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Sample records for parasitology

  1. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  2. Parasitology crossing borders.

    PubMed

    Nansen, P

    1999-02-25

    In veterinary parasitology it is important to further strengthen international collaboration and interactions. On the one hand, there is a strong and promising trend towards growth in large international programmes. However, we, as researchers, should make more serious attempts to influence the targets and structures of these programmes. On the other hand, let us not forget to fully exploit the possibilities for support to even small projects and visiting researchers' arrangements, preferably in a flexible way. The paper emphasizes the obvious need for research capacity building in the least developed countries, and advocates a partnership approach in research for development. The presentation suggests more operative initiatives in international veterinary parasitology. Finally, how language barriers can hamper international contacts and exchange of information is discussed. Ways to possibly avert this are indicated.

  3. Teaching human parasitology in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanghui; He, Shenyi; Chen, Lin; Shi, Na; Bai, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-04-20

    China has approximately one-fifth of the world's population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology.

  4. Teaching human parasitology in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology. PMID:22520237

  5. [Problems of medical parasitology].

    PubMed

    Sergiev, V P

    2013-01-01

    Situation on parasitic disease in Russia remains complex. Reduction of parasitology personnel had a negative impact on the quality of epidemiological control in the field of parasitic diseases and resulted in a decrease of awareness of physicians of therapeutic-prophylaxis institutions. The situation was aggravated by a lack of anti-malaria preparations and insufficient specter of anti-helminthic drugs. Uncontrolled increase of the number of domestic and stray dogs in cities was the reason for increase of morbidity by helminthoses and zoonoses--toxocarosis and dirofilariasis. Emergence in the south of Krasnodar Region of effective carriers Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus became a serious threat to biological safety of the country. These mosquitos are effective carriers of causative agents of mosquito viral fevers: yellow, Dengue, Chikungunya et al.

  6. [Research and perspectives in parasitology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-jun; Yin, Ji-gang

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the recent achievements in parasitology including new diagnostic techniques, molecular mechanism of parasitic pathogenesis, drug resistance, antigenic variation, parasite genomics and proteomics. The perspective development in the area is also discussed.

  7. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  8. Perspectives for parasitology and parasitology networks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Olesen, Ole F; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Loiseau, Philippe M; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This article describes networks of parasitologists in Europe. Some research networks are supported by the European Commission within highly diverse framework programs. The European Federation of Parasitologists aims to promote the exchange of knowledge and the coordination of research in the fields of basic, veterinary and medical parasitology, particularly via meetings (e.g. the European Multicolloquium of Parasitology) that offer an unparalleled opportunity to assess the development of the discipline on the continent. The present situation is discussed here and some perspectives are proposed.

  9. How is veterinary parasitology taught in China?

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2006-12-01

    Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.

  10. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parasitology. 493.917 Section 493.917 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.917 Parasitology. (a) Types of services offered by laboratories. In parasitology there are two types of laboratories for proficiency...

  11. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    PubMed

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  12. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Parasitology. 493.1264 Section 493.1264 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1264 Standard: Parasitology. (a) The laboratory must have available a reference...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493.1204 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  14. 42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Parasitology. 493.829 Section 493.829 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.829 Standard; Parasitology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score of...

  15. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    PubMed

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  16. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    PubMed

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  17. Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-01-01

    A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study.

  18. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  19. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  20. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  1. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  2. 42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard; Parasitology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score of...

  3. A history of the Journal of Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Esch, Gerald; Desser, Sherwin; Nickol, Brent

    2014-02-01

    The present issue is Number 1 of Volume 100, The Journal of Parasitology. All 6 numbers of this, our Centennial Volume, are dedicated to those in the past who have contributed in any manner to the Journal's success as a national and international broker for parasitology. Our essay on the history of the Journal is divided into 3 parts. The first extends from 1914 to 1932, i.e., 'the beginning', when Henry Baldwin Ward was Editor and owned the Journal. The 'middle years' continue from 1933, when Ward gave the Journal to the American Society of Parasitologists, to 1961. The 'current period' carries on from 1961 to the present, our Centennial year. Obviously, we cannot provide a great many specific details for each era, but we have made an effort to identify some of the events, issues, and people that have played a significant role in our Journal's history.

  4. [At the background of ecological parasitology].

    PubMed

    Fokin, S I

    2014-01-01

    The data on scientific and teaching activities of A. A. Filipchenko, doctor of medicine and scientist-parasitologist, one of the founders of ecological parasitology in Russia is presented in this article. His fate and participation in the formation of this biological discipline were concealed for a long time. One of the reasons for this situation is the destruction of the scientist in 1938 during the course of mass repressions performed by Soviet State against its own citizens.

  5. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Lorenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Berrocal, Veronica; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Catelan, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy) in the years 2013-2014.

  6. George Henry Falkiner Nuttall and the origins of parasitology and Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cox, F E G

    2009-10-01

    By the beginning of the twentieth century, most of the major discoveries concerning the nature and life cycles of parasites had been made and tropical medicine was beginning to establish itself as a discipline but parasitology still lacked any real cohesion or focus. This focus arrived in 1908 when George Nuttall founded a new journal, Parasitology, as a Supplement to the Journal of Hygiene in order to cater for increasing numbers of papers on protozoological, helminthological and entomological topics that were being submitted for publication to that journal; thus bringing these three subjects together under one heading and, in doing so, established the discipline of parasitology. The events leading up to and the subsequent development of the discipline are discussed.

  7. [The Great Rift Valley. Parasitological results].

    PubMed

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    East Africa is separated from the continent by the Great Rift Valley which was created at the end of the secondary era limiting then the East Africa under-continent with peculiar fauna and flora features. A several million years long isolation, during the tertiary era, seems to explain that a certain number of protozoan and helminthic diseases present peculiar clinical, epidemiological, therapeutical and parasitological features. The occurrence of those peculiar strains tends to indicate that in this region, for example, the resistance of P. falciparum to amino-4-quinolines is a regional feature which should not largely expand to the rest of the African continent.

  8. History of Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Infections in Iran.

    PubMed

    Edrissian, Gholamhossein; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Bahadori, Moslem

    2016-08-01

    Parasites and parasitic diseases have been prevalent in Iran according to Iranian ancient scholars and physicians' inscriptions dating back to 865-1496. Some protozoan diseases such as malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis have been introduced by clinical manifestations and helminthic infections by size and morphology of the worms. Scientific studies of Parasitology started in Iran from 1833, first by foreign physicians and continued from 1909 by Iranian researchers. The pioneer medical parasitologists of Iran were Dr N. Ansari and Dr. Sh. Mofidi who established the Department of Medical Parasitology in the School of Medicine, University of Tehran, 1939. Afterward, a considerable number of researchers and professors of parasitology have been active in training and research works in the fields of medical parasitology throughout the entire nation. At present, some significant parasitic diseases such as bilharsiasis and dracunculiasis are more or less eradicated and malaria is in the elimination phase. The prevalence of most helminthic infections has considerably decreased. Most of the departments of medical Parasitology in Iran are active in training MD, MSPH and PhD students. The Iranian Society of Parasitology established in 1994 is active with many eligible members and its creditable publication, the Iranian Journal of Parasitology, published seasonally since 2006. From 1833, when the scientific studies of Parasitology have started in Iran up to 2013, many researchers have been done on various fields of medical Parasitology and parasitic diseases in Iran and 2517 papers in English and 1890 papers in Persian have been published in national and international scientific journals. In addition, more than 420 books related in the field of medical parasitology field have been published in Persian language.

  9. History of Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Infections in Iran.

    PubMed

    Edrissian, Gholamhossein; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Bahadori, Moslem

    2016-08-01

    Parasites and parasitic diseases have been prevalent in Iran according to Iranian ancient scholars and physicians' inscriptions dating back to 865-1496. Some protozoan diseases such as malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis have been introduced by clinical manifestations and helminthic infections by size and morphology of the worms. Scientific studies of Parasitology started in Iran from 1833, first by foreign physicians and continued from 1909 by Iranian researchers. The pioneer medical parasitologists of Iran were Dr N. Ansari and Dr. Sh. Mofidi who established the Department of Medical Parasitology in the School of Medicine, University of Tehran, 1939. Afterward, a considerable number of researchers and professors of parasitology have been active in training and research works in the fields of medical parasitology throughout the entire nation. At present, some significant parasitic diseases such as bilharsiasis and dracunculiasis are more or less eradicated and malaria is in the elimination phase. The prevalence of most helminthic infections has considerably decreased. Most of the departments of medical Parasitology in Iran are active in training MD, MSPH and PhD students. The Iranian Society of Parasitology established in 1994 is active with many eligible members and its creditable publication, the Iranian Journal of Parasitology, published seasonally since 2006. From 1833, when the scientific studies of Parasitology have started in Iran up to 2013, many researchers have been done on various fields of medical Parasitology and parasitic diseases in Iran and 2517 papers in English and 1890 papers in Persian have been published in national and international scientific journals. In addition, more than 420 books related in the field of medical parasitology field have been published in Persian language. PMID:27544371

  10. How parasitology is taught in medical faculties in Europe? Parasitology, lost?

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2009-11-01

    The results of a survey in different medical faculties in Europe, after the distribution of a dedicated questionnaire, are presented and compared with those obtained 10 years ago in a similar manner. In particular, the situation in France, Germany, Italy and Poland shows the decrease of Parasitology Departments in many Faculties, as well as the reduction of the number of hours dedicated to this discipline in independent courses. Additional information is provided from several other countries. European situation is compared with that of North, South America, China and Southeast Asia. Some suggestions are given to improve the scenario.

  11. Parasitology survey in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H; Clarke, M D; Cole, W C; Lien, J C; Partono, F; Joesoef, A; Kosin, E H

    1976-06-01

    A parasitology survey was conducted in five villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 3,207 blood smears, 2,066 stool specimens and 969 sera were examined. Sixty (1.9%) inhabitants had malaria (Plasmodium vivax 41, P. falciparum 19), and 20 had Brugia malayi microfilaraemia. The most common intestinal helminths were Trichuris trichiura (87%), Ascaris lumbricoides (75%) and hookworm (58%). Other helminths found in low numbers were Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia sp., Fasciolid, Dicrocoeliid and Echinostoma sp. eggs. Entamoeba coli (25%) was the most common intestinal protozoa followed by Endolimax nana (8%), Entamoeba histolytica (7%), Giardia lamblia (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (1%) and Chilomastix mesnili (1%). The amoeba prevalence rate was 31 per cent. Testing of sera for Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination test demonstrated positive reactors in 13 per cent and nine per cent of the population respectively. The greatest number of seropositives for Toxoplasma gondii was at elevations of sea level to five meters and the lowest number at elevations of 5OO-1,000 meters. PMID:950682

  12. The evolution of metabolic profiling in parasitology.

    PubMed

    Holmes, E

    2010-08-01

    The uses of metabolic profiling technologies such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in parasitology have been multi-faceted. Traditional uses of spectroscopic platforms focused on determining the chemical composition of drugs or natural products used for treatment of parasitic infection. A natural progression of the use of these tools led to the generation of chemical profiles of the parasite in in vitro systems, monitoring the response of the parasite to chemotherapeutics, profiling metabolic consequences in the host organism and to deriving host-parasite interactions. With the dawn of the post-genomic era the paradigm in many research areas shifted towards Systems Biology and the integration of biomolecular interactions at the level of the gene, protein and metabolite. Although these technologies have yet to deliver their full potential, metabolic profiling has a key role to play in defining diagnostic or even prognostic metabolic signatures of parasitic infection and in deciphering the molecular mechanisms underpinning the development of parasite-induced pathologies. The strengths and weaknesses of the various spectroscopic technologies and analytical strategies are summarized here with respect to achieving these goals.

  13. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  14. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

  15. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

  16. Internet user profile in the field of parasitology.

    PubMed

    Vorbeck-Meister, I; Hassl, A; Vorbeck, F; Rotter, M

    2001-01-01

    This study determined a profile of current Internet users in parasitology, their use patterns on the Internet for parasitologic purposes, and the Web sites they would recommend. In a European survey, 689 parasitologically engaged scientists were asked to fill out a questionnaire about Internet access, current problems, current and future use, and which Web sites they would recommend as well as about the use of e-mail. In all, 153 (22.2%) of the interviewees returned the questionnaire. Only one participant had no access to the Internet. Time expenditure was considered the main problem involved in use of the Internet. The Internet was mainly used for e-mail (96.1%); for literature research (93.5%); for reading of electronic journals (51.6%); and for gathering of information, e.g., about institutes and colleagues (58.2%) and about congresses (49.7%). In the future, 71.9% of the respondents would like to read electronic journals more often and 49.7% would like to use the web more intensively for acquisition of information about congresses, universities, and institutions. Requests for the future included an easier application of the browser software (33%) and a shorter response time (47.7%). The survey demonstrates that the Internet has assumed a definite place in the lives of researchers in the field of parasitology. Survey responses indicate a need for electronic journals. In our opinion, universities and parasitology societies should be urged to publish journals electronically on the Web. To diminish current problems involved in the finding of relevant information on the Internet, we strongly recommend careful reading of the instructions regarding the search engines used. Web pages with clear structures, small file sizes, precise HTML (hypertext markup language) key-word editing, and page titles would facilitate more accurate discovery of specific sites. In addition, there seems to be a need for regular publication of reviewed parasitology-link collections.

  17. Screening and synthesis: high throughput technologies applied to parasitology.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R E; Westwood, N J

    2004-01-01

    High throughput technologies continue to develop in response to the challenges set by the genome projects. This article discusses how the techniques of both high throughput screening (HTS) and synthesis can influence research in parasitology. Examples of the use of targeted and phenotype-based HTS using unbiased compound collections are provided. The important issue of identifying the protein target(s) of bioactive compounds is discussed from the synthetic chemist's perspective. This article concludes by reviewing recent examples of successful target identification studies in parasitology.

  18. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (P<0.05). The most frequently observed IPs were Blastocystis hominis (4.51%) and Giardia intestinalis (3.54%). The results of this study showed that the transmission of pathogenic parasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. PMID:26796769

  19. An integrated parasitology: Revealing the elephant through tradition and invention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The field of parasitology contributes to the elucidation of patterns and processes in evolution, ecology and biogeography, of fundamental importance across the biosphere, leading to a thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to global change. Foundations from taxonomic and systema...

  20. [Reform and practice on the experiment teaching of medical parasitology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Tang, Xiao-Niu; Gao, Xi-Yin; Wang, Shao-Sheng; Li, Chao-Pin

    2011-12-01

    A new model of education is investigated to meet the new idea of experiment teaching in university. Therefore the establishment of experiment teaching model of medical parasitology needs to be correspondently reformed. A variety of new management measures are taken to raise the efficiency of experiment teaching in training the students in the College.

  1. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  2. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (P<0.05). The most frequently observed IPs were Blastocystis hominis (4.51%) and Giardia intestinalis (3.54%). The results of this study showed that the transmission of pathogenic parasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration.

  3. An integrated parasitology: revealing the elephant through tradition and invention.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, Eric P; Agosta, Salvatore J; Boeger, Walter A; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-01

    The field of parasitology contributes to the elucidation of patterns and processes in evolution, ecology, and biogeography that are of fundamental importance across the biosphere, leading to a thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to global change. Foundations from taxonomic and systematic information drive biodiversity discovery and foster considerable infrastructure and integration of research programs. Morphological, physiological, behavioral, life-history, and molecular data can be synthesized to discover and describe global parasite diversity, in a timely manner. In fully incorporating parasitology in policies for adaptation to global change, parasites and their hosts should be archived and studied within a newly emergent conceptual universe (the 'Stockholm Paradigm'), embracing the inherent complexity of host-parasite systems and improved explanatory power to understand biodiversity past, present, and future.

  4. Can New Digital Technologies Support Parasitology Teaching and Learning?

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B; Lodge, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, parasitology courses have mostly been taught face-to-face on campus, but now digital technologies offer opportunities for teaching and learning. Here, we give a perspective on how new technologies might be used through student-centred teaching approaches. First, a snapshot of recent trends in the higher education is provided; then, a brief account is given of how digital technologies [e.g., massive open online courses (MOOCs), flipped classroom (FC), games, quizzes, dedicated Facebook, and digital badges] might promote parasitology teaching and learning in digital learning environments. In our opinion, some of these digital technologies might be useful for competency-based, self-regulated, learner-centred teaching and learning in an online or blended teaching environment. PMID:27131629

  5. [Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

    2012-12-30

    To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.

  6. Research collaboration in parasitology between Indonesia and Australia.

    PubMed

    Copland, J

    1997-10-01

    Indonesia and Australia are close neighbours sharing agro-ecological zones and common parasitological interests. Australia is an industrialised country and Indonesia is both industrialising and a developing country. The types of collaboration, contractual, collegiate, research collaboration and partnerships are briefly described. All forms of collaboration have and continue to exist between Australia and Indonesia. A survey of mammalian parasitology publications over the last 23 years indicates that the bulk of papers have been by Indonesian and non-Australian authors. Australian and Indonesian authors provided 4% of the total number of publications. The rational for collaboration is suggested to be the high degree of common multiple interests and the synergy of effort that can be derived from research partnerships. The most difficult issues in research collaboration are establishing the research priorities and, to a lesser extent, funding. The globalisation of the international research centre, International Livestock Research Institute, to include Asia will expand the opportunities for research collaboration. Details of the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research mandate in supporting parasitology research collaboration is briefly described. The past and current research collaborative activities are reviewed and opportunities for future collaboration are listed.

  7. [On the contribution of Prof. Yu. S. Balashov to the fundamental parasitology].

    PubMed

    Ryss, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Brief review of main conceptions of Yu. S. Balasov in fundamental parasitology: types of host-parasite relations, evolution, transmissive infections, econiches, population structure, parasite communities.

  8. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    PubMed

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  9. [Design and trial of computer test system for experiment courses of human parasitology].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua; Ling, Jin; Su, Shui-Lian; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Qiong-Jun

    2011-06-01

    Based on the traditional experimental test of human parasitology, a reform was conducted to avoid the shortage of specimens and a disclosure of test questions. An experimental test system of human parasitology based on client/server (C/S) structure was therefore developed. This practicable system can increase the efficiency and fairness of examination and reduce cost.

  10. Fifty Years of the Korean Society for Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future. PMID:19885338

  11. Fifty years of the Korean Society for Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung-Yull

    2009-10-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future.

  12. Parasitological and clinical studies on human scabies in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, M A; el Okbi, L M; el Sayed, M M; el Okbi, S M; el Deeb, H K

    1993-12-01

    This study is a parasitological and clinical study on human scabies. This study was carried out on 100 patients attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals, including 54 males and 46 females. All patients were subjected to detailed history taking, complete dermatological examination including Skin Scraping Test and Burrow Ink Test. Younger patients attended the dermatology clinic earlier than older patients, who usually delayed their visits until complications occurred. Scratching, erythematous papules and secondary infected lesions were the commonest lesions. The hands, wrist and external genitalia were the most frequently affected sites while the feet, ankles, knees and back were the least affected. Burrows could only be detected in 40% of patients. The most frequent sites were the web spaces, external genitalia, and finger sides. Burrow Ink Test was positive among 85% of patients with burrows while mites could be identified by Skin Scraping Test in 55% of patients. The most frequent clinical manifestations in the parasitologically positive patients were itching, burrows, and papules, and the most frequent sites were the web spaces, and the finger sides. Multiple sites affection was the characteristic feature among the preschool age children who represented 14% of cases.

  13. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species. PMID:22661394

  14. Sticklebacks as model hosts in ecological and evolutionary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Barber, Iain

    2013-11-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a small teleost fish, native to coastal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, which has emerged as a key model organism in evolutionary biology and ecology. Sticklebacks possess a well-documented and experimentally amenable parasite fauna, and are well suited to both laboratory and field parasitological investigation. As a consequence, sticklebacks have been extensively used as model hosts in studies of host-parasite interactions, and these studies have provided considerable insight into the roles of parasites in ecology and evolutionary biology. In this review, I discuss key advances in our understanding of host-parasite interactions that have arisen from studies involving stickleback hosts, highlight areas of current research activity, and identify potentially promising areas for future research.

  15. Diverse Applications of Environmental DNA Methods in Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Bass, David; Stentiford, Grant D; Littlewood, D T J; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Nucleic acid extraction and sequencing of genes from organisms within environmental samples encompasses a variety of techniques collectively referred to as environmental DNA or 'eDNA'. The key advantages of eDNA analysis include the detection of cryptic or otherwise elusive organisms, large-scale sampling with fewer biases than specimen-based methods, and generation of data for molecular systematics. These are particularly relevant for parasitology because parasites can be difficult to locate and are morphologically intractable and genetically divergent. However, parasites have rarely been the focus of eDNA studies. Focusing on eukaryote parasites, we review the increasing diversity of the 'eDNA toolbox'. Combining eDNA methods with complementary tools offers much potential to understand parasite communities, disease risk, and parasite roles in broader ecosystem processes such as food web structuring and community assembly.

  16. Graph methods for the investigation of metabolic networks in parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cottret, Ludovic; Jourdan, Fabien

    2010-08-01

    Recently, a way was opened with the development of many mathematical methods to model and analyze genome-scale metabolic networks. Among them, methods based on graph models enable to us quickly perform large-scale analyses on large metabolic networks. However, it could be difficult for parasitologists to select the graph model and methods adapted to their biological questions. In this review, after briefly addressing the problem of the metabolic network reconstruction, we propose an overview of the graph-based approaches used in whole metabolic network analyses. Applications highlight the usefulness of this kind of approach in the field of parasitology, especially by suggesting metabolic targets for new drugs. Their development still represents a major challenge to fight against the numerous diseases caused by parasites.

  17. Parasitological survey on birds at some selected brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Hofstatter, Paulo Gonzalez; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted at some zoos in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Several groups of birds were surveyed for fecal samples, but the most important was Psittacidae. Among the parasites, Eimeria (coccidian) and Capillaria, Ascaridia and Heterakis (nematodes) were observed in almost one third of the samples. Presence of a rich parasite fauna associated with captive birds seems to be an effect of captivity, since data on free-ranging birds indicate few or virtually no parasites at all. The discovery of new coccidian species during this survey reveals the need of more research on the subject as even well-known bird species have unknown parasites, but caution must be exercised in order to avoid descriptions of pseudoparasites.

  18. Faecal Parasitology: Concentration Methodology Needs to be Better Standardised

    PubMed Central

    Manser, Monika M.; Saez, Agatha Christie Santos; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine whether variation in the preservative, pore size of the sieve, solvent, centrifugal force and centrifugation time used in the Ridley-Allen Concentration method for examining faecal specimens for parasite stages had any effect on their recovery in faecal specimens. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all participants in the UK NEQAS Faecal Parasitology Scheme. The recovery of parasite stages was compared using formalin diluted in water or formalin diluted in saline as the fixative, 3 different pore sizes of sieve, ether or ethyl acetate as a solvent, 7 different centrifugal forces and 6 different centrifugation times according to the methods described by participants completing the questionnaire. Results The number of parasite stages recovered was higher when formalin diluted in water was used as fixative, a smaller pore size of sieve was used, ethyl acetate along with Triton X 100 was used as a solvent and a centrifugal force of 3,000 rpm for 3 minutes were employed. Conclusions This study showed that differences in methodology at various stages of the concentration process affect the recovery of parasites from a faecal specimen and parasites present in small numbers could be missed if the recommended methodology is not followed. PMID:27073836

  19. On the benefits of systematic reviews for wildlife parasitology.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, Neal R; Watson, Maggie J

    2016-08-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are widely accepted as the best means to synthesise quantitative or qualitative scientific evidence. Many scientific fields have embraced these more rigorous review techniques as a means to bring together large and complex bodies of literature and their data. Unfortunately, due to perceived difficulties and unfamiliarity with processes, other fields are not using these options to review their literature. One way to provide guidance for a specific field is to examine critically recent reviews and meta-analyses and to explain the advantages and disadvantages of the various review techniques. In this paper, we examine review papers in the emerging field of wildlife parasitology and compare five different literature review types-configurative narrative review, aggregative scoping review, aggregative literature review, aggregative meta-analysis, and aggregative systematic review. We found that most literature reviews did not adequately explain the methodology used to find the literature under review. We also found that most literature reviews were not comprehensive nor did they critically appraise the literature under review. Such a lack severely reduces the reliability of the reviews. We encourage all authors to consider using systematic reviews in the future, and for authors and peer-reviewers to be aware of the limitations of non-systematic reviews. PMID:27617203

  20. The quality of methods reporting in parasitology experiments.

    PubMed

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Bramhall, Michael; Noyes, Harry; Cruickshank, Sheena; Stevens, Robert; Brass, Andy

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern both inside and outside the scientific community over the lack of reproducibility of experiments. The depth and detail of reported methods are critical to the reproducibility of findings, but also for making it possible to compare and integrate data from different studies. In this study, we evaluated in detail the methods reporting in a comprehensive set of trypanosomiasis experiments that should enable valid reproduction, integration and comparison of research findings. We evaluated a subset of other parasitic (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Trichuris and Schistosoma) and non-parasitic (Mycobacterium) experimental infections in order to compare the quality of method reporting more generally. A systematic review using PubMed (2000-2012) of all publications describing gene expression in cells and animals infected with Trypanosoma spp was undertaken based on PRISMA guidelines; 23 papers were identified and included. We defined a checklist of essential parameters that should be reported and have scored the number of those parameters that are reported for each publication. Bibliometric parameters (impact factor, citations and h-index) were used to look for association between Journal and Author status and the quality of method reporting. Trichuriasis experiments achieved the highest scores and included the only paper to score 100% in all criteria. The mean of scores achieved by Trypanosoma articles through the checklist was 65.5% (range 32-90%). Bibliometric parameters were not correlated with the quality of method reporting (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient <-0.5; p>0.05). Our results indicate that the quality of methods reporting in experimental parasitology is a cause for concern and it has not improved over time, despite there being evidence that most of the assessed parameters do influence the results. We propose that our set of parameters be used as guidelines to improve the quality of the reporting of experimental infection

  1. [A bite of parasite, experiences of application of documentaries into parasitology class teaching].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Hong-chang; Yao, Yun-liang; Shao, Sheng-wen; Ru, Xiao-chen; Dong, Hai-yan; Zhang, Ting

    2015-06-01

    Medical parasitology education has been facing some difficulties, because it is a course of wide range, lacking clinical cases and concerned specimens of parasites currently. In addition, its relationship with life is not closely enough. All these reasons may impact the effect of class education negatively. Therefore, it is important to increase the vitality of parasitology education and diversify the instructional mode by using the resources from Internet. In recent years, the Discovery Channel has uploaded a documentary Monsters Inside Me online. This documentary is high professional and closely linked with parasitology. It maintains numbers of clinical cases about parasitic diseases. Each episode is about 3 minutes and shortly enough to be introduced into class teaching. However, this resource has not been fully used in domestic temporally. We found that direct introduction of the documentary into class teaching can enrich teaching forms to attract learning interest of students, and finally improve the teaching effect of class. Above that, another popular documentary A Bite of China involves many related knowledge points of parasitology. The appropriate usage of the knowledge can build up close linkage between book and life, which is extremely helpful to give students a deep impression of parasitology. In brief, it is our strong recommendation to introduce the documentary Monsters Inside Me into class. PMID:26510370

  2. [A bite of parasite, experiences of application of documentaries into parasitology class teaching].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Hong-chang; Yao, Yun-liang; Shao, Sheng-wen; Ru, Xiao-chen; Dong, Hai-yan; Zhang, Ting

    2015-06-01

    Medical parasitology education has been facing some difficulties, because it is a course of wide range, lacking clinical cases and concerned specimens of parasites currently. In addition, its relationship with life is not closely enough. All these reasons may impact the effect of class education negatively. Therefore, it is important to increase the vitality of parasitology education and diversify the instructional mode by using the resources from Internet. In recent years, the Discovery Channel has uploaded a documentary Monsters Inside Me online. This documentary is high professional and closely linked with parasitology. It maintains numbers of clinical cases about parasitic diseases. Each episode is about 3 minutes and shortly enough to be introduced into class teaching. However, this resource has not been fully used in domestic temporally. We found that direct introduction of the documentary into class teaching can enrich teaching forms to attract learning interest of students, and finally improve the teaching effect of class. Above that, another popular documentary A Bite of China involves many related knowledge points of parasitology. The appropriate usage of the knowledge can build up close linkage between book and life, which is extremely helpful to give students a deep impression of parasitology. In brief, it is our strong recommendation to introduce the documentary Monsters Inside Me into class.

  3. [Systematic study of microbiological and parasitological quality of drinking water: the example of Cassino].

    PubMed

    Briancesco, R; Di Russo, C

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate microbial and parasitological quality of water resources located in the area of Cassino, different typologies of water were monitored during the course of 2002. Analytical results showed that neither water sources nor chlorinated water were affected by microbial and parasitological contamination. Surface water can be used as drinking water after suitable treatment processes. The constant occurrence of parasitic protozoa in sewage shows their spreading in the environment; nevertheless their absence in groundwater and tap water suggests a good level of hygienic quality in water management.

  4. Progress in paediatric parasitology: a preface to a topic focusing on ever younger subjects.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J Russell; Chiodini, Peter; Booth, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Without realizing it perhaps, the research activities of many parasitologists are often focused upon the study of parasites most commonly found in children. Though there is little recognition of paediatric parasitology as a separate topic within medical parasitology, with the global interest in promotion of maternal and child health, alleviation of diseases associated with poverty and requirements of 'child-sized' medicines, a more formal consideration is now timely. Recent research, for example, has highlighted that defining precisely the 'first-age' at which parasites interfere with a child's health, or normal developmental processes, is being revised. Attention is now drawn towards ever younger subjects, for parasites have the capacity to also influence the health of the foetus within the in utero environment, altering immune-development. These subtle, yet evolutionary profound interactions perhaps manifest themselves as to why some children are more prone to infection(s), develop overt disease and sadly die while others do not. Here, we address the growing importance of paediatric parasitology and its applications within disease control strategies as highlighted in the 2010 Autumn Symposium of the British Society of Parasitology.

  5. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  6. The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology, a medical entity for educational purposes to serve sick patients.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, G; Simon, E G; Perrotin, D; Chandenier, J

    2014-06-01

    The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is a movable entity of the Parasitology-Mycology laboratory of Tours University Hospital, France. In contrast to the usual prerogatives of biomedical laboratories, the Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is requested to intervene directly at bedside in various clinical departments, or even outside the hospital facility. Although its actions are of course primarily devoted to specialized diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the Mobile Team also plays an important educational role in the medical training of undergraduate or graduate students.

  7. Post mortem parasitological evaluation of dogs seroreactive for Leishmania from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Madeira, Maria; de O Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia M P; Pereira, Sandro A; Figueiredo, Fabiano B; Baptista, Cibele; Leal, Cristianni A; Melo, Cíntia X; Confort, Eliame M; Marzochi, Mauro C A

    2006-06-15

    A parasitological study was conducted on 66 dogs seroreactive for Leishmania captured as a control measure of visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Biological samples from different anatomical sites were collected during autopsy of the animals and cultured on biphasic medium (NNN/Schneider). The Leishmania isolates were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Leishmania was isolated from 80.3% of the animals: 12 animals with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated exclusively from cutaneous lesions, 39 with L. (L.) chagasi isolated from different sites in the same animal, and 2 with simultaneous isolation of L. (V.) braziliensis from cutaneous lesions and L. (L.) chagasi from different sites. Isolation in culture revealed the absence of Leishmania parasites in 13 animals. The results obtained confirm the existence of mixed infections in dogs in Rio de Janeiro and indicate the need to complement the investigation of seroreactive dogs using methods for the parasitological diagnosis and identification of Leishmania species.

  8. Post mortem parasitological evaluation of dogs seroreactive for Leishmania from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Madeira, Maria; de O Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia M P; Pereira, Sandro A; Figueiredo, Fabiano B; Baptista, Cibele; Leal, Cristianni A; Melo, Cíntia X; Confort, Eliame M; Marzochi, Mauro C A

    2006-06-15

    A parasitological study was conducted on 66 dogs seroreactive for Leishmania captured as a control measure of visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Biological samples from different anatomical sites were collected during autopsy of the animals and cultured on biphasic medium (NNN/Schneider). The Leishmania isolates were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis. Leishmania was isolated from 80.3% of the animals: 12 animals with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated exclusively from cutaneous lesions, 39 with L. (L.) chagasi isolated from different sites in the same animal, and 2 with simultaneous isolation of L. (V.) braziliensis from cutaneous lesions and L. (L.) chagasi from different sites. Isolation in culture revealed the absence of Leishmania parasites in 13 animals. The results obtained confirm the existence of mixed infections in dogs in Rio de Janeiro and indicate the need to complement the investigation of seroreactive dogs using methods for the parasitological diagnosis and identification of Leishmania species. PMID:16520002

  9. [The student submission ways of experiment report based on digital microscopic system in parasitology teaching].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Fen; Chen, Hai-Ying; Wei, Jun-Bin

    2011-10-01

    When the digital microscopy interactive system is applied to parasitology experiment teaching, students can submit their experiment reports in two ways: a paper document on a drawing paper or an electronic document taken images with the system. Submission of a paper report needs more time but requires the students to work more carefully, and an electronic document allows them to have more time to observe the specimen and work in a higher efficiency. It would be better to ask students to do both.

  10. Clinical, serological, and parasitological analysis of snakes naturally infected with Cryptosporidium serpentis.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Philipp Ricardo S O; Grego, Kathleen F; Lima, Valéria M F; Nakamura, Alex A; da Silva, Deuvânia C; Meireles, Marcelo V

    2013-11-15

    Infection by Cryptosporidium serpentis is one of the most important diseases in reptiles and is characterized by chronic clinical or subclinical infection and the presence of hypertrophic gastritis, food regurgitation, progressive weight loss, mortality, and intermittent or continuous shedding of oocysts in the feces. The objectives of this study were to standardize an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against C. serpentis and to evaluate the clinical, parasitological, and humoral immune response in snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis. Twenty-one snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis and housed at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, underwent clinical and parasitological analyses for C. serpentis infection through daily records of clinical signs and a monthly survey of fecal shedding of oocysts using the Kinyoun's acid-fast staining. The serological evaluation was performed monthly by indirect ELISA using crude total antigen from oocysts of C. serpentis to detect anti-C. serpentis antibodies. Clinical symptoms consisted of food regurgitation, inappetence, and progressive weight loss. The parasitological analysis revealed intermittent fecal shedding of a variable number of oocysts in all snakes, with positivity in 85.32% (157/184) of the samples. The indirect ELISA was positive in 68.25% (86/126) of the samples. A humoral immune response was observed in most animals; however, fluctuating antibodies levels, leading to alternating positive and negative results, were observed in most snakes.

  11. Disease mapping and risk assessment in veterinary parasitology: some case studies.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Musella, V

    2005-03-01

    Disease mapping and risk assessment are important tasks in the area of medical and veterinary epidemiology. The development of methods for mapping diseases has progressed considerably in recent years. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS), and Spatial Analysis represent new tools for the study of epidemiology, and their application to parasitology has become more and more advanced, in particular to study the spatial and temporal patterns of diseases. The present review highlights the usefulness of GIS and RS in veterinary parasitology in order to better know the epidemiology of parasite organisms, causing either snail/arthropod borne diseases or direct transmissible diseases, mostly in small areas with a strong impact by man. It demonstrates the potential of these technologies to serve as effective tools for: data capture, mapping and analysis for the development of descriptive parasitological maps; studying the environmental features that influence the distribution of parasites; predicting parasite occurrence/seasonality based on their environmental requirements and as decision support for disease intervention; and surveillance and monitoring of animal diseases.

  12. A retrospective examination of paleoparasitology and its establishment in the Journal of Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Charles T; Reinhard, Karl J

    2014-06-01

    Volume 95 (2009) of the Journal of Parasitology represented a significant benchmark in the history of paleoparasitology when it received on the cover formal recognition as a topical area for publication. This retrospective examination chronicles the emergence of paleoparasitology, from its origins as an adjunct contribution to the study of prehistoric human populations to its modern expression as a sub-disciplinary interest. The aim of paleoparasitology is to elucidate the temporal and spatial dimensions of parasitism from the fossil record of human and non-human host populations.

  13. Toward molecular parasitologic diagnosis: enhanced diagnostic sensitivity for filarial infections in mobile populations.

    PubMed

    Fink, Doran L; Fahle, Gary A; Fischer, Steven; Fedorko, Daniel F; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of filarial infections among individuals residing in areas where the disease is not endemic requires both strong clinical suspicion and expert training in infrequently practiced parasitological methods. Recently developed filarial molecular diagnostic assays are highly sensitive and specific but have limited availability and have not been closely evaluated for clinical use outside populations residing in areas of endemicity. In this study, we assessed the performance of a panel of real-time PCR assays for the four most common human filarial pathogens among blood and tissue samples collected from a cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for suspected filarial infections. Compared to blood filtration, real-time PCR was equally sensitive for the detection of microfilaremia due to Wuchereria bancrofti (2 of 46 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR with no discordant results) and Loa loa (24 of 208 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR, 4 samples positive by PCR only, and 3 samples positive by blood filtration only). Real-time PCR of skin snip samples was significantly more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of Onchocerca volvulus microfiladermia (2 of 218 samples positive by both microscopy and PCR and 12 samples positive by PCR only). The molecular assays required smaller amounts of blood and tissue than conventional methods and could be performed by laboratory personnel without specialized parasitology training. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of the molecular diagnosis of filarial infections in mobile populations. PMID:20980560

  14. "Not a very nice subject." Changing views of parasites and parasitology in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vickerman, Keith

    2009-10-01

    The man in-the-street who frequently asks the question "Why am I here?" finds even more difficulty with the question "Why are parasites here?" The public's distaste for parasites (and by implication, for parasitologists!) is therefore understandable, as maybe was the feeling of early 20th century biologists that parasites were a puzzle because they did not conform to the then widely held association between evolution and progress, let alone the reason why a benevolent Creator should have created them. In mid-century, the writer, contemplating a career in parasitology was taken aback when he found that extolled contemporary biologists disdained parasites or thought little of parasitology as an intellectual subject. These attitudes reflected a lack of appreciation of the important role of parasites in generating evolutionary novelty and speciation, also unawareness of the value of parasite life-cycle studies for formulating questions of wider significance in biology, deficiencies which were gratifyingly beginning to be remedied in the latter half of the century.

  15. [Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example].

    PubMed

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    Review paper deals with the historical analysis of intellectual activity of some famous parasitologists working in tropics on malaria in the XIX/XX century: A. Laveran (1845-1922), R. Ross (1857-1932), P. Manson (1844-1922), B. Grassi (1854-1925), and other Nobelprize researchers: P. H. Müller (1899-1965) and J. W. von Jauregg (1857-1940). Those chief investigations are interpreted from the point of view of the so-called anthropology of knowledge based on L. Fleck's (1896-1961) philosophy and sociology of science. Parasitological investigations, especially in the field of malaria, were undertaken in the developed economically countries in answer to the social demands. It was connected with development of colonies and the needs of stabilization of epidemiological situation in tropics. To mid of the eigthies of 19th century the lack of positive effects resulted from the theoretical barriers and conservative thinking style of the European academic society. It caused that great parasitological discoveries of the etiological agents of parasitic diseases (like plasmodia, life cycle in malaria) took place behind university circles. They were done by the physicians - general practitioners--in the colony areas. Doctors A. Laveran, P. Manson and R. Ross were not restricted by traditional standards and the obliging normative concepts in the academic naturalism. Those medical men worked out a new impulse for parasitology and supported an idea based on the rule that each disease should be assigned with the materialistic biological factor (pathogen). In the years 1800-1900 the old and a new concepts were competed in the natural sciences and medicine. Near year 1900 a new way in the context of modern interpretations was brought into general use. It was proved experimentally that etiological theory of parasitic disease was more practically usuful. It resulted in the formation of the effective prophylactic theory as well as the development of research in the field of chemotherapy

  16. [Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example].

    PubMed

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    Review paper deals with the historical analysis of intellectual activity of some famous parasitologists working in tropics on malaria in the XIX/XX century: A. Laveran (1845-1922), R. Ross (1857-1932), P. Manson (1844-1922), B. Grassi (1854-1925), and other Nobelprize researchers: P. H. Müller (1899-1965) and J. W. von Jauregg (1857-1940). Those chief investigations are interpreted from the point of view of the so-called anthropology of knowledge based on L. Fleck's (1896-1961) philosophy and sociology of science. Parasitological investigations, especially in the field of malaria, were undertaken in the developed economically countries in answer to the social demands. It was connected with development of colonies and the needs of stabilization of epidemiological situation in tropics. To mid of the eigthies of 19th century the lack of positive effects resulted from the theoretical barriers and conservative thinking style of the European academic society. It caused that great parasitological discoveries of the etiological agents of parasitic diseases (like plasmodia, life cycle in malaria) took place behind university circles. They were done by the physicians - general practitioners--in the colony areas. Doctors A. Laveran, P. Manson and R. Ross were not restricted by traditional standards and the obliging normative concepts in the academic naturalism. Those medical men worked out a new impulse for parasitology and supported an idea based on the rule that each disease should be assigned with the materialistic biological factor (pathogen). In the years 1800-1900 the old and a new concepts were competed in the natural sciences and medicine. Near year 1900 a new way in the context of modern interpretations was brought into general use. It was proved experimentally that etiological theory of parasitic disease was more practically usuful. It resulted in the formation of the effective prophylactic theory as well as the development of research in the field of chemotherapy

  17. "Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

    2013-01-01

    Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

  18. Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K N; Hailu, Asrat

    2012-04-01

    Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo District of West Wellega zone during a period of 1 month: from mid-August to mid-September 2006. Data on socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire prepared for this purpose. All persons were examined clinically for skin signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis. Two skin snips, one from each side of the gluteal fold were taken using blood lancet and sterilized razor blade and examined for microfilaria. All data were categorized, coded, entered in a data base and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. for windows. A total of 1114 individuals ≥15 years were examined for microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and onchocercal skin disease (OSD). The prevalence of onchocercal (mf) carrier was 74.8% (833/1114). In both genders, the prevalence of onchocerciasis showed direct correlations with the age of individuals (R (2) = 0.79, P < 0.05). The infection rate varied with the occupation of the study subjects, with preponderance among farmers. Among the subjects with onchocerciasis, the mf density ranged from 1.0 to 711.0 per mg of skin snip with a mean density (SD) and median values of 32.1 (61.5) and 10.4 respectively. The overall community microfilariae load (CMFL), the most sensitive parasitological indicator of onchocerciasis was 19.6. The pervasiveness of OSD among the study subjects was 26.4%. OSD was more frequent in males (32.4%) than their female counterparts (20.8%, P < 0.05). The overall prevalence of onchocercal nodule carrier, the

  19. [Morphology of Blastocystis hominis in feces and evaluation of parasitological methods].

