases and the increasing numbers of organ transplantations have resulted in a renewed interest in many tropical parasitic lung diseases. This review outlines the recent developments in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of common and rare parasitic lung diseases.

  20. Hepoxilins and trioxilins in barnacles: an analysis of their potential roles in egg hatching and larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Vogan, Claire L; Maskrey, Ben H; Taylor, Graham W; Henry, Sheelagh; Pace-Asciak, Cecil R; Clare, Anthony S; Rowley, Andrew F

    2003-09-01

    The barnacle life cycle has two key stages at which eicosanoids are believed to be involved in cellular communication pathways, namely the hatching of nauplii and the settlement of cypris larvae. Barnacle egg-hatching activity has previously been reported to reside in a variety of eicosanoids, including 8-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and a number of tri-hydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives, the trioxilins. The production of the eicosapentaenoic acid metabolite trioxilin A4 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid) by the barnacles Balanus amphitrite and Elminius modestus was confirmed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, both linked to mass spectrometry. In addition, both species also generated trioxilin A3 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14-eicosatrienoic acid; an arachidonic acid-derived product), 8,11,12-trihydroxy-9,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (a omega3 analogue of trioxilin A3; derived from omega3 arachidonic acid) and 10,13,14-trihydroxy-4,7,11,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (a docosahexaenoic acid-derived product). In contrast to earlier reports, trioxilin A3 had no E. modestus egg-hatching activity at any of the concentrations tested (10(-9)-10(-6) mol l(-1)). The unstable epoxide precursor hepoxilin A3, however, caused significant levels of hatching at 10(-6) mol l(-1). Furthermore, the stable hepoxilin B3 analogue PBT-3 stimulated hatching at 10(-7) mol l(-1). Neither trioxilin A3, hepoxilin A3 or PBT-3 at 0.25-30 micromol l(-1) served as settlement cues for B. amphitrite cypris larvae.

  1. Role of Upwelling on Larval Dispersal and Productivity of Gooseneck Barnacle Populations in the Cantabrian Sea: Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Antonella; Weidberg, Nicolás; Pardiñas, Antonio F.; González-Gil, Ricardo; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coastal upwelling on the recruitment and connectivity of coastal marine populations has rarely been characterized to a level of detail to be included into sound fishery management strategies. The gooseneck barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) fishery at the Cantabrian Coast (Northern Spain) is located at the fringes of the NW Spanish Upwelling system. This fishery is being co-managed through a fine-scale, interspersed set of protected rocks where each rock receives a distinct level of protection. Such interspersion is potentially beneficial, but the extent to which such spacing is consistent with mean larval dispersal distances is as yet unknown. We have simulated the spread of gooseneck barnacle larvae in the Central Cantabrian Coast using a high-resolution time-series of current profiles measured at a nearshore location. During a year of high upwelling activity (2009), theoretical recruitment success was 94% with peak recruitment predicted 56 km west of the emission point. However, for a year of low upwelling activity (2011) theoretical recruitment success dropped to 15.4% and peak recruitment was expected 13 km east of the emission point. This is consistent with a positive correlation between catch rates and the Integrated Upwelling Index, using a 4-year lag to allow recruits to reach commercial size. Furthermore, a net long-term westward larval transport was estimated by means of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for five populations in the Cantabrian Sea. Our results call into question the role of long distance dispersal, driven by the mesoscale processes in the area, in gooseneck barnacle populations and point to the prevalent role of small-scale, asymmetric connectivity more consistent with the typical scale of the co-management process in this fishery. PMID:24236020

  2. The effect of water temperature and velocity on barnacle growth: Quantifying the impact of multiple environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Organisms employ a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses in an effort to endure stressful environmental conditions. For many marine invertebrates, physiological and/or behavioral performance is dependent on physical conditions in the fluid environment. Although factors such as water temperature and velocity can elicit changes in respiration and feeding, the manner in which these processes integrate to shape growth remains unclear. In a growth experiment, juvenile barnacles (Balanus glandula) were raised in dockside, once-through flow chambers at water velocities of 2 versus 19 cm s(-1) and temperatures of 11.5 versus 14 °C. Over 37 days, growth rates (i.e., shell basal area) increased with faster water velocities and higher temperatures. Barnacles at high flows had shorter feeding appendages (i.e., cirri), suggesting that growth patterns are unlikely related to plastic responses in cirral length. A separate experiment in the field confirmed patterns of temperature- and flow-dependent growth over 41 days. Outplanted juvenile barnacles exposed to the faster water velocities (32±1 and 34±1 cm s(-1); mean±SE) and warm temperatures (16.81±0.05 °C) experienced higher growth compared to individuals at low velocities (1±1 cm s(-1)) and temperatures (13.67±0.02 °C). Growth data were consistent with estimates from a simple energy budget model based on previously measured feeding and respiration response curves that predicted peak growth at moderate temperatures (15 °C) and velocities (20-30 cm s(-1)). Low growth is expected at both low and high velocities due to lower encounter rates with suspended food particles and lower capture efficiencies respectively. At high temperatures, growth is likely limited by high metabolic costs, whereas slow growth at low temperatures may be a consequence of low oxygen availability and/or slow cirral beating and low feeding rates. Moreover, these results advocate for approaches that consider the combined effects of

  3. The effect of water temperature and velocity on barnacle growth: Quantifying the impact of multiple environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Organisms employ a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses in an effort to endure stressful environmental conditions. For many marine invertebrates, physiological and/or behavioral performance is dependent on physical conditions in the fluid environment. Although factors such as water temperature and velocity can elicit changes in respiration and feeding, the manner in which these processes integrate to shape growth remains unclear. In a growth experiment, juvenile barnacles (Balanus glandula) were raised in dockside, once-through flow chambers at water velocities of 2 versus 19 cm s(-1) and temperatures of 11.5 versus 14 °C. Over 37 days, growth rates (i.e., shell basal area) increased with faster water velocities and higher temperatures. Barnacles at high flows had shorter feeding appendages (i.e., cirri), suggesting that growth patterns are unlikely related to plastic responses in cirral length. A separate experiment in the field confirmed patterns of temperature- and flow-dependent growth over 41 days. Outplanted juvenile barnacles exposed to the faster water velocities (32±1 and 34±1 cm s(-1); mean±SE) and warm temperatures (16.81±0.05 °C) experienced higher growth compared to individuals at low velocities (1±1 cm s(-1)) and temperatures (13.67±0.02 °C). Growth data were consistent with estimates from a simple energy budget model based on previously measured feeding and respiration response curves that predicted peak growth at moderate temperatures (15 °C) and velocities (20-30 cm s(-1)). Low growth is expected at both low and high velocities due to lower encounter rates with suspended food particles and lower capture efficiencies respectively. At high temperatures, growth is likely limited by high metabolic costs, whereas slow growth at low temperatures may be a consequence of low oxygen availability and/or slow cirral beating and low feeding rates. Moreover, these results advocate for approaches that consider the combined effects of

  4. Evolution: predator versus parasite.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2014-05-19

    Both predators and brood parasites can be major threats to the reproduction of many birds. A new study shows that some cuckoo chicks can help deter nest predators, potentially improving host reproductive success when predation risks are high. PMID:24845665

  5. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References and Resources How to Find A ... days, be examined. This test looks for ova (eggs) or the parasite. Your health care provider may ...

  6. Metabolomics and protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Paget, Timothy; Haroune, Nicolas; Bagchi, Sushmita; Jarroll, Edward

    2013-06-01

    In this review, we examine the state-of-the-art technologies (gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, etc.) in the well-established area of metabolomics especially as they relate to protozoan parasites.

  7. Pets and Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... make me sick? Household pets such as dogs, cats, birds and reptiles can carry diseases or parasites ... might be used as litter boxes by neighborhood cats. Keep your children out of the dirt in ...

  8. Parasites and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of human evolutionary and population history can be advanced by ecological and evolutionary studies of our parasites. Many parasites flourish only in the presence of very specific human behaviors and in specific habitats, are wholly dependent on us, and have evolved with us for thousands or millions of years. Therefore, by asking when and how we first acquired those parasites, under which environmental and cultural conditions we are the most susceptible, and how the parasites have evolved and adapted to us and we in response to them, we can gain considerable insight into our own evolutionary history. As examples, the tapeworm life cycle is dependent on our consumption of meat, the divergence of body and head lice may have been subsequent to the development of clothing, and malaria hyperendemicity may be associated with agriculture. Thus, the evolutionary and population histories of these parasites are likely intertwined with critical aspects of human biology and culture. Here I review the mechanics of these and multiple other parasite proxies for human evolutionary history and discuss how they currently complement our fossil, archeological, molecular, linguistic, historical, and ethnographic records. I also highlight potential future applications of this promising model for the field of evolutionary anthropology.

  9. Parasites in marine food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) from Jejudo, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Chan; Lee, Jimin; An, Sung Min; Choi, Dong Han; Noh, Jae Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of an ecologically important crustacean mud shrimp, Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) was sequenced. We used next generation sequencing strategy for total genomic DNA and organelle genome pipeline for mitogenome assembly. A newly determined mitogenome was 16,063 bp in total length with 28% of GC content. Thirty-seven genes were identified including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. We found ten case of overlapping between neighboring genes. Based on genome comparison, the mitogenome of U. yokoyai shows general crustacean gene content and identical synteny to the sister species, such as U. major and U. pusilla. Our results will provide useful information for mitochondrial genome diversity and evolution of the Crustacea.

  11. Recruitment density can determine adult morphology and fecundity in the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides.

    PubMed

    Hills, Jeremy M; Thomason, Jeremy C

    2003-06-01

    Although consequences of the settlement preference of larvae have been well documented, the consequence of these settlement choices on subsequent mortality, morphology and fecundity has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between recruit and adult density and to determine the effect of recruitment on adult morphology and egg tissue mass. This study follows 48,718 barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) from recruitment at the end of the settling season to reproductively mature adults at a field site in the Clyde Sea (UK). Overall survivorship of the recruits to adulthood was 8.5%, although survivorship was up to 42% on low density settlement panels. In low density colonies (< 10 recruits cm-2), recruitment density was related to adult density (P < 0.001), whereas no relationship was found for higher density colonies. A shell morphology index measured at adulthood was related to recruitment density for low density recruited colonies (P < 0.001) but not high density colonies. Using ANCOVA, variations between the colonies in shell and egg tissue mass were not explained by mass of somatic tissue. However, egg mass was explained by recruitment density (P < 0.01). These results show that adult density is not a reliable indicator of the previous population density of the colony. Moreover, there are marked differences in population development between colonies with high and low recruit densities in terms of impact upon shell morphology and egg production. The dynamics that operate between recruits at the end of the settlement season and sexually mature adults to create the patterns elucidated in this paper, and other literature, remain unclear.

  12. Genetic and Morphological Differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific Intertidal Barnacle Chthamalus malayensis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Wu, Tsz Huen; Shih, Hsi-Te; Williams, Gray A.; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chthamalus malayensis is a common intertidal acorn barnacle widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. Analysis of sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I reveals four genetically differentiated clades with almost allopatric distribution in this region. The four clades exhibit morphological differences in arthropodal characters, including the number of conical spines and number of setules of the basal guard setae on the cirri. These characters are, however, highly variable within each clade; such that the absolute range of the number of conical spines and setules overlaps between clades, and therefore, these are not diagnostic characters for taxonomic identification. The geographic distribution of the four clades displays a strong relationship between surface temperatures of the sea and ocean-current realms. The Indo-Malay (IM) clade is widespread in the tropical, equatorial region, including the Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo. The South China (SC) and Taiwan (TW) clades are found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the former distributed along the coasts of southern China, Vietnam, Thailand, and the western Philippines under the influence of the South China Warm Current. The TW clade is endemic to Taiwan, while the Christmas Island (CI) clade is confined to CI. There was weak or no population subdivision observed within these clades, suggesting high gene flow within the range of the clades. The clades demonstrate clear signatures of recent demographic expansion that predated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but they have maintained a relatively stable effective population in the past 100,000 years. The persistence of intertidal fauna through the LGM may, therefore, be a common biogeographic pattern. The lack of genetic subdivision in the IM clade across the Indian and Pacific Oceans may be attributed to recent expansion of ranges and the fact that a mutation-drift equilibrium has not been reached, or the relaxed habitat

  13. Temporal changes in the strength of density-dependent mortality and growth in intertidal barnacles.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Stuart R; Murua, Jefferson; Burrows, Michael T

    2008-05-01

    1. In demographically open marine systems, the extent to which density-dependent processes in the benthic adult phase are required for population persistence is unclear. At one extreme, represented by the recruitment limitation hypothesis, larval supply may be insufficient for the total population size to reach a carrying capacity and density-independent mortality predominates. At the opposite extreme, populations are saturated and density-dependent mortality is sufficiently strong to reshape patterns established at settlement. 2. We examined temporal variation in the way density-independent and density-dependent mortality interact in a typical sessile marine benthic invertebrate, the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.), over a 2-year period. 3. Recruitment was manipulated at two high recruitment sites in north Wales, UK to produce recruit densities covering the range naturally found in this species. Following manipulation, fixed quadrats were monitored using digital photography and temporal changes in mortality and growth rate were examined. 4. Over a 2-year period there was a clear, spatially consistent, over-compensatory relationship between the density of recruits and adult abundance indicating strong density-dependent mortality. The strength of density dependence intensified with increasing recruitment. 5. Density-dependent mortality did not operate consistently over the study period. It only operated in the early part of the benthic phase, but the pattern of adult abundance generated was maintained throughout the whole 2-year period. Thus, early life-history processes dictated adult population abundance and dynamics. 6. Examination of the natural recruitment regime in the area of study indicated that both positive and negative effects of recruitment will occur over scales varying from kilometres to metres.

  14. Calcium channels in the high resistivity axonal membrane of photoreceptors of the giant barnacle.

    PubMed Central

    Edgington, D R; Stuart, A E

    1979-01-01

    1. The distribution of calcium channels in the cell membrane of the photoreceptor neurone of the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, was studied by recording intracellularly in or near the soma, in the axon, and near the presynaptic terminals. The membrane properties of these different regions of the cell could be studied by separately superfusing each region with test salines or by cutting the axon between two regions. 2. In the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 3-aminopyridine (3-AP), but not in their absence, Ca dependent action potentials could be evoked with depolarizing current pulses in the somatic, axonal, and terminal regions. Consequently, voltage-sensitive Ca channels and TEA-sensitive channels are present in all three regions of the cell. 3. The action potentials recorded from the three regions were similar in their slow times-to-peak (30-300 msec), long durations (0.2-2 sec in 100 mM-TEA), and long-lasting (0.2-10 sec) undershoots. The action potentials were inhibited by extracellular Co. 4. Clear differences were consistently observed between terminal action potentials and axonal or somatic action potentials in TEA. Terminal action potentials displayed a lower voltage threshold, faster rate of rise, and were less sensitive to inhibition by extracellular cobalt, suggesting that the Ca current is greater in the terminal region. 5. Bathing the receptor axon in low Ca or Co solutions led to a greater attenuation of large depolarizing components of the visual signal as they spread to the presynaptic terminals. PMID:512951

  15. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge?

    PubMed

    Findlay, Helen S; Burrows, Michael T; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The global ocean and atmosphere are warming. There is increasing evidence suggesting that, in addition to other environmental factors, climate change is affecting species distributions and local population dynamics. Additionally, as a consequence of the growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the oceans are taking up increasing amounts of this CO2, causing ocean pH to decrease (ocean acidification). The relative impacts of ocean acidification on population dynamics have yet to be investigated, despite many studies indicating that there will be at least a sublethal impact on many marine organisms, particularly key calcifying organisms. Using empirical data, we forced a barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) population model to investigate the relative influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification on a population nearing the southern limit of its geographic distribution. Hindcast models were compared to observational data from Cellar Beach (southwestern United Kingdom). Results indicate that a declining pH trend (-0.0017 unit/yr), indicative of ocean acidification over the past 50 years, does not cause an observable impact on the population abundance relative to changes caused by fluctuations in temperature. Below the critical temperature (here T(crit) = 13.1 degrees C), pH has a more significant affect on population dynamics at this southern range edge. However, above this value, SST has the overriding influence. At lower SST, a decrease in pH (according to the National Bureau of Standards, pHNBs) from 8.2 to 7.8 can significantly decrease the population abundance. The lethal impacts of ocean acidification observed in experiments on early life stages reduce cumulative survival by approximately 25%, which again will significantly alter the population level at this southern limit. Furthermore, forecast predictions from this model suggest that combined acidification and warming cause this local population to die out 10 years earlier than

  16. Genetic and morphological differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific intertidal barnacle Chthamalus malayensis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Wu, Tsz Huen; Shih, Hsi-Te; Williams, Gray A; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny K K

    2012-09-01

    Chthamalus malayensis is a common intertidal acorn barnacle widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. Analysis of sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I reveals four genetically differentiated clades with almost allopatric distribution in this region. The four clades exhibit morphological differences in arthropodal characters, including the number of conical spines and number of setules of the basal guard setae on the cirri. These characters are, however, highly variable within each clade; such that the absolute range of the number of conical spines and setules overlaps between clades, and therefore, these are not diagnostic characters for taxonomic identification. The geographic distribution of the four clades displays a strong relationship between surface temperatures of the sea and ocean-current realms. The Indo-Malay (IM) clade is widespread in the tropical, equatorial region, including the Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo. The South China (SC) and Taiwan (TW) clades are found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the former distributed along the coasts of southern China, Vietnam, Thailand, and the western Philippines under the influence of the South China Warm Current. The TW clade is endemic to Taiwan, while the Christmas Island (CI) clade is confined to CI. There was weak or no population subdivision observed within these clades, suggesting high gene flow within the range of the clades. The clades demonstrate clear signatures of recent demographic expansion that predated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but they have maintained a relatively stable effective population in the past 100,000 years. The persistence of intertidal fauna through the LGM may, therefore, be a common biogeographic pattern. The lack of genetic subdivision in the IM clade across the Indian and Pacific Oceans may be attributed to recent expansion of ranges and the fact that a mutation-drift equilibrium has not been reached, or the relaxed habitat

  17. Goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes as biomonitor of metal contamination in the northwest coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to assess the potential use of goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes as biomonitor of metal contamination in northwest (NW) coast of Portugal. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in coastal seawaters and tissues of P. pollicipes, which allowed establishing correlations between metals in coastal seawaters and P. pollicipes and calculating metal bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). The results of this study showed that P. pollicipes soft tissues can be used for monitoring metal contamination in these coastal seawaters: (1) there were significant correlations (p < 0.05) between metals in soft tissues and their concentrations in seawaters, except for Zn (p > 0.05); (2) soft tissues were sensitive to spatial variations of metal bioavailabilities and their concentrations ranged 0.70-2.22 mg Cd kg(-1), 0.49-1.40 mg Cr kg(-1), 1.37-2.07 mg Ni kg(-1), 2.4-3.3 mg Cu kg(-1), 5-59 mg Mn kg(-1), 134-578 mg Fe kg(-1)and 728-1,854 mg Zn kg(-1); (3) mean logarithmic bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) of Fe, Cd and Zn were higher, 5.57, 5.47 and 4.41, respectively, than mean log BAFs of Cr, Mn, Cu and Ni, 4.18, 4.14, 3.98 and 3.51, respectively. In contrary, P. pollicipes shell plates were not considered ideal material to monitor metal bioavailabilities in these coastal seawaters. Regarding the very high concentrations of Zn obtained in the coastal seawaters and P. pollicipes soft tissues, the NW coast of Portugal should be classified as "Class III/IV - Remarkably/Highly Polluted".

  18. Genetic diversity and expanding nonindigenous range of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus panopaei parasitizing mud crabs in the western north Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Inken; Hare, Matthew P

    2007-06-01

    Nonindigenous parasite introductions and range expansions have become a major concern because of their potential to restructure communities and impact fisheries. Molecular markers provide an important tool for reconstructing the pattern of introduction. The parasitic castrator Loxothylacus panopaei, a rhizocephalan barnacle, infects estuarine mud crabs in the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern Florida. A similar parasite introduced into Chesapeake Bay before 1964, presumably via infected crabs associated with oysters from the Gulf of Mexico, was identified as L. panopaei. Our samples of this species during 2004 and 2005 show that the introduced range has expanded as far south as Edgewater, Florida, just north of the northern endemic range limit. The nonindigenous range expanded southward at a rate of up to 165 km/yr with relatively high prevalence, ranging from 30 to 93%. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from the cytochrome oxidase I gene showed that these nonindigenous L. panopaei are genetically distinct from the endemic parasites in southeastern Florida and the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The genetic difference was also associated with distinct host spectra. These results are incompatible with an eastern Gulf source population, but suggest that unrecognized genetic and phenotypic population structure may occur among Gulf of Mexico populations of Loxothvlacus.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of common fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Sessilia: Balanidae) reveals gene rearrangements compared to pancrustacean ground pattern.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of the common fouling barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Sessilia: Balanidae). Refer to pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, seven conserved genes blocks are found in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnA, trnE/trnS2, trnP/trnT, trnK, trnQ and trnC) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnY). Comparison among the acorn barnacle mitogenomes reveals inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) between A. amphitrite and Megabalanus. Volcano (Balanidae), suggesting non-conserved gene order even at intrafamilial level. The three species share three conserved genes blocks, of which the two are derived from the pancrustacean ground pattern and represent synapomorphies of acorn barnacles. In sum, large-scale gene rearrangements are observed in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern and other barnacle species.

  20. First study on gene expression of cement proteins and potential adhesion-related genes of a membranous-based barnacle as revealed from Next-Generation Sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Wong, Yue Him; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-01

    This is the first study applying Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to survey the kinds, expression location, and pattern of adhesion-related genes in a membranous-based barnacle. A total of 77,528,326 and 59,244,468 raw sequence reads of total RNA were generated from the prosoma and the basis of Tetraclita japonica formosana, respectively. In addition, 55,441 and 67,774 genes were further assembled and analyzed. The combined sequence data from both body parts generates a total of 79,833 genes of which 47.7% were shared. Homologues of barnacle cement proteins - CP-19K, -52K, and -100K - were found and all were dominantly expressed at the basis where the cement gland complex is located. This is the main area where transcripts of cement proteins and other potential adhesion-related genes were detected. The absence of another common barnacle cement protein, CP-20K, in the adult transcriptome suggested a possible life-stage restricted gene function and/or a different mechanism in adhesion between membranous-based and calcareous-based barnacles.

  1. Isolation and characterization of 2-nitroimidazole produced by Streptomyces species as an inhibitor of both carbonic anhydrase and shell formation in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Mari; Ozaki, Noriaki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Keiko; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is thought to be involved in the process of calcium carbonate deposition in calcified tissues of many organisms. Barnacles form hard calcified shells for protection against predation, and represent a class of marine-fouling animals. In order to inhibit barnacle growth by inhibiting shell formation, we searched for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from microbial secondary metabolites. A simple assay for assessing carbonic-anhydrase-inhibiting activity was developed. Screening of many microorganisms isolated from soil with this assay resulted in a microbial strain that produced a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. This strain was identified as Streptomyces eurocidicus mf294. The inhibitor was isolated through 4 purification steps and identified as 2-nitroimidazole on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2-Nitroimidazole inhibited barnacle carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and complete inhibition was reached at the concentration of 1 x 10(-5) M. 2-Nitroimidazole did not affect settlement or metamorphosis of barnacle larvae, but inhibited shell formation at concentrations higher than 1 x 10(-4) M. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification.

  2. Regional decoupling between NW Atlantic barnacle recruit and adult density is related to changes in pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen W. B.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Tam, Jamie C.; Sussmann, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regional variation in barnacle ( Semibalanus balanoides) recruit and adult abundance on the NW Atlantic coast. At the end of the recruitment season (June-July), we sampled wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites in two regions on the open Atlantic coast (Maine, AM, and Nova Scotia, AN) and in two regions on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (Northumberland Strait, GN, and Cape Breton Island, GC). Recruit density was highest in the southernmost region (AM), followed by GN and, then, by AN and GC. Regional values of nearshore primary productivity (satellite data of chlorophyll- a concentration, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance) were highest for AM and GN, suggesting that food supply (barnacles are filter feeders) is an important factor determining regional recruitment patterns. Adult barnacle density was regionally decoupled from recruit density. Adults occurred in very low abundances on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (GN and GC) and were relatively abundant on the Atlantic coast (AM and AN), although always in much lower abundances than recruits. The low adult densities on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast seem to result mainly from intense ice scour, as this coast freezes extensively every winter, as opposed to the ice-free Atlantic coast. Ice scour thus appears to override regional recruitment differences in determining adult density. Therefore, our data suggest that both pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance contribute to setting regional patterns in barnacle population structure on the NW Atlantic coast.

  3. Fluorinated/siloxane copolymer blends for fouling release: chemical characterisation and biological evaluation with algae and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Marabotti, Ilaria; Morelli, Andrea; Orsini, Lorenzo M; Martinelli, Elisa; Galli, Giancarlo; Chiellini, Emo; Lien, Einar M; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Clare, Anthony S; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Donik, Crtomir; Jenko, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Fouling-release coatings were prepared from blends of a fluorinated/siloxane copolymer with a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix in order to couple the low modulus character of PDMS with the low surface tension typical for fluorinated polymers. The content of the surface-active copolymer was varied in the blend over a broad range (0.15-10 wt % with respect to PDMS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analyses were performed on the coatings to establish the distribution of specific chemical constituents throughout the coatings, and proved enrichment in fluorine of the outermost layers of the coating surface. Addition of the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer to the PDMS matrix resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in settlement of barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, cyprids. The release of young plants of Ulva, a soft fouling species, and young barnacles showed that adhesion strength on the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer was significantly lower than the siloxane control. However, differences in adhesion strength were not directly correlated with the concentration of copolymer in the blends.

  4. Do tiny males grow up? Sperm competition and optimal resource allocation schedule of dwarf males of barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Ozaki, Yuki; Yusa, Yoichi; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2007-03-21

    Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have three sexual patterns: simultaneous hermaphroditism, dioecy and androdioecy. In dioecy and androdioecy, large individuals (females and hermaphrodites, respectively) are attached by dwarf males. Depending on species, some dwarf males grow up, others do not in their life time. To investigate which environmental conditions affect growth patterns of dwarf males of barnacles, we investigate the evolutionarily stable life history strategy of dwarf males using Pontryagin's maximum principle. Sperm competition among dwarf males and that among dwarf males and large hermaphrodites is taken into account. Dwarf males grow up in food-rich environments, while they do not grow at all in food-poor environments. ESS of the resource allocation schedule between reproduction and growth follows an "intermediate growth strategy" (simultaneous growth and reproduction) for dioecious species, in which sperm competition is not severe. On the other hand, it approaches "bang-bang control" (switching from allocating all resources toward growth then to reproduction), as sperm competition against surrounding large hermaphrodites becomes severe in androdioecious species.

  5. iTRAQ-based proteomic profiling of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in response to the antifouling compound meleagrin.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuang; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Fei; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; He, Li-Sheng; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Marine biofouling refers to the unwanted accumulation of fouling organisms, such as barnacles, on artificial surfaces, resulting in severe consequences for marine industries. Meleagrin is a potential nontoxic antifoulant that is isolated from the fungus Penicillium sp.; however, its mechanistic effect mode of action on larval settlement remains unknown. Here, we applied iTRAQ coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis to investigate the effect of meleagrin on the proteomic expression profile of cyprid development and aging in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite . Fifty proteins were differentially expressed in response to treatment with meleagrin, among which 26 proteins were associated with cyprid development/aging and 24 were specifically associated with the meleagrin treatment. The 66 proteins that were associated with aging only remained unaltered during exposure to meleagrin. Using KEGG analysis, those proteins were assigned to several groups, including metabolic pathways, ECM-receptor interactions, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Among the 24 proteins that were not related to the development/aging process, expression of the cyprid major protein (CMP), a vitellogenin-like protein, increased after the meleagrin treatment, which suggested that meleagrin might affect the endocrine system and prevent the larval molting cycle. With the exception of the chitin binding protein that mediates the molting process and ATPase-mediated energy processes, the majority of proteins with significant effects in previous studies in response to cyprid treatment with butenolide and polyether B remained unchanged in the present study, suggesting that meleagrin may exhibit a different mechanism.

  6. Parasites alter community structure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Byers, James E; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Altman, Irit; Donahue, Megan J; Blakeslee, April M H

    2007-05-29

    Parasites often play an important role in modifying the physiology and behavior of their hosts and may, consequently, mediate the influence hosts have on other components of an ecological community. Along the northern Atlantic coast of North America, the dominant herbivorous snail Littorina littorea structures rocky intertidal communities through strong grazing pressure and is frequently parasitized by the digenean trematode Cryptocotyle lingua. We hypothesized that the effects of parasitism on host physiology would induce behavioral changes in L. littorea, which in turn would modulate L. littorea's influence on intertidal community composition. Specifically, we hypothesized that C. lingua infection would alter the grazing rate of L. littorea and, consequently, macroalgal communities would develop differently in the presence of infected versus uninfected snails. Our results show that uninfected snails consumed 40% more ephemeral macroalgal biomass than infected snails in the laboratory, probably because the digestive system of infected snails is compromised by C. lingua infection. In the field, this weaker grazing by infected snails resulted in significantly greater expansion of ephemeral macroalgal cover relative to grazing by uninfected snails. By decreasing the per-capita grazing rate of the dominant herbivore, C. lingua indirectly affects the composition of the macroalgal community and may in turn affect other species that depend on macroalgae for resources or habitat structure. In light of the abundance of parasites across systems, we suggest that, through trait-mediated indirect effects, parasites may be a common determinant of structure in ecological communities. PMID:17517667

  7. A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005–2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides occurs in May and June. Every year in June between 2005 and 2016, we recorded recruit density for this barnacle at the same wave-exposed rocky intertidal location on this coast. During these 12 years, mean recruit density was lowest in 2015 (198 recruits dm−2) and highest in 2007 (969 recruits dm−2). The highest recruit density observed in a single quadrat was 1,457 recruits dm−2 (in 2011) and the lowest was 34 recruits dm−2 (in 2015). Most barnacle recruits appear during May, which suggests that most pelagic larvae (which develop over 5–6 weeks before benthic settlement) are in the water column in April. An AICc-based model selection approach identified sea surface temperature (SST) in April and the abundance of phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae, measured as chlorophyll-a concentration –Chl-a–) in April as good explanatory variables. Together, April SST and April Chl-a explained 51% of the observed interannual variation in recruit density, with an overall positive influence. April SST was positively related to March–April air temperature (AT). April Chl-a was negatively related to the April ratio between the number of days with onshore winds (which blow from phytoplankton-limited offshore waters) and the number of days with alongshore winds (phytoplankton is more abundant on coastal waters). Therefore, this study suggests that climatic processes affecting April SST and April Chl-a indirectly influence intertidal barnacle recruitment by influencing larval performance. PMID:27812421

  8. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  9. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals. PMID:26342508

  10. Progress with parasite plastids.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R J M Iain

    2002-05-31

    This review offers a snapshot of our current understanding of the origin, biology, and metabolic significance of the non-photosynthetic plastid organelle found in apicomplexan parasites. These protists are of considerable medical and veterinary importance world-wide, Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria being foremost in terms of human disease. It has been estimated that approximately 8% of the genes currently recognized by the malarial genome sequencing project (now nearing completion) are of bacterial/plastid origin. The bipartite presequences directing the products of these genes back to the plastid have provided fresh evidence that secondary endosymbiosis accounts for this organelle's presence in these parasites. Mounting phylogenetic evidence has strengthened the likelihood that the plastid originated from a red algal cell. Most importantly, we now have a broad understanding of several bacterial metabolic systems confined within the boundaries of the parasite plastid. The primary ones are type II fatty acid biosynthesis and isoprenoid biosynthesis. Some aspects of heme biosynthesis also might take place there. Retention of the plastid's relict genome and its still ill-defined capacity to participate in protein synthesis might be linked to an important house-keeping process, i.e. guarding the type II fatty acid biosynthetic pathway from oxidative damage. Fascinating observations have shown the parasite plastid does not divide by constriction as in typical plants, and that plastid-less parasites fail to thrive after invading a new cell. The modes of plastid DNA replication within the phylum also have provided surprises. Besides indicating the potential of the parasite plastid for therapeutic intervention, this review exposes many gaps remaining in our knowledge of this intriguing organelle. The rapid progress being made shows no sign of slackening.