    PubMed

    Peréz de Suarez, E; Guzmán de Rondón, C

    1994-01-01

    A study of the morphology of Blastocystis hominis in stool in ninety-four cases humans is described as central body, ameba and granular form were found as previously described. In addition a "Globulose" form as a variation of granular form is first described. The central body form (96.8%) was the most abundant form. Three parasitological methods as direct microscopical examination sample with saline solution 0.85%, lugol, Sudan III, stained with Quensel, Iron hematoxylin and culture are evaluated to detection the Blastocystis hominis forms. Our results show that the direct microscopical examination (saline solution 0.85%, lugol, Sudan III, stained with Quensel) is the most sensitive and specific method than culture. The identification of Blastocystis hominis in stool difficult due to the diversity of shapes and size, which generate confusion with other intestinal protozoa and host cells. PMID:7557277

  20. Paragonimiasis in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province, China: clinical, parasitological and karyotypic studies on Paragonimus westermani.

    PubMed

    Ming-gang, C; Zheng-shan, C; Xiang-yuan, S; Ming-da, L; Blair, D; Shao-hong, C; Yong-nian, Z; Jia-lin, H; Bing-gui, S; Zheng, F

    2001-12-01

    Paragonimiasis in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province, China, has been of such public health concern that a specialized Institute for Paragonimiasis Control has been established there. The study reported here involved both parasitological research on Paragonimus westermani in the endemic areas and a clinical analysis of 94 cases of paragonimiasis. Eggs were found in sputum, feces and brain tissue in 45 cases. Twenty patients, 19 of whom where children under 10 years of age, showed hepatic injury. Treatment with praziquantel or bithionol had satisfactory results in all cases. Dimensions of the parasite eggs, metacercariae from freshwater crabs and adult flukes suggested that the form of P. westermani in Yongjia is the 'small type': a suggestion supported by karyotypic studies on gonad cells from adult flukes collected from experimentally infected animals as all were found to be diploid. In conclusion, the 'small type' or diploid form of P. westermani is the cause of paragonimiasis pulmonary symptoms in Yongjia.

  1. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  2. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  3. MALDI-TOF MS in clinical parasitology: applications, constraints and prospects.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2016-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being used for rapid and reproducible identification of bacteria, viruses and fungi in clinical microbiological laboratories. However, some studies have also reported the use of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of parasites, like Leishmania, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, ticks and fleas. The present review collates all the information available on the use of this technique for parasites, in an effort to assess its applicability and the constraints for identification/diagnosis of parasites and diseases caused by them. Though MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of parasites is currently done by reference laboratories only, in future, this promising technology might surely replace/augment molecular methods in clinical parasitology laboratories. PMID:27387025

  4. [Methodical features of the molding of diagnostic competences in medical parasitology workers].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Avdiukhina, T I; Serdiuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a procedure to mold diagnostic competences in medical workers of the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions and hygiene and epidemiology centers, Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare. The methodical features of molding diagnostic competences in the above contingents are the design and organization of an educational process by applying systems integration and competence-based approaches; increased active self-directed learning of audience; a procedure to organize its unsupervised extracurricular activities. Professional habits and skills in laboratory specialists should be molded on the basis of didactic principles and in compliance with the found methodical patterns. The eventual result (molded competences) and its compliance with the practical health care requirements is assessed using all control types (incoming, running, intermediate, and ultimate ones). This ensures the stability and predictability of molding diagnostic competences in parasitology specialists.

  5. MALDI-TOF MS in clinical parasitology: applications, constraints and prospects.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2016-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being used for rapid and reproducible identification of bacteria, viruses and fungi in clinical microbiological laboratories. However, some studies have also reported the use of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of parasites, like Leishmania, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, ticks and fleas. The present review collates all the information available on the use of this technique for parasites, in an effort to assess its applicability and the constraints for identification/diagnosis of parasites and diseases caused by them. Though MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of parasites is currently done by reference laboratories only, in future, this promising technology might surely replace/augment molecular methods in clinical parasitology laboratories.

  6. [Difference analysis among majors in medical parasitology exam papers by test item bank proposition].

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin-Zhi; Ya-Jun, Ma; Cao, Yi; Qian, Fen; Li, Xiang-Yu

    2012-04-30

    The quality index among "Medical Parasitology" exam papers and measured data for students in three majors from the university in 2010 were compared and analyzed. The exam papers were formed from the test item bank. The alpha reliability coefficients of the three exam papers were above 0.70. The knowledge structure and capacity structure of the exam papers were basically balanced. But the alpha reliability coefficients of the second major was the lowest, mainly due to quality of test items in the exam paper and the failure of revising the index of test item bank in time. This observation demonstrated that revising the test items and their index in the item bank according to the measured data can improve the quality of test item bank proposition and reduce the difference among exam papers.

  7. [Parasitologic survey of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni in Katana, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Baluku, B; Bagalwa, M; Bisimwa, B

    2000-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that development of irrigation projects in endemic areas for schistosomiasis invariably leads to a recrudescence of the disease by increasing the habitat of the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. This fatality was again demonstrated by experience in the Katana region of the Democratic Republic of Congo where development of 43 fresh water reservoirs for raising Tilapia nilotica led to multiplication of Biomphalaria pfeifferi. A parasitological study was conducted in three new villages around these basins and in neighboring villages. Stool examinations were performed in a total of 787 people. Infestation rates were 8.1 p. 100 and 4 p. 100 respectively. Infestation exceeded 25 p. 100 in children between the ages of 10 and 14 years. These findings underline the need for preventive measures.

  8. Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Silvana A; Piveli, Roque P; Santos, Jéferson G; Montes, Célia R; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fábio; Gomes, Tamara M; Melfi, Adolpho J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L(-1) and 6 eggs L(-1), respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 × 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 × 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 × 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 × 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of ≤1 egg L(-1) and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter, chemical contaminants and parasites from treated wastewater. Standards for the sanitary control of treated wastewater to be reused in agricultural irrigation areas should be compiled for developing countries in order to minimize public health risks. PMID:22466580

  9. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  10. [THE FUNCTIONAL CONSTITUENT OF A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT IN PROGRAMS FOR TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN THE AREA OF PARASITOLOGY FOR ACCREDITATION].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Andreeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the functional aspects of a biological component in programs for training specialists in the area of Parasitology for accreditation within the current enactments, including those on modernization of public health and additional professional education. The working program of the module "Fundamental Disciplines" has been used as an example to outline approaches to molding a medical parasitologist's capacity and readiness to solve professional tasks on the basis of knowledge of fundamental disciplines: biology, immunology, and medical geography. Education fundamentalization is shown to suggest more unsupervised work of a learner in the teaching process. The fundamental constituent of a biological component of the 'programs for training learners in the specialty of Parasitology for accreditation is shown in the interaction of all sections of this area with special and allied subjects.

  11. Clinical and parasitological response to oral chloroquine and primaquine in uncomplicated human Plasmodium knowlesi infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi is a cause of symptomatic and potentially fatal infections in humans. There are no studies assessing the detailed parasitological response to treatment of knowlesi malaria infections in man and whether antimalarial resistance occurs. Methods A prospective observational study of oral chloroquine and primaquine therapy was conducted in consecutive patients admitted to Kapit Hospital, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo with PCR-confirmed single P. knowlesi infections. These patients were given oral chloroquine for three days, and at 24 hours oral primaquine was administered for two consecutive days, primarily as a gametocidal agent. Clinical and parasitological responses were recorded at 6-hourly intervals during the first 24 hours, daily until discharge and then weekly to day 28. Vivax malaria patients were studied as a comparator group. Results Of 96 knowlesi malaria patients who met the study criteria, 73 were recruited to an assessment of the acute response to treatment and 60 completed follow-up over 28 days. On admission, the mean parasite stage distributions were 49.5%, 41.5%, 4.0% and 5.6% for early trophozoites, late trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes respectively. The median fever clearance time was 26.5 [inter-quartile range 16-34] hours. The mean times to 50% (PCT50) and 90% (PCT90) parasite clearance were 3.1 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.8-3.4) hours and 10.3 (9.4-11.4) hours. These were more rapid than in a group of 23 patients with vivax malaria 6.3 (5.3-7.8) hours and 20.9 (17.6-25.9) hours; P = 0.02). It was difficult to assess the effect of primaquine on P. knowlesi parasites, due to the rapid anti-malarial properties of chloroquine and since primaquine was administered 24 hours after chloroquine. No P. knowlesi recrudescences or re-infections were detected by PCR. Conclusions Chloroquine plus primaqine is an inexpensive and highly effective treatment for uncomplicated knowlesi malaria infections in humans and there is

  12. [Parasitological profile of urinary schistosomiasis of the Sourou hydroagricultural complex of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Poda, J N; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D; Sawadogo, B; Kambou, T; Parent, G; Sondo, B

    2001-03-01

    In the Sourou area of Burkina Faso, parasitological and malacological surveys of urinary schistosomiasis have been carried out in the constructed sites of Guédougou, Niasan and Débé dating respectively from 1967, 1986 and 1996. The investigations covered also the traditional villages of Lanfiera, Di, Poro, Tiao and Mara situated in the middle of the hydroagricultural planning for the first, very close to the lake for the second and about twenty kilometres distant for the three last. These towns represent the main sites in the Sourou area. The results of the parasitological surveys showed that urinary schistosomiasis was present in all sites. The levels of prevalence varied considerably: 70.3% in Guiédougou, 40.8% in Niassan, 8.5% in Débè in the irrigated zone, 55.6% in Lanfiéra, 56.8% in Di, 13.2% in Poro, 83.3% in Tiao and 64.7% in Mara. Concerning the malacological investigation, two species (Bulinus senegalensis and B. truncatus) were shown to be intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium. The first was endemic to the area while the second was compatible with S. haematobium from the Sourou and other zones. Compared to the results of earlier investigations, the endemic had worsened with differences according to sites. This disparity of prevalence levels which has already been observed in other hydroagricultural area results from many factors, among which the impact of irrigation activities, the aquatic biotope system (irrigation canals, natural lake, pools and temporary rivers) and the type of contact of human communities with water rank high. Schistosomiasis expansion is amplified by the intermediate host dynamics and the introduction of new schistosomes carried by the new workers arriving from all over the country. In these conditions, in order to reduce rapidly prevalence levels, preventive measures should be centred on chemotherapy for the population. The treatment should be administered during a period of weak intermediate host density and be

  13. Hotspots of Malaria Transmission in the Peruvian Amazon: Rapid Assessment through a Parasitological and Serological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Speybroeck, Niko; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Alava, Freddy; Soares, Irene S.; Remarque, Edmond; D´Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background With low and markedly seasonal malaria transmission, increasingly sensitive tools for better stratifying the risk of infection and targeting control interventions are needed. A cross-sectional survey to characterize the current malaria transmission patterns, identify hotspots, and detect recent changes using parasitological and serological measures was conducted in three sites of the Peruvian Amazon. Material and Methods After full census of the study population, 651 participants were interviewed, clinically examined and had a blood sample taken for the detection of malaria parasites (microscopy and PCR) and antibodies against P. vivax (PvMSP119, PvAMA1) and P. falciparum (PfGLURP, PfAMA1) antigens by ELISA. Risk factors for malaria infection (positive PCR) and malaria exposure (seropositivity) were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. Age-specific seroprevalence was analyzed using a reversible catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood for generating seroconversion rates (SCR, λ). SaTScan was used to detect spatial clusters of serology-positive individuals within each site. Results The overall parasite prevalence by PCR was low, i.e. 3.9% for P. vivax and 6.7% for P. falciparum, while the seroprevalence was substantially higher, 33.6% for P. vivax and 22.0% for P. falciparum, with major differences between study sites. Age and location (site) were significantly associated with P. vivax exposure; while location, age and outdoor occupation were associated with P. falciparum exposure. P. falciparum seroprevalence curves showed a stable transmission throughout time, while for P. vivax transmission was better described by a model with two SCRs. The spatial analysis identified well-defined clusters of P. falciparum seropositive individuals in two sites, while it detected only a very small cluster of P. vivax exposure. Conclusion The use of a single parasitological and serological malaria survey has proven to be an efficient

  14. Microbiological and parasitological survey of zoonotic agents in apparently healthy feral pigeons.

    PubMed

    Marenzoni, M L; Morganti, G; Moretta, I; Crotti, S; Agnetti, F; Moretti, A; Pitzurra, L; Casagrande Proietti, P; Sechi, P; Cenci-Goga, B; Franciosini, M P

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological and parasitological investigation was carried out on a colony of feral pigeons, located in a green area near the main hospital of a Central Italy city. One hundred pigeons were submitted to clinical examination. Cloacal swabs, grouped in pool of 4 samples, were analyzed to detect the presence of Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydophila spp. using a biomolecular procedure, while individual cloacal samples were examined for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and yeasts by means of a specific culture media. An ELISA test was used to determine the presence of Giardia spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. coproantigens. Individual serological samples were also tested with the modified agglutination test (MAT) in order to detect antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The pigeons did not show any clinical signs. The cloacal pools proved to be negative for C. burnetii DNA while three pools were positive for C. psittaci or Chlamydophila spp. DNAs. Salmonella spp. was not detected. C. jejuni and C. coli were found in 13% and 4% of the samples, respectively. No Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected. Thirty-three out of 100 samples (33%) were positive for yeast colonies. The seroprevalence for T. gondii was 8%. Although with moderate incidence, potentially zoonotic agents were present thus highlighting the need for sanitary surveillance on feral pigeon colonies. PMID:27487504

  15. Diagnostic laboratory parasitology--a stepping stone to medical research in tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Chinery, W A

    1992-01-01

    African countries can concentrate mainly on operational and problem-solving type of medical research using as a basis routine diagnostic laboratory parasitology which can be elevated to research level by incorporating all relevant techniques backed by statistically-based programming. Because of high incidence of parasitic infections and the peculiar host-parasite relationship, co-operation between all departments of any major hospital will be required to deal with the diseases due to them. Longitudinal studies on some parasites will enable generalisation and specific views to be formed on some infections. Multiplicity and wide variety of available techniques offer several research possibilities of clinico-pathological and epidemiological significance. Routine laboratory-based research offers the right environment for training various types of laboratory workers from technicians to medical parasitologists, through on-the-job training on techniques, investigative studies and research, backed by formal lectures and practicals at various levels. Trainee medical parasitologists can obtain higher degrees locally or abroad. The research can be organised around micro and mini research units. This approach is cost-beneficial because it minimises administrative difficulties and so avoids wastage. The results can be used to monitor impact of national development on parasitic infection prevalence and to formulate a policy on parasitic disease management.

  16. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological evaluation of trypanosomosis using a chronic rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Iglesias, J.R.; Eleizalde, M.C.; Gómez-Piñeres, E.; Mendoza, M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical, parasitological and immunological effects of a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) throughout in experimentally inoculated rabbits over the course of infection and compared them with the same aspect in healthy animals. Body temperature was recorded in degrees Celsius, animal weight in kilograms, serum proteins in g/dl using a refractometer, haematocrit percentage by capillary centrifugation and the anti-T. evansi IgG titer by indirect ELISA immunoassay, from both infected animals and controls for 95 days. Infected animals showed a higher body temperature, total serum protein and anti- T. evansi antibody titer, and a lower haematocrit and weight gain than controls. These differences were related to the presence of the parasites in the blood as detected micro-haematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT) and direct microscopic examination (DME). This study confirms the usefulness of rabbits as a model for the study of trypanosomosis; the clinical features of the disease can be observed and the three characteristic stages, prepatent period, acute and chronic phase clearly defined over the course of the infection. PMID:26623297

  17. Integrating molecular and morphological approaches for characterizing parasite cryptic species: implications for parasitology.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Steven A; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2011-11-01

    Herein we review theoretical and methodological considerations important for finding and delimiting cryptic species of parasites (species that are difficult to recognize using traditional systematic methods). Applications of molecular data in empirical investigations of cryptic species are discussed from an historical perspective, and we evaluate advantages and disadvantages of approaches that have been used to date. Developments concerning the theory and practice of species delimitation are emphasized because theory is critical to interpretation of data. The advantages and disadvantages of different molecular methodologies, including the number and kind of loci, are discussed relative to tree-based approaches for detecting and delimiting cryptic species. We conclude by discussing some implications that cryptic species have for research programmes in parasitology, emphasizing that careful attention to the theory and operational practices involved in finding, delimiting, and describing new species (including cryptic species) is essential, not only for fully characterizing parasite biodiversity and broader aspects of comparative biology such as systematics, evolution, ecology and biogeography, but to applied research efforts that strive to improve development and understanding of epidemiology, diagnostics, control and potential eradication of parasitic diseases.

  18. [Investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kellina, O I; Strelkova, M V

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in 1920 to 2009. The analysis includes papers on biology, ecology, taxonomy, and experimental transmission of the agents of leishmaniases via the bites of sand flies, the principle in the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) during the agricultural development of extensive territories in the Karshin steppe, on quantitative approaches in the epidemiology of ZCL, a search for Russian effective medicaments to treat patients with this disease and the development of criteria for selecting L. major strains for individual and mass vaccinations against ZCL, the revision of Leishmania circulating in great gerbil populations, and the description of the new species L. turanica, an important parasite for L. major persistence from one transmission season to the next. The first investigations on leishmaniasis were made by Prof. E.I. Martsinovsky, the founder and the first director of the Institute in the early 20th century.

  19. Presenting parasitological data: the good, the bad and the error bar.

    PubMed

    Zaloumis, Sophie G; Fowkes, Freya J I; De Livera, Alysha; Simpson, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    Visual displays of data in the parasitology literature are often presented in a way which is not very informative regarding the distribution of the data. An example being simple barcharts with half an error bar on top to display the distribution of parasitaemia and biomarkers of host immunity. Such displays obfuscate the shape of the data distribution through displaying too few statistical measures to explain the spread of all the data and selecting statistical measures which are influenced by skewness and outliers. We describe more informative, yet simple, visual representations of the data distribution commonly used in statistics and provide guidance with regards to the display of estimates of population parameters (e.g. population mean) and measures of precision (e.g. 95% confidence interval) for statistical inference. In this article we focus on visual displays for numerical data and demonstrate such displays using an example dataset consisting of total IgG titres in response to three Plasmodium blood antigens measured in pregnant women and parasitaemia measurements from the same study. This tutorial aims to highlight the importance of displaying the data distribution appropriately and the role such displays have in selecting statistics to summarize its distribution and perform statistical inference.

  20. Current problems concerning parasitology and mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages.

    PubMed

    Błaszkowska, Joanna; Wójcik, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Current issues concerning Parasitology and Mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages are presented. Aspects of diagnostics, clinical picture and therapy of skin and nail mycoses, as well as difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of both native parasitoses (toxoplasmosis) and imported human tropical parasitoses (malaria, filariosis) have been emphasised. The clinical importance of environmental mould fungi in nosocomial infections and fungal meningitis, as well as selected properties of fungi isolated from patients with head and neck neoplasms treated by radiotherapy are discussed. Other mycological topics include the characteristics of newly-synthesized thiosemicarbazides and thiadiazoles as potential drugs against toxoplasmosis and their biological activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, selected molecular mechanisms of resistance to azoles, Candida albicans strains and a new tool (barcoding DNA) for describing the biodiversity of potential allergenic molds. The importance of environmental factors in pathogenesis of mycoses and parasitoses is noted. The characteristics of pathogenic fungi isolated from natural ponds in Bialystok and potentially pathogenic yeast-like fungi isolated from children's recreation areas in Lodz are presented. The ongoing problem of anthropozoonoses is considered, as are the roles of stray cats and dogs in contaminating soil with the developing forms of intestinal parasites. The characteristics of the human microbiome, including population composition, activity and their importance in normal human physiology, are presented, as are the major goals of the Human Microbiome Project initiated by National Institutes of Health (NIH). PMID:23444796

  1. Current problems concerning parasitology and mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages.

    PubMed

    Błaszkowska, Joanna; Wójcik, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Current issues concerning Parasitology and Mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages are presented. Aspects of diagnostics, clinical picture and therapy of skin and nail mycoses, as well as difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of both native parasitoses (toxoplasmosis) and imported human tropical parasitoses (malaria, filariosis) have been emphasised. The clinical importance of environmental mould fungi in nosocomial infections and fungal meningitis, as well as selected properties of fungi isolated from patients with head and neck neoplasms treated by radiotherapy are discussed. Other mycological topics include the characteristics of newly-synthesized thiosemicarbazides and thiadiazoles as potential drugs against toxoplasmosis and their biological activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, selected molecular mechanisms of resistance to azoles, Candida albicans strains and a new tool (barcoding DNA) for describing the biodiversity of potential allergenic molds. The importance of environmental factors in pathogenesis of mycoses and parasitoses is noted. The characteristics of pathogenic fungi isolated from natural ponds in Bialystok and potentially pathogenic yeast-like fungi isolated from children's recreation areas in Lodz are presented. The ongoing problem of anthropozoonoses is considered, as are the roles of stray cats and dogs in contaminating soil with the developing forms of intestinal parasites. The characteristics of the human microbiome, including population composition, activity and their importance in normal human physiology, are presented, as are the major goals of the Human Microbiome Project initiated by National Institutes of Health (NIH).

  2. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  3. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists.

  4. Microbiological and parasitological survey of zoonotic agents in apparently healthy feral pigeons.

    PubMed

    Marenzoni, M L; Morganti, G; Moretta, I; Crotti, S; Agnetti, F; Moretti, A; Pitzurra, L; Casagrande Proietti, P; Sechi, P; Cenci-Goga, B; Franciosini, M P

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological and parasitological investigation was carried out on a colony of feral pigeons, located in a green area near the main hospital of a Central Italy city. One hundred pigeons were submitted to clinical examination. Cloacal swabs, grouped in pool of 4 samples, were analyzed to detect the presence of Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydophila spp. using a biomolecular procedure, while individual cloacal samples were examined for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and yeasts by means of a specific culture media. An ELISA test was used to determine the presence of Giardia spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. coproantigens. Individual serological samples were also tested with the modified agglutination test (MAT) in order to detect antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The pigeons did not show any clinical signs. The cloacal pools proved to be negative for C. burnetii DNA while three pools were positive for C. psittaci or Chlamydophila spp. DNAs. Salmonella spp. was not detected. C. jejuni and C. coli were found in 13% and 4% of the samples, respectively. No Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected. Thirty-three out of 100 samples (33%) were positive for yeast colonies. The seroprevalence for T. gondii was 8%. Although with moderate incidence, potentially zoonotic agents were present thus highlighting the need for sanitary surveillance on feral pigeon colonies.

  5. [Investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kellina, O I; Strelkova, M V

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in 1920 to 2009. The analysis includes papers on biology, ecology, taxonomy, and experimental transmission of the agents of leishmaniases via the bites of sand flies, the principle in the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) during the agricultural development of extensive territories in the Karshin steppe, on quantitative approaches in the epidemiology of ZCL, a search for Russian effective medicaments to treat patients with this disease and the development of criteria for selecting L. major strains for individual and mass vaccinations against ZCL, the revision of Leishmania circulating in great gerbil populations, and the description of the new species L. turanica, an important parasite for L. major persistence from one transmission season to the next. The first investigations on leishmaniasis were made by Prof. E.I. Martsinovsky, the founder and the first director of the Institute in the early 20th century. PMID:21400708

  6. The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . I. North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, K.; Zander, S.; Diamant, A.; Körting, W.; Krüner, G.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.

    1999-12-01

    marker was not useful at the locations investigated because of the dominance of heteroxenous species at all habitats. Since EROD activity and macrophage aggregate activity were dependent on sex and maturity of female flounder, only male fish were taken into consideration for the integrated evaluation of data. All biochemical and histochemical tests were able to reflect accurately the site-specific differences, as well as an observed pollution event at the end of 1995 as determined by chemical analyses. The correlation analysis revealed a connection not only between the single parasitological and biochemical parameters but also within these groups. The non-specific immune response and Trichodina infection intensity were correlated with all other parameters, leading to the assumption that these may serve as links between the lowest and the highest levels of biological organisation. The simultaneous use of metabolic and parasitological results facilitated the interpretation of the observed variations of the data and the distinction between natural variation and pollution-mediated effects.

  7. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  8. Efficacy of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Joelma N; Santos, Renata C; Souza, Eliane S; Santos, Fred L; Silva, Mônica L S; Silva, Moacir P; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Soares, Neci M

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of stool examination for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, a total of 634 stool samples from the routine laboratory service of the Pharmacia Faculty, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, were examined by agar plate culture (APC), Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation. The sensitivity of agar plate culture, calculated by combining results of all 3 methods, was 95% for S. stercoralis and 77.6% for hookwoorm. Moreover, APC had superior accuracy than Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation for S. stercoralis and hookworm diagnosis, respectively. The S. stercoralis and hookworm positive samples from the laboratory routine, obtained after the previous analysis, along with those initially selected, were used to evaluate the concordance between microscopic examination and both the type of furrows left by larvae and the time for culture positivity using the APC method. Of 115 stool samples positive for S. stercoralis and 92 positive for hookworm, 110 (95.7%) and 89 (96.7%), respectively, had concordant results for furrows and morphological characteristics. The cumulative percentage of positivity increased to 94% by the third day of observation; at this time, only 19.6% of hookworm-positive samples had positive culture plates. Analyses of 74 S. stercoralis-positive stool samples stored at 4°C for 24, 48 and 72h showed the presence of larvae in 48.6%, 28.4% and 23% of samples, respectively when re-examined by the APC. As a definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis depends on the microscopic demonstration of parasites, increasing the sensitivity of the detection requires the use of different parasitological methods, including APC.

  9. Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Hen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Bergquist, Robert; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-10-04

    Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled "Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China" (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

  10. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  11. The Rücker-Markov invariants of complex Bio-Systems: applications in Parasitology and Neuroinformatics.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; Pazos, Alejandro; Munteanu, Cristian R

    2013-03-01

    Rücker's walk count (WC) indices are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in Chemoinformatics to quantify the molecular structure of drugs represented by a graph in Quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) studies. In this work, we introduce for the first time the higher-order (kth order) analogues (WCk) of these indices using Markov chains. In addition, we report new QSPR models for large complex networks of different Bio-Systems useful in Parasitology and Neuroinformatics. The new type of QSPR models can be used for model checking to calculate numerical scores S(Lij) for links Lij (checking or re-evaluation of network connectivity) in large networks of all these fields. The method may be summarized as follows: (i) first, the WCk(j) values are calculated for all jth nodes in a complex network already created; (ii) A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to seek a linear equation that discriminates connected or linked (Lij=1) pairs of nodes experimentally confirmed from non-linked ones (Lij=0); (iii) The new model is validated with external series of pairs of nodes; (iv) The equation obtained is used to re-evaluate the connectivity quality of the network, connecting/disconnecting nodes based on the quality scores calculated with the new connectivity function. The linear QSPR models obtained yielded the following results in terms of overall test accuracy for re-construction of complex networks of different Bio-Systems: parasite-host networks (93.14%), NW Spain fasciolosis spreading networks (71.42/70.18%) and CoCoMac Brain Cortex co-activation network (86.40%). Thus, this work can contribute to the computational re-evaluation or model checking of connectivity (collation) in complex systems of any science field.

  12. Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled “Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China” (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world. PMID:23036110

  13. A parasitological survey of natural water springs and inhabitants of a tourist city in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Branco, Nilson; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2012-05-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in main springs of Campos do Jordão, an important tourist city, in Brazil and to gather the largest amount of parasitological data from autochthonous population that live in rural areas of this city. The membrane filtration technique followed by direct immunofluorescence assay was employed for concentration and visualization of waterborne protozoa. In the period between June 2003 and May 2004, the presence of at least one pathogenic protozoa was detected in 25.0% (3/12) of the springs studied, with mean concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and 0.07 to 0.1 Giardia sp. cysts/L. The coproparasitological investigation conducted in dwellers from two rural communities from this city revealed that 49.2% (91/185) of people had intestinal parasites. Among pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium was the most prevalent species (8.1%) followed by Giardia duodenalis (5.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (2.7%), and Blastocystis hominis (2.2%). The most prevalent geohelminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (9.7%). This study demonstrated the contamination and the distribution of intestinal parasites, especially Cryptosporidium and Giardia species, in different springs of an important tourist city in Brazil, highlighting the need of monitoring natural water sources. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis detected in some specific populations of this city may function as a link of transmission of different intestinal parasitosis due to soil and water contamination, contributing to the maintenance of parasite life cycles. Therefore, the inclusion of consistent public health interventions with measures that include the protection of springs, the installation of minimum health infrastructure, and primary education of the population are widely necessary, aiming the control and prevention of parasite infections.

  14. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples.

    PubMed

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR.

  15. [The singular story of Doctor Worm -Nicholas Andry de Boisregard- and of his daughters Parasitology and Orthopaedics].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics.

  16. [The singular story of Doctor Worm -Nicholas Andry de Boisregard- and of his daughters Parasitology and Orthopaedics].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics. PMID:23282505

  17. Evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of myrrh extract: parasitological and histological study.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed M A; El Ebiary, Faika H; Abou-Gamra, Maha M M; Mohamed, Ghada F; Shaker, Safaa M

    2004-12-01

    Ninety mice were divided into three main groups: G. I (non-infected control), G. II (infected non treated control) and G. III (infected treated), which was further subdivided into 4 subgroups: IIIA, IIIB, IIIC & IIID, where the drug was administered in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight for five days before infection for subgroup IIIA, on the 1st day post infection (PI) for subgroup IIIB, 21 days PI for subgroup IIIC and 45 days post infection for subgroup IIID. All animals were sacrificed 80 days after the start of the experiment. Anti-schistosomal activity was assessed parasitologically by estimating the percentage reducetion of worm burden, egg count/gm tissues (liver & intestine), and the oogram pattern; histologically & histopathologically by examination of jejunum using different stains. The percentage reduction of worm burden was 30.35%, 64.54%, 76.92% and 98.46% respectively when compared to the infected non-treated control G. The maximum effect of the drug was observed in subgroups IIIC & IIID. Also, there was marked reduction in the egg count in tissues (liver & intestine). In addition the oogram pattern showed that myrrh had high antischistosomal activity. The histologically and histopathologically infected untreated (GII), when compared to non-infected non-treated control G. showed apparent shortening and flattening of the jejunal villi with focal loss of the epithelial covering. Loss of PAS positive brush border of many enterocytes with goblet cells hyperplasia was seen. Bilharzial granulomas were frequently encountered in the submucosa and the musculosa with numerous eosinophils content. In subgroups IIIA & IIIB, there was mild amelioration of the mucosal structural abnormalities. The granulomas were less frequently seen with decrease of their eosinophils. In subgroups IIIC & IIID there was restoration of the jejunal mucosal continuity, marked decrease in the granulomas and paucity of eosinophils. The present data proved that myrrh has a valuable

  18. [Effect of steam application based on microbiological and parasitologic test procedures].

    PubMed

    Haas, A; Platz, S; Eichhorn, W; Kaaden, O R; Unshelm, J

    1998-12-01

    In the present study steam application was investigated with regard to microbicidal and parasiticidal effects. The cleaning apparatus used (Uninova Company) works at a boiler pressure of about 5 bar and consequently with a temperature up to 155 degrees C inside the boiler. Whereas the ambient atmosphere working temperature of steam is slightly below 100 degrees C. The tests are based on the DVG guidelines for testing chemical disinfectants (2). Different steaming times and distances were used in germ carrier tests with three different germ carriers (tile, wood, carpet) and three different test germs (Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) in order to determine the optimum conditions for biocidal effects of steam-application. These optimum conditions were additionally tested with two test viruses (ECBO- and Reo-virus) and a parasitological resting form (ascarid worm eggs). Swirling of germs caused by steam turbulence was minimized by covering the steam outlet nozzle with cloth. The experiments showed logarithmical reduction factors of at least 5.0 in the germ count at steaming times of 5 seconds and a steaming distance of 2.5 cm for all three test germs on all three germ carriers (mean of 10 repeated tests). The virological tests showed good disinfection results after a steaming time of only 2 seconds using aseptic gauze as germ carrier and also after 5 seconds using wood as a carrier. Finally in testing vitality of undeveloped Ascarid worm eggs only 2 seconds of steam treatment proved to be sufficient for a 100 percent destruction. According to the present results steam treatment is most likely to become a valuable, ecologically compatible method in controlling hygienic problems, with a potential of partly replacing chemical disinfectants. In particular we see applications in keeping pets and companion animals, provided the above mentioned rules are followed (steaming distance 2.5 cm; steaming time 5 seconds; cloth). In farm animal stables

  19. Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072 m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150 m and 1947 m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n = 10) opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) at 3640 m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (<1500 m) and high (>1500 m) altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0), respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4) and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3). The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937 m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix) natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800 m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000 m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800 m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several

  20. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area. PMID:21550616

  1. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area.

  2. [Historical review on the development of medical parasitology in China during the years of 1871-2006].

    PubMed

    Qu, Feng-yi

    2007-08-01

    The present review deals with the representative research papers on human parasites and parasitic diseases in China over the past hundred years (1871-2006). As the views focused on the development of the medical parasitology, the historical background and progressive characters in the period of fermentation, origination, and expansion have been discussed. The check list of the first cases of human parasitic diseases reported in China during 1871-2006 contained 128 species of parasitic pathogens, and among them 38 species were the newly revisional records. The citation from Faust's paper (1923) proved that previous record of "the first case of Eurytrema pancreaticum from Hongkong" was an absurdly mistake. The human infections of Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and Triodontophorus minor discovered by Lin (1924) from Beijing were the first records in the country. A doubtful malaria case reported from Chongqing by Hung (1944) should be revised as the first case of babesiosis in China. The above-presented examples suggest that the truthful record of parasitic pathogens is an important base for the discovery history of parasitic diseases. With comments on the research progress of human parasitic diseases in different historical stages, it seems that the trends of medical parasitology development in China have been synchronous with the research activities in the area.

  3. One-year clinical and parasitological follow-up of dogs treated with marbofloxacin for canine leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Sandrine; Hasseine, Lilia; Delaunay, Pascal; Michel, Grégory; Marty, Pierre

    2012-05-25

    The purpose of this international, multicentric, and non-comparative field trial was to obtain complementary data on long-term clinical and parasitological follow-up of dogs treated with marbofloxacin for canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Seventy-four dogs with clinical signs of CanL and without severe renal failure were recruited in France, Spain and Italy, and 61 of them were part of the analysis. Each dog was treated with palatable tablets of marbofloxacin at 2 mg/kg once a day for 28 days. A clinical and parasitological follow-up was performed regularly up to 12 months. Efficacy was demonstrated in 42 dogs (68.9%), within 51 days (mean value), 10 of them (23.8%) being clinically cured after 3 months. A decrease of 61% in the sum of clinical scores was observed after 3 months. Haemato-biochemical parameters improved in general, supporting the observed clinical efficacy. Relapse was observed in 20/38 dogs (52.6%) approximately 5.5 months after treatment completion. The blood parasite load generally developed in conformity with the clinical outcome, even if exceptions were not rare. Lymph nodes remained positive by culture or PCR for a long time, even in dogs for which a good clinical response was observed. Despite the incomplete parasite clearance, as is also the case with other anti-leishmanial drugs, these results nevertheless confirm the relevance of marbofloxacin as a CanL treatment.

  4. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    PubMed Central

    Malagón, Filiberto

    2008-01-01

    This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  5. [Thirty years of the electron microscope investigation in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    PubMed

    Shatrov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The history of the electron microscope investigations in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and progress in scanning and transmission electron microscope investigations in this field of biology to the moment are briefly accounted.

  6. [Impact of a new parasitologic laboratory for malaria diagnosis on diagnosis and cost of malaria in a company setting: experience from Angola].

    PubMed

    Besnard, P; Foumane, V; Foucher, J F; Beliaud, P; Costa, J; Monnot, N; Le Mire, J; Carnevale, P

    2006-06-01

    In malaria endemic areas treating every fever episode as a malaria onset would result in overdiagnosis with a margin of the error varying in function of epidemiological factors. When further compounded by overestimation related to errors in parasitologic diagnosis, clinical misdiagnosis leads to unwarranted hospitalization and inappropriate treatment. In a company setting this would mean unnecessary loss of employee work time. False positive diagnosis causes overestimation of chemoresistance, overconsumption of antimalarial drugs and underestimation of other infectious diseases. Judging from these high costs, it can be assumed that improving the reliability of parasitologic diagnosis would have a positive impact on the quality of clinical management, efficiency of antimalarial use and accuracy of epidemiological surveys. This assumption was confirmed by analysis of data following start-up of a parasitologic laboratory for malaria diagnosis in the health care clinic at Sonamet's fabrication yard in Lobito, Angola. Laboratory personnel receives expert training and audit findings demonstrate consistently reliable diagnosis. This experience underscores the need for reliable parasitologic diagnosis as a prerequisite for any large-scale malaria control program.

  7. [Trends of faunistic-ecological researches in the Department of Parasitology in Wrocław University].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna; Lonc, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the results of systematic-ecological investigations of host-parasite relationships in the context of 45 year history of the Parasitological Department at the University of Wrocław. Achievements are concentrated on the presentations of new taxonomic units and rearrangement of classification of parasitic protozoans and tapeworms (J. Janiszewska), nematodes (A. Okulewicz), lice (J. Złotorzycka, E. Lonc, M. Modrzejewska). Faunistic and biometrical data of parasitic commities of fishes, birds and mammals, mainly rodents as well as the vector role of ticks and mosquitoes at Wroclaw area are also discussed. Localities of those parasites and their hosts, collected mainly from the Lower Silesia region are rearranged according to new system of physicogeographic differentiation of Poland and its regional position at biogeographical map of world.

  8. Urinary schistosomiasis in rural communities of some local government areas in Plateau State, Nigeria: a preliminary parasitological and malacological survey.

    PubMed

    Akufongwe, P F; Dakul, D A; Michael, P D; Dajagat, P D; Arabs, W L

    1996-03-01

    A preliminary parasitological and malacological survey was effected in rural communities of some Local Government Areas (LGA) in Plateau State, Nigeria, to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and identify active transmission foci. Out of 2888 persons examined in six LGAs, 1381 (47.82%) were excreting eggs of Schistosoma haematobium in their urine. Prevalence rates did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) between the LGAs: Pankshin (62.4%), Shendam (40.2%), Qua'an-Pan (22.9%), Langtang South (45.4%), Langtang North (58.8%) and Wase (50.0%). Infection rates were significantly different (P < 0.001) between the sexes. Many water bodies in the study communities were colonized by infected Bulinus snails. Snail infection rates varied significantly (P < 0.001) between the dry and wet seasons. A positive correlation was observed between snail infection rates and the prevalence of S. haematobium. PMID:8960195

  9. [Trends of faunistic-ecological researches in the Department of Parasitology in Wrocław University].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna; Lonc, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the results of systematic-ecological investigations of host-parasite relationships in the context of 45 year history of the Parasitological Department at the University of Wrocław. Achievements are concentrated on the presentations of new taxonomic units and rearrangement of classification of parasitic protozoans and tapeworms (J. Janiszewska), nematodes (A. Okulewicz), lice (J. Złotorzycka, E. Lonc, M. Modrzejewska). Faunistic and biometrical data of parasitic commities of fishes, birds and mammals, mainly rodents as well as the vector role of ticks and mosquitoes at Wroclaw area are also discussed. Localities of those parasites and their hosts, collected mainly from the Lower Silesia region are rearranged according to new system of physicogeographic differentiation of Poland and its regional position at biogeographical map of world. PMID:18075153

  10. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Gongora, Rafael E.; Valderrama, Liliana; Jojoa, Jimena; Alexander, Neal; Rubiano, Luisa C.; Cossio, Alexandra; Adams, Emily R.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Gomez, María Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    Background The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking. Methods We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed. Principal Findings Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114) of leishmanin skin test (LST) positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total). Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Conclusions Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia) transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and

  11. Parasitological, Hematological and Biochemical Characteristics of a Model of Hyper-microfilariaemic Loiasis (Loa loa) in the Baboon (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Eyong, Ebanga-Echi; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ngwa, Che; Esuka, Elive; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice; Enyong, Peter; Hopkins, Adrian; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Loiasis, a filarial infection caused by Loa loa usually thought to cause relatively minor morbidity, can cause serious and often fatal reactions in patients carrying very high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae (mf) following administration of microfilaricidal drugs. An experimental model of this condition would greatly aid the definition of the optimal management of this important clinical presentation. Methodology/Principle Findings Fifteen baboons (Papio anubis) were infected with 600 infective larvae (L3) isolated from Chrysops vector flies. Animals were observed for any clinical changes; blood samples were collected every 1–2 months for 22 months, and analysed for parasitological, hematological and biochemical profiles using standard techniques. All animals became patent but remained clinically normal throughout the study. The parasitological pre-patent period was between 4–8 months, with a majority (60%) of animals becoming patent by 5 months post infection (MPI); all animals were patent by 8 MPI. Microfilarial loads increased steadily in all animals and reached a peak at 18 MPI. By 10 MPI >70% of animals had mf >8,000 mf/mL, and at 18 MPI >70% of animals had mf >30,000mf/mL with 50% of these animals with mf >50,000mf/mL. Absolute eosinophil, creatinine, Ca2+ and K+ levels were generally above normal values (NV). Positive associations were seen between microfilariaemia and eosinophilia, Hb, Ca2+, and gamma-GT values, whilst significant negative associations were seen between microfilariaemia and potassium, glucose and mononuclear leukocyte levels. Conclusions Infection of splenectomised baboons with L. loa can induce levels of circulating microfilariae, and corresponding haematological profiles, which parallel those seen in those humans in danger of the severe post-microfilariacide clinical responses. Utilization of this experimental model could contribute to the improved management of the loiasis related adverse responses in humans

  12. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning.

  13. Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Shil

    2009-10-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

  14. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

    PubMed Central

    Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known. Methods In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated. Results Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4%) and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-)0,548 and r = (-)0,726; respectively). Conclusion A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial

  15. The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . II. The Red Sea and Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamant, A.; Banet, A.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.; Broeg, K.; Kruener, G.; Koerting, W.; Zander, S.

    1999-12-01

    were completely absent. We may therefore regard the Mediterranean as a simulation model for a severely environmentally deteriorated, impoverished habitat, in which all or part of the intermediate host species have been depleted, enabling survival of the monoxenous parasite species only. Parasitological investigations were supplemented by testing the activity of cytochrome P 450- dependent mono-oxygenase EROD as a measure of exposure, and lysosomal stability as a measure of toxic effect in the liver of rabbitfish. The results underline the parasitological findings, showing that fish caught at the impacted sandy beach location in the Red Sea have significantly higher EROD activity and a decreased membrane stability compared with animals from the coral reef. In comparison, EROD activity values in rabbitfish from the Mediterranean Sea were double, while lysosomal membrane stability was half that measured at the most impacted Red Sea location.