  11. Epidemiology of reindeer parasites.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, O

    1986-12-01

    Every Christmas we sing about Rudolph the red-nosed Reindeer, but do we give much thought to why his nose is red? The general consensus is that Rudolf has caught a cold, but as far as I know no proper diagnosis has been made of his abnormal condition. I think that, rather than having a cold, Rudolf is suffering from a parasitic infection of his respiratory system. To some this may seem a bit far-fetched as one would not expect an animal living with Santa Claus at the North Pole to be plagued by parasites, but I shall show otherwise.

  12. Biogeography, Competition, and Microclimate: The Barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England.

    PubMed

    Wethey, David S

    2002-08-01

    Geographic limits of species are commonly associated with climatic or physical boundaries, but the mechanisms of exclusion at the limits of distribution are poorly understood. In some intertidal populations, the strengths of interactions with natural enemies are mediated by microclimate, and determine geographic limits. The northern limit of the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England is the south side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. South of the cape, Chthamalus has a refuge from competition in the high intertidal, which is too hot for survival of its superior competitor Semibalanus balanoides. North of the cape, the high intertidal is cooler, and Semibalanus survives, so Chthamalus has no refuge. Thus, geographic variation in the strength of competition may determine the geographic limit of Chthamalus. Intolerance of cold by Chthamalus cannot account for the geographic limit: transplants of Chthamalus 80 km beyond its northern limit survived up to 8 yr in the absence of competition with Semibalanus. At the geographic limit of Chthamalus in the Cape Cod Canal there are two bridges, 5 km apart. On the southern bridge, Chthamalus is abundant and occupies a refuge above Semibalanus. On the northern bridge in 2001, only 7 individual Chthamalus were present. Despite the proximity of the bridges, their microclimates are very different. The southern bridge, where Chthamalus is abundant, is up to 8°C hotter than the northern bridge. This higher temperature creates a refuge in the high intertidal for Chthamalus. On the cooler northern bridge, there is no refuge for Chthamalus. Because of the difference in temperatures of the water masses that meet in the canal, heat storage in the rock of the bridge piers causes the temperatures to differ between the bridges. Thus, geographic change in microclimate alters the strength of competition, and determines the geographic limit."When we travel from south to north, or from a damp region to a dry, we invariably see some species

  13. Genetic variation in the acorn barnacle from allozymes to population genomics.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; Rand, David M

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (F(ST) ~ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An F(ST) outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. F(ST) values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic F(ST) for mtDNA. The majority of F(ST) outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  14. Membrane properties of a barnacle photoreceptor examined by the voltage clamp technique

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Mack; Hagiwara, S.; Koike, H.; Meech, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    1. Electrical properties of the membrane of photoreceptor cells in the lateral ocelli of barnacles, Balanus amphitrite and B. eburneus were investigated by intracellular recording, polarization and voltage-clamp techniques. 2. The resting potential of a dark adapted cell was 36·3 ± 6·6 mV (S.D.) and depended mainly on the external K+ concentration. 3. Current—voltage relations obtained from voltage—clamp experiments in the absence of light were non-linear and varied with time after the onset of a step change in membrane potential; the steady state was reached after about 0·5 sec. 4. Illumination resulted in a membrane potential change under current clamp and in a change of membrane current (light-initiated membrane current (L.I.C.): total membrane current with illumination minus current without illumination) under voltage—clamp conditions. Amplitudes and time course of L.I.C. depended on the light intensity as well as membrane potential. 5. The L.I.C.-voltage relation was non-linear and corresponded with a slope conductance increase with increasing positive membrane potential. 6. The reversal potential of L.I.C. was independent of the light intensity and the time after onset of illumination; the average value obtained in normal saline was +26·9 ± 5·0 mV. 7. The membrane conductance estimated from instantaneous L.I.C.-voltage relations agreed with the chord conductance of the non-linear L.I.C.-voltage relation. 8. Decreasing external Na+ concentration decreased the inward component of L.I.C. but not the outward component. 9. Decreasing external Ca2+ concentration increased the inward as well as the outward component of L.I.C. 10. The reversal potential shifted in the negative direction with decreasing external Na+ concentration (the rate was 10-15 mV for a tenfold change in concentration) and the rate was augmented in the absence of Ca2+ but did not exceed 21 mV. 11. The change of reversal potential with changes of external Ca2+ concentration was

  15. Adaptation in the input-output relation of the synapse made by the barnacle's photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, J H; Moore, J W; Stuart, A E

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of synaptic transmission between the four median photoreceptors of the giant barnacle (Balanus nubilus) and their post-synaptic cells (I-cells). Simultaneous intracellular recordings were made from the presynaptic terminal region of a photoreceptor and from the soma of an I-cell. The photoreceptor's membrane potential provided feed-back to bath electrodes that passed current into the receptors' axons, permitting the voltage to be controlled at the point of arborization of their presynaptic terminals. Simultaneous recordings from a second photoreceptor showed that its voltage tracked the first. Step depolarizations of the receptors from their dark resting potential (about -60 mV) caused hyperpolarizations of the I-cell that reached a peak, then decayed to a plateau value. The amplitude of the I-cell's response grew with presynaptic depolarizations, saturating at presynaptic values 10-20 mV depolarized from dark rest. Step hyperpolarizations of the receptors from dark rest evoked depolarizations of the I-cell consisting of an initial peak, which varied greatly in amplitude and wave form from preparation to preparation, followed by a plateau. The presence of this post-synaptic response indicates that transmitter is released continuously from the receptors at their dark resting potential. An input-output relation of the synapse was obtained by presenting step depolarizations from a holding potential of -80 mV, where steady-state transmitter release is shut off. The relation is sigmoidal; in the exponentially rising phase of the curve, a 5-11 mV presynaptic change produces a 10-fold change in post-synaptic response. When the presynaptic holding potential was set at values ranging from -80 to -40 mV, the relation between the I-cell's response and the absolute potential to which the receptor was stepped shifted along the presynaptic voltage axis. The slopes of the input-output relations were roughly parallel or increased as the photoreceptors were held

  16. Biogeography, Competition, and Microclimate: The Barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England.

    PubMed

    Wethey, David S

    2002-08-01

    Geographic limits of species are commonly associated with climatic or physical boundaries, but the mechanisms of exclusion at the limits of distribution are poorly understood. In some intertidal populations, the strengths of interactions with natural enemies are mediated by microclimate, and determine geographic limits. The northern limit of the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England is the south side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. South of the cape, Chthamalus has a refuge from competition in the high intertidal, which is too hot for survival of its superior competitor Semibalanus balanoides. North of the cape, the high intertidal is cooler, and Semibalanus survives, so Chthamalus has no refuge. Thus, geographic variation in the strength of competition may determine the geographic limit of Chthamalus. Intolerance of cold by Chthamalus cannot account for the geographic limit: transplants of Chthamalus 80 km beyond its northern limit survived up to 8 yr in the absence of competition with Semibalanus. At the geographic limit of Chthamalus in the Cape Cod Canal there are two bridges, 5 km apart. On the southern bridge, Chthamalus is abundant and occupies a refuge above Semibalanus. On the northern bridge in 2001, only 7 individual Chthamalus were present. Despite the proximity of the bridges, their microclimates are very different. The southern bridge, where Chthamalus is abundant, is up to 8°C hotter than the northern bridge. This higher temperature creates a refuge in the high intertidal for Chthamalus. On the cooler northern bridge, there is no refuge for Chthamalus. Because of the difference in temperatures of the water masses that meet in the canal, heat storage in the rock of the bridge piers causes the temperatures to differ between the bridges. Thus, geographic change in microclimate alters the strength of competition, and determines the geographic limit."When we travel from south to north, or from a damp region to a dry, we invariably see some species

  17. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-03-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled.

  18. Cryopreservation of protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yuko; Karanis, Panagiotis; Uga, Shoji

    2004-02-01

    Conventional methods for the propagation and preservation of parasites in vivo or in vitro have some limitations, including the need for labor, initial isolation and loss of strains, bacterial, and fungal contamination, and changes in the original biological and metabolic characteristics. All these disadvantages are considerably reduced by cryopreservation. In this study, we examined the effects of various freezing conditions on the survival of several protozoan parasites after cryopreservation. The viability of Entamoeba histolytica was improved by seeding (p < 0.05, chi2 test), while this was not so effective for Trichomonas vaginalis. Of six cryoprotectants examined, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO), and glycerol showed the strongest cryoprotective effects. The optimum conditions for using Me(2)SO were a concentration of 10% with no equilibration, and those for glycerol were a concentration of 15% with equilibration for 2h. The optimum cooling rate depended on the parasite species. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Leishmania amazonensis were successfully cryopreserved over a wide range of cooling rates, whereas the survival rates of E. histolytica, T. vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and Blastocystis hominis were remarkably decreased when frozen at improper rates. Unlike the cooling rate, exposure of the protozoans to a rapid thawing method produced better motility for all parasites. PMID:14969677

  19. A Passion for Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    I knew nothing and had thought nothing about parasites until 1971. In fact, if you had asked me before then, I might have commented that parasites were rather disgusting. I had been at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine for three years, and I was on the lookout for a new project. In 1971, I came across a paper in the Journal of Molecular Biology by Larry Simpson, a classmate of mine in graduate school. Larry's paper described a remarkable DNA structure known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), isolated from a parasite. kDNA, the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids, is a DNA network composed of several thousand interlocked DNA rings. Almost nothing was known about it. I was looking for a project on DNA replication, and I wanted it to be both challenging and important. I had no doubt that working with kDNA would be a challenge, as I would be exploring uncharted territory. I was also sure that the project would be important when I learned that parasites with kDNA threaten huge populations in underdeveloped tropical countries. Looking again at Larry's paper, I found the electron micrographs of the kDNA networks to be rather beautiful. I decided to take a chance on kDNA. Little did I know then that I would devote the next forty years of my life to studying kDNA replication. PMID:25336639

  20. A passion for parasites.

    PubMed

    Englund, Paul T

    2014-12-01

    I knew nothing and had thought nothing about parasites until 1971. In fact, if you had asked me before then, I might have commented that parasites were rather disgusting. I had been at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine for three years, and I was on the lookout for a new project. In 1971, I came across a paper in the Journal of Molecular Biology by Larry Simpson, a classmate of mine in graduate school. Larry's paper described a remarkable DNA structure known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), isolated from a parasite. kDNA, the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids, is a DNA network composed of several thousand interlocked DNA rings. Almost nothing was known about it. I was looking for a project on DNA replication, and I wanted it to be both challenging and important. I had no doubt that working with kDNA would be a challenge, as I would be exploring uncharted territory. I was also sure that the project would be important when I learned that parasites with kDNA threaten huge populations in underdeveloped tropical countries. Looking again at Larry's paper, I found the electron micrographs of the kDNA networks to be rather beautiful. I decided to take a chance on kDNA. Little did I know then that I would devote the next forty years of my life to studying kDNA replication. PMID:25336639

  1. Ungulate malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Thomas J.; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium. PMID:26996979

  2. Ungulate malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium.

  3. Ungulate malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium. PMID:26996979

  4. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E.

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases. PMID:23392243

  5. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E

    2013-03-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.

  6. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Zardus, John D; Wares, John P

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  7. Biomonitoring of trace metal bioavailabilities to the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite along the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, A; Smith, B D; Ehsanpour, M; Afkhami, M; Rainbow, P S

    2014-10-01

    The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world.

  8. Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Antonella; Gelcich, Stefan; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems' sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity. PMID:26204856

  9. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  10. Genetic divergence between subpopulations of the eastern Pacific goose barnacle Pollicipes elegans: mitochondrial cytochrome c subunit 1 nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Van Syoc, R J

    1994-12-01

    Nucleotide sequence data derived from polymerase chain reaction products from the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA provide evidence for interrupted gene flow and subsequent genetic divergence between geographically separate subpopulations of the edible goose barnacle, Pollicipes elegans, with a 4400-km latitudinal distribution in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The amphitropical subpopulations of Pollicipes elegans have a net nucleotide sequence divergence of about 1.2%. A range of mutation rates are applied to calculate estimates for the timing of this divergence. The earliest estimated time of divergence agrees with a Pliocene time of general warming in the eastern Pacific. The latest estimated times coincide with the Pleistocene epoch and periods of cooling and warming that could have allowed for a series of expansions and contractions of P. elegans populations in the eastern tropical Pacific. These expansions and contractions may, therefore, represent alternating periods of genetic exchange and isolation of the two populations.

  11. Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Antonella; Gelcich, Stefan; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems' sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity.

  12. Two new cryptic and sympatric species of the king crab parasite Briarosaccus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Noever, Christoph; Olson, Andrew; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Rhizocephalan barnacles have been reported to parasitize a wide range of king crab species (Lithodidae). So far all these parasites have been assigned to a single species, Briarosaccus callosus Boschma, 1930, which is assumed to have a global distribution. Here we investigate Briarosaccus specimens from three different king crab hosts from the fjord systems of Southeastern Alaska: Lithodes aequispinus Benedict, 1895, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), and Paralithodes platypus (Brandt, 1850). Using molecular markers and by morphological comparison we show that Briarosaccus specimens from these three commercial exploited king crabs are in fact morphologically distinct from B. callosus, and further represent two separate species which we describe. The two new species, Briarosaccus auratum n. sp. and B. regalis n. sp., are cryptic by morphological means and were identified as distinct species by the use of genetic markers (COI and 16S). They occur sympatrically, yet no overlap in king crab hosts occurs, with B. auratum n. sp. only found on L. aequispinus, and B. regalis n. sp. as parasite of the two Paralithodes hosts. PMID:26792948

  13. Sexually transmitted parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Levine, G I

    1991-03-01

    Sexual activity is the primary method of transmission for several important parasitic diseases and has resulted in a significant prevalence of enteric parasitic infection among male homosexuals. The majority of parasitic sexually transmitted diseases involve protozoan pathogens; however, nematode and arthropod illnesses are also included in this group. Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common parasitic STD. Infection with this organism typically results in the signs and symptoms of vaginitis. Trichomoniasis can be diagnosed in the office setting by performing a microscopic evaluation of infected vaginal secretions and can be successfully treated with metronidazole. Both pediculosis pubis, caused by the crab louse Pthirus pubis, and scabies, caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei, present with severe pruritus. A papular or vesicular rash and linear burrows seen in the finger webs and genital area are characteristic of scabies. Pediculosis pubis is diagnosed by observing adult lice or their nits in areas that bear coarse hair. The diagnosis of scabies is confirmed by scraping suspicious burrows and viewing the mite or its byproducts under the microscope. Lindane, 1% used in treating scabies, is also very effective for treating pediculosis pubis. Synthetic pyrethrins, also applied as a cream or lotion, are less toxic alternatives for the treatment of either condition. Oral-anal and oral-genital sexual practices predispose male homosexuals to infection with many enteric pathogens, including parasitic protozoans and helminths. The most common of these parasitic infections are amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, and giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia. Both entities may cause acute or chronic diarrhea, as well as other abdominal symptoms. Most gay men with amebiasis are asymptomatic, and invasive disease in this group is extremely rare. Both amebiasis and giardiasis can be diagnosed on the basis of microscopic examination of stool

  14. Genetic differentiation, hybridization and adaptive divergence in two subspecies of the acorn barnacle Tetraclita japonica in the northwestern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Benny K K; Ma, Ka Yan; Chu, Ka Hou

    2008-09-01

    Two acorn barnacles, Tetraclita japonica japonica and Tetraclita japonica formosana, have been recently reclassified as two subspecies, because they are morphologically similar and genetically indistinguishable in mitochondrial DNA sequences. The two barnacles are distinguishable by parietes colour and exhibit parapatric distributions, coexisting in Japan, where T. j. formosana is very low in abundance. Here we investigated the genetic differentiation between the subspecies using 209 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and 341 individuals from 12 locations. The subspecies are genetically highly differentiated (phi(CT) = 0.267). Bayesian analysis and principal component analysis indicate the presence of hybrids in T. j.formosana samples from Japan. Strong differentiation between the northern and southern populations of T. j. japonica was revealed, and a break between Taiwan and Okinawa was also found in T. j. formosana. The differentiation between the two taxa at individual loci does not deviate from neutral expectation, suggesting that the oceanographic pattern which restricts larval dispersal is a more important factor than divergent selection in maintaining genetic and phenotypic differentiation. The T. j. formosana in Japan are probably recent migrants from Okinawa, and their presence in Japan may represent a poleward range shift driven by global warming. This promotes hybridization and might lead to a breakdown of the boundary between the subspecies. However, both local adaptation and larval dispersal are crucial in determining the population structure within each subspecies. Our study provides new insights into the interplay of local adaptation and dispersal in determining the distribution and genetic structure of intertidal biota and the biogeography of the northwestern Pacific.

  15. The Story of a Hitchhiker: Population Genetic Patterns in the Invasive Barnacle Balanus(Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854.

    PubMed

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Charrier, Gregory; Thonig, Anne; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Jonsson, Per R; André, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its worldwide distribution, little is known about the phylogeography of this species. Here, we characterize the population genetic structure and model dispersal dynamics of the barnacle B. improvisus, and describe how human-mediated spreading via shipping as well as natural larval dispersal may have contributed to observed genetic variation. We used both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I: COI) and nuclear microsatellites to characterize the genetic structure in 14 populations of B. improvisus on a global and regional scale (Baltic Sea). Genetic diversity was high in most populations, and many haplotypes were shared among populations on a global scale, indicating that long-distance dispersal (presumably through shipping and other anthropogenic activities) has played an important role in shaping the population genetic structure of this cosmopolitan species. We could not clearly confirm prior claims that B. improvisus originates from the western margins of the Atlantic coasts; although there were indications that Argentina could be part of a native region. In addition to dispersal via shipping, we show that natural larval dispersal may play an important role for further colonisation following initial introduction. PMID:26821161

  16. Barnacle settlement and the adhesion of protein and diatom microfouling to xerogel films with varying surface energy and water wettability.

    PubMed

    Finlay, John A; Bennett, Stephanie M; Brewer, Lenora H; Sokolova, Anastasiya; Clay, Gemma; Gunari, Nikhil; Meyer, Anne E; Walker, Gilbert C; Wendt, Dean E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Detty, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Previous work has shown that organosilica-based xerogels have the potential to control biofouling. In this study, modifications of chemistry were investigated with respect to their resistance to marine slimes and to settlement of barnacle cyprids. Adhesion force measurements of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to xerogel surfaces prepared from aminopropylsilyl-, fluorocarbonsilyl-, and hydrocarbonsilyl-containing precursors, indicated that adhesion was significantly less on the xerogel surfaces in comparison to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard. The strength of adhesion of BSA on the xerogels was highest on surfaces with the highest and the lowest critical surface tensions, gamma(C) and surface energies, gamma(S), and duplicated the 'Baier curve'. The attachment to and removal of cells of the diatom Navicula perminuta from a similar series of xerogel surfaces were examined. Initial attachment of cells was comparable on all of the xerogel surfaces, but the percentage removal of attached cells by hydrodynamic shear stress increased with gamma(C) and increased wettability as measured by the static water contact angle, theta(Ws), of the xerogel surfaces. The percentage removal of cells of Navicula was linearly correlated with both properties (R(2) = 0.74 for percentage removal as a function of theta(Ws) and R(2) = 0.69 for percentage removal as a function of gamma(C)). Several of the aminopropylsilyl-containing xerogels showed significantly greater removal of Navicula compared to a PDMSE standard. Cypris larvae of the barnacle B. amphitrite showed preferred settlement on hydrophilic/higher energy surfaces. Settlement was linearly correlated with theta(Ws) (R(2) = 0.84) and gamma(C) (R(2) = 0.84). Hydrophilic xerogels should prove useful as coatings for boats in regions where fouling is dominated by microfouling (protein and diatom slimes). PMID:20645195

  17. The Story of a Hitchhiker: Population Genetic Patterns in the Invasive Barnacle Balanus(Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854

    PubMed Central

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Charrier, Gregory; Thonig, Anne; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its worldwide distribution, little is known about the phylogeography of this species. Here, we characterize the population genetic structure and model dispersal dynamics of the barnacle B. improvisus, and describe how human-mediated spreading via shipping as well as natural larval dispersal may have contributed to observed genetic variation. We used both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I: COI) and nuclear microsatellites to characterize the genetic structure in 14 populations of B. improvisus on a global and regional scale (Baltic Sea). Genetic diversity was high in most populations, and many haplotypes were shared among populations on a global scale, indicating that long-distance dispersal (presumably through shipping and other anthropogenic activities) has played an important role in shaping the population genetic structure of this cosmopolitan species. We could not clearly confirm prior claims that B. improvisus originates from the western margins of the Atlantic coasts; although there were indications that Argentina could be part of a native region. In addition to dispersal via shipping, we show that natural larval dispersal may play an important role for further colonisation following initial introduction. PMID:26821161

  18. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  19. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding. PMID:26210495

  20. Protein moonlighting in parasitic protists.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Reductive evolution during the adaptation to obligate parasitism and expansions of gene families encoding virulence factors are characteristics evident to greater or lesser degrees in all parasitic protists studied to date. Large evolutionary distances separate many parasitic protists from the yeast and animal models upon which classic views of eukaryotic biochemistry are often based. Thus a combination of evolutionary divergence, niche adaptation and reductive evolution means the biochemistry of parasitic protists is often very different from their hosts and to other eukaryotes generally, making parasites intriguing subjects for those interested in the phenomenon of moonlighting proteins. In common with other organisms, the contribution of protein moonlighting to parasite biology is only just emerging, and it is not without controversy. Here, an overview of recently identified moonlighting proteins in parasitic protists is provided, together with discussion of some of the controversies.

  1. The mitochondrial genome of Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 (Cirripedia: Sessilia): the first report from the coral-inhabiting barnacles family Pyrgomatidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the coral-inhabiting barnacle Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 complete mitochondrial genome, which is the first report from the family Pyrgomatidae (Cirripedia: Sessilia). The N. grandis mitochondrial genome is 15,032 bp in length, containing a total of 469 bp of non-coding nucleotides spreading in 11 intergenic regions (with the largest region of 376 bp). Compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the N. grandis mitochondrial genome. Gene overlaps are founded in eight places. Nine PCGs (COX1-3, ATP6, ATP8, CYTB, ND2, ND3 and ND6) are encoded on the heavy strand while the remaining 4 PCGs and the two rRNAs are located on the light strand. As the first representative from the family Pyrgomatidae, the N. grandis mitochondrial genome will help us to explore the evolutionary history and molecular evolution of coral barnacles and Sessilia in future studies.

  2. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-01-01

    An unusual species of the genus Periclimenaeus Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae Pontoniinae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, collected by Dr Niel Bruce in 1979, is described and illustrated. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov., an ascidian associate was collected from coral reef at 7.0 m and presents some interesting new features. It increases to 17 the number of Periclimenaeus known from Heron Island, Queensland, and to 28 the number of species known from Australia. The new species has the second pereiopod fingers minutely denticulate and unique to the genus. PMID:24872280

  3. A new species of Notodiaptomus Kiefer (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Espindola, E L G; Tundisi, J G; Souza-Soares, F; Degani, R M

    2010-10-01

    Description of a new species of Diaptomidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida) Notodiaptomus oliveirai is given from the material obtained at a reservoir at Barra Bonita, SP in 1992. The new species is very similar to Notodiaptomus henseni Dahl 1894 although both species can be found in the same locality, constituting two distinct populations. Notodiaptomus oliveirai seems to be endowed with great adaptability to changes in environmental conditions, extending its distribution to all the hydrographic basins in the state of São Paulo. PMID:21085791

  4. Organization of the mitochondrial genome of mantis shrimp Pseudosquilla ciliata (Crustacea: Stomatopoda).

    PubMed

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We determined the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of Pseudosquilla ciliata (Crustacea, Stomatopoda), including all protein-coding genes and all but one of the transfer RNAs. There were no gene rearrangements relative to the pattern shared by crustaceans and hexapods. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes confirmed a basal position of Stomatopoda among Eumalacostraca. Pancrustacean relationships based on mitogenomic data were analyzed and are discussed in relation to crustacean and hexapod monophyly and hexapod affinities to crustacean subtaxa. PMID:16088353

  5. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters.

    PubMed

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3-4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2-6 articles. PMID:26868713

  6. Molecular Characterization of the α-Subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase from the Euryhaline Barnacle Balanus improvisus Reveals Multiple Genes and Differential Expression of Alternative Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Ulrika; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Sundell, Kristina S.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl; Havenhand, Jonathan; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus has one of the broadest salinity tolerances of any barnacle species. It is able to complete its life cycle in salinities close to freshwater (3 PSU) up to fully marine conditions (35 PSU) and is regarded as one of few truly brackish-water species. Na+/K+ ATPase (NAK) has been shown to be important for osmoregulation when marine organisms are challenged by changing salinities, and we therefore cloned and examined the expression of different NAKs from B. improvisus. We found two main gene variants, NAK1 and NAK2, which were approximately 70% identical at the protein level. The NAK1 mRNA existed in a long and short variant with the encoded proteins differing only by 27 N-terminal amino acids. This N-terminal stretch was coded for by a separate exon, and the two variants of NAK1 mRNAs appeared to be created by alternative splicing. We furthermore showed that the two NAK1 isoforms were differentially expressed in different life stages and in various tissues of adult barnacle, i.e the long isoform was predominant in cyprids and in adult cirri. In barnacle cyprid larvae that were exposed to a combination of different salinities and pCO2 levels, the expression of the long NAK1 mRNA increased relative to the short in low salinities. We suggest that the alternatively spliced long variant of the Nak1 protein might be of importance for osmoregulation in B. improvisus in low salinity conditions. PMID:24130836

  7. Parasites dominate food web links.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Dobson, Andrew P; Kuris, Armand M

    2006-07-25

    Parasitism is the most common animal lifestyle, yet food webs rarely include parasites. The few earlier studies have indicated that including parasites leads to obvious increases in species richness, number of links, and food chain length. A less obvious result was that adding parasites slightly reduced connectance, a key metric considered to affect food web stability. However, reported reductions in connectance after the addition of parasites resulted from an inappropriate calculation. Two alternative corrective approaches applied to four published studies yield an opposite result: parasites increase connectance, sometimes dramatically. In addition, we find that parasites can greatly affect other food web statistics, such as nestedness (asymmetry of interactions), chain length, and linkage density. Furthermore, whereas most food webs find that top trophic levels are least vulnerable to natural enemies, the inclusion of parasites revealed that mid-trophic levels, not low trophic levels, suffered the highest vulnerability to natural enemies. These results show that food webs are very incomplete without parasites. Most notably, recognition of parasite links may have important consequences for ecosystem stability because they can increase connectance and nestedness.

  8. A new gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing two species of requiem sharks from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2008-06-01

    Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) of Gnathia grandilaris n. sp. were collected from the gill filaments and septa of 5 requiem sharks, including a white tip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus, and 4 grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in March 2002. Some juvenile gnathiids were then maintained in fresh sea water until they molted to adults. Adult males appeared 19 days following detachment of juveniles from host fishes, but no juveniles molted successfully into females. The current description is based, therefore, on bright field and scanning electron microscopy observations of adult males and third-stage juveniles. Unique features of the male include the triangular-shaped inferior medio-frontal process, 2 areolae on the dorsal surface of the pylopod, and a slender pleotelson (twice as long as wide) with lateral concavities. The third-stage juvenile has distinctive white pigmentation on the black pereon when alive, while the mandible has 9 triangular backwardly directed teeth. This species has the largest male and third-stage juvenile of any Gnathia spp. from Australia and of any gnathiid isopods associated with elasmobranchs.

  9. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates.

  10. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  11. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. PMID:25028258

  12. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-10-21

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed.

  13. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed. PMID:26624398

  14. The languages of parasite communication.

    PubMed

    Roditi, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Although it is regarded as self-evident that parasites interact with their hosts, with the primary aim of enhancing their own survival and transmission, the extent to which unicellular parasites communicate with each has been severely underestimated. Recent publications show that information is commonly exchanged between parasites of the same species and that this can govern their decisions to divide, to differentiate or to migrate as a group. Communication can take the form of soluble secreted factors, extracellular vesicles or contact between cells. Extracellular parasites can do this directly, while intracellular parasites use the infected host cell - or components derived from it - as an intermediary. By emitting signals that can be dispersed within the host, parasites can also have long-distance effects on the course of an infection and its pathology. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and draws attention to some older work that merits re-examination. PMID:27211242

  15. Diagnostic Procedures in Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S. K. K.

    1976-01-01

    This article offers some guidelines for investigating patients with suspected tropical and parasitic diseases. The common symptoms of tropical diseases as seen in Canadians returning from the tropics are discussed and diagnostic approaches suggested. Simple office laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of the common intestinal and blood parasites are outlined. The value and pitfalls of serological tests in parasitic diseases are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:21308049

  16. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  17. Parasitic infections & ectoparasitic infestations.

    PubMed

    Cockerell, C J

    1995-06-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, histopathology, and differential diagnosis of parasitic infections and ectoparasitic infestations, especially scabies, in HIV-positive patients are examined. Treatment options for scabies include lindane cream or lotion or five percent permethrin cream. Precipitated sulfur in petrolatum may also be effective. Post-treatment sensitivity can be treated with corticosteroids. Various antifungal agents are used to treat demodicidosis, pneumocystosis, strongyloidiasis, amebiasis, and leishmaniasis, although different drugs may be required to treat these infections in immunocompromised hosts. Suggestions are provided to treat prurititis which accompanies these infections.

  18. Plastids in parasites of humans.

    PubMed

    McFadden, G I; Waller, R F

    1997-11-01

    It has recently emerged that malarial, toxoplasmodial and related parasites contain a vestigial plastid (the organelle in which photosynthesis occurs in plants and algae). The function of the plastid in these obligate intracellular parasites has not been established. It seems likely that modern apicomplexans derive from photosynthetic predecessors, which perhaps formed associations with protists and invertebrates and abandoned autotrophy in favour of parasitism. Recognition of a third genetic compartment in these parasites proffers alternative strategies for combating a host of important human and animal diseases. It also poses some fascinating questions about the evolutionary biology of this important group of pathogens.

  19. [Parasitic dead-end: update].

    PubMed

    Magnaval, J F

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic dead-ends occur when a parasite is unable to establish a permanent interaction in an unnatural host. Although the likelihood of successful reproduction by the pathogenic agent is nul, parasitic dead-end heralds capture of new parasites and therefore expansion of the host range. Angiostrongyliasis due to A. cantonensis or A. costaricensis, anisakiasis, Ancylostoma caninum infection, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis are undoubtedly emerging zoonoses of particular medical interest. Prevention of these diseases relies on abstinence from eating raw meat from invertebrates or cold-blooded (poikilotherm) vertebrates (e.g. used in exotic dishes). These guidelines must be included in recommendations to travelers. PMID:16999036

  20. Parasitism and calfhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Herlich, H; Douvres, F W

    1977-02-01

    That animals can and do acquire an effective immunity against helminth parasites has been demonstrated extensively experimentally, and the fact that domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses become adults while maintaining good health in spite of constant exposure to reinfection long has suggested that immunity must be important to such survival. Although our attempts to date to vaccinate calves against helminth parasites have either failed or been unsatisfactory because of the pathosis induced by the experimental vaccines, the results are not surprising or discouraging. In contrast to the long history of immunization research on bacterial and viral diseases, only within a relatively short time have serious efforts been directed at exploiting hostal immunity for prevention and control of helminthic diseases. Unlike the comparatively simple structures of viruses and bacteria, helminths are complex multicellular animals with vast arrays of antigens and complicated physiological and immunological interactions with their hosts. Much more fundamental information on helminth-bovine interactions, on helminth antigens, and on cattle antibody systems must be developed before progress on control of cattle helminths by vaccination can be meaningful.