  16. Performance of LBSap Vaccine after Intradermal Challenge with L. infantum and Saliva of Lu. longipalpis: Immunogenicity and Parasitological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; de Lana, Marta; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Marques, Marcos José; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the search for new vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis has intensified. However, the pattern related to immune protection during long periods after experimental infection in vaccine trials is still not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and parasitological levels after intradermal challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland extract in dogs immunized with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as an adjuvant (LBSap vaccine). The LBSap vaccine elicited higher levels of total anti-Leishmania IgG as well as both IgG1 and IgG2. Furthermore, dogs vaccinated had increased levels of lymphocytes, particularly circulating B cells (CD21+) and both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. LBSap also elicited an intense in vitro cell proliferation associated with higher levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes specific for vaccine soluble antigen and soluble lysate of L. infantum antigen even 885 days after experimental challenge. Furthermore, LBSap vaccinated dogs presented high IFN-γ and low IL-10 and TGF-β1 expression in spleen with significant reduction of parasite load in this tissue. Overall, our results validate the potential of LBSap vaccine to protect against L. infantum experimental infection and strongly support further evaluation of efficiency of LBSap against CVL in natural infection conditions. PMID:23189161

  17. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs.

  18. Effect of Experimental Infection with Haemonchus contortus on Parasitological and Local Cellular Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Young Creole Goats

    PubMed Central

    Bambou, J. C.; Larcher, T.; Ceï, W.; Dumoulin, P. J.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations. PMID:23936855

  19. A comparative evaluation of parasitological tests and a PCR for Trypanosoma evansi diagnosis in experimentally infected water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Holland, W G; Claes, F; My, L N; Thanh, N G; Tam, P T; Verloo, D; Büscher, P; Goddeeris, B; Vercruysse, J

    2001-05-01

    In this study five parasitological methods and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were compared for the diagnostic sensitivity for Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected water buffaloes over a period of 15 weeks. The combined estimates of sensitivity (CE(se)) of the PCR proved to be highest at 78.2%, closely followed by the mouse inoculation (MI), the micro-haematocrite centrifugation technique (MHCT) and the mini-anion-exchange centrifugation technique (MAECT) with CE(se) of, respectively, 74.0, 69.6 and 62.4%. The CE(se) of the buffy-coat technique (BCT) at 38.6% and the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) clarification technique at 25.1% were considerably lower. PCR detected consistently all buffaloes infected from week 3 post-infection (PI) onwards. For MI this occurred after 5 weeks PI while for MHCT and MAECT these sustainable high levels were reached in the 7th week PI. BCT and SDS never detected all buffaloes infected. The influence of time and temperature on the viability of T. evansi in heparinized blood from water buffalo was also studied. In general we observed that the survival time tends to be longer when blood is kept at 4 degrees C. In samples kept in direct sunlight parasites became undetectable with the MHCT after 30min. After treatment of the water buffaloes with diminazene aceturate, the PCR signal disappeared within 24h.

  20. Genotypic analysis of β-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Boakye, Daniel A; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. β-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the β-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the β-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

  1. Parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Okeke, O C; Ubachukwu, P O; Okafor, F C; Shoyinka, S V O

    2012-12-01

    The parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium were studied. A total of 16 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups (four per group): non-immunosuppressed, non-infected group (NN); immunosuppressed, non-infected group (IN); immunosuppressed, infected group (II); non-immunosuppressed, infected group (NI). The IN and II groups were immunosuppressed with 5 mg/kg prednisolone while the II and NI animals were infected with 200-300 S. haematobium cercariae. Excretion of eggs in urine/faeces, worm burden and histopathology of some vital organs of the guinea-pigs were studied. Eggs of S. haematobium were observed in the urine of the NI and II groups from 9 weeks post-infection and in faeces from 10 and 13 weeks post-infection for the NI and II groups, respectively. However, II animals excreted more viable eggs in urine and faeces than those of the NI group. Worm recovery at 14 weeks post-infection showed that NI and II guinea-pigs had more female worms than male worms and a greater proportion of worm recovery for NI animals was of immature worms. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between female, male and immature worm burden of the two groups but not in their total worm burden (P>0.05). Histological changes, which were notably reactions to adult S. haematobium worms, were observed in the organs of the NI and II groups but these changes were seen more in the organs of the immunosuppressed, infected (II) than in the non-immunosuppressed, infected (NI) guinea-pigs. The results suggest that immunosuppression before infection increased worm survival and had a moderate effect on liver and bladder histology of S. haematobium infected guinea-pigs.

  2. Weibull statistical analysis of tensile strength of vascular bundle in inner layer of moso bamboo culm in molecular parasitology and vector biology.

    PubMed

    Le, Cui; Wanxi, Peng; Zhengjun, Sun; Lili, Shang; Guoning, Chen

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo is a radial gradient variation composite material against parasitology and vector biology, but the vascular bundles in inner layer are evenly distributed. The objective is to determine the regular size pattern and Weibull statistical analysis of the vascular bundle tensile strength in inner layer of Moso bamboo. The size and shape of vascular bundles in inner layer are similar, with an average area about 0.1550 mm2. A statistical evaluation of the tensile strength of vascular bundle was conducted by means of Weibull statistics, the results show that the Weibull modulus m is 6.1121 and the accurate reliability assessment of vascular bundle is determined.

  3. Explaining variability in first grazing season heifer growth combining individually measured parasitological and clinical indicators with exposure to gastrointestinal nematode infection based on grazing management practice.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Aurélie; Chauvin, Alain; Madouasse, Aurélien; Froger, Sébastien; Bareille, Nathalie; Chartier, Christophe

    2016-07-30

    The objective of our study was to explain the variability of average daily weight gain (ADWG) due to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection for 291 non treated first grazing season (FGS) heifers, from 12 independent groups in the western part of France, by combining parasitological and clinical indicators at individual level and grazing management indicators at group level. Parasitological indicators were faecal egg count (FEC), anti Ostertagia ostertagi antibody level (Ostertagia ODR), and pepsinogen level. Clinical indicators were diarrhea score (DISCO) and breech soiling score (BSS). At group level, grazing management practice (GMP), based on three variables (supplementation, month of turnout, grazing season duration), was clustered into three categories reflecting low, medium or high exposure (EXP) to GIN. Depending on the groups, turnout was from mid-March to early July and housing was from mid-October to late November, with a FGS duration ranging from 4 to 8.4 months. At turnout, the mean age of heifers was 8 months (range: 6-16 months) and they weighed between 175 and 268kg. In each GMP category, FEC significantly decreased between the mid-season and the housing, while Ostertagia ODR and pepsinogen level increased gradually throughout the grazing season. In contrast, clinical indicators did not show any seasonal variation. In a multivariate linear model, 22% of the ADWG variability was significantly explained by two individual indicators (Ostertagia ODR: 12.6%, DISCO: 4.8%) and by the group indicator (GMP category: 4.8%). ADWG losses due to GIN exposure (Ostertagia ODR) were estimated up to 39kg per heifer for the overall grazing season. For groups within the low EXP category the difference between animals with low (<697g/day) or high (>697g/day) ADWG was explained by the clinical indicator DISCO. In contrast, for groups within the medium and high EXP categories this difference was explained by a parasitological indicator (Ostertagia ODR). This study

  4. Entomological and parasitological impacts of indoor residual spraying with DDT, alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin in the western foothill area of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Madagascar, indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide was part of the national malaria control programme since the middle of the twentieth century. It was mainly employed in the highlands and the foothill areas, which are prone to malaria epidemics. Prior to a policy change foreseeing a shift from DDT to pyrethroids, a study was carried out to assess the entomological and parasitological impacts of IRS in areas with DDT or pyrethroids and in areas without IRS. Methods The study was carried out from October 2002 to February 2005 in three communes of the western foothill area of Madagascar. Two communes received IRS with DDT in February 2003, then IRS with pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin or deltamethrin) in February 2004. The third commune remained untreated. Mosquitoes were collected at night using human landing catches and early in the morning in resting places. Blood smears were obtained from schoolchildren and microscopically examined for Plasmodium presence. Results In total, 18,168 human landing mosquitoes and 12,932 resting anophelines were collected. The Anopheles species caught comprised 10 species. The main and most abundant malaria vector was Anopheles funestus (72.3% of human-seeking malaria vectors caught indoors). After IRS had taken place, this species exhibited a lower human biting rate and a lower sporozoite index. Overall, 5,174 blood smears were examined with a mean plasmodic index of 19.9%. A total of four Plasmodium species were detected. Amongst tested school children the highest plasmodial index was 54.6% in the untreated commune, compared to 19.9% in the commune sprayed with DDT and 11.9% in the commune sprayed with pyrethroid. The highest prevalence of clinical malaria attacks in children present at school the day of the survey was 33% in the untreated commune compared to 8% in the areas which received IRS. Conclusion In terms of public health, the present study shows (1) a high efficacy of IRS with insecticide, (2) a

  5. Chagas' disease in Aboriginal and Creole communities from the Gran Chaco Region of Argentina: Seroprevalence and molecular parasitological characterization.

    PubMed

    Lucero, R H; Brusés, B L; Cura, C I; Formichelli, L B; Juiz, N; Fernández, G J; Bisio, M; Deluca, G D; Besuschio, S; Hernández, D O; Schijman, A G

    2016-07-01

    Most indigenous ethnias from Northern Argentina live in rural areas of "the Gran Chaco" region, where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic. Serological and parasitological features have been poorly characterized in Aboriginal populations and scarce information exist regarding relevant T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) and parasitic loads. This study was focused to characterize T. cruzi infection in Qom, Mocoit, Pit'laxá and Wichi ethnias (N=604) and Creole communities (N=257) inhabiting rural villages from two highly endemic provinces of the Argentinean Gran Chaco. DNA extracted using Hexadecyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide reagent from peripheral blood samples was used for conventional PCR targeted to parasite kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) and identification of DTUs using nuclear genomic markers. In kDNA-PCR positive samples from three rural Aboriginal communities of "Monte Impenetrable Chaqueño", minicircle signatures were characterized by Low stringency single primer-PCR and parasitic loads calculated using Real-Time PCR. Seroprevalence was higher in Aboriginal (47.98%) than in Creole (27.23%) rural communities (Chi square, p=4.e(-8)). A low seroprevalence (4.3%) was detected in a Qom settlement at the suburbs of Resistencia city (Fisher Exact test, p=2.e(-21)).The kDNA-PCR positivity was 42.15% in Aboriginal communities and 65.71% in Creole populations (Chi square, p=5.e(-4)). Among Aboriginal communities kDNA-PCR positivity was heterogeneous (Chi square, p=1.e(-4)). Highest kDNA-PCR positivity (79%) was detected in the Qom community of Colonia Aborigen and the lowest PCR positivity in two different surveys at the Wichi community of Misión Nueva Pompeya (33.3% in 2010 and 20.8% in 2014). TcV (or TcII/V/VI) was predominant in both Aboriginal and Creole communities, in agreement with DTU distribution reported for the region. Besides, two subjects were infected with TcVI, one with TcI and four presented mixed infections of TcV plus TcII/VI. Most minicircle signatures

  6. Course of Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection after Treatment Based on Parasitological and Serological Tests: A Systematic Review of Follow-Up Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sguassero, Yanina; Cuesta, Cristina B.; Roberts, Karen N.; Hicks, Elizabeth; Comandé, Daniel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic in Latin American countries outside the Caribbean. The current criterion for cure in the chronic phase of the disease is the negativization of at least two serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The serological evolution of treated subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection is variable. Treatment failure is indicated by a positive parasitological and/or molecular test (persistence of parasitemia). Objectives To summarize the pattern of response to treatment of parasitological, molecular and serological tests performed during the follow-up of subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection. Methods Electronic searches in relevant databases and screening of citations of potentially eligible articles were accomplished. Organizations focusing on neglected infectious diseases were asked for help in identifying relevant studies. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cohort studies involving adults and children with chronic infection who received trypanocidal treatment (benznidazole or nifurtimox) and were followed over time. The assessment of risk of bias was performed separately for each study design. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool and the guidelines developed by Hayden et al. were used. Two reviewers extracted all data independently. A third review author was consulted in case of discordant opinion. Additional analyses were defined in ad-hoc basis. Scatter plots for percentage of positive parasitological and molecular tests and for negative serological tests were developed by using the lowess curve technique. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols (Registration Number CRD42012002162). Results Out of 2,136 citations

  7. Benefits from Network "Parasitology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornudd, Elin

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of experience gained by the Finnish central library for technology in off-line use of computer-based services, both selective dissemination of information and retrospective searches offered by the Royal Institute of Technology Library and the Biomedical Documentation Centre in Stockholm, as well as the Technological Library of Denmark…

  8. Updates in immunoassays: parasitology.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Although most clinical laboratories use microscopy and routine O&P procedures when identifying parasitic infections, there are several parasites that are better detected through serological means. Toxoplasma, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were discussed along with immunoassays used for their detection. Immunoassays provide quick results and are less labor intensive than specimen concentration and slide preparation for microscopic examination. These assays are easy to use and provide sensitive and specific results. Some clinical laboratories no longer perform O&Ps in house and refer specimens to reference laboratories for evaluation. By using immunoassays, some of the more common parasites can be identified in a timely manner reducing turn-around times. Some controversy exists over the use of IIF and EIA tests used for ANA testing along with measuring CRPs and PCT as predictors of bacterial sepsis and septic shock. Regardless of the methodology discussed in this series of articles, there are pros and cons to the various immunoassays available. Determining the most appropriate assay based on patient population and volume is governed by the institution and its patients' needs. In conclusion, immunoassays, whether manual or automated, are easy to use, cost effective and allow the medical laboratory professional to provide quick and accurate results to the clinician so the most appropriate treatment can be administered to the patient. The ultimate goal of healthcare professionals is to provide the highest quality of medical care in a timely manner. The use of immunoassays in the clinical laboratory allows the healthcare team to successfully achieve this goal.

  9. Bioinformatics meets parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cantacessi, C; Campbell, B E; Jex, A R; Young, N D; Hall, R S; Ranganathan, S; Gasser, R B

    2012-05-01

    The advent and integration of high-throughput '-omics' technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics and lipidomics) are revolutionizing the way biology is done, allowing the systems biology of organisms to be explored. These technologies are now providing unique opportunities for global, molecular investigations of parasites. For example, studies of a transcriptome (all transcripts in an organism, tissue or cell) have become instrumental in providing insights into aspects of gene expression, regulation and function in a parasite, which is a major step to understanding its biology. The purpose of this article was to review recent applications of next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic tools to large-scale investigations of the transcriptomes of parasitic nematodes of socio-economic significance (particularly key species of the order Strongylida) and to indicate the prospects and implications of these explorations for developing novel methods of parasite intervention.

  10. [Parasitological profile of two forms of schistosomiasis (urinary and intestinal forms) at ten sites in Burkina Faso (Sub-Saharan Africa country)].

    PubMed

    Zongo, Dramane; Kabre, B Gustave; Dayeri, Dianou; Savadogo, Boubacar; Poda, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    In spite of great progress in schistosomiasis control during the last decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health concern in the country. Indeed, our study consisted of the analysis of parasitological data related to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni and in malacological investigations. The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4% and from 3.3% to 39.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, but only in the western part of Burkina Faso. Schoolboys are more infested than girls, but the phenomenon is reversed in adults. Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus were collected during this study. Thus, the behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease.

  11. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Guerrero, Celedonio; Vargas-Hernandez, Ines; Ramirez-Miranda, Maria Elena; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Valadez, Alicia; Ximenez, Cecilia; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Hernandez-Campos, Maria Elena; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret’s and in Pavlova’s media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST). Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π) as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively), whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima’s D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret’s than in Pavlova’s medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05). We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  12. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0

  13. Comparison of passive fecal flotation run by veterinary students to zinc-sulfate centrifugation flotation run in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique.

  14. A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention

    PubMed Central

    Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araújo; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Coura, José Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Torres, Rosália Morais; de Lana, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease. PMID:24037109

  15. Experimental Chagas' disease in rhesus monkeys. I. Clinical, parasitological, hematological and anatomo-pathological studies in the acute and indeterminate phase of the disease.

    PubMed

    Bonecini-Almeida, M da G; Galvão-Castro, B; Pessoa, M H; Pirmez, C; Laranja, F

    1990-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were infected subcutaneously with 1.0 x 10(4) to 1.5 x 10(4) metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Colombian strain). Parasitological and immunological parameters were evaluated in these animals for periods of 1 month to over 3 years. A chagoma was observed between the 3rd and the 13th day after infection (a.i.) and patent parasitaemia between the 13th and 59th day a.i.. Thereafter, parasites were demonstrated only by haemoculture and/or xenodiagnosis. Circulating specific IgM and IgG antibodies were observed as early as in the 2nd week a.i. IgG levels persisted until the end of the experiment, but IgM antibodies were detectable nine months a.i. Haematological alterations comprised leucocytosis and lymphocytosis. Electrocardiographic alterations were minor and transient, similar to those observed in non-lethal human acute Chagas' myocarditis. Myocarditis and myositis, characterized by multiple foci of lympho-histiocyte inflammatory infiltrate, were present in monkeys sacrificed on the 41st, 70th and 76th day but not in the animal sacrificed 3 years and 3 months a. i.. The results suggest that Chagas' disease in rhesus monkeys reproduces the acute and indeterminate phases of human Chagas' disease. PMID:2128360

  16. Efficacy of pour-on and injectable formulations of moxidectin and ivermectin in cattle naturally infected with Psoroptes ovis: parasitological, clinical and serological data.

    PubMed

    Lonneux, J F; Nguyen, T Q; Losson, B J

    1997-05-01

    On the basis of Psoroptes ovis counts performed on day -7, 32 animals were randomly allocated to a control group of five animals or to four groups comprising six or seven animals which were treated, respectively, with pour-on ivermectin (IPO), injectable ivermectin (II), pour-on moxidectin (MPO) and injectable moxidectin (IM). Living mites were counted in skin scrapings on days 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 post-treatment (PT). Lesions were recorded on a standardized map on days 0 and 56 PT. Antibody kinetics were studied using ELISA on serially diluted sera. The antibody titres were expressed as the dilution giving the positive/negative cut-off. Until their treatment on day 28, the control animals remained parasitologically positive and their antibody titres increased. In treated groups, all living mite counts were negative on days 28 and 42 PT but some animals were still infected on days 7 and 14 PT. On day 56, living P. ovis were found in one animal of the IPO group. An equation of regression describing the antibody decrease was calculated with each individual data set. In most of the treated animals, the coefficient of determination R2, which describes the closeness of fit to the linear model, was above 0.9. The linear model could not be applied (low R2) to the antibody kinetics of four animals: the day 56 positive animal and its two neighbours in the IPO group and one animal from the MPO group. In the treated groups, the differences between the numbers of infected animals, the mean daily weight gains or the mean antibody titres were not statistically significant. Mean daily weight gains of the treated groups were higher than in control animals. PMID:9195741

  17. [Blastocystis hominis in Canavese: a retrospective study of samples received for fecal parasitological examination at the Ivrea- Castellamonte Hospital over 42 months].

    PubMed

    Pistono, P G; Dusi, M P; Ronchetto, F; Cestonaro, G; Guasco, C

    1991-01-01

    In the last ten years the interest in the controversial Blastocystis hominis microorganism of the intestine has greatly increased. The authors conducted a retrospective study of feces for parasitology investigations at the Ivrea-Castellamonte hospital. These investigations lasted 42 months (1/1/1988-31/6/1991) and the authors focused their attention on samples with 5 or more Blastocystis hominis at the microscopically examination with a 40X phase objective. During the study 2,138 samples of feces (belonging to 1552 patients) arrived. 284 samples (13.3%), corresponding to 200 patients (12.9%), proved to be positive for one or more parasites. In 155 samples (7.2%) regarding 109 patients (7.0%)--53 males, 56 females--Blastocystis was present. These patients were between 2 and 78 years of age. In 19 (17.4%) of these patients other parasites were associated, parasites such as Giardia lamblia (in 6 cases), Entamoeba coli (in 4 cases), Entamoeba spp. (in 2 cases), Entamoeba histolytica (in one case), Entamoeba hartmanni (in one case), Iodamoeba butschlii (in one case), Hymenolepis nana (in one case); helminths (in 3 cases). The most effect proved to be those patients between 21 and 50 years of age (53 of 98 patients). Few infants were affected. The greatest incidence of Blastocystis hominis infection occurred during the months of January to June. The authors conclude by considering how the incidence data of such parasitosis in the Canavese region can be superimposed on as much as has been observed in territories which are very different regarding social-economic and geoclimatic conditions. The authors think it is necessary to start a prospective clinical-epidemiological investigation in the Canavese region with a view to defining the clinical approach to the parasite under discussion in a better way. PMID:1844921

  18. Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban.

    PubMed

    Kamel, E G; El-Emam, M A; Mahmoud, S S M; Fouda, F M; Bayaumy, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to detect the antischistosomal properties of the plants' Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban methanol extract against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice, including determination of total protein and albumin levels and the activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases (AlT, AsT) and acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AkP) enzymes in the serum of infected treated mice. Male Swiss albino mice were infected with S. mansoni and orally treated with methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg/day), C. dioscorides and S. sesban (1000 mg/kg/day from each) for 2 consecutive days 7 weeks post infection (PI). In addition, treatment of mice with the tested dose of each plant extract was successively done (i.e. the 1st extract followed by the 2nd and 3rd one with an hour interval). Parasitological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Nine weeks PI, the reduction rates of worm load/mouse treated with either C. dioscorides (1000 mg/kg), C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg) or S. sesban (1000 mg/kg) were 40.9%, 53.7% and 54.4%, respectively. Successive treatment raised the reduction rates of worm load/mouse to 66.3% and the ova/g tissue in liver to 76.9%. Moreover, serum total protein and albumin levels and activities of AlT, Ast, AcP and AkP enzymes of infected treated mice were improved in comparison with those of infected untreated ones. It is concluded that administration of C. dioscorides, C. ambrosioides and S. sesban methanol extract to infected mice exhibited a moderate antischistosomal effect. Successive treatment improved the antischistosomal properties of these plant species, hence ameliorated the liver functions of treated mice that may suggest degenerations of liver granulomas and regenerative changes.

  19. [A new parasitological index for the estimation of peculiarities of the relationships between parasite and its host, and biotope of the host].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, I I; Chachina, S B; Korallo, N P; Dmitriev, V V

    2006-01-01

    A new parasitological index (hostal-topical index) for the estimation of the degree of ectoparasite's relationship with its host and biotope of the host is proposed: [formula: see text], where [formula: see text]--hostal-topical index; n--amount of ectoparasites of the given species on the given host species in the biotope; N--amount of ectoparasites of all species from the given taxonomic group on the given host species in the biotope; n1--amount of hosts of the given species in the biotope; N1--amount of hosts of all species from the given taxonomic group in the biotope; n2--amount of ectoparasites of the given species in the biotope; N2--amount of ectoparasites of all species from the given taxonomic group in the biotope. Values [formula: see text] < 0.1 indicate that there is a distinct relationship with the biotope in spite of the host; values fallen into the range 0.1 < [formula: see text] < 0.5 indicate a moderate relationship with the biotope through the host; values [formula: see text] > 0.5 indicate a significant relationship with the host. By means of this index we have analyzed peculiarity of several parasitic species of fleas and gamasid mites to their hosts, biotopes, and biotope through the host. As it was found on the materials from different native zones and subzones of the Omsk Region (Western Siberia, Russia), values of the hostal-topical index for polyhostal parasitic species are lesser than those for oligohostal species. Values of this index can be different for the same species in the different native zones and subzones as well as in the different biotopes of the same native zone (subzone).

  20. [Ways of improving the education of specialists from the health care organizations, agencies, and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, in the area of parasitology].

    PubMed

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    The intensive modern Russian reforms in professional education require that stafftraining in medicine should be also improved. The main directions and ways of improving education in the specialty of Parasitology are as follows:--to update professional education, by applying a competence approach, in terms of which the main focus is on mastering the activity and obtaining the experience in make this activity in different situations;--to apply the modular principle in the design of educational programs and a teaching process;--to improve the fundamental training of staff in the area ofparasitology;--to enhance the integration of special, related, and basic disciplines in stafftraining.

  1. [Strongyloidosis. Part VIII. Parasitological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Soroczan, Wiesław

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of the methods of detecting Strongyloides stercoralis, by passing larvae from the faeces to water, in duodenal fluid (duodenal intubation, Enterotest), in sputum and other body fluids, have been estimated. The author recommend Baermann technique for detecting S. stercoralis in individual examinations and Dancescu technique in mass field examinations. The detection of S. stercoralis larvae by the two methods ought to be checked by Fülleborn agar Petri dish technique in order to identify parasite to the species level. PMID:16888939

  2. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (p<0.001) and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity STH at 23.5% (p=0.000), while Caubang had a significantly lower cumulative prevalence at 4.9% and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity at 1.8%. On the other hand, the non-CLTS villages of Bitoon and Saub had similar rates for cumulative prevalence (16.7% and 16.8%, respectively; p=0.984) and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity STH (2.0% and 3.1%, respectively; p=1.000). The findings may be explained by factors that include possible reversion to open defecation, non-utilization of sanitary facilities, and mass drug administration (MDA) coverage, although further studies that can accurately assess the impact of CLTS are recommended. While this study was descriptive, the data indicate no clear pattern among the parasitological and nutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS

  3. Frequency of Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in stool samples examined at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the São Paulo State University, Araraquara.

    PubMed

    Miné, Júlio César; Rosa, João Aristeu da

    2008-01-01

    Blastocystis homins is a protozoan that causes an intestinal infection known as human blastocystosis. This infection is diagnosed by means of parasitological examination of stools and by permanent staining techniques. The present study was developed to evaluate the frequency of Blastocystis hominis infection among inhabitants of the Araraquara region, State of São Paulo, and to compare different methods for investigating this protozoan in feces samples. Evaluations on 503 stool samples were performed by means of direct fresh examination and using the techniques of Faust et al., Lutz and Rugai et al. In addition, the iron hematoxylin, trichrome and modified Kinyoun staining techniques were used. Out of the 503 samples examined, 174 (34.6%) were found to be positive for the presence of intestinal parasites. The most frequent protozoa and helminths were Entamoeba coli (14.6%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (6.7%), respectively. Blastocystis hominis was present in 23 (4.6%) fecal samples, with a predominately pasty consistency and without characterizing a condition of diarrhea. Despite the low frequency of Blastocystis hominis found in the Araraquara region, compared with other regions of Brazil, it is important to perform laboratory diagnostic tests for this protozoan. Its finding in fecal material is indicative of food and drinking water contamination. Since the transmission route for this parasite is accepted to be oral-fecal, this implies that the population needs guidance regarding hygiene and basic sanitation measures as a means for controlling health problems caused by enteroparasites.

  4. Zatorska goose - a subject of parasitological research.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Basiaga, Marta; Kowal, Jerzy; Nosal, Paweł; Wierzbowska, Izabela; Kapkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of gastrointestinal parasites in a native breed of geese - Zatorska goose - based on coproscopic testing. Faecal samples were collected from 90 young geese in three age groups (5, 7 and 9 weeks old) in 2014. The geese were kept indoors on deep litter and pastured from spring to autumn. The area of the pastures around the buildings where the geese grazed was about 1 hectare, divided into quarters for different age groups. Before grazing, the birds were dewormed with fenbendazole (Fenbenat powder 4%, Naturan). As additional treatment for coccidiosis, coccidiostats were added to the feed. The study was conducted using the McMaster quantitative method with centrifugation (flotation liquid: NaCl and glucose). The birds were shown to be infected with coccidia and nematodes. The prevalence of Eimeria sp. infection (mean 40%) and the number of oocysts per gram of faeces (reaching 5,300 OPG) were highest in the youngest age group of geese. The level of Amidostomum anseris infection was similar in the three age groups, with prevalence from 40% to 50% (nematode egg output ranged from 50 to 350 eggs per gram of faeces, EPG). Capillaria anatis was observed only in 5- and 7-week-old geese. PMID:26878622

  5. [Diagnostic kits in parasitology: which controls?].

    PubMed

    Rossi, P

    2004-06-01

    The development of new diagnostic tools particularly for some parasitic "neglected diseases", is slowed or even hindered by limited resources assigned for basic and applied research in public institution and private sector. Even if the time-line and costs needed for developing a new In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) test are generally lower compared to vaccines or new drugs, industry is poorly engaged in investing resources due to the perception of limited markets. To accelerate the development of diagnostics for the world's most deadly diseases, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the Gates Foundation, last year launched a new initiative, FIND (Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, www.finddiagnostics.org). The aim is to "apply the latest biotechnology innovations to develop and validate affordable diagnostic tests for diseases of the developing world". Ideally, a new diagnostic test should be accurately evaluated prior to use in medical practice. The first step would be a pre-clinical evaluation, an analytic study to determine its laboratory performance. A crucial point in this phase is the calibration of reagents (antigens, antibodies, DNA probes, etc.) against a standard reference preparation. WHO, through the WHO International Laboratories for Biological Standards, "provides International Biological Reference Preparations which serve as reference sources of defined biological activity expressed in an internationally agreed unit" (www.who.int/biologicals/IBRP/index.htm). Standardization allows "comparison of biological measurements worldwide" and ensures the reliability of diagnostic procedures. These preparations are generally intended for use in the characterization of the activity of secondary reference preparations (regional, national or in-house working standards). Unfortunately, international reference standards for parasitic diseases are not available at present, except for Toxoplasma antibodies. The first international standard reagent for Anti-Toxoplasma Serum was established in 1968 and at present, an international standard reference serum, Anti-toxoplasma serum, human TOXM is available at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in UK. Several collaborative, multicenter studies were carried out to assess the performance of different methods and commercial tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, by providing to participating laboratories a panel of well-defined sera to be tested. A four-phase process following well-accepted methodological standards for the development of diagnostics, analogous to those internationally accepted for drugs and vaccines was recently proposed. The pre-clinical evaluation, the analytic study to assess sensitivity, specificity, predictive values in laboratory (phase I), should be followed by a proof of principle study to distinguish diseased from healthy persons in easily accessible populations (phase II). The evaluation of test performance in populations of intended use (phase III), and finally the delineation of cost-effectiveness and societal impact of new tests in comparison with existing tools (phase IV) should complete the validation procedure. In this context, national regulatory agencies play a major role in pre-market approval and post-market surveillance of IVDs. The European Community in 1998 approved a directive (Directive 98/79/EC) which rules the marketing of IVD medical devices, in order to harmonise the performance levels and standards in European countries. But, among IVDs for parasitic diseases, only those to detect congenital toxoplasmosis are submitted to defined procedures to provide the verification of products before their placing on the market and the surveillance after their marketing by a notified body, which perform appropriate examinations, tests and inspections to production facilities to verify if the device meets the requirements of the directive. In U.

  6. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  10. [Statistical models for spatial analysis in parasitology].

    PubMed

    Biggeri, A; Catelan, D; Dreassi, E; Lagazio, C; Cringoli, G

    2004-06-01

    The simplest way to study the spatial pattern of a disease is the geographical representation of its cases (or some indicators of them) over a map. Maps based on raw data are generally "wrong" since they do not take into consideration for sampling errors. Indeed, the observed differences between areas (or points in the map) are not directly interpretable, as they derive from the composition of true, structural differences and of the noise deriving from the sampling process. This problem is well known in human epidemiology, and several solutions have been proposed to filter the signal from the noise. These statistical methods are usually referred to as Disease Mapping. In geographical analysis a first goal is to evaluate the statistical significance of the heterogeneity between areas (or points). If the test indicates rejection of the hypothesis of homogeneity the following task is to study the spatial pattern of the disease. The spatial variability of risk is usually decomposed into two terms: a spatially structured (clustering) and a non spatially structured (heterogeneity) one. The heterogeneity term reflects spatial variability due to intrinsic characteristics of the sampling units (e.g. igienic conditions of farms), while the clustering term models the association due to proximity between sampling units, that usually depends on ecological conditions that vary over the study area and that affect in similar way breedings that are close to each other. Hierarchical bayesian models are the main tool to make inference over the clustering and heterogeneity components. The results are based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of the model, that are approximated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods. Different models can be defined depending on the terms that are considered, namely a model with only the clustering term, a model with only the heterogeneity term and a model where both are included. Model selection criteria based on a compromise between degree of complexity and goodness of fit are then needed to discriminate among them, because each specification has a different biological meaning. Our aim is to demonstrate that these techniques can be used to study the geographical distribution of a parasite infection. Our analyses are based on data collected in 142 farms of the province of Latina. In each breeding a fixed number of sheeps has been sampled (20) and checked for the presence of C. daubneyi. We have specified a Binomial model for the proportion of infected animals in each breeding. The heterogeneity component is modelled in a standard way, while we have used different prior specifications for the clustering term to show how they affect the results. When we use the usual specification also for clustering, the two models show a completely different spatial pattern of infection, probably because the intrinsic spatial structure of the clustering term tend to bias our inferences. The selection criterion indicates in this case the heterogeneity model as the "best" one. However, if we modify the prior so that a lower degree of spatial interaction is assumed, the clustering model is less complex and its goodness of fit better and it should be preferred. PMID:15305691

  11. Parasitology: parasite survives predation on its host.

    PubMed

    Ponton, Fleur; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Lefèvre, Thierry; Biron, David G; Duneau, David; Hughes, David P; Thomas, Frédéric

    2006-04-01

    As prisoners in their living habitat, parasites should be vulnerable to destruction by the predators of their hosts. But we show here that the parasitic gordian worm Paragordius tricuspidatus is able to escape not only from its insect host after ingestion by a fish or frog but also from the digestive tract of the predator. This remarkable tactic enables the worm to continue its life cycle.

  12. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Parasitology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents techniques for the collection and examination of specimens in the diagnosis of parasitic disease and in field surveys conducted to determine the extent of parasitic infections in human and animal populations. It discusses areas in which parasites are most likely to be found and the relationships of parasites, vectors, and…

  13. Arctic parasitology: why should we care?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca; Simard, Manon; Kutz, Susan J; Kapel, Christian M O; Hamnes, Inger S; Robertson, Lucy J

    2011-06-01

    The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions.

  14. Molecular parasitology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Protist parasites cause important human and animal diseases, and because of their early divergence from other eukaryotes they possess structural and biochemical characteristics not found in other cells. The completion of the genome projects of most human protist parasites and the development of novel molecular tools for their study guarantee a rapid progress in understanding how they invade, modify and survive within their hosts. The ultimate goal of these studies will be the identification of targets for the design of drugs, diagnostics and vaccines. In addition, the accessibility of some of these parasites to multiple genetic manipulations has converted them into model systems in cell and molecular biology studies that could lead to the understanding of basic biological processes, as well as their evolution and pathogenesis. In the present chapter we discuss the biochemical and molecular peculiarities of these parasites and the molecular tools available for their study.

  15. Molecular parasitology in the twenty first century

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Protist parasites cause important human and animal diseases and because of their early divergence from other eukaryotes they possess structural and biochemical characteristics not found in other cells. The completion of the genome projects of most human protist parasites and the development of novel molecular tools for their study guarantee a rapid progress in understanding how they invade, modify, and survive within their hosts. The ultimate goal of these studies will be the identification of targets for the design of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines. In addition, the accessibility of some of these parasites to multiple genetic manipulations have transformed them in model systems in cell and molecular biology studies that could lead to the understanding of basic biological processes, as well as their evolution and pathogenesis. Here we discuss the biochemical and molecular peculiarities of these parasites and the molecular tools available for their study. PMID:22023438

  16. 42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty for Laboratories... time frame allotted for testing and reporting proficiency testing results; (2) The laboratory...

  17. 42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty for Laboratories... time frame allotted for testing and reporting proficiency testing results; (2) The laboratory...

  18. 42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty for Laboratories... time frame allotted for testing and reporting proficiency testing results; (2) The laboratory...

  19. Is real-time PCR-based diagnosis similar in performance to routine parasitological examination for the identification of Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica from stool samples? Evaluation of a new commercial multiplex PCR assay and literature review.

    PubMed

    Laude, A; Valot, S; Desoubeaux, G; Argy, N; Nourrisson, C; Pomares, C; Machouart, M; Le Govic, Y; Dalle, F; Botterel, F; Bourgeois, N; Cateau, E; Leterrier, M; Le Pape, P; Morio, F

    2016-02-01

    Microscopy is the reference standard for routine laboratory diagnosis in faecal parasitology but there is growing interest in alternative methods to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and highly dependent on an operator's skills and expertise. Compared with microscopy, DNA detection by PCR is simple and can offer a better turnaround time. However, PCR performances remain difficult to assess as most studies have been conducted on a limited number of positive clinical samples and used in-house PCR methods. Our aim was to evaluate a new multiplex PCR assay (G-DiaParaTrio; Diagenode Diagnostics), targeting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica. To minimize the turnaround time, PCR was coupled with automated DNA extraction (QiaSymphony; Qiagen). The PCR assay was evaluated using a reference panel of 185 samples established by routine microscopic examination using a standardized protocol including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and adhesin detection by ELISA (E. histolytica II; TechLab). This panel, collected from 12 French parasitology laboratories, included 135 positive samples for G. intestinalis (n = 38), C. parvum/C. hominis (n = 26), E. histolytica (n = 5), 21 other gastrointestinal parasites, together with 50 negative samples. In all, the G-DiaParaTrio multiplex PCR assay identified 38 G. intestinalis, 25 C. parvum/C. hominis and five E. histolytica leading to sensitivity/specificity of 92%/100%, 96%/100% and 100%/100% for G. intestinalis, C. parvum/C. hominis and E. histolytica, respectively. This new multiplex PCR assay offers fast and reliable results, similar to microscopy-driven diagnosis for the detection of these gastrointestinal protozoa, allowing its implementation in routine clinical practice.

  20. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  1. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  2. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  3. Natural infection of wild rodents by Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitological aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues e Silva, R; Machado e Silva, J R; Faerstein, N F; Lenzi, H L; Rey, L

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of the role of rodents as natural hosts of Schistosoma mansoni was studied at the Pamparrão Valley, Sumidouro, RJ, with monthly captures and examination of the animals. Twenty-three Nectomys squamipes and 9 Akodon arviculoides with a schistosomal infection rate of 56.5% and 22.2% respectively eliminated a great majority of viable eggs. With a strain isolated from one of the naturally infected N. squamipes, we infected 75% of simpatric Biomphalaria glabrata and in 100% of albino Mus musculus mice. The adult worms, isolated from N. squamipes after perfusion were located mainly in the liver (91.5%) and the mesenteric veins (8.5%). The male/female proportion was of 2:1. The eggs were distributed on small intestine segments (proximal, medial and distal portions) and the large intestine without any significant differences in egg concentration of these segments. In A. arviculoides, the few eggs eliminated by the stools were viable and there was little egg retention on intestinal segments. Considering the ease to complete S. mansoni biological cycle in the Nectomys/Biomphalaria/Nectomys system under laboratory conditions, probably the same is likely to occur in natural conditions. In support to this hypothesis there are also the facts that human mansonic schistosomiasis has a very low prevalence in Sumidouro and endemicity among the rodents has not changed even after repeated treatments of the local patients. Based on our experiments, we conclude that N. squamipes has become a natural host of S. mansoni and possibly may participate in keeping the cycle of schistosomiasis transmission at Pamparrão Valley. PMID:1343794

  4. [Procedure and indications of stool examination in parasitology].

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Aouinet, Amira; Khaled, Samira

    2012-06-01

    Intestinal parasites are a public health problem in the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Despite the improvement in living standards and healthy conditions, these parasitoses remain relatively frequent in Tunisia. Stool specimen examination keeps the fundamental test for screening and diagnosis. It is to directly search the parasite. Respect for the right procedure of collection of stool is an essential step for the reliability and proper interpretation of results of this examination.

  5. Molecular diagnosis in clinical parasitology: when and why?

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Fung, Kitty S C; Chau, Sandy; Poon, Rosana W S; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-11-01

    Microscopic detection and morphological identification of parasites from clinical specimens are the gold standards for the laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections. The limitations of such diagnostic assays include insufficient sensitivity and operator dependence. Immunoassays for parasitic antigens are not available for most parasitic infections and have not significantly improved the sensitivity of laboratory detection. Advances in molecular detection by nucleic acid amplification may improve the detection in asymptomatic infections with low parasitic burden. Rapidly accumulating genomic data on parasites allow the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers directed towards multi-copy gene targets, such as the ribosomal and mitochondrial genes, which further improve the sensitivity. Parasitic cell or its free circulating parasitic DNA can be shed from parasites into blood and excreta which may allow its detection without the whole parasite being present within the portion of clinical sample used for DNA extraction. Multiplex nucleic acid amplification technology allows the simultaneous detection of many parasitic species within a single clinical specimen. In addition to improved sensitivity, nucleic acid amplification with sequencing can help to differentiate different parasitic species at different stages with similar morphology, detect and speciate parasites from fixed histopathological sections and identify anti-parasitic drug resistance. The use of consensus primer and PCR sequencing may even help to identify novel parasitic species. The key limitation of molecular detection is the technological expertise and expense which are usually lacking in the field setting at highly endemic areas. However, such tests can be useful for screening important parasitic infections in asymptomatic patients, donors or recipients coming from endemic areas in the settings of transfusion service or tertiary institutions with transplantation service. Such tests can also be used for monitoring these recipients or highly immunosuppressed patients, so that early preemptive treatment can be given for reactivated parasitic infections while the parasitic burden is still low.

  6. Veterinary parasitology in Australia--a short history.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, I; Besier, R B

    2013-08-01

    As an important producer and exporter of livestock products, animal health has always been of major significance to the Australian economy, and research into efficient parasite control has continued since the 1800s. With substantial research achievements also involving parasites of companion animals and wildlife, Australian parasitologists have made numerous contributions of global significance. This summary outlines the development of investigations into parasite biology and parasitic disease in Australia.

  7. A new lungworm in muskoxen: an exploration in Arctic parasitology.

    PubMed

    Kutz, S J; Hoberg, E P; Polley, L

    2001-06-01

    Ruminants are vital elements of the Holarctic ecosystem. Little is known, however, of the structure or biology of their parasite fauna, particularly in North America. Global warming, coupled with increasing human activity in the Arctic, requires enhanced international interdisciplinary efforts to better understand the many factors, including parasites, that influence the population health of caribou, reindeer, muskoxen and wild sheep. The discovery of an unusual new genus of protostrongylid lung nematode in muskoxen from the central Canadian Arctic is described, and the intricacies of the parasite's relationship with its muskoxen definitive hosts, its gastropod intermediate hosts and the arctic environment are discussed.