  1. Parasites as biological tags to track an ontogenetic shift in the feeding behaviour of Gadus morhua off West and East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Münster, Julian; Klimpel, Sven; Fock, Heino O; MacKenzie, Ken; Kuhn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Parasites, being an integral part of every ecosystem and trophically transmitted along the food webs, can provide detailed insights into the structure of food webs and can close the information gap between short-term stomach content analyses and long-term fish otolith analyses. They are useful for tracking ontogenetic shifts in the host's diet, the occurrence of specific organisms or migratory behaviour of their hosts, even in inaccessible environments. In the present study, stomach content analyses and parasitological examinations were performed on 70 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, one of the most important high-level predators of small fish in the North Atlantic, caught during one research vessel cruise from West and East Greenlandic waters. Analyses revealed significant differences in fish size with higher values for East Greenland (average total length (TL) of 50.5 cm) compared to West Greenland (average TL of 33.3 cm). Clear differences were also present in prey and parasite composition. Crustacea was the main food source for all fish (IRI = 10082.70), while the importance of teleosts increased with fish size. With a prevalence of 85 % in West Greenland and 100 % in East Greenland, Nematoda were the most abundant parasite group. The results indicate an ontogenetic shift in the diet, which are discussed in the context of the common distribution theory, stock dynamics and migratory behaviour.

  2. Emerging food-borne parasites.

    PubMed

    Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

    2009-08-01

    Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food

  3. Effects of spatial structure of population size on the population dynamics of barnacles across their elevational range.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Okuda, Takehiro; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Noda, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Explanations for why population dynamics vary across the range of a species reflect two contrasting hypotheses: (i) temporal variability of populations is larger in the centre of the range compared to the margins because overcompensatory density dependence destabilizes population dynamics and (ii) population variability is larger near the margins, where populations are more susceptible to environmental fluctuations. In both of these hypotheses, positions within the range are assumed to affect population variability. In contrast, the fact that population variability is often related to mean population size implies that the spatial structure of the population size within the range of a species may also be a useful predictor of the spatial variation in temporal variability of population size over the range of the species. To explore how population temporal variability varies spatially and the underlying processes responsible for the spatial variation, we focused on the intertidal barnacle Chthamalus dalli and examined differences in its population dynamics along the tidal levels it inhabits. Changes in coverage of barnacle populations were monitored for 10.5 years at 25 plots spanning the elevational range of this species. Data were analysed by fitting a population dynamics model to estimate the effects of density-dependent and density-independent processes on population growth. We also examined the temporal mean-variance relationship of population size with parameters estimated from the population dynamics model. We found that the relative variability of populations tended to increase from the centre of the elevational range towards the margins because of an increase in the magnitude of stochastic fluctuations of growth rates. Thus, our results supported hypothesis (2). We also found that spatial variations in temporal population variability were well characterized by Taylor's power law, the relative population variability being inversely related to the mean

  4. Temporal and spatial variability in the recruitment of barnacles and the local dominance of Elminius modestus Darwin in SW Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Douglas I.; O'Riordan, Ruth M.; Barnes, David K. A.; Cross, Tom

    2005-04-01

    Deployment of processed natural substrata is a common method of investigating early settlement and recruitment processes, but has been under-utilised as a multi-depth method for barnacle study and analysis. Replicate, machined-slate panels (15 cm×15 cm×1 cm) were placed at 0 m (lower portion of the intertidal with ≈2 h emersion per tidal cycle), 6 m and 12 m at two sites of differing flow rate in Lough Hyne, SW Ireland. These panels were replaced serially every 30-60 days for a period of 3 years (2000-2003) to give monthly recruitment rates. Panels were also submersed for 60-120 days (Whirlpool Cliff, two locations) to show seasonal patterns and 370-400 days (Labhra Cliff) to show annual recruitment and survival patterns. The number, percentage cover and identity of all cirripede recruits were recorded. The greatest source of variability was with depth: between the intertidal (with many recruits) and the subtidal zones (few recruits). In general, intertidal recruitment was dominated by the introduced barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin. The high degree of water retention in Lough Hyne, combined with the high reproductive potential of E. modestus, has led to it becoming a self-perpetuating and locally dominant population. Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia dominated the longer immersed panels, highlighting the importance of post-recruitment processes to the survival of E. modestus recruits in the subtidal. Although E. modestus were found on subtidal monthly and seasonal panels, none were present on the subtidal annual panels. Temporally, month, season and time of placement were all found to be significant in explaining recruit number variability. Spatially, depth explained most variability of recruit numbers (6 m spatial separation), whilst site (≈200 m spatial separation) only ever being significant in combination with other factors, as was location (≈50 m spatial separation). The work highlights the importance of examining both temporal and spatial scales

  5. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  6. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Z.; Nikolić, A.; Lavadinović, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulović, O.; Milošević, B.; Stevanović, G.; Ofori-Belić, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlović, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  7. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Christine

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity.

  8. Serine proteases of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-02-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  9. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  10. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916)

    PubMed Central

    González, José A.; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P.

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  11. Predicting Free-Space Occupancy on Novel Artificial Structures by an Invasive Intertidal Barnacle Using a Removal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bracewell, Sally A.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Firth, Louise B.; Knights, Antony M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial structures can create novel habitat in the marine environment that has been associated with the spread of invasive species. They are often located in areas of high disturbance and can vary significantly in the area of free space provided for settlement of marine organisms. Whilst correlation between the amount of free space available and recruitment success has been shown in populations of several marine benthic organisms, there has been relatively little focus on invasive species, a group with the potential to reproduce in vast numbers and colonise habitats rapidly. Invasion success following different scales of disturbance was examined in the invasive acorn barnacle, Austrominiusmodestus, on a unique art installation located in Liverpool Bay. Population growth and recruitment success were examined by comparing recruitment rates within disturbance clearings of 4 different sizes and by contrasting population development with early recruitment rates over a 10 week period. Disturbed areas were rapidly recolonised and monocultures of A. modestus formed within 6 weeks. The size of patch created during disturbance had no effect on the rate of recruitment, while a linear relationship between recruit density and patch size was observed. Density-dependent processes mediated initial high recruitment resulting in population stability after 8-10 weeks, but densities continued to greatly exceed those reported in natural habitats. Given that artificial structures are likely to continue to proliferate in light of climate change projections, free-space is likely to become more available more frequently in the future supporting the expansion of fast-colonising species. PMID:24023944

  12. Atomic force microscopy of the morphology and mechanical behaviour of barnacle cyprid footprint proteins at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Phang, In Yee; Aldred, Nick; Ling, Xing Yi; Huskens, Jurriaan; Clare, Anthony S; Vancso, G Julius

    2010-02-01

    Barnacles are a major biofouler of man-made underwater structures. Prior to settlement, cypris larvae explore surfaces by reversible attachment effected by a 'temporary adhesive'. During this exploratory behaviour, cyprids deposit proteinaceous 'footprints' of a putatively adhesive material. In this study, footprints deposited by Balanus amphitrite cyprids were probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in artificial sea water (ASW) on silane-modified glass surfaces. AFM images obtained in air yielded better resolution than in ASW and revealed the fibrillar nature of the secretion, suggesting that the deposits were composed of single proteinaceous nanofibrils, or bundles of fibrils. The force curves generated in pull-off force experiments in sea water consisted of regions of gradually increasing force, separated by sharp drops in extension force manifesting a characteristic saw-tooth appearance. Following the relaxation of fibrils stretched to high strains, force-distance curves in reverse stretching experiments could be described by the entropic elasticity model of a polymer chain. When subjected to relaxation exceeding 500 ms, extended footprint proteins refolded, and again showed saw-tooth unfolding peaks in subsequent force cycles. Observed rupture and hysteresis behaviour were explained by the 'sacrificial bond' model. Longer durations of relaxation (>5 s) allowed more sacrificial bond reformation and contributed to enhanced energy dissipation (higher toughness). The persistence length for the protein chains (L(P)) was obtained. At high elongation, following repeated stretching up to increasing upper strain limits, footprint proteins detached at total stretched length of 10 microm.

  13. Host-Specific Phenotypic Plasticity of the Turtle Barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria: A Widespread Generalist Rather than a Specialist

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ka Hou; Cheng, I-Jiunn; Chan, Benny K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Turtle barnacles are common epibionts on marine organisms. Chelonibia testudinaria is specific on marine turtles whereas C. patula is a host generalist, but rarely found on turtles. It has been questioned why C. patula, being abundant on a variety of live substrata, is almost absent from turtles. We evaluated the genetic (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)) and morphological differentiation of C. testudinaia and C. patula from different hosts, to determine the mode of adaptation exhibited by Chelonibia species on different hosts. The two taxa demonstrate clear differences in shell morphology and length of 4–6th cirri, but very similar in arthropodal characters. Moreover, we detected no genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses. Outlier detection infers insignificant selection across loci investigated. Based on combined morphological and molecular evidence, we proposed that C. testudinaria and C. patula are conspecific, and the two morphs with contrasting shell morphologies and cirral length found on different host are predominantly shaped by developmental plasticity in response to environmental setting on different hosts. Chelonibia testudinaria is, thus, a successful general epibiotic fouler and the phenotypic responses postulated can increase the fitness of the animals when they attach on hosts with contrasting life-styles. PMID:23469208

  14. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916).

    PubMed

    Quinteiro, Javier; Manent, Pablo; Pérez-Diéguez, Lois; González, José A; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; González-Henríquez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  15. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916).

    PubMed

    Quinteiro, Javier; Manent, Pablo; Pérez-Diéguez, Lois; González, José A; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; González-Henríquez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area.

  16. How have fisheries affected parasite communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively removing the largest, most heavily parasitized individuals. After controlling for size, the effect of fishing on parasite abundance varied according to whether the host was fished and the parasite's life cycle. Parasites of unfished hosts were more likely to increase in abundance in response to fishing than were parasites of fished hosts, possibly due to compensatory increases in the abundance of unfished hosts. While complex life cycle parasites tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, directly transmitted parasites tended to increase. Among complex life cycle parasites, those with fished hosts tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, while those with unfished hosts tended to increase. However, among directly transmitted parasites, responses did not differ between parasites with and without fished hosts. This work suggests that parasite assemblages are likely to change substantially in composition in increasingly fished ecosystems, and that parasite life history and fishing status of the host are important in predicting the response of individual parasite species or groups to fishing.

  17. Comparative study of cadmium and lead accumulations in Cambarus bartoni (Fab. ) (Decapoda, Crustacea) from an acidic and a neutral lake

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, S.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare concentrations of lead and cadmium in the sediment and water, as well as in the crayfish, Cambarus Bartoni (Fab.) (Decapoda - Crustacea) trapped from an acidic and a neutral lake in the Sudbury district of Northeastern Ontario. Hepatopancreatic, alimentary canal, tail muscles and exoskeletal concentrations in the crayfish are also examined to determine specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  18. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  19. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein coding genes confirms the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea

    PubMed Central

    Carapelli, Antonio; Liò, Pietro; Nardi, Francesco; van der Wath, Elizabeth; Frati, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of Arthropoda is still a matter of harsh debate among systematists, and significant disagreement exists between morphological and molecular studies. In particular, while the taxon joining hexapods and crustaceans (the Pancrustacea) is now widely accepted among zoologists, the relationships among its basal lineages, and particularly the supposed reciprocal paraphyly of Crustacea and Hexapoda, continues to represent a challenge. Several genes, as well as different molecular markers, have been used to tackle this problem in molecular phylogenetic studies, with the mitochondrial DNA being one of the molecules of choice. In this study, we have assembled the largest data set available so far for Pancrustacea, consisting of 100 complete (or almost complete) sequences of mitochondrial genomes. After removal of unalignable sequence regions and highly rearranged genomes, we used nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 protein coding genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of Pancrustacea. The analysis was performed with Bayesian inference, and for the amino acid sequences a new, Pancrustacea-specific, matrix of amino acid replacement was developed and used in this study. Results Two largely congruent trees were obtained from the analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets. In particular, the best tree obtained based on the new matrix of amino acid replacement (MtPan) was preferred over those obtained using previously available matrices (MtArt and MtRev) because of its higher likelihood score. The most remarkable result is the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea, with some lineages of crustaceans (namely the Malacostraca, Cephalocarida and, possibly, the Branchiopoda) being more closely related to the Insecta s.s. (Ectognatha) than two orders of basal hexapods, Collembola and Diplura. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial genome, unlike analyses based on morphological data or nuclear

  1. Diversity of parasite complex II.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeharu; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Ohmori, Junko; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for completing at least part of their life cycles in the specialized environments of surrounding the parasites in the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is essential for survival, parasites adapt to the low oxygen environment in mammalian hosts by using metabolic systems that are very different from those of the hosts. In many cases, the parasite employs aerobic metabolism during the free-living stage outside the host but undergoes major changes in developmental control and environmental adaptation to switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. Parasite mitochondria play diverse roles in their energy metabolism, and in recent studies of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, the mitochondrial complex II plays an important role in anaerobic energy metabolism of parasites inhabiting hosts by acting as a quinol-fumarate reductase. In Trypanosomes, parasite complex II has been found to have a novel function and structure. Complex II of Trypanosoma cruzi is an unusual supramolecular complex with a heterodimeric iron-sulfur subunit and seven additional non-catalytic subunits. The enzyme shows reduced binding affinities for both substrates and inhibitors. Interestingly, this structural organization is conserved in all trypanosomatids. Since the properties of complex II differ across a wide range of parasites, this complex is a potential target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In this regard, structural information on the target enzyme is essential for the molecular design of drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23333273

  2. Parasites on parasites: Coupled fluctuations in stacked contact processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Court, Steven J.; Blythe, Richard A.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a model for host-parasite dynamics which incorporates both vertical and horizontal transmission as well as spatial structure. Our model consists of stacked contact processes (CP), where the dynamics of the host is a simple CP on a lattice while the dynamics of the parasite is a secondary CP which sits on top of the host-occupied sites. In the simplest case, where infection does not incur any cost, we uncover a novel effect: a non-monotonic dependence of parasite prevalence on host turnover. Inspired by natural examples of hyperparasitism, we extend our model to multiple levels of parasites and identify a transition between the maintenance of a finite and infinite number of levels, which we conjecture is connected to a roughening transition in models of surface growth.

  3. Intestinal parasites of the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Small, Ethan A; Tice, Alan D; Zheng, Xiaotian

    2003-10-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Hawaii and the Pacific is not current. We reviewed reports on fecal samples obtained from two laboratories and found recovery rates of 9.3% in Hawaii, 14.2% in Saipan, 18% in Rota and 9.5% in Guam. The most frequently identified parasites were Blastocystis hominis (7.6%), Giardia lamblia (1.2%), and Entamoeba coli (0.7%). Although the incidence and types of organisms have changed with time, physicians in Hawaii should continue looking for intestinal parasites.