  8. Molecular diagnosis in clinical parasitology: when and why?

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Fung, Kitty S C; Chau, Sandy; Poon, Rosana W S; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-11-01

    Microscopic detection and morphological identification of parasites from clinical specimens are the gold standards for the laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections. The limitations of such diagnostic assays include insufficient sensitivity and operator dependence. Immunoassays for parasitic antigens are not available for most parasitic infections and have not significantly improved the sensitivity of laboratory detection. Advances in molecular detection by nucleic acid amplification may improve the detection in asymptomatic infections with low parasitic burden. Rapidly accumulating genomic data on parasites allow the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers directed towards multi-copy gene targets, such as the ribosomal and mitochondrial genes, which further improve the sensitivity. Parasitic cell or its free circulating parasitic DNA can be shed from parasites into blood and excreta which may allow its detection without the whole parasite being present within the portion of clinical sample used for DNA extraction. Multiplex nucleic acid amplification technology allows the simultaneous detection of many parasitic species within a single clinical specimen. In addition to improved sensitivity, nucleic acid amplification with sequencing can help to differentiate different parasitic species at different stages with similar morphology, detect and speciate parasites from fixed histopathological sections and identify anti-parasitic drug resistance. The use of consensus primer and PCR sequencing may even help to identify novel parasitic species. The key limitation of molecular detection is the technological expertise and expense which are usually lacking in the field setting at highly endemic areas. However, such tests can be useful for screening important parasitic infections in asymptomatic patients, donors or recipients coming from endemic areas in the settings of transfusion service or tertiary institutions with transplantation service. Such tests can also be used for monitoring these recipients or highly immunosuppressed patients, so that early preemptive treatment can be given for reactivated parasitic infections while the parasitic burden is still low. PMID:24668556

  9. Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. PMID:23665127

  10. Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. PMID:25818324

  11. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  12. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

    2010-10-01

    Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1∶25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk. PMID:20950101

  13. Clinical pathology and parasitologic evaluation of free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    PubMed

    Allgayer, M C; Guedes, N M R; Chiminazzo, C; Cziulik, M; Weimer, T A

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the health status and established hematologic and serum biochemistry parameters for free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) from the Brazilian Pantanal (19 degrees 51'-19 degrees 58'S; 56 degrees 17'-56 degrees 24'W), for four consecutive years (from December 2003 through December 2006). Physical examinations indicated that all the birds were in good health. Endoparasites and blood parasites were not detected in any of the nestlings, and ectoparasites seemed to be limited to Philornis sp. (Diptera: Muscidae). Significantly higher levels of total white blood cells and heterophils, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, and phosphorus were observed in females. In females, higher cholesterol levels and packed cell volumes were observed in older birds, and total white blood cell and heterophil counts were higher in young animals. In males, uric acid levels were higher in older individuals. Wild Pantanal Hyacinth Macaws feed on only two species of palm nuts (Acrocomia totai and Scheelea phalerta). This limited food habit has a strong impact on population size and may alter the clinical pathology parameters of these birds. Therefore, knowledge of blood levels in normal individuals is essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild macaws, to assess the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation strategies of this endangered species.

  14. Origin of host-parasite associations of Marsupialges misonnei (Acariformes: Psoroptidae)-a parasitological detective story.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P; Ochoa, Ronald; OConnor, Barry M; Averianov, Alexander O

    2016-10-01

    Host associations of permanent ectoparasitic mite Marsupialges misonnei Fain, 1963 (Acariformes: Psoroptidae: Marsupialginae) are analyzed. This species was first recorded from an ethanol-preserved museum specimen of Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) originating from French Guiana. We discovered specimens of M. misonnei from both species known in the carnivore genus Nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae): N. narica (Linnaeus, 1766) from Panama (collected in the field) and N. nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) from Brazil (collected from dry museum specimen). Two alternative hypotheses about an initial host of this mite (bare-tailed woody opossum or coatis) are discussed. We argue that M. misonnei was originally parasitic on Nasua spp. and occasionally contaminated C. philander from these hosts in the collecting process. PMID:27465562

  15. Physiological and parasitological responses to nematode infections of fattening cattle in the Western Pampas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Suarez, V H; Lorenzo, R M; Busetti, M R; Santucho, G M

    1999-02-25

    The epidemiology of nematode infection was studied in fattening grazing cattle from weaning (April 1994) to market at the end of their second autumn (July 1995). Sixty Aberdeen Angus calves of seven months of age were randomly allocated by weight to two groups: GT, treated every three weeks with doramectin (200 mcg/kg); and GI, an infected group, only treated with fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg) at weaning and on the 1st of October. The two groups were grazed together on contaminated lucerne pastures until July, on 'clean' oat pastures until October and again on contaminated lucerne until the end of the trial. Fecal egg counts (epg), herbage larvae (L3), serum pepsinogen (Pep) and blood eosinophils (Eo) were evaluated monthly. Eight steers were slaughtered for worm recovery, three in July 1994, three in December 1994 and two in July 1995. Grazing feed intake was estimated by fecal output (chromic oxide method)/l-diet digestibility and to measure non-specific response, Brucella antibodies were detected at 11 and 40 days post-vaccination in early winter. Fecal egg counts, Pep and Eo of GI increased (P<0.01) from April to July when there was a moderate-to-high level of infection. Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. By late winter, all parameters decreased on oat 'clean' pastures and increased again when cattle returned to moderately infected lucerne. During summer, the parameters measured reflected the negligible numbers of L3 on pastures until early autumn. At this time, increased numbers of L3 were followed by a moderate rise (P<0.01) of epg, Pep and Eo values. During winter, GT showed higher (P<0.04) Brucella antibody IgG titers while feed intake of GI was 24.9% depressed (P<0.02). There were total cumulative weight-gain (WG) differences (P<0.001) between groups (GT=263.1 kg; GI=214.3 kg). During the second autumn, the mean WG of GT steers was 16.6 kg greater (P<0.04) than that of GI. Vaccination titres against Brucella suggested non-specific depression of immunity, while higher Pep and Eo levels in second-year steers may have reflected hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:10030756

  16. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted.

  17. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted.

  18. Parasitology as a Teaching Tool: Isolation of Apicomplexan Cysts from Store-Bought Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Tracy L.; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Hager, Kristin M.

    2008-01-01

    There are obstacles to teaching science; however, these obstacles are not insurmountable. One obstacle is the students themselves. Students often labor under the misconception or anxiety that the course material will be too difficult to understand, or boring (mind-numbing), or that the information learned will not be applicable in their day-to-day…

  19. Trichinella spp. infection in horses of Romania: serological and parasitological survey.

    PubMed

    Blaga, Radu; Cretu, Carmen M; Gherman, Calin; Draghici, Alina; Pozio, Edoardo; Noeckler, Karsten; Kapel, Christian M O; Dida, Ion; Cozma, Vasile; Boireau, Pascal

    2009-02-23

    Herbivorous animals are usually, by virtue of their diet, outside the major transmission cycles of Trichinella spp. However, since 1975, the year of the first report of human trichinellosis caused by the consumption of infected horse meat, the domestic horse has appeared as a novel vector of Trichinella spp. infection to humans, with 15 outbreaks documented in France and Italy. Romania, one of the main countries exporting horses into the European Union (EU), experienced a dramatic increase of Trichinella spp. infection in both domestic pigs and humans in the 1990s. Some Trichinella spiralis-infected horses were exported to the EU during this period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in horses from Romania using both direct and indirect tests. Of 3000 serum samples tested in 2001, none were positive by ELISA using three different Trichinella antigens (crude; excretory/secretory, ES; stg-BSA antigens). Of 2992 serum samples tested in 2002, 17 (0.56%) showed optical density values higher than the cut-off in an ELISA using ES antigens and one was confirmed by western blot (WB). Four of the 17 ELISA positive horses, including the horse with a confirmed serology by WB, were subjected for intensive meat examination at slaughter, but no Trichinella spp. larvae were detected. Further, no Trichinella spp. larvae were detected by trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion of 25,838 horses slaughtered in Alexandria and Timisoara between 2001 and 2004. The false positive results obtained by serology confirm the previous work on the unreliability of serology for detection of Trichinella spp. infection in horses. Furthermore, the lack of detection of Trichinella spp. infected horses by artificial digestion, suggests a very low prevalence of infection in horses in Romania.

  20. Plague: Modern Preventive Measures in Ships and Ports: (Section of Tropical Diseases and Parasitology).

    PubMed

    White, C F

    1935-03-01

    Maritime quarantine, introduced in the fourteenth century in an endeavour to prevent the spread of plague. Though the system failed to achieve its object, and was expensive and restrictive to sea-borne commerce, it survived for over 500 years, presumably because, in the absence of knowledge of the aetiology of plague, no method of procedure more likely to be successful could be devised. This country acknowledged the failure of quarantine as a preventive measure in the middle of last century, and substituted the medical inspection of ships on arrival, though the last Quarantine Act was not repealed till 1896. Nevertheless it was not till the discovery of the rôle of the rat and the rat-flea in the spread of plague that it was possible to establish plague-preventive measures on a sound scientific basis.It is now recognized that a Port Health Authority must not only take steps to detect plague, human or rodent, afloat or ashore, at the earliest possible moment, but must eliminate conditions in ships and in shore premises which are conducive to the development of an epizoötic. Though here, and in other countries with an enlightened Public Health Administration, practice has long been ahead of legislation, the International Sanitary Convention of 1926 has now established throughout the world a large measure of uniformity in measures designed to prevent the spread of the more dangerous epidemic diseases by overseas trade, and the Port Sanitary Regulations 1933 have brought quarantine legislation in this country up to date.For the detection of plague every ship arriving from a plague-infected port is medically inspected on arrival, but even if there is no evidence of plague-infection on board, such ships are examined daily by a rat-officer until the discharge of cargo is complete. Dead rats found and live rats trapped are bacteriologically examined. If a rat is reported to be infected the vessel is fumigated at once. The discharge of cargo is then continued under supervision, and when the ship is empty she is fumigated again. Shore premises, particularly those in the immediate vicinity of the berths of ships from plague-infected ports, are systematically searched for dead rats, and live rats are trapped. If evidence of plague-infection is found, energetic measures of rat destruction are at once instituted over a wide area.The International Sanitary Convention requires all foreign-going ships to be inspected every six months as to the number of rats on board. If a ship is not so maintained as to keep the rat population down to a minimum she must be deratized.If, after deratization, ships are to remain free from rats, they must be rat-proofed. Similarly ashore, rat-proofing is the only rat-repressive measure of permanent value.The measures usually adopted to prevent the passage of rats between ships and shore are of limited value.Finally, a rat-flea survey is of value in estimating the susceptibility of a port to infection.

  1. Experimentally induced Faciola hepatica infection in white-tailed deer. I. Clinicopathological and parasitological features.

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P J; McCraw, B M; Lumsden, J H

    1975-01-01

    Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and six sheep were inoculated with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Two animals of each species were given 100, 500 or 2500 metacercariae. Clinicopathological features of these infections were determined by analyses of blood samples collected each week from inoculated deer and sheep as well as from two noninoculated animals of each species. One animal in each inoculated group was killed and examined at six weeks postinoculation and the remainder at 15 weeks postinoculation. Compared with the values obtained from noninoculated controls, eosinophilia, hyperproteinemia and hyperglobulinemia occured in inoculated deer. There were no other significant changes in hematological values or in serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. Marked leukocytosis and eosinophilia, with hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels and mild macrocytic normochromic anemia characterized the infection in lambs. Although approximately 29% of the inoculum was recovered from the hepatic parenchyma of the sheep, F. hepatica was found in only one of six inoculated deer. A patent infection was established in this deer and constitutes the second report of mature F. hepatica in this host. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1125833

  2. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    PubMed

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  3. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and one health in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    "One Health" is a term that encapsulates and underscores the inherent interrelatedness of the health of people, animals, and the environment. Vector-borne infections are central in one health. Many arthropod vectors readily feed on humans and other animals, serving as an ideal conduit to move pathogens between a wide spectrum of potential hosts. As ecological niches flux, opportunities arise for vectors to interact with novel species, allowing infectious agents to broaden both geographic and host ranges. Habitat change has been linked to the emergence of novel human and veterinary disease agents, and can dramatically facilitate expansion opportunities by allowing existing vector populations to flourish and by supporting the establishment of new pathogen maintenance systems. At the same time, control efforts can be hindered by the development of parasiticide and pesticide resistance, foiling efforts to meet these challenges. Using examples drawn from representative diseases important in one health in the Americas, including rickettsial infections, Lyme borreliosis, Chagas disease, and West Nile virus, this paper reviews key aspects of vector-borne disease maintenance cycles that present challenges for one health in the Americas, including emergence of vector-borne disease agents, the impact of habitat change on vector-borne disease transmission, and the complexities faced in developing effective control programs. Novel strategies will be required to effectively combat these infections in the future if we are to succeed in the goal of fostering an environment which supports healthy animals and healthy people.

  4. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu District.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1992-08-01

    A total of 2,552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this state. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed.

  5. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu district.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1991-01-01

    A total of 2552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum-Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this State. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed. The study will fill the gap in our knowledge of filariasis in this part of Nigeria.

  6. Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Élida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as “malnourished”) and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool. Conclusions In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken together, the results found in this work confirm the hypothesis that the nutritional condition of the host greatly influences the course of the infection. PMID:25254370

  7. Origin of host-parasite associations of Marsupialges misonnei (Acariformes: Psoroptidae)-a parasitological detective story.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P; Ochoa, Ronald; OConnor, Barry M; Averianov, Alexander O

    2016-10-01

    Host associations of permanent ectoparasitic mite Marsupialges misonnei Fain, 1963 (Acariformes: Psoroptidae: Marsupialginae) are analyzed. This species was first recorded from an ethanol-preserved museum specimen of Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) originating from French Guiana. We discovered specimens of M. misonnei from both species known in the carnivore genus Nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae): N. narica (Linnaeus, 1766) from Panama (collected in the field) and N. nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) from Brazil (collected from dry museum specimen). Two alternative hypotheses about an initial host of this mite (bare-tailed woody opossum or coatis) are discussed. We argue that M. misonnei was originally parasitic on Nasua spp. and occasionally contaminated C. philander from these hosts in the collecting process.

  8. Cross-sectional parasitological survey for helminth infections among fish farmers in Nghe An province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Annette; Thuan, Le Khanh; Murrell, K Darwin; Dalsgaard, Anders; Johansen, Maria Vang; De, Nguyen Van

    2006-12-01

    A total of 964 adult fish farmers in five eastern districts in Nghe An province, Vietnam were investigated in late 2004 for food-borne trematodes and other helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears prepared from single stool samples. Eggs of fish-borne trematodes and of Fasciolopsis buski were found in 0.6 and 0.7% of farmers, respectively. Infection prevalences with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, were 34.8, 50.7 and 51.3%, respectively, and 81.8% were infected with at least one of the three STHs. While A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were more prevalent in the eastern districts compared to the more western districts, the opposite was true for hookworm infections. The widespread prevalence of STH infections in fish farmers suggests that control of these infections in school-age children only may be inadequate. Identification of the human behavioural factors and environmental features responsible for the distribution and frequency of STHs among adults is needed as well as a sensitive diagnostic test of fish-borne trematodes at species level. PMID:17141724

  9. Are cryptic species a problem for parasitological biological tagging for stock identification of aquatic organisms?

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of biological tags in stock assessment relies on the reliable identification of the parasites concerned. This may be compromised if cryptic species are not recognized. Here we review what is known about cryptic species in aquatic hosts and its potential importance in this respect. Although strictly cryptic species may be considered as species which can be distinguished only by molecular data, we accept the far looser but more practical definition of species that cannot be readily distinguished morphologically. Cryptic species appear to have been identified most frequently as occurring in separate host species; this is heartening in that this has no significant impact on tagging studies. But cryptic species have occasionally been identified in single hosts sympatrically and are relatively common in geographically distinct populations of the same host species. Ignorance of both kinds of occurrences has the capacity to undermine the reliability of tagging analysis. We review in detail what is known of intra- and interspecific genetic variation over geographical ranges in the trematodes, based on recent molecular studies. Although the existence of cryptic species and evidence of intraspecific variability may appear daunting, we suspect that these complexities will add, and indeed have already added, to the sophistication of the information that can be derived from tagging studies.

  10. Lack of Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Uganda Based on Parasitological and Molecular Assays.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Roland A; Conrad, Melissa D; Watson, Quentin D; Huezo, Stephanie J; Ninsiima, Harriet; Tumwebaze, Patrick; Nsobya, Samuel L; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated markers of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolated in Kampala in 2014. By standard in vitro assays, all isolates were highly sensitive to dihydroartemisinin (DHA). By the ring-stage survival assay, after a 6-h DHA pulse, parasitemia was undetectable in 40 of 43 cultures at 72 h. Two of 53 isolates had nonsynonymous K13-propeller gene polymorphisms but did not have the mutations associated with resistance in Asia. Thus, we did not see evidence for artemisinin resistance in Uganda.

  11. Lack of Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Uganda Based on Parasitological and Molecular Assays.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Roland A; Conrad, Melissa D; Watson, Quentin D; Huezo, Stephanie J; Ninsiima, Harriet; Tumwebaze, Patrick; Nsobya, Samuel L; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated markers of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolated in Kampala in 2014. By standard in vitro assays, all isolates were highly sensitive to dihydroartemisinin (DHA). By the ring-stage survival assay, after a 6-h DHA pulse, parasitemia was undetectable in 40 of 43 cultures at 72 h. Two of 53 isolates had nonsynonymous K13-propeller gene polymorphisms but did not have the mutations associated with resistance in Asia. Thus, we did not see evidence for artemisinin resistance in Uganda. PMID:26033725

  12. Lack of Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Uganda Based on Parasitological and Molecular Assays

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Melissa D.; Watson, Quentin D.; Huezo, Stephanie J.; Ninsiima, Harriet; Tumwebaze, Patrick; Nsobya, Samuel L.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated markers of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolated in Kampala in 2014. By standard in vitro assays, all isolates were highly sensitive to dihydroartemisinin (DHA). By the ring-stage survival assay, after a 6-h DHA pulse, parasitemia was undetectable in 40 of 43 cultures at 72 h. Two of 53 isolates had nonsynonymous K13-propeller gene polymorphisms but did not have the mutations associated with resistance in Asia. Thus, we did not see evidence for artemisinin resistance in Uganda. PMID:26033725

  13. Experimental infection of pigs with Oesophagostomum dentatum: pathogenesis and parasitology of repeated mass infection.

    PubMed

    Poelvoorde, J; Berghen, P

    1981-07-01

    Pigs receiving a limited ration of 1 kg commercial feed per day were infected daily with 50,000 Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae. The animals exhibited serious diarrhoea and anorexia. Although there was neither anaemia nor hypoproteinaemia, there was a significant decrease in plasma sodium and an increase in blood urea nitrogen at the end of the experiment. Large numbers of third and fourth stage larvae were found in the ileal, caecal and colonic mucosae. Only fourth stage larvae, never adults, were observed in the lumen. A continual expulsion of large quantities of third and fourth stage larvae were demonstrated in the faeces beginning with the appearance of diarrhoea. Neither Vibrio coli, Salmonella spp nor Balantidium coli contributed to the course of the enteritis. PMID:7313309

  14. A parasitological study on the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) from the Northern Transvaal.

    PubMed

    Goldsmid, J M; Rogers, S

    1978-07-01

    Baboons imported into Rhodesia from the Northern Transvaal proved to be heavily infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. In fact, six protozoan species, one cestode and eight nematode species were recorded. A new concept in "identification graphs" is included in the paper which allows one to read off directly the species of strongyle eggs being passed by baboons in Southern Africa based upon length and breadth measurements of the eggs. Treatment of Balantidium coli and nematode infections of baboons is discussed as is the implication of some of these intestinal parasite infections in terms of potential human infection under natural conditions. PMID:104037

  15. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    PubMed

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes. PMID:25054488

  16. Plasma disposition, milk excretion and parasitological efficacy of mebendazole in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae.

    PubMed

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Aksit, Dilek; Santoro, Mario; Roncoroni, Cristina; Mariani, Ugo; Buono, Francesco; Rufrano, Domenico; Fagiolo, Antonio; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-02-15

    Mebendazole (MBZ) has been licensed for use in horses and donkeys, however there are no data available in the literature regarding its pharmacokinetic disposition and efficacy in donkeys. This study was designed to determine the plasma disposition, milk excretion and anthelmintic efficacy of MBZ in donkeys naturally infected by Cyathostominae. The animals were allocated to three groups, each of six donkeys. One group was untreated control (C-group) and the others were treated using a paste formulation of MBZ administered per os at the manufacturer's recommended horse dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 1) and at the double horse dosage 20 mg/kg body weight (MBZ 2). Blood and milk samples were collected at various times between 1h and 120 h post treatment and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Individual FECs (Faecal Egg Counts) were performed on each animal before the treatment (day-3) and weekly from day 7 until day 56 post treatment using a modified McMaster technique. The plasma concentrations and systemic exposure of MBZ in donkeys were relatively lower compared with the other methylcarbamate benzimidazoles. Dose-dependent plasma dispositions of MBZ were observed at the increased dosage (10 mg/kg vs 20 mg/kg) in donkeys. MBZ was not detected in any milk samples at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. However, the parent drug reached 0.01 μg/ml peak milk concentration at 10.66 h and AUCmilk/AUCplasma value was 0.18 ± 0.02 at a dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight. This study indicated that per os administration of MBZ has a minimal disposition rate into the milk and may be used in lactating donkeys with zero milk-withdrawal period. The results of FECRT for both MBZ dosages were efficient (>95% efficacy) until day 28. This trial demonstrates that MBZ oral paste at horse dosage (10 mg/kg B.W.) was effective and safety for the treatment of Cyathostominae in donkeys. Therefore, similar dosage regimens of MBZ could be used for horses and donkeys.

  17. A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae. PMID:24548800

  18. [Parasitological prevalence of cart-horses in Curitiba, Paraná].

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Caio Cézar; Kloss, Annelise B; De Souza, Damaris F; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander W; Molento, Marcelo B

    2008-09-01

    The carthorses are used as an alternative for people of low income for collecting recyclable material. However, these horses are managed without proper assistance, suffering several problems, among them the parasites. In this study we used 41 animals, their body condition score and other parameters were analyzed and parasite egg count was performed from fecal samples. It was determined the absence of eggs on 12% and parasite infection in 88%. Strongylids were found in all contaminated animals, often associated with oocysts or Parascaris equorum. This condition may be due to poor nutritional management and unreasonable work load that these animals are submitted. There is an urgent need for improvements in the management of health and parasites control programs to these animals.

  19. Effect of bee venom or proplis on molecular and parasitological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Azza H; Hassab El-Nabi, Sobhy E; Bayomi, Asmaa E; Abdelaal, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the efficacy of Apis mellifera L bee venom (BV) or proplis (200 mg/kg orally for three consecutive days) on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. The results recorded reduction in the total worm burden, numbers of immature eggs and the ova count in hepatic tissue in BV (sting or injection) or proplis treated groups as compared to the infected group. Histological examination illustrated a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the diameter of hepatic granuloma in BV treated groups (272.78 and 266.9, respectively) and a significant decrease in proplis treated mice (229.35) compared with the infected group (260.67). Electrophoretic pattern of RNA showed a decrease in mean of maximal optical density in liver and intestine of S. mansoni infected mice treated with bee venom (sting or injection) as compared with infected group. Flow cytometry analyses of RNA or apoptotic percentage of worms recovered from BV sting (19 and 49 % respectively); BV injected (20.5 and 51.17 %, respectively) and proplis (35 and 23.93 %, respectively) groups were compared with S. mansoni infected group (37.87 and 39.21 %, respectively). It can be concluded that administration of bee venom or proplis are effective in case of S. mansoni infection. Although bee venom cause increase of granuloma diameter and this might be due to venom concentration and further studies are required to avoid such harmful effect. PMID:27413311

  20. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

  1. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted. PMID:25984773

  2. Mekong schistosomiasis. III: a parasitological survey of domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) on Khong Island, Laos.

    PubMed

    Schneider, C R; Kitikoon, V; Sornmani, S; Thirachantra, S

    1975-06-01

    Of 103 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) examined on Khong Island by means of the M.I.F.C. and hatching techniques, none were passing eggs resimbling those of the Mekong schistosome. One buffalo calf was infected with Orientobilharzia harinasutai and another with Schistosoma spindale; this is the first time these parasites have been reported from Laos. Since the buffalo that were examined had constant and year-round access to a part of the Mekong River that has been shown to be a site of heavy transmission of schistosomiasis to humans and dogs, it was considered that the buffalo would have acquired the infection with the human Mekong schistosome if this were possible. In the absence of buffalo necropsies, and since no eggs of the Mekong schistosome were detected in the stools of these animals, we assumed that they had either not become infected with this parasite or, if they had, that the infections did not produce eggs in the faeces which were detectable by the methods employed. On the basis of our examinations, it would not seem that domestic water buffalo are involved as reservoirs in the epidemiology of human schistosomiasis on Khong Island.

  3. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP) guideline for testing the efficacy of ectoparasiticides for fish.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, C; Endris, R; Bell, T A; Ogawa, K; Buchmann, K; Sweeney, D

    2016-03-30

    This guideline is intended to assist in the planning and execution of studies designed to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides for fish. It is the first ectoparasite-specific guideline to deal with studies set in the aquatic environment and therefore provides details for the maintenance of environmental standards for finfish. Information is included on a range of pre-clinical study designs as well as clinical studies in commercial/production sites, set within a regulatory framework. It provides information on the study animals, their welfare, husbandry and environmental requirements during the study. The most commonly pathogenic ectoparasites are presented with relevant points regarding life history, host challenge and numeric evaluation. Preparation and presentation of both topical and oral test treatments is provided, together with guidance on data collection and analysis. The guideline provides a quality standard or efficacy studies on finfish, which will assist researchers and regulatory authorities worldwide and contribute to the wider objective of harmonisation of procedures. PMID:27351036

  4. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally-infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gürtler, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, κ = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (κ = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (κ = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860

  5. A Case of Probable Mixed-Infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and Parasitological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk

    2010-01-01

    We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea. PMID:20585533

  6. Plasmodium meets AAV-the (un)likely marriage of parasitology and virology, and how to make the match.

    PubMed

    Hentzschel, Franziska; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Grimm, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    The increasing use of screening technologies in malaria research has substantially expanded our knowledge on cellular factors hijacked by the Plasmodium parasite in the infected host, including those that participate in the clinically silent liver stage. This rapid gain in our understanding of the hepatic interaction partners now requires a means to validate and further disentangle parasite-host networks in physiologically relevant liver model systems. Here, we outline seminal work that contributed to our present knowledge on the intrahepatic Plasmodium host factors, followed by a discussion of surrogate models of mammalian livers or hepatocytes. We finally describe how Adeno-associated viruses could be engineered and used as hepatotropic tools to dissect Plasmodium-host interactions, and to deliberately control these networks for antimalaria vaccination or therapy.

  7. [The sanitary and parasitological characteristics of environmental objects in the south of Russia. Wastewaters and their precipitations].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P; Vaserin, Iu I; Romanenko, N A; Dimidova, L L; Upyrev, A V; Shishkanova, L V; Kovalev, E N; Moroz, N V; Liubimova, S V; Agirov, A Kh; Trufanov, N D; Papatsenko, L B; Pliasovitsa, S G; Viatkina, N A; Avsiukova, T M

    2008-01-01

    The relative uniformity of helminthic eggs has been noted in the wastewaters of the Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory, and the Republic ofAdygea. An ovogram is mainly presented by the eggs of Ascaris, Toxocaras, and whipworms. By taking into account incomplete dehelmintization during waste treatment, 5,000 to 1,080,000 helminth eggs may annually come into the water reservoirs where purified wastewaters are discharged, 33% remaining viable. Irrespective of the efficiency of dehelmintization, wastewaters and their precipitations continue to remain epidemiologically dangerous substrates and to create prerequisites for the spread of an invasive source in the environment, by risking the infection of the population with parasitic diseases. PMID:18557361

  8. [Distribution of intestinal parasites among patients who presented at the Department of Parasitology of the Erciyes University Medical School.].

    PubMed

    Yazar, Süleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Sahın, Izzet

    2005-01-01

    In this study carried out from 2000-2004, a total of 34,883 stool samples were examined using native-Lugol and flotation/sedimentation methods and 9,879 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Intestinal parasites were found in 9,704 (27.8%) of the specimens. The parasites that were found and their prevalence is as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 6,723 (19.3%); Entamoeba coli, 1,007 (2.9%); Giardia intestinalis, 892 (2.6%); Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 798 (2.3%); Endolimax nana, 486 (1.4%); Entamoeba hartmanni, 252 (0.7%); Enterobius vermicularis, 242 (0.7%); Iodamoeba bütschlii, 109 (0.3%); Taenia saginata, 92 (0.3%); Chilomastix mesnili, 67 (0.2%); Ascaris lumbricoides, 55 (0.2%); and Hymenolepis nana, 40 (0.1%). PMID:17124684

  9. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  10. [Methods for estimating the demographic structure of the taiga tick (Ixodidae) based on results of standard parasitological observations].

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Iu S

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective estimation of the abundance dynamics of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus in mixed coniferous and leaf-bearing forests of the Udmurtia Republic in the period 1957-1986 was carried out. A possibility to estimate the absolute number of all stages of I. persulcatus based on relative indices. Females of I. persulcatus lay 20,250 eggs per 1 hectare, and this number of eggs gives birth to 15,000 larvae. From this number, 7870 larvae hibernate and 6550 individuals became fed. The number of nymphs is 5930, among which 5110 individuals live up to spring, and 1390 became fed. The number of adult mites in autumn is 1250; in subsequent spring this number decreases to 780. The mean number of engorged females is 8. The mortality rate of ticks caused by the deficit of hosts increases from preimaginal stages to adults; for larvae, nymphs and imago this index is 16.6, 72.8, and 97.9%, respectively. Quotas of individuals with 3-, 4- and 5-year life cycle among the unfed imago are 70.4, 28.0, and 1.6%, respectively.

  11. [Parasitological factors impeding the transmission of the agent of babesiosis (Babesia microti) to man from the tick Ixodes persulcatus].

    PubMed

    Korenberg, E I; Nefedova, V V; Kovalevsky, Yu V; Sorokina, Yu V; Gorelova, N B

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of own and literature data, it is concluded that the following ma- in permanent system of ecologicalarasitological factors prevents the effective vector functions of the tick I. persulcatus in transmission of B. microti: lack of distinct nymphs' anthropophily; small spontaneous invasion of hungry adults; a duration of the parasitic phase in humans is insufficient to complete the sporogonic development, because victims interrupt the phase. Therefore, not excluding the possibility of sporadic babesiosis disea- ses, it can be stated that within the boundaries of a vast territory, where the taiga tick is the only potential source of infection for humans, the B. microti infection has not, and will not reach significant values in infectious pathology.

  12. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection.

  13. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  14. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP) guideline for testing the efficacy of ectoparasiticides for fish.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, C; Endris, R; Bell, T A; Ogawa, K; Buchmann, K; Sweeney, D

    2016-03-30

    This guideline is intended to assist in the planning and execution of studies designed to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides for fish. It is the first ectoparasite-specific guideline to deal with studies set in the aquatic environment and therefore provides details for the maintenance of environmental standards for finfish. Information is included on a range of pre-clinical study designs as well as clinical studies in commercial/production sites, set within a regulatory framework. It provides information on the study animals, their welfare, husbandry and environmental requirements during the study. The most commonly pathogenic ectoparasites are presented with relevant points regarding life history, host challenge and numeric evaluation. Preparation and presentation of both topical and oral test treatments is provided, together with guidance on data collection and analysis. The guideline provides a quality standard or efficacy studies on finfish, which will assist researchers and regulatory authorities worldwide and contribute to the wider objective of harmonisation of procedures.

  15. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Release of metabolic enzymes by Giardia in response to interaction with intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ringqvist, Emma; Palm, J.E. Daniel; Skarin, Hanna; Hehl, Adrian B.; Weiland, Malin; Davids, Barbara J.; Reiner, David S.; Griffiths, William J.; Eckmann, Lars; Gillin, Frances D.; Svärd, Staffan G.

    2012-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, an important cause of diarrheal disease, resides in the small intestinal lumen in close apposition to epithelial cells. Since the disease mechanisms underlying giardiasis are poorly understood, elucidating the specific interactions of the parasite with the host epithelium is likely to provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that contact of Giardia lamblia with intestinal epithelial cells might lead to release of specific proteins. Using established co-culture models, intestinal ligated loops and a proteomics approach, we identified three G. lamblia proteins (arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase and enolase), previously recognized as immunodominant antigens during acute giardiasis. Release was stimulated by cell–cell interactions, since only small amounts of argi-nine deiminase and enolase were detected in the medium after culturing of G. lamblia alone. The secreted G. lamblia proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and the inside of the plasma membrane of trophozoites. Furthermore, in vitro studies with recombinant arginine deiminase showed that the secreted Giardia proteins can disable host innate immune factors such as nitric oxide production. These results indicate that contact of Giardia with epithelial cells triggers metabolic enzyme release, which might facilitate effective colonization of the human small intestine. PMID:18359106

  16. Mutant Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter in Hodeidah, Yemen: association with parasitologic indices and treatment-seeking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Farag, Hoda F; Allam, Amal F; Shawky, Sherine M; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M

    2013-12-01

    Malaria still represents a major health problem in Yemen, particularly in Hodeidah, despite continuing efforts to eliminate it. With the absence of clinically proven vaccines, chemotherapy with antimalarials is still greatly needed. Chloroquine (CQ) has been popular as the drug of choice for malaria control. However, Plasmodium falciparum resistance to CQ has been one of the main obstacles in malaria control and elimination. Although CQ is no longer the recommended antimalarial chemotherapy, it has remained the number one over-the-counter antimalarial drug in many endemic areas, including Yemen, and is still used for self-medication. In addition, promising reports on CQ efficacy reversal in many African countries brought it again into the scene. This has led to a growing interest in the possibility of its re-introduction, particularly with the concerns raised about the parasite resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies. Therefore, the present study aimed at analyzing the CQ-associated pfcrt 76T mutation in P. falciparum isolates from patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Hodeidah, west of Yemen. The association of treatment-seeking behaviors and antimalarial drug use with the pfcrt 76T mutant allele was also studied. It was revealed that there is still a sustained high frequency of this molecular marker among parasite isolates associated with younger age, decreased parasite density and the presence of gametocytes in blood. Delay in seeking treatment and frequent use of antimalarials were the behaviors significantly associated with the presence of the pfcrt 76T mutant allele among patients reporting a history of malaria treatment.

  17. Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

    1996-07-01

    Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

  18. [Parasitological factors impeding the transmission of the agent of babesiosis (Babesia microti) to man from the tick Ixodes persulcatus].

    PubMed

    Korenberg, E I; Nefedova, V V; Kovalevsky, Yu V; Sorokina, Yu V; Gorelova, N B

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of own and literature data, it is concluded that the following ma- in permanent system of ecologicalarasitological factors prevents the effective vector functions of the tick I. persulcatus in transmission of B. microti: lack of distinct nymphs' anthropophily; small spontaneous invasion of hungry adults; a duration of the parasitic phase in humans is insufficient to complete the sporogonic development, because victims interrupt the phase. Therefore, not excluding the possibility of sporadic babesiosis disea- ses, it can be stated that within the boundaries of a vast territory, where the taiga tick is the only potential source of infection for humans, the B. microti infection has not, and will not reach significant values in infectious pathology. PMID:26016332

  19. MicroRNA Transcriptome Profiling in Heart of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Mice: Parasitological and Cardiological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Isabela Cunha; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Nakaya, Helder I.; Baron, Monique Andrade; Vilar-Pereira, Gláucia; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Real, Juliana Monte; De Brito, Thales; Chevillard, Christophe; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Ferreira, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and it begins with a short acute phase characterized by high parasitemia followed by a life-long chronic phase with scarce parasitism. Cardiac involvement is the most prominent manifestation, as 30% of infected subjects will develop abnormal ventricular repolarization with myocarditis, fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by undefined mechanisms. Nevertheless, follow-up studies in chagasic patients, as well as studies with murine models, suggest that the intensity of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological events that occur during the acute phase of disease are associated with the severity of cardiac disease observed during the chronic phase. In the present study we investigated the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the disease progression in response to T. cruzi infection, as alterations in miRNA levels are known to be associated with many cardiovascular disorders. We screened 641 rodent miRNAs in heart samples of mice during an acute infection with the Colombiana T.cruzi strain and identified multiple miRNAs significantly altered upon infection. Seventeen miRNAs were found significantly deregulated in all three analyzed time points post infection. Among these, six miRNAs had their expression correlated with clinical parameters relevant to the disease, such as parasitemia and maximal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval. Computational analyses identified that the gene targets for these six miRNAs were involved in networks and signaling pathways related to increased ventricular depolarization and repolarization times, important factors for QTc interval prolongation. The data presented here will guide further studies about the contribution of microRNAs to Chagas heart disease pathogenesis. PMID:26086673

  20. [Distribution of intestinal parasites among patients who presented at the parasitology laboratory of the Kocaeli University School of Medicine Hospital].

    PubMed

    Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Calişkan, Seyda; Willke, Ayşe

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 5178 fecal samples collected from patients who applied to our university during May 2003 through June 2005 were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Out of 5178 samples, 4560 of them were collected with cellophane tape preparations. Fecal samples were examined using native- Lugol and the trichrome staining method after sedimentation by formal-ethyl acetate concentration. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was evaluated with respect to age, gender and the months in which cases were seen. One or more parasites were found in 553 (10.67%) of the 5178 stool samples. Of these, 39.8% were female and 60.2, male. The distribution of the intestinal parasites was as follows; G. intestinalis in 138 cases (24.9%), E. vermicularis in 129 cases (23.3%), D. fragilis in 10 cases (1.8%), I. bütschlii cysts in 26 cases (4.7%), Taenia spp in 17 cases (3.07%) and Chilomastix mesnili in one case (0.18%). The rate of the presence of intestinal parasites in the 0-14 age group was higher than that of other groups. The incidence of parasitic diseases was lower in this study as compared to the results previously reported from our hospital. In our region intestinal parasites were predominantly protozoan whereas a lower rate of helminth isolations was noticeable. Parasitic infections continue to be an important public health problem in our country. PMID:18645942

  1. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and 'One health' in Europe: the veterinary medicinal view on CVBDs such as tick borreliosis, rickettsiosis and canine leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Mencke, Norbert

    2013-08-01

    The medical as well as the veterinary importance of parasitic arthropods or ectoparasites in general terms, is characterized by the primary or secondary impact on the health of humans and companion animals alike. The parasitic arthropods addressed here are those ectoparasites belong to the class of insects, such as fleas and sand flies, or the subclass of acarids, such as ticks. These parasitic arthropods interact intensively with their hosts by blood feeding. Fleas, sand flies and ticks hold the vector capacity to transmit pathogens such as virus, bacteria or protozoa to cats, dogs and humans. The diseases caused by these pathogens are summarized under the terms canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD), feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) or metazoonoses. In small animal practice, it is important to understand that the transmitted pathogen may either lead to a disease with clinical signs, or more often to asymptomatic, clinically healthy, or silent infections. Blocking of the vector-host interactions, the blood feeding and subsequently the transmission of pathogens during blood feeding is a key element of CVBD control. The focus of this review is on the current knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic vectors and three important CVBDs they transmit; rickettsiosis, tick borreliosis and canine leishmaniosis from a European perspective, and how veterinary medicine may contribute to the challenges of CVBDs and their control. Prevention of CVBDs is fundamentally based on ectoparasite control. Ectoparasite management in cats and dogs is important not only for the health and well-being of the individual companion animal but for public health in general and is therefore a perfect example of the 'One health' approach.

  2. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California (2012).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Kuzmina, T A; Spraker, T R; Jaggi, N; Costa, D P; Crocker, D E; Tolliver, S C; Tift, M S

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866), inhabiting rookeries on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve in central California, were investigated in 2012 for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.). Material collected and examined for hookworms included: blubber (n = 15), stomach and intestines (n = 21) from dead pups; feces from the rectum of weaned pups (n = 23); sand containing apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 28) and sand without apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 54); milk from females (n =23) at 5 days and about 23 to 26 days postpartum; and placenta from one female. Evidence of hookworm presence was not detected in any of the samples examined. Possible reasons why hookworms were not found in northern elephant seals on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve are discussed.

  3. Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.

    PubMed

    Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine.

  4. Parasitological, hematological and ultrastructural study of the effect of COX-2 inhibitor, pyocyanin pigment and praziquantel, on S. mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amira H; Ezz El-Din, Nashwa; Fahmy, Zeinab H; El-Shennawy, Amal M; Hassan, Eman

    2006-04-01

    The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, such (as meloxicam, and pyocyanin pigment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with and without praziquantel (PZQ) on worms, ova count, bone marrow and blood cells in 7 groups of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice was studied. The results revealed significant decrease of worm burden and ova count in all treated groups as compared to the infected untreated group, while those with combined treatment of PZQ and meloxicam or pyocyanin showed complete eradication of the worm with the highest reduction in the tissue egg load. EM showed extensive swelling and vesiculation of the tegument, completely implanted spines that overlie degenerated muscle layer were obvious in groups treated with either meloxicam or pyocyanin. Hematological study revealed significant increase (P<0.05) of total leucocytic count of PZQ treated group while that treated with either meloxicam or pyocyanin showed significant decrease (P<0.05), but in combination of PZQ with meloxicam or pyocyanin no significant difference as compared to the infected untreated group. The neutrophil was the main cell affected in groups treated with neither meloxicam nor pyocyanin alone with significant decrease (P<0.05), but with significant increase (P<0.05) in combination with PZQ as compared to the infected untreated group. Those treated with PZQ plus meloxicam showed significant increase as compared to that plus pyocyanin. Eosinophil count showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in all treated groups as compared to the infected untreated group. Inverse correlation between serum level of sFas and peripheral neutrophil count was detected. Ultrastructural study of the bone marrow explained the results as groups treated with meloxicam revealed dissociation between nuclear and cytoplasmic development in the neutophils with cytoplasm maintaining primitive appearance despite maturation of the nucleus, that is manifested by the persistent production of immature granules and the still orientation of Golgi cternae and the centriole around the nucleus. Groups treated with pyocyanin pigment revealed many abnormalities in neutophils as hypogranularity or early apoptotic morphology changes as intense perinuclear chromatin aggregation or nucleus fragmentation. In peripheral blood apoptotic morphology changes was detected in both groups treated with meloxicam or pyocyanin while most of cells of mice treated with PZQ were in an active state. Consequently, it is preferable to give meloxicam with PZQ for a short period of time (less side-effect) to eradicate S. mansoni worm completely but with continuous observation of the peripheral neutrophil count and function. PMID:16605111

  5. New Markov-autocorrelation indices for re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks used in metabolomics, parasitology, neurosciences, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo

    2012-12-21

    The development of new methods for the computational re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks is very important to save time and resources. The Moreau-Broto autocorrelation indices (MBis) are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in QSAR/QSPR studies to encode the structural information contained in molecular graphs. In addition, MBis and similar autocorrelation measures have been used to study other systems like, for example, proteins. In the present work, MBis are combined with Markov chains to develop a general class of stochastic MBis of order k (MB(k)) that is used to encode the structural information contained in different types of large complex networks. The MB(k) values obtained for the nodes (centralities) of these networks are used as input variables to seek QSPR-like equations (by means of linear discriminant analysis) in which the outputs are numerical scores S(L(ij)) that allow us to discriminate between connected and nonconnected nodes and therefore re-evaluate the connectivity of the whole network. The models developed in this work produced the following results in terms of overall accuracy for network reconstruction: metabolic networks (72.10%), parasite-host networks (88.70%), CoCoMac brain cortex coactivation network (81.89%), and fasciolosis spreading network (86.39%).