  4. Multi-host Model-Based Identification of Armillifer agkistrodontis (Pentastomida), a New Zoonotic Parasite from China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Hong; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Chen, Jia-Xu; Li, Hao; Chen, Ying; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Background Pentastomiasis is a rare parasitic infection of humans. Pentastomids are dioecious obligate parasites requiring multiple hosts to complete their lifecycle. Despite their worm-like appearance, they are commonly placed into a separate sub-class of the subphylum Crustacea, phylum Arthropoda. However, their systematic position is not uncontested and historically, they have been considered as a separate phylum. Methodology/Principal Findings An appraisal of Armillifer agkistrodontis was performed in terms of morphology and genetic identification after its lifecycle had been established in a multi-host model, i.e., mice and rats as intermediate hosts, and snakes (Agkistrodon acutus and Python molurus) as definitive hosts. Different stages of the parasite, including eggs, larvae and adults, were isolated and examined morphologically using light and electron microscopes. Phylogenetic and cluster analysis were also undertaken, focusing on the 18S rRNA and the Cox1 gene. The time for lifecycle completion was about 14 months, including 4 months for the development of eggs to infectious larvae in the intermediate host and 10 months for infectious larvae to mature in the final host. The main morphological difference between A. armillatus and Linguatula serrata is the number of abdominal annuli. Based on the 18S rRNA sequence, the shortest hereditary distance was found between A. agkistrodontis and Raillietiella spp. The highest degree of homology in the Cox 1 nucleic acid sequences and predicted amino acid sequences was found between A. agkistrodontis and A. armillatus. Conclusion This is the first time that a multi-host model of the entire lifecycle of A. agkistrodontis has been established. Morphologic and genetic analyses supported the notion that pentastomids should be placed into the phylum Arthropoda. PMID:20386597

  5. Myxozoan parasitism in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Jerri L; Atkinson, Stephen D; Hallett, Sascha L; Lowenstine, Linda J; Garner, Michael M; Gardiner, Chris H; Rideout, Bruce A; Keel, M Kevin; Brown, Justin D

    2008-08-01

    Myxozoans are spore-forming, metazoan parasites common in cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates, especially fishes, with alternate life cycle stages developing in invertebrates. We report nine cases of infection in free-flying native and captive exotic ducks (Anseriformes: Anatidae) from locations across the United States and describe the first myxozoan in birds, Myxidium anatidum n. sp. We found developmental stages and mature spores in the bile ducts of a Pekin duck (domesticated Anas platyrhynchos). Spores are lens-shaped in sutural view, slightly sigmoidal in valvular view, with two polar capsules, and each valve cell has 14-16 longitudinal surface ridges. Spore dimensions are 23.1 microm x 10.8 microm x 11.2 microm. Phylogenetic analysis of the ssrRNA gene revealed closest affinity with Myxidium species described from chelonids (tortoises). Our novel finding broadens the definition of the Myxozoa to include birds as hosts and has implications for understanding myxozoan evolution, and mechanisms of geographical and host range extension. The number of infection records indicates this is not an incidental occurrence, and the detection of such widely dispersed cases suggests more myxozoans in birds will be encountered with increased surveillance of these hosts for pathogens.

  6. Myxozoan parasitism in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Jerri L; Atkinson, Stephen D; Hallett, Sascha L; Lowenstine, Linda J; Garner, Michael M; Gardiner, Chris H; Rideout, Bruce A; Keel, M Kevin; Brown, Justin D

    2008-08-01

    Myxozoans are spore-forming, metazoan parasites common in cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates, especially fishes, with alternate life cycle stages developing in invertebrates. We report nine cases of infection in free-flying native and captive exotic ducks (Anseriformes: Anatidae) from locations across the United States and describe the first myxozoan in birds, Myxidium anatidum n. sp. We found developmental stages and mature spores in the bile ducts of a Pekin duck (domesticated Anas platyrhynchos). Spores are lens-shaped in sutural view, slightly sigmoidal in valvular view, with two polar capsules, and each valve cell has 14-16 longitudinal surface ridges. Spore dimensions are 23.1 microm x 10.8 microm x 11.2 microm. Phylogenetic analysis of the ssrRNA gene revealed closest affinity with Myxidium species described from chelonids (tortoises). Our novel finding broadens the definition of the Myxozoa to include birds as hosts and has implications for understanding myxozoan evolution, and mechanisms of geographical and host range extension. The number of infection records indicates this is not an incidental occurrence, and the detection of such widely dispersed cases suggests more myxozoans in birds will be encountered with increased surveillance of these hosts for pathogens. PMID:18342316

  7. Parasites in pet reptiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners. PMID:21624124

  8. Gap junction pleiomorphism in the root system of the rhizocephalans (Arthropoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    van Deurs, B; Dantzer, V; Bresciani, J

    1982-06-01

    We have studied gap junctions in the root system of four different species of rhizocephalans (Arthropoda: Crustacea) using freeze-fracture. Numerous and often very extensive gap junctions are present between the root cells. They are of the characteristic E-type also found in other arthropods. Large junctional particles (ca. 13 nm) are located predominantly on the E-face, while complementary pits and a few dislocated particles are present on the P-face. The gap junctions show a remarkable pleiomorphism. Small macular gap junctions with rather densely packed particles, larger irregularly shaped gap junctions, often forming bands with intervening particle-free membrane domains, and gap junctions with widely dispersed particles are observed. These features are documented both in material after conventional preparation including glutaraldehyde fixation and glycerol cryoprotection and in material frozen directly in a nitrogen slush without any preceding preparation, and are discussed in relation to possible functional significance. PMID:7117269

  9. A new echiuran-associated snapping shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Komai, Tomoyuki; Marin, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) is described based on material from Japan (Ryukyu Islands) and Vietnam (Nha Trang Bay); an additional, morphologically slightly different specimen from Madagascar (Nosy-Bé) is preliminarily referred to A. cf. echiurophilus sp. nov., awaiting collection of additional material and/or genetic comparison. All specimens of the new species were collected from burrows of thalassematid echiurans, either on intertidal and shallow subtidal sand-mud flats or in the mixed sand-gravel-rock intertidal. Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. belongs to the A. leviusculus species group, being morphologically closest to the Indo-West Pacific A. leviusculus Dana, 1852, A. hululensis Coutière, 1905, A. ladronis Banner, 1956, and the western Atlantic A. zimmermani Anker, 2007. The new species can be separated from all of them by a combination of morphological characters and also appears to have a diagnostic colouration.

  10. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction.

  11. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction. PMID:26685998

  12. Toxicity of vegetable tannins on crustacea associated with alpine mosquito breeding sites.

    PubMed

    Pautou, M P; Rey, D; David, J P; Meyran, J C

    2000-11-01

    The impact of tannins from the environmental vegetation naturally polluting Alpine mosquito breeding sites was experimentally investigated by studying the toxicity of tannic acid, a natural hydrolyzable tannin, on the nontarget crustacean fauna associated with culicine populations. Bioassays indicate that exposure to tannic acid at concentrations from 0.06 to 2.0 mM is more deleterious to Chydorus sphaericus, Diaptomus castor, and Eucypris fuscata, than to Daphnia pulex, Acanthocyclops robustus, and Eucypris virens. Histopathological investigations after treatment with tannic acid at concentrations from 0.125 to 0.500 mM reveal sequential degenerative patterns of the midgut epithelium depending on the taxon, duration of the treatment, and concentrations assayed. These differential toxic effects on Crustacea are compared with those previously observed in larval Diptera, in order to evaluate the plant tannins as potentially useful products in integrated mosquito management programs.

  13. The post-embryonic development of Remipedia (Crustacea)--additional results and new insights.

    PubMed

    Koenemann, Stefan; Olesen, Jørgen; Alwes, Frederike; Iliffe, Thomas M; Hoenemann, Mario; Ungerer, Petra; Wolff, Carsten; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    The post-embryonic development of a species of the enigmatic crustacean group Remipedia is described in detail for the first time under various aspects. Applying a molecular approach, we can clearly prove the species identity of the larvae as belonging to Pleomothra apletocheles. We document the cellular level of several larval stages and the differentiation of segments, limbs, and the general body morphology applying the techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we document the swimming behavior and the peculiar movements of the naupliar appendages. A comparison of our results with published data on other Crustacea and their larval development tentatively supports ideas about phylogenetic affinities of the Remipedia to the Malacostraca.

  14. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  15. Phagocytosis mediates specificity in the immune defence of an invertebrate, the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Roth, Olivia; Kurtz, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    Specificity and memory are the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. However, phenomena of specificity upon priming of immunity have recently been demonstrated also in invertebrates, which rely exclusively on innate immune defence. It has been suggested that phagocytosis might represent a core candidate for such specificity in invertebrates. We here developed in vitro phagocytosis measurements for different bacteria in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). After immune priming with heat-killed bacteria, hemocytes showed increased phagocytosis of a previously encountered bacterial strain compared to other bacteria. These data support the role of phagocytosis in invertebrate immunological specificity and suggest a high degree of specificity that even enables to differentiate between strains of the same bacterial species.

  16. A new echiuran-associated snapping shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Komai, Tomoyuki; Marin, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) is described based on material from Japan (Ryukyu Islands) and Vietnam (Nha Trang Bay); an additional, morphologically slightly different specimen from Madagascar (Nosy-Bé) is preliminarily referred to A. cf. echiurophilus sp. nov., awaiting collection of additional material and/or genetic comparison. All specimens of the new species were collected from burrows of thalassematid echiurans, either on intertidal and shallow subtidal sand-mud flats or in the mixed sand-gravel-rock intertidal. Alpheus echiurophilus sp. nov. belongs to the A. leviusculus species group, being morphologically closest to the Indo-West Pacific A. leviusculus Dana, 1852, A. hululensis Coutière, 1905, A. ladronis Banner, 1956, and the western Atlantic A. zimmermani Anker, 2007. The new species can be separated from all of them by a combination of morphological characters and also appears to have a diagnostic colouration. PMID:25661953

  17. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics.

  18. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain.

  19. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly. PMID:12596123

  20. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly.

  1. Climate change and Arctic parasites.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Andy; Molnár, Péter K; Kutz, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in the Arctic. This has important implications for parasites of Arctic ungulates, and hence for the welfare of Arctic peoples who depend on caribou, reindeer, and muskoxen for food, income, and a focus for cultural activities. In this Opinion article we briefly review recent work on the development of predictive models for the impacts of climate change on helminth parasites and other pathogens of Arctic wildlife, in the hope that such models may eventually allow proactive mitigation and conservation strategies. We describe models that have been developed using the metabolic theory of ecology. The main strength of these models is that they can be easily parameterized using basic information about the physical size of the parasite. Initial results suggest they provide important new insights that are likely to generalize to a range of host-parasite systems. PMID:25900882

  2. Parasitic Effects on Memristor Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Chua, Leon O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that parasitic elements have a significant effect on the dynamics of memristor circuits. We first show that certain 2-terminal elements such as memristors, memcapacitors, and meminductors can be used as nonvolatile memories, if the principle of conservation of state variables hold by open-circuiting, or short-circuiting, their terminals. We also show that a passive memristor with a strictly-increasing constitutive relation will eventually lose its stored flux when we switch off the power if there is a parasitic capacitance across the memristor. Similarly, a memcapacitor (resp., meminductor) with a positive memcapacitance (resp., meminductance) will eventually lose their stored physical states when we switch off the power, if it is connected to a parasitic resistance. We then show that the discontinuous jump that circuit engineers assumed to occur at impasse points of memristor circuits contradicts the principles of conservation of charge and flux at the time of the discontinuous jump. A parasitic element can be used to break an impasse point, resulting in the emergence of a continuous oscillation in the circuit. We also define a distance, a diameter, and a dimension, for each circuit element in order to measure the complexity order of the parasitic elements. They can be used to find higher-order parasitic elements which can break impasse points. Furthermore, we derived a memristor-based Chua’s circuit from a three-element circuit containing a memristor by connecting two parasitic memcapacitances to break the impasse points. We finally show that a higher-order parasitic element can be used for breaking the impasse points on two-dimensional and three-dimensional constrained spaces.

  3. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    PubMed

    Evison, Sophie E F; Roberts, Katherine E; Laurenson, Lynn; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Hui, Jeffrey; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Smith, Judith E; Budge, Giles; Hughes, William O H

    2012-01-01

    Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees) in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris) and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris), as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities.

  4. Lipids and the malarial parasite*

    PubMed Central

    Holz, George G.

    1977-01-01

    Merozoite endocytosis initiates Plasmodium development in a vacuole bounded by an erythrocyte-derived membrane, whose asymmetrical distribution of lipids and proteins is reversed in its orientation with respect to the parasite plasma membrane. Reorientation may accompany the proliferation of the membrane associated with the parasite's growth and phagocytic and pinocytic feeding. Increases in the membrane surface area of the parasite, and in some cases of the erythrocyte, parallel parasite growth and segmentation. Augmentation of all the membrane systems of the infected erythrocyte causes the lipid content to rise rapidly, but the parasite lipid composition differs from that of the erythrocyte in many respects: it is higher in diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, polyglycerol phosphatides, diacylglycerols, unesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols, and hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids and lower in sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, alkoxy phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Active lipid metabolism accompanies the membrane proliferation associated with feeding, growth, and reproduction. Plasmodium is incapable of de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol; however, it can fabricate its glycerides and phosphoglycerides with host-supplied fatty acids, nitrogenous bases, alcohols, ATP, and coenzyme A, and can generate the glyceryl moiety during glycolysis. Cholesterol is obtained from the host but nothing is known of sphingolipid origins. Lipid metabolism of the parasite may be associated with alterations in the amounts of octadecenoic fatty acids and cholesterol in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, which in turn are responsible for changes in permeability and fragility. PMID:412602

  5. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24995332

  6. Pathology of CNS parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Pittella, José Eymard Homem

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) include two broad categories of infectious organisms: single-celled protozoa and multicellular metazoa. The protozoal infections include malaria, American trypanosomiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, amebiasis, microsporidiasis, and leishmaniasis. The metazoal infections are grouped into flatworms, which include trematoda and cestoda, and roundworms or nematoda. Trematoda infections include schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis. Cestoda infections include cysticercosis, coenurosis, hydatidosis, and sparganosis. Nematoda infections include gnathostomiasis, angiostrongyliasis, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, baylisascariasis, dracunculiasis, micronemiasis, and lagochilascariasis. The most common route of CNS invasion is through the blood. In some cases, the parasite invades the olfactory neuroepithelium in the nasal mucosa and penetrates the brain via the subarachnoid space or reaches the CNS through neural foramina of the skull base around the cranial nerves or vessels. The neuropathological changes vary greatly, depending on the type and size of the parasite, geographical strain variations in parasitic virulence, immune evasion by the parasite, and differences in host immune response. Congestion of the leptomeninges, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, thrombosis, vasculitis, necrosis, calcification, abscesses, meningeal and perivascular polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate, microglial nodules, gliosis, granulomas, and fibrosis can be found affecting isolated or multiple regions of the CNS, or even diffusely spread. Some infections may be present as an expanding mass lesion. The parasites can be identified by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR.

  7. Parasitic pneumonia and lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Cheepsattayakorn, Attapon; Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches.

  8. Birds are islands for parasites

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; DeMatteo, Karen E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host–parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  9. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites.

  10. Parasites make male pipefish careless.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, D

    2004-05-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection is expected to favour the avoidance of matings with infected individuals. However, the extent to which the costs and benefits of discriminating against parasitized mates trade off may depend upon numerous factors. I investigated the effects of sex and infection status on choosiness in sex-role reversed deep-snouted pipefish (Syngnathus typhle L.) that were either artificially infected with the trematode parasite Cryptocotyle sp. or sham-infected. Sham-infected males were significantly more likely to associate with a sham-infected female rather than with a Cryptocotyle-infected female. Infected males failed to discriminate against infected potential partners. Males were choosier the larger they were relative to the females available for choice. Females were not discriminatory, regardless of their infection status. Given an inverse relation between female fecundity and parasite load, choosy unparasitized males may gain enhanced reproductive success from their choice decisions. In contrast, more heavily infected wild-caught males gave birth to slightly fewer, but not smaller offspring than did uninfected or lightly infected males, suggesting only a low direct premium on choosy females. The detrimental effects of parasitism on male choosiness, and the lack of female discrimination against infected males likely have profound repercussions on the strength of sexual selection acting on the two sexes and on the dynamics of host-parasite interactions in this system.

  11. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Pucu, Elisa; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  12. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  13. Zoogeography of intertidal communities in the West Indian Ocean as determined by ocean circulation systems: patterns from the Tetraclita barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region. PMID:23024801

  14. Water in barnacle muscle. III. NMR studies of fresh fibers and membrane-damaged fibers equilibrated with selected solutes.