  6. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): Guideline for the evaluation of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa in livestock and companion animals.

    PubMed

    Geurden, T; Olson, M E; O'Handley, R M; Schetters, T; Bowman, D; Vercruysse, J

    2014-08-29

    The current guideline was written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, with Giardia spp. as the leading example. The information provided in this guideline deals with aspects of how to conduct controlled studies using experimental infection models (dose determination and dose confirmation) and efficacy studies in commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies). Furthermore, the selection of suitable animals, housing, infection procedure, choice of diagnostic technique and data analysis are discussed. This guideline is intended to assist investigators in conducting specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new drugs and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of uniform procedures. The primary parameter for drug efficacy is the reduction in either parasite excretion or parasite counts and a minimum efficacy of 90% is required against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa. A supporting efficacy parameter is a significant difference in the proportion of infected animals between treated and non-treated groups. Persistent efficacy is considered as an additional claim to therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Daniel S; Mohamed, Faten A M M; Nachev, Milen; Méabed, Eman M H; Sabry, Abdel Hameed A; Sures, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96%) and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%), Echinostoma caproni (2.36%) and another echinostome (7.09%) that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species) from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits F. gigantica.

  8. Effect of meteorological factors on clinical malaria risk among children: an assessment using village-based meteorological stations and community-based parasitological survey

    PubMed Central

    Yé, Yazoumé; Louis, Valérie R; Simboro, Séraphin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Background Temperature, rainfall and humidity have been widely associated with the dynamics of malaria vector population and, therefore, with spread of the disease. However, at the local scale, there is a lack of a systematic quantification of the effect of these factors on malaria transmission. Further, most attempts to quantify this effect are based on proxy meteorological data acquired from satellites or interpolated from a different scale. This has led to controversies about the contribution of climate change to malaria transmission risk among others. Our study addresses the original question of relating meteorological factors measured at the local scale with malaria infection, using data collected at the same time and scale. Methods 676 children (6–59 months) were selected randomly from three ecologically different sites (urban and rural). During weekly home visits between December 1, 2003, and November 30, 2004, fieldworkers tested children with fever for clinical malaria. They also collected data on possible confounders monthly. Digital meteorological stations measured ambient temperature, humidity, and rainfall in each site. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of clinical malaria given the previous month's meteorological conditions. Results The overall incidence of clinical malaria over the study period was 1.07 episodes per child. Meteorological factors were associated with clinical malaria with mean temperature having the largest effect. Conclusion Temperature was the best predictor for clinical malaria among children under five. A systematic measurement of local temperature through ground stations and integration of such data in the routine health information system could support assessment of malaria transmission risk at the district level for well-targeted control efforts. PMID:17559638

  9. [The biological component of the professional standards and qualification characteristics of preventive medicine specialists (as exemplified by the specialty of parasitology)].

    PubMed

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    In the context of theoretical analysis, the paper characterizes a specialist training system based on the biological component of the qualification characteristics and professional standard of preventive medicine specialists. Evidence is provided for the relationship between the components of the training system for preventive medicine specialists. The authors also specify the fact that the content of qualification characteristics and professional standards, besides general requirements, must take into account requirements for training the specialists in terms of natural and climatic and socioeconomic characteristics of regions.

  10. Morphological diversity of Trichuris spp. eggs observed during an anthelminthic drug trial in Yunnan, China, and relative performance of parasitologic diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Du, Zun-Wei; Marti, Hanspeter; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    The presence of large Trichuris spp. eggs in human faecal samples is occasionally reported. Such eggs have been described as variant Trichuris trichiura or Trichuris vulpis eggs. Within the frame of a randomised controlled trial, faecal samples collected from 115 Bulang individuals from Yunnan, People's Republic of China were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique (fresh stool samples) and the FLOTAC and ether-concentration techniques (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples). Large Trichuris spp. eggs were noted in faecal samples with a prevalence of 6.1% before and 21.7% after anthelminthic drug administration. The observed prevalence of standard-sized T. trichiura eggs was reduced from 93.0% to 87.0% after treatment. Considerably more cases of large Trichuris spp. eggs and slightly more cases with normal-sized T. trichiura eggs were identified by FLOTAC compared to the ether-concentration technique. No large Trichuris spp. eggs were observed on the Kato-Katz thick smears.

  11. A novel alternative method for 3D visualisation in Parasitology: the construction of a 3D model of a parasite from 2D illustrations.

    PubMed

    Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms. PMID:20962723

  12. Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.

    PubMed

    Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

  13. Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742): the inventor of the word "orthopaedics" and the father of parasitology.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Remi

    2010-08-01

    This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called "L'orthopedie", which was soon after translated into English (1742) "Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children". His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed.

  14. [Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].

    PubMed

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2013-05-01

    An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides.

  15. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

  16. [Parasitologic significance of the alteration of the causative Anisakidae worm and of the Pseudoterranova decipiens female immature adult worm, casting off the cuticles, and excreted from human in Kanazawa City].

    PubMed

    Ishikura, H; Kikuchi, K; Akao, N; Doutei, M; Yagi, K; Takahashi, S; Sato, N

    1995-09-01

    We have been studying Anisakidae larvae, their intermediate hosts and their final hosts in the northern Japan Sea area. These larvae cause anisakidosis. According to the investigation, the recent burst of pseudoterranovosis in this area can be attributed to the increased presence of sea lions, which proliferate in the Arctic region, then migrate to the northern Japan Sea and eat the intermediate host fish. In a stomach of a male sea lion that was captured in February 1995, we found more than 4,500 Pseudoterranova decipiens. Although there is no known circumstance in which a human would consume an adult worm of Anisakis nematode, an astonishing case of this was found in Kanazawa; a female young adult Pseudoterranova decipiens undergoing the final metamorphosis was emitted from a patient. This indicates that the Anisakis larva can mature into the adult worm in humans. It is postulated that the Pseudoterranova decipiens larva is in the process of adapting to use humans as the final host. PMID:8543275

  17. 75 FR 39948 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; “Antiparasitic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    .... FDA will also share their results with the veterinary parasitology community. FDA plans to survey scientists and veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a web-based tool. The questions... within the veterinary parasitology community. The survey will query subjects on topics such as:...

  18. Research and increase of expertise in arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2012-01-01

    Considering the contents of international journals of parasitology dealing with broader topics inside this field show that rather a few papers appear with studies in the discipline of arachno-entomology. In the journals Journal of Parasitology, Parasitology Research and Trends in Parasitology, the relations of published papers on protozoology, helminthology and arachno-entomology showed that in all three journals, papers on protozoans were the most common, while those on helminths of any kind reached the second place being rather as common as the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research and in the Journal of Parasitology. In Trends of Parasitology, however, the papers on helminths reached only about 25% of the numbers published on protozoan topics. But in all three journals-and this is important-the papers on arachno-entomological themes were scarce reaching less than the half of the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research, and only about 15% in the Journal of Parasitology and in the Trends of Parasitology. These disproportions between the three great subdivisions of targets in the focus of parasitological research are dangerous, since this lack exists already for several decades and thus led to a backlog of unsolved increasing problems that are caused by ticks, mites, insects and/or parasitic crustaceans especially in times of intensive globalization and global warming. Studies on the biology, vectorship, invasion and spreading of wanted vectors and on the control of pests and parasites belonging to the field of arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    PubMed

    Radice, Marcela; Marín, Marcelo; Giovanakis, Marta; Vay, Carlos; Almuzara, Marisa; Limansky, Adriana; Casellas, José M; Famiglietti, Angela; Quinteros, Mirta; Bantar, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Kovensky Pupko, Jaime; Nicola, Federico; Pasterán, Fernando; Soloaga, Rolando; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document also includes a summary of the different methodological approaches that may be used for detection and confirmation of emerging b-lactamases, such as class A and B carbapenemases.

  20. Could kDNA-PCR in Peripheral Blood Replace the Examination of Bone Marrow for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis?

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Natalia Souza; Andrino, Marcos Luiz Alves; de Souza, Regina Maia; Gakiya, Erika; Amato, Valdir Sabbaga; Lindoso, José Ângelo Lauletta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the molecular (kDNA-PCR) and parasitological diagnosis in peripheral blood (PB) could replace the invasive and painful bone marrow collection (BM) in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). PB from suspected VL patients was evaluated by parasitological and molecular techniques using as the gold standard (GS) a combination of clinical, epidemiological, and immunochromatographic test (PB-rK39) results and parasitological examination of BM. Based on the GS, 38 samples from 32 patients were grouped: Group 1, 20 samples of VL cases, and Group 2, 18 samples of non-VL cases. In order to evaluate the parasitological and molecular techniques in PB, the samples were examined. From Group 1, PB kDNA-PCR was positive in 20 samples and in 19 of 20 in BM kDNA-PCR examination. However, the parasitological examination of buffy coat was insensitive, being able to detect only 4 cases from Group 1. All samples from Group 2 were negative. We concluded that, for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, the parasitological examination of peripheral blood was not useful; however, molecular diagnosis by kDNA-PCR, performed in peripheral blood, could be useful to replace the parasitological examination of bone marrow. PMID:27597892

  1. Could kDNA-PCR in Peripheral Blood Replace the Examination of Bone Marrow for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis?

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Natalia Souza; Andrino, Marcos Luiz Alves; de Souza, Regina Maia; Gakiya, Erika; Amato, Valdir Sabbaga; Lindoso, José Ângelo Lauletta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the molecular (kDNA-PCR) and parasitological diagnosis in peripheral blood (PB) could replace the invasive and painful bone marrow collection (BM) in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). PB from suspected VL patients was evaluated by parasitological and molecular techniques using as the gold standard (GS) a combination of clinical, epidemiological, and immunochromatographic test (PB-rK39) results and parasitological examination of BM. Based on the GS, 38 samples from 32 patients were grouped: Group 1, 20 samples of VL cases, and Group 2, 18 samples of non-VL cases. In order to evaluate the parasitological and molecular techniques in PB, the samples were examined. From Group 1, PB kDNA-PCR was positive in 20 samples and in 19 of 20 in BM kDNA-PCR examination. However, the parasitological examination of buffy coat was insensitive, being able to detect only 4 cases from Group 1. All samples from Group 2 were negative. We concluded that, for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, the parasitological examination of peripheral blood was not useful; however, molecular diagnosis by kDNA-PCR, performed in peripheral blood, could be useful to replace the parasitological examination of bone marrow.

  2. [Blastocystosis: a high prevalence of cases found in patients from Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Virma; Caldera, Rixcia; Wong, Wladimir; Cermeño, Gloria; Fuentes, Maximo; Blanco, Ytalia; Aponte, Maria; Devera, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    The parasitological examination of fecal samples from 98 patients from an Ambulatory Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui, Venezuela revealed a rather high proportion of results positive for Blastocystis hominis (46.9%). PMID:16082488

  3. Introduction to symposium: Arthropods and wildlife conservation: synergy in complex biological systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symposium will discuss the effects of arthropods and other stressors on wildlife conservation programs. Speakers with affiliations in wildlife biology, parasitology and entomology will be included in the program. Research of national and international interest will be presented....

  4. Toxoplasma blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Fritsche TR, Selvarangan R. Medical parasitology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: ...

  5. EPIFLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY AND SOLID PHASE CYTOMETRY AS CONFIRMATORY METHODS FOR THE ENUMERATION OF PROTOZOA BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of infective protozoan parasites contained in large volume environmental samples represents a unique challenge in environmental parasitology. Compounding this problem is the fact that infective stages of many protozoan parasites do not readily replicate in media or ...

  6. 75 FR 48698 - Medicare, Medicaid and CLIA Programs; COLA (Formerly the Commission on Office Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... on February 23, 2007(72 FR 8171), we granted COLA approval as an accreditation organization under 42... Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis..., Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry,...

  7. Studies on eimerians (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of wild ruminants.

    PubMed

    Pyziel, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The studies were carried out in W. Stefanski Institute of Parasitology Polish Academy of Sciences. Doctoral thesis defense took place on May 29th 2012. Supervisor: prof. dr hab. Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz. PMID:25165763

  8. 25 years of African trypanosome research: From description to molecular dissection and new drug discovery☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    The Molecular Parasitology conference was first held at the Marine Biological laboratory, Woods Hole, USA 25 years ago. Since that first meeting, the conference has evolved and expanded but has remained the showcase for the latest research developments in molecular parasitology. In this perspective, I reflect on the scientific discoveries focussed on African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei spp.) that have occurred since the inaugural MPM meeting and discuss the current and future status of research on these parasites. PMID:25736427

  9. [Outstanding Soviet zoologist and parasitologist E. N. Pavlovsky--the creator of the theory of natural foci of disease].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskyĭ, L N

    2011-01-01

    The article presents information on the outstanding Soviet Zoology and Parasitology, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lieutenant-General of the Medical Service E. N. Pavlovsky, the author of more than 1500 scientific papers, the founder of scientific school, one of the few scholars the twentieth century, approaching the level of scientists and encyclopedists. Considered its contribution to the study of natural foci of diseases has promoted the development of environmental trends in parasitology.

  10. Long-term follow-up of a patient since the acute phase of Chagas disease (South American trypanosomiasis): further treatment and cure of the infection.

    PubMed

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Dias, Emmanuel; Nóbrega, Genard Carneiro da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    A woman had been followed since 1957 for acute phase Chagas disease. Parasitological and serological tests were positive, and treatment included benznidazole in 1974. Following treatment, parasitological test results were negative and conventional serology remained positive until 1994, with subsequent discordant results (1995-1997). The results became consistently negative since 1999. She had an indeterminate chronic form until 1974. Only two minor and transitory nonspecific alterations on electrocardiogram were noted, with the last nine records normal until June 2014. This case confirms the possibility of curing chronic disease and suggests the benefit of specific treatments for preventing long-term morbidity. PMID:26516979

  11. Parasite systematics in the 21st century: opportunities and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; Hoberg, E P

    2001-06-01

    Taxonomic names and phylogenetic hypotheses are indispensable tools for modern biological research, both basic and applied. Like all disciplines, parasitology suffers from the 'taxonomic impediment' - a global shortage of professional taxonomists and systematists. Only a fraction of the species of parasites on this planet have been identified, and the evolutionary relationships of only a minority of those are understood; thus, information on how to manage parasite biodiversity, including known and potential disease agents, is incomplete. A renewal of systematic parasitology has a key role in redefining the relationship between mankind and the organisms whose biology fascinates us so much.

  12. Information on Vinchucas and Chagas disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenone, H.

    1981-12-01

    Following a significant increase in the number of vinchucas observed at La Silla during the last summer, the Director-General of ESO asked Prof. Hugo Schenone, Director of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the University of Chile to pay a visit to La Silla to investigate the situation. The following gives a summary of the resulting report.

  13. [Intestinal parasite diagnoses in Chad and North Cameroon, 1963-2009].

    PubMed

    Massenet, D; Gamougam, K; Djerané, L; Toukour, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of parasitological analyses of stool samples in N'Djamena (Chad) since 1963 and in Garoua (North Cameroon) since 1990. The number of positive stool examinations has fallen, with a significant decline in helminthiases, although the level of protozoan infections has remained essentially the same.

  14. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  15. [Studying at École de pharmacie de Lille with Alfred Giard in the XIXth century].

    PubMed

    Guerriaud, Mathieu

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a pharmacy student's notebook in Lille in the 1870s. The Medical Natural History course is taught by Alfred Mathieu Giard. Following a brief biography of the latter, excerpts of the manuscript are presented, they reveal the extent of scientific knowledge of the late nineteenth century, especially in the field of Parasitology.

  16. Biography of Dr. John L. Fryer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryer, John L.

    2001-01-01

    from his laboratory at Oregon State University (OSU) has spanned the disciplines of virology, parasitology, bacteriology, cell biology, immunology and fish physiology, resulting in more than 200 publications, two patents and recognition as one ofthe world's leading centres for research on infectious diseases of salmonid fish.

  17. Anti-cattle tick vaccines: Many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...

  18. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  19. Use of Case Studies for Stimulating Thinking and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    Noting that a case-study approach can stimulate student thinking and learning, this paper describes how students in a writing-intensive course on parasitology wrote brief medical case studies of parasites already studied for other students to read, evaluate, and identify the parasite. The paper presents a brief description of the course, an…

  20. Infection in the Classroom: Parasites as Models to Teach Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seville, R. Scott; Couch, Lee; Seed, Richard; Chappell, Cynthia; Patton, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The American Society of Parasitologists established a five-year plan to educate various groups about parasites and parasitology, which were targeted at K-12 students and teachers, college students and teachers and biologists in other disciplines. This program also developed the idea to host a symposium and workshop for these targeted groups.

  1. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    PubMed Central

    ABRANTES, Tuanne Rotti; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; da SILVA, Denise Amaro; PERIÉ, Carolina dos Santos F. S.; V. MENDES, Artur Augusto; MENEZES, Rodrigo Caldas; SILVA, Valmir Laurentino; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2016-01-01

    After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r)) were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r), with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26910449

  3. Cell-block Immunohistochemistry of Bone Marrow Aspirates: a Novel Tool to Improve the Diagnosis of Leishmania Infection in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Menezes, R C; Madeira, M F; Ferreira, L C; Barbosa Filho, C J L; Miranda, L H M; Figueiredo, F B

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological methods are the most specific procedures used for the diagnosis of Leishmania spp. infection, but their limited sensitivity poses a disadvantage and prompts the need for alternatives. The choice of site for sample collection influences diagnostic sensitivity. The combination of an accurate diagnostic method and a technique that allows large-scale field studies is highly desirable to enhance the investigation of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs, especially in endemic regions. The bone marrow is a good target for the detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs. In this context, bone marrow aspiration is rapid and less invasive compared with biopsy procedures, and also enables cell block processing, paraffin wax embedding and the sectioning of samples for further histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time parasitological methods (immunohistochemistry [IHC] and histopathology) using the cell block technique with bone marrow aspirates for the diagnosis of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs. Bone marrow aspiration was performed in 45 dogs from an area endemic for visceral leishmaniosis for parasitological culture and the cell block technique (histopathology and IHC). Fourteen (31.1%) dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. by IHC, six (13.3%) by parasitological culture and four (8.9%) by histopathology. Cell block IHC was a useful tool for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis. Further studies should be conducted to validate this method for routine epidemiological screening. PMID:26852343

  4. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  5. [Evaluation of the contamination of lettuce crops after the establishment of the monitoring system in Ribeirão Preto, SP].

    PubMed

    Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Capuano, Divani M; Oliveira, Carlos A D; Bergamini, Alzira M M; Okino, Madalena H T; Castro E Silva, Ana A M C; Oliveira, Maria A; Ribeiro, Eliana G A; Takayanagui, Angela M M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbiological and parasitological contamination of 88 market gardens producing green vegetables, of which 47 had been investigated previously. The contamination rate was 38.3% in the market gardens previously evaluated and 43.9% in the new market gardens. Food safety requires a continuous and efficient sanitary surveillance system for market gardens. PMID:17568898

  6. Apyretic gastrointestinal disorders due to giardiasis contracted in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Yann A.; Hole, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 32-year-old French man who presented with morning nausea, bloating, frequent flatulence, burping, occasional pyrosis, and alternating diarrhea and constipation two weeks after a trip to Morocco. The diagnosis was established by a parasitological stool exam that revealed cysts of Giardia lamblia. He was successfully treated with tinidazole. PMID:24765301

  7. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Emi; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; de Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole. PMID:24676660

  8. Artesunate/amodiaquine malaria treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).

    PubMed

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6-59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5-87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008. PMID:23530078

  9. Cell-block Immunohistochemistry of Bone Marrow Aspirates: a Novel Tool to Improve the Diagnosis of Leishmania Infection in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Menezes, R C; Madeira, M F; Ferreira, L C; Barbosa Filho, C J L; Miranda, L H M; Figueiredo, F B

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological methods are the most specific procedures used for the diagnosis of Leishmania spp. infection, but their limited sensitivity poses a disadvantage and prompts the need for alternatives. The choice of site for sample collection influences diagnostic sensitivity. The combination of an accurate diagnostic method and a technique that allows large-scale field studies is highly desirable to enhance the investigation of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs, especially in endemic regions. The bone marrow is a good target for the detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs. In this context, bone marrow aspiration is rapid and less invasive compared with biopsy procedures, and also enables cell block processing, paraffin wax embedding and the sectioning of samples for further histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time parasitological methods (immunohistochemistry [IHC] and histopathology) using the cell block technique with bone marrow aspirates for the diagnosis of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs. Bone marrow aspiration was performed in 45 dogs from an area endemic for visceral leishmaniosis for parasitological culture and the cell block technique (histopathology and IHC). Fourteen (31.1%) dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. by IHC, six (13.3%) by parasitological culture and four (8.9%) by histopathology. Cell block IHC was a useful tool for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis. Further studies should be conducted to validate this method for routine epidemiological screening.

  10. Artesunate/amodiaquine malaria treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).

    PubMed

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6-59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5-87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008.

  11. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  12. [Development of microbiological diagnosis in Sarajevo from 1905 to the present].

    PubMed

    Serić, K; Ljubović, A; Hadzijamaković, M; Cemalović, M

    1995-01-01

    On the occasion of the 100th Anniversary of the Regional Hospital in Sarajevo and the 46th year of the Institute of Microbiology, the development of the microbiologic diagnostics, since 1905 to the present days is shown. In the golden age of bacteriology, 1905-1918, we traced the beginnings of the discipline. In the period of time 1918-1945, the bacteriologic diagnostic had a slow development. The biggest rise of bacteriology, parasitology, laser immunology, also was achieved after the World War 2, reached an European level. For the development and success are responsible the pioneers and their successors. Microbiologic diagnostics survived some phases of integration in the pre war time. During the 26 war months, without breaks, the bacteriologic and parasitologic diagnostics at the institute has been performing their duty.

  13. Assessing resistance of ivermectin and moxidectin against nematodes in cattle naturally infected using three different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; de Matos, Lucas Vinicius Shigaki; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the faecal egg count efficacy test (FECET) to assess the resistance status of ivermectin (630 μg/kg) and moxidectin (200 μg/kg), using the controlled efficacy test as a reference, and whether the results of the EPG are equivalent to the efficacy results from the parasitological necropsies. Two experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate that it was not possible to demonstrate that the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and moxidectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies, mainly if the phenomenon of parasites resistance is not advanced in a determined field population. Maybe the FECET technique would be possibly better than the FECRT. The high anthelmintic efficacy of 200 μg/kg moxidectin, in naturally infected cattle, against field population of nematodes that are resistant to 630 μg/kg ivermectin, was observed in this study.

  14. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of excretory secretory antigens in humans with fascioliasis.

    PubMed Central

    Espino, A M; Finlay, C M

    1994-01-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the detection of Fasciola hepatica excretory secretory (ES) antigens in stool specimens of infected humans. The assay uses antibodies against F. hepatica ES antigens. A monoclonal antibody (ES78, mouse immunoglobulin G2a) was used to capture ES antigens, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody, peroxidase conjugate, was used to identify ES antigens. Thirteen of 14 patients with parasitological evidence of fascioliasis had a detectable concentration of ES antigens (more than 15 ng/ml). None of the stool specimens from controls and from patients with parasites other than F. hepatica showed a positive reaction, suggesting the absence of cross-reactions in this assay. When the 14 patients were retested 2 months after treatment, all of the specimens from the 11 parasitologically cured patients were negative by the antigen detection assay while the specimens from the 3 patients with persisting F. hepatica eggs in their stools remained positive. PMID:8126178

  15. Current clinical efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in urban Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Z.; Makwaya, C.; Minjas, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the use of a 14-day WHO protocol, which takes into account the clinical, parasitological and haematological responses to antimalarial drugs, to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young children (n = 200) in urban Dar es Salaam. Chloroquine failure was found in 43% of the children. Of these, 12.5% were considered to be early treatment failures and were given a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Fever subsided in all children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and there were no parasitological failures. In addition, children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of early treatment failure with chloroquine had better haematological recovery than the chloroquine-sensitive group. It is concluded that chloroquine can no longer be considered an effective therapy for P. falciparum malaria in young children in Dar es Salaam. PMID:10534897

  16. Parasite-host interactions of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) in Brazilian tropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Falcão, Luiz Alberto Dolabela; Graciolli, Gustavo; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the parasitology of ectoparasitic bat flies are scarce, and they are needed to identify patterns in parasitism. Hence, in the present study, we assessed community composition, prevalence, average infestation intensity, and specificity in the fly-bat associations in Brazilian tropical dry forests. In order to do that, we used the parasitological indices known as prevalence and average infestation intensity, along with an index of host specificity. We collected 1098 bat flies of 38 species. Five of the associations found are new to Brazil, 9 are new to southeastern Brazil, and 10 are new to science. Average infestation intensity varied from 1 to 9 and prevalence 0 to 100 %. In terms of specificity, 76 % of the bat flies were associated to a single host (monoxenic). These results highlight the low capacity of bat flies to survive on a not usual host especially due to an immunological incompatibility between parasites and hosts and dispersal barriers.

  17. Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) in treatment of human and sheep dicrocoeliasis dendriticum in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2004-08-01

    Dicrocoeliasis dendriticum is now imposing itself as an animal and zoonotic helminthic disease in many Arabian countries. Myrrh extract of Commiphora molmol (Mirazid) successfully and safely treated clinically and parasitologically proven 18 human dicrocoeliasis dendriticum patients. The dose was 2 capsules (300 mg each) given on an empty stomach an hour before the breakfast for six successive days. Cure (100%) was achieved clinically and by stool analysis for two months follow up. Besides, fifteen sheep naturally infected with Dicrocoelium dendriticum as proven parasitologically were successfully and safely treated with 2 capsules (300 mg each) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for four successive days. Cure (100%) was successfully achieved by stool analysis for seven days and macroscopically for detection of any adult worm after being slaughtered. The total dose required to treat infected sheep (2400 mg) was less than that required for human treatment (3600 mg). PMID:15287191

  18. Recombinant K28 antigen in ELISA in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Venturin, G L; Bragato, J P; Silva, K L O; de Lima, V M F

    2015-12-01

    Crude total antigen (CTA) from Leishmania infantum and recombinant antigen K39 (rK39) and recombinant antigen K28 (rK28) were compared using an ELISA for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL). Forty-two blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic area and 80 blood samples from an endemic area for dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), confirmed with positive parasitological tests for Leishmania spp., were used in an ELISA. The parasitological diagnosis was chosen as a gold standard. The ELISA with rK28 antigen showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%, high agreement with CTA and rK39, indicating that the rK28 antigen is useful for ELISA serological diagnosis of CVL.

  19. A review of parasite studies of commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Cecile C

    2015-01-01

    Scattered records of parasitic species infecting commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa are known from just a few countries where concerted efforts have been made by local parasitologists (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, South Africa). Most of these consist of taxonomic records or general surveys of parasite faunas associated with marine hosts, which may or may not have been of commercial value. Little to no multi-disciplinary research is conducted in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and hence parasitological data are not commonly used to advise fisheries management procedures. This review summarizes current knowledge on all parasitological research associated with commercially important marine fish species in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Assessment of allopurinol plus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Soriano, V; Montilla, P; Alvar, J; González-Lahoz, J M

    1994-05-01

    We report on 11 patients with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis and who were treated with meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol for 3 weeks (six patients) or 4 weeks (five patients). Clinical and parasitological cures were achieved in four of the five patients treated for 4 weeks and in one of the six patients treated for 3 weeks. Only one patient developed a severe maculopapular rash. Allopurinol plus meglumine antimoniate was found to be a safe combination of drugs for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with HIV. The optimal length of this treatment is unknown but a course of at least 4 weeks' duration would appear to be necessary for obtaining parasitological cure in most cases.

  1. Histopathological changes in the upper digestive tract of pigeons infected with Hadjelia truncata.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Kamali, S Amir; Taebi Pour, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-09-01

    Thirty-five pigeons from ten different farms in Fars area, southern Iran were submitted for post mortem inspection. Based on the clinical observations and gross pathological examinations, all the birds showed severe weight loss, diarrhea and to some extent ventricular enlargement. Furthermore, all the cases demonstrated large numbers of nematodes attached to the mucosa and submucosa of the ventriculus. Parasitological examinations revealed that the recovered parasites were Hadjelia truncata. The histopathological changes showed necrosis of the mucosal cells with moderate infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, heterophils and eosinophils in the lamina properia and muscularis mucosa in the infected animals. Based on the parasitological and pathological findings it can be concluded that the nematode H. truncate could be assigned as a pathogenic agent in the upper tract of pigeons. PMID:27605802

  2. THE PROCESS OF Leishmania INFECTION - DISEASE AND NEW PERSPECTIVES OF PALEOPARASITOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Novo, Shênia Patrícia Corrêa; Leles, Daniela; Bianucci, Raffaella; Araujo, Adauto

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) are causative agents of leishmaniasis, a complex disease with variable clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity, constituting, in some countries, a serious public health problem. The origin and evolution of leishmaniasis has been under discussion regarding some clinical and parasitological aspects. After the introduction of paleoparasitology, molecular methods and immunodiagnostic techniques have been applied allowing the recovery of parasite remains, as well as the diagnosis of past infections in humans and other hosts. The dating of archaeological samples has allowed the parasitological analysis in time and space. This manuscript presents the state of the art of leishmaniasis and prospects related to paleoparasitology studies and their contribution to the evolutionary and phylogenetic clarification of parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania, and the leishmaniasis caused by them. PMID:27253747

  3. Bayesian geostatistics in health cartography: the perspective of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anand P.; Gething, Peter W.; Piel, Frédéric B.; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Maps of parasite prevalences and other aspects of infectious diseases that vary in space are widely used in parasitology. However, spatial parasitological datasets rarely, if ever, have sufficient coverage to allow exact determination of such maps. Bayesian geostatistics (BG) is a method for finding a large sample of maps that can explain a dataset, in which maps that do a better job of explaining the data are more likely to be represented. This sample represents the knowledge that the analyst has gained from the data about the unknown true map. BG provides a conceptually simple way to convert these samples to predictions of features of the unknown map, for example regional averages. These predictions account for each map in the sample, yielding an appropriate level of predictive precision. PMID:21420361

  4. Bayesian geostatistics in health cartography: the perspective of malaria.

    PubMed

    Patil, Anand P; Gething, Peter W; Piel, Frédéric B; Hay, Simon I

    2011-06-01

    Maps of parasite prevalences and other aspects of infectious diseases that vary in space are widely used in parasitology. However, spatial parasitological datasets rarely, if ever, have sufficient coverage to allow exact determination of such maps. Bayesian geostatistics (BG) is a method for finding a large sample of maps that can explain a dataset, in which maps that do a better job of explaining the data are more likely to be represented. This sample represents the knowledge that the analyst has gained from the data about the unknown true map. BG provides a conceptually simple way to convert these samples to predictions of features of the unknown map, for example regional averages. These predictions account for each map in the sample, yielding an appropriate level of predictive precision.

  5. THE PROCESS OF Leishmania INFECTION - DISEASE AND NEW PERSPECTIVES OF PALEOPARASITOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    NOVO, Shênia Patrícia Corrêa; LELES, Daniela; BIANUCCI, Raffaella; ARAUJO, Adauto

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) are causative agents of leishmaniasis, a complex disease with variable clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity, constituting, in some countries, a serious public health problem. The origin and evolution of leishmaniasis has been under discussion regarding some clinical and parasitological aspects. After the introduction of paleoparasitology, molecular methods and immunodiagnostic techniques have been applied allowing the recovery of parasite remains, as well as the diagnosis of past infections in humans and other hosts. The dating of archaeological samples has allowed the parasitological analysis in time and space. This manuscript presents the state of the art of leishmaniasis and prospects related to paleoparasitology studies and their contribution to the evolutionary and phylogenetic clarification of parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania, and the leishmaniasis caused by them. PMID:27253747

  6. Histopathological changes in the upper digestive tract of pigeons infected with Hadjelia truncata.

    PubMed

    Oryan, Ahmad; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Kamali, S Amir; Taebi Pour, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-09-01

    Thirty-five pigeons from ten different farms in Fars area, southern Iran were submitted for post mortem inspection. Based on the clinical observations and gross pathological examinations, all the birds showed severe weight loss, diarrhea and to some extent ventricular enlargement. Furthermore, all the cases demonstrated large numbers of nematodes attached to the mucosa and submucosa of the ventriculus. Parasitological examinations revealed that the recovered parasites were Hadjelia truncata. The histopathological changes showed necrosis of the mucosal cells with moderate infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, heterophils and eosinophils in the lamina properia and muscularis mucosa in the infected animals. Based on the parasitological and pathological findings it can be concluded that the nematode H. truncate could be assigned as a pathogenic agent in the upper tract of pigeons.

  7. Evaluation of the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) for detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hilali, M; Abdel-Gawad, A; Nassar, A; Abdel-Wahab, A; Magnus, E; Büscher, P

    2004-05-01

    A card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) was evaluated for detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) in experimentally and naturally infected buffaloes. Four calves were inoculated with a strain of T. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel. Parasitological examination of the calves revealed trypanosomes in the blood from days 4 to 9 post-inoculation (PI). General emaciation appeared from day 26 PI and aggravated until the end of the experiment (day 88 PI). Antibodies against T. evansi were detectable from day 8 PI till the end of the experiment. Parasitological examination of 200 water buffalo blood samples obtained from slaughterhouses revealed negative results. Serological examination of these animals showed that 48 (24%) water buffaloes had anti-T. evansi antibodies. PMID:15110402

  8. First detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with Sarcocystis infection in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza

    2014-06-01

    Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide. PMID:24827104

  9. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  10. Molecular detection of Leishmania sp. in cats (Felis catus) from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2011-03-10

    The aim of this work was to molecularly detect Leishmania species in 52 cats from Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The direct parasitological test was performed by using imprints of poplited lymph node, bone marrow and spleen to verify amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. The samples that were positive parasitological tests were subjected to molecular analysis (PCR) and sequencing. Infection was detected for 5.76% (3/52) of the examined cats and two had presence of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. in lymph nodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kinetoplast minicircle DNA, indicated positive amplification for samples of spleen and lymph nodes and the sequencing resulted in 97% similarity with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This study proved the occurrence of infection with Leishmania (L.) chagasi in felines from Andradina municipality, São Paulo State.

  11. Evaluation of the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) for detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hilali, M; Abdel-Gawad, A; Nassar, A; Abdel-Wahab, A; Magnus, E; Büscher, P

    2004-05-01

    A card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) was evaluated for detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) in experimentally and naturally infected buffaloes. Four calves were inoculated with a strain of T. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel. Parasitological examination of the calves revealed trypanosomes in the blood from days 4 to 9 post-inoculation (PI). General emaciation appeared from day 26 PI and aggravated until the end of the experiment (day 88 PI). Antibodies against T. evansi were detectable from day 8 PI till the end of the experiment. Parasitological examination of 200 water buffalo blood samples obtained from slaughterhouses revealed negative results. Serological examination of these animals showed that 48 (24%) water buffaloes had anti-T. evansi antibodies.

  12. Detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens in Trypanosoma evansi-infected animals using a T. brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Nantulya, V M; Bajyana Songa, E; Hamers, R

    1989-09-01

    An antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay based on a T. brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in several animal species experimentally infected with T. evansi stocks from Sudan, Indonesia, Thailand and South America. Circulating antigens were detected as early as 6 days after infection, and they persisted throughout the observation period of up to 60 days postinfection. In an analysis of sera from naturally infected water buffaloes from Thailand, the test identified all the animals with positive parasitological findings, and 3 additional cases that had not been diagnosed by parasitological techniques. In an analysis of sera from pigs on a farm in Thailand suspected of a T. evansi outbreak, the assay detected "antigenaemia" in 66.7% of the animals, with antigen titres ranging from 1:2 to 1.512.

  13. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  14. Impact of benznidazole on infection course in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi I, II, and IV.

    PubMed

    Gruendling, Ana Paula; Massago, Miyoko; Teston, Ana Paula M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Kaneshima, Edilson N; Araújo, Silvana M; Gomes, Mônica L; Barbosa, Maria das Graças V; Toledo, Max Jean O

    2015-06-01

    American trypanosomiasis is an emerging zoonosis in the Brazilian Amazon. Studies on benznidazole (BZ) chemotherapy with Trypanosoma cruzi from this region have great relevance, given the different discrete typing units (DTUs) that infect humans in the Amazon and other regions of Brazil. We performed a parasitological, histopathological, and molecular analysis of mice inoculated with strains of T. cruzi I, II, and IV that were BZ-treated during the acute phase of infection. Groups of Swiss mice were inoculated; 13 received oral BZ, whereas the other 13 comprised the untreated controls. Unlike parasitemia, the infectivity and mortality did not vary among the DTUs. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in all tissues analyzed and the proportion of organs parasitized varied with the parasite DTU. The BZ treatment reduced the most parasitological parameters, tissue parasitism and the inflammatory processes at all infection stages and for all DTUs. However, the number of significant reductions varied according to the DTU and infection phase.

  15. Internal parasites of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from Etosha National Park, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Krecek, R C; Boomker, J; Penzhorn, B L; Scheepers, L

    1990-07-01

    During three seasonal periods, parasitological samples were collected from six giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. The helminths recovered included Parabronema skrjabini, Skrjabinema spp., Haemonchus mitchelli and Echinococcus sp. larvae; Cytauxzoon sp. was the only hematozoan found. The low mean abundances of all helminths which ranged from 18 to 531 may be attributed to the low rainfall of this region or because the giraffe is not a preferred host for these species of helminths.

  16. [The possible consequences of the probable global warming of the climate for the spread of blood-sucking ectoparasites and the pathogens they transmit].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, A N

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the causes and possible consequences of the warming-up of global climate. Probable changes in the areas of vectors and blood-suckers, which are most important for Russia, are analyzed. The vectors of malaria and tick-borne pathogens were used as special subjects of prognostic survey. The paper shows it necessary to computer-aided simulate possible consequences of climatic warming-up for changes in the parasitological situation in the Russian Federation.

  17. [Research Progress on Genetic Diversity in Animal Parasitic Nematodes].

    PubMed

    YIN, Fang-yuan; LI, Fa-cai; ZHAO, Jun-long; HU, Min

    2015-10-01

    The development of molecular genetic markers for parasitic nematodes has significant implications in fundamental and applied research in Veterinary Parasitology. Knowledge on genetic diversity of nematodes would not only provide a theoretical basis for understanding the spread of drug-resistance alleles, but also have implications in the development of nematode control strategies. This review discusses the applications of molecular genetic markers (RFLP, RAPD, PCR-SSCP, AFLP, SSR and mitochondrial DNA) in research on the genetic diversity of parasitic nematodes.

  18. [Chronic eosinophilic pneumopathy in a black African patient].

    PubMed

    Brancaleone, P; Roy, T; Fally, P; Dorzée, J; Fastrez, J; Castelain, T; d'Odemont, J P

    1998-02-01

    The authors report a case of a black African patient who suffers from a chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In view of the lack of precise reporting in the literature of such a case in black Africans, the initial difficulty of strictly excluding a parasitologic etiology is discussed. From the comparison of paraclinical and clinical data with those of the literature, the authors emphasize the close relationship between asthma and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and the role of alveolar eosinophils in the physiopathology of that illness.

  19. [The routes of helminth egg appearance on the territory of recreational areas and sites of the lower Don River].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P

    1993-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitologic problems of recreation use of water bodies and coast lines are still to be studied. The author has examined the routes of invasion at recreation areas by the lower Don river. The river bed depositions and water as well as coastline soil were found contaminated with helminthic eggs. These eggs were brought by sewage water, feces, and surface flow. Effective ecologically justified measures should be developed to prevent it.

  20. First record of trypanosomes from the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) from Lake Superior, WI, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronina, Svetlana V.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Selgeby, Jim H.

    1999-01-01

    During parasitological research of fishes in Lake Superior (USA) in August-September 1994, infection with trypanosomes of the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) was recorded for the first time. The descriptions of three morphological groups of the genus Trypanosoma: T. sp. I, found in blood of C. ricei, T. sp. II and T. sp. III from blood of C. cognatus, have been provided.

  1. Orbital hydatid cyst of Echinococcus oligarthrus in a human in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Lopera, R D; Meléndez, R D; Fernandez, I; Sirit, J; Perera, M P

    1989-06-01

    This study reports the first known case of human hydatid disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus oligarthrus. The patient, a native Venezuelan female, presented a single cyst localized intraorbitally behind the left eye (retroocular), which was discovered by computed tomography. The cyst was removed by surgery, and after parasitological studies it was identified as an E. oligarthrus hydatid cyst. This is also the first case of intraorbital hydatid cyst in humans in Venezuela.

  2. Zoonotic diseases in Canada: an interdisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J

    1996-01-01

    Although zoonotic diseases are generally rare in Canada, a wide range of pathogens can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans through insect vectors or direct contact with wild and domestic animals. Across the country researchers with backgrounds ranging from wildlife biology to parasitology and epidemiology are tracking a variety of zoonotic diseases, some of which are causing increasing concern among public health officials. PMID:8752067

  3. [Research Progress on Genetic Diversity in Animal Parasitic Nematodes].

    PubMed

    YIN, Fang-yuan; LI, Fa-cai; ZHAO, Jun-long; HU, Min

    2015-10-01

    The development of molecular genetic markers for parasitic nematodes has significant implications in fundamental and applied research in Veterinary Parasitology. Knowledge on genetic diversity of nematodes would not only provide a theoretical basis for understanding the spread of drug-resistance alleles, but also have implications in the development of nematode control strategies. This review discusses the applications of molecular genetic markers (RFLP, RAPD, PCR-SSCP, AFLP, SSR and mitochondrial DNA) in research on the genetic diversity of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26931047

  4. Parasites of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Alagoas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida; Carvalho, Bruno Ferreira Lyra; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on a sample of sixty mutton snappers (Lutjanus analis) that were caught on the coast of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The parasite diversity and infection levels were low. The ectoparasite Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Isopoda: Aegidae), and larvae of two endoparasites, Trypanorhyncha gen. sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), were detected. The significance of these parasites is discussed in the context of their transmission pathways and potential impact.

  5. Health assessment of the Christmas Island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jane; Rose, Karrie; Smith, Craig; De Jong, Carol; Phalen, David; Austen, Jill; Field, Hume

    2014-07-01

    During July-August 2010, 28 Christmas Island flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus natalis) were captured and anesthetized for examination, sample collection, and release to determine the potential role of disease in recent population declines. Measurements and samples were taken for morphologic, hematologic, biochemical, and parasitologic analysis. These are the first blood reference ranges reported for this species. These data are being used to inform investigations into conservation status and population management strategies for the Christmas Island flying fox. PMID:24807172

  6. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  7. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  8. Plant root hair in tap water: a potential cause for diagnostic confusion.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sadia; Wasay, Mohammad; Zafar, Afia; Beg, Mohammad Asim

    2011-01-01

    Plant root hairs are commonly found artifacts in parasitology specimens and may be confused with helminthes by an untrained eye. We report a case of brain tuberculoma where the tissue sample was contaminated with root hair derived from tap water; the presence of this root hair, which mimicked a larva, led to diagnostic confusion. Therefore, tap water should be considered a source of root hair and vegetable matter.

  9. Report on the occurrence of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in southern Brazil, in a new intermediate host from the genus Sarasinula (Veronicellidae, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Laitano, A C; Genro, J P; Fontoura, R; Branco, S S; Maurer, R L; Graeff-Teixeira, C; Milanez, J M; Chiaradia, L A; Thomé, J W

    2001-01-01

    Veronicellid slugs are the main intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus costaricencis. In a rural locality in Nova Itaberaba (SC, southern Brazil) Sarasinula linguaeformis was identified as a crop pest. The parasitological examination revealed A. costaricencis infection in 43 out ot 50 slugs. The prevalence of 86% and the individual parasitic burdens are the highest sofar reported in Brazil and S. linguaeformis is the first species from the genus Sarasinula to be identified as intermediate host for A. costaricencis in southern Brazil.

  10. Health assessment of the Christmas Island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jane; Rose, Karrie; Smith, Craig; De Jong, Carol; Phalen, David; Austen, Jill; Field, Hume

    2014-07-01

    During July-August 2010, 28 Christmas Island flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus natalis) were captured and anesthetized for examination, sample collection, and release to determine the potential role of disease in recent population declines. Measurements and samples were taken for morphologic, hematologic, biochemical, and parasitologic analysis. These are the first blood reference ranges reported for this species. These data are being used to inform investigations into conservation status and population management strategies for the Christmas Island flying fox.

  11. [A case of coinfection by Balantidium coli and HIV in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Clyti, E; Aznar, C; Couppie, P; el Guedj, M; Carme, B; Pradinaud, R

    1998-01-01

    A case of balantidial dysentery is reported in a patient infected with the HIV in French Guiana. This case is the first described in medical literature. The patient presented also a disseminated histoplasmosis. Immunosuppression probably favoured the evolution of asymptomatic carriage to clinical dysentery. This clinical case did not present any complications. Treatment with doxycycline had to be carried out for 20 days in order to obtain a clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:9846223

  12. [A case of coinfection by Balantidium coli and HIV in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Clyti, E; Aznar, C; Couppie, P; el Guedj, M; Carme, B; Pradinaud, R

    1998-01-01

    A case of balantidial dysentery is reported in a patient infected with the HIV in French Guiana. This case is the first described in medical literature. The patient presented also a disseminated histoplasmosis. Immunosuppression probably favoured the evolution of asymptomatic carriage to clinical dysentery. This clinical case did not present any complications. Treatment with doxycycline had to be carried out for 20 days in order to obtain a clinical and parasitological cure.

  13. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus. PMID:24212707

  14. Parasites of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Alagoas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida; Carvalho, Bruno Ferreira Lyra; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on a sample of sixty mutton snappers (Lutjanus analis) that were caught on the coast of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The parasite diversity and infection levels were low. The ectoparasite Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Isopoda: Aegidae), and larvae of two endoparasites, Trypanorhyncha gen. sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), were detected. The significance of these parasites is discussed in the context of their transmission pathways and potential impact. PMID:25054505

  15. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: implications for transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; Acosta, Luz P; Gray, Darren J; Olveda, Remigo M; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Ross, Allen G; McManus, Donald P

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented

  16. Co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Kasra H; Fakhar, Mahdi; Nematian, Javad; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe an unusual case of verminous appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata in a 29-year-old woman from Iran. The histopathological examinations and parasitological descriptions of both worms found in the appendix lumen are discussed. The removed appendix exhibited the macroscopic and microscopic features of acute appendicitis. Antihelminthic therapy was initiated with single doses of praziquantel for the taeniasis and mebendazole for the enterobiasis, and the patient was discharged. PMID:26754203

  17. [Professor Czesław Gerwel (MD)--100th anniversary of birthday].

    PubMed

    Kociecka, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Professor Czesław Gerwel (1909-1974) physician and outstanding parasitologist set the base of clinical parasitology in Poland and organized first in Poland hospital ward for parasitic diseases in Poznan (1962) first affiliated with Chair of Biology and Parasitology at Medical School and later functioning as an independent clinical ward, which he headed until 1970. He initiated organization of District Parasitological Clinics by setting first such a clinic in Poznań. He scientific work he focused on diagnostic problems as well as clinical pathology and treatment of parasitic diseases of gastrointestinal system. He participated in comprehensive studies of trichinosis. In 1941-1944 he was working in the National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, now National Institute of Public Health--PZH, which at that time operated under name "Das General gouvernerus Stattlichen Institut fur Hygiene in Warschau" in the section of typhus. He was involved in underground conspiracy of AK (Home Army) with pseudonym "Orlos" belonging to the group of people smuggling typhus vaccine produced in the PZH to Warsaw Ghetto and to underground troops. In 1942-1944 he studied medicine in Polish Underground University of Western Territories functioning in PZH under supervision of Feliks Przesmycki.

  18. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Teiliane Rodrigues; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; de Oliveira, Sara Menezes; Peralta, José Mauro; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas. PMID:24402156

  19. Real time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Anaplasma marginale in cattle and deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Picoloto, Graziela; Lima, Renileide Ferreira de; Olegário, Lílian Andressa Oliveira; Carvalho, Cristiano Miranda Espínola; Lacerda, Ana Crystina Reis; Tomás, Walfrido Moraes; Borges, Paulo André Lima; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Madruga, Cláudio Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR); and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%). This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%), and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 °C ± 0.20) was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 °C ± 0.12), suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.

  20. Invertebrate host-parasite relationships: convergent evolution of a tropomyosin epitope between Schistosoma sp., Fasciola hepatica, and certain pulmonate snails.

    PubMed

    Weston, D; Allen, B; Thakur, A; LoVerde, P T; Kemp, W M

    1994-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against Schistosoma mansoni tropomyosin isoform, SMTM (Xu et al. Experimental Parasitology 69, 373-392, 1989), were used to test for cross-reactivity with Biomphalaria glabrata antigens. One mAb (1F10) recognized antigens of 39, 41, and 80 kDa in a snail head/foot antigen preparation but not a hepatopancreas antigen preparation. Another mAb (1C1) cross-reacted with a 39-kDa antigen in the head/foot extract but not in the hepatopancreas extract. Epitope mapping revealed the 1F10 epitope to be between amino acids 135 and 188 of both Bg39 (Dissous et al. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 43, 245-256, 1990) and BgTMII (Weston and Kemp, Experimental Parasitology 76, 358-370, 1993), while the 1C1 epitope was located between amino acids 189 and 213 of BgTMII. Various invertebrate species, including members from Trematoda, Pulmonata, Annelida, and Arthropoda, were tested for cross-reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. While the 1F10 mAb displayed broad invertebrate cross-reactivity, the 1C1 mAb cross-reactivity was restricted to schistosomes, F. hepatica, and the pulmonate snails B. glabrata and Physa sp. PMID:7512930

  1. Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Secnidazole Suspension (single dose) and Tinidazole Suspension (two days dosage) in the Treatment of Amebiasis in Children.

    PubMed

    Salles; Bechara; Tavares; Martins; Sobrinho; Dietrich-Neto; Costa

    1999-04-01

    Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica may be considered the most aggressive parasitic disease affecting human intestine, causing acute amoebic colitis and extra-intestinal diseases of high morbidity and mortality. 5-nitroimidazoles are the drugs of choice. In this multicenter, open and random clinical trial, the efficacy and tolerability of secnidazole suspension in a single oral dose of 1ml/kg was compared with 0.5ml/kg doses of tinidazole suspension given for 2 consecutive days to 303 Entamoeba histolytica-positive children aged 2 to 13. Patients with extra-intestinal complications were excluded from the study. Clinical and parasitological follow-up using the Faust and Kato-Katz method were carried out 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment. Clinical improvement/cure was observed in 93% of the patients in the secnidazole group and 91% in the tinidazole group. Parasitological success was reported for 77% and 63% of the secnidazole and tinidazole patients, respectively, showing a significant statistical difference between the two groups (p=0.007). Both drugs were well tolerated, and the adverse effects reported were mild, consisting mainly of digestive disturbances. This comparative study showed that a single oral dose of 1ml/kg of secnidazole produced a significantly higher parasitological cure rate than 2 doses of tinidazole. Secnidazole is a safe and effective drug for the treatment of uncomplicated intestinal amebiasis. PMID:11098194

  2. Mebendazole Compared with Secnidazole in the Treatment of Adult Giardiasis: A Randomised, No-Inferiority, Open Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Pedro; Escobedo, Angel A.; Ayala, Idalia; Alfonso, Maydel; Salazar, Yohana; Cañete, Roberto; Cimerman, Sergio; Galloso, Martha; Olivero, Ilmaems; Robaina, Maytee; Tornés, Karen

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of mebendazole and secnidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in adult patients, a single-centre, parallel group, open-label, randomized non-inferiority trial was carried out. One-hundred and 26 participants who had symptomatic Giardia mono-infection took part in the study. Direct wet mount and/or Ritchie concentration techniques and physical examinations were conducted at the time of enrolment and at the follow-up visit. The primary outcome measure was parasitological cure, performed at 3, 5, 10 days post-treatment. Negative faecal specimens for Giardia were ensured by the same parasitological techniques. At follow up (day 10) the parasitological cure rate for the per protocol populations was 88.7% (55/62) for MBZ and 91.8% (56/61) for SNZ. For the intention to treat populations the cure rate at the end of treatment was 85.9% (55/64) for MBZ and 90.3% (56/62) for SNZ. Both analyzes showed there was not significant statistical difference between MBZ and SNZ treatment efficacy. Both drugs were well tolerated, only mild, transient and self-limited side effects were reported and did not require discontinuation of treatment. A 3-day course of mebendazole seems to be as efficacious and safe for treatment of giardiasis as a single dose of secnidazole in adults. PMID:22174992

  3. Clinical trial with Secnidazole in a single dose in Venezuelan children infected by Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, M C; Jiménez, J C; Rodríguez, N; Costa, V; Villamizar, J; Silvera, A; Carrillo, M; Lira, C; Zerpa, E; López, Y

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate in an open, noncomparative study the use of secnidazole in oral suspension given to Venezuelan children infected with Giardia intestinalis, from a community in Carapita, a slum area in Caracas. Seventy children from 2 to 11 years old (38 males and 32 females) were treated with a single oral dose of secnidazole (30 mg/Kg of body weight), after clinical and parasitological evaluation to make the diagnosis of active giardiasis. The effectiveness of treatment was determined by clinical examination and parasitological evaluation of feces samples 15 days after treatment. The results showed 95% of clinical cure with a significant decrease of the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms. The parasitological cure was 98%, there were 4 failures at the end of treatment. Side effects observed after treatment were of mild intensity, lasting only few hours. These results show that a simple dose of secnidazole in an oral suspension is an effective, safe and well tolerated treatment for giardiasis in children and that this drug may be used as a mass treatment in risk populations. PMID:11029834

  4. Mebendazole compared with secnidazole in the treatment of adult giardiasis: a randomised, no-inferiority, open clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Pedro; Escobedo, Angel A; Ayala, Idalia; Alfonso, Maydel; Salazar, Yohana; Cañete, Roberto; Cimerman, Sergio; Galloso, Martha; Olivero, Ilmaems; Robaina, Maytee; Tornés, Karen

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of mebendazole and secnidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in adult patients, a single-centre, parallel group, open-label, randomized non-inferiority trial was carried out. One-hundred and 26 participants who had symptomatic Giardia mono-infection took part in the study. Direct wet mount and/or Ritchie concentration techniques and physical examinations were conducted at the time of enrolment and at the follow-up visit. The primary outcome measure was parasitological cure, performed at 3, 5, 10 days post-treatment. Negative faecal specimens for Giardia were ensured by the same parasitological techniques. At follow up (day 10) the parasitological cure rate for the per protocol populations was 88.7% (55/62) for MBZ and 91.8% (56/61) for SNZ. For the intention to treat populations the cure rate at the end of treatment was 85.9% (55/64) for MBZ and 90.3% (56/62) for SNZ. Both analyzes showed there was not significant statistical difference between MBZ and SNZ treatment efficacy. Both drugs were well tolerated, only mild, transient and self-limited side effects were reported and did not require discontinuation of treatment. A 3-day course of mebendazole seems to be as efficacious and safe for treatment of giardiasis as a single dose of secnidazole in adults. PMID:22174992

  5. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection.

  6. Field evaluation of a new antibody-based diagnostic for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni at the point-of-care in northeast Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for use at the point-of-care (POC) are likely to become increasingly useful as large-scale control programmes for schistosomiasis get underway. Given the low sensitivity of the reference standard egg count methods in detecting light infections, more sensitive tests will be required to monitor efforts aimed at eliminating schistosomiasis as advocated by the World Health Assembly Resolution 65.21 passed in 2012. Methods A recently developed RDT incorporating Schistosoma mansoni cercarial transformation fluid (SmCTF) for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in human blood was here evaluated in children (mean age: 7.65 years; age range: 1-12 years) carrying light S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections in a schistosome-endemic area of Zimbabwe by comparison to standard parasitological techniques (i.e. the Kato-Katz faecal smear and urine filtration). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) incorporating S. haematobium antigen preparations were also employed for additional comparison. Results The sensitivity of the SmCTF-RDT compared to standard parasitological methods was 100% while the specificity was 39.5%. It was found that the sera from RDT “false-positive” children showed significantly higher antibody titres in IgM-cercarial antigen preparation (CAP) and IgM-soluble egg antigen (SEA) ELISA assays than children identified by parasitology as “true-negatives”. Conclusions Although further evaluations are necessary using more accurate reference standard tests, these results indicate that the RDT could be a useful tool for the rapid prevalence-mapping of both S. mansoni and S. haematobium in schistosome-endemic areas. It is affordable, user-friendly and allows for diagnosis of both schistosome species at the POC. PMID:24666689

  7. Efficacy of Myrrh in the treatment of schistosomiasis (haematobium and mansoni) in Ezbet El-Bakly, Tamyia Center, El-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M

    2004-08-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in Egypt, despite the continuous control effort. Most of the anti-schistosomal drugs have deleterious side effects or low efficacy. This necessitates a search for new safe and effective drug. A field survey was done in Ezbet El-Bakly (Tamyia Center) El-Fayoum Governorate to determine the magnitude of schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni and to evaluate the efficacy of Mirazid (the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree, family: Burseraceae) in the treatment of both types of schistosomiasis. Among the 1019 individuals parasitologically examined, the prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni were 4.2% and 2.4% respectively and the geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 33.2 eggs/10 ml urine and 113.3 eggs/gram stools. Most of the patients with haematobiasis and mansoniasis were <15 years (56.4% & 53.8%), males (56.4% & 53.8%) & illiterates (46.2% & 46.2%). All cases were treated by Myrrh (Mirazid) as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days and were followed up clinically and parasitologically by urine analysis by the sedimentation and nucleopore techniques and by hatching test and by stool analysis by sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques and by hatching test. The parasitological cure rate after three months was 97.4% and 96.2% for S. haematobium and S. mansoni cases with the marvelous clinical cure without any side-effects. Patients not completely responded to a single course of treatment showed marked reduction of egg intensity. It is concluded that Mirazid proved to be safe and very effective in treatment of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections under field conditions. PMID:15287168

  8. Funding options for research: facing the market as well as government.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Nossal, G

    1999-06-01

    Parasitology is a challenge. At one level, the structural and genetic complexities of parasites provide ample technical challenges in regard to an understanding of parasite variability and adaptability, epidemiological diversity, drug resistance, etc. The intricacies of host parasite relationships including the immunology of parasitism will continually surprise yet frustrate the vaccine developer and keep the bravest immunoparasitologist busy and creative for decades. As if the technical considerations were not challenging enough, we see difficulties arising in sustaining a research endeavour and preserving a critical mass of researchers through the generation of high-level, long-term funding support. Contributing to this situation is the fact that most parasitic diseases of major impact in humans are largely centred around the rural poor in tropical, less industrially-developed countries and therefore of little or of fickle interest to the strictly commercially oriented. Moreover, the focus in the rural industries has moved away from aspects of on-farm production with lower priority given to studies on even the 'economically-important' parasites of livestock. It is contended that this may change again with pressures and clear marketing advantages to preserving a 'clean and green' image for Australia's primary industries. Overall, the extraordinary technical and conceptual advances in recent times have been tempered by uncertainties in research funding and severe cuts from some traditional sources for both fundamental and strategic/applied research in Parasitology. Several have highlighted the fact that deliverables in terms of new methods of disease control have been sparse and some claims made in the past have certainly been exaggerated. Yet the prospects and achievements at the front end of the long R&D pathway have never been brighter. In this article we examine the merits of a 'portfolio approach' to generating research funds in Parasitology and Science and

  9. PubMed Central

    Simarro, P. P.; Sima, F. O.; Mir, M.; Mateo, M. J.; Roche, J.

    1991-01-01

    The object of this study was to (a) reduce the prevalence of sleeping sickness by serological testing, parasitological examination, and treatment of every infected person; (b) determine the maximum acceptable interval between serological surveys; and (c) define the impact of vector control, using monopyramidal non-impregnated traps, on the transmission. For this sero-parasitological survey, the focus in Luba was divided into three zones as follows: Epicentre A (with high prevalence, 27.5%), Epicentre B (with average prevalence, 8.3%), and Peripheral C (with moderate prevalence, 3.0%). Differences in the prevalence rates in the Epicentres and Peripheral zone permitted the use of three different approaches for control and epidemiological follow-up of the disease: (1) Serological examination of the entire population was carried out by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), with six-month intervals in Epicentres A and B and once a year in the Peripheral zone C. (2) Diagnosis and treatment: all IFAT seropositives were examined in Luba hospital for parasites, and every parasitologically confirmed patient was treated according to the WHO protocol of 1983. Another serological test (CATT) was applied to cases in which trypanosomes were not present and if this was positive, the CSF was examined. Cases with parasites and abnormal CSF were treated with melarsoprol, and those with a normal CSF received pentamidine. CATT-negative and parasite-negative cases were considered to be false-positives by IFAT and free of the disease. (3) Vector control: 74 monopyramidal traps (18 traps per km2) were set up in Epicentre A. The flies captured were collected once a month and sent to the programme's laboratory where they were identified and counted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1934239

  10. Predictive role of polymerase chain reaction in the early diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Elsa B; Rivero, Rocío; De Rissio, Ana María; Malagrino, Nora; Esteva, Mónica I; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Ruiz, Andrés Mariano

    2014-09-01

    The efficacy of specific chemotherapy in congenital Chagas disease before the first year of life ranges between 90 and 100%. Between this age and 15 years of age, the efficacy decreases to around 60%. Therefore, early infection detection is a priority in vertical transmission. The aim of this work was to assess whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays a predictive role in the diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease as compared to conventional parasitological and serological methods. To this end, we studied a total of 468 children born to Trypanosoma cruzi seroreactive mothers came from Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay, who lived in the city of Buenos Aires and suburban areas (Argentina), a non-endemic area of this country. These children were assessed by PCR from 2004 to 2009 with the specific primers Tcz1 and Tcz2, and 121 and 122. PCR allowed detecting 49 T. cruzi-positive children. Eight of these 49 children were excluded from the analysis: six because they did not complete follow-up and two because the first control was performed after 12 months of age. Parasitological methods allowed detecting 25 positive children, 7 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.53±2.00 vs. 6.71±1.46 months; p=0.0002). Serological methods allowed detecting 16 positive children, 12 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.46±1.48 vs. 11.77±4.40 months; p<0.0001). None of the children negative by PCR was positive by serological or parasitological methods. This study shows that PCR allows early diagnosis in congenital Chagas disease. At present, an early positive PCR is not indicative for treatment. However, a positive PCR would alert the health system to search only those infected infants diagnosed by early PCR and thus generate greater efficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital T. cruzi infection.

  11. Epidemiological Aspects of Canine Dirofilariasis in the North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Veshgini, A; Shirani, D; Eslami, A; Mohieddin, H; Shemshadi, B; Masooleh, R

    2011-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria immitis is an important parasite in dog and other carnivores. Our objective was study on incidence and periodicity of heartworm in north of Iran and using other methods for its diagnosis in addition to Parasitology exam. Methods This survey spanned two years, between 2006 and 2008. Blood samples were collected from 431 stray dogs distributed along north of Iran, the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea. The Knott's modified test was used for diagnosis of D. immitis and other filariae. Meanwhile, the periodicity of microfilaria in peripheral blood circulation was calculated and the imaging diagnosis techniques of four dogs that had positive results were done. Results Diagnostic parasitology results indicated that 16.01% of stray dogs were microfilaremic. Two different microfilariae were diagnosed: D. immitis in 13.69%, Dipetalonema reconditum in 1.86% and in 0.46% both of them. There was no statistically significant between infection to fiariae with sex and age of dogs. Also study on the periodicity of the presence of microfilaria in peripheral circulation showed that the highest rate of those was at 1 am and the lowest rate at 12 pm. Radiographic study showed distinctive signs with varied degrees of severity included: Tortuous and enlargement of main and lobar pulmonary artery, pulmonary parenchymal lesions and Right side heart enlargement that confirmed in electrocardiography. Also in echocardiographic images observed short parallel-sided images with the appearance of equal signs that indicated the presence of the heartworm. Conclusion These results showed that to obtain a reliable diagnosis of heartworm infection, imaging tests could support parasitological exams. PMID:22347277

  12. Comparison of PCR-based diagnoses for visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Gulam Musawwir; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifat Hasan; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Salam, Md Abdus; Akther, Tania; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2014-04-01

    The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is performed using multiple methods encompassing parasitological, serological and nucleic acid-based diagnostic tools, each method with its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Conventional parasitological methods are risky for the patient and require skilled personnel to collect specimens from spleen or bone marrow, and hence they are not generally available in impoverished areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been validated as an excellent alternative to microscopy in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Here, we evaluate four different PCR assays targeting ITS1, ITS2, mini-exon and small subunit-rRNA (SSUrRNA) using DNA extracted from peripheral blood buffy coat in order to avoid more invasive processes. A total of 61 VL patients and 75 non-VL infected control individuals were enrolled. The VL patients were confirmed to be positive for Leishmania amastigotes in splenic smears by microscopy. Sensitivities of the PCR targeting ITS1, ITS2, SSUrRNA and mini-exon were 96.7%, 91.8%, 88.5% and 34.4%, respectively, while the specificity was 98.7% for all methods. Nested PCR for ITS1 resulted in 100% sensitivity. The efficacy of each PCR was evaluated with various Leishmania amastigote parasite loads in each spleen smear, graded from 1+ to 5+. The PCR targeting ITS1 showed 100% sensitivity for the detection of Leishmania donovani in all samples from grades ≥3, ≥4, and ≥5, respectively. The restriction fragment length polymorphism observed in ITS1 amplicons digested by HaeIII classified the parasite into L. donovani complex. The ITS1 PCR was found to be equal to conventional, but very invasive and risky parasitological diagnoses and superior to other PCR based methods in sensitivity and examination of genetic heterogeneity. We recommend the PCR targeting ITS1 using peripheral blood buffy coat DNA as an alternate, less invasive diagnostic choice for the confirmation of L. donovani infection. PMID:24333754

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon.

    PubMed Central

    Basco, Leonardo K.; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Ndounga, Mathieu; Metoh, Theresia; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon. METHODS: In a randomized study we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerance of (i) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (25 mg/kg body weight of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg/kg of pyrimethamine in a single oral dose), (ii) amodiaquine (AQ) (30 mg/kg body weight in three divided daily doses), and (iii) the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (SP+AQ) (same doses as in the other two treatment groups, given simultaneously on day 0) in young children in southern Cameroon. The parasitological and clinical responses were studied until day 28 in accordance with the modified 1996 WHO protocol for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs. FINDINGS: Of 191 enrolled patients, 6 and 8 were excluded or lost to follow-up before day 14 and between day 14 and day 28, respectively. For the AQ-treated patients, parasitological and clinical evaluation on day 14 showed late treatment failure in 2 of 61 (3.3%) and adequate clinical response with parasitological failure in one (1.6%). There was an adequate clinical response in all patients treated with SP or SP+AQ. Therapeutic failure rates on day 28 were 13.6%, 10.2% and 0% in the SP, AQ, and SP+AQ groups, respectively. Anaemia improved in all three regimens. AQ produced faster fever clearance but was associated with more transient minor side-effects than SP. SP+AQ reduced the risk of recrudescence between day 14 and day 28 but increased the incidence of minor side-effects. CONCLUSION: SP+AQ can be recommended as a temporary means of slowing the spread of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Africa while the introduction of other combinations, including artemisinin derivatives, is awaited. PMID:12163917

  14. A simulation model to investigate interactions between first season grazing calves and Ostertagia ostertagi.

    PubMed

    Berk, Zoe; Bishop, Stephen C; Forbes, Andrew B; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-15

    A dynamic, deterministic model was developed to investigate the consequences of parasitism with Ostertagia ostertagi, the most prevalent and economically important gastrointestinal parasite of cattle in temperate regions. Interactions between host and parasite were considered to predict the level of parasitism and performance of an infected calf. Key model inputs included calf intrinsic growth rate, feed quality and mode and level of infection. The effects of these varied inputs were simulated on a daily basis for key parasitological (worm burden, total egg output and faecal egg count) and performance outputs (feed intake and bodyweight) over a 6 month grazing period. Data from published literature were used to parameterise the model and its sensitivity was tested for uncertain parameters by a Latin hypercube sensitivity design. For the latter each parameter tested was subject to a 20% coefficient of variation. The model parasitological outputs were most sensitive to the immune rate parameters that affected overall worm burdens. The model predicted the expected larger worm burdens along with disproportionately greater body weight losses with increasing daily infection levels. The model was validated against published literature using graphical and statistical comparisons. Its predictions were quantitatively consistent with the parasitological outputs of published experiments in which calves were subjected to different infection levels. The consequences of model weaknesses are discussed and point towards model improvements. Future work should focus on developing a stochastic model to account for calf variation in performance and immune response; this will ultimately be used to test the effectiveness of different parasite control strategies in naturally infected calf populations. PMID:27514906

  15. Rifampicin/Cotrimoxazole/Isoniazid Versus Mefloquine or Quinine + Sulfadoxine- Pyrimethamine for Malaria: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genton, Blaise; Mueller, Ivo; Betuela, Inoni; Casey, Gerard; Ginny, Meza; Alpers, Michael P; Reeder, John C

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of a fixed combination including cotrimoxazole, rifampicin, and isoniazid (Cotrifazid) showed efficacy against resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in animal models and in small-scale human studies. We conducted a multicentric noninferiority trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Cotrifazid against drug-resistant malaria in Papua New Guinea. Design: The trial design was open-label, block-randomised, comparative, and multicentric. Setting: The trial was conducted in four primary care health facilities, two in urban and two in rural areas of Madang and East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Participants: Patients of all ages with recurrent uncomplicated malaria were included. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive Cotrifazid, mefloquine, or the standard treatment of quinine with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP). Outcome Measures: Incidence of clinical and laboratory adverse events and rate of clinical and/or parasitological failure at day 14 were recorded. Results: The safety analysis population included 123 patients assigned to Cotrifazid, 123 to mefloquine, and 123 to quinine + SP. The Cotrifazid group experienced lower overall incidence of adverse events than the other groups. Among the efficacy analysis population (72 Cotrifazid, 71 mefloquine, and 75 quinine + SP), clinical failure rate (symptoms and parasite load) on day 14 was equivalent for the three groups (0% for Cotrifazid and mefloquine; 1% for quinine + SP), but parasitological failure rate (P. falciparum asexual blood-stage) was higher for Cotrifazid than for mefloquine or quinine + SP (9% [PCR corrected 8%] versus 0% and 3%, respectively [p = 0.02]). Conclusion: Despite what appears to be short-term clinical equivalence, the notable parasitological failure at day 14 in both P. falciparum and P. vivax makes Cotrifazid in its current formulation and regimen a poor alternative combination therapy for malaria. PMID:17192794

  16. Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N = 18) and control dogs (N = 45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (κ) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

  17. Investigation of parasites in sludges and disinfection techniques. Final report, August 1979-May 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.S.; Little, M.D.; Englande, A.J.; McDonell, D.B.; Bowman, D.D.

    1985-11-01

    The objectives of the research grant were to: assess the presence and densities of resistant stages of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges (sewage) in northern United States; compare the results of the study with the results of a previous study of sludges in southern United States; to evaluate several decontamination techniques for their effectiveness in inactivating parasites in waste sludges; and develop a standard method for the parasitologic examination of waste sludges. Sludge samples from all phases of treatment (i.e., primary, etc.) were collected during the fall, winter and summer from 48 municipal wastewater treatment plants located in New York, Ohio, Minnesota, and Washington.

  18. [Manuel Martínez Baez: a very personal opinion on tropical diseases].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Romo, A C

    1993-01-01

    The work of doctor Manuel Martínez Baéz (1894-1987) is very vast and it is clearly related to three different areas of medicine: parasitology, public health and medical sociology, and history of medicine. This work studies an aspect of his ideology concerning public health and social medicine which is related to tropical diseases. The contribution of Martínez Báez to this area was important because he adapted to the reality of underdeveloped countries concepts concerning tropical diseases originated in countries foreign to this problem.

  19. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2014-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2012 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2012 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  20. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz de; Guna Serrano, M Del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of the SEIMC program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  1. New records of nematodes of passerine migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Parasitological examination of three passerine bird species: the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, revealed the presence of the nematodes Acuaria subula, Diplotriaena ozouxi, Viguiera euryoptera and Microtetrameres inermis. All the birds were obtained in the spring (April-May); the nematodes found were mature, which indicates infection in the hosts' wintering grounds. The gizzard worm Acuaria subula is a new record from Motacilla flava in Europe. Viguiera euryoptera and Diplotriaena ozouxi are new to the Polish fauna. PMID:24881284

  2. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2009].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2011-03-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. In this article, the most important conclusions and lessons from the 2009 controls are presented. As a whole, the results obtained in 2009 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests.

  3. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program, 2007].

    PubMed

    Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción; Pérez, José L

    2008-11-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons drawn from the 2007 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2007 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. A few deviations were observed in some controls, calling for critical reflection. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to complement internal with external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program.

  4. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish

  5. New records of nematodes of passerine migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Parasitological examination of three passerine bird species: the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, revealed the presence of the nematodes Acuaria subula, Diplotriaena ozouxi, Viguiera euryoptera and Microtetrameres inermis. All the birds were obtained in the spring (April-May); the nematodes found were mature, which indicates infection in the hosts' wintering grounds. The gizzard worm Acuaria subula is a new record from Motacilla flava in Europe. Viguiera euryoptera and Diplotriaena ozouxi are new to the Polish fauna.

  6. First record of protozoan parasites in cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from Dal lake in Kashmir Himalayas with study on their pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Shoaib Ali; Kaur, Harpreet; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Tak, Irfan ur Rauf; Dar, Gowhar Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977 and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 obtained from gills during a parasitological survey conducted for the protozoan parasitic fauna of Schizothorax niger a snow trout in Dal Lake, Kashmir, India during the period October 2013 and March 2015. Thirty out of 180 fish were found infected with protozoan parasites. During the study of their pathogenecity the most common deteriorating signs observed in gill tissue were necrosis, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and fusion of secondary lamellae. Prevalence of infection was found to be 16.66%. This is the first record of the protozoan fauna of the schizothoracines from Kashmir valley, India.

  7. [ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RISK FOR CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER RESERVOIRS BY PATHOGENS OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Dumbadze, O S; Aidinov, G T; Shendo, G L; Agirov, A Kh; Batchaev, Kh Kh

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region's sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters. The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases.

  8. Highly diluted medication reduces parasitemia and improves experimental infection evolution by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no published information about the use of different protocols to administer a highly diluted medication. Evaluate the effect of different protocols for treatment with biotherapic T. cruzi 17 dH (BIOTTc17dH) on clinical/parasitological evolution of mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain. Methods A blind, randomized controlled trial was performed twice, using 60 28-day-old male Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain, in five treatment groups: CI - treated with a 7% ethanol-water solution, diluted in water (10 μL/mL) ad libitum; BIOTPI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 μL/mL) ad libitum during a period that started on the day of infection; BIOT4DI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 μL/mL) ad libitum beginning on the 4th day of infection; BIOT4-5–6 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2 mL/ animal/day) on the 4th, 5th and 6th days after infection; BIOT7-8–9 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2 mL/ animal/day) on the 7th, 8th and 9th days after infection. We evaluated: parasitemia; total parasitemia (Ptotal); maximum peak of parasites; prepatent period (PPP) - time from infection to detection of the parasite in blood; patent period (PP) - period when the parasitemia can be detected in blood; clinical aspects; and mortality. Results Parasitological parameters in the BIOTPI and mainly in the BIOT4PI group showed better evolution of the infection compared to the control group (CI), with lower Ptotal, lower maximum peak of parasites, higher PPP, lower PP and longer survival times. These animals showed stable body temperature and higher weight gain and water consumption, with more animals having normal-appearing fur for longer periods. In contrast, groups BIOT4-5–6 and BIOT7-8–9 showed worse evolution of the infection compared to the control group, considering both parasitological and clinical parameters. The correlation analysis combined with the other data from this study indicated that the prepatent period is the best

  9. Epidemiology of malaria and predictions of retransmission in Babylon Governorate, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghoury, A A; El-Hashimi, W K; Abul-Hab, J

    2006-01-01

    After the 1997-98 malaria epidemic in Babylon governorate, Iraq, malaria transmission in this area was successfully interrupted. A parasitological survey in 2002 identified no malaria cases but an entomological survey found both Anopheles stephensi and A. pulcherrimus in high densities. The highest density was recorded in September and the lowest in December and January. Despite the high density of Anopheles, no parasite sporozoites or oocysts were found in dissected mosquitoes. Nevertheless, malaria transmission could recur if A. stephensi indoor resting density exceeds the critical threshold and imported malaria cases are not monitored. PMID:17037694

  10. A program to accredit laboratories for reliable testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Lorry B; Scandrett, W Brad; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2005-09-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed a program to accredit external laboratories to conduct Trichinella digestion assays for export purposes. Accredited laboratories are responsible for staffing, equipment and operating test facilities under the auspices and guidance of the CFIA. The CFIA's Centre for Animal Parasitology provides training, proficiency samples, audits and other support for the accreditation process. The program has also been adapted for use in laboratories conducting Trichinella digestion tests for surveillance and food safety purposes and provides a useful template for others wishing to develop similar systems.

  11. Plasmodium knowlesi as a Threat to Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Roland; Wozniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szewczyk-Golec, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a tropical disease caused by protozoans of the Plasmodium genus. Delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis are strongly associated with higher mortality. In recent years, a greater importance is attributed to Plasmodium knowlesi, a species found mainly in Southeast Asia. Routine parasitological diagnostics are associated with certain limitations and difficulties in unambiguous determination of the parasite species based only on microscopic image. Recently, molecular techniques have been increasingly used for predictive diagnosis. The aim of the study is to draw attention to the risk of travelling to knowlesi malaria endemic areas and to raise awareness among personnel involved in the therapeutic process. PMID:26537037

  12. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo) (Carnivora: Felidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; Noll, Jéssica Caroline Gomes; Freitas, Ítallo Barros de; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time. PMID:27580395

  13. Distribution of malarial parasites: effect of gender of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, P P; Shenoy, D U; Kamath, A; Rajeev, A

    1997-03-01

    The city of Mangalore in South India was having increasing number of malaria cases from 1990. Concerned over the import of cases through migrant construction workers, a screening was done among them using clinical and parasitological methods. This demonstrated 6.28% slide positivity rate with statistically insignificant difference in prevalence of infection between males and females. There were many asymptomatic individuals reporting positive only on peripheral smear examination. Yet, clinical symptoms like fever were found to have good predictive value on logistic regression. It was more so with the P. falciparum which is a relatively new entrant to Mangalore.

  14. Vaccines against cysticercosis and hydatidosis.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Gauci, C G

    2001-11-22

    The recombinant vaccines that have been developed against cysticercosis and hydatidosis in sheep and cattle are remarkable for their effectiveness and are prominent as examples of the very few non-living vaccines against parasitic diseases. Their development has been through practical application of molecular parasitology, utilising immunochemical techniques in antigen identification and recombinant DNA methods in antigen production. This brief overview discusses the contribution of molecular techniques to the successful development of recombinant vaccines against Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata and Echinococcus granulosus as well as the immunological and genomic studies that have arisen from their development.

  15. First report of natural infection of a bush dog (Speothos venaticus) with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, F B; Gremião, I D F; Pereira, S A; Fedulo, L P; Menezes, R C; Balthazar, D A; Schubach, T M P; Madeira, M F

    2008-02-01

    We report here the first known case of natural infection of a bush dog with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in Brazil. The specimen was captured in the wild in the State of Mato Grosso and is currently being held in captivity at Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The leishmaniasis was diagnosed by culture of promastigote forms in intact skin fragments and their characterization by isoenzyme electrophoresis. This report calls attention to the parasitological and etiological control of certain zoonoses, such as leishmaniasis, in wild animals kept in captivity, especially when animals are exchanged between zoos in Brazil.

  16. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-03-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled.

  17. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    PubMed

    Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz de; Guna Serrano, M Del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2014 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2014 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of the SEIMC program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. PMID:27474240

  18. Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.

    PubMed

    Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

    2011-06-01

    The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper.

  19. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1).

  20. Pylorogastric intussusception in a Chihuahua puppy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lideo, L; Mutinelli, F; Milan, R

    2010-12-01

    A three-month-old Chihuahua dog was presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and cardiovascular shock. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and iodated contrast gastrogram revealed suspected pylorogastric intussusception. Because of the poor prognosis the dog was euthanatized. Diagnosis of pylorogastric intussusception was confirmed at necropsy. Parasitological, virological, serological and histological examinations were also performed. This report documents the sixth case of pylorogastric (i.e. duodenogastric, gastrogastric) intussusception in the veterinary medical literature and it is the first report on a puppy dog in which US and radiographic diagnosis were confirmed post mortem.

  1. The effect of oral contraceptives in malaria infections in rhesus monkeys*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Campbell, Carlos C.; Barber, Ann; Skinner, Jimmie C.; Huong, Alan Y.

    1984-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, were treated with the oral contraceptives Brevicon (norethisterone with ethinylestradiol) and Ovral (norgestrel with ethinylestradiol), and subsequently inoculated with the simian malaria parasites Plasmodium cynomologi bastianellii or P. coatneyi. Parasitological, serological, and serum biochemical studies indicated that although there were some significant differences, in general the patterns of response to infection in both treated and control animals were similar. During the primary infection, however, Brevicon resulted in increased levels of parasitaemia, whereas Ovral resulted in decreased parasitaemias, as compared with the untreated control animals. There were no differences in the responses following secondary parasite infection. PMID:6333297

  2. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses in adult patients with Chagas disease treated with a new formulation of benznidazole.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marisa Liliana; Marson, Maria Elena; Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Mastrantonio, Guido; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Altcheh, Jaime; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Bournissen, Facundo García

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacological treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole (BNZ) is effective in children in all stages, but it is controversial in chronically infected adults. We report the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in six adult patients with Chagas disease treated with the new BNZ formulation (ABARAX®) in doses between 2.5-5.5 mg/Kg/day. All but one patient had plasmatic BNZ concentrations within the expected range. All patients finalised treatment with nondetectable Trypanosoma cruzi quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which remained nondetectable at the six month follow-up. Our data suggests parasitological responses with the new BNZ and supports the hypothesis that treatment protocols with lower BNZ doses may be effective.

  3. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses in adult patients with Chagas disease treated with a new formulation of benznidazole

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Marisa Liliana; Marson, Maria Elena; Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Mastrantonio, Guido; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Altcheh, Jaime; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Bournissen, Facundo García

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole (BNZ) is effective in children in all stages, but it is controversial in chronically infected adults. We report the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in six adult patients with Chagas disease treated with the new BNZ formulation (ABARAX®) in doses between 2.5-5.5 mg/Kg/day. All but one patient had plasmatic BNZ concentrations within the expected range. All patients finalised treatment with nondetectable Trypanosoma cruziquantitative polymerase chain reaction, which remained nondetectable at the six month follow-up. Our data suggests parasitological responses with the new BNZ and supports the hypothesis that treatment protocols with lower BNZ doses may be effective. PMID:26982179

  4. The Chewing Lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) Fauna of the Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (Aves, Parulidae).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M

    2015-09-01

    We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).

  5. Dipylidium caninum infection

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  6. Molecular detection of a Hepatozoon species in stray cats from a feline colony in North-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, A; Castellà, J; Criado-Fornelio, A; Buling, A; Barba-Carretero, J C

    2008-07-01

    Within the framework of a local animal health programme, the presence of ectoparasites and haemoparasites was investigated in a colony of 25 cats in Barcelona. Diagnosis was performed both by standard parasitological procedures and molecular techniques. All cats were negative to haematozoan infection by microscopic examination of blood smears. However, Hepatozoon spp. was found in four cats as shown by amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Cat isolates were 100% identical to the isolate Hepatozoon spp. (Spain 2) from Southern Spain. This is the first time that Hepatozoon spp. has been identified in cats from Northern Spain.