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, E E; Clark, M E; Hinke, J A; Chapman, N R

    1981-01-01

    Water in barnacle muscle has been studied using NMR techniques. Fresh fibers are compared with membrane-damaged fibers treated with solutes that greatly alter fixed charge and total water content. Both water (97%) and solute (3%) protons are visible in continuous wave spectra of oriented fresh fibers. No local field inhomogeneities were detected, nor are cell solutes significantly bound. In pulse experiments, all cell water is visible and exhibits a single exponential decay. In fresh fibers, T2 approximately or equal to 40 ms; faster decaying signals are assigned to immobile and mobile protons on macromolecules. T1 and T1p are frequency dependent. Using equations derived for a two-compartment model with fast exchange, we calculate the following: tau b, the correlation time for anisotropic rotational motion of bound water; Sb, its order parameter; tau ex, the correlation time for exchange between bound and free fractions; f, the fraction of water bound; and Hr, the grams of water bound per gram of macromolecule. Whereas f varies inversely with total water content, the other parameters are virtually constant, with values: tau b approximately or equal to 1.3 X 10(-8) S; tau ex approximately or equal to 8 X 10(-6) s; Sb approximately or equal to 0.06; and Hr approximately or equal to 0.1g H2O/g macromolecule. Thus, the NMR relaxation detectable properties of water bound to macromolecules are unaffected by solutes that greatly alter the macromolecular surface charge. PMID:7272435

  15. Morphology and responses to light of the somata, axons, and terminal regions of individual photoreceptors of the giant barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, A. J.; Stuart, Ann E.

    1977-01-01

    1. The median eye of the giant barnacle, B. nubilus, comprises four large photoreceptor neurones which are visible under the dissecting microscope for almost their entire length. We have studied the structure of, and the responses to light recorded in, the somata, axons, and terminal regions of these neurones. 2. The photoreceptor somata, each 40-70 μm in diameter, extend numerous light-sensitive dendritic processes whose membranes form rhabdomeric microvilli. Recordings from the soma show that dim light evokes a steady, noisy depolarization; brighter light elicits a transient depolarization which decays to a maintained plateau, followed by a hyperpolarization when the light is turned off. 3. Light-induced voltage changes spread decrementally along the photoreceptor axons, which average 10 mm in length and 25 μm in diameter. In distal parts of the axon, near the presynaptic terminals, depolarizations and hyperpolarizations can be as large as 50% or more of their values in the soma. 4. There is no demonstrable electrical coupling between photoreceptor neurones as shown by simultaneous recordings from two receptor somata or axons. 5. Each photoreceptor axon enters the mid line commissure of the supraoesophageal ganglion, bifurcates, and arborizes in a restricted zone of neuropil in each hemiganglion. The large size of the terminal processes of these neurones and their characteristic cytoplasmic inclusions enable one to trace them with the electron microscope as they branch in the neuropil. 6. The terminal processes subdivide and end in 1-3 μm diameter branches which are the sites of apparently chemical synapses. Vesicle-containing, presynaptic loci on these processes of the receptor cell are invariably apposed to two post-synaptic processes from cells as yet unidentified. ImagesABCDEABCABCDABCABCDEFG PMID:592112

  16. Zoogeography of Intertidal Communities in the West Indian Ocean as Determined by Ocean Circulation Systems: Patterns from the Tetraclita Barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region. PMID:23024801

  17. Cellular synthesis and axonal transport of gamma-aminobutyric acid in a photoreceptor cell of the barnacle.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, H; Tsuda, K

    1980-01-01

    1. [3H]glutamate or [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was injected into the photoreceptor cell of the lateral ocellus of Balanus eburneus, in order to study the transmitter substance of the cell. 2. The photoreceptor cell synthesized [3H]GABA from injected [3H]glutamate. 3. The newly formed [3H]GABA moved inside the photoreceptor axon towards the axon terminal with a velocity of about 0.9 mm/hr. Injected [3H]GABA moved at 0.9 mm/hr and also at 0.4 mm/hr. 4. Axonally transported [3H]GABA reached the axon terminal within several hours following the injection. It did not accumulate at the terminal, but gradually disappeared. 5. Light-microscope and electron-microscope autoradiography following the injection of [3H]GABA revealed that [3H]-reacted silver grains were present in a certain type of axon terminal. The terminal thus identified as that of a photoreceptor cell contains many clear, polymorphic synaptic vesicles about 300-500 A in diameter, some dense-cored vesicles 700-1300 A in diameter, and glycogen granules. The terminal forms many synapses, and each synapse has a synaptic dense body. The terminal always faces two post-synaptic elements at the synapse, forming a triad with a gap distance of about 160-200 A. 6. A GABA analogue, [3H]di-aminobutyric acid, was selectively taken up into the terminals previously identified as those of photoreceptors. 7. These results support the notion that the transmitter substance of the photoreceptor cell of the barnacle is GABA. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:6160239

  18. Population genetic analysis of a recent range expansion: mechanisms regulating the poleward range limit in the volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael N; Grosberg, Richard K; Stuart, Yoel E; Sanford, Eric

    2010-04-01

    As range shifts coincident with climate change have become increasingly well documented, efforts to describe the causes of range boundaries have increased. Three mechanisms-genetic impoverishment, migration load, or a physical barrier to dispersal-are well described theoretically, but the data needed to distinguish among them have rarely been collected. We describe the distribution, abundance, genetic variation, and environment of Tetraclita rubescens, an intertidal barnacle that expanded its northern range limit by several hundreds of kilometres from San Francisco, CA, USA, since the 1970s. We compare geographic variation in abundance with abiotic and biotic patterns, including sea surface temperatures and the distributions of 387 co-occurring species, and describe genetic variation in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial noncoding region, and nine microsatellite loci from 27 locations between Bahia Magdalena (California Baja Sur, Mexico) and Cape Mendocino (CA, USA). We find very high gene flow, high genetic diversity, and a gradient in physical environmental variation coincident with the range limit. We infer that the primary cause of the northern range boundary in T. rubescens is migration load arising from flow of maladapted alleles into peripheral locations and that environmental change, which could have reduced selection against genotypes immigrating into the newly colonized portion of the range, is the most likely cause of the observed range expansion. Because environmental change could similarly affect all taxa in a region whose distributional limits are established by migration load, these mechanisms may be common causes of range boundaries and largely synchronous multi-species range expansions. PMID:20345681

  19. Zoogeography of intertidal communities in the West Indian Ocean as determined by ocean circulation systems: patterns from the Tetraclita barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region.

  20. Serotonin receptors in parasitic worms.

    PubMed

    Mansour, T E

    1984-01-01

    It is evident from the above review that during the last two decades a great deal of interest in investigating the action of serotonin in parasitic worms has been shown by parasitologists as well as by scientists from several other disciplines. What we have initially reported concerning the effect of serotonin on motility and carbohydrate metabolism of F. hepatica has been pursued on several other parasitic worms. The studies so far indicate that serotonin stimulates motility of every species tested among the phylum Platyhelminthes. The indoleamine also stimulates glycogenolysis in the few flatworm parasites that have been investigated. The information in nematodes is scanty and the role of serotonin in these parasites is still open for experimentation. Recent biochemical investigations on F. hepatica and S. mansoni demonstrated that serotonin and related compounds utilize a common class of receptors in plasma membrane particles which I designate as 'serotonin receptors'. These receptors are linked to an adenylate cyclase that catalyses the synthesis of the second messenger, cyclic 3',5'-AMP. Serotonin and its congeners increase the concentration of cyclic AMP in intact parasites whereas antagonists inhibit such an effect. Cyclic AMP stimulates glycogenolysis, glycolysis and some rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes. It activates a protein kinase that may be involved in activation of glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase. Serotonin-activated adenylate cyclase in S. mansoni is activated early in the life of the schistosomule. The possibility is discussed that the availability of cyclic AMP through serotonin activation in these parasites may be a prelude to the development processes that take place in the parasite. The different components of the serotonin-activated adenylate cyclase in the parasite are the same as those that have been previously described for the host. Binding characteristics of the receptors indicate that the receptors in F. hepatica appear to

  1. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  2. The whale barnacle Cryptolepas rhachianecti (Cirripedia: Coronulidae), a phoront of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea: Eschrichtiidae), from a sandy beach in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosselaers, Mark; Collareta, Alberto

    2016-08-22

    An isolated compartment of a whale barnacle is herein described from Recent beach deposits in Zoutelande (Walcheren, The Netherlands). This specimen is identified as belonging to the extant coronulid species Cryptolepas rhachianecti, currently known as an epizoic symbiont of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus. This find represents the first occurrence of C. rhachianecti outside the North Pacific, and the first one as a (sub)fossil. In view of the fact that E. robustus, which is currently confined to the North Pacific, is known as a subfossil from the northeastern Atlantic between late Late Pleistocene (c. 45,000 years ago) and historical (c. 1700 AD) times, we propose a similar (late Quaternary) age for the isolated compartment. The find indicates that the extinct late Quaternary northeastern Atlantic population of E. robustus was infected by Cryptolepas rhachianecti. Our find is, therefore, compatible with the hypothesis of an ancient grey whale migration route running between the subtropical/temperate waters of the northeast Atlantic (or Mediterranean Basin), and the cold waters of the Baltic Sea (or southern Arctic Ocean), through the southern North Sea. Finally, we discuss the systematic placement of the fossil barnacle species Cryptolepas murata and propose the possibility of its removal from the genus Cryptolepas pending further investigations.

  3. Phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles (Cirripedia; Thoracica; Pyrgomatidae) based on 12S, 16S and 18S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Simon-Blecher, N; Huchon, D; Achituv, Y

    2007-09-01

    The traditional phylogeny of the coral-inhabiting barnacles, the Pyrgomatidae, is based on morphological characteristics, mainly of the hard parts. It has been difficult to establish the phylogenetic relationships among Pyrgomatidae because of the apparent convergence of morphological characteristics, and due to the use of non-cladistic systematics, which emphasize ancestor-descendant relationships rather than sister-clade relationships. We used partial sequences of two mithochondrial genes, 12S rDNA and 16S rDNA, and a nuclear gene, 18S rDNA, to infer the molecular phylogeny of the pyrgomatids. Our phylogenetic results allowed us to reject previous classifications of Pyrgomatidae based on morphological characteristics. Our results also suggested the possibility of paraphyly of the Pyrgomatidae. The hydrocoral barnacle Wanella is not found on the same clade as the other pyrgomatids, but rather, with the free-living balanids. The basal position of Megatrema and Ceratoconcha is supported. The archeaobalanid Armatobalanus is grouped with Cantellius at the base of the Indo-Pacific pyrgomatines. Fusion of the shell plate and modification of the opercular valves are homoplasious features that occurred more than three times on different clades. The monophyly of the "Savignium" group, comprising four nominal genera, is also not supported, and the different taxa are placed on different clades.

  4. On the morphology of antennular sensory and attachment organs in cypris larvae of the deep-sea vent/seep barnacles, Ashinkailepas and Neoverruca.

    PubMed

    Yorisue, Takefumi; Chan, Benny K K; Kado, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Hiromi; Inoue, Koji; Kojima, Shigeaki; Høeg, Jens T

    2016-05-01

    Barnacle cypris larvae show high morphological variation in the organs used in search of and attaching to a substratum. This variation may represent adaptation to the habitat of the species. Here, we studied SEM level morphologies of cypris antennular sensory and attachment organs in a deep-sea vent endemic species (Neoverruca sp.) and a vent/seep inhabiting species (Ashinkailepas seepiophila). We compare them with three species from other environments. The antennular morphologies of Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila were similar, which is consistent with recent molecular studies showing a close relationship of the two species. The setation pattern of the antennules was very conservative among species from various environments. In contrast, striking differences were observed in the structure of the attachment organ (the third antennular segment). Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila had no velum or a skirt surrounding the attachment disc on the third segment, while other cirripede cyprids almost always have either of these structures. In addition, both cyprids of A. seepiophila and Neoverruca sp. had the attachment disc angled toward the substratum, whereas it faces distally in cyprids from hard bottom inhabiting barnacles. We suggest that both velum/skirt and the angle of the attachment disc play an important role, when the antennules are contacting the substratum during surface exploration. Differences in attachment organ structures may be highly adaptive, enabling cirripede species to enter new habitats during evolution.

  5. On the morphology of antennular sensory and attachment organs in cypris larvae of the deep-sea vent/seep barnacles, Ashinkailepas and Neoverruca.

    PubMed

    Yorisue, Takefumi; Chan, Benny K K; Kado, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Hiromi; Inoue, Koji; Kojima, Shigeaki; Høeg, Jens T

    2016-05-01

    Barnacle cypris larvae show high morphological variation in the organs used in search of and attaching to a substratum. This variation may represent adaptation to the habitat of the species. Here, we studied SEM level morphologies of cypris antennular sensory and attachment organs in a deep-sea vent endemic species (Neoverruca sp.) and a vent/seep inhabiting species (Ashinkailepas seepiophila). We compare them with three species from other environments. The antennular morphologies of Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila were similar, which is consistent with recent molecular studies showing a close relationship of the two species. The setation pattern of the antennules was very conservative among species from various environments. In contrast, striking differences were observed in the structure of the attachment organ (the third antennular segment). Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila had no velum or a skirt surrounding the attachment disc on the third segment, while other cirripede cyprids almost always have either of these structures. In addition, both cyprids of A. seepiophila and Neoverruca sp. had the attachment disc angled toward the substratum, whereas it faces distally in cyprids from hard bottom inhabiting barnacles. We suggest that both velum/skirt and the angle of the attachment disc play an important role, when the antennules are contacting the substratum during surface exploration. Differences in attachment organ structures may be highly adaptive, enabling cirripede species to enter new habitats during evolution. PMID:26948410

  6. The whale barnacle Cryptolepas rhachianecti (Cirripedia: Coronulidae), a phoront of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea: Eschrichtiidae), from a sandy beach in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosselaers, Mark; Collareta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    An isolated compartment of a whale barnacle is herein described from Recent beach deposits in Zoutelande (Walcheren, The Netherlands). This specimen is identified as belonging to the extant coronulid species Cryptolepas rhachianecti, currently known as an epizoic symbiont of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus. This find represents the first occurrence of C. rhachianecti outside the North Pacific, and the first one as a (sub)fossil. In view of the fact that E. robustus, which is currently confined to the North Pacific, is known as a subfossil from the northeastern Atlantic between late Late Pleistocene (c. 45,000 years ago) and historical (c. 1700 AD) times, we propose a similar (late Quaternary) age for the isolated compartment. The find indicates that the extinct late Quaternary northeastern Atlantic population of E. robustus was infected by Cryptolepas rhachianecti. Our find is, therefore, compatible with the hypothesis of an ancient grey whale migration route running between the subtropical/temperate waters of the northeast Atlantic (or Mediterranean Basin), and the cold waters of the Baltic Sea (or southern Arctic Ocean), through the southern North Sea. Finally, we discuss the systematic placement of the fossil barnacle species Cryptolepas murata and propose the possibility of its removal from the genus Cryptolepas pending further investigations. PMID:27615844

  7. Glyoxalase diversity in parasitic protists.

    PubMed

    Deponte, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    Our current knowledge of the isomerase glyoxalase I and the thioesterase glyoxalase II is based on a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic (model) systems with an emphasis on human glyoxalases. During the last decade, important insights on glyoxalase catalysis and structure-function relationships have also been obtained from parasitic protists. These organisms, including kinetoplastid and apicomplexan parasites, are particularly interesting, both because of their relevance as pathogens and because of their phylogenetic diversity and host-parasite co-evolution which has led to specialized organellar and metabolic adaptations. Accordingly, the glyoxalase repertoire and properties vary significantly among parasitic protists of different major eukaryotic lineages (and even between closely related organisms). For example, several protists have an insular or non-canonical glyoxalase. Furthermore, the structures and the substrate specificities of glyoxalases display drastic variations. The aim of the present review is to highlight such differences as well as similarities between the glyoxalases of parasitic protists and to emphasize the power of comparative studies for gaining insights into fundamental principles and alternative glyoxalase functions.

  8. Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.

    PubMed

    Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

    2013-10-01

    This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described.