  7. Rapid ribosomal RNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis of protists.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Baverstock, P R

    1989-04-01

    A newly described technique for rapidly obtaining the partial nucleotide sequence of ribosomal RNA is being applied to investigate phylogenetic relationships among living organisms. Alan Johnson and Peter Boverstock describe the importance of this method to parasitology in providing new information on the phylogenetic relationships of parasitic organisms previously placed in groups of convenience. The phylum Apicomplexo in particular, has been the object of much study using this technique, but the technology is likely to extend soon to the restructuring of the phylogenetic trees of many groups of parasites.

  8. Molecular systematics and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A; Zarlenga, D S; La Rosa, G; Pozio, E; Rosenthal, B; Bandi, C; Mortarino, M; Casiraghi, M; Genchi, C; Gasser, R B; Hu, M; Chilton, N B; Matthews, J B; Hodgkinson, J E

    2004-10-28

    This collection of articles provides an account of six presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology(WAAVP) (held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on Molecular Systematics and Diagnosis, organised and chaired by R.B. Gasser and D.S. Zarlenga. The focus was on recent advances in molecular tools for specific and genotypic identification,diagnosis, systematics and population genetics, with special emphasis on investigations of parasitic nematodes and protists.

  9. [Candidiasis: molecular basis of parasitic adaptation of opportunistic pathogenic protists].

    PubMed

    Poulain, D

    1990-01-01

    Candida albicans is a versatile organism living as a commensal of the gastro-intestinal tract and having the ability to invade host tissues and to initiate serious diseases under the appropriate environmental conditions. The molecular basis for adherence, invasion, interactions with specific and non-specific immune factors have been studied in parallel to structural characteristics of the yeast. The main parasitologic features are closely linked to phenotypic variations. In this respect, mannoproteins are strongly involved in the cell wall variations. The study of the oligomannosidic repertoire represents one of the essential steps for the understanding of host-parasite relationships.

  10. [Comparative study for the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of metronidazole and secnidazole in the treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis].

    PubMed

    Buitrón García Figueroa, R; Gonzalo Butrón López, F; Oropez Rechy, G; Romero-Cabello, R

    1997-11-01

    Presently study included 3 groups of 20 women with tricomoniasis demonstrated parasitologicaly for oozing vaginal, the first group received treatment with vaginal ova with metronidazol for 10 days, the second group ova of secnidazol for 3 days and the third group ova of secnidazol for 7 days. The results showed that the clinical manifestations dimanished significantly and the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis disappeared from the vaginal cavity, therefore cure was achieved parasitological in all the cases. We concluded that they are equally useful the metronidazol for 10 days, and the secnidazol for 3 or 7 days, without the presence of adverse effects. PMID:9441152

  11. V-shaped pits in regions of ancient Baekje kingdom paleoparasitologically confirmed as likely human-waste reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2014-10-01

    In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

  12. An eye on RNAi in nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Maule, Aaron G; McVeigh, Paul; Dalzell, Johnathan J; Atkinson, Louise; Mousley, Angela; Marks, Nikki J

    2011-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionised approaches to gene function determination. From a parasitology perspective, gene function studies have the added dimension of providing validation data, increasingly deemed essential to the initial phases of drug target selection, pre-screen development. Notionally advantageous to those working on nematode parasites is the fact that Caenorhabditis elegans research spawned RNAi discovery and continues to seed our understanding of its fundamentals. Unfortunately, RNAi data for nematode parasites illustrate variable and inconsistent susceptibilities which undermine confidence and exploitation. Now well-ensconced in an era of nematode parasite genomics, we can begin to unscramble this variation.

  13. Effect of terramycin in balantidiosis of pigs.

    PubMed

    Mwamba, T; Pandey, V S

    1977-01-01

    In an industrial pig farm in Lubumashi, Zaïre, Balantidium coli produced severe clinical and fatal disease. Terramycin at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight administered twice daily with concentrates gave clinical recovery in all the pigs treated. The complete parasitological recovery was obtained in 14 out of 20 animals. In the remaining 6 there was significant reduction in the number of B. coli. Keeping in view the large spectrum of activity of terramycin in various infections as well as B. coli, terramycin can be useful in the treatment of balantidiosis of pigs. PMID:596795

  14. Control of Shigella flexneri in Celebes black macaques (Macaca nigra).

    PubMed

    Olson, L C; Bergquist, D Y; Fitzgerald, D L

    1986-06-01

    Stool specimens collected systematically from a group of Celebes black macaques (Macaca nigra) with a high incidence of diarrhea were examined microbiologically. Numerous isolates of Shigella flexneri, Campylobacter jejuni and pathogenic Escherichia coli were recovered. Previous parasitology reports had revealed that the majority of the animals had Balantidium coli. Subsequently, the group was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin and tetracycline. After treatment, Shigella flexneri was not detected in the stool of any animal for 1 year, and the clinical condition of the group was improved. Reduced recovery rates were obtained with other enteric pathogens. PMID:3523037

  15. [Long-term changes in the parasite fauna of the bream Abramis brama L. in eutrophicated lake].

    PubMed

    Novokhatskaia, O V; Ieshko, E P; Sterligova, O P

    2008-01-01

    Data on the dynamics of parasite fauna if the bream Abramis brama for 50-year period are presented. The relation between trophic status of the reservoir, preferred type of the bream feeding, and the abundance of its parasites is shown. It was established, that the number of parasites developing in plankton organisms increases during the period of intensive eutrophication. Recent data on the parasite fauna of bream indicate preferred feeding of the host on benthic invertebrates, that is favourable to its growth. Permanent tendency to the increase of the bream invasion by the Diplostomum metacercaria could be a reliable parasitological indicator of the water body eutrophication.

  16. Correlation between circulating schistosomal antigen, schistosomal complement C3 and intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Rashed, S M; Khashaba, A; Madwar, M A; Rafik, M M; Abul Fadl, A A; Shash, A M

    1990-06-01

    53.7% of the already parasitologically proved schistosomiasis cases showed circulating schistosomal antigen (C.S.A.) in their sera with significantly higher levels than the controls, with no correlation between the level of C.S.A. and the foecal egg count. Significant higher levels of schistosomal complement C3 were found in schistosomiasis patients as compared to the control group, with no significant difference in the mean level of C3 between patients with positive and negative C.S.A.

  17. [Knowledge of the endoparasitic fauna of Lama guanicoe Muller, 1776, from the Mitre Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Navone, G T; Merino, M L

    1989-01-01

    Parasitological fauna of Lama guanicoe in the Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, is analyzed in this paper. Coproparasitological tests of 58 samples were performed, and on this basis, the presence of the following genera was determined: Haemonchus, Marshallagia, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomun and Chavertia. Marshallagia and Chabertia are reported for the first time for this host. The dung piles are not considered as parasitic barriers. Infections occur in two seasons: at the beginning of the spring and at the beginning of summer, as a survival strategy of parasitic nematodes. Parasites of L. guanicoe would be secondarily acquired form cattle.

  18. The placenta: a main role in congenital toxoplasmosis?

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    Systemic infections, such as toxoplasmosis, acquired during pregnancy can lead to placental infection and have profound effects on the mother-to-child relationship and the success of pregnancy. Placental permeability to Toxoplasma gondii is a main parameter that determines parasite transmission to the foetus, and the use of antibiotics to decrease placental parasite load and prevent congenital toxoplasmosis has been suggested for decades. Although parasitological examination of the placenta at birth is commonly used to diagnose neonatal congenital toxoplasmosis, this approach can be controversial. Here we argue in favour of placental examination for both diagnostic and epidemiological purposes.

  19. Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

    2014-10-15

    Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 μg/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with

  20. Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda) in California quail (Callipepla californica) in western Oregon.

    PubMed

    Moore, J; Freehling, M; Crawford, J; Cole, P

    1988-07-01

    Seventy-six California quail (Callipepla californica) were collected during a 22-mo period from the E. E. Wilson Wildlife Area near Monmouth, Oregon. Dispharynx nasuta occurred in 38% of the birds with a mean intensity of 4.9 +/- 5.1. In one of 2 yr, host age was significantly associated with prevalence, with immature males showing the highest prevalence (73%). Although C. californica has been the subject of several parasitological surveys, this is the first record of D. nasuta in this host. PMID:3411717

  1. Sexual transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in murine model.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcelle; Nitz, Nadjar; Santana, Camilla; Moraes, Aline; Hagström, Luciana; Andrade, Rafael; Rios, Adriano; Sousa, Alessandro; Dallago, Bruno; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Hecht, Mariana

    2016-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is mainly transmitted by blood-sucking triatomines, but other routes also have epidemiological importance, such as blood transfusion and congenital transmission. Although the possibility of sexual transmission of T. cruzi has been suggested since its discovery, few studies have been published on this subject. We investigated acquisition of T. cruzi by sexual intercourse in an experimental murine model. Male and female mice in the chronic phase of Chagas disease were mated with naive partners. Parasitological, serological and molecular tests demonstrated the parasites in tissues and blood of partners. These results confirm the sexual transmission of T. cruzi in mice.

  2. V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-01-01

    In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

  3. Response of falciparum malaria to different antimalarials in Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Ejov, M. N.; Tun, T.; Aung, S.; Sein, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to ascertain the therapeutic efficacy of different treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the hospitals in Sagaing, northern and eastern Shan, to facilitate updating the existing national antimalarial drug policy. The proposed 14-day trial for monitoring the efficacy of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria is an efficient method for identifying treatment failure patterns at the intermediate level (township hospital) in the Union of Myanmar. Minimal clinical and parasitological data for days 0-14 were required to classify treatment failure and success. Clinical and parasitiological responses on day 3 and days 4-14 were used as clear examples of early and late treatment failure, respectively. Mefloquine is five times more likely to be effective than chloroquine and sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (S-P), whereas chloroquine and S-P treatments have nearly identical failure patterns. The alarming frequency of clinical and parasitological failure (failure rate > 50%) following chloroquine treatment was reported in Sagaing and following S-P treatment in Sagaing and eastern Shan. PMID:10212515

  4. Parasitic infection among HIV/AIDS patients at Bela-Bela clinic, Limpopo province, South Africa with special reference to Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Samie, Amidou; Makuwa, Stanley; Mtshali, Sibusiso; Potgieter, Natasha; Thekisoe, Oriel; Mbati, Peter; Bessong, Pascal O

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal parasitic organisms are common pathogens among HIV patients worldwide and have been known to cause severe and life-threatening diarrhea in such subjects. In the present study, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in stool samples from 151 HIV/AIDS patients attending a HIV treatment center in South Africa was determined using' standard parasitological methods, as well as molecular methods including PCR and quantitative PCR for confirmation of Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was evaluated for detection of Cryptosporidium spp in 24 stool samples. Standard parasitological methods indicated that Cryptospo- ridium spp (26.5%), Entamoeba spp (26.5%) and Giardia lamblia (13%) were the most common protozoan parasites, while Ascaris lumbricoides (8%), Schistosoma mansoni (6%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.6%) were the most commonly found helminths. PCR, quantitative PCR and LAMP methods identified Cryptosporidium spp in 28% (30/106), 35% (53/151) and 58% (14/24) of the stool samples, respectively. Multiple infections (34%) were commonly found in the study population. Females above 45 years had the highest Cryptosporidium prevalence (58%). Prevention measures must be implemented in order to curb the negative impact of Cryptosporidium-causing diarrhea among HIV/AIDS patients in this region as well as other parasitic infections identified in this study. PMID:25427345

  5. Parasitic infection among HIV/AIDS patients at Bela-Bela clinic, Limpopo province, South Africa with special reference to Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Samie, Amidou; Makuwa, Stanley; Mtshali, Sibusiso; Potgieter, Natasha; Thekisoe, Oriel; Mbati, Peter; Bessong, Pascal O

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal parasitic organisms are common pathogens among HIV patients worldwide and have been known to cause severe and life-threatening diarrhea in such subjects. In the present study, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in stool samples from 151 HIV/AIDS patients attending a HIV treatment center in South Africa was determined using' standard parasitological methods, as well as molecular methods including PCR and quantitative PCR for confirmation of Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was evaluated for detection of Cryptosporidium spp in 24 stool samples. Standard parasitological methods indicated that Cryptospo- ridium spp (26.5%), Entamoeba spp (26.5%) and Giardia lamblia (13%) were the most common protozoan parasites, while Ascaris lumbricoides (8%), Schistosoma mansoni (6%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.6%) were the most commonly found helminths. PCR, quantitative PCR and LAMP methods identified Cryptosporidium spp in 28% (30/106), 35% (53/151) and 58% (14/24) of the stool samples, respectively. Multiple infections (34%) were commonly found in the study population. Females above 45 years had the highest Cryptosporidium prevalence (58%). Prevention measures must be implemented in order to curb the negative impact of Cryptosporidium-causing diarrhea among HIV/AIDS patients in this region as well as other parasitic infections identified in this study. PMID:25507595

  6. [Intestinal parasitoses in children of an Indian community of Bolivian altiplano].

    PubMed

    Basset, D; Gaumerais, H; Basset-Pougnet, A

    1986-01-01

    A survey about motion parasitosis has been carried out on one hundred Indians (Quechua ethnic group) living in a hamlet called Amarete located in the Bolivian Altiplano. This community is living in a place difficult to reach (11,100 feet) where many pre-Colombian traditions are still alive. All children were parasitized, 75% of them were carrier of 3 to 5 parasites. Infestation with ascaris (91%) is the most frequent and the risks of getting amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica 41%) and balantidial (Balantidium coli 8%) are high. Many other parasites (8 kinds of protozoa , 5 kinds of helminths) can be observed; more especially, we noticed that 20% of the pupils used to be carrier operculated eggs. Tenia embryophores (more probably Taenia solium found in 2 children) made us aware of possibilities of cysticercosis. An other problem lays on general hygiene and hygiene of the water since feces danger is responsible of important parasitologic loads. Results are compared with a fecal study carried out on a population from the Altiplano region but living now in the plain. Amazonian Indian population in previous or recent contact with occidental civilization show the same variations of parasitologic repartition between Amarete hamlet and the transplanted population of Altiplano region. The role played by the acculturation could be discussed.

  7. Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J

    1996-02-01

    A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).

  8. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations.

  9. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those parasitic mainly in cormorants (16%) and non-specific parasites (47%). Of the 19 species recorded, 100% were found in South Moravia, but only 47% of these 19 species in South Bohemia. The higher number of helminth species in cormorants from South Moravia and a higher proportion of non-specific species may be associated with the presence of the large Nové Mlýny water reservoir, in addition to better ecological and environmental conditions in this warmer region. Scanning electron microscopical examination of three common nematode species parasitising cormorants, Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Desmidocercella incognita Solonitsin, 1932 and Syncuaria squamata (von Linstow, 1883), revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the cephalic structures, numbers and distribution of male caudal papillae or the shapes of spicules. PMID:27312270

  10. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82-95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs.

  11. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  12. [Nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi isolated in Le Dantec University hospital of Dakar in 2014: Epidemiological, clinical and mycological study].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Badiane, A S; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Ndoye, N W; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Déme, A; Ndiaye, I M; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the incidence of superficial fungal infections involving nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi increased considerably. The objective of this work was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and mycological fungal infections due to nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi diagnosed in the laboratory of parasitology-mycology of Le Dantec hospital in Dakar. With a retrospective study of the various cases of nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi isolated in the laboratory of parasitology-mycology during the period of November 2013 to December 2014, we collected 22 cases of infections in 11 men and 11 women; age ranging from 17 to 75 years with a mean of 45.3 years (sex ratio=1): eight cases of intertrigo, seven cases of onychomycosis, four cases of palmoplantar keratoderma (KPP), a case of onychomycosis associated with interdigital intertrigo, a case of infectious myositis and one case of African histoplasmosis. We have isolated and identified a total of 22 nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi: ten Fusarium, five Trichosporon, two Chrysosporium, two Geotrichum, one Rhodotorula, one Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and one Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii. So we are seeing the emergence of nondermatophytic and noncandidal increasingly isolated from superficial and local lesions. These fungi, generally contaminants or commensal, cause a problem regarding their direct involvement in pathological processes in which they are isolated. So we should respect the recommendations proposed for their involvement in pathological processes and, by a collaboration between clinician and biologist, demonstrate their real involvement through effective, targeted treatment.

  13. [Biomedical research in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-01-01

    The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica and at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The relative weight of Biomedicine in the following decades diminished, due to the outstanding increment in publications in Biological Sciences; however, the absolute number of contributions in Biomedical Sciences remained constant throughout the last decades, with around 80 contributions per decade. In spite of the predominance of Parasitology as the main biomedical subject, the last decades have witnessed the emergence of new areas of interest in the Revista, such as Pharmacology of natural products, Toxinology, especially related to snake venoms, and Human Genetics. This retrospective analysis evidences that Biomedical Sciences, particularly those related to Tropical Medicine, were a fundamental component during the first years of Revista de Biología Tropical, and have maintained a significant presence in the scientific output of this journal, the most relevant scientific publication in biological sciences in Central America.

  14. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Cássia Regina; Parpinelli, Ana Cláudia; de Lima, Romeika Reis; Dias, Luis Gustavo Gosuen Gonçalves; Pereira, Lucas de Freitas; Dias, Fernanda Gosuen Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi), which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological). It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  15. Reduction in incidence and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in under-5-year-old children by permethrin impregnation of mosquito nets*

    PubMed Central

    Graves, P. M.; Brabin, B. J.; Charlwood, J. D.; Burkot, T. R.; Cattani, J. A.; Ginny, M.; Paino, J.; Gibson, F. D.; Alpers, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    The malaria incidence and prevalence rates among children who slept under permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets in four villages near Madang, Papua New Guinea, were compared with the rates among children who slept under unimpregnated nets in four paired control villages. Immediately following a parasitological survey in the eight villages, malaria parasites were cleared from the children with chemotherapy, and the mosquito nets in the four experimental villages were impregnated with permethrin. Follow-up parasitological surveys were performed 4 and 10 weeks later. Sporozoite rates in female mosquitos of the Anopheles punctulatus complex decreased significantly in two of the experimental villages after impregnation. Also, the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum between the 4-week and 10-week surveys was significantly lower among the 0-4-year olds in villages with impregnated nets than in those with unimpregnated nets, leading to reduced prevalence of P. falciparum in this age group. Use of permethrin-impregnated nets had no effect on the incidence or prevalence of P. falciparum among 5-9-year olds or on that of P. vivax among the 0-4- or 5-9-year olds. PMID:3325185

  16. Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2014-05-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity.

  17. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition. PMID:26547564

  18. Basic and clinical pharmacology contribution to extend anthelmintic molecules lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-08-15

    The correct use of pharmacology-based information is critical to design successful strategies for the future of parasite control in livestock animals. Integrated pharmaco-parasitological research approaches have greatly contributed to optimize drug activity. In an attempt to manage drug resistance in helminths of ruminants, combinations of two or more anthelmintics are being used or promoted, based on the fact that individual worms may have a lower degree of resistance to a multiple component formulation, when each chemical has a different mode of action compared to that observed when a single compound is used. However, as emphasized in the current review, the occurrence of potential pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between drug components highlights the need for deeper and integrated research to identify the advantages or disadvantages associated with the use of combined drug preparations. This review article provides integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical pharmacology information pertinent to preserve the traditional and modern active ingredients as practical tools for parasite control. Novel pharmacological data on derquantel and monepantel, as representatives of modern anthelmintics for use in livestock, is summarized here. The article also summarizes the pharmaco-parasitological knowledge considered critical to secure and/or extend the lifespan of the recently available novel molecules. PMID:26220023

  19. Cryptosporidiosis in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Saredi, N; Bava, J

    1998-01-01

    Cryptosporidium was detected in 21 (3.8%) individual stool samples collected from 553 pediatric patients hospitalized in our center employing a Telemann concentration technique (formalin-ether-centrifugation) and stained with the modified Kinyoun method. The mean age of populations with Cryptosporidiosis (16 boys and 5 girls) was 11 months; 15 months for girls and 6.5 for boys. Ages of 81% of them were less than 19 months. Seventy-six per cent of patients lived on the outskirts of Buenos Aires and 71% lacked pretreated running water at home. In 62% of the cases parasitological diagnoses coincided with warm seasons. At diagnosis mucous (63%) or watery (36%) diarrhea was presented in 90% of the patients with a median of 5 (3-8) bowel movements per day. Fever was presented in 66% of patients while abdominal pain and vomits in 60% and 52%, respectively. The median time from hospitalization up to parasitologic diagnosis was 20 days. Concomitant diseases observed were malnutrition, acute leukemia, bronchiolitis, HIV infection, anemia, celiac disease, myelofibrosis, vitelline sac tumor, neutropenia, osteosarcoma and dehydration. Cryptosporidiosis in our environment seems to occur more frequently in children younger than 18 months of age; who present diarrhea; are immunodeficient; come from a low socioeconomical background; and who live in poor sanitary conditions with no potable running water.

  20. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition.

  1. Antibodies that protect humans against Plasmodium falciparum blood stages do not on their own inhibit parasite growth and invasion in vitro, but act in cooperation with monocytes

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    IgG extracted from the sera of African adults immune to malaria were injected intravenously into eight Plasmodium falciparum-infected nonimmune Thai patients. Clinical and parasitological improvement was reproducibly obtained in each case. After the disappearance of the transferred Ig, recrudescent parasites were equally susceptible to the same Ig preparation. High levels of antibodies to most parasite proteins were detected by Western blots in the receivers' sera (taken before transfer) as in the donors' Ig, thus indicating that the difference was qualitative rather than quantitative between donors and receivers. In vitro, the clinically effective Ig had no detectable inhibitory effect on either penetration or intra-erythrocytic development of the parasite. On the contrary, they sometimes increased parasite growth. In contrast, these IgG, as the receivers' Ig collected 4 d after transfer, but not those collected before transfer, proved able to exert an antibody-dependent cellular inhibitory (ADCI) effect in cooperation with normal blood monocytes. Results were consistent among the seven isolates studied in vitro, as with the recrudescent parasites. Thus, the results obtained in the ADCI assay correlate closely with clinical and parasitological observations. PMID:2258697

  2. Impact of National Schistosomiasis Control Program in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt: an independent evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barakat, R; Farghaly, A; El Morshedy, H; Hassan, M; Miller, de W

    1998-01-01

    A longitudinal study has been conducted (1991-1997) to evaluate the impact of repeated selective chemotherapy on human transmission indices of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The study population included 8370 individuals inhabiting four villages and their satellites and representing high and low S. mansoni endemicity communities in Kafr EI-Sheikh governorate. A parasitological survey was conducted for three successive years (1991-1992 and 1993). Each time infected received praziquantel (PZQ) chemotherapy. In 1997, a fourth parasitological survey was done. During the period from 1994-1996 only routine diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis offered by the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) was going on. Study results revealed a decrease in S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection in the first three years. The drop was marked after the first year. In 1997, after the cessation of active case finding and treatment by the project team, an upward trend was observed for both prevalence and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) especially for the high prevalence villages. However, all indices were kept at significant low levels as compared to base-line values in 1991.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  4. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  5. Trichobilharzia regenti (Schistosomatidae): 3D imaging techniques in characterization of larval migration through the CNS of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bulantová, Jana; Macháček, Tomáš; Panská, Lucie; Krejčí, František; Karch, Jakub; Jährling, Nina; Saghafi, Saiedeh; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich; Horák, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Migration of parasitic worms through the host tissues, which may occasionally result in fatal damage to the internal organs, represents one of the major risks associated with helminthoses. In order to track the parasites, traditionally used 2D imaging techniques such as histology or squash preparation do not always provide sufficient data to describe worm location/behavior in the host. On the other hand, 3D imaging methods are widely used in cell biology, medical radiology, osteology or cancer research, but their use in parasitological research is currently occasional. Thus, we aimed at the evaluation of suitability of selected 3D methods to monitor migration of the neuropathogenic avian schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti in extracted spinal cord of experimental vertebrate hosts. All investigated methods, two of them based on tracking of fluorescently stained larvae with or without previous chemical clearing of tissue and one based on X-ray micro-CT, exhibit certain limits for in vivo observation. Nevertheless, our study shows that the tested methods as ultramicroscopy (used for the first time in parasitology) and micro-CT represent promising tool for precise analyzing of parasite larvae in the CNS. Synthesis of these 3D imaging techniques can provide more comprehensive look at the course of infection, host immune response and pathology caused by migrating parasites within entire tissue samples, which would not be possible with traditional approaches.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of demodectic blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Inceboz, Tonay; Yaman, Aylin; Over, Leyla; Ozturk, Arif Taylan; Akisu, Ciler

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Demodex spp. in the eyelash follicles obtained from patients seen in our ophthalmology clinic, to define the symptoms of this infestation, and to examine the effectivity of the therapy. This study was conducted in Department of Ophthalmology and Parasitology, Dokuz Eylül University, School of Medicine. Our study included 82 cases that were seen in the Ophthalmology Department and Parasitology Department for various reasons. We have also observed that the presence of Demodex spp. provokes itching and redness in the eyes and that using baby shampoo for cleansing the face reduces the risk of infestation. After the treatment of 32 cases with 4% pilocarpin HCl gel, we achieved a total cure in 12 eyes (37.5%), partial improvement in 13 eyes (40.6%), (making a total of 25 eyes, 78.1%). The treatment was unsuccessful in 7 eyes (21.9%). In patients with Demodex spp. cleansing with baby shampoo and treating by pilocarpin gel may be used in treatment.

  7. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  8. Basic and clinical pharmacology contribution to extend anthelmintic molecules lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-08-15

    The correct use of pharmacology-based information is critical to design successful strategies for the future of parasite control in livestock animals. Integrated pharmaco-parasitological research approaches have greatly contributed to optimize drug activity. In an attempt to manage drug resistance in helminths of ruminants, combinations of two or more anthelmintics are being used or promoted, based on the fact that individual worms may have a lower degree of resistance to a multiple component formulation, when each chemical has a different mode of action compared to that observed when a single compound is used. However, as emphasized in the current review, the occurrence of potential pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between drug components highlights the need for deeper and integrated research to identify the advantages or disadvantages associated with the use of combined drug preparations. This review article provides integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical pharmacology information pertinent to preserve the traditional and modern active ingredients as practical tools for parasite control. Novel pharmacological data on derquantel and monepantel, as representatives of modern anthelmintics for use in livestock, is summarized here. The article also summarizes the pharmaco-parasitological knowledge considered critical to secure and/or extend the lifespan of the recently available novel molecules.

  9. The first clinical and laboratory evidence of co-infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis in a Brazilian dog.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Júlia A G; Valente, Pâmela C L G; Paes, Paulo R O; Vasconcelos, Artur V; Silvestre, Bruna T; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2015-04-01

    Information on Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Brazil is very restricted. The aim of this study was to report clinical, parasitological, hematological and molecular evidence of a natural A. phagocytophilum infection of an urban Brazilian dog. The dog was an eight-month-old male French bulldog. Veterinary clinical examinations were performed three times: in April, June and December 2013. Biochemical and hematological analyses were performed during all examinations, and blood samples were collected for parasitological surveys in June and December. Morulae were present within neutrophils in blood smears from June. Both samples were PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the phylogenetic topology placed samples from this study in close proximity to other A. phagocytophilum isolates. Ehrlichia isolates from this dog were 100% identical to E. canis isolates, thus E. canis and A. phagocytophilum co-infection was diagnosed in this dog. Lethargy and skin lesions were the clinical signs observed in this dog. Abnormal hematological parameters, among those, severe thrombocytopenia, were observed in all three occasions. This finding highlights the growing importance of A. phagocytophilum in South America.

  10. What you get is what they have? Detectability of intestinal parasites in reptiles using faeces.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Fátima; Carretero, Miguel A; Roca, Vicente; Poulin, Robert; Perera, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Parasitological analyses are often based on invasive methodologies, involving host sacrifice, raising ethical and conservation issues. However, alternative non-invasive approaches may not be always applicable due to the location of the parasite in the host tissue or the quality and reliability of the non-invasive sample per se. In this study, we compare the differences in detectability of intestinal parasites in reptiles using the classical invasive approach (intestine dissection), versus a non-invasive procedure (faecal examination), collected from the same individual host. Our results showed significantly lower detectability of helminths in faeces versus the intestine. Moreover, the number of parasites found in faeces was not explained either by the intensities found in the respective intestine or by the host identity. Several factors may explain the lack of association between the two types of samples, but more importantly, our results highlight the randomness of the presence of parasites in faeces. Even if it is not recommended that comparative studies of either parasite abundance or parasite communities be conducted on the basis of faecal samples, there are other types of studies (i.e. genetic) that can be performed with this source of information, thus avoiding the sacrifice of the host. Due to their wide spectrum of life stages and localization in the host tissue, parasites are challenging candidates for non-invasive sampling and consequently, parasitological methodologies should be carefully selected according to the objective of the study.

  11. SYBR green-based detection of Leishmania infantum DNA using peripheral blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Akhlaghi, Lame; Mohebali, Mehdi; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Aryan, Ehsan; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Ghayour, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Parasitological methods for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) require invasive sampling procedures. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) DNA by real time-PCR method in peripheral blood of symptomatic VL patient and compared its performance with nested PCR, an established molecular method with very high diagnostic indices. 47 parasitologically confirmed VL patients diagnosed by direct agglutination test (DAT > 3200), bone marrow aspiration and presented characteristic clinical features (fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and anemia) and 40 controls (non-endemic healthy control-30, Malaria-2, Toxoplasma gondii-2, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-2, HBV-1, HCV-1, HSV-1 and CMV-1) were enrolled in this study. SYBR-green based real time-PCR and nested PCR was performed to amplify the Kinetoplast DNA minicircle gene using the DNA extracted from Buffy coat. From among 47 patients, 45 (95.7 %) were positive by both nested-PCR and real time-PCR. These results indicate that real time-PCR was not only as sensitive as a nested-PCR assay for detection of Leishmania kDNA in clinical sample, but also more rapid. The advantage of real time-PCR based methods over nested-PCR is simple to perform, more faster in which nested-PCR requires post-PCR processing and reducing contamination risk.

  12. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

    PubMed

    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  13. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites

    PubMed Central

    Vanhove, Maarten P. M.; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Hablützel, Pascal I.; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C.; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N = 18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika. PMID:26335652

  14. Waterborne diseases classification and relationship with social-environmental factors in Florianópolis city - Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesa, M; Fongaro, G; Barardi, C R M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate and classify the occurrence of waterborne diseases in Florianópolis city, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil and to correlate these diseases with the following social-environmental indicators of the local population: type of water supply, adequate collection and sewage treatment, areas of flooding and domestic water tank cleaning. Reports of outpatients were analyzed for surveillance of waterborne diseases during the period of 2002 to 2009. Waterborne diseases were classified into four groups: Group A: diarrheal diseases; Group B: parasitological diseases; Group C: skin diseases and Group D: eye diseases. The diarrheal, parasitological and skin diseases were the most frequently reported. Waterborne diseases belonging to Group A in all sites were correlated with other waterborne diseases groups, which can be an indicator of the circulation of other waterborne diseases. Regarding the social-environmental indicators assessed, the most correlated with waterborne diseases were the origin and quality of the water supply, followed by inadequate collection and treatment of sewage, frequent flooding, and finally the lack of cleanliness of the water reservoir. The results highlight the need for policies aiming for improvement of the sanitation service in the maintenance of human, animal and environmental health. PMID:27105418

  15. The prevalence of ovine Eimeria infection in Rudsar, North of Iran, (2011-2012).

    PubMed

    Nourollahi-Fard, S R; Khedri, J; Ghashghaei, O; Mohammadyari, N; Sharifi, H

    2016-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Eimeria infection in sheep in Rudsar, North of Iran, in period of 1 year (March 2011 to March 2012). The samples (approximately 3-5 grams of faeces) were collected from the rectum of 270 sheep and transferred to the parasitology laboratory. Eimeria species were identified following sporulation of faeces in a thin layer of 2.5 % potassium dichromate for one or 2 weeks at 27 °C. Out of 270 faecal samples examined, 170[(63.0 %; 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 56.9-68.7)] were positive for Eimeria spp. Five species of Eimeria, including E. ahsata, E. ovina, E. crandallis, E. parva and E. ovinoidalis were identified in faecal samples by modified McMaster technique. The most frequent species was E. crandallis. Sheep were considered in four age groups (less than 1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-3 years old and over 3 years old).The results also indicated that less than 1 year old sheep have greater infection ratio as compare with older animals. Female had significantly higher prevalence of Eimeria than male. Higher infection was seen in females compare to males and in winter compare to summer. Parasitological gross and microscopic examinations revealed Eimeria infection is common in sheep of Rudsar, North Iran. PMID:27605817

  16. Preventive prospective of triclosan and triclosan-liposomal nanoparticles against experimental infection with a cystogenic ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    El-Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Mossallam, Shereen F; Ramadan, Heba S; Younis, Salwa S

    2015-01-01

    The preventative effect of triclosan (TS) and TS liposomal nanoparticles was studied on the early establishment of chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Swiss albino mice were orally infected with 10 cysts of avirulent ME49 strain of T. gondii, and 2 weeks later they were orally treated with dual daily doses of 200mg/kg and 120 mg/kg TS and TS liposomes for 30 days; respectively. Effect of TS and TS liposomes was parasitologically and ultrastructurally evaluated, versus infected non-treated control. Their safety was biochemically assessed. Parasitologically, both TS and TS liposomes induced significant reduction in mice mortality, brain parasite burden and infectivity of cysts obtained from the brains of treated mice. Ultrastructurally, scanning electron microscopy of cysts obtained from infected mice treated with either TS or TS liposomes showed surface irregularities, protrusions and depressions. Transmission electron microscopy revealed disintegration of the cyst wall and vacuolation of the bradyzoites with disintegration of plasma membranes of both cysts and bradyzoites whether treated with TS or TS liposomes. Biochemical study reflected the safety of the TS and TS liposomes. Therefore, TS proved an effective, promising and safe preventive drug against early establishment of chronic toxoplasmosis. Loading TS on liposomes marginally enhanced its efficacy against T. gondii cysts yet allowed its use in a lower dose.

  17. A Randomized Comparison of Chloroquine versus Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Infection in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thuan, Phung Duc; Ca, Nguyen Thuy Nha; Van Toi, Pham; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Thai, Cao Quang; Hong Thai, Le; Hoa, Nhu Thi; Thanh Dong, Le; Loi, Mai Anh; Son, Do Hung; Khanh, Tran Tinh Ngoc; Dolecek, Christiane; Nhan, Ho Thi; Wolbers, Marcel; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2016-01-01

    A total of 128 Vietnamese patients with symptomatic Plasmodium vivax mono-infections were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, randomized trial to receive either chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA-PPQ). The proportions of patients with adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 47% in the chloroquine arm (31 of 65 patients) and 66% in the DHA-PPQ arm (42 of 63 patients) in the Kaplan–Meier intention-to-treat analysis (absolute difference 19%, 95% confidence interval = 0–37%), thus establishing non-inferiority of DHA-PPQ. Fever clearance time (median 24 versus 12 hours, P = 0.02), parasite clearance time (median 36 versus 18 hours, P < 0.001), and parasite clearance half-life (mean 3.98 versus 1.80 hours, P < 0.001) were all significantly shorter in the DHA-PPQ arm. All cases of recurrent parasitemia in the chloroquine arm occurred from day 33 onward, with corresponding whole blood chloroquine concentration lower than 100 ng/mL in all patients. Chloroquine thus remains efficacious for the treatment of P. vivax malaria in southern Vietnam, but DHA-PPQ provides more rapid symptomatic and parasitological recovery. PMID:26856909

  18. A Randomized Comparison of Chloroquine Versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Infection in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Phung Duc; Ca, Nguyen Thuy Nha; Van Toi, Pham; Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Thai, Cao Quang; Thai, Le Hong; Hoa, Nhu Thi; Dong, Le Thanh; Loi, Mai Anh; Son, Do Hung; Khanh, Tran Tinh Ngoc; Dolecek, Christiane; Nhan, Ho Thi; Wolbers, Marcel; Thwaites, Guy; Farrar, Jeremy; White, Nicholas J; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2016-04-01

    A total of 128 Vietnamese patients with symptomatic Plasmodium vivax mono-infections were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, randomized trial to receive either chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ). The proportions of patients with adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 47% in the chloroquine arm (31 of 65 patients) and 66% in the DHA-PPQ arm (42 of 63 patients) in the Kaplan-Meier intention-to-treat analysis (absolute difference 19%, 95% confidence interval = 0-37%), thus establishing non-inferiority of DHA-PPQ. Fever clearance time (median 24 versus 12 hours,P= 0.02), parasite clearance time (median 36 versus 18 hours,P< 0.001), and parasite clearance half-life (mean 3.98 versus 1.80 hours,P< 0.001) were all significantly shorter in the DHA-PPQ arm. All cases of recurrent parasitemia in the chloroquine arm occurred from day 33 onward, with corresponding whole blood chloroquine concentration lower than 100 ng/mL in all patients. Chloroquine thus remains efficacious for the treatment of P. vivax malaria in southern Vietnam, but DHA-PPQ provides more rapid symptomatic and parasitological recovery. PMID:26856909

  19. High prevalence of dhfr triple mutant and correlation with high rates of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment failures in vivo in Gabonese children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Drug resistance contributes to the global malaria burden. Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) polymorphisms confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Methods The study assessed the frequency of SP resistance-conferring polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum-positive samples from two clinical studies in Lambaréné. Their role on treatment responses and transmission potential was studied in an efficacy open-label clinical trial with a 28-day follow-up in 29 children under five with uncomplicated malaria. Results SP was well tolerated by all subjects in vivo. Three subjects were excluded from per-protocol analysis. PCR-corrected, 12/26 (46%) achieved an adequate clinical and parasitological response, 13/26 (50%) were late parasitological failures, while 1/26 (4%) had an early treatment failure, resulting in early trial discontinuation. Of 106 isolates, 98 (92%) carried the triple mutant dhfr haplotype. Three point mutations were found in dhps in a variety of haplotypic configurations. The 437G + 540E double mutant allele was found for the first time in Gabon. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of dhfr triple mutant with some dhps point mutations in Gabon, in line with treatment failures observed, and molecular markers of SP resistance should be closely monitored. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00453856 PMID:21569596

  20. Microbiological laboratory results from Haiti: June-October 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Drabick, J. J.; Gambel, J. M.; Huck, E.; De Young, S.; Hardeman, L.

    1997-01-01

    From June to October 1995, the U.S. Army's 86th Combat Support Hospital was deployed in Haiti in support of the United Nations peacekeeping mission. The hospital's mission was to provide comprehensive health care to United Nations military and civilian personnel in Haiti. The hospital's laboratory, with microbiological and parasitological capability, was a critical asset in light of the infectious disease threats in Haiti. A total of 356 microbiological (5.4%) and 887 parasitological (13.4%) tests were performed, out of a total of 6628 laboratory tests. One finding was the discovery of antibiotic-resistant urinary isolates of Escherichia coli. These were from community-acquired infections and included strains resistant to ampicillin (6/15), trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (6/15), and ciprofloxacin (2/15). Ampicillin (8/15) and trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (3/15) resistance was also noted in Shigella spp. However, no chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria were encountered. Dengue virus, also mosquito borne, was a major pathogen. Antimicrobial-resistant nosocomial pathogens were also encountered. Deployed laboratories should be able to determine antimicrobial susceptibility and perform microbial identification to guide clinical management, conduct medical surveillance, and detect emerging resistance. PMID:9185362

  1. Identification and Characterization of Hundreds of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Growth from a Kinase-Targeted Library Screening Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Rosario; Luengo-Arratta, Sandra A.; Seixas, João D.; Amata, Emanuele; Devine, William; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I.; Jimenez, Elena; Ortega, Fatima; Crouch, Sabrinia; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Fiandor, Jose Maria; Martin, Jose Julio; Berlanga, Manuela; Gonzalez, Silvia; Manzano, Pilar; Navarro, Miguel; Pollastri, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of identification of new kinase-targeting chemotypes for target and pathway analysis and drug discovery in Trypanosomal brucei, a high-throughput screen of 42,444 focused inhibitors from the GlaxoSmithKline screening collection was performed against parasite cell cultures and counter-screened against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this way, we have identified 797 sub-micromolar inhibitors of T. brucei growth that are at least 100-fold selective over HepG2 cells. Importantly, 242 of these hit compounds acted rapidly in inhibiting cellular growth, 137 showed rapid cidality. A variety of in silico and in vitro physicochemical and drug metabolism properties were assessed, and human kinase selectivity data were obtained, and, based on these data, we prioritized three compounds for pharmacokinetic assessment and demonstrated parasitological cure of a murine bloodstream infection of T. brucei rhodesiense with one of these compounds (NEU-1053). This work represents a successful implementation of a unique industrial-academic collaboration model aimed at identification of high quality inhibitors that will provide the parasitology community with chemical matter that can be utilized to develop kinase-targeting tool compounds. Furthermore these results are expected to provide rich starting points for discovery of kinase-targeting tool compounds for T. brucei, and new HAT therapeutics discovery programs. PMID:25340575

  2. Monthly application of 10 per cent moxidectin and 2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on to prevent relapses in generalised demodicosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; Leone, F; Vercelli, A; Cornegliani, L

    2012-09-15

    Canine generalised demodicosis (GD) can be difficult to cure, with some dogs requiring life-long treatment. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of monthly 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on in maintaining long-term (12 months) clinical and parasitological remission in dogs with relapsing GD. Fourteen dogs were included: 10 with juvenile-onset GD (JOGD) and four with adult-onset GD (AOGD). All dogs had been treated previously and relapsed (1-4 times). Each dog was treated again with either milbemycin oxime 2 mg/kg or ivermectin 400 μg/kg orally once daily, until two consecutive negative skin scrapings at one-month intervals (total 4-7 months of treatment). After treatment discontinuation, 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on was applied monthly for 12 months. Dogs were rechecked after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months, and multiple skin scrapings were taken. Twelve dogs completed the study and were clinically normal and parasitologically negative at each recheck (four dogs with AOGD and eight with JOGD). One dog died suddenly for unrelated reasons, and one dog relapsed. Results of this pilot study suggest that monthly application of 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on may be effective as maintenance therapy in relapsing cases of GD.

  3. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  4. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas: a loyal friend and a strong supporter of tropical medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    Our colleagues at the Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical have been informed of the demise of Professor Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (1937-2014). However, considering that the tribute we paid to him in 2015 - at the 20th anniversary of the Seminário Laveran & Deane sobre Malária - is equally true today, it is worth sharing it with the readers of the RSBMT, in recognition of his many virtues. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (MD in 1963 and DSc in 1969) was Honorary Professor of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine at the Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble (France), Honorary President of the Académie Nationale de Médecine, member of the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie and Officier dans l'Ordre de La Légion d'Honneur. In addition to his important contributions to tropical medicine and parasitology, working in France during his long and productive career (50 years and 300 publications), Ambroise-Thomas became an admirer and supporter of Brazilian activities related to research, teaching and information in Tropical Medicine.

  5. Field trial of vaccination against American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Basombrio, M A; Segura, M A; Mora, M C; Gomez, L

    1993-07-01

    In Santiago del Estero, an area endemic for Chagas' disease in northwestern Argentina, household dogs were vaccinated with live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi, and the prospective incidence of natural infection by this parasite was assessed during a two-year followup period. Vaccinated dogs received 10(7) attenuated, TCC strain T. cruzi epimastigotes and were given booster vaccinations two and 14 months later. The number of animals that could be evaluated in vaccinated versus control groups was 73 and 75 after one year and 49 and 40 after two years, respectively. Parasitologic evaluation by xenodiagnosis indicated that vaccination had reduced natural T. cruzi infection from 26.7% to 12.3% after one year (P = 0.015). The preventive effect of vaccination after the second year was less significant in spite of the booster vaccinations. Inclusion of indirect hemagglutination data for the diagnosis of infection slightly increased the number of infected dogs without affecting the evidence for protection in the first year. Serologic, parasitologic, and isoenzyme studies indicated that protection was mediated by an attenuated, self-cured infection. In 15 dogs in which the vaccination failed to completely prevent natural infection, immunization nevertheless impaired their ability to infect the natural insect vectors of the disease in humans. PMID:8352387

  6. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.

  7. Field applications of an immunoradiometric assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum antigen in a population in a malaria-endemic area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khusmith, S; Tharavanij, S; Chongsa-Nguan, M; Vejvongvarn, C; Kasemsuth, R

    1988-01-01

    Two surveys were made in people living in a malaria-endemic area in West Thailand in October 1985 (a transmission season) and in May 1986 (a nontransmission season) to detect Plasmodium falciparum antigen using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). In the first survey involving 101 people, the IRMA-positive rate was 56.4% and then significantly declined to 16.5% during the second survey involving 79 people of the same group. The parasitological-positive rates were likewise decreased from 11.9% to 1.3% (P = 0.015) during these two seasons. IRMA-positive rates were significantly higher than the corresponding parasitological-positive rates (P less than 0.0001 and 0.002 for the first and the second surveys, respectively). The geometric mean IRMA binding activity of samples collected in the first survey (1,726 cpm) was significantly higher than those collected during the second survey (920 cpm, P = 0.001). Regression analysis showed that IRMA activities were linearly correlated with the parasite counts by microscopic examination (r = 0.629, P = 0.022). IRMA was specific for P. falciparum since all 30 healthy controls and 6 of 7 vivax malaria cases were negative. PMID:3277461

  8. Where are the parasites in food webs?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

  9. The protective immune response produced in dogs after primary vaccination with the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish®) remains effective against an experimental challenge one year later

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Control of canine leishmaniasis is an important objective for the benefit of dogs living in or visiting endemic areas and for public health because of the zoonotic nature of this disease. Resistance or susceptibility to developing canine leishmaniasis after exposure to Leishmania infantum is primarily determined by the ability of the immune system to develop an appropriate Th1-dominated specific response to the parasite. For this reason there is a need for effective canine vaccines that can decrease the number of dogs developing progressive infections. In this study, we followed the impact of the LiESP/QA-21 canine vaccine (composed of excreted-secreted proteins of L. infantum and the QA-21 saponin adjuvant), recently launched commercially in Europe, on selected humoral and cellular immune parameters following an infectious intravenous challenge with L. infantum promastigotes administered one year after the primary vaccine course. We also followed parasitological parameters to determine the parasitological status of the challenged dogs. In contrast to controls, vaccinated dogs retained significantly stronger cell-mediated immune responses against the parasite despite a virulent challenge and had significantly lower mean parasite burdens at the end of the study, associated with a lower probability of developing active infections. These results confirm that the immune responses generated by vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 are still effective against an intravenous challenge one year after the primary vaccine course. PMID:24964736

  10. Apicomplexa primers amplify Proteromonas (Stramenopiles, Slopalinida, Proteromonadidae) in tissue and blood samples from lizards.

    PubMed

    Maia, João P M C; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Harris, D James

    2012-12-01

    Microscopy has traditionally been the most common method in parasitological studies, but in recent years molecular screening has become increasingly frequent to detect protozoan parasites in a wide range of vertebrate hosts and vectors. During routine molecular screening of apicomplexan parasites in reptiles using the 18S rRNA gene, we have amplified and sequenced Proteromonas parasites from three lizard hosts (less than 1% prevalence). We conducted phylogenetic analysis to confirm the taxonomic position and infer their relationships with other stramenopiles. Although our phylogeny is limited due to scarcity of molecular data on these protists, our results confirm they are closely related to Proteromonas lacertae. Our findings show that unexpected parasites can be amplified from host samples (blood and tissue) using general procedures to detect hemoparasites, and stress that positive PCR amplifications alone should not be considered as definitive proof of infection by particular parasites. Further validation by sequence confirmation and thorough phylogenetic assessment will not only avoid false positives and biased prevalence estimates but also provide valuable information on the biodiversity and phylogenetic relationships of other parasitic organisms. More generally, our results illustrate the perils of general diagnosis protocols in parasitological studies and the need of cross-validation procedures.

  11. Evaluation of Secnidazole Gel and Tinidazole Suspension in the Treatment of Giardiasis in Children.

    PubMed

    Cimerman; Camilo Coura L; C Salle JM; Gurvitz; Rocha; Bandeira; Cimerman; Katz

    1997-10-01

    Giardiasis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis. Diarrhea, abdominal colic, and flatulence are the main clinical symptoms, however, malabsorption, and impairment of growth of children may occur. The 5-nitroimidazoles are the drugs of choice in the treatment of giardiasis. Methods: The efficacy and tolerability of secnidazole and tinidazole were evaluated in a randomized, open-label, clinical trial performed with 267 Giardia lamblia-positive children. Secnidazole, in a new gel formulation, and tinidazole suspension were prescribed as single oral doses of 30mg/kg and 50mg/kg, respectively. Clinical and parasitological follow-up was carried out before, and at 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment. Results: Clinical cure was observed in 77.3% and 75.7% of the patients in the secnidazole and tinidazole groups, respectively. Parasitological cure was obtained in the 91.3% and 89.6% in the secnidazole and tinidazole groups, respectively. A metallic taste after drug ingestion was more commonly reported in the tinidazole group than in the secnidazole group (p<0.05). Conclusions: The authors conclude that both secnidazole gel and tinidazole administered as a single oral dose are effective treatments for children with giardiasis since both high cure rates and good tolerability were observed. PMID:11105144

  12. Myxozoan infections in Mediterranean mariculture.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, O

    2006-06-01

    Fish mariculture has dramatically expanded in recent years in Mediterranean countries. In this scenario, several pathological problems have logically arisen and parasitological etiologies are increasingly being reported, either as primary or secondary pathogens. Myxozoa is the most diverse and economically important group of fish parasites, and several species are known to cause or contribute to losses in mariculture. Species of the genus Enteromyxum currently constitute the most serious parasitological threat. Some unusual biological characters, such as wide host spectrum and direct fish-to-fish transmission, together with high virulence for some host species, combine a dangerous cocktail which is emerging in recent years. Closed-system (recirculation) and heated-water locations are especially sensitive to chronic infections by these parasites, which can cause serious mortality and even discourage culture of some fish species at certain locations (i.e, Diplodus puntazzo). The presentation presents an overview of recent advances in research of marine myxozoans, focusing mainly in the most pathogenic, Enteromyxum spp. The incidence of these and other emerging infections, and the design of potential strategies for control will be introduced. PMID:16881390

  13. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M.R.; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  14. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N = 18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika.

  15. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  16. [Intestinal parasitoses in children of an Indian community of Bolivian altiplano].

    PubMed

    Basset, D; Gaumerais, H; Basset-Pougnet, A

    1986-01-01

    A survey about motion parasitosis has been carried out on one hundred Indians (Quechua ethnic group) living in a hamlet called Amarete located in the Bolivian Altiplano. This community is living in a place difficult to reach (11,100 feet) where many pre-Colombian traditions are still alive. All children were parasitized, 75% of them were carrier of 3 to 5 parasites. Infestation with ascaris (91%) is the most frequent and the risks of getting amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica 41%) and balantidial (Balantidium coli 8%) are high. Many other parasites (8 kinds of protozoa , 5 kinds of helminths) can be observed; more especially, we noticed that 20% of the pupils used to be carrier operculated eggs. Tenia embryophores (more probably Taenia solium found in 2 children) made us aware of possibilities of cysticercosis. An other problem lays on general hygiene and hygiene of the water since feces danger is responsible of important parasitologic loads. Results are compared with a fecal study carried out on a population from the Altiplano region but living now in the plain. Amazonian Indian population in previous or recent contact with occidental civilization show the same variations of parasitologic repartition between Amarete hamlet and the transplanted population of Altiplano region. The role played by the acculturation could be discussed. PMID:3731367

  17. Revisiting the Posttherapeutic Cure Criterion in Chagas Disease: Time for New Methods, More Questions, Doubts, and Polemics or Time to Change Old Concepts?

    PubMed Central

    de Lana, Marta; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    One of the most relevant issues beyond the effectiveness of etiological treatment of Chagas disease is the lack of consensual/feasible tools to identify and certify the definitive parasitological cure. Several methods of distinct natures (parasitological, serological, and molecular) have been continuously proposed and novel perspectives are currently under investigation. Although the simultaneous use of distinct tests may offer better contributions and advances, it also leads to controversies of interpretation, with lack of mutual consent of cure criterion amongst researchers and physicians. In fact, when distinct host compartments (blood/tissues) are evaluated and explored, novel questions may arise due to the nature and sensitivity limit of each test. This short analytical review intends to present a chronological and critical overview and discuss the state-of-the-art distinct devices available for posttherapeutic cure assessment in Chagas disease, their contributions, meanings, and interpretation, aiming to point out the major gaps and propose novel insight for future perspectives of posttherapeutic management of Chagas disease patients. PMID:26583124

  18. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas: a loyal friend and a strong supporter of tropical medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    Our colleagues at the Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical have been informed of the demise of Professor Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (1937-2014). However, considering that the tribute we paid to him in 2015 - at the 20th anniversary of the Seminário Laveran & Deane sobre Malária - is equally true today, it is worth sharing it with the readers of the RSBMT, in recognition of his many virtues. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (MD in 1963 and DSc in 1969) was Honorary Professor of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine at the Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble (France), Honorary President of the Académie Nationale de Médecine, member of the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie and Officier dans l'Ordre de La Légion d'Honneur. In addition to his important contributions to tropical medicine and parasitology, working in France during his long and productive career (50 years and 300 publications), Ambroise-Thomas became an admirer and supporter of Brazilian activities related to research, teaching and information in Tropical Medicine. PMID:27598625

  19. Evaluation of PCR for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis and species identification using filter paper samples in Panama, Central America.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A; Saldaña, A; González, K; Paz, H; Santamaría, G; Samudio, F; Calzada, J E

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major vectorborne disease in Panama. In this study, the diagnostic performance and usefulness of two DNA extraction procedures from skin scraping samples collected on FTA filter paper for subsequent PCR diagnosis of CL was evaluated. A positive CL laboratory diagnosis was based on a positive parasitological test (Giemsa-stained smears or in vitro culture) and/or positive PCR test performed from skin scrapings collected in TE buffer (PCR-TE). Of 100 patients with skin lesions suggestive of CL, 82 (82%) were confirmed as CL positive. The sensitivity was calculated for each of the PCR approaches from samples collected on filter paper. The highest sensitivity was achieved by PCR-FTA processed by Chelex 100 (PCR-Chelex) (0.94). PCR-FTA extracted using the FTA purification reagent presented a lower sensitivity (0.60). Good concordance between routine PCR-TE and PCR-Chelex was observed (percent agreement=0.88, κ index=0.65). In conclusion, use of FTA filter paper for skin scraping collection combined with PCR is a reliable and convenient method for CL diagnosis in Panama, with comparable performance to the routine PCR method and with improved sensitivity compared with those of conventional parasitological methods.

  20. Sentinel surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in preschool-aged and school-aged children in selected local government units in the Philippines: follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T; Lumampao, Yvonne F

    2015-03-01

    This study was a follow-up to the baseline nationwide survey of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in preschool-aged children in the Philippines and in school-aged children in selected sentinel sites to assess the Integrated Helminth Control Program of the Department of Health. The objective of the study was to describe the current prevalence and intensity of STH infections in preschool-aged and school-aged children in 6 sentinel provinces and to compare these data with baseline findings. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Parasitological assessment involved the examination of stool samples by the Kato-Katz method. Although parasitological parameters in the 2 age groups at follow-up showed significant reductions from the baseline, these parameters remained high despite 3 years of mass drug administration (MDA). Efforts toward achieving high MDA coverage rates, provision of clean water, environmental sanitation, and promotion of hygiene practices must be prioritized.

  1. [Intestinal helminthiasis diagnosed in Dakar, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, D; Ndiaye, M; Gueye, P A L; Badiane, A; Fall, I D; Ndiaye, Y D; Faye, B; Ndiaye, J L; Tine, R; Ndir, O

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of digestive helminthiasis among patients referred to the laboratory of Parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar for examination of stool samples from 2004 to 2009. Of 1 526 direct stool examinations (Ritchie and Baerman techniques) analyzed at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of Le Dantec Hospital from 2004 to 2009, 310 were positive for intestinal helminthiasis, for a prevalence of 20.3%. The main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, Tænia saginata and Tænia solium. Most patients had a single parasite (90.1%, versus 9% with two and 0.9% with three). Men are infected more often than women, accounting respectively for 58% and 42% of the infections, for a sex ratio of 1.38. Children aged 10 to 15 years had the highest prevalence of infection: 34.5%. The results show that digestive helminthiasis is endemic in Dakar, where it is necessary to implement campaigns of deworming, health education and environmental improvement.

  2. Efficacy and effectiveness of mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Chavez, Jorge; de Leon, Gabriel Ponce; Durand, Salomon; Arrospide, Nancy; Roberts, Jacquelin; Cabezas, Cesar; Marquiño, Wilmer

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and effectiveness of mefloquine (MQ) plus artesunate (AS) to treat patients with uncomplicated malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Basin in April 2005-March 2006. Patients ≥ 1 year of age with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) or history of fever and Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were included. Patients received antimalarial treatment with MQ (12.5 mg/kg/day for two days) and AS (4.0 mg/kg/day for three days) either by directly observed therapy or without directly observed therapy. After a 28-day follow-up, treatment efficacy and effectiveness were assessed on the basis of clinical and parasitologic outcomes. Ninety-six patients were enrolled in each study group; nine patients were lost to follow-up. All patients, except for one in the observed group, demonstrated adequate clinical and parasitologic response; none had detectable parasitemia on day 3. The efficacy of MQ + AS efficacy was 98.9% (95% confidence interval = 94.1-100.0%) and the effectiveness was 100.0% (95% confidence interval = 95.9-100.0%). Our study shows that MQ + AS is highly efficacious in the Peruvian Amazon.

  3. Where are the parasites in food webs?

    PubMed

    Sukhdeo, Michael V K

    2012-01-01

    This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles.

  4. [Intestinal helminthiasis diagnosed in Dakar, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, D; Ndiaye, M; Gueye, P A L; Badiane, A; Fall, I D; Ndiaye, Y D; Faye, B; Ndiaye, J L; Tine, R; Ndir, O

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of digestive helminthiasis among patients referred to the laboratory of Parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar for examination of stool samples from 2004 to 2009. Of 1 526 direct stool examinations (Ritchie and Baerman techniques) analyzed at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of Le Dantec Hospital from 2004 to 2009, 310 were positive for intestinal helminthiasis, for a prevalence of 20.3%. The main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, Tænia saginata and Tænia solium. Most patients had a single parasite (90.1%, versus 9% with two and 0.9% with three). Men are infected more often than women, accounting respectively for 58% and 42% of the infections, for a sex ratio of 1.38. Children aged 10 to 15 years had the highest prevalence of infection: 34.5%. The results show that digestive helminthiasis is endemic in Dakar, where it is necessary to implement campaigns of deworming, health education and environmental improvement. PMID:23695222

  5. The performance of laboratory tests in the management of a large outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Abate, Teresa; Contreras, Rosa; Losada, Sandra; Artigas, Domingo; Mauriello, Luciano; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Noya, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease (ChD), which is a well-known entity in the Brazilian Amazon Region, was first documented in Venezuela in December 2007, when 103 people attending an urban public school in Caracas became infected by ingesting juice that was contaminated with Trypanosoma cruzi. The infection occurred 45-50 days prior to the initiation of the sampling performed in the current study. Parasitological methods were used to diagnose the first nine symptomatic patients; T. cruzi was found in all of them. However, because this outbreak was managed as a sudden emergency during Christmas time, we needed to rapidly evaluate 1,000 people at risk, so we decided to use conventional serology to detect specific IgM and IgG antibodies via ELISA as well as indirect haemagglutination, which produced positive test results for 9.1%, 11.9% and 9.9% of the individuals tested, respectively. In other more restricted patient groups, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provided more sensitive results (80.4%) than blood cultures (16.2%) and animal inoculations (11.6%). Although the classical diagnosis of acute ChD is mainly based on parasitological findings, highly sensitive and specific serological techniques can provide rapid results during large and severe outbreaks, as described herein. The use of these serological techniques allows prompt treatment of all individuals suspected of being infected, resulting in reduced rates of morbidity and mortality.

  6. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82-95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  7. In memoriam: Adriano Mantovani, DVM, 1926-2012. One of the world's most prominent contributors to veterinary public health and a committed advocate of the importance of One Medicine.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Adriano Mantovani was born in 1926 in Altedo, Malalbergo (Bologna). After graduating in veterinary medicine from Bologna University in 1948, he gained his Masters in public health from the University of Minnesota in 1952 and qualified to lecture in microbiology and immunology in 1957 and in parasitology in 1963. He held numerous positions over the years: Assistant, Aide and Vice-Director of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Teramo(1949-1962), Researcher at the Faculty of Medicine in Rome (1962-1965), Professor of Infectious Diseases, Prophylaxis and Veterinary Police Work at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bologna, Director of the Institute of the same name (1965-1982) and Research Manager and Director of the Parasitology Laboratory at the Italian National Institute of Health and the WHO/FAO Collaboration Centre for Veterinary Public Health in Rome (1983-1991). He was active in numerous national and international organisations, including as a member of the National Health Council (1974-1982), Secretary of the World Federation of Parasitologists (1971-1987) and from 1972 President, Vice President or presenter in various WHO, FAO and OIE working groups. He worked in numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and North America as an expert, presenter and lecturer. From 1978, the year in which the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Plan was established, he was one of the major collaborators of the WHO Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens (MZCC). In 1989, he was the first Italian to be awarded the OIE's international award for contributions to veterinary public health and in 2001 was publicly recognised by the MZCC for his many years of activities carried out to support the zoonoses control plan and promote well-being in the Mediterranean. He had been a member of the Italian National Guard's Commission for Predicting and Preventing Great Risks since 1994. In 2002, he was presented with the Italian Parasitology Society's Battista

  8. Parasites of flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in biological effects monitoring. C. Pollution effects on the parasite community and a comparison to biomarker responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Broeg, K.; von Westernhagen, H.; Dizer, H.; Hansen, P. D.; Skouras, A.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    In the frame of an integrated biological effect monitoring programme, the parasite community of flounder (Platichthys flesus) was investigated at different locations in the German Bight from 1995 to 2000. In order to assess the impact of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic activities on the parasite community, selected parasitological parameters that displayed significant differences between the sampling sites were subjected to correlation analyses with site-specific contamination and individual pollution loads of their fish hosts. In addition, correlation analyses were conducted with the responses of selected genetic, biochemical, histopathological, physiological and immunological parameters of fish, used as potential biomarkers. In total, 802 flounder were analysed for these parameters. Information on the chemical background at the sampling sites was derived from sediment samples and from 120 samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue, collected at each of the sampling sites. Based on chemical data available from the sediment and blue mussel samples, a pollution gradient could be established between the sampling sites for individual contaminants. The relative abundance of Acanthochondria cornuta, Cucullanus heterochrous and Zoogonoides viviparus, and the community measures species richness and number of heteroxenous species decreased with increasing concentrations of individual heavy metals or hydrocarbons in sediment and blue mussel samples. Most of the parasitological parameters significantly reflected the established site-specific contamination gradient, when data were pooled over all sampling campaigns. Significant correlations were also found with the contamination level of individual flounder. The parasitological parameters included the parasite species Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, which were not correlated to site-specific contamination. Several biomarkers were significantly correlated to the abundance of

  9. Efficacy of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of Artemether in African Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rulisa, Stephen; Ansah, Patrick; Sirima, Sodiomon

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in two studies. In study 1, 31 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 16) or intravenous (i.v.) quinine (n = 15). In study 2, 151 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 77) or i.v. quinine (n = 74). For both studies, patients weighed between 5 and 15 kg and had either severe or complicated malaria based on WHO criteria, or they had uncomplicated malaria but were unable to tolerate oral medication as a result of nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Patients received either 3 mg/kg of body weight of sublingual artemether or a loading dose of 20 mg/kg of i.v. quinine followed by 10 mg/kg every 8 h i.v. thereafter. The primary endpoint was parasitological success, defined as a reduction in parasite count of ≥90% of that at baseline at 24 h after the first dose. Other endpoints based on parasite clearance and clinical response were evaluated. In study 1, there were parasitological success rates of 93.3% (14/15) and 66.7% (10/15) for the sublingual artemether and quinine treatments, respectively. In study 2, 94.3% (66/70) of the ArTiMist-treated patients and 39.4% (28/71) of the quinine-treated patients had parasitological success (P < 0.0001). Indicators of parasite clearance (parasite clearance time [PCT], time for parasite count to fall by 50% [PCT50], time for parasite count to fall by 90% [PCT90], and percent reduction in parasitemia from baseline at 24 h [PRR24]) were significantly superior for children treated with sublingual artemether compared to those treated with i.v. quinine. There were no differences between treatments for the clinical endpoints, such as fever clearance time. The local tolerability of sublingual artemether was good. Sublingual artemether leads to rapid parasite clearance and clinical recovery. (Studies 1 and 2 are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration numbers NCT01047436 and NCT01258049, respectively.) PMID:26303805

  10. Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n = 3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.11, p = 0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, p = 0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.10–1.59, p = 0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.93–1.449, p = 0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2 = 57%–80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI. PMID:24625554

  11. Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS) of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i) to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii) to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential) non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a) in categorical scales and (b) in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3%) province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61%) compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia

  12. A randomized trial on effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate plus amodiaquine for unsupervised treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghanaian children

    PubMed Central

    Kobbe, Robin; Klein, Philipp; Adjei, Samuel; Amemasor, Solomon; Thompson, William Nana; Heidemann, Hanna; Nielsen, Maja V; Vohwinkel, Julia; Hogan, Benedikt; Kreuels, Benno; Bührlen, Martina; Loag, Wibke; Ansong, Daniel; May, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background Numerous trials have demonstrated high efficacy and safety of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) under supervised treatment. In contrast, effectiveness studies comparing different types of ACT applied unsupervised are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness, tolerability and acceptance of artesunate plus amodiaquine (ASAQ) against that of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods A randomized open-label trial was conducted at two district hospitals in the Ashanti region, Ghana, an area of intense malaria transmission. A total of 246 children under five years of age were randomly assigned to either ASAQ (Arsucam®) or AL (Coartem®). Study participants received their first weight-adjusted dose under supervision. After the parent/guardian was advised of times and mode of administration the respective three-day treatment course was completed unobserved at home. Follow-up visits were performed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 to evaluate clinical and parasitological outcomes, adverse events, and haematological recovery. Length polymorphisms of variable regions of msp1 and msp2 were determined to differentiate recrudescences from reinfections. Acceptance levels of both treatment regimens were assessed by means of standardized interviews. Results Adequate clinical and parasitological responses after AL and ASAQ treatment were similar (88.3% and 91.7%, respectively). Interestingly, more late clinical failures until day 28 occurred in AL-treated children than in those who received ASAQ (17.5% and 7.3%, respectively; Hazard Ratio 2.41, 95% CI 1.00–5.79, p < 0.05). Haematological recovery and drug tolerability were not found to be significantly different in both study arms. The acceptance of treatment with ASAQ was higher than that with AL (rank-scores 10.6 and 10.3, respectively; p < 0.05). Conclusion Unobserved AL and ASAQ treatment showed high adequate clinical and

  13. Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. Method A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria and prescribed malaria drugs from public and private health facilities in 3 districts across Ghana’s three ecological zones. Collected information included initial examinations performed on patients (temperature, weight, age, blood pressure and pulse); observations of malaria symptoms by trained staff, laboratory tests conducted and type of drugs prescribed. Insurance status of patients, age, gender, education level and occupation were asked in the interviews. Results Of the 523 patients interviewed, only 40 (8%) were uninsured. Routine recording of the patients’ age, weight, and temperature was high in all the facilities. In general, assessments needed to identify suspected malaria were low in all the facilities with hot body/fever and headache ranking the highest and convulsion ranking the lowest. Parasitological assessments in all the facilities were also very low. All patients interviewed were prescribed ACTs which is in adherence to the drug of choice for malaria treatment in Ghana. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of malaria treatment given to the uninsured and insured patients. Conclusion Adherence to the standard protocol of malaria treatment is low. This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in

  14. Status and prospects of DNA barcoding in medically important parasites and vectors.

    PubMed

    Ondrejicka, Danielle A; Locke, Sean A; Morey, Kevin; Borisenko, Alex V; Hanner, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    For over 10 years, DNA barcoding has been used to identify specimens and discern species. Its potential benefits in parasitology were recognized early, but its utility and uptake remain unclear. Here we review studies using DNA barcoding in parasites and vectors affecting humans and find that the technique is accurate (accords with author identifications based on morphology or other markers) in 94-95% of cases, although aspects of DNA barcoding (vouchering, marker implicated) have often been misunderstood. In a newly compiled checklist of parasites, vectors, and hazards, barcodes are available for 43% of all 1403 species and for more than half of 429 species of greater medical importance. This is encouraging coverage that would improve with an active campaign targeting parasites and vectors.

  15. Massive infestation by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) of fish in a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, B I; Matey, V E

    1999-12-22

    Persistent fish infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was found at a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA. The seasonal dynamics of the infestation of young tilapia was traced in 1997-1998. First appearing in May, it became maximal in June-August, decreased in October and was not detectable in November. Outbreak of the infestation and subsequent mortality of young fish was registered at the Sea at a water temperature and salinity of 40 degrees C and 46 ppt, respectively. Some aspects of the ultrastructure of parasitic trophonts of A. ocellatum and their location on the fish from different size groups are considered. The interactions of parasitological and environmental factors and their combined effect upon fish from the Salton Sea are discussed. PMID:11407406

  16. Data on (+)-usnic acid: A new application to treat toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Si, Kaiwei; Wei, Linlin; Yu, Xiaozhuo; Wu, Feng; Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Chen; Cheng, Yanbin

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii pathogen is a threat to human health that results in economic burden. Unfortunately, there are very few high-efficiency and low-toxicity drugs for toxoplasmosis in the clinic. (+)-Usnic acid derived from lichen species has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-parasitology, and even anti-cancer activities. In associated with the published article "Effects of (+)-Usnic Acid and (+)-Usnic Acid-Liposome on Toxoplasma gondii" [1], this dataset article provided the detailed information of experimental designing, methods, features as well as the raw data of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on toxoplasma in vivo and vitro. (+)-Usnic acid may be a potential agent for treating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27437438

  17. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models☆

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2013-01-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  18. Pentastomiasis.

    PubMed

    Drabick, J J

    1987-01-01

    Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by pentastomes, members of an unusual phylum--Pentastomida--with characteristics of both arthropods and annelids. Adult pentastomes parasitize the respiratory tracts of reptiles or carnivorous mammals. The infection is generally limited to the tropics and subtropics, but ocular involvement has been reported in the southern United States. The majority of human pentastomiasis is caused by two species. The first, Armillifer armillatus, infects humans as secondary hosts. Infection is usually asymptomatic but has characteristic postmortem and radiologic features. The second, Linguatula serrata, can infect humans as does Armillifer or can cause a self-limited nasopharyngitis--the halzoun or marrara syndrome--with the human acting as a temporary definitive host. This article discusses the biology and parasitology of these metazoans as well as the clinical manifestations, pathology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of pentastomiasis. PMID:3321358

  19. Failure of a killed Leishmania amazonensis vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Iván D; Gilchrist, Katherine; Arbelaez, María P; Rojas, Carlos A; Puerta, Juan A; Antunes, Carlos M F; Zicker, Fabio; Modabber, Farrokh

    2005-08-01

    We report the results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a killed whole-cell Leishmania amazonensis candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Colombia. The trial subjects were 2597 healthy volunteers with negative leishmanin skin test (LST) selected from rural Colombian soldiers who were going to patrol endemic areas. They were randomized to receive either three doses of vaccine (n=1295) or placebo (n=1302) given at 20-day intervals. An active and passive case detection system was established to follow-up volunteers for 1 year after vaccination. Safety and efficacy of the vaccine were determined by comparing local and systemic adverse reactions after each dose and the incidence of parasitologically confirmed CL. In the vaccine and placebo groups 101 (7.7%) and 88 (6.8%) volunteers developed CL respectively. The vaccine was shown to be safe but offered no protection against CL caused by L. panamensis in the proposed vaccination schedule.

  20. [Tinea capitis etiology in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Zeroual, Z; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2012-09-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a contagious infection that affects mainly children and teenagers. A retrospective study was realized at the mycology-parasitology department of the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. The study includes 125 cases of TC. The mean age is 12.73 ± 11.61 year. The isolation of TC is dominated by two species Trichophyton violaceum 76 (60.8%) and Microsporum canis 27 (21.6%). Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated only in male and all of rural origin. In adults over 18 years, the most isolated species is T. violaceum (six cases) in females. For the last thirty years, the epidemiological profile of TC remains almost the same in Morocco.

  1. First case of amebic liver abscess 22 years after the first occurrence.

    PubMed

    Nespola, Benoît; Betz, Valérie; Brunet, Julie; Gagnard, Jean-Charles; Krummel, Yves; Hansmann, Yves; Hannedouche, Thierry; Christmann, Daniel; Pfaff, Alexander W; Filisetti, Denis; Pesson, Bernard; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man consulted in November 2012 for abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The patient had a history of suspected hepatic amebiasis treated in Senegal in 1985 and has not traveled to endemic areas since 1990. Abdominal CT scan revealed a liver abscess. At first, no parasitological tests were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only after failure of this therapy, serology and PCR performed after liver abscess puncture established the diagnosis of hepatic amebiasis. The patient was treated with metronidazole and tiliquinol-tilbroquinol. Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extra-intestinal manifestation. Hepatic amebiasis 22 years after the last visit to an endemic area is exceptional and raises questions on the mechanisms of latency and recurrence of these intestinal protozoan parasites. PMID:26088504

  2. A geographic information system applied to a malaria field study in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hightower, A W; Ombok, M; Otieno, R; Odhiambo, R; Oloo, A J; Lal, A A; Nahlen, B L; Hawley, W A

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes use of the global positioning system (GPS) in differential mode (DGPS) to obtain highly accurate longitudes, latitudes, and altitudes of 1,169 houses, 15 schools, 40 churches, four health care centers, 48 major mosquito breeding sites, 10 borehole wells, seven shopping areas, major roads, streams, the shore of Lake Victoria, and other geographic features of interest associated with a longitudinal study of malaria in 15 villages in western Kenya. The area mapped encompassed approximately 70 km2 and included 42.0 km of roads, 54.3 km of streams, and 15.0 km of lake shore. Location data were entered into a geographic information system for map production and linkage with various databases for spatial analyses. Spatial analyses using parasitologic and entomologic data are presented as examples. Background information on DGPS is presented along with estimates of effort and expense to produce the map information.

  3. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2011 controls. Overall, the results obtained in 2011 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. Nevertheless, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program, in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests.

  4. [Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    PubMed

    de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Orta Mira, Nieves; Del Remedio Guna Serrano, M; Medina González, Rafael; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2015-07-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, molecular microbiology and HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral loads. This manuscript presents the analysis of results obtained of the participants from the 2013 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme, except viral loads controls, that they are summarized in a manuscript abroad. As a whole, the results obtained in 2013 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests.

  5. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  6. Manson's triple error.

    PubMed

    F, Delaporte

    2008-09-01

    The author discusses the significance, implications and limitations of Manson's work. How did Patrick Manson resolve some of the major problems raised by the filarial worm life cycle? The Amoy physician showed that circulating embryos could only leave the blood via the percutaneous route, thereby requiring a bloodsucking insect. The discovery of a new autonomous, airborne, active host undoubtedly had a considerable impact on the history of parasitology, but the way in which Manson formulated and solved the problem of the transfer of filarial worms from the body of the mosquito to man resulted in failure. This article shows how the epistemological transformation operated by Manson was indissociably related to a series of errors and how a major breakthrough can be the result of a series of false proposals and, consequently, that the history of truth often involves a history of error. PMID:18814729

  7. Responses of small intestinal architecture and function over time to environmental factors in a tropical population.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Menzies, Ian; Crane, Roger; Zulu, Isaac; Nickols, Carole; Feakins, Roger; Mwansa, James; Mudenda, Victor; Katubulushi, Max; Greenwald, Steve; Farthing, Michael

    2004-04-01

    To determine the response of the small intestinal mucosa to environmental conditions, we studied changes in mucosal architecture and function in a longitudinal cohort study in African adults. Over three consecutive years, 238 adults submitted monthly stool samples for parasitologic and bacteriologic analysis and underwent an annual endoscopic jejunal biopsy for mucosal morphometry. Absorption and permeability assays were performed on the same day as the enteroscopy. Variation in mucosal architecture and function was correlated with environmental factors and stool microbiology. The whole cohort had structural and functional evidence of tropical enteropathy, but structure and function were only weakly correlated. There were marked changes over time, and seasonal variation was observed in villous height (16%), xylose recovery (16%), and permeability (28%). Asymptomatic intestinal infections were common. Enteropathy was more severe in participants with Citrobacter rodentium or hookworm ova in the stool sample taken one month before the investigations were performed.

  8. Chinese liver flukes in latrine sediments from Wong Nim's property, San Bernardino, California: archaeoparasitology of the Caltrans District Headquarters.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto; Sianto, Luciana; Costello, Julia G; Swope, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Parasitological analysis of 5 sediment samples from San Bernardino, California latrine deposits spanning the time period from about 1880 to the 1930s are presented. Two sediment samples are from a latrine used by European-Americans. Three sediment samples are from latrines used by Chinese-Americans on the property of Wong Nim, an important member of the Chinese community. Two of the Chinese latrines were positive for human parasites. The human parasites encountered include the human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), the giant intestinal roundworm (Ascaris lubricoides, c.f.), and the Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis). Evidence of the liver fluke is especially important. This parasite cannot complete its life cycle outside of its endemic range in Asia because suitable intermediate hosts are not present in the American continents. Its presence signals that at least some of the Chinese-Americans who used the latrines were immigrants who were infected in Asia and then sustained infections while in the Americas.

  9. The parasite fauna of stray domestic cats (Felis catus) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf K; Thomas, Katja; Sivakumar, Saritha; O'Donovan, Declan

    2009-07-01

    Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), Taenia hydatigena (0.4%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (8.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (0.8%), Toxocara mystax (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.8%), Pterygodermatites affinis (35.0%), Centrorhynchus aluconis (4.6%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.2%), Xenopsylla astia (3.8%) and Synosternus pallidus (4.2%).

  10. The first report of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea) in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum belongs to the superfamily of Metastrongyloidea. This nematode occurs in foxes, dogs and other predators. The Nematode A. vasorum place themselves in the pulmonary artery and its branches, and in the right ventricle and atrium of the heart. Numerous species of land snails are the intermediate hosts of the parasite. In 2013, lungs and hearts of 76 foxes shot in the Forest District Głęboki Bród in Augustowska Primeval Forest were parasitologically necropsied. Four of the examined foxes were infected with the nematode A. vasorum, a prevalence of 5.2%. In one fox pericardium there were 6 male and 6 female nematodes. In the remaining three foxes nematodes were localized in the pulmonary artery. In two foxes 2 specimens of nematodes were detected (male and female, and two females) while 1 female was detected in the other fox. This is the first report of the presence of the nematode A. vasorum in fox in Poland.

  11. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  12. A case of chronic cerebral paragonimiasis westermani.

    PubMed

    Kang, S Y; Kim, T K; Kim, T Y; Ha, Y I; Choi, S W; Hong, S J

    2000-09-01

    We report a chronic cerebral paragonimiasis from a 41-year-old Korean man who complains a headache and weakness of left motor neuron components. Magnetic resonance images of the brain revealed conglomerates of multiple ring-like enhancements in temporo-occipital and frontal lobes of the right hemisphere. An intradermal test for paragonimiasis westermani was positive. The patient was born near an endemic area of paragonimiasis and used to eat boiled or grilled freshwater crayfish in his childhood. Nodules in the brain were resected through craniotomies. The eggs of P. westermani were identified pathologically and parasitologically in the calcified necrotic lesions. Examinations on sputum and fecal specimens for the eggs of P. westermani were shown to be negative and a chest radiograph was normal. It is presumed that the brain lesions were formed by P. westermani approximately 30 years ago.

  13. A geographic information system applied to a malaria field study in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hightower, A W; Ombok, M; Otieno, R; Odhiambo, R; Oloo, A J; Lal, A A; Nahlen, B L; Hawley, W A

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes use of the global positioning system (GPS) in differential mode (DGPS) to obtain highly accurate longitudes, latitudes, and altitudes of 1,169 houses, 15 schools, 40 churches, four health care centers, 48 major mosquito breeding sites, 10 borehole wells, seven shopping areas, major roads, streams, the shore of Lake Victoria, and other geographic features of interest associated with a longitudinal study of malaria in 15 villages in western Kenya. The area mapped encompassed approximately 70 km2 and included 42.0 km of roads, 54.3 km of streams, and 15.0 km of lake shore. Location data were entered into a geographic information system for map production and linkage with various databases for spatial analyses. Spatial analyses using parasitologic and entomologic data are presented as examples. Background information on DGPS is presented along with estimates of effort and expense to produce the map information. PMID:9546401

  14. A simple, efficient and inexpensive method for malaria parasites' DNA catching from fixed Giemsa-stained blood slides.

    PubMed

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Sara; Abedi, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    As parasitological or microscopic method is the gold standard and the best method for diagnosis of malaria, so fixed Geimsa-stained blood slides in the form of thick and thin blood smears are the most important data collections of malaria, especially historical slides. The parasites are dead but their DNA is valuable for many molecular biologic researches. A simple and efficient method for catching and extraction malaria parasites' DNA with a desired yield from dried and stained blood on slides is the first and major step. Introduction of an applicable, efficient and inexpensive DNA catching method and assessment of its performance in following molecular applications  was the main objective of present study. PMID:27605792

  15. World Malaria Day 2016 in the Kingdom of Cambodia: high-level governmental support embodies the WHO call for "political will to end malaria".

    PubMed

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Bou, Thavrin; Khieu, Virak; Leang, Rithea; Lek, Dysoley; Ly, Po; Muth, Sinuon; Lim, Kim Seng; Tuseo, Luciano; Yok, Sovann; Yung, Kunthearith; Richards, Jack S; Rekol, Huy

    2016-01-01

    On World Malaria Day 2016, The Kingdom of Cambodia's National celebrations served as a prime of example of how political will is currently being exercised in Cambodia through high-level governmental support for malaria elimination. The main country event was well-planned and coordinated by the National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM), and included key contributions from high-ranking political figures, such as His Excellency (H.E) Mam Bun Heng (Minister of Health), and H.E. Keut Sothea (Governor of Pailin Province). There were more than 1000 attendees, ranging from Village Malaria Workers and high school students to CNM's director and other officials in Pailin Province, Western Cambodia. A strong inter-sectoral participation included attendances from the Ministry of Education and high-level representatives of the Cambodian Armed Forces, as well as Malaria Partners like the World Health Organization.

  16. Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

    2013-06-01

    The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed. PMID:23805557

  17. The impact of multiple infections on wild animal hosts: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Field parasitological studies consistently demonstrate the reality of polyparasitism in natural systems. However, only recently, studies from ecological and evolutionary fields have emphasised a broad spectrum of potential multiple infections-related impacts. The main goal of our review is to reunify the different approaches on the impacts of polyparasitism, not only from laboratory or human medical studies but also from field or theoretical studies. We put forward that ecological and epidemiological determinants to explain the level of polyparasitism, which regularly affects not only host body condition, survival or reproduction but also host metabolism, genetics or immune investment. Despite inherent limitations of all these studies, multiple infections should be considered more systematically in wildlife to better appreciate the importance of parasite diversity in wildlife, cumulative effects of parasitism on the ecology and evolution of their hosts. PMID:22957114

  18. Trichobilharzia anseri n. sp. (Schistosomatidae: Digenea), a new visceral species of avian schistosomes isolated from greylag goose (Anser anser L.) in Iceland and France.

    PubMed

    Jouet, D; Kolářová, L; Patrelle, C; Ferté, H; Skírnisson, K

    2015-08-01

    Parasitological investigations carried out on birds in Iceland and France highlight the presence of four species of avian schistosomes from greylag geese (Anser anser L.): the european nasal species Trichobilharzia regenti and three visceral species, among which an unknown species isolated from blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Morphological and molecular analyzes of different parasite stages (eggs, adults) revealed new species of Trichobilharzia genus – Trichobilharzia anseri sp. nov. Studies on host-parasite relationship under natural conditions, showed that the life-cycle includes the snail Radix balthica (syn. R. peregra) as intermediate host. The cercariae, already isolated in Iceland from two ponds of the Reykjavik capital area – the Family park and Tjörnin Lake – are the same as those isolated in 1999 by Kolářová et al. during the first study on Icelandic parasitic agents of cercarial dermatitis.

  19. Is there such thing as a parasite free lunch? The direct and indirect consequences of eating invasive prey.

    PubMed

    Bulté, Grégory; Robinson, Stacey A; Forbes, Mark R; Marcogliese, David J

    2012-03-01

    As the number of invasive species increases globally, more and more native predators are reported to shift their diet toward invasive prey. The consequences of such diet shifts for the health of populations of native predators are poorly studied, but diet shifts are expected to have important parasitological and immunological consequences, ultimately affecting predator fitness. We reviewed evidence that diet shifts from native to invasive prey can alter parasite exposure directly and also indirectly affect immune functions via changes in condition and contaminant exposure. We highlight relevant conceptual and methodological tools that should be used for the design of experiments aimed at exploring important links between invasive prey and parasitism, contaminants and fitness of their native predators.

  20. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319