  9. Parasites and chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These infections can be more hostile and life threatening in susceptible individuals than in the normal people. In these patients some parasitic infections such as blastocystiosis, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis have been reported to be more prevalent. This review aimed to give an overview about parasitic infections in patients with renal disorders. PMID:25610885

  10. Parasitic infestations requiring surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Afua A J; Nouri, Abdellatif; Hassan, Hussam S; Hashish, Amel A

    2012-05-01

    Parasitic infestation is common in developing countries especially in Africa. Children are often more vulnerable to these infections. Many health problems result from these infestations, including malnutrition, iron-deficiency anemia, surgical morbidities, and even impaired cognitive function and educational achievement. Surgical intervention may be needed to treat serious complications caused by some of these parasites. Amoebic colitis and liver abscess caused by protozoan infections; intestinal obstruction, biliary infestation with cholangitis and liver abscess, and pancreatitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; biliary obstruction caused by Faschiola; hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cysts caused by Echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis are examples. Expenditure of medical care of affected children may cause a great burden on many African governments, which are already suffering from economic instability. The clinical presentation, investigation, and management of some parasitic infestations of surgical relevance in African children are discussed in this article.

  11. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Angela N.; Cress, Marshall C.; Gabor, Oroszi; Ding, Qing-Qing; Miller, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100). The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship. PMID:24151568

  12. Parasites and altruism: converging roads

    PubMed Central

    Zuk, Marlene; Borrello, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    W.D. Hamilton was most known for his work on two topics: social evolution and parasites. Although at first glance these seem to be disparate interests, they share many attributes and have logical connections within evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, Hamilton's contributions in these areas met with very different receptions, with his place in the field of social evolution assured, but his work on the role of parasites perceived as more specialized. We take an historical approach to examine the reasons for this difference. PMID:24132091

  13. The behavior of the ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux in single barnacle muscle fibers toward the microinjection of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Bittar, E E; Huang, Y P

    1990-10-01

    Recent work with single muscle fibers from the barnacle Balanus nubilus has shown that the injection of Al into these fibers leads to inhibition of the resting Na efflux and that this involves both the ouabain-sensitive and the ouabain-insensitive components of the efflux. This work also showed that the injection of Al into ouabain-poisoned fibers often leads to a rise in the remaining Na efflux. This observation suggested the possibility that Al is able to stimulate the ouabain-insensitive Na by increasing myoplasmic free Ca2+ and that trigger Ca2+ reaches the myoplasm via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. The results obtained are as follows: (i) The injection of AlCl3 into fibers poisoned with ouabain produces a biphasic or monophasic effect on the remaining Na efflux. That is, stimulation is followed by inhibition, or there is only stimulation. (ii) This response is dose-dependent and is seen to take place following the injection of Al in a concentration as low as 0.01 M. (iii) Both Ga3+ and Sc3+ are able to mimic the effect of Al. (iv) Injection of EGTA following peak stimulation of the ouabain-insensitive Na efflux by injected AlCl3 leads to reversal of this response. If, however, EGTA is injected long after the onset of peak stimulation and after ouabain reaches its maximum effect, it is found to be ineffective. (v) The magnitude of the stimulatory response of the ouabain-insensitive Na efflux is a sigmoidal function of external Ca2+ and is almost completely abolished by verapamil, devapamil, and Cd2+ but is unaffected by injecting Mg2+ before or after AlCl3. (vi) Whereas preinjection of Al reduces the response to ryanodine, external preapplication of ryanodine fails to alter the response to Al. The preinjection of deferoxamine (a potent chelator of Al) fails to stop the stimulatory response to Al injection from occurring. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that the stimulatory response elicited by Al injection is due to a fall in myoplasmic

  14. Biology Today: Parasites and Human Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1984-01-01

    Offers various reasons why the study of parasites and the diseases they cause should be incorporated into classroom biology discussions. Examples of several parasitic diseases and their ecological significance are provided. (JN)

  15. Sacral Rachipagus Parasite: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Singh, Jasbir; Dalal, Poonam; Sonika, Pallavi; Rattan, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a case of sacral rachipagus parasite which was vaginally delivered as a large irregular mass attached to the sacral region by a vascular pedicle. This case was managed successfully by surgical excision of parasite.

  16. Sacral Rachipagus Parasite: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Singh, Jasbir; Dalal, Poonam; Sonika, Pallavi; Rattan, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a case of sacral rachipagus parasite which was vaginally delivered as a large irregular mass attached to the sacral region by a vascular pedicle. This case was managed successfully by surgical excision of parasite. PMID:27123400

  17. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  18. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. (Cryptic) sex in the microsporidian Nosema granulosis--evidence from parasite rDNA and host mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Krebes, Lukas; Zeidler, Lisza; Frankowski, Jens; Bastrop, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia are single-celled, intracellular eukaryotes that parasitise a wide range of animals. The Nosema/Vairimorpha group includes some putative asexual species, and asexuality is proposed to have originated multiple times from sexual ancestors. Here, we studied the variation in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 14 isolates of the presumed apomictic and vertically transmitted Nosema granulosis to evaluate its sexual status. The analysed DNA fragment contained a part of the small-subunit ribosomal gene (SSU) and the entire intergenic spacer (IGS). The mitochondrial cox1 gene of the host Gammarus duebeni (Crustacea) was analysed to temporally calibrate the system and to test the expectation of cophylogeny of host and parasite genealogies. Genetic variability of the SSU gene was very low within and between the isolates. In contrast, intraisolate (within a single host) variability of the IGS felt in two categories, because 12 isolates possess a very high IGS genetic diversity and two isolates were almost invariable in the IGS. This difference suggests variable models of rDNA evolution involving birth-and-death and unexpectedly concerted evolution. An alternative explanation could be a likewise unattended mixed infection of host individuals by more than one parasite strain. Despite considerable genetic divergence between associated host mitochondrial haplotypes, some N. granulosis 'IGS populations' seem not to belong to different gene pools; the relevant tests failed to show significant differences between populations. A set of recombinant IGS sequences made our data incompatible with the model of a solely maternally inherited, asexual species. In line with recent reports, our study supports the hypothesis that some assumed apomictic Microsporidia did not entirely abstain from the evolutionary advantages of sex. In addition, the presented data indicate that horizontal transmission may occur occasionally. This transmission mode could be a survival strategy of N

  20. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios.

    PubMed

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2002-04-01

    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested that sex-ratio data offer a relatively cheap and easy method for indirectly estimating inbreeding rates. Here, we exploit a new theoretical machinery to show that there are generally valid relationships between f, Wright's coefficient of inbreeding, and sex ratio, z(*), the generality being with respect to population structure. To focus the discussion, we concentrate on malaria and show that the previously derived result, f = 1 - 2z(*), does not depend on the artificial assumptions about population structure that were previously made. Not only does this justify the use of sex ratio as an indirect measure of f, but also we argue that it may actually be preferable to measure f by measuring sex ratios, rather than by measuring departures from Hardy-Weinberg genotypic proportions both in malaria and parasites more generally. PMID:11934369

  1. Host genetics and parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Mangano, V D; Modiano, D

    2014-12-01

    Parasites still impose a high death and disability burden on human populations, and are therefore likely to act as selective factors for genetic adaptations. Genetic epidemiological investigation of parasitic diseases is aimed at disentangling the mechanisms underlying immunity and pathogenesis by looking for associations or linkages between loci and susceptibility phenotypes. Until recently, most studies used a candidate gene approach and were relatively underpowered, with few attempts at replicating findings in different populations. However, in the last 5 years, genome-wide and/or multicentre studies have been conducted for severe malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, and cardiac Chagas disease, providing some novel important insights. Furthermore, studies of helminth infections have repeatedly shown the involvement of common loci in regulating susceptibility to distinct diseases such as schistosomiasis, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and onchocherciasis. As more studies are conducted, evidence is increasing that at least some of the identified susceptibility loci are shared not only among parasitic diseases but also with immunological disorders such as allergy or autoimmune disease, suggesting that parasites may have played a role in driving the evolution of the immune system. PMID:25273270

  2. Host genetics and parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Mangano, V D; Modiano, D

    2014-12-01

    Parasites still impose a high death and disability burden on human populations, and are therefore likely to act as selective factors for genetic adaptations. Genetic epidemiological investigation of parasitic diseases is aimed at disentangling the mechanisms underlying immunity and pathogenesis by looking for associations or linkages between loci and susceptibility phenotypes. Until recently, most studies used a candidate gene approach and were relatively underpowered, with few attempts at replicating findings in different populations. However, in the last 5 years, genome-wide and/or multicentre studies have been conducted for severe malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, and cardiac Chagas disease, providing some novel important insights. Furthermore, studies of helminth infections have repeatedly shown the involvement of common loci in regulating susceptibility to distinct diseases such as schistosomiasis, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and onchocherciasis. As more studies are conducted, evidence is increasing that at least some of the identified susceptibility loci are shared not only among parasitic diseases but also with immunological disorders such as allergy or autoimmune disease, suggesting that parasites may have played a role in driving the evolution of the immune system.

  3. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. New information This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters. PMID:27099562

  4. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  5. Numerical simulations of barnacle larval dispersion coupled with field observations on larval abundance, settlement and recruitment in a tropical monsoon influenced coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Samiksha, S. V.; George, Grinson; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-06-01

    Larval abundance in an area depends on various factors which operate over different spatial and temporal scales. Identifying the factors responsible for variations in larval supply and abundance is important to understand the settlement and recruitment variability of their population in a particular area. In view of this, observations were carried out to monitor the larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles on a regular basis for a period of two years. The results were then compared with the numerical modelling studies carried out along the west coast of India. Field observations of larval abundance showed temporal variations. The least abundance of larvae was mostly observed during the monsoon season and the peak in abundance was mostly observed during the pre-monsoon season. Numerical simulations also showed a seasonal change in larval dispersion and retention patterns. During pre-monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards south and the larvae released from the northern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuaries, whereas during the monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards north and the larvae released from southern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuary. During post-monsoon season, the larval movement was found towards the north in the beginning of the season and is shifted towards the south at the end of the season, but the movement was mostly restricted near to the release sites. Larval supply from the adjacent rocky sites to the estuaries was higher during the pre-monsoon season and the retention of larvae released from different sites within the estuaries was found to be highest during the late post-monsoon and early pre-monsoon season. Maximum larval supply and retention during the pre-monsoon season coincided with maximum larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles observed in the field studies. These observations showed that the pattern of

  6. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2014-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  7. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  8. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  9. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  10. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  11. 9 CFR 381.88 - Parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites. 381.88 Section 381.88 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.88 Parasites. Organs or other parts of carcasses which are found to be infested with parasites,...

  12. Immigration, parasitic infection, and United States religiosity.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jaimie N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.

  13. Parasitism, host immune function, and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Christe, P; Lux, E

    1999-03-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection may arise as a consequence of 1) females avoiding mates with directly transmitted parasites, 2) females choosing less-parasitized males that provide parental care of superior quality, or 3) females choosing males with few parasites in order to obtain genes for parasite resistance in their offspring. Studies of specific host-parasite systems and comparative analyses have revealed both supportive and conflicting evidence for these hypotheses. A meta-analysis of the available evidence revealed a negative relationship between parasite load and the expression of male secondary sexual characters. Experimental studies yielded more strongly negative relationships than observations did, and the relationships were more strongly negative for ectoparasites than for endoparasites. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of the negative effect for species with and without male parental care, or between behavioral and morphological secondary sexual characters. There was a significant difference between studies based on host immune function and those based on parasite loads, with stronger effects for measures of immune function, suggesting that the many negative results from previous analyses of parasite-mediated sexual selection may be explained because relatively benign parasites were studied. The multivariate analyses demonstrating strong effect sizes of immune function in relation to the expression of secondary sexual characters, and for species with male parental care as compared to those without, suggest that parasite resistance may be a general determinant of parasite-mediated sexual selection. PMID:10081812

  14. Cross-species, amplifiable microsatellite markers for neoverrucid barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents developed using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Khalturina, Mariia; Watanabe, Hiromi; Inagaki, Fumio; Satoh, Nori; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2014-08-18

    Barnacles of the genus Neoverruca are abundant near deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and are useful for understanding processes of population formation and maintenance of deep-sea vent faunas. Using next-generation sequencing, we isolated 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci from Neoverruca sp., collected in the Okinawa Trough. These microsatellite loci revealed 2-19 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.286 to 1.000 and 0.349 to 0.935, respectively. Cross-species amplification showed that 9 of the 12 loci were successfully amplified for Neoverruca brachylepadoformis in the Mariana Trough. A pairwise FST value calculated using nine loci showed significant genetic differentiation between the two species. Consequently, the microsatellite markers we developed will be useful for further population genetic studies to elucidate genetic diversity, differentiation, classification, and evolutionary processes in the genus Neoverruca.

  15. Seasonal variation of metal contamination in the barnacles Pollicipes pollicipes in northwest coast of Portugal show clear correlation with levels in the surrounding water.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2013-05-15

    The concentrations of metals were determined in northwest (NW) coast of Portugal seawaters and soft tissues of goose barnacles Pollicipes pollicipes. P. pollicipes can be used for monitoring metal contamination in these coastal seawaters, because there were significant correlations (p<0.05) for all metals between soft tissues and seawaters during the four seasons. Metal concentrations in seawaters and P. pollicipes had significant (p<0.05) spatial and seasonal variations and mean log BAFs for Fe and Cd were higher than for Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn. Regarding the metal concentrations obtained in the coastal seawaters, all NW coast of Portugal should be classified as "Class IV--Bad", except two locations (location 7 at Summer and location 10 at Winter), which should be classified as "Class III--Moderate". However, considering the metal concentrations bioaccumulated in P. pollicipes, all locations should be classified as "Class III--Remarkably Polluted" during all seasons of 2011.

  16. Transcriptomics exposes the uniqueness of parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Mutuku, J Musembi; Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2015-07-01

    Parasitic plants have the ability to obtain nutrients directly from other plants, and several species are serious biological threats to agriculture by parasitizing crops of high economic importance. The uniqueness of parasitic plants is characterized by the presence of a multicellular organ called a haustorium, which facilitates plant-plant interactions, and shutting down or reducing their own photosynthesis. Current technical advances in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics have allowed us to dissect the molecular mechanisms behind the uniqueness of parasitic plants at the genome-wide level. In this review, we summarize recent key findings mainly in transcriptomics that will give us insights into the future direction of parasitic plant research.

  17. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  18. The Influence of Pleistocene Climatic Changes and Ocean Currents on the Phylogeography of the Southern African Barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Terry V.; Matthee, Conrad A.; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041–0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  19. The influence of Pleistocene climatic changes and ocean currents on the phylogeography of the southern African barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Terry V; Matthee, Conrad A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041-0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  20. Relative influences of ocean acidification and temperature on intertidal barnacle post-larvae at the northern edge of their geographic distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Helen S.; Kendall, Michael A.; Spicer, John I.; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its associated ecosystems face numerous challenges over the coming century. Increasing atmospheric CO 2 is causing increasing warming and ice melting as well as a concomitant change in ocean chemistry ("ocean acidification"). As temperature increases it is expected that many temperate species will expand their geographic distribution northwards to follow this thermal shift; however with the addition of ocean acidification this transition may not be so straightforward. Here we investigate the potential impacts of ocean acidification and climate change on populations of an intertidal species, in this case the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides, at the northern edge of its range. Growth and development of metamorphosing post-larvae were negatively impacted at lower pH (pH 7.7) compared to the control (pH 8.1) but were not affected by elevated temperature (+4 °C). The mineral composition of the shells did not alter under any of the treatments. The combination of reduced growth and maintained mineral content suggests that there may have been a change in the energetic balance of the exposed animals. In undersaturated conditions more mineral is expected to dissolve from the shell and hence more energy would be required to maintain the mineral integrity. Any energy that would normally be invested into growth could be reallocated and hence organisms growing in lowered pH grow slower and end up smaller than individuals grown in higher pH conditions. The idea of reallocation of resources under different conditions of pH requires further investigation. However, there could be long-term implications on the fitness of these barnacles, which in turn may prevent them from successfully colonising new areas